WorldWideScience

Sample records for super cloud clusters

  1. Molecular clouds toward the super star cluster NGC 3603; possible evidence for a cloud-cloud collision in triggering the cluster formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Y.; Ohama, A.; Hanaoka, N.; Furukawa, N.; Torii, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Fukuda, T.; Soga, S.; Moribe, N.; Kuroda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Kuwahara, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Okuda, T. [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dawson, J. R. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay Campus, Churchill Avenue, Sandy Bay, TAS 7005 (Australia); Mizuno, N.; Kawamura, A. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Onishi, T.; Maezawa, H. [Department of Astrophysics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Mizuno, A., E-mail: fukui@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Solar-terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2014-01-01

    We present new large field observations of molecular clouds with NANTEN2 toward the super star cluster NGC 3603 in the transitions {sup 12}CO(J = 2-1, J = 1-0) and {sup 13}CO(J = 2-1, J = 1-0). We suggest that two molecular clouds at 13 km s{sup –1} and 28 km s{sup –1} are associated with NGC 3603 as evidenced by higher temperatures toward the H II region, as well as morphological correspondence. The mass of the clouds is too small to gravitationally bind them, given their relative motion of ∼20 km s{sup –1}. We suggest that the two clouds collided with each other 1 Myr ago to trigger the formation of the super star cluster. This scenario is able to explain the origin of the highest mass stellar population in the cluster, which is as young as 1 Myr and is segregated within the central sub-pc of the cluster. This is the second super star cluster along with Westerlund 2 where formation may have been triggered by a cloud-cloud collision.

  2. Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Molecular Clouds Regulated by Reprocessed Radiation Feedback from Nascent Super Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, M Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Radiation feedback from young star clusters embedded in giant molecular clouds (GMCs) is believed to be important to the control of star formation. For the most massive and dense clouds, including those in which super star clusters (SSCs) are born, pressure from reprocessed radiation exerted on dust grains may disperse a significant portion of the cloud mass back into the interstellar medium (ISM). Using our radiaton hydrodynamics (RHD) code, Hyperion, we conduct a series of numerical simulations to test this idea. Our models follow the evolution of self-gravitating, strongly turbulent clouds in which collapsing regions are replaced by radiating sink particles representing stellar clusters. We evaluate the dependence of the star formation efficiency (SFE) on the size and mass of the cloud and $\\kappa$, the opacity of the gas to infrared (IR) radiation. We find that the single most important parameter determining the evolutionary outcome is $\\kappa$, with $\\kappa \\gtrsim 15 \\text{ cm}^2 \\text{ g}^{-1}$ needed ...

  3. THE TWO MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN RCW 38: EVIDENCE FOR THE FORMATION OF THE YOUNGEST SUPER STAR CLUSTER IN THE MILKY WAY TRIGGERED BY CLOUD–CLOUD COLLISION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Y.; Torii, K.; Ohama, A.; Hasegawa, K.; Hattori, Y.; Sano, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Tachihara, K. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Ohashi, S.; Fujii, K.; Kuwahara, S. [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Mizuno, N.; Okuda, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Dawson, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Onishi, T. [Department of Astrophysics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Mizuno, A., E-mail: torii@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2016-03-20

    We present distributions of two molecular clouds having velocities of 2 and 14 km s{sup −1} toward RCW 38, the youngest super star cluster in the Milky Way, in the {sup 12}CO J = 1–0 and 3–2 and {sup 13}CO J = 1–0 transitions. The two clouds are likely physically associated with the cluster as verified by the high intensity ratio of the J = 3–2 emission to the J = 1–0 emission, the bridging feature connecting the two clouds in velocity, and their morphological correspondence with the infrared dust emission. The velocity difference is too large for the clouds to be gravitationally bound. We frame a hypothesis that the two clouds are colliding with each other by chance to trigger formation of the ∼20 O stars that are localized within ∼0.5 pc of the cluster center in the 2 km s{sup −1} cloud. We suggest that the collision is currently continuing toward part of the 2 km s{sup −1} cloud where the bridging feature is localized. This is the third super star cluster alongside Westerlund 2 and NGC 3603 where cloud–cloud collision has triggered the cluster formation. RCW 38 is the youngest super star cluster in the Milky Way, holding a possible sign of on-going O star formation, and is a promising site where we may be able to witness the moment of O star formation.

  4. THE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN A PRE-SUPER STAR CLUSTER MOLECULAR CLOUD IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K. E.; Indebetouw, R.; Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Leroy, A. K.; Brogan, C. L.; Hibbard, J.; Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Whitmore, B. C., E-mail: kej7a@virginia.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    We present an analysis of the physical conditions in an extreme molecular cloud in the Antennae merging galaxies. This cloud has properties consistant with those required to form a globular cluster. We have obtained ALMA CO and 870 μm observations of the Antennae galaxy system with ∼0.″5 resolution. This cloud stands out in the data with a radius of ≲24 pc and mass of >5 × 10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}. The cloud appears capable of forming a globular cluster, but the lack of associated thermal radio emission indicates that star formation has not yet altered the environment. The lack of thermal radio emission places the cloud in an early stage of evolution, which we expect to be short-lived (≲1 Myr) and thus rare. Given its mass and kinetic energy, for the cloud to be confined (as its appearance strongly suggests) it must be subject to an external pressure of P/k{sub B} ≳ 10{sup 8} K cm{sup −3}–10,000 times higher than typical interstellar pressure. This would support theories that high pressures are required to form globular clusters and may explain why extreme environments like the Antennae are preferred environments for generating such objects. Given the cloud temperature of ∼25 K, the internal pressure must be dominated by non-thermal processes, most likely turbulence. We expect the molecular cloud to collapse and begin star formation in ≲1 Myr.

  5. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  6. ALMA RESOLVES 30 DORADUS: SUB-PARSEC MOLECULAR CLOUD STRUCTURE NEAR THE CLOSEST SUPER STAR CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indebetouw, Remy; Brogan, Crystal; Leroy, Adam; Hunter, Todd; Kepley, Amanda, E-mail: rindebet@nrao.edu, E-mail: cbrogan@nrao.edu, E-mail: aleroy@nrao.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); and others

    2013-09-01

    We present Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array observations of 30 Doradus-the highest resolution view of molecular gas in an extragalactic star formation region to date ({approx}0.4 pc Multiplication-Sign 0.6 pc). The 30Dor-10 cloud north of R136 was mapped in {sup 12}CO 2-1, {sup 13}CO 2-1, C{sup 18}O 2-1, 1.3 mm continuum, the H30{alpha} recombination line, and two H{sub 2}CO 3-2 transitions. Most {sup 12}CO emission is associated with small filaments and clumps ({approx}<1 pc, {approx}10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} at the current resolution). Some clumps are associated with protostars, including ''pillars of creation'' photoablated by intense radiation from R136. Emission from molecular clouds is often analyzed by decomposition into approximately beam-sized clumps. Such clumps in 30 Doradus follow similar trends in size, linewidth, and surface density to Milky Way clumps. The 30 Doradus clumps have somewhat larger linewidths for a given size than predicted by Larson's scaling relation, consistent with pressure confinement. They extend to a higher surface density at a given size and linewidth compared to clouds studied at 10 pc resolution. These trends are also true of clumps in Galactic infrared-dark clouds; higher resolution observations of both environments are required. Consistency of clump masses calculated from dust continuum, CO, and the virial theorem reveals that the CO abundance in 30 Doradus clumps is not significantly different from the Large Magellanic Cloud mean, but the dust abundance may be reduced by {approx}2. There are no strong trends in clump properties with distance from R136; dense clumps are not strongly affected by the external radiation field, but there is a modest trend toward lower dense clump filling fraction deeper in the cloud.

  7. Watching the Birth of Super Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, J L; Turner, Jean L.; Beck, Sara C.

    2003-01-01

    Subarcsecond infrared and radio observations yield important information about the formation of super star clusters from their surrounding gas. We discuss the general properties of ionized and molecular gas near young, forming SSCs, as illustrated by the prototypical young forming super star cluster nebula in the dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253. This super star cluster appears to have a gravitationally bound nebula. The lack of molecular gas suggests a very high star formation efficiency, consistent with the formation of a large, bound star cluster.

  8. ALMA Resolves 30 Doradus: Sub-parsec Molecular Cloud Structure Near the Closest Super-Star Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Indebetouw, Remy; Chen, C -H Rosie; Leroy, Adam; Johnson, Kelsey; Muller, Erik; Madden, Suzanne; Cormier, Diane; Galliano, Frederic; Hughes, Annie; Hunter, Todd; Kawamura, Akiko; Kepley, Amanda; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Meixner, Margaret; Oliveira, Joana M; Onishi, Toshikazu; Vasyunina, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of 30 Doradus -- the highest resolution view of molecular gas in an extragalactic star formation region to date (~0.4pc x 0.6pc). The 30Dor-10 cloud north of R136 was mapped in 12CO 2-1, 13CO 2-1, C18O 2-1, 1.3mm continuum, the H30alpha recombination line, and two H2CO 3-2 transitions. Most 12CO emission is associated with small filaments and clumps (<1pc, ~1000 Msun at the current resolution). Some clumps are associated with protostars, including "pillars of creation" photoablated by intense radiation from R136. Emission from molecular clouds is often analyzed by decomposition into approximately beam-sized clumps. Such clumps in 30 Doradus follow similar trends in size, linewidth, and surface density to Milky Way clumps. The 30 Doradus clumps have somewhat larger linewidths for a given size than predicted by Larson's scaling relation, consistent with pressure confinement. They extend to higher surface density at a given size and linewidth compared to clouds studied at 10pc res...

  9. Super computer made with Linux cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hun; Oh, Yeong Eun; Kim, Jeong Seok

    2002-01-15

    This book consists of twelve chapters, which introduce super computer made with Linux cluster. The contents of this book are Linux cluster, the principle of cluster, design of Linux cluster, general things for Linux, building up terminal server and client, Bear wolf cluster by Debian GNU/Linux, cluster system with red hat, Monitoring system, application programming-MPI, on set-up and install application programming-PVM, with PVM programming and XPVM application programming-open PBS with composition and install and set-up and GRID with GRID system, GSI, GRAM, MDS, its install and using of tool kit.

  10. Detecting Super-Thin Clouds With Polarized Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenbo; Videen, Gorden; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel method for detecting cloud particles in the atmosphere. Solar radiation backscattered from clouds is studied with both satellite data and a radiative transfer model. A distinct feature is found in the angle of linear polarization of solar radiation that is backscattered from clouds. The dominant backscattered electric field from the clear-sky Earth-atmosphere system is nearly parallel to the Earth surface. However, when clouds are present, this electric field can rotate significantly away from the parallel direction. Model results demonstrate that this polarization feature can be used to detect super-thin cirrus clouds having an optical depth of only 0.06 and super-thin liquid water clouds having an optical depth of only 0.01. Such clouds are too thin to be sensed using any current passive satellite instruments.

  11. Clouds in Super-Earth Atmospheres: Chemical Equilibrium Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarek, Rostom; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have unequivocally proven the existence of clouds in super-Earth atmospheres. Here we provide a theoretical context for the formation of super-Earth clouds by determining which condensates are likely to form under the assumption of chemical equilibrium. We study super-Earth atmospheres of diverse bulk composition, which are assumed to form by outgassing from a solid core of chondritic material, following Schaefer & Fegley. The super-Earth atmospheres that we study arise from planetary cores made up of individual types of chondritic meteorites. They range from highly reducing to oxidizing and have carbon to oxygen (C:O) ratios that are both sub-solar and super-solar, thereby spanning a range of atmospheric composition that is appropriate for low-mass exoplanets. Given the atomic makeup of these atmospheres, we minimize the global Gibbs free energy of formation for over 550 gases and condensates to obtain the molecular composition of the atmospheres over a temperature range of 350-3000 K. Clouds should form along the temperature-pressure boundaries where the condensed species appear in our calculation. We find that the composition of condensate clouds depends strongly on both the H:O and C:O ratios. For the super-Earth archetype GJ 1214b, KCl and ZnS are the primary cloud-forming condensates at solar composition, in agreement with previous work. However, for oxidizing atmospheres, K2SO4 and ZnO condensates are favored instead, and for carbon-rich atmospheres with super-solar C:O ratios, graphite clouds appear. For even hotter planets, clouds form from a wide variety of rock-forming and metallic species.

  12. A New Technique to Detect Super-thin Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenbo

    2016-04-01

    Super-thin clouds with optical depth smaller than ~0.3 exist globally and have significant effect on satellite remote sensing of surface temperature and atmospheric compositions, but are extremely difficult to be detected by satellite instruments. In this presentation, we report a novel method for detecting cloud particles in the atmosphere with measuring the polarized sunlight from the Earth-atmosphere system (Sun et al., 2014; Sun et al., 2015). We examined solar radiation backscattered from clouds with both satellite data and a radiative-transfer model. A distinct feature was found in the angle of linear polarization of solar radiation that is scattered from clouds at near-backscattering angles. The dominant electric field from the clear-sky Earth-atmosphere system is nearly parallel to the Earth surface at these scattering angles. However, when clouds are present, this electric field can rotate significantly away from the parallel direction. Our modeling results suggest that this polarization feature can be used to detect super-thin cirrus clouds having an optical depth of only ~0.06 and super-thin liquid water clouds having an optical depth of only ~0.01. Such clouds are too thin to be sensed using any current passive satellite instruments. This method could improve the detection of super-thin clouds and tremendously impact the remote sensing of clouds, aerosols, sea surface temperature, and atmospheric composition gases, and climate modeling. It also has potential to become an innovative satellite mission to advance Earth observation from space and improve scientific understanding of all clouds and cloud-aerosol interactions. Reference Wenbo Sun, Gorden Videen, and Michael I. Mishchenko, "Detecting super-thin clouds with polarized sunlight," Geophy. Res. Lett. 41, doi: 10.1002/2013GL058840 (2014). Wenbo Sun, Rosemary R. Baize, Gorden Videen, Yongxiang Hu, and Qiang Fu, "A method to retrieve super-thin cloud optical depth over ocean background with polarized

  13. Super-Sonic Turbulence in the Perseus Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Padoan, P; Billawala, Y N; Juvela, M; Nordlund, A A; Padoan, Paolo; Bally, John; Billawala, Youssef; Juvela, Mika; Nordlund, AAke

    1999-01-01

    We compare the statistical properties of J=1-0 13CO spectra observed in the Perseus Molecular Cloud with synthetic J=1-0 13CO spectra, computed solving the non-LTE radiative transfer problem for a model cloud obtained as solutions of the three dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The model cloud is a randomly forced super-Alfvenic and highly super-sonic turbulent isothermal flow. The purpose of the present work is to test if idealized turbulent flows, without self-gravity, stellar radiation, stellar outflows, or any other effect of star formation, are inconsistent or not with statistical properties of star forming molecular clouds. We present several statistical results that demonstrate remarkable similarity between real data and the synthetic cloud. Statistical properties of molecular clouds like Perseus are appropriately described by random super-sonic and super-Alfvenic MHD flows. Although the description of gravity and stellar radiation are essential to understand the formation of single prot...

  14. The JASMIN super-data-cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, B N; Churchill, J; Juckes, M; Kershaw, P; Oliver, P; Pritchard, M; Stephens, A

    2012-01-01

    The JASMIN super-data-cluster is being deployed to support the data analysis requirements of the UK and European climate and earth system modelling community. Physical colocation of the core JASMIN resource with significant components of the facility for Climate and Environmental Monitoring from Space (CEMS) provides additional support for the earth observation community, as well as facilitating further comparison and evaluation of models with data. JASMIN and CEMS together centrally deploy 9.3 PB of storage - 4.6 PB of Panasas fast disk storage alongside the STFC Atlas Tape Store. Over 370 computing cores provide local computation. Remote JASMIN resources at Bristol, Leeds and Reading provide additional distributed storage and compute configured to support local workflow as a stepping stone to using the central JASMIN system. Fast network links from JASMIN provide reliable communication between the UK supercomputers MONSooN (at the Met Office) and HECToR (at the University of Edinburgh). JASMIN also supports...

  15. Clouds in Super-Earth Atmospheres: Chemical Equilibrium Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Mbarek, Rostom

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have unequivocally proven the existence of clouds in super-Earth atmospheres (Kreidberg et al. 2014). Here we provide a theoretical context for the formation of super-Earth clouds by determining which condensates are likely to form under the assumption of chemical equilibrium. We study super-Earth atmospheres of diverse bulk composition, which are assumed to form by outgassing from a solid core of chondritic material, following Schaefer & Fegley (2010). The super-Earth atmospheres that we study arise from planetary cores made up of individual types of chondritic meteorites. They range from highly reducing to oxidizing and have carbon to oxygen (C:O) ratios that are both subsolar and super-solar, thereby spanning a range of atmospheric composition that is appropriate for low-mass exoplanets. Given the atomic makeup of these atmospheres, we minimize the global Gibbs free energy of formation for over 550 gases and condensates to obtain the molecular composition of the atmospheres over a temper...

  16. The Genesis of Super Star Clusters as Self-Gravitating HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, J C; Tan, Jonathan C.; Kee, Christopher F. Mc

    2000-01-01

    We examine the effects of ionization, radiation pressure and main sequence winds from massive stars on self-gravitating, clumpy molecular clouds, thereby modeling the formation and pre-supernova feedback of massive star clusters. We find the process of ``turbulent mass loading'' is effective in confining HII regions. Extrapolating typical Galactic high-mass star forming regions to greater initial gas cloud masses and assuming steady star formation rates, we determine the timescales for cloud disruption. We find that a dense n_c ~ 2 x 10^5 cm^-3 cloud with initial mass M_c ~ 4 x 10^5 M_sun is able to form ~2 x 10^5 M_sun of stars (50% efficiency) before feedback disperses the gas after ~3 Myr. This mass and age are typical of young, optically visible super star clusters (SSCs). The high efficiency permits the creation of a bound stellar system.

  17. High temperature condensate clouds in super-hot Jupiter atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Wakeford, Hannah R; Lewis, Nikole K; Kataria, Tiffany; Marley, Mark S; Fortney, Jonathan J; Mandell, Avi M

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering the role of clouds is central to our understanding of exoplanet atmospheres, as they have a direct impact on the temperature and pressure structure, and observational properties of the planet. Super-hot Jupiters occupy a temperature regime similar to low mass M-dwarfs, where minimal cloud condensation is expected. However, observations of exoplanets such as WASP-12b (Teq ~ 2500 K) result in a transmission spectrum indicative of a cloudy atmosphere. We re-examine the temperature and pressure space occupied by these super-hot Jupiter atmospheres, to explore the role of the initial Al- and Ti-bearing condensates as the main source of cloud material. Due to the high temperatures a majority of the more common refractory material is not depleted into deeper layers and would remain in the vapor phase. The lack of depletion into deeper layers means that these materials with relatively low cloud masses can become significant absorbers in the upper atmosphere. We provide condensation curves for the initial ...

  18. Cancer detection based on Raman spectra super-paramagnetic clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, José Luis; Guizar-Ruiz, Juan Ignacio; Martínez-Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Zerega, Brenda Esmeralda; Juárez-López, Héctor Alfonso; Vargas-Rodríguez, Héctor; Gallegos-Infante, Luis Armando; González-Silva, Ricardo Armando; Espinoza-Padilla, Pedro Basilio; Palomares-Anda, Pascual

    2016-08-01

    The clustering of Raman spectra of serum sample is analyzed using the super-paramagnetic clustering technique based in the Potts spin model. We investigated the clustering of biochemical networks by using Raman data that define edge lengths in the network, and where the interactions are functions of the Raman spectra's individual band intensities. For this study, we used two groups of 58 and 102 control Raman spectra and the intensities of 160, 150 and 42 Raman spectra of serum samples from breast and cervical cancer and leukemia patients, respectively. The spectra were collected from patients from different hospitals from Mexico. By using super-paramagnetic clustering technique, we identified the most natural and compact clusters allowing us to discriminate the control and cancer patients. A special interest was the leukemia case where its nearly hierarchical observed structure allowed the identification of the patients's leukemia type. The goal of this study is to apply a model of statistical physics, as the super-paramagnetic, to find these natural clusters that allow us to design a cancer detection method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of preliminary results evaluating the usefulness of super-paramagnetic clustering in the discipline of spectroscopy where it is used for classification of spectra.

  19. Super-Massive Stars as a Source of Abundance Anomalies of Proton-Capture Elements in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Denissenkov, Pavel A

    2013-01-01

    We propose that the abundance anomalies of proton-capture elements in globular clusters, such as the C-N, Na-O, Mg-Al and Na-F anti-correlations, were produced by super-massive stars with M ~ 10,000 Msun. Such stars could form in the runaway collisions of massive stars that sank to the cluster center as a result of dynamical friction, or via the direct collapse of the low-metallicity gas cloud from which the cluster formed. To explain the observed abundance anomalies, we assume that the super-massive stars had lost significant fractions of their initial masses when only a small mass fraction of hydrogen, Delta X ~ 0.15, was transformed into helium. We speculate that the required mass loss might be caused by the super-Eddington radiation continuum-driven stellar wind or by the diffusive mode of the Jeans instability.

  20. Computing networks from cluster to cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Vicat-Blanc, Pascale; Guillier, Romaric; Soudan, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    "Computing Networks" explores the core of the new distributed computing infrastructures we are using today:  the networking systems of clusters, grids and clouds. It helps network designers and distributed-application developers and users to better understand the technologies, specificities, constraints and benefits of these different infrastructures' communication systems. Cloud Computing will give the possibility for millions of users to process data anytime, anywhere, while being eco-friendly. In order to deliver this emerging traffic in a timely, cost-efficient, energy-efficient, and

  1. Super-paramagnetic clustering of yeast gene expression profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Getz, G; Domany, E; Zhang, M Q

    2000-01-01

    High-density DNA arrays, used to monitor gene expression at a genomic scale, have produced vast amounts of information which require the development of efficient computational methods to analyze them. The important first step is to extract the fundamental patterns of gene expression inherent in the data. This paper describes the application of a novel clustering algorithm, Super-Paramagnetic Clustering (SPC) to analysis of gene expression profiles that were generated recently during a study of the yeast cell cycle. SPC was used to organize genes into biologically relevant clusters that are suggestive for their co-regulation. Some of the advantages of SPC are its robustness against noise and initialization, a clear signature of cluster formation and splitting, and an unsupervised self-organized determination of the number of clusters at each resolution. Our analysis revealed interesting correlated behavior of several groups of genes which has not been previously identified.

  2. Super-paramagnetic clustering of yeast gene expression profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, G.; Levine, E.; Domany, E.; Zhang, M. Q.

    2000-04-01

    High-density DNA arrays, used to monitor gene expression at a genomic scale, have produced vast amounts of information which require the development of efficient computational methods to analyze them. The important first step is to extract the fundamental patterns of gene expression inherent in the data. This paper describes the application of a novel clustering algorithm, super-paramagnetic clustering (SPC) to analysis of gene expression profiles that were generated recently during a study of the yeast cell cycle. SPC was used to organize genes into biologically relevant clusters that are suggestive for their co-regulation. Some of the advantages of SPC are its robustness against noise and initialization, a clear signature of cluster formation and splitting, and an unsupervised self-organized determination of the number of clusters at each resolution. Our analysis revealed interesting correlated behavior of several groups of genes which has not been previously identified.

  3. New Mexico cloud super cooled liquid water survey final report 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, Nick; Roskovensky, John K.; Ivey, Mark D.

    2010-02-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are partners in an effort to survey the super-cooled liquid water in clouds over the state of New Mexico in a project sponsored by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program. This report summarizes the scientific work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during the 2009. In this second year of the project a practical methodology for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water was created. This was accomplished through the analysis of certain MODIS sensor satellite derived cloud products and vetted parameterizations techniques. A software code was developed to analyze multiple cases automatically. The eighty-one storm events identified in the previous year effort from 2006-2007 were again the focus. Six derived MODIS products were obtained first through careful MODIS image evaluation. Both cloud and clear-sky properties from this dataset were determined over New Mexico. Sensitivity studies were performed that identified the parameters which most influenced the estimation of cloud super-cooled liquid water. Limited validation was undertaken to ensure the soundness of the cloud super-cooled estimates. Finally, a path forward was formulized to insure the successful completion of the initial scientific goals which include analyzing different of annual datasets, validation of the developed algorithm, and the creation of a user-friendly and interactive tool for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water.

  4. Evolution of Super Star Cluster Winds with Strong Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Wunsch, Richard; Palous, Jan; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of Super Star Cluster (SSC) winds driven by stellar winds and supernova (SN) explosions. Time-dependent rates at which mass and energy are deposited into the cluster volume, as well as the time-dependent chemical composition of the re-inserted gas, are obtained from the population synthesis code Starburst99. These results are used as input for a semi-analytic code which determines the hydrodynamic properties of the cluster wind as a function of cluster age. Two types of winds are detected in the calculations. For the quasi-adiabatic solution, all of the inserted gas leaves the cluster in the form of a stationary wind. For the bimodal solution, some of the inserted gas becomes thermally unstable and forms dense warm clumps which accumulate inside the cluster. We calculate the evolution of the wind velocity and energy flux and integrate the amount of accumulated mass for clusters of different mass, radius and initial metallicity. We consider also conditions with low heating efficiency of ...

  5. Clustering, randomness, and regularity in cloud fields. 4: Stratocumulus cloud fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Chou, J.; Weger, R. C.; Welch, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    To complete the analysis of the spatial distribution of boundary layer cloudiness, the present study focuses on nine stratocumulus Landsat scenes. The results indicate many similarities between stratocumulus and cumulus spatial distributions. Most notably, at full spatial resolution all scenes exhibit a decidedly clustered distribution. The strength of the clustering signal decreases with increasing cloud size; the clusters themselves consist of a few clouds (less than 10), occupy a small percentage of the cloud field area (less than 5%), contain between 20% and 60% of the cloud field population, and are randomly located within the scene. In contrast, stratocumulus in almost every respect are more strongly clustered than are cumulus cloud fields. For instance, stratocumulus clusters contain more clouds per cluster, occupy a larger percentage of the total area, and have a larger percentage of clouds participating in clusters than the corresponding cumulus examples. To investigate clustering at intermediate spatial scales, the local dimensionality statistic is introduced. Results obtained from this statistic provide the first direct evidence for regularity among large (more than 900 m in diameter) clouds in stratocumulus and cumulus cloud fields, in support of the inhibition hypothesis of Ramirez and Bras (1990). Also, the size compensated point-to-cloud cumulative distribution function statistic is found to be necessary to obtain a consistent description of stratocumulus cloud distributions. A hypothesis regarding the underlying physical mechanisms responsible for cloud clustering is presented. It is suggested that cloud clusters often arise from 4 to 10 triggering events localized within regions less than 2 km in diameter and randomly distributed within the cloud field. As the size of the cloud surpasses the scale of the triggering region, the clustering signal weakens and the larger cloud locations become more random.

  6. Super Star Cluster Nebula in the Starburst Galaxy NGC 660

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, J. P.; Turner, J. L.; Tsai, C.-W.; Beck, S. C.; Ho, P. T. P.

    2004-12-01

    We have mapped the starburst galaxy NGC 660 at 100mas resolution at K band (1.3 cm) with the NRAO Very Large Array. A peculiar galaxy at a distance of 13 Mpc, NGC 660 contains concentrated central star formation of power ˜ 2 x 1010 Lsun. Our 1.3 cm continuum image reveals a bright, compact source of less than 10 pc extent with a rising spectral index. We infer that this is optically thick free-free emission from a super star cluster nebula. The nebula is less than 10 pc in size, comparable in luminosity to the ``supernebula" in the dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253. We estimate that there are a few thousand O stars contained in this single young cluster. There are a number of other weaker continuum sources, either slightly smaller or more evolved clusters of similar size within the central 300 parsecs of the galaxy. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

  7. Probing the super star cluster environment of NGC 1569 using FISICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Raines, S. N.; Gruel, N.; Elston, R.; Guzman, R.; Boreman, G.; Glenn, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present near-IR JH spectra of the central regions of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569 using the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA). The dust-penetrating properties and available spectral features of the near-IR, combined with the integral field unit (IFU) capability to take spectra of a field, make FISICA an ideal tool for this work. We use the prominent [He i] (1.083 μm) and Paβ (1.282 μm) lines to probe the dense star-forming regions as well as characterize the general star-forming environment around the super star clusters (SSCs) in NGC 1569. We find [He i] coincident with CO clouds to the north and west of the SSCs, which provides the first, conclusive evidence for embedded star clusters here.

  8. Super pixel density based clustering automatic image classification method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingxing; Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Tianxu

    2015-12-01

    The image classification is an important means of image segmentation and data mining, how to achieve rapid automated image classification has been the focus of research. In this paper, based on the super pixel density of cluster centers algorithm for automatic image classification and identify outlier. The use of the image pixel location coordinates and gray value computing density and distance, to achieve automatic image classification and outlier extraction. Due to the increased pixel dramatically increase the computational complexity, consider the method of ultra-pixel image preprocessing, divided into a small number of super-pixel sub-blocks after the density and distance calculations, while the design of a normalized density and distance discrimination law, to achieve automatic classification and clustering center selection, whereby the image automatically classify and identify outlier. After a lot of experiments, our method does not require human intervention, can automatically categorize images computing speed than the density clustering algorithm, the image can be effectively automated classification and outlier extraction.

  9. Methodologies for Improved Tag Cloud Generation with Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2012-01-01

    coverage and overlap. We study several clustering algorithms to generate tag clouds. We show that by extending cloud generation based on tag popularity with clustering we slightly improve coverage. We also show that if the cloud is generated by clustering independently of the tag popularity baseline we......Tag clouds are useful means for navigation in the social web systems. Usually the systems implement the tag cloud generation based on tag popularity which is not always the best method. In this paper we propose methodologies on how to combine clustering into the tag cloud generation to improve...... better on bibsonomy due to its specific focus. The best performing is the hierarchical clustering....

  10. 3D Viewer Platform of Cloud Clustering Management System: Google Map 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Ja; Lee, Gang-Soo

    The new management system of framework for cloud envrionemnt is needed by the platfrom of convergence according to computing environments of changes. A ISV and small business model is hard to adapt management system of platform which is offered from super business. This article suggest the clustering management system of cloud computing envirionments for ISV and a man of enterprise in small business model. It applies the 3D viewer adapt from map3D & earth of google. It is called 3DV_CCMS as expand the CCMS[1].

  11. Semantic Legal Policies for Data Exchange and Protection across Super-Peer Domains in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kua-Ping Cheng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In semantic policy infrastructure, a Trusted Legal Domain (TLD, designated as a Super-Peer Domain (SPD, is a legal cage model used to circumscribe the legal virtual boundary of data disclosure and usage in the cloud. Semantic legal policies in compliance with the law are enforced at the super-peer within an SPD to enable Law-as-a-Service (LaaS for cloud service providers. In addition, cloud users could query fragmented but protected outsourcing cloud data from a law-aware super-peer, where each query is also compliant with the law. Semantic legal policies are logic-based formal policies, which are shown to be a combination of OWL-DL ontologies and stratified Datalog rules with negation, i.e., so-called non-monotonic cq-programs, for policy representation and enforcement. An agent at the super-peer is a unique law-aware guardian that provides protected data integration services for its peers within an SPD. Furthermore, agents at the super-peers specify how law-compliant legal policies are unified with each other to provide protected data exchange services across SPDs in the semantic data cloud.

  12. The Birth of a Super Star Cluster: NGC 5253

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, J L; Turner, Jean L.; Beck, Sara C.

    2004-01-01

    We present images of the 7mm free-free emission from the radio "supernebula" in NGC 5253 made with the Very Large Array and the Pie Town link. The images reveal structure in the nebula, which has a <~ 1 pc (~50 mas radius) core requiring the excitation of 1200 O7 stars. The nebula is elongated, with an arc of emission curving to the northeast and to the south. The total ionizing flux within the central 1.2" (~20 pc) is 7 x 10^52 s^-1, corresponding to 7000 O7 stars. We propose that the radio source is coincident with a small, very red near-infrared cluster and apparently linked to a larger, optical source some 10 pc away on the sky. We speculate on the causes of this structure and what it might tell us about the birth of the embedded young super star cluster.

  13. Protostellar clusters in the Rosette Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Martin

    The HOBYS Herschel observations of Rosette reveal a population of about 50 very compact far-infrared sources. We find a dense cluster toward the cloud centre and others in the imme-diate vicinity of high-mass young stellar objects or distributed. A fraction of them lack Spitzer counterparts which indicates a very early evolutionary stage. We extract the spectral energy dis-tributions of this new population of protostars to constrain their basic properties, in particular envelope masses and bolometric luminosities. These key characteristics of the Rosette protostar population are used to build an evolutionary diagram (Me nvvsLb ol)tocompletethatmadef orlow- massstar-f ormingregions.T hecomparisontoevolutionarytracksshowsthatRosettef ormslow- tohigh-massstars.W ealsoassesstheapparentmasssegregationof theseprotostarswithrespecttothecloudde massyoungstellarobjects.

  14. EMBEDDED CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD USING THE VISTA MAGELLANIC CLOUDS SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romita, Krista; Lada, Elizabeth [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cioni, Maria-Rosa, E-mail: k.a.romita@ufl.edu, E-mail: elada@ufl.edu, E-mail: mcioni@aip.de [Universität Potsdam, Institut fúr Physik und Astronomie, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2016-04-10

    We present initial results of the first large-scale survey of embedded star clusters in molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using near-infrared imaging from the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy Magellanic Clouds Survey. We explored a ∼1.65 deg{sup 2} area of the LMC, which contains the well-known star-forming region 30 Doradus as well as ∼14% of the galaxy’s CO clouds, and identified 67 embedded cluster candidates, 45 of which are newly discovered as clusters. We have determined the sizes, luminosities, and masses for these embedded clusters, examined the star formation rates (SFRs) of their corresponding molecular clouds, and made a comparison between the LMC and the Milky Way. Our preliminary results indicate that embedded clusters in the LMC are generally larger, more luminous, and more massive than those in the local Milky Way. We also find that the surface densities of both embedded clusters and molecular clouds is ∼3 times higher than in our local environment, the embedded cluster mass surface density is ∼40 times higher, the SFR is ∼20 times higher, and the star formation efficiency is ∼10 times higher. Despite these differences, the SFRs of the LMC molecular clouds are consistent with the SFR scaling law presented in Lada et al. This consistency indicates that while the conditions of embedded cluster formation may vary between environments, the overall process within molecular clouds may be universal.

  15. Super-droplet method as a versatile numerical approach for representing aerosol-cloud-aerosol interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruga, Anna; Arabas, Sylwester; Pawlowska, Hanna

    2013-04-01

    Aerosol interacts with clouds by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Its physical and chemical properties are one of the factors defining cloud droplet size distribution. On the other hand, clouds process atmospheric aerosol taking part in its wet deposition and CCN regeneration through evaporation of cloud droplets and drizzle. Physical and chemical properties of the regenerated CCN may be altered if the evaporated droplets go through collisional growth or irreversible chemical reactions. The main challenge of representing these aerosol-cloud interactions in a numerical cloud model stems from the need to track the properties of the drop nuclei throughout the cloud lifecycle. A class of methods allowing such studies is the Lagrangian particle-based simulation technique. In a simulation of cloud, each modeled particle represents a multiplicity of particles of the same nucleus type, position and size. During the simulation particle sizes change in a continuous way from CCN-sized to rain drop particles. Tracking microphysical properties of modeled particles is an inherent feature of the particle-based frameworks, making them suitable for studying aerosol-cloud-aerosol interactions. Super-droplet method is a Lagrangian technique introduced by Shima et al. (2009) featuring an efficient Monte-Carlo type solver for particle coalescence. In this study a new implementation of the super-droplet method, using the kappa-Koehler parametrisation of aerosol composition and an aqueous chemistry module for representing irreversible oxidation, will be presented. Components of the developed model will be discussed using a single-eddy prescribed-flow framework, focusing solely on the microphysical aspects of simulations. Example case will mimic a Stratocumulus cloud and depict cloud-aerosol interactions resolved by the model.

  16. Super Star Clusters in Luminous Infrared Galaxies: the SUNBIRD Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Vaisanen, P; Escala, A; Kankare, E; Kniazev, A; Kotilainen, J K; Mattila, S; Ramphul, R; Ryder, S; Tekola, A

    2014-01-01

    We present recent results from an adaptive optics imaging survey of 40 Luminous IR Galaxies (LIRGs) searching for obscured core collapse supernovae and studying the galaxies themselves. Here, in particular, we discuss the Super Star Clusters (SSC) populations in the LIRGs. We have constructed the first statistically significant samples of Luminosity Functions (LF) of SSCs in the near-IR, and find evidence that the LF slopes in LIRGs are shallower than in more quiescent spiral galaxies. Distance and blending effects were investigated in detail paving the way for SSC studies further out than done previously. We have also correlated the luminosities of the brightest clusters with the star formation rates (SFR) of the hosts. The relation is similar, though somewhat steeper than that found in the optical and at lower SFR levels, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. We find that the characteristics of the relation suggest an underlying physical driver rather than solely a size-of-sample effect. In p...

  17. Evaluating the Efficacy of the Cloud for Cluster Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, David; Shams, Khawaja; Chang, George; Soderstrom, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Computing requirements vary by industry, and it follows that NASA and other research organizations have computing demands that fall outside the mainstream. While cloud computing made rapid inroads for tasks such as powering web applications, performance issues on highly distributed tasks hindered early adoption for scientific computation. One venture to address this problem is Nebula, NASA's homegrown cloud project tasked with delivering science-quality cloud computing resources. However, another industry development is Amazon's high-performance computing (HPC) instances on Elastic Cloud Compute (EC2) that promises improved performance for cluster computation. This paper presents results from a series of benchmarks run on Amazon EC2 and discusses the efficacy of current commercial cloud technology for running scientific applications across a cluster. In particular, a 240-core cluster of cloud instances achieved 2 TFLOPS on High-Performance Linpack (HPL) at 70% of theoretical computational performance. The cluster's local network also demonstrated sub-100 ?s inter-process latency with sustained inter-node throughput in excess of 8 Gbps. Beyond HPL, a real-world Hadoop image processing task from NASA's Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) was run on a 29 instance cluster to process lunar and Martian surface images with sizes on the order of tens of gigapixels. These results demonstrate that while not a rival of dedicated supercomputing clusters, commercial cloud technology is now a feasible option for moderately demanding scientific workloads.

  18. Hierarchical Cluster Assembly in Globally Collapsing Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Colin, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the mechanism of cluster formation in a numerical simulation of a molecular cloud (MC) undergoing global hierarchical collapse (GHC). The global nature of the collapse implies that the SFR increases over time. The hierarchical nature of the collapse consists of small-scale collapses within larger-scale ones. The large-scale collapses culminate a few Myr later than the small-scale ones and consist of filamentary flows that accrete onto massive central clumps. The small-scale collapses form clumps that are embedded in the filaments and falling onto the large-scale collapse centers. The stars formed in the early, small-scale collapses share the infall motion of their parent clumps. Thus, the filaments feed both gaseous and stellar material to the massive central clump. This leads to the presence of a few older stars in a region where new protostars are forming, and also to a self-similar structure, in which each unit is composed of smaller-scale sub-units that approach each other and may merge. Becaus...

  19. Clustering, randomness and regularity in cloud fields. I - Theoretical considerations. II - Cumulus cloud fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, R. C.; Lee, J.; Zhu, Tianri; Welch, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    The current controversy existing in reference to the regularity vs. clustering in cloud fields is examined by means of analysis and simulation studies based upon nearest-neighbor cumulative distribution statistics. It is shown that the Poisson representation of random point processes is superior to pseudorandom-number-generated models and that pseudorandom-number-generated models bias the observed nearest-neighbor statistics towards regularity. Interpretation of this nearest-neighbor statistics is discussed for many cases of superpositions of clustering, randomness, and regularity. A detailed analysis is carried out of cumulus cloud field spatial distributions based upon Landsat, AVHRR, and Skylab data, showing that, when both large and small clouds are included in the cloud field distributions, the cloud field always has a strong clustering signal.

  20. Cloud Based Gateway Clustering of Cloud Data Retrieval with GCD Recovery Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi.P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Different parallelization approaches are available to cluster the computers and to scale the data and resources. With them, parallel clustering mechanism is used to faster the computation time of dataaccess with minimal cost. But, this mechanism is not feasible for efficient data retrieve over cloud environment and is not provided with fault tolerant design. The proposed paper attempts to develop data scalability in a cloud environment by implementing Cloud based Gateway Clustering (CBGC mechanism with fault tolerant design. The Client accesses the data from the cloud using Cloud core storage gateway, which is an API. This paper proposes a core gateway which is divided into multiple sub virtual gateways to improve the data access speed. Also an enhanced Gateway Cut Detection (GCD Algorithm is proposed to detect and recover sub-gateway failures and make sub- gateways to be available throughout the communication. The proposed CBGC mechanism with GCD is highly scalable and reliable to cloudresources.

  1. Application of microarray analysis on computer cluster and cloud platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernau, C; Boulesteix, A-L; Knaus, J

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of recent high-dimensional biological data tends to be computationally intensive as many common approaches such as resampling or permutation tests require the basic statistical analysis to be repeated many times. A crucial advantage of these methods is that they can be easily parallelized due to the computational independence of the resampling or permutation iterations, which has induced many statistics departments to establish their own computer clusters. An alternative is to rent computing resources in the cloud, e.g. at Amazon Web Services. In this article we analyze whether a selection of statistical projects, recently implemented at our department, can be efficiently realized on these cloud resources. Moreover, we illustrate an opportunity to combine computer cluster and cloud resources. In order to compare the efficiency of computer cluster and cloud implementations and their respective parallelizations we use microarray analysis procedures and compare their runtimes on the different platforms. Amazon Web Services provide various instance types which meet the particular needs of the different statistical projects we analyzed in this paper. Moreover, the network capacity is sufficient and the parallelization is comparable in efficiency to standard computer cluster implementations. Our results suggest that many statistical projects can be efficiently realized on cloud resources. It is important to mention, however, that workflows can change substantially as a result of a shift from computer cluster to cloud computing.

  2. Measurements of electron cloud density in the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron with the microwave transmission method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron cloud effect can pose severe performance limitations in high-energy particle accelerators as the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS. Mitigation techniques such as vacuum chamber thin film coatings with low secondary electron yields (SEY<1.3 aim to reduce or even suppress this effect. The microwave transmission method, developed and first applied in 2003 at the SPS, measures the integrated electron cloud density over a long section of an accelerator. This paper summarizes the theory and measurement principle and describes the new SPS microwave transmission setup used to study the electron cloud mitigation of amorphous carbon coated SPS dipole vacuum chambers. Comparative results of carbon coated and bare stainless steel dipole vacuum chambers are given for the beam with nominal LHC 25 ns bunch-to-bunch spacing in the SPS and the electron cloud density is derived.

  3. High-temperature condensate clouds in super-hot Jupiter atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, H. R.; Visscher, C.; Lewis, N. K.; Kataria, T.; Marley, M. S.; Fortney, J. J.; Mandell, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    Deciphering the role of clouds is central to our understanding of exoplanet atmospheres, as they have a direct impact on the temperature and pressure structure, and observational properties of the planet. Super-hot Jupiters occupy a temperature regime similar to low-mass M-dwarfs, where minimal cloud condensation is expected. However, observations of exoplanets such as WASP-12b (Teq ˜ 2500 K) result in a transmission spectrum indicative of a cloudy atmosphere. We re-examine the temperature and pressure space occupied by these super-hot Jupiter atmospheres, to explore the role of the initial Al- and Ti-bearing condensates as the main source of cloud material. Due to the high temperatures, a majority of the more common refractory material is not depleted into deeper layers and would remain in the vapour phase. The lack of depletion into deeper layers means that these materials with relatively low cloud masses can become significant absorbers in the upper atmosphere. We provide condensation curves for the initial Al- and Ti-bearing condensates which may be used to provide quantitative estimates of the effect of metallicity on cloud masses, as planets with metal-rich hosts potentially form more opaque clouds because more mass is available for condensation. Increased metallicity also pushes the point of condensation to hotter, deeper layers in the planetary atmosphere further increasing the density of the cloud. We suggest that planets around metal-rich hosts are more likely to have thick refractory clouds, and discuss the implication on the observed spectra of WASP-12b.

  4. Embedded Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud Using the VISTA Magellanic Clouds Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Romita, Krista; Cioni, Maria-Rosa

    2016-01-01

    We present initial results of the first large scale survey of embedded star clusters in molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using near-infrared (NIR) imaging from the VISTA Magellanic Clouds Survey (Cioni et al. 2011). We have explored a ~1.65 square degree area of the LMC, which contains the well-known star-forming region 30 Doradus as well as ~14 percent of the galaxy's CO clouds (Wong et al. 2011), and have identified 67 embedded cluster candidates, 45 of which are newly discovered as clusters. We have determined sizes, luminosities and masses for these embedded clusters, examined the star formation rates (SFRs) of their corresponding molecular clouds, and made a comparison between the LMC and the Milky Way. Our preliminary results indicate that embedded clusters in the LMC are generally larger, more luminous and more massive than those in the local Milky Way. We also find that the surface densities of both embedded clusters and molecular clouds is ~3 times higher than in our local environ...

  5. The Star Clusters of the Small Magellanic Cloud: Structural Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, A; Hill, Andrew; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    We present structural parameters for 204 stellar clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud derived from fitting King and Elson, Fall, & Freeman model profiles to the V-band surface brightness profiles as measured from the Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey images. Both King and EFF profiles are satisfactory fits to the majority of the profiles although King profiles are generally slightly superior to the softened power-law profiles of Elson, Fall, and Freeman and provide statistically acceptable fits to ~90% of the sample. We find no correlation between the preferred model and cluster age. The only systematic deviation in the surface brightness profiles that we identify is a lack of a central concentration in a subsample of clusters, which we designate as "ring" clusters. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the clusters in the SMC are significantly more elliptical than those in the Milky Way. However, given the mean age difference and the rapid destruction of these systems, the comparison betw...

  6. Discrimination of micrometre-sized ice and super-cooled droplets in mixed-phase cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, E.; Kaye, P. H.; Greenaway, R. S.; Field, P.; Johnson, D. W.

    Preliminary experimental results are presented from an aircraft-mounted probe designed to provide in situ data on cloud particle shape, size, and number concentration. In particular, the probe has been designed to facilitate discrimination between super-cooled water droplets and ice crystals of 1-25 μm size within mixed-phase clouds and to provide information on cloud interstitial aerosols. The probe acquires spatial light scattering data from individual particles at throughput rates of several thousand particles per second. These data are logged at 100 ms intervals to allow the distribution and number concentration of each particle type to be determined with 10 m spatial resolution at a typical airspeed of 100 m s -1. Preliminary results from flight data recorded in altocumulus castellanus, showing liquid water phase, mixed phase, and ice phase are presented to illustrate the probe's particle discrimination capabilities.

  7. Clouds in the atmosphere of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ 1214b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob L; Désert, Jean-Michel; Benneke, Björn; Deming, Drake; Stevenson, Kevin B; Seager, Sara; Berta-Thompson, Zachory; Seifahrt, Andreas; Homeier, Derek

    2014-01-02

    Recent surveys have revealed that planets intermediate in size between Earth and Neptune ('super-Earths') are among the most common planets in the Galaxy. Atmospheric studies are the next step towards developing a comprehensive understanding of this new class of object. Much effort has been focused on using transmission spectroscopy to characterize the atmosphere of the super-Earth archetype GJ 1214b (refs 7 - 17), but previous observations did not have sufficient precision to distinguish between two interpretations for the atmosphere. The planet's atmosphere could be dominated by relatively heavy molecules, such as water (for example, a 100 per cent water vapour composition), or it could contain high-altitude clouds that obscure its lower layers. Here we report a measurement of the transmission spectrum of GJ 1214b at near-infrared wavelengths that definitively resolves this ambiguity. The data, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, are sufficiently precise to detect absorption features from a high mean-molecular-mass atmosphere. The observed spectrum, however, is featureless. We rule out cloud-free atmospheric models with compositions dominated by water, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen or carbon dioxide at greater than 5σ confidence. The planet's atmosphere must contain clouds to be consistent with the data.

  8. Clouds in the atmosphere of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ 1214b

    CERN Document Server

    Kreidberg, Laura; Désert, Jean-Michel; Benneke, Björn; Deming, Drake; Stevenson, Kevin B; Seager, Sara; Berta-Thompson, Zachory; Seifahrt, Andreas; Homeier, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Recent surveys have revealed that planets intermediate in size between Earth and Neptune ("super-Earths") are among the most common planets in the Galaxy. Atmospheric studies are the next step toward developing a comprehensive understanding of this new class of object. Much effort has been focused on using transmission spectroscopy to characterize the atmosphere of the super-Earth archetype GJ 1214b, but previous observations did not have sufficient precision to distinguish between two interpretations for the atmosphere. The planet's atmosphere could be dominated by relatively heavy molecules, such as water (e.g., a 100% water vapor composition), or it could contain high-altitude clouds that obscure its lower layers. Here we report a measurement of the transmission spectrum of GJ 1214b at near-infrared wavelengths that definitively resolves this ambiguity. These data, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, are sufficiently precise to detect absorption features from a high mean molecular mass atmosphere. Th...

  9. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT IN CLOUD COMPUTING USING RESOURCE CLUSTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Malathy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a computing paradigm in which the various tasks are assigned to a combination of connections, software and services that can be accessed over the network. The computing resources and services can be efficiently delivered and utilized, making the vision of computing utility realizable. In various applications, execution of services with more number of tasks has to perform with minimum intertask communication. The applications are more likely to exhibit different patterns and levels and the distributed resources organize into various topologies for information and query dissemination. In a distributed system the resource discovery is a significant process for finding appropriate nodes. The earlier resource discovery mechanism in cloud system relies on the recent observations. In this study, resource usage distribution for a group of nodes with identical resource usages patterns are identified and kept as a cluster and is named as resource clustering approach. The resource clustering approach is modeled using CloudSim, a toolkit for modeling and simulating cloud computing environments and the evaluation improves the performance of the system in the usage of the resources. Results show that resource clusters are able to provide high accuracy for resource discovery.

  10. Submillimeter View of Gas and Dust in the Forming Super Star Cluster in NGC 5253

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Jean L

    2015-01-01

    A giant molecular cloud has been detected surrounding the supernebula in NGC 5253, revealing details of the formation and feedback process in a very massive star cluster. "Cloud D" was recently mapped in CO J=3-2 with the Submillimeter Array. The cloud surrounds a currently forming massive cluster of mass ~10$^6$ $\\rm M_\\odot$ and luminosity ~10$^9$ $\\rm L_\\odot$. Cloud D is hot, clearly associated with the cluster, yet kinematically relatively quiescent. The dust mass is ~15,000 $\\rm M_\\odot$, giving a gas-to-dust ratio of ~50, nearly an order of magnitude lower than expected for this low metallicity galaxy. We posit that enrichment by the cluster, leading to a stalled cluster wind, has created the unusual conditions in Cloud D. The absence of current mechanical impact of the young cluster on the cloud, in spite of the presence of thousands of O stars, may permit future generations of stars to form near the massive cluster.

  11. Dusty supernovae running the thermodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; González, Sergio Martínez; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Palouš, Jan; Wünsch, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Following the observational and theoretical evidence that points at core collapse supernovae as major producers of dust, here we calculate the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters under the assumption of gas and dust radiative cooling. The large supernova rate expected in massive clusters allows for a continuous replenishment of dust immersed in the high temperature thermalized reinserted matter and warrants a stationary presence of dust within the cluster volume during the type II supernova era. We first show that such a balance determines the range of dust to gas mass ratio and this the dust cooling law. We then search for the critical line that separates stationary cluster winds from the bimodal cases in the cluster mechanical luminosity (or cluster mass) vs cluster size parameter space. In the latter, strong radiative cooling reduces considerably the cluster wind mechanical energy output and affects particularly the cluster central regions, leading to freq...

  12. Hierarchically Clustered Star Formation in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A; Ossenkopf, Volker; Klessen, Ralf S; Dolphin, Andrew E

    2012-01-01

    We present a cluster analysis of the bright main-sequence and faint pre--main-sequence stellar populations of a field ~ 90 x 90 pc centered on the HII region NGC 346/N66 in the Small Magellanic Cloud, from imaging with HST/ACS. We extend our earlier analysis on the stellar cluster population in the region to characterize the structuring behavior of young stars in the region as a whole with the use of stellar density maps interpreted through techniques designed for the study of the ISM structuring. In particular, we demonstrate with Cartwrigth & Whitworth's Q parameter, dendrograms, and the Delta-variance wavelet transform technique that the young stellar populations in the region NGC 346/N66 are hierarchically clustered, in agreement with other regions in the Magellanic Clouds observed with HST. The origin of this hierarchy is currently under investigation.

  13. Star cluster "infant mortality" in the Small Magellanic Cloud (Redivivus)

    CERN Document Server

    de Grijs, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The early evolution of star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) has been the subject of significant recent controversy, particularly regarding the importance and length of the earliest, largely mass-independent disruption phase (referred to as "infant mortality"). Here, we take a fresh approach to the problem, using an independent, homogeneous data set of UBVR imaging observations, from which we obtain the SMC's cluster age and mass distributions in a self-consistent manner. We conclude that the (optically selected) SMC star cluster population has undergone at most ~30 per cent (1 sigma) infant mortality between the age range from about (3-10) Myr, to that of approximately (40-160) Myr. We rule out a 90 per cent cluster mortality rate per decade of age (for the full age range up to 10^9 yr) at a > 6 sigma level. We independently affirm this scenario based on the age distribution of the SMC cluster sample.

  14. Dynamic integration of remote cloud resources into local computing clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleig, Georg; Erli, Guenther; Giffels, Manuel; Hauth, Thomas; Quast, Guenter; Schnepf, Matthias [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In modern high-energy physics (HEP) experiments enormous amounts of data are analyzed and simulated. Traditionally dedicated HEP computing centers are built or extended to meet this steadily increasing demand for computing resources. Nowadays it is more reasonable and more flexible to utilize computing power at remote data centers providing regular cloud services to users as they can be operated in a more efficient manner. This approach uses virtualization and allows the HEP community to run virtual machines containing a dedicated operating system and transparent access to the required software stack on almost any cloud site. The dynamic management of virtual machines depending on the demand for computing power is essential for cost efficient operation and sharing of resources with other communities. For this purpose the EKP developed the on-demand cloud manager ROCED for dynamic instantiation and integration of virtualized worker nodes into the institute's computing cluster. This contribution will report on the concept of our cloud manager and the implementation utilizing a remote OpenStack cloud site and a shared HPC center (bwForCluster located in Freiburg).

  15. Hybrid cloud and cluster computing paradigms for life science applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Judy; Ekanayake, Jaliya; Gunarathne, Thilina; Choi, Jong Youl; Bae, Seung-Hee; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bingjing; Wu, Tak-Lon; Ruan, Yang; Ekanayake, Saliya; Hughes, Adam; Fox, Geoffrey

    2010-12-21

    Clouds and MapReduce have shown themselves to be a broadly useful approach to scientific computing especially for parallel data intensive applications. However they have limited applicability to some areas such as data mining because MapReduce has poor performance on problems with an iterative structure present in the linear algebra that underlies much data analysis. Such problems can be run efficiently on clusters using MPI leading to a hybrid cloud and cluster environment. This motivates the design and implementation of an open source Iterative MapReduce system Twister. Comparisons of Amazon, Azure, and traditional Linux and Windows environments on common applications have shown encouraging performance and usability comparisons in several important non iterative cases. These are linked to MPI applications for final stages of the data analysis. Further we have released the open source Twister Iterative MapReduce and benchmarked it against basic MapReduce (Hadoop) and MPI in information retrieval and life sciences applications. The hybrid cloud (MapReduce) and cluster (MPI) approach offers an attractive production environment while Twister promises a uniform programming environment for many Life Sciences applications. We used commercial clouds Amazon and Azure and the NSF resource FutureGrid to perform detailed comparisons and evaluations of different approaches to data intensive computing. Several applications were developed in MPI, MapReduce and Twister in these different environments.

  16. The interplay between the young stellar super cluster Westerlund 1, and the surrounding interstellar medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the multi-band (CO, HI and Spitzer maps, large-scale (150 pc gaseous structure around Westerlund 1, the most massive known superstar cluster in the Milky Way, with the intention of exploring the effect of feedback from massive stars in this young (age < 5 Myr cluster on the surrounding interstellar medium. We find no traces of the parental molecular cloud in the immediate vicinity of the cluster, instead this volume is partially filled by HI gas. On the other hand, there are two giant molecular clouds, both moving away from the cluster at 5–10 km s−1, at distances of around 50–150 pc. There are several ultra-compact HII regions associated with these giant molecular clouds. All these events suggest that the cluster has played an important role in re-structuring the ISM, in the form of ejecting the molecular gas, as well as triggering secondary star formation.

  17. Supersonic Line Broadening within Young and Massive Super Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Silich, S; Munoz-Tunon, C; Palous, J

    2009-01-01

    The origin of supersonic infrared and radio recombination nebular lines often detected in young and massive superstar clusters are discussed. We suggest that these arise from a collection of repressurizing shocks (RSs), acting effectively to re-establish pressure balance within the cluster volume and from the cluster wind which leads to an even broader although much weaker component. The supersonic lines are here shown to occur in clusters that undergo a bimodal hydrodynamic solution (Tenorio-Tagle et al. 2007), that is within clusters that are above the threshold line in the mechanical luminosity or cluster mass vs the size of the cluster (Silich et al. 2004). The plethora of repressurizing shocks is due to frequent and recurrent thermal instabilities that take place within the matter reinserted by stellar winds and supernovae. We show that the maximum speed of the RSs and of the cluster wind, are both functions of the temperature reached at the stagnation radius. This temperature depends only on the cluster...

  18. Star cluster evolution in the Magellanic Clouds revisited

    CERN Document Server

    de Grijs, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds has been the subject of significant recent controversy, particularly regarding the importance and length of the earliest, largely mass-independent disruption phase (referred to as "infant mortality"). Here, we take a fresh approach to the problem, using a large, independent, and homogeneous data set of UBVR imaging observations, from which we obtain the cluster age and mass distributions in both the Large and Small Magelanic Clouds (LMC, SMC) in a self-consistent manner. We conclude that the (optically selected) SMC star cluster population has undergone at most ~30% (1sigma) infant mortality between the age range from about 3-10 Myr, to that of approximately 40-160 Myr. We rule out a 90% cluster mortality rate per decade of age (for the full age range up to 10^9 yr) at a >6sigma level. Using a simple approach, we derive a "characteristic" cluster disruption time-scale for the cluster population in the LMC that implies that we are observing the INITIAL cl...

  19. PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Yee, Tin Tin

    2011-01-01

    Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low cost PC cluster based storage server is configured to be activated for large amount of data to provide cloud users. Moreover, one of the contributions of this system is proposed an analytical model using M/M/1 queuing network model, which is modeled on intended architecture to provide better response time, utilization of storage as well as pending time when the system is running. According to the analytical result on experimental testing, the storage can be utilized more than 90% of storage space. In this paper, two parts...

  20. Embedded Star Clusters in the W51 Giant Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, M S N; Davis, C J

    2004-01-01

    We present sub-arcsecond (0.35"-0.9"), near-infrared J,H,K band photometric observations of six fields along the W51 Giant Molecular Cloud (W51 GMC). Our observations reveal four new, embedded clusters and provide a new high-resolution (0.35") view of the W51IRS2 (G49.5-0.4) region. The cluster associated with G48.9-0.3 is found to be a double cluster enclosed in a nest of near-infrared nebulosity. We construct stellar surface density maps for four major clusters in the W51 GMC. These unveil the underlying hierarchical structure. Color-color and color-magnitude diagrams for each of these clusters show clear differences in the embedded stellar populations and indicate the relative ages of these clusters. In particular, the clusters associated with the HII regions G48.9-0.3 and G49.0-0.3 are found to have a high fraction of YSOs and are therefore considered the youngest of all the near-infrared clusters in the W51 GMC. The estimated masses of the individual clusters, when summed, yield a total stellar mass of ~...

  1. Infrared Observational Manifestations of Young Dusty Super Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Silich, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence pointing at core-collapse supernovae as large dust producers makes young massive stellar clusters ideal laboratories to study the evolution of dust immersed into a hot plasma. Here we address the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae and follow its evolution due to thermal sputtering within the hot and dense plasma generated by young stellar clusters. Under these considerations, dust grains are heated by means of random collisions with gas particles which results on the appearance of infrared spectral signatures. We present time-dependent infrared spectral energy distributions which are to be expected from young stellar clusters. Our results are based on hydrodynamic calculations that account for the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae. These also consider gas and dust radiative cooling, stochastic dust temperature fluctuations, the exit of dust grains out of the cluster volume due to the cluster wind and a time-dependent grain size distribution.

  2. INFRARED OBSERVATIONAL MANIFESTATIONS OF YOUNG DUSTY SUPER STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-González, Sergio; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy, E-mail: sergiomtz@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2016-01-01

    The growing evidence pointing at core-collapse supernovae as large dust producers makes young massive stellar clusters ideal laboratories to study the evolution of dust immersed in a hot plasma. Here we address the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae, and follow its evolution due to thermal sputtering within the hot and dense plasma generated by young stellar clusters. Under these considerations, dust grains are heated by means of random collisions with gas particles which result in the appearance of  infrared spectral signatures. We present time-dependent infrared spectral energy distributions that are to be expected from young stellar clusters. Our results are based on hydrodynamic calculations that account for the stochastic injection of dust by supernovae. These also consider gas and dust radiative cooling, stochastic dust temperature fluctuations, the exit of dust grains out of the cluster volume due to the cluster wind, and a time-dependent grain size distribution.

  3. Applying super-droplets as a compact representation of warm-rain microphysics for aerosol-cloud-aerosol interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabas, S.; Jaruga, A.; Pawlowska, H.; Grabowski, W. W.

    2012-12-01

    Clouds may influence aerosol characteristics of their environment. The relevant processes include wet deposition (rainout or washout) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) recycling through evaporation of cloud droplets and drizzle drops. Recycled CCN physicochemical properties may be altered if the evaporated droplets go through collisional growth or irreversible chemical reactions (e.g. SO2 oxidation). The key challenge of representing these processes in a numerical cloud model stems from the need to track properties of activated CCN throughout the cloud lifecycle. Lack of such "memory" characterises the so-called bulk, multi-moment as well as bin representations of cloud microphysics. In this study we apply the particle-based scheme of Shima et al. 2009. Each modelled particle (aka super-droplet) is a numerical proxy for a multiplicity of real-world CCN, cloud, drizzle or rain particles of the same size, nucleus type,and position. Tracking cloud nucleus properties is an inherent feature of the particle-based frameworks, making them suitable for studying aerosol-cloud-aerosol interactions. The super-droplet scheme is furthermore characterized by linear scalability in the number of computational particles, and no numerical diffusion in the condensational and in the Monte-Carlo type collisional growth schemes. The presentation will focus on processing of aerosol by a drizzling stratocumulus deck. The simulations are carried out using a 2D kinematic framework and a VOCALS experiment inspired set-up (see http://www.rap.ucar.edu/~gthompsn/workshop2012/case1/).

  4. Star Clusters in the Magellanic Clouds-1: Parameterisation and Classification of 1072 Clusters in the LMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, P. K.; Subramaniam, A.; Choudhury, S.; Indu, G.; Sagar, Ram

    2016-08-01

    We have introduced a semi-automated quantitative method to estimate the age and reddening of 1072 star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) III survey data. This study brings out 308 newly parameterised clusters. In a first of its kind, the LMC clusters are classified into groups based on richness/mass as very poor, poor, moderate and rich clusters, similar to the classification scheme of open clusters in the Galaxy. A major cluster formation episode is found to happen at 125±25 Myr in the inner LMC. The bar region of the LMC appears prominently in the age range 60 - 250 Myr and is found to have a relatively higher concentration of poor and moderate clusters. The eastern and the western ends of the bar are found to form clusters initially, which later propagates to the central part. We demonstrate that there is a significant difference in the distribution of clusters as a function of mass, using a movie based on the propagation (in space and time) of cluster formation in various groups. The importance of including the low mass clusters in the cluster formation history is demonstrated. The catalog with parameters, classification, and cleaned and isochrone fitted CMDs of 1072 clusters, which are available as online material, can be further used to understand the hierarchical formation of clusters in selected regions of the LMC.

  5. Clustered Layout Word Cloud for User Generated Online Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ji

    2012-01-01

    User generated reviews, like those found on Yelp and Amazon, have become important refer- ence material in casual decision making, like dining, shopping and entertainment. However, very large amounts of reviews make the review reading process time consuming. A text visualization can speed up the review reading process.In this thesis, we present the clustered layout word cloud -- a text visualization that quickens decision making based on user generated reviews. We used a natural language proc...

  6. Young Super Star Clusters in the Starburst of M82: The Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Melo, V P; Maíz-Appelániz, J; Tenorio-Tagle, G

    2004-01-01

    Recent results from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have resolved starbursts as collections of compact young stellar clusters. Here we present a photometric catalogue of the young stellar clusters in the nuclear starburst of M82, observed with the HST WFPC2 in Halpha (F656N) and in four optical broad-band filters. We identify 197 young super stellar clusters. The compactness and high density of the sources led us to develop specific techniques to measure their sizes. Strong extinction lanes divide the starburst into five different zones and we provide a catalogue of young super star clusters for each of these. In the catalogue we include relative coordinates, radii, fluxes, luminosities, masses, equivalent widths, extinctions, and other parameters. Extinction values have been derived from the broad-band images. The radii range between 3 and 9 pc, with a mean value of 5.7 +/- 1.4pc, and a stellar mass between 10e4 and 10e6 Mo. The inferred masses and mean separation, comparable to the size of super star clusters,...

  7. Young Super Star Clusters in the Starburst of M82: The Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, V. P.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Maíz-Apellániz, J.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent results from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have resolved starbursts as collections of compact young stellar clusters. Here we present a photometric catalog of the young stellar clusters in the nuclear starburst of M82, observed with the HST WFPC2 in Hα (F656N) and in four optical broadband filters. We identify 197 young super stellar clusters. The compactness and high density of the sources led us to develop specific techniques to measure their sizes. Strong extinction lanes divide the starburst into five different zones, and we provide a catalog of young super star clusters for each of these. In the catalog we include relative coordinates, radii, fluxes, luminosities, masses, equivalent widths, extinctions, and other parameters. Extinction values have been derived from the broadband images. The radii range between 3 and 9 pc, with a mean value of 5.7+/-1.4 pc, and a stellar mass between 104 and 106 Msolar. The inferred masses and mean separation, comparable to the size of the super star clusters, together with their high volume density, provide strong evidence for the key ingredients postulated by Tenorio-Tagle and coworkers as required for the development of a supergalactic wind. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  8. Imprints of the super-Eddington accretion on the quasar clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Oogi, Taira; Enoki, Motohiro; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Makiya, Ryu; Nagashima, Masahiro; Okamoto, Takashi; Shirakata, Hikari

    2017-01-01

    Super-Eddington mass accretion has been suggested as an efficient mechanism to grow supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We investigate the imprint left by the radiative efficiency of the super-Eddington accretion process on the clustering of quasars using a new semi-analytic model of galaxy and quasar formation based on large-volume cosmological $N$-body simulations. Our model includes a simple model for the radiative efficiency of a quasar, which imitates the effect of photon trapping for a hi...

  9. The Detectability of Exo-Earths and Super-Earths via Resonant Signatures in Exozodiacal Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Christopher C.; Kuchner, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Directly imaging extrasolar terrestrial planets necessarily means contending with the astrophysical noise of exozodiacal dust and the resonant structures created by these planets in exozodiacal clouds. Using a custom tailored hybrid symplectic integrator we have constructed 120 models of resonant structures created by exo-Earths and super-Earths on circular orbits interacting with collisionless steady-state dust clouds around a Sun-like star. Our models include enough particles to overcome the limitations of previous simulations that were often dominated by a handful of long-lived particles, allowing us to quantitatively study the contrast of the resulting ring structures. We found that in the case of a planet on a circular orbit, for a given star and dust source distribution, the morphology and contrast of the resonant structures depend on only two parameters: planet mass and (square root)ap/Beta, where ap is the planet's semi-major axis and Beta is the ratio of radiation pressure force to gravitational force on a grain. We constructed multiple-grain-size models of 25,000 particles each and showed that in a collisionless cloud, a Dohnanyi crushing law yields a resonant ring whose optical depth is dominated by the largest grains in the distribution, not the smallest. We used these models to estimate the mass of the lowest-mass planet that can be detected through observations of a resonant ring for a variety of assumptions about the dust cloud and the planet's orbit. Our simulations suggest that planets with mass as small as a few times Mars' mass may produce detectable signatures in debris disks at ap greater than or approximately equal to 10 AU.

  10. High-resolution WRF simulation of cloud properties over the super typhoon Haiyan: physics parameterizations and comparison against MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Tanvir; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Dai, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models can complement the satellite technology in simulating the cloud properties, especially in extreme storm events, when gathering new data becomes more than essential for accurate weather forecasting. In this study, we investigate the capability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to realistically simulate some important cloud properties in high-resolution grids, such as cloud phase (e.g., liquid or ice) and cloud water path. The sensitivity of different combinations of physics parameterizations to the simulated cloud fields is studied. The experiment is conducted on a super typhoon event by configuring the WRF model in two domains, with two-way nesting, allowing bidirectional information exchange between the parent and the nest. In order to do the assessment, the simulated cloud fields are compared against MODIS-derived cloud properties from one overpass scene. While the simulations have been able to capture the spatial distribution of cloud properties reasonably well, produced cloud quantities such as ice water path has been significantly overestimated when compared to the MODIS optical cloud information. The microphysics parameterizations are found to be more sensitive than the planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations.

  11. Winds driven by super-star clusters: The self-consistent radiative solution

    CERN Document Server

    Silich, S A; Rodríguez-Gónzalez, A; Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Ary

    2004-01-01

    Here we present a self-consistent stationary solution for spherically symmetric winds driven by massive star clusters under the impact of radiative cooling. We demonstrate that cooling may modify drastically the distribution of temperature if the rate of injected energy approaches a critical value. We also prove that the stationary wind solution does not exist whenever the energy radiated away at the star cluster center exceeds ~ 30% of the energy deposition rate. Finally we thoroughly discuss the expected appearance of super-star cluster winds in the X-ray and visible line regimes. The three solutions here found: the quasi-adiabatic, the strongly radiative wind and the inhibited stationary solution, are then compared to the winds from Arches cluster, NGC 4303 central cluster and to the supernebula in NGC 5253.

  12. Cloud Computing Application for Hotspot Clustering Using Recursive Density Based Clustering (RDBC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Aries; Khiyarin Nisa, Karlina

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia has vast areas of tropical forest, but are often burned which causes extensive damage to property and human life. Monitoring hotspots can be one of the forest fire management. Each hotspot is recorded in dataset so that it can be processed and analyzed. This research aims to build a cloud computing application which visualizes hotspots clustering. This application uses the R programming language with Shiny web framework and implements Recursive Density Based Clustering (RDBC) algorithm. Clustering is done on hotspot dataset of the Kalimantan Island and South Sumatra Province to find the spread pattern of hotspots. The clustering results are evaluated using the Silhouette's Coefficient (SC) which yield best value 0.3220798 for Kalimantan dataset. Clustering pattern are displayed in the form of web pages so that it can be widely accessed and become the reference for fire occurrence prediction.

  13. Dusty supernovae running the thermodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Martínez-González, Sergio [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Palouš, Jan; Wünsch, Richard, E-mail: gtt@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cmt@ll.iac.es [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Boční II 1401, 141 31 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-12-01

    Following the observational and theoretical evidence that points at core-collapse supernovae (SNe) as major producers of dust, here we calculate the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters under the assumption of gas and dust radiative cooling. The large SN rate expected in massive clusters allows for a continuous replenishment of dust immersed in the high temperature thermalized reinserted matter and warrants a stationary presence of dust within the cluster volume during the type II SN era. We first show that such a balance determines the range of the dust-to-gas-mass ratio, and thus the dust cooling law. We then search for the critical line that separates stationary cluster winds from the bimodal cases in the cluster mechanical luminosity (or cluster mass) versus cluster size parameter space. In the latter, strong radiative cooling reduces considerably the cluster wind mechanical energy output and affects particularly the cluster central regions, leading to frequent thermal instabilities that diminish the pressure and inhibit the exit of the reinserted matter. Instead, matter accumulates there and is expected to eventually lead to gravitational instabilities and to further stellar formation with the matter reinserted by former massive stars. The main outcome of the calculations is that the critical line is almost two orders of magnitude or more, depending on the assumed value of V {sub A∞}, lower than when only gas radiative cooling is applied. And thus, many massive clusters are predicted to enter the bimodal regime.

  14. Star Clusters in the Magellanic Clouds-1: Parameterisation and Classification of 1072 Clusters in the LMC

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, P K; Choudhury, S; Indu, G; Sagar, Ram

    2016-01-01

    We have introduced a semi-automated quantitative method to estimate the age and reddening of 1072 star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) III survey data. This study brings out 308 newly parameterised clusters. In a first of its kind, the LMC clusters are classified into groups based on richness/mass as very poor, poor, moderate and rich clusters, similar to the classification scheme of open clusters in the Galaxy. A major cluster formation episode is found to happen at 125 +- 25 Myr in the inner LMC. The bar region of the LMC appears prominently in the age range 60 - 250 Myr and is found to have a relatively higher concentration of poor and moderate clusters. The eastern and the western ends of the bar are found to form clusters initially, which later propagates to the central part. We demonstrate that there is a significant difference in the distribution of clusters as a function of mass, using a movie based on the propagation (in space and...

  15. Dissipative Collapse of a Spherical Cluster of Gas Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Indulekha, K; Ramadurai, S

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the dissipative collapse of a spherical cluster of gas clouds with an isotropic velocity distribution. The time scale for collapse to one tenth radius is studied as a function of the collision time in the system. The scalar virial equation is used to investigate the evolution of the size of the cluster. This is supplemented with an evolution equation for the random kinetic energy. The above system is numerically solved and the results analyzed. For small values of the collision time we find that the time scale for collapse is proportional to the collision time as expected. However for large values of the dissipation the collapse time shows a nonlinear dependence on the collision time.

  16. Correlation functions quantify super-resolution images and estimate apparent clustering due to over-counting

    CERN Document Server

    Veatch, Sarah; Shelby, Sarah; Chiang, Ethan; Holowka, David; Baird, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We present an analytical method to quantify clustering in super-resolution localization images of static surfaces in two dimensions. The method also describes how over-counting of labeled molecules contributes to apparent self-clustering and how the effective lateral resolution of an image can be determined. This treatment applies to clustering of proteins and lipids in membranes, where there is significant interest in using super-resolution localization techniques to probe membrane heterogeneity. When images are quantified using pair correlation functions, the magnitude of apparent clustering due to over-counting will vary inversely with the surface density of labeled molecules and does not depend on the number of times an average molecule is counted. Over-counting does not yield apparent co-clustering in double label experiments when pair cross-correlation functions are measured. We apply our analytical method to quantify the distribution of the IgE receptor (Fc{\\epsilon}RI) on the plasma membranes of chemi...

  17. Cluster analysis of midlatitude oceanic cloud regimes: mean properties and temperature sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Gordon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play an important role in the climate system by reducing the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface and the amount of longwave radiation escaping to space. Accurate simulation of clouds in computer models remains elusive, however, pointing to a lack of understanding of the connection between large-scale dynamics and cloud properties. This study uses a k-means clustering algorithm to group 21 years of satellite cloud data over midlatitude oceans into seven clusters, and demonstrates that the cloud clusters are associated with distinct large-scale dynamical conditions. Three clusters correspond to low-level cloud regimes with different cloud fraction and cumuliform or stratiform characteristics, but all occur under large-scale descent and a relatively dry free troposphere. Three clusters correspond to vertically extensive cloud regimes with tops in the middle or upper troposphere, and they differ according to the strength of large-scale ascent and enhancement of tropospheric temperature and humidity. The final cluster is associated with a lower troposphere that is dry and an upper troposphere that is moist and experiencing weak ascent and horizontal moist advection.

    Since the present balance of reflection of shortwave and absorption of longwave radiation by clouds could change as the atmosphere warms from increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, we must also better understand how increasing temperature modifies cloud and radiative properties. We therefore undertake an observational analysis of how midlatitude oceanic clouds change with temperature when dynamical processes are held constant (i.e., partial derivative with respect to temperature. For each of the seven cloud regimes, we examine the difference in cloud and radiative properties between warm and cold subsets. To avoid misinterpreting a cloud response to large-scale dynamical forcing as a cloud response to temperature, we require horizontal and vertical

  18. Compact Stellar Systems in the Fornax Cluster Super-massive Star Clusters or Extremely Compact Dwarf Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Drinkwater, M J; Gregg, M D; Phillipps, S

    2000-01-01

    We describe a population of compact objects in the centre of the Fornax Cluster which were discovered as part of our 2dF Fornax Spectroscopic Survey. These objects have spectra typical of old stellar systems, but are unresolved on photographic sky survey plates. They have absolute magnitudes -13clusters, but fainter than any known compact dwarf galaxies. These objects are all within 30 arcminutes of the central galaxy of the cluster, NGC 1399, but are distributed over larger radii than the globular cluster system of that galaxy. We suggest that these objects are either super-massive star clusters (intra-cluster globular clusters or tidally stripped nuclei of dwarf galaxies) or a new type of low-luminosity compact elliptical dwarf (M32-type) galaxy. The best way to test these hypotheses will be to obtain high resolution imaging and high-dispersion spectroscopy to determine their structures and mass-to-light ratios. This will allow us ...

  19. Correlating structure and fluorescence dynamics of quantum dot clusters using super-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Duncan P.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Sheehan, Chris J.; Whitcomb, Kevin J.; Gelfand, Martin P.; Van Orden, Alan

    2016-02-01

    Clusters of quantum dots exhibit fluorescent behavior that differs from that of individual particles. Bulk measurements involving a large number of particles obscure these dynamics. Synthesizing clusters with 5-10 particles enables the study of collective behavior where single-molecule fluorescence techniques can be applied. Super-resolution microscopy of these clusters correlated with SEM imaging reveals the influence of geometry and structure on emission dynamics. Signatures of energy transfer can be seen in the form of enhanced blinking. Motion of the emission center of the cluster is tracked, made possible by the independent blinking events of the individual particles. Discrete steps in the localization are observed as random switching between various on/off configurations moves the location of the emission center.

  20. Stellar feedback from a massive Super Star Cluster in the Antennae merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cinthya N.; Boulanger, Francois

    2017-03-01

    Stellar feedback from massive stars can unbind and disperse large amount of molecular gas, affecting the star formation efficiency. Based on ALMA and VLT observations in the Antennae galaxies we study a massive (~ 107 M⊙) and young (~ 3 Myr) SSC, B1, associated with compact molecular and ionized emission, which suggests that it is embedded in its parent cloud. However, we found contradictories and puzzling results on the structure and dynamics of the matter around the cluster, indicating that SSC B1 is not embedded in its parent cloud after all. We propose that radiation pressure was highly enhanced at the early stages of the SSC formation, disrupting the parent cloud in parent cloud in the more extended CO gas. Higher angular resolution observations are needed to validate this interpretation and to understand the origin and fate of the component seen to be associated with SSC B1.

  1. A Kinematic Survey in the Perseus Molecular Cloud: Results from the APOGEE Infrared Survey of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Kevin R.; Cottaar, M.; Foster, J. B.; Nidever, D. L.; Meyer, M.; Tan, J.; Da Rio, N.; Flaherty, K. M.; Stassun, K.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Majewski, S.; APOGEE IN-SYNC Team

    2014-01-01

    Demographic studies of stellar clusters indicate that relatively few persist as bound structures for 100 Myrs or longer. If cluster dispersal is a 'violent' process, it could strongly influence the formation and early evolution of stellar binaries and planetary systems. Unfortunately, measuring the dynamical state of 'typical' (i.e., ~300-1000 member) young star clusters has been difficult, particularly for clusters still embedded within their parental molecular cloud. The near-infrared spectrograph for the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which can measure precise radial velocities for 230 cluster stars simultaneously, is uniquely suited to diagnosing the dynamics of Galactic star formation regions. We give an overview of the INfrared Survey of Young Nebulous Clusters (IN-SYNC), an APOGEE ancillary science program that is carrying out a comparative study of young clusters in the Perseus molecular cloud: NGC 1333, a heavily embedded cluster, and IC 348, which has begun to disperse its surrounding molecular gas. These observations appear to rule out a significantly super-virial velocity dispersion in IC 348, contrary to predictions of models where a cluster's dynamics is strongly influenced by the dispersal of its primordial gas. We also summarize the properties of two newly identified spectroscopic binaries; binary systems such as these play a key role in the dynamical evolution of young clusters, and introduce velocity offsets that must be accounted for in measuring cluster velocity dispersions.

  2. Hierarchical star cluster assembly in globally collapsing molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; González-Samaniego, Alejandro; Colín, Pedro

    2017-05-01

    We discuss the mechanism of cluster formation in a numerical simulation of a molecular cloud (MC) undergoing global hierarchical collapse, focusing on how the gas motions in the parent cloud control the assembly of the cluster. The global collapse implies that the star formation rate (SFR) increases over time. The collapse is hierarchical because it consists of small-scale collapses within larger scale ones. The latter culminate a few Myr later than the first small-scale ones and consist of filamentary flows that accrete on to massive central clumps. The small-scale collapses consist of clumps that are embedded in the filaments and falling on to the large-scale collapse centres. The stars formed in the early, small-scale collapses share the infall motion of their parent clumps, so that the filaments feed both gas and stars to the massive central clump. This process leads to the presence of a few older stars in a region where new protostars are forming, and also to a self-similar structure, in which each unit is composed of smaller scale subunits that approach each other and may merge. Because the older stars formed in the filaments share the infall motion of the gas on to the central clump, they tend to have larger velocities and to be distributed over larger areas than the younger stars formed in the central clump. Finally, interpreting the initial mass function (IMF) simply as a probability distribution implies that massive stars only form once the local SFR is large enough to sample the IMF up to high masses. In combination with the increase of the SFR, this implies that massive stars tend to appear late in the evolution of the MC, and only in the central massive clumps. We discuss the correspondence of these features with observed properties of young stellar clusters, finding very good qualitative agreement.

  3. STED super-resolution microscopy reveals an array of MINOS clusters along human mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Daniel C; Wurm, Christian A; Riedel, Dietmar; Wenzel, Dirk; Stagge, Franziska; Deckers, Markus; Rehling, Peter; Jakobs, Stefan

    2013-05-28

    The mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system (MINOS) is a conserved large hetero-oligomeric protein complex in the mitochondrial inner membrane, crucial for the maintenance of cristae morphology. MINOS has been suggested to represent the core of an extended protein network that controls mitochondrial function and structure, and has been linked to several human diseases. The spatial arrangement of MINOS within mitochondria is ill-defined, however. Using super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy, we determined the distribution of three known human MINOS subunits (mitofilin, MINOS1, and CHCHD3) in mammalian cells. Super-resolution microscopy revealed that all three subunits form similar clusters within mitochondria, and that MINOS is more abundant in mitochondria around the nucleus than in peripheral mitochondria. At the submitochondrial level, mitofilin, a core MINOS subunit, is preferentially localized at cristae junctions. In primary human fibroblasts, mitofilin labeling uncovered a regularly spaced pattern of clusters arranged in parallel to the cell growth surfaces. We suggest that this array of MINOS complexes might explain the observed phenomenon of largely horizontally arranged cristae junctions that connect the inner boundary membrane to lamellar cristae. The super-resolution images demonstrate an unexpectedly high level of regularity in the nanoscale distribution of the MINOS complex in human mitochondria, supporting an integrating role of MINOS in the structural organization of the organelle.

  4. Constraints on the low-mass IMF in young super-star clusters in starburst galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greissl, Julia Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    As evidence for variations in the initial mass function (IMF) in nearby star forming regions remains elusive we are forced to expand our search to more extreme regions of star formation. Starburst galaxies, which contain massive young clusters have in the past been reported to have IMFs different than that characterizing the field star IMF. In this thesis we use high signal-to-noise near-infrared spectra to place constraints on the shape of the IMF in extreme regions of extragalactic star formation and also try to understand the star formation history in these regions. Through high signal-to-noise near-infrared spectra it is possible to directly detect low-mass PMS stars in unresolved young super-star clusters, using absorption features that trace cool stars. Combining Starburst99 and available PMS tracks it is then possible to constrain the IMF in young super-star clusters using a combination of absorption lines each tracing different ranges of stellar masses and comparing observed spectra to models. Our technique can provide a direct test of the universality of the IMF compared to the Milky Way. We have obtained high signal-to-noise H- and K-band spectra of two young super-star clusters in the starburst galaxies NGC 4039/39 and NGC 253 in order to constrain the low-mass IMF and star formation history in the clusters. The cluster in NGC 4038/39 shows signs of youth such as thermal radio emission and strong hydrogen emission lines as well as late-type absorption lines indicative of cool stars. The strength and ratio of these absorption lines cannot be reproduced through either late-type pre-main sequence stars or red supergiants alone. We interpret the spectrum as a superposition of two star clusters of different ages over the physical region of 90 pc our spectrum represents. One cluster is young (≤ 3 Myr) and is responsible for part of the late-type absorption features, which are due to PMS stars in the cluster, and the hydrogen emission lines. The second

  5. CHaMP: From Molecular Clouds to Massive Young Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter J.

    2017-03-01

    I review the major science outcomes to date of the Galactic Census of High- and Medium-mass Protostars (CHaMP), and also report the latest observational results on this unbiased, uniform sample of massive, cluster-forming molecular clumps, based on new mm-wave and IR data. These clouds represent the vast, subthermally-excited population of clumps predicted by Narayanan et al. (2008) to dominate the molecular mass of disk galaxies. Besides confirming their existence, we have presented evidence that these massive clumps probably spend a large fraction (90-95%) of their long lives (possibly up to 100 Myr) in a mostly quiescent, low star formation rate (SFR) state. This is likely ended when a density or internal pressure threshold is crossed, after which vigorous, massive cluster formation consumes the densest gas with a high SFR, dispersing the embedding envelope. New results presented in two other posters at this Symposium include (1) the first analysis of HCN emission from the dense gas (Schap et al. 2015), and (2) the first deep photometry of clusters in this sample based on NIR AAT & CTIO data, and on MIR Warm Spitzer IRAC data (Dallilar et al. 2015).

  6. HADS in the Large Magellanic Cloud: Initial findings from the SuperMACHO project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A

    2009-07-14

    The SuperMACHO Project is a five-year survey toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) aimed at understanding the nature of the populations of lenses responsible for the excess microlensing rates observed by the MACHO project. Survey observations were completed in 2006. A rich side-product of this survey is a catalog of variable sources down to a depth of VR 23, including many classes of pulsating variables such as {delta}-Scuti and RR Lyrae. Through their position in the Period-Luminosity diagram and their light curve characteristics we have identified 2323 high amplitude {delta}-Scuti (HADS) having high quality light curves. sing Fourier decomposition of the HADS light curves, we find that the period-luminosity (PL) relation defined by the firt-overtone (FO) pulsators does not show a clear separation from the PL-relation defined by the fundamental (F) pulsators. This differs from other instability strip pulsators such as type c RR Lyrae. We also present evidence for a larger amplitude, subluminous population of HADS similar to that observed in Fornax.

  7. A super lithium-rich red-clump star in the open cluster Trumpler 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, L.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Bonifacio, P.; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.; Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Ahumada, J. A.; Beletsky, Y.; Beccari, G.

    2014-04-01

    Context. The existence of lithium-rich low-mass red giant stars still represents a challenge for stellar evolution models. Stellar clusters are privileged environments for this kind of investigation. Aims: To investigate the chemical abundance pattern of the old open cluster Trumpler 5, we observed a sample of four red-clump stars with high-resolution optical spectrographs. One of them (#3416) reveals extremely strong lithium lines in its spectrum. Methods: One-dimensional, local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis was performed on the spectra of the observed stars. A 3D-NLTE analysis was performed to derive the lithium abundance of star #3416. Results: Star #3416 is super Li-rich with A(Li) = 3.75 dex. The lack of 6Li enrichment (6Li/7Li Cameron & Fowler mechanism. Conclusions: We identified a super Li-rich core helium-burning, red-clump star in an open cluster. Internal production is the most likely cause of the observed enrichment. Given the expected short duration of a star's Li-rich phase, enrichment is likely to have occurred at the red clump or in the immediately preceding phases, namely during the He-flash at the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) or while ascending the brightest portion of the RGB. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program ID 088.D-0045(A).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Models of Super Star Clusters with a Positive Star Formation Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Wünsch, R; Palous, J; Silich, S

    2008-01-01

    Using the hydrodynamic code ZEUS, we perform 2D simulations to determine the fate of the gas ejected by massive stars within super star clusters. It turns out that the outcome depends mainly on the mass and radius of the cluster. In the case of less massive clusters, a hot high velocity ($\\sim 1000$ km s$^{-1}$) stationary wind develops and the metals injected by supernovae are dispersed to large distances from the cluster. On the other hand, the density of the thermalized ejecta within massive and compact clusters is sufficiently large as to immediately provoke the onset of thermal instabilities. These deplete, particularly in the central densest regions, the pressure and the pressure gradient required to establish a stationary wind, and instead the thermally unstable parcels of gas are rapidly compressed, by a plethora of re-pressurizing shocks, into compact high density condensations. Most of these are unable to leave the cluster volume and thus accumulate to eventually feed further generations of star for...

  9. Correlation functions quantify super-resolution images and estimate apparent clustering due to over-counting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Veatch

    Full Text Available We present an analytical method using correlation functions to quantify clustering in super-resolution fluorescence localization images and electron microscopy images of static surfaces in two dimensions. We use this method to quantify how over-counting of labeled molecules contributes to apparent self-clustering and to calculate the effective lateral resolution of an image. This treatment applies to distributions of proteins and lipids in cell membranes, where there is significant interest in using electron microscopy and super-resolution fluorescence localization techniques to probe membrane heterogeneity. When images are quantified using pair auto-correlation functions, the magnitude of apparent clustering arising from over-counting varies inversely with the surface density of labeled molecules and does not depend on the number of times an average molecule is counted. In contrast, we demonstrate that over-counting does not give rise to apparent co-clustering in double label experiments when pair cross-correlation functions are measured. We apply our analytical method to quantify the distribution of the IgE receptor (FcεRI on the plasma membranes of chemically fixed RBL-2H3 mast cells from images acquired using stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM/dSTORM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. We find that apparent clustering of FcεRI-bound IgE is dominated by over-counting labels on individual complexes when IgE is directly conjugated to organic fluorophores. We verify this observation by measuring pair cross-correlation functions between two distinguishably labeled pools of IgE-FcεRI on the cell surface using both imaging methods. After correcting for over-counting, we observe weak but significant self-clustering of IgE-FcεRI in fluorescence localization measurements, and no residual self-clustering as detected with SEM. We also apply this method to quantify IgE-FcεRI redistribution after deliberate clustering by

  10. Imprints of the super-Eddington accretion on the quasar clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oogi, Taira; Enoki, Motohiro; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Makiya, Ryu; Nagashima, Masahiro; Okamoto, Takashi; Shirakata, Hikari

    2017-10-01

    Super-Eddington mass accretion has been suggested as an efficient mechanism to grow supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We investigate the imprint left by the radiative efficiency of the super-Eddington accretion process on the clustering of quasars using a new semi-analytic model of galaxy and quasar formation based on large-volume cosmological $N$-body simulations. Our model includes a simple model for the radiative efficiency of a quasar, which imitates the effect of photon trapping for a high mass accretion rate. We find that the model of radiative efficiency affects the relation between the quasar luminosity and the quasar host halo mass. The quasar host halo mass has only weak dependence on quasar luminosity when there is no upper limit for quasar luminosity. On the other hand, it has significant dependence on quasar luminosity when the quasar luminosity is limited by its Eddington luminosity. In the latter case, the quasar bias also depends on the quasar luminosity, and the quasar bias of bright quasars is in agreement with observations. Our results suggest that the quasar clustering studies can provide a constraint on the accretion disc model.

  11. OGLE Collection of Star Clusters. New Objects in the Outskirts of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Sitek, M; Skowron, D M; Udalski, A; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z; Skowron, J; Karczmarek, P; Cieślar, M; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Kozłowski, S; Pietrukowicz, P; Soszyński, I; Mróz, P; Pawlak, M; Poleski, R; Ulaczyk, K

    2016-01-01

    The Magellanic System (MS), consisting of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and the Magellanic Bridge (MBR), contains diverse sample of star clusters. Their spatial distribution, ages and chemical abundances may provide important information about the history of formation of the whole System. We use deep photometric maps derived from the images collected during the fourth phase of The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-IV) to construct the most complete catalog of star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud using the homogeneous photometric data. In this paper we present the collection of star clusters found in the area of about 225 square degrees in the outer regions of the LMC. Our sample contains 679 visually identified star cluster candidates, 226 of which were not listed in any of the previously published catalogs. The new clusters are mainly young small open clusters or clusters similar to associations.

  12. A peculiar HI cloud near the distant globular cluster Pal 4

    CERN Document Server

    van Loon, Jacco Th; Putman, Mary; Peek, Joshua E G; Gibson, Steven J; Douglas, Kevin A; Korpela, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    We present 21-cm observations of four Galactic globular clusters, as part of the on-going GALFA-HI Survey at Arecibo. We discovered a peculiar HI cloud in the vicinity of the distant (109 kpc) cluster Pal 4, and discuss its properties and likelihood of association with the cluster. We conclude that an association of the HI cloud and Pal 4 is possible, but that a chance coincidence between Pal 4 and a nearby compact high-velocity cloud cannot be ruled out altogether. New, more stringent upper limits were derived for the other three clusters: M 3, NGC 5466, and Pal 13. We briefly discuss the fate of globular cluster gas and the interaction of compact clouds with the Galactic Halo gas.

  13. Dense Clustered Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakrishnan Sivakumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dense Wireless Sensor Network Clouds have an inherent issue of latency and packet drops with regards to data collection. Though there is extensive literature that tries to address these issues through either scheduling, channel contention or a combination of the two, the problem still largely exists. In this paper, a Clustered Multi-Channel Scheduling Protocol (CMSP is designed that creates a Voronoi partition of a dense network. Each partition is assigned a channel, and a scheduling scheme is adopted to collect data within the Voronoi partitions. This scheme collects data from the partitions concurrently and then passes it to the base station. CMSP is compared using simulation with other multi-channel protocols like Tree-based Multi-Channel, Multi-Channel MAC and Multi-frequency Media Access Control for wireless sensor networks. Results indicate CMSP has higher throughput and data delivery ratio at a lower power consumption due to network partitioning and hierarchical scheduling that minimizes load on the network.

  14. A gas cloud on its way towards the super-massive black hole in the Galactic Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Gillessen, S; Fritz, T K; Quataert, E; Alig, C; Burkert, A; Cuadra, J; Eisenhauer, F; Pfuhl, O; Dodds-Eden, K; Gammie, C F; Ott, T

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of stellar orbits provide compelling evidence that the compact radio source Sagittarius A* at the Galactic Centre is a black hole four million times the mass of the Sun. With the exception of modest X-ray and infrared flares, Sgr A* is surprisingly faint, suggesting that the accretion rate and radiation efficiency near the event horizon are currently very low. Here we report the presence of a dense gas cloud approximately three times the mass of Earth that is falling into the accretion zone of Sgr A*. Our observations tightly constrain the cloud's orbit to be highly eccentric, with an innermost radius of approach of only ~3,100 times the event horizon that will be reached in 2013. Over the past three years the cloud has begun to disrupt, probably mainly through tidal shearing arising from the black hole's gravitational force. The cloud's dynamic evolution and radiation in the next few years will probe the properties of the accretion flow and the feeding processes of the super-massive black hole. ...

  15. An efficient method to identify galaxy clusters by using SuperCOSMOS, 2MASS and WISE data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU WeiWei; WEN ZhongLue; HAN JinLin

    2014-01-01

    The survey data of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) provide an opportunity for the identification of galaxy clusters.We present an efficient method for detecting galaxy clusters by combining the WISE data with SuperCOSMOS and 2MASS data.After performing star-galaxy separation,we calculate the number of companion galaxies around the galaxies with photometric redshifts previously estimated by the SuperCOSMOS,2MASS and WISE data.A scaled richness Rscal ≥ 30 is set as a criterion to identify clusters.From a sky area of 275 deg2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 region,we identify 302 clusters in the redshift range of 0.1 < z < 0.35,247 (82%) of which are previously known SDSS clusters.The results suggest that our method is efficient for identifying galaxy clusters by using the all sky data of the SuperCOSMOS,2MASS and WISE.

  16. A super lithium-rich red-clump star in the open cluster Trumpler 5

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, L; Bonifacio, P; Villanova, S; Carraro, G; Caffau, E; Steffen, M; Ahumada, J A; Beletsky, Y; Beccari, G

    2014-01-01

    Context. The existence of lithium-rich low-mass red giant stars still represents a challenge for stellar evolution models. Stellar clusters are privileged environments for this kind of investigation. Aims. To investigate the chemical abundance pattern of the old open cluster Trumpler\\,5, we observed a sample of four red-clump stars with high-resolution optical spectrographs. One of them (#3416) reveals extremely strong lithium lines in its spectrum. Methods. One-dimensional, local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis was performed on the spectra of the observed stars. A 3D-NLTE analysis was performed to derive the lithium abundance of star #3416. Results. Star #3416 is super Li-rich with A(Li)=3.75\\,dex. The lack of $^6$Li enrichment ($^6$Li/$^7$Li$<$2%), the low carbon isotopic ratio ($^{12}$C/$^{13}$C=14$\\pm$3), and the lack of evidence for radial velocity variation or enhanced rotational velocity ($v\\sin i = 2.8\\,$\\kms) all suggest that lithium production has occurred in this star through the Cameron &...

  17. On the extreme stationary outflows from super-star clusters: from superwinds to supernebulae and further massive star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Rodríguez-Gónzalez, A; Muñoz-Tunón, C; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Ary; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana

    2004-01-01

    The properties of star cluster winds in the supercritical, catastrophic cooling regime are discussed. We demonstrate that strong radiative cooling may inhibit superwinds and, after a rapid phase of accumulation of the ejected material within the star-forming volume, a new stationary isothermal regime, supported by the ionizing radiation from the central cluster, is established. The expected appearance of this core/halo supernebula in the visible line regime and possible late evolutionary tracks for super-star cluster winds, in the absence of ionizing radiation, are thoroughly discussed.

  18. On the feedback from super stellar clusters. I. The structure of giant HII regions and HII galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Pérez, E; Silich, S; Telles, E

    2006-01-01

    We review the structural properties of giant extragalactic HII regions and HII galaxies based on 2D hydrodynamic calculations, and propose an evolutionary sequence that accounts for their observed detailed structure. The model assumes a massive and young stellar cluster surrounded by a large collection of clouds. These are thus exposed to the most important star-formation feedback mechanisms: photoionization and the cluster wind. The models show how the two feedback mechanisms compete in the disruption of clouds and lead to two different hydrodynamic solutions: The storage of clouds into a long lasting ragged shell that inhibits the expansion of the thermalized wind, and the steady filtering of the shocked wind gas through channels carved within the cloud stratum. Both solutions are claimed to be concurrently at work in giant HII regions and HII galaxies, causing their detailed inner structure. This includes multiple large-scale shells, filled with an X-ray emitting gas, that evolve to finally merge with each...

  19. Super-cooled liquid water topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation - investigation based on combination of ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsikko, Anne; Brus, David; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Filioglou, Maria; Komppula, Mika; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2017-04-01

    In the high and mid latitudes super-cooled liquid water layers are frequently observed on top of clouds. These layers are difficult to forecast with numerical weather prediction models, even though, they have strong influence on atmospheric radiative properties, cloud microphysical properties, and subsequently, precipitation. This work investigates properties of super-cooled liquid water layer topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation observed with ground-based in-situ (cloud probes) and remote-sensing (a cloud radar, Doppler and multi-wavelength lidars) instrumentation during two-month long Pallas Cloud Experiment (PaCE 2015) in autumn 2015. Analysis is based on standard Cloudnet scheme supplemented with new retrieval products of the specific clouds and their properties. Combination of two scales of observation provides new information on properties of clouds and precipitation in the sub-arctic Pallas region. Current status of results will be presented during the conference. The authors acknowledge financial support by the Academy of Finland (Centre of Excellence Programme, grant no 272041; and ICINA project, grant no 285068), the ACTRIS2 - European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654109, the KONE foundation, and the EU FP7 project BACCHUS (grant no 603445).

  20. Age and metallicity of star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud from integrated spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Bruno; Barbuy, Beatriz; Kerber, Leandro; Idiart, Thais

    2010-01-01

    Context: Analysis of ages and metallicities of star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds bring information for studies on the chemical evolution of the Clouds and other dwarf Irregular galaxies. Aims: The aim is to derive ages and metallicities from integrated spectra of 14 star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud. We are seeking at identifying, in particular, intermediate/old age star clusters. Methods: Making use of a full spectrum fitting technique, we compared the integrated spectra of the sample clusters to three different sets of single stellar population models, using two fitting codes available in the literature. Results: We derive the ages and metallicities of 9 intermediate/old age clusters, some of them previously unstudied, and 5 young clusters. Conclusions: We point out the interest of the newly identified as intermediate/old age clusters HW1, NGC 152, Lindsay 3, Lindsay 11 and Lindsay 113. We also confirm the old ages of NGC 361, NGC 419, Kron 3, and of the very well-known oldest SMC cluster NGC...

  1. Segmentation Based Classification of 3D Urban Point Clouds: A Super-Voxel Based Approach with Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Trassoudaine

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation and classification of urban range data into different object classes have several challenges due to certain properties of the data, such as density variation, inconsistencies due to missing data and the large data size that require heavy computation and large memory. A method to classify urban scenes based on a super-voxel segmentation of sparse 3D data obtained from LiDAR sensors is presented. The 3D point cloud is first segmented into voxels, which are then characterized by several attributes transforming them into super-voxels. These are joined together by using a link-chain method rather than the usual region growing algorithm to create objects. These objects are then classified using geometrical models and local descriptors. In order to evaluate the results, a new metric that combines both segmentation and classification results simultaneously is presented. The effects of voxel size and incorporation of RGB color and laser reflectance intensity on the classification results are also discussed. The method is evaluated on standard data sets using different metrics to demonstrate its efficacy.

  2. Super-Droplet Method for the Numerical Simulation of Clouds and Precipitation: a Particle-Based Microphysics Model Coupled with Non-hydrostatic Model

    CERN Document Server

    Shima, Shin-ichiro; Kawano, Akio; Sugiyama, Tooru; Kawahara, Shintaro; 10.1002/qj.441

    2011-01-01

    A novel simulation model of cloud microphysics is developed, which is named Super-Droplet Method (SDM). SDM enables accurate calculation of cloud microphysics with reasonable cost in computation. A simple SDM for warm rain, which incorporates sedimentation, condensation/evaporation, stochastic coalescence, is developed. The methodology to couple SDM and a non-hydrostatic model is also developed. It is confirmed that the result of our Monte Carlo scheme for the coalescence of super-droplets agrees fairly well with the solution of stochastic coalescence equation. A preliminary simulation of a shallow maritime cumulus formation initiated by a warm bubble is presented to demonstrate the practicality of SDM. Further discussions are devoted for the extension and the computational efficiency of SDM to incorporate various properties of clouds, such as, several types of ice crystals, several sorts of soluble/insoluble CCNs, their chemical reactions, electrification, and the breakup of droplets. It is suggested that th...

  3. A new method for measuring metallicities of young super star clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazak, J. Zachary; Kudritzki, Rolf; Bresolin, Fabio [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Davies, Ben; Bastian, Nate [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Bergemann, Maria [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Plez, Bertrand [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Evans, Chris [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Patrick, Lee [Institute for Astronomy, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Schinnerer, Eva [MPI for Astronomy, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate how the metallicities of young super star clusters (SSC) can be measured using novel spectroscopic techniques in the J-band. The near-infrared flux of SSCs older than ∼6 Myr is dominated by tens to hundreds of red supergiant stars. Our technique is designed to harness the integrated light of that population and produces accurate metallicities for new observations in galaxies above (M83) and below (NGC 6946) solar metallicity. In M83 we find [Z] = +0.28 ± 0.14 dex using a moderate resolution (R ∼ 3500) J-band spectrum and in NGC 6496 we report [Z] = -0.32 ± 0.20 dex from a low resolution spectrum of R ∼ 1800. Recently commissioned low resolution multiplexed spectrographs on the Very Large Telescope (KMOS) and Keck (MOSFIRE) will allow accurate measurements of SSC metallicities across the disks of star-forming galaxies up to distances of 70 Mpc with single night observation campaigns using the method presented in this paper.

  4. Radiation therapy calculations using an on-demand virtual cluster via cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Keyes, Roy W; Arnold, Dorian; Luan, Shuang

    2010-01-01

    Computer hardware costs are the limiting factor in producing highly accurate radiation dose calculations on convenient time scales. Because of this, large-scale, full Monte Carlo simulations and other resource intensive algorithms are often considered infeasible for clinical settings. The emerging cloud computing paradigm promises to fundamentally alter the economics of such calculations by providing relatively cheap, on-demand, pay-as-you-go computing resources over the Internet. We believe that cloud computing will usher in a new era, in which very large scale calculations will be routinely performed by clinics and researchers using cloud-based resources. In this research, several proof-of-concept radiation therapy calculations were successfully performed on a cloud-based virtual Monte Carlo cluster. Performance evaluations were made of a distributed processing framework developed specifically for this project. The expected 1/n performance was observed with some caveats. The economics of cloud-based virtual...

  5. Deep Washington photometry of inconspicuous star cluster candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Samyaday; Subramaniam, Annapurni [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2B Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Piatti, Andrés E., E-mail: samyaday@iiap.res.in [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, X5000BGR, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2015-02-01

    We present deep Washington photometry of 45 poorly populated star cluster candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We have performed a systematic study to estimate the parameters of the cluster candidates by matching theoretical isochrones to the cleaned and dereddened cluster color–magnitude diagrams. We were able to estimate the basic parameters for 33 clusters, out of which 23 are identified as single clusters and 10 are found to be members of double clusters. The other 12 cluster candidates have been classified as possible clusters/asterisms. About 50% of the true clusters are in the 100–300 Myr age range, whereas some are older or younger. We have discussed the distribution of age, location, and reddening with respect to field, as well as the size of true clusters. The sizes and masses of the studied sample are found to be similar to that of open clusters in the Milky Way. Our study adds to the lower end of cluster mass distribution in the LMC, suggesting that the LMC, apart from hosting rich clusters, also has formed small, less massive open clusters in the 100–300 Myr age range.

  6. Capture of the Sun's Oort cloud from stars in its birth cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Harold F; Duncan, Martin J; Brasser, Ramon; Kaufmann, David E

    2010-07-09

    Oort cloud comets are currently believed to have formed in the Sun's protoplanetary disk and to have been ejected to large heliocentric orbits by the giant planets. Detailed models of this process fail to reproduce all of the available observational constraints, however. In particular, the Oort cloud appears to be substantially more populous than the models predict. Here we present numerical simulations that show that the Sun captured comets from other stars while it was in its birth cluster. Our results imply that a substantial fraction of the Oort cloud comets, perhaps exceeding 90%, are from the protoplanetary disks of other stars.

  7. A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE CLOUD CLUSTERS IN TYPHOONS AND MESOSCALE HEAVY RAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林毅; 刘爱鸣; 林新彬

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, time and space distribution regularity of meso-scale heavy rains in five selected typhoons which landed at Fujian from 1996 to 1998 hasbeen analyzed. Besides, with hourly digitized satellite infrared imagery, the features of the mesoscale are revealed for the genesis and evolution of mesoscaleconvective systems in typhoons. It indicates that the intensity of mesoscale storms is closely connected with the temperature and the area of the coldest cloudcluster. The heavy rainfall usually emerges on the eastern side of the mesoscale convective cloud clusters, where the cloud mass is developing and with a densegradient and big curvature of isoline of the cloud top temperature.

  8. Simulating radiative feedback and star cluster formation in GMCs - II. Mass dependence of cloud destruction and cluster properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Corey S.; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Harris, William E.

    2017-09-01

    The process of radiative feedback in giant molecular clouds (GMCs) is an important mechanism for limiting star cluster formation through the heating and ionization of the surrounding gas. We explore the degree to which radiative feedback affects early (≲5 Myr) cluster formation in GMCs having masses that range from 104 to 106 M⊙ using the flash code. The inclusion of radiative feedback lowers the efficiency of cluster formation by 20-50 per cent relative to hydrodynamic simulations. Two models in particular - 5 × 104 and 105 M⊙ - show the largest suppression of the cluster formation efficiency, corresponding to a factor of ∼2. For these clouds only, the internal energy, a measure of the energy injected by radiative feedback, exceeds the gravitational potential for a significant amount of time. We find a clear relation between the maximum cluster mass, Mc,max, formed in a GMC and the mass of the GMC itself, MGMC: Mc,max ∝ M_{GMC}^{0.81}. This scaling result suggests that young globular clusters at the necessary scale of 106 M⊙ form within host GMCs of masses near ∼5 × 107 M⊙. We compare simulated cluster mass distributions to the observed embedded cluster mass function [d log (N)/dlog (M) ∝ Mβ where β = -1] and find good agreement (β = -0.99 ± 0.14) only for simulations including radiative feedback, indicating this process is important in controlling the growth of young clusters. However, the high star formation efficiencies, which range from 16 to 21 per cent, and high star formation rates compared to locally observed regions suggest other feedback mechanisms are also important during the formation and growth of stellar clusters.

  9. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey VII: A Neutral Hydrogen Cloud Complex in the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Brian R; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P; Momjian, Emmanuel; Cortes, Juan R; Hardy, Eduardo; West, Andrew A

    2008-01-01

    We present observations of an HI cloud complex most likely located in the Virgo galaxy cluster, first reported by Kent et al. (2007). The complex consists of five clouds, detected in the data set of the ALFALFA extragalactic HI survey at Arecibo. The clouds have radial velocities between cz~480 and 610 km/s. At the Virgo cluster distance, they are spread over a projected span of 170 kpc and have HI masses ranging from 0.48 to 1.7 x 10^8 Msun. The overall HI mass of the complex is 5.1 x 10^8 Msun. The clouds' velocity widths vary between 50 and 250 km/s. New results of follow-up aperture synthesis observations conducted with the Very Large Array are also presented, which yield a higher resolution view of two of the clouds in the complex. These two resolved clouds show no evidence of symmetry in the gas distribution or of any ordered motions. The possibility that the complex is a group of primordial objects, embedded in their own dark matter halo is thought to be unlikely. Scenarios in which the clouds have bee...

  10. Experimental Study of Water Cluster Molecules with Relevance to Mesospheric Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Scott; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Horanyi, Mihaly

    2000-10-01

    We have begun an experimental investigation of the properties of the water cluster molecules responsible for clouds occurring in the polar mesopause. These clusters disturb the charge balance in the ionosphere by attaching electrons which then creates localized reductions in the electron density. A supersonic nozzle sprays a mixture of water vapor and argon into vacuum and the expansion leads to condensation of clusters with 4 to 11 water molecules. Initial measurements are of the collision cross section of these molecules with neutral gas. The cross sections have a minimum at six waters consistent with the tighter molecular arrangement predicted for this cluster number. Additional measurements are underway for charging processes.

  11. The star formation history of the Large Magellanic Cloud as seen by star clusters and stars

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to test to what extent the star cluster population of a galaxy can be utilised to constrain or estimate the star formation history, with the Large Magellanic Cloud as our testbed. We follow two methods to extract information about the star formation rate from star clusters, either using only the most massive clusters (Maschberger & Kroupa 2007) or using the whole cluster population, albeit this is only possible for a shorter age span. We compare these results with the ...

  12. Super-Resolution Imaging and Quantitative Analysis of Membrane Protein/Lipid Raft Clustering Mediated by Cell-Surface Self-Assembly of Hybrid Nanoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jonathan M; Chu, Te-Wei; Peterson, Eric M; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Jiyuan; Harris, Joel; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2015-08-17

    Super-resolution imaging was used to quantify organizational changes in the plasma membrane after treatment with hybrid nanoconjugates. The nanoconjugates crosslinked CD20 on the surface of malignant B cells, thereby inducing apoptosis. Super-resolution images were analyzed by using pair-correlation analysis to determine cluster size and to count the average number of molecules in the clusters. The role of lipid rafts was investigated by pre-treating cells with a cholesterol chelator and actin destabilizer to prevent lipid raft formation. Lipid raft cluster size correlated with apoptosis induction after treatment with the nanoconjugates. Lipid raft clusters had radii of ∼ 200 nm in cells treated with the hybrid nanoconjugates. Super-resolution images provided precise molecule location coordinates that could be used to determine density of bound conjugates, cluster size, and number of molecules per cluster.

  13. Multiple stellar populations in Magellanic Cloud clusters. V. The split main sequence of the young cluster NGC1866

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, A P; D'Antona, F; Bedin, L R; Piotto, G; Jerjen, H; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Di Criscienzo, M; Lagioia, E P

    2016-01-01

    One of the most unexpected results in the field of stellar populations of the last few years, is the discovery that some Magellanic-Cloud globular clusters younger than ~400 Myr, exhibit bimodal main sequences (MSs) in their color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). Moreover, these young clusters host an extended main sequence turn off (eMSTO) in close analogy with what is observed in most ~1-2 Gyr old clusters of both Magellanic Clouds. We use high-precision Hubble-Space-Telescope photometry to study the young star cluster NGC1866 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We discover an eMSTO and a split MS. The analysis of the CMD reveals that (i) the blue MS is the less populous one, hosting about one-third of the total number of MS stars; (ii) red-MS stars are more centrally concentrated than blue-MS stars; (iii) the fraction of blue-MS stars with respect to the total number of MS stars drops by a factor of ~2 in the upper MS with F814W <~19.7. The comparison between the observed CMDs and stellar models reveals that the o...

  14. A robust cluster-based dynamic-super-node scheme for hybrid peer-to-peer network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid peer-to-peer (P2P) system can improve the performance of the entire system using super-peer. But it is difficult to measure a peer's capability exactly and ensure high reliability of the network. This paper proposes a scheme to solve these problems. Firstly, we present a hybrid P2P network in which the upper layer is Chord network and the lower layer is cluster. Then we provide a strategy to measure a peer's capability so that a cluster can be organized to be a sorting network in which peers are classified into three types: dynamic-super-node (DSN), backup-node (BN) and ordinary-node (ON). In a cluster, DSN and BNs are strongly connected. And based on this, we present an algorithm DSN flood min (DSNFM) to select DSN BN and maintain consensus of the cluster. Furthermore, we do a reliability analysis of the cluster based on churn rate of the network and gathered three rules of thumb from our simulations.

  15. Combinatorial Clustering Algorithm of Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization and Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Yuan Shan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a combinatorial clustering algorithm of cloud model and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (COCQPSO to solve the stochastic problem. The algorithm employs a novel probability model as well as a permutation-based local search method. We are setting the parameters of COCQPSO based on the design of experiment. In the comprehensive computational study, we scrutinize the performance of COCQPSO on a set of widely used benchmark instances. By benchmarking combinatorial clustering algorithm with state-of-the-art algorithms, we can show that its performance compares very favorably. The fuzzy combinatorial optimization algorithm of cloud model and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (FCOCQPSO in vague sets (IVSs is more expressive than the other fuzzy sets. Finally, numerical examples show the clustering effectiveness of COCQPSO and FCOCQPSO clustering algorithms which are extremely remarkable.

  16. Ammonia, Water Clouds and Methane Abundances of Giant Exoplanets and Opportunities for Super-Earth Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Renyu

    2014-01-01

    Future direct-imaging exoplanet missions such as WFIRST/AFTA, Exo-C, and Exo-S will measure the reflectivity of exoplanets at visible wavelengths. The exoplanets to be observed will be located further away from their parent stars than is Earth from the Sun. These "cold" exoplanets have atmospheric environments conducive for the formation of water and/or ammonia clouds, like Jupiter in the Solar System. We study the science return from direct-imaging exoplanet missions, focusing on the exoplanet atmospheric compositions. First, the study shows that a low-resolution (R=70) reflection spectrum of a giant exoplanet at 600 - 1000 nm, for a moderate signal-to-noise ratio of 20, will allow measurements of both the pressure of the uppermost cloud deck and the mixing ratio of methane, if the uppermost cloud deck is located at the pressure level of 0.6 - 1.5 bars. Further increasing the signal-to-noise ratio can improve the measurement range of the cloud deck pressure to 0.2 - 4 bars. The strong and the weak absorption...

  17. The location, clustering, and propagation of massive star formation in giant molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Ochsendorf, B B; Chastenet, J; Tielens, A G G M; Roman-Duval, J

    2016-01-01

    Massive stars are key players in the evolution of galaxies, yet their formation pathway remains unclear. In this work, we use data from several galaxy-wide surveys to build an unbiased dataset of ~700 massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), ~200 giant molecular clouds (GMCs), and ~100 young (<10 Myr) optical stellar clusters (SCs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We employ this data to quantitatively study the location and clustering of massive star formation and its relation to the internal structure of GMCs. We reveal that massive stars do not typically form at the highest column densities nor centers of their parent GMCs at the ~6 pc resolution of our observations. Massive star formation clusters over multiple generations and on size scales much smaller than the size of the parent GMC. We find that massive star formation is significantly boosted in clouds near SCs. Yet, whether a cloud is associated with a SC does not depend on either the cloud's mass or global surface density. These results reveal a conne...

  18. Assessment of Stellar Stratification in Three Young Star Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A; Xin, Yu; Rochau, Boyke

    2010-01-01

    (abridged) We present a comprehensive study of stellar stratification in young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We apply our recently developed effective radius method for the assessment of stellar stratification on imaging data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys of three young LMC clusters to characterize the phenomenon and develop a comparative scheme for its assessment in such clusters. The clusters of our sample, NGC 1983, NGC 2002 and NGC 2010, are selected on the basis of their youthfulness, and their variety in appearance, structure, stellar content, and surrounding stellar ambient. Our photometry is complete for magnitudes down to m_814 ~ 23 mag, allowing the calculation of the structural parameters of the clusters, the estimation of their ages and the determination of their stellar content. Our study shows that each cluster in our sample demonstrates stellar stratification in a quite different manner and at different degree from the others. Specifically, NGC 1983 shows to...

  19. A catalogue of Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters observed in the Washington photometric system

    CERN Document Server

    Palma, Tali; Clariá, Juan J; Lares, Marcelo; Geisler, Doug; Ahumada, Andrea V

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to compile a catalogue including the fundamental parameters of a complete sample of 277 star clusters (SCs) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) observed in the Washington photometric system, including 82 clusters very recently studied by us. All the clusters' parameters such as radii, deprojected distances, reddenings, ages and metallicities have been obtained by appyling essentially the same procedures which are briefly described here. We have used empirical cumulative distribution functions to examine age, metallicity and deprojected distance distributions for different cluster subsamples of the catalogue. Our new sample made up of 82 additional clusters recently studied by us represents about a 40% increase in the total number of LMC SCs observed up to now in the Washington photometric system. In particular, we report here the fundamental parameters obtained for the first time for 42 of these clusters. We found that single LMC SCs are typically older than multiple SCs. Both s...

  20. Point Cluster Analysis Using a 3D Voronoi Diagram with Applications in Point Cloud Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Ying

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D point analysis and visualization is one of the most effective methods of point cluster detection and segmentation in geospatial datasets. However, serious scattering and clotting characteristics interfere with the visual detection of 3D point clusters. To overcome this problem, this study proposes the use of 3D Voronoi diagrams to analyze and visualize 3D points instead of the original data item. The proposed algorithm computes the cluster of 3D points by applying a set of 3D Voronoi cells to describe and quantify 3D points. The decompositions of point cloud of 3D models are guided by the 3D Voronoi cell parameters. The parameter values are mapped from the Voronoi cells to 3D points to show the spatial pattern and relationships; thus, a 3D point cluster pattern can be highlighted and easily recognized. To capture different cluster patterns, continuous progressive clusters and segmentations are tested. The 3D spatial relationship is shown to facilitate cluster detection. Furthermore, the generated segmentations of real 3D data cases are exploited to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach in detecting different spatial clusters for continuous point cloud segmentation.

  1. Road Surface Modeling and Representation from Point Cloud Based on Fuzzy Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi; YAN Li

    2007-01-01

    A scheme for an automatic road surface modeling from a noisy point cloud is presented. The normal vectors of the point cloud are estimated by distance-weighted fitting of local plane. Then, an automatic recognition of the road surface from noise is performed based on the fuzzy clustering of normal vectors, with which the mean value is calculated and the projecting plane of point cloud is created to obtain the geometric model accordingly. Based on fuzzy clustering of the intensity attributed to each point, different objects on the road surface are assigned different colors for representing abundant appearances.This unsupervised method is demonstrated in the experiment and shows great effectiveness in reconstructing and rendering better road surface.

  2. Optical IFU observations of gas pillars surrounding the super star cluster NGC 3603

    CERN Document Server

    Westmoquette, M S; Ercolano, B; Smith, L J

    2013-01-01

    We present optical integral field unit (IFU) observations of two gas pillars surrounding the Galactic young massive star cluster NGC 3603. The high S/N and spectral resolution of these data have allowed us to accurately quantify the H-alpha, [NII] and [SII] emission line shapes, and we find a mixture of broad (FWHM~70-100 km/s) and narrow (10000 cm-3. In one pillar we found that these high densities are only found in the narrow component, implying it must originate from deeper within the pillar than the broad component. From this, together with our kinematical data, we conclude that the narrow component traces a photoevaporation flow, and that the TML forms at the interface with the hot wind. On the pillar surfaces we find a consistent offset in radial velocity between the narrow (brighter) components of H-alpha and [NII] of ~5-8 km/s, for which we were unable to find a satisfactory explanation. We urge the theoretical community to simulate mechanical and radiative cloud interactions in more detail to address...

  3. Filamentary flow and magnetic geometry in evolving cluster-forming molecular cloud clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Kirk, Helen

    2017-02-01

    We present an analysis of the relationship between the orientation of magnetic fields and filaments that form in 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of cluster-forming, turbulent molecular cloud clumps. We examine simulated cloud clumps with size scales of L ∼ 2-4 pc and densities of n ∼ 400-1000 cm-3 with Alfvén Mach numbers near unity. We simulated two cloud clumps of different masses, one in virial equilibrium, the other strongly gravitationally bound, but with the same initial turbulent velocity field and similar mass-to-flux ratio. We apply various techniques to analyse the filamentary and magnetic structure of the resulting cloud, including the DISPERSE filament-finding algorithm in 3D. The largest structure that forms is a 1-2 parsec-long filament, with smaller connecting sub-filaments. We find that our simulated clouds, wherein magnetic forces and turbulence are comparable, coherent orientation of the magnetic field depends on the virial parameter. Sub-virial clumps undergo strong gravitational collapse and magnetic field lines are dragged with the accretion flow. We see evidence of filament-aligned flow and accretion flow on to the filament in the sub-virial cloud. Magnetic fields oriented more parallel in the sub-virial cloud and more perpendicular in the denser, marginally bound cloud. Radiative feedback from a 16 M⊙ star forming in a cluster in one of our simulation's ultimately results in the destruction of the main filament, the formation of an H II region, and the sweeping up of magnetic fields within an expanding shell at the edges of the H II region.

  4. Discovery of a loose star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Piatti, Andrés E

    2016-01-01

    We present results for an up-to-date uncatalogued star cluster projected towards the Eastern side of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) outer disc. The new object was discovered from a search of loose star cluster in the Magellanic Clouds' (MCs) outskirts using kernel density estimators on Washington CT1 deep images. Contrarily to what would be commonly expected, the star cluster resulted to be a young object (log(t /yr) = 8.45) with a slightly subsolar metal content (Z = 0.013) and a total mass of 650Mo. Its core, half-mass and tidal radii also are within the frequent values of LMC star clusters. However, the new star cluster is placed at the Small Magellanic Cloud distance and at 11.3 kpc from the LMC centre. We speculate with the possibility that it was born in the inner body of the LMC and soon after expeled into the intergalactic space during the recent Milky Way/MCs interaction. Nevertheless, radial velocity and chemical abundance measurements are needed to further understand its origin, as well as extens...

  5. Explaining the mysterious age gap of globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Bekki, K; Beasley, M A; Forbes, D A; Chiba, M; Costa, G S D

    2004-01-01

    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has a unique cluster formation history in that nearly all of its globular clusters were formed either $\\sim$ 13 Gyr ago or less than $\\sim$ 3 Gyr ago. It is not clear what physical mechanism is responsible for the most recent cluster formation episode and thus the mysterious age gap between the LMC clusters. We first present results of gas dynamical N-body simulations of the evolution of the LMC in the context of its Galactic orbit and interactions with the SMC, paying special attention to the effect of tidal forces. We find that the first close encounter between the LMC and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) about 4 Gyr ago was the beginning of a period of strong tidal interaction which likely induced dramatic gas cloud collisions, leading to an enhancement of the formation of globular clusters which has been sustained by strong tidal interactions to the present day. The tidal interaction results in the formation of a barred, elliptical, thick disk in the LMC. The model also pr...

  6. Improved FIFO Scheduling Algorithm Based on Fuzzy Clustering in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In cloud computing, some large tasks may occupy too many resources and some small tasks may wait for a long time based on First-In-First-Out (FIFO scheduling algorithm. To reduce tasks’ waiting time, we propose a task scheduling algorithm based on fuzzy clustering algorithms. We construct a task model, resource model, and analyze tasks’ preference, then classify resources with fuzzy clustering algorithms. Based on the parameters of cloud tasks, the algorithm will calculate resource expectation and assign tasks to different resource clusters, so the complexity of resource selection will be decreased. As a result, the algorithm will reduce tasks’ waiting time and improve the resource utilization. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm shortens the execution time of tasks and increases the resource utilization.

  7. The Search for Multiple Populations in Magellanic Cloud Clusters I: Two Stellar Populations in the Small Magellanic Cloud Globular Cluster NGC 121

    CERN Document Server

    Niederhofer, F; Kozhurina-Platais, V; Larsen, S; Salaris, M; Dalessandro, E; Mucciarelli, A; Cabrera-Ziri, I; Cordero, M; Geisler, D; Hilker, M; Hollyhead, K; Kacharov, N; Lardo, C; Li, C; Mackey, D; Platais, I

    2016-01-01

    We started a photometric survey using the WFC3/UVIS instrument onboard the Hubble Space Telescope to search for multiple populations within Magellanic Cloud star clusters at various ages. In this paper, we introduce this survey. As first results of this programme, we also present multi-band photometric observations of NGC 121 in different filters taken with the WFC3/UVIS and ACS/WFC instruments. We analyze the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) of NGC 121, which is the only "classical" globular cluster within the Small Magellanic Cloud. Thereby, we use the pseudo-colour C_(F336W,F438W,F343N)=(F336W-F438W)-(F438W-F343N) to separate populations with different C and N abundances. We show that the red giant branch splits up in two distinct populations when using this colour combination. NGC 121 thus appears to be similar to Galactic globular clusters in hosting multiple populations. The fraction of enriched stars (N rich, C poor) in NGC 121 is about 32% +/- 3%, which is lower than the median fraction found in Milky W...

  8. Multiple stellar populations in Magellanic Cloud clusters. IV. The double main sequence of the young cluster NGC1755

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, A P; D'Antona, F; Bedin, L R; Da Costa, G S; Jerjen, H; Mackey, A D

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all the star clusters with ages of ~1-2 Gyr in both Magellanic Clouds exhibit an extended main-sequence turn off (eMSTO) whose origin is under debate. The main scenarios suggest that the eMSTO could be either due to multiple generations of stars with different ages or to coeval stellar populations with different rotation rates. In this paper we use Hubble-Space-Telescope images to investigate the ~80-Myr old cluster NGC1755 in the LMC. We find that the MS is split with the blue and the red MS hosting about the 25% and the 75% of the total number of MS stars, respectively. Moreover, the MSTO of NGC1755 is broadened in close analogy with what is observed in the ~300-Myr-old NGC1856 and in most intermediate-age Magellanic-Cloud clusters. We demonstrate that both the split MS and the eMSTO are not due to photometric errors, field-stars contamination, differential reddening, or non-interacting binaries. These findings make NGC1755 the youngest cluster with an eMSTO. We compare the observed CMD with isochron...

  9. Comparing young massive clusters and their progenitor clouds in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. L.; Longmore, S. N.; Bastian, N.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Rathborne, J. M.; Galván-Madrid, R.; Liu, H. B.

    2016-04-01

    Young massive clusters (YMCs) have central stellar mass surface densities exceeding 104 M⊙ pc-2. It is currently unknown whether the stars formed at such high (proto)stellar densities. We compile a sample of gas clouds in the Galaxy which have sufficient gas mass within a radius of a few parsecs to form a YMC, and compare their radial gas mass distributions to the stellar mass distribution of Galactic YMCs. We find that the gas in the progenitor clouds is distributed differently than the stars in YMCs. The mass surface density profiles of the gas clouds are generally shallower than the stellar mass surface density profiles of the YMCs, which are characterized by prominent dense core regions with radii ˜0.1 pc, followed by a power-law tail. On the scale of YMC core radii, we find that there are no known clouds with significantly more mass in their central regions when compared to Galactic YMCs. Additionally, we find that models in which stars form from very dense initial conditions require surface densities that are generally higher than those seen in the known candidate YMC progenitor clouds. Our results show that the quiescent, less evolved clouds contain less mass in their central regions than in the highly star-forming clouds. This suggests an evolutionary trend in which clouds continue to accumulate mass towards their centres after the onset of star formation. We conclude that a conveyor-belt scenario for YMC formation is consistent with the current sample of Galactic YMCs and their progenitor clouds.

  10. Cluster-formation in the Rosette molecular cloud at the junctions of filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, N; Hennemann, M; Motte, F; Didelon, P; Federrath, C; Bontemps, S; Di Francesco, J; Arzoumanian, D; Minier, V; André, Ph; Hill, T; Zavagno, A; Nguyen-Luong, Q; Attard, M; Bernard, J -Ph; Elia, D; Fallscheer, C; Griffin, M; Kirk, J; Klessen, R; Könyves, V; Martin, P; Men'shchikov, A; Palmeirim, P; Peretto, N; Pestalozzi, M; Russeil, D; Sadavoy, S; Sousbie, T; Testi, L; Tremblin, P; Ward-Thompson, D; White, G

    2012-01-01

    For many years feedback processes generated by OB-stars in molecular clouds, including expanding ionization fronts, stellar winds, or UV-radiation, have been proposed to trigger subsequent star formation. However, hydrodynamic models including radiation and gravity show that UV-illumination has little or no impact on the global dynamical evolution of the cloud. The Rosette molecular cloud, irradiated by the NGC2244 cluster, is a template region for triggered star-formation, and we investigated its spatial and density structure by applying a curvelet analysis, a filament-tracing algorithm (DisPerSE), and probability density functions (PDFs) on Herschel column density maps, obtained within the HOBYS key program. The analysis reveals not only the filamentary structure of the cloud but also that all known infrared clusters except one lie at junctions of filaments, as predicted by turbulence simulations. The PDFs of sub-regions in the cloud show systematic differences. The two UV-exposed regions have a double-peak...

  11. Deep observations of the Super-CLASS super-cluster at 325 MHz with the GMRT: the low-frequency source catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Riseley, C J; Hales, C A; Harrison, I; Birkinshaw, M; Battye, R A; Beswick, R J; Brown, M L; Casey, C M; Chapman, S C; Demetroullas, C; Hung, C -L; Jackson, N J; Muxlow, T; Watson, B

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of 325 MHz GMRT observations of a super-cluster field, known to contain five Abell clusters at redshift $z \\sim 0.2$. We achieve a nominal sensitivity of $34\\,\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ toward the phase centre. We compile a catalogue of 3257 sources with flux densities in the range $183\\,\\mu\\rm{Jy}\\,-\\,1.5\\,\\rm{Jy}$ within the entire $\\sim 6.5$ square degree field of view. Subsequently, we use available survey data at other frequencies to derive the spectral index distribution for a sub-sample of these sources, recovering two distinct populations -- a dominant population which exhibit spectral index trends typical of steep-spectrum synchrotron emission, and a smaller population of sources with typically flat or rising spectra. We identify a number of sources with ultra-steep spectra or rising spectra for further analysis, finding two candidate high-redshift radio galaxies and three gigahertz-peaked-spectrum radio sources. Finally, we derive the Euclidean-normalised differential source counts us...

  12. Cloud Structure of Galactic OB Cluster Forming Regions from Combining Ground and Space Based Bolometric Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Yuxin; Li, Di; Zhang, Zhiyu; Ginsburg, Adam; Pineda, Jaime E; Qian, Lei; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; McLeod, Anna Faye; Rosolowsky, Erik; Dale, James E; Immer, Katharina; Koch, Eric; Longmore, Steve; Walker, Daniel; Testi, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an iterative procedure to systematically combine the millimeter and submillimeter images of OB cluster-forming molecular clouds, which were taken by ground based (CSO, JCMT, APEX, IRAM-30m) and space telescopes (Herschel, Planck). For the seven luminous ($L$$>$10$^{6}$ $L_{\\odot}$) Galactic OB cluster-forming molecular clouds selected for our analyses, namely W49A, W43-Main, W43-South, W33, G10.6-0.4, G10.2-0.3, G10.3-0.1, we have performed single-component, modified black-body fits to each pixel of the combined (sub)millimeter images, and the Herschel PACS and SPIRE images at shorter wavelengths. The $\\sim$10$"$ resolution dust column density and temperature maps of these sources revealed dramatically different morphologies, indicating very different modes of OB cluster-formation, or parent molecular cloud structures in different evolutionary stages. The molecular clouds W49A, W33, and G10.6-0.4 show centrally concentrated massive molecular clumps that are connected with approximately radia...

  13. Multiple stellar populations in Magellanic Cloud clusters - V. The split main sequence of the young cluster NGC 1866

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; D'Antona, F.; Bedin, L. R.; Piotto, G.; Jerjen, H.; Anderson, J.; Dotter, A.; Criscienzo, M. Di; Lagioia, E. P.

    2017-03-01

    One of the most unexpected results in the field of stellar populations of the last few years is the discovery that some Magellanic Cloud globular clusters younger than ∼400 Myr exhibit bimodal main sequences (MSs) in their colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). Moreover, these young clusters host an extended main-sequence turn-off (eMSTO) in close analogy with what is observed in most ∼1-2 Gyr old clusters of both Magellanic Clouds. We use high-precision Hubble Space Telescope photometry to study the young star cluster NGC 1866 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We discover an eMSTO and a split MS. The analysis of the CMD reveals that (i) the blue MS is the less populous one, hosting about one-third of the total number of MS stars; (ii) red MS stars are more centrally concentrated than blue MS stars; (iii) the fraction of blue MS stars with respect to the total number of MS stars drops by a factor of ∼2 in the upper MS with mF814W ≲ 19.7. The comparison between the observed CMDs and stellar models reveals that the observations are consistent with ∼200 Myr old highly rotating stars on the red MS, with rotation close to critical value, plus a non-rotating stellar population spanning an age interval between ∼140 and 220 Myr, on the blue MS. Noticeable, neither stellar populations with different ages only, nor coeval stellar models with different rotation rates, properly reproduce the observed split MS and eMSTO. We discuss these results in the context of the eMSTO and multiple MS phenomenon.

  14. Infalling clouds onto super-massive black hole binaries - I. Formation of discs, accretion and gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Goicovic, F G; Sesana, A; Stasyszyn, F; Amaro-Seoane, P; Tanaka, T L

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that most -if not all- galaxies harbour a super-massive black hole (SMBH) at their nucleus, hence binaries of these massive objects are an inevitable product of the hierarchical evolution of structures in the universe, and represent an important but thus-far elusive phase of galaxy evolution. Gas accretion via a circumbinary disc is thought to be important for the dynamical evolution of SMBH binaries, as well as in producing luminous emission that can be used to infer their properties. One plausible source of the gaseous fuel is clumps of gas formed due to turbulence and gravitational instabilities in the interstellar medium, that later fall toward and interact with the binary. In this context, we model numerically the evolution of turbulent clouds in near-radial infall onto equal-mass SMBH binaries, using a modified version of the SPH code GADGET-3. We present a total of 12 simulations that explore different possible pericentre distances and relative inclinations, and show that t...

  15. WFPC2 observations of star clusters in the Magellanic clouds; 1, the LMC globular cluster Hodge 11

    CERN Document Server

    Mighell, K J; Shara, M M; Fall, S M

    1996-01-01

    We present our analysis of Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observations in F555W (broadband V) and F450W (broadband B) of the globular cluster Hodge 11 in the Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy. The resulting V vs. (B-V) color-magnitude diagram reaches 2.4 mag below the main-sequence turnoff (which is at V_TO = 22.65 +- 0.10 mag or M_V^TO = 4.00 +- 0.16 mag). Comparing the fiducial sequence of Hodge 11 with that of the Galactic globular cluster M92, we conclude that, within the accuracy of our photometry, the age of Hodge 11 is identical to that of M92 with a relative age-difference uncertainty ranging from 10% to 21%. Provided that Hodge 11 has always been a part of the Large Magellanic Cloud and was not stripped from the halo of the Milky Way or absorbed from a cannibalized dwarf spheroidal galaxy, then the oldest stars in the Large Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way appear to have the same age.

  16. Filamentary flow and magnetic geometry in evolving cluster-forming molecular cloud clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Klassen, Mikhail; Kirk, Helen

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the relationship between the orientation of magnetic fields and filaments that form in 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of cluster-forming, turbulent molecular cloud clumps. We examine simulated cloud clumps with size scales of L ~ 2-4 pc and densities of n ~ 400-1000 cm^-3. Many molecular clouds have Alfven Mach numbers near unity, a regime insufficiently explored by numerical simulations. We simulated two cloud clumps of different masses, one in virial equilibrium, the other strongly gravitationally bound, but with the same initial turbulent velocity field and similar mass-to-flux ratio. We apply various techniques to analyze the filamentary and magnetic structure of the resulting cloud, including the DisPerSE filament-finding algorithm in 3D. The largest structure that forms is a 1-2 parsec-long filament, with smaller connecting sub-filaments. We find that in our trans-Alfvenic clouds, wherein magnetic forces and turbulence are comparable, coherent orientation of the magnetic fi...

  17. The Search for Multiple Populations in Magellanic Cloud Clusters I: Two Stellar Populations in the Small Magellanic Cloud Globular Cluster NGC 121

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhofer, F.; Bastian, N.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Larsen, S.; Salaris, M.; Dalessandro, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Cabrera-Ziri, I.; Cordero, M.; Geisler, D.; Hilker, M.; Hollyhead, K.; Kacharov, N.; Lardo, C.; Li, C.; Mackey, D.; Platais, I.

    2016-09-01

    We started a photometric survey using the WFC3/UVIS instrument onboard the Hubble Space Telescope to search for multiple populations within Magellanic Cloud star clusters at various ages. In this paper, we introduce this survey. As first results of this programme, we also present multi-band photometric observations of NGC 121 in different filters taken with the WFC3/UVIS and ACS/WFC instruments. We analyze the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) of NGC 121, which is the only "classical" globular cluster within the Small Magellanic Cloud. Thereby, we use the pseudo-colour CF336W, F438W, F343N = (F336W - F438W) - (F438W - F343N) to separate populations with different C and N abundances. We show that the red giant branch splits up in two distinct populations when using this colour combination. NGC 121 thus appears to be similar to Galactic globular clusters in hosting multiple populations. The fraction of enriched stars (N rich, C poor) in NGC 121 is about 32%±3%, which is lower than the median fraction found in Milky Way globular clusters. The enriched population seems to be more centrally concentrated compared to the primordial one. These results are consistent with the recent results by Dalessandro et al. (2016). The morphology of the Horizontal Branch in a CMD using the optical filters F555W and F814W is best produced by a population with a spread in Helium of ΔY=0.025±0.005.

  18. Data Mining Un-Compressed Images from cloud with Clustering Compression technique using Lempel-Ziv-Welch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Parthasarathy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a highly discussed topic in the technical and economic world, and many of the big players of the software industry have entered the development of cloud services. Several companies’ and organizations wants to explore the possibilities and benefits of incorporating such cloud computing services in their business, as well as the possibilities to offer own cloud services. We are going to mine the un-compressed image from the cloud and use k-means clustering grouping the uncompressed image and compress it with Lempel-ziv-welch coding technique so that the un-compressed images becomes error-free compression and spatial redundancies.

  19. Assessment of In-Cloud Enterprise Resource Planning System Performed in a Virtual Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Rong Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a high-performed high-availability in-cloud enterprise resources planning (in-cloud ERP which has deployed in the virtual machine cluster. The proposed approach can resolve the crucial problems of ERP failure due to unexpected downtime and failover between physical hosts in enterprises, causing operation termination and hence data loss. Besides, the proposed one together with the access control authentication and network security is capable of preventing intrusion hacked and/or malicious attack via internet. Regarding system assessment, cost-performance (C-P ratio, a remarkable cost effectiveness evaluation, has been applied to several remarkable ERP systems. As a result, C-P ratio evaluated from the experiments shows that the proposed approach outperforms two well-known benchmark ERP systems, namely, in-house ECC 6.0 and in-cloud ByDesign.

  20. An Improved Clustering Algorithm of Tunnel Monitoring Data for Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban construction, the number of urban tunnels is increasing and the data they produce become more and more complex. It results in the fact that the traditional clustering algorithm cannot handle the mass data of the tunnel. To solve this problem, an improved parallel clustering algorithm based on k-means has been proposed. It is a clustering algorithm using the MapReduce within cloud computing that deals with data. It not only has the advantage of being used to deal with mass data but also is more efficient. Moreover, it is able to compute the average dissimilarity degree of each cluster in order to clean the abnormal data.

  1. Achieving High Performance Distributed System: Using Grid, Cluster and Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kr Singh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To increase the efficiency of any task, we require a system that would provide high performance along with flexibilities and cost efficiencies for user. Distributed computing, as we are all aware, has become very popular over the past decade. Distributed computing has three major types, namely, cluster, grid and cloud. In order to develop a high performance distributed system, we need to utilize all the above mentioned three types of computing. In this paper, we shall first have an introduction of all the three types of distributed computing. Subsequently examining them we shall explore trends in computing and green sustainable computing to enhance the performance of a distributed system. Finally presenting the future scope, we conclude the paper suggesting a path to achieve a Green high performance distributed system using cluster, grid and cloud computing

  2. Dating star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud by means of integrated spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.; Dutra, C. M.

    2002-10-01

    In this study flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the range (3600-6800) Å are presented for 16 concentrated star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), approximately half of which constitute unstudied objects. We have estimated ages and foreground interstellar reddening values from the comparison of the line strengths and continuum distribution of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known parameters. Most of the sample clusters are young blue clusters (6-50 Myr), while L 28, NGC 643 and L 114 are found to be intermediate-age clusters (1-6 Gyr). One well known SMC cluster (NGC 416) was observed for comparison purposes. The sample includes clusters in the surroundings and main body of the SMC, and the derived foreground reddening values are in the range 0.00 B-V) Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  3. EXTENDED STAR FORMATION IN THE INTERMEDIATE-AGE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTER NGC 2209

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Stefan C.; Mackey, A. Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

    2012-12-10

    We present observations of the 1 Gyr old star cluster NGC 2209 in the Large Magellanic Cloud made with the GMOS imager on the Gemini South Telescope. These observations show that the cluster exhibits a main-sequence turnoff that spans a broader range in luminosity than can be explained by a single-aged stellar population. This places NGC 2209 amongst a growing list of intermediate-age (1-3 Gyr) clusters that show evidence for extended or multiple epochs of star formation of between 50 and 460 Myr in extent. The extended main-sequence turnoff observed in NGC 2209 is a confirmation of the prediction in Keller et al. made on the basis of the cluster's large core radius. We propose that secondary star formation is a defining feature of the evolution of massive star clusters. Dissolution of lower mass clusters through evaporation results in only clusters that have experienced secondary star formation surviving for a Hubble time, thus providing a natural connection between the extended main-sequence turnoff phenomenon and the ubiquitous light-element abundance ranges seen in the ancient Galactic globular clusters.

  4. Stars caught in the braking stage in young Magellanic Cloud clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, Francesca; Milone, Antonino P.; Tailo, Marco; Ventura, Paolo; Vesperini, Enrico; di Criscienzo, Marcella

    2017-08-01

    The colour-magnitude diagrams of many Magellanic Cloud clusters (with ages up to 2 billion years) display extended turnoff regions where the stars leave the main sequence, suggesting the presence of multiple stellar populations with ages that may differ even by hundreds of millions of years 1,2,3 . A strongly debated question is whether such an extended turnoff is instead due to populations with different stellar rotations3,4,5,6 . The recent discovery of a 'split' main sequence in some younger clusters (~80-400 Myr) added another piece to this puzzle. The blue side of the main sequence is consistent with slowly rotating stellar models, and the red side consistent with rapidly rotating models7,8,9,10. However, a complete theoretical characterization of the observed colour-magnitude diagram also seemed to require an age spread9. We show here that, in the three clusters so far analysed, if the blue main-sequence stars are interpreted with models in which the stars have always been slowly rotating, they must be ~30% younger than the rest of the cluster. If they are instead interpreted as stars that were initially rapidly rotating but have later slowed down, the age difference disappears, and this 'braking' also helps to explain the apparent age differences of the extended turnoff. The age spreads in Magellanic Cloud clusters are thus a manifestation of rotational stellar evolution. Observational tests are suggested.

  5. A Dark Hydrogen Cloud in the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Minchin, R; Disney, M; Boyce, P; García, D; Jordan, C; Kilborn, V; Lang, R; Roberts, S; Sabatini, S; Van Driel, W; Minchin, Robert; Davies, Jonathan; Disney, Michael; Boyce, Peter; Garcia, Diego; Jordan, Christine; Kilborn, Virginia; Lang, Robert; Roberts, Sarah; Sabatini, Sabina; Driel, Wim van

    2005-01-01

    VIRGOHI21 is an HI source detected in the Virgo Cluster survey of Davies et al. (2004) which has a neutral hydrogen mass of 10^8 M_solar and a velocity width of Delta V_20 = 220 km/s. From the Tully-Fisher relation, a galaxy with this velocity width would be expected to be 12th magnitude or brighter; however deep CCD imaging has failed to turn up a counterpart down to a surface-brightness level of 27.5 B mag/sq. arcsec. The HI observations show that it is extended over at least 16 kpc which, if the system is bound, gives it a minimum dynamical mass of ~10^11 M_solar and a mass to light ratio of M_dyn/L_B > 500 M_solar/L_solar. If it is tidal debris then the putative parents have vanished; the remaining viable explanation is that VIRGOHI21 is a dark halo that does not contain the expected bright galaxy. This object was found because of the low column density limit of our survey, a limit much lower than that achieved by all-sky surveys such as HIPASS. Further such sensitive surveys might turn up a significant n...

  6. The binary fraction of the young cluster NGC 1818 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yi; deGrijs, Richard; Goodwin, Simon P; Liu, Qiang

    2008-01-01

    We use high-resolution {\\sl Hubble Space Telescope} imaging observations of the young ($\\sim 15-25$ Myr) star cluster NGC 1818 in the Large Magellanic Cloud to derive an estimate for the binary fraction of F stars ($1.3 0.4$, the binary fraction is $\\sim 0.35$. This suggests a total binary fraction for F stars of 0.6 to unity depending on assumptions about the form of the mass ratio distribution at low $q$.

  7. Age determination of 15 old to intermediate-age small Magellanic cloud star clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, Córdoba, CP 5000 (Argentina); Geisler, D.; Leiton, R. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Carraro, G. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Costa, E. [Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Grocholski, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Sarajedini, A., E-mail: celeste@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: claria@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: andres@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: roger.leiton@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: gcarraro@eso.org, E-mail: costa@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: grocholski@phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We present color-magnitude diagrams in the V and I bands for 15 star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT, Chile). We selected these clusters from our previous work, wherein we derived cluster radial velocities and metallicities from calcium II infrared triplet (CaT) spectra also taken with the VLT. We discovered that the ages of six of our clusters have been appreciably underestimated by previous studies, which used comparatively small telescopes, graphically illustrating the need for large apertures to obtain reliable ages of old and intermediate-age SMC star clusters. In particular, three of these clusters, L4, L6, and L110, turn out to be among the oldest SMC clusters known, with ages of 7.9 ± 1.1, 8.7 ± 1.2, and 7.6 ± 1.0 Gyr, respectively, helping to fill a possible 'SMC cluster age gap'. Using the current ages and metallicities from Parisi et al., we analyze the age distribution, age gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of a sample of SMC clusters measured homogeneously. There is a suggestion of bimodality in the age distribution but it does not show a constant slope for the first 4 Gyr, and we find no evidence for an age gradient. Due to the improved ages of our cluster sample, we find that our AMR is now better represented in the intermediate/old period than we had derived in Parisi et al., where we simply took ages available in the literature. Additionally, clusters younger than ∼4 Gyr now show better agreement with the bursting model of Pagel and Tautvaišienė, but we confirm that this model is not a good representation of the AMR during the intermediate/old period. A more complicated model is needed to explain the SMC chemical evolution in that period.

  8. Sensitivity of summer ensembles of super-parameterized US mesoscale convective systems to cloud resolving model microphysics and resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, E.; Yu, S.; Kooperman, G. J.; Morrison, H.; Wang, M.; Pritchard, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Microphysical and resolution sensitivities of explicitly resolved convection within mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in the central United States are well documented in the context of single case studies simulated by cloud resolving models (CRMs) under tight boundary and initial condition constraints. While such an experimental design allows researchers to causatively isolate the effects of CRM microphysical and resolution parameterizations on modeled MCSs, it is still challenging to produce conclusions generalizable to multiple storms. The uncertainty associated with the results of such experiments comes both from the necessary physical constraints imposed by the limited CRM domain as well as the inability to evaluate or control model internal variability. A computationally practical method to minimize these uncertainties is the use of super-parameterized (SP) global climate models (GCMs), in which CRMs are embedded within GCMs to allow their free interaction with one another as orchestrated by large-scale global dynamics. This study uses NCAR's SP Community Atmosphere Model 5 (SP-CAM5) to evaluate microphysical and horizontal resolution sensitivities in summer ensembles of nocturnal MCSs in the central United States. Storm events within each run were identified using an objective empirical orthogonal function (EOF) algorithm, then further calibrated to harmonize individual storm signals and account for the temporal and spatial heterogeneity between them. Three summers of control data from a baseline simulation are used to assess model internal interannual variability to measure its magnitude relative to sensitivities in a number of distinct experimental runs with varying CRM parameters. Results comparing sensitivities of convective intensity to changes in fall speed assumptions about dense rimed species, one- vs. two-moment microphysics, and CRM horizontal resolution will be discussed.

  9. Determination of Reddening and Age for Ten Large Magellanic Cloud Star Clusters from Integrated Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Andrea V.; Vega, Luis R.; Clariá, Juan J.; Oddone, Mónica A.; Palma, Tali

    2016-09-01

    We present flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the optical range (3700-6800 Å) obtained at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) for a sample of 10 concentrated star clusters belonging to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). No previous data exist for two of these objects (SL 142 and SL 624), while most of the remaining clusters have been only poorly studied. We derive simultaneously foreground E(B - V) reddening values and ages for the cluster sample by comparing their integrated spectra with template LMC cluster spectra and with two different sets of simple stellar population models. Cluster reddening values and ages are also derived from both available interstellar extinction maps and by using diagnostic diagrams involving the sum of equivalent widths of some selected spectral features and their calibrations with age, respectively. For the studied sample, we derive ages between 1 Myr and 240 Myr. In an effort to create a spectral library at the LMC metallicity level with several clusters per age range, the cluster sample presented here stands out as a useful complement to previous ones.

  10. Efficiency Sustainability Resource Visual Simulator for Clustered Desktop Virtualization Based on Cloud Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hyuk Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Following IT innovations, manual operations have been automated, improving the overall quality of life. This has been possible because an organic topology has been formed among many diverse smart devices grafted onto real life. To provide services to these smart devices, enterprises or users use the cloud. Cloud services are divided into infrastructure as a service (IaaS, platform as a service (PaaS and software as a service (SaaS. SaaS is operated on PaaS, and PaaS is operated on IaaS. Since IaaS is the foundation of all services, algorithms for the efficient operation of virtualized resources are required. Among these algorithms, desktop resource virtualization is used for high resource availability when existing desktop PCs are unavailable. For this high resource availability, clustering for hierarchical structures is important. In addition, since many clustering algorithms show different percentages of the main resources depending on the desktop PC distribution rates and environments, selecting appropriate algorithms is very important. If diverse attempts are made to find algorithms suitable for the operating environments’ desktop resource virtualization, huge costs are incurred for the related power, time and labor. Therefore, in the present paper, a desktop resource virtualization clustering simulator (DRV-CS, a clustering simulator for selecting clusters of desktop virtualization clusters to be maintained sustainably, is proposed. The DRV-CS provides simulations, so that clustering algorithms can be selected and elements can be properly applied in different desktop PC environments through the DRV-CS.

  11. No compelling evidence of significant early star cluster disruption in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard; Goodwin, Simon P.; Anders, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Whether or not the rich star cluster population in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is affected by significant disruption during the first few × 108 yr of its evolution is an open question and the subject of significant current debate. Here, we revisit the problem, adopting a homogeneous data set of broad-band imaging observations. We base our analysis mainly on two sets of self-consistently determined LMC cluster ages and masses, one using standard modelling and one which takes into account the effects of stochasticity in the clusters' stellar mass functions. On their own, the results based on any of the three complementary analysis approaches applied here are merely indicative of the physical conditions governing the cluster population. However, the combination of our results from all three different diagnostics leaves little room for any conclusion other than that the optically selected LMC star cluster population exhibits no compelling evidence of significant disruption - for clusters with masses, Mcl, of log (Mcl/M⊙) ≳ 3.0-3.5 - between the age ranges of [3-10 and 30-100] Myr, either `infant mortality' or otherwise. In fact, there is no evidence of any destruction beyond that expected from simple models just including stellar dynamics and stellar evolution for ages up to 1 Gyr. It seems, therefore, that the difference in environmental conditions in the Magellanic Clouds on the one hand and significantly more massive galaxies on the other may be the key to understanding the apparent variations in cluster disruption behaviour at early times.

  12. A New View of the Super Star Clusters in the Low-Metallicity Galaxy SBS 0335-052

    CERN Document Server

    Reines, Amy E; Hunt, Leslie K

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the individual super star clusters (SSCs) in the low-metallicity galaxy SBS 0335-052 using new near-infrared and archival optical Hubble Space Telescope observations. The physical properties of the SSCs are derived from fitting model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to the optical photometry, as well as from the H_alpha and Pa_alpha nebular emission. Among the clusters, we find a significant age spread that is correlated with position in the galaxy, suggesting successive cluster formation occurred in SBS 0335-052 triggered by a large-scale disturbance traveling through the galaxy at a speed of ~35 km/s. The SSCs exhibit I-band (~0.8 um) and near-IR (~1.6-2.1 um) excesses with respect to model SEDs fit to the optical data. We hypothesize that the I-band excess is dominated by a photoluminescent process known as Extended Red Emission; however, this mechanism cannot account for the excesses observed at longer near-IR wavelengths. From the cluster SEDs and colors, we find that the primar...

  13. Metal Enhanced Fluorescence on Super-Hydrophobic Clusters of Gold Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Battista, Edmondo

    2016-12-15

    We used optical lithography, electroless deposition and deep reactive ion etching techniques to realize arrays of super-hydrophobic gold nanoparticles arranged in a hierarchical structure. At the micro-scale, silicon-micro pillars in the chip permit to manipulate and concentrate biological solutions, at the nano-scale, gold nanoparticles enable metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) effects, whereby fluorescence signal of fluorophores in close proximity to a rough metal surface is amplified by orders of magnitude. Here, we demonstrated the device in the analysis of fluorescein derived gold-binding peptides (GBP-FITC). While super-hydrophobic schemes and MEF effects have been heretofore used in isolation, their integration in a platform may advance the current state of fluorescence-based sensing technology in medical diagnostics and biotechnology. This scheme may be employed in protein microarrays where the increased sensitivity of the device may enable the early detection of cancer biomarkers or other proteins of biomedical interest.

  14. The extended star formation history of the star cluster NGC 2154 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Baume, G; Costa, E; Méndez, R A; Girardi, L; Baume, Gustavo; Carraro, Giovanni; Costa, Edgardo; B., Rene' A. Mendez; Girardi, Leo

    2006-01-01

    The color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of the intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star cluster NGC 2154 and its adjacent field, has been analyzed using Padova stellar models to determine the cluster's fundamental parameters and its Star Formation History (SFH). Deep $BR$ CCD photometry, together with synthetic CMDs and Integrated Luminosity Functions (ILFs), has allowed us to infer that the cluster experienced an extended star formation period of about 1.2 Gyrs, which began approximately 2.3 Gyr and ended 1.1 Gyr ago. The physical reality of such a prolonged period of star formation is however questionable, and could be the result of inadequacies in the stellar evolutionary tracks themselves. A substantial fraction of binaries (70%) seems to exist in NGC 2154.

  15. Determination of reddening and age for ten Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters from integrated spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ahumada, Andrea V; Clariá, Juan J; Oddone, Mónica A; Palma, Tali

    2016-01-01

    We present flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the optical range (3700-6800 \\AA) obtained at Complejo Astron\\'omico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) for a sample of 10 concentrated star clusters belonging to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). No previous data exist for two of these objects (SL 142 and SL 624), while most of the remaining clusters have been only poorly studied. We derive simultaneously foreground $E(B-V)$ reddening values and ages for the cluster sample by comparing their integrated spectra with template LMC cluster spectra and with two different sets of simple stellar population models. Cluster reddening values and ages are also derived from both available interstellar extinction maps and by using diagnostic diagrams involving the sum of equivalent widths of some selected spectral features and their calibrations with age, respectively. For the studied sample, we derive ages between 1 Myr and 240 Myr. In an effort to create a spectral library at the LMC metallicity level with several clusters ...

  16. The IMF and Star Formation History of the Stellar Clusters in the Vela D Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Massi, F; Vanzi, L; Massi, Fabrizio; Testi, Leonardo; Vanzi, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a Near-Infrared deep photometric survey of a sample of six embedded star clusters in the Vela-D molecular cloud, all associated with luminous (~10^3 Lsun) IRAS sources. The clusters are unlikely to be older than a few 10^6 yrs, since all are still associated with molecular gas. We employed the fact that all clusters lie at the same distance and were observed with the same instrumental setting to derive their properties in a consistent way, being affected by the same instrumental and observational biases. We extracted the clusters' K Luminosity Functions (KLF) and developed a simple method to correct them for extinction, based on colour-magnitude diagrams. The reliability of the method has been tested by constructing synthetic clusters from theoretical tracks for pre-main sequence stars and a standard Initial Mass Function (IMF). The clusters' IMFs have been derived from the dereddened KLFs by adopting a set of pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks and assuming coeval star formation. ...

  17. Gemini/GMOS photometry of intermediate-age star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Piatti, Andres E; Mackey, A Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S

    2014-01-01

    We present Gemini South GMOS g,i photometry of 14 intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star clusters, namely: NGC 2155, 2161, 2162, 2173, 2203, 2209, 2213, 2231, 2249, Hodge 6, SL 244, 505, 674, and 769, as part of a continuing project to investigate the extended Main Sequence Turnoff (EMSTO) phenomenon. Extensive artificial star tests were made over the observed field of view. These tests reveal the observed behaviour of photometric errors with magnitude and crowding. The cluster stellar density radial profiles were traced from star counts over the extent of the observed field. We adopt clus- ter radii and build colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with cluster features clearly identified. We used the cluster (g,g-i) CMDs to estimate ages from the matching of theoretical isochrones. The studied LMC clusters are confirmed to be intermediate-age clusters, which range in age 9.10 < log(t) < 9.60. NGC 2162 and NGC 2249 look like new EMSTO candidates, in addition to NGC 2209, on the basis of having dua...

  18. No compelling evidence of significant early star cluster disruption in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    de Grijs, Richard; Anders, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not the rich star cluster population in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is affected by significant disruption during the first few x 10^8 yr of its evolution is an open question and the subject of significant current debate. Here, we revisit the problem, adopting a homogeneous data set of broad-band imaging observations. We base our analysis mainly on two sets of self-consistently determined LMC cluster ages and masses, one using standard modelling and one which takes into account the effects of stochasticity in the clusters' stellar mass functions. On their own, the results based on any of the three complementary analysis approaches applied here are merely indicative of the physical conditions governing the cluster population. However, the combination of our results from all three different diagnostics leaves little room for any conclusion other than that the optically selected LMC star cluster population exhibits no compelling evidence of significant disruption -- for clusters with masses, M_cl,...

  19. Probing the Large Magellanic Cloud's recent chemical enrichment history through its star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Palma, Tali; Geisler, Doug; Gramajo, Luciana V; Ahumada, Andrea V

    2015-01-01

    We present Washington system colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for 17 practically unstudied star clusters located in the bar as well as in the inner disc and outer regions of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Cluster sizes were estimated from star counts distributed throughout the entire observed fields. Based on the best fits of theoretical isochrones to the cleaned $(C-T_1,T_1)$ CMDs, as well as on the $\\delta T_1$ parameter and the standard giant branch method, we derive ages and metallicities for the cluster sample. Four objects are found to be intermediate-age clusters (1.8-2.5 Gyr), with [Fe/H] ranging from -0.66 to -0.84. With the exception of SL263, a very young cluster ($\\sim$ 16 Myr), the remaining 12 objects are aged between 0.32 and 0.89 Gyr, with their [Fe/H] values ranging from -0.19 to -0.50. We combined our results with those for other 231 clusters studied in a similar way using the Washington system. The resulting age-metallicity relationship shows a significant dispersion in metallicities, wh...

  20. Convective cloud identification and classification in daytime satellite imagery using standard deviation limited adaptive clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, Todd A.; Mecikalski, John R.; MacKenzie, Wayne M.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Nair, U. S.

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes a statistical clustering approach toward the classification of cloud types within meteorological satellite imagery, specifically, visible and infrared data. The method is based on the Standard Deviation Limited Adaptive Clustering (SDLAC) procedure, which has been used to classify a variety of features within both polar orbiting and geostationary imagery, including land cover, volcanic ash, dust, and clouds of various types. In this study, the focus is on classifying cumulus clouds of various types (e.g., "fair weather, "towering, and newly glaciated cumulus, in addition to cumulonimbus). The SDLAC algorithm is demonstrated by showing examples using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 12, Meteosat Second Generation's (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), and the Moderate Resolution Infrared Spectrometer (MODIS). Results indicate that the method performs well, classifying cumulus similarly between MODIS, SEVIRI, and GOES, despite the obvious channel and resolution differences between these three sensors. The SDLAC methodology has been used in several research activities related to convective weather forecasting, which offers some proof of concept for its value.

  1. Formation of proto-cluster: a virialized structure from gravo-turbulent collapse I. Simulation of cluster formation in collapsing molecular cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Yueh-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Stars are often observed to form in clusters. It is therefore important to understand how such a region of concentrated mass is assembled out of the diffuse medium and its properties eventually prescribe the important physical mechanisms and determine the characteristics of the stellar cluster. We study the formation of a gaseous proto-cluster inside a molecular cloud by performing high resolution MHD simulations and associate its internal properties to those of the parent cloud by varying the level of the initial turbulence of the cloud, with a view to better characterize the subsequent stellar cluster formation. The gaseous proto-cluster is formed out of global collapse of a molecular cloud, and has non-negligible rotation due to angular momentum conservation during the collapse of the object. Most of the star formation occurs in this region which occupies only a small volume fraction of the whole cloud. We identify such regions in simulations and compare the gas and sink particles to observations. The gase...

  2. Extragalactic Ultracompact HII Regions: Probing the Birth Environments of Super Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, K E

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, a number of extragalactic massive star clusters that are still deeply embedded in their birth material have been discovered. These objects represent the youngest stage of massive star cluster evolution yet observed, and the most massive and dense of these may be proto globular clusters. Their properties appear to be similar to those of ultracompact HII regions in the Galaxy, but scaled up in total mass and luminosity. In many cases, these clusters are only visible at mid-IR to radio wavelengths, and they have typically been detected as ``inverted'' spectrum radio sources. However, the set of existing observations is anemic, and our current physical model for these natal clusters in simplistic. This article will overview what we think we know about these objects based on existing observations and outline some of the most significant gaps in our current understanding.

  3. An optical--near-IR study of a triplet of super star clusters in the starburst core of M82

    CERN Document Server

    Westmoquette, M S; Smith, L J; Seth, A C; Gallagher, J S; O'Connell, R W; Ryon, J E; Silich, S; Mayya, Y D; Munoz-Tunon, C; Gonzalez, D Rosa

    2014-01-01

    We present HST/STIS optical and Gemini/NIFS near-IR IFU spectroscopy, and archival HST imaging of the triplet of super star clusters (A1, A2 and A3) in the core of the M82 starburst. Using model fits to the STIS spectra, and the weakness of red supergiant CO absorption features (appearing at ~6 Myr) in the NIFS H-band spectra, the ages of A2 and A3 are $4.5\\pm1.0$~Myr. A1 has strong CO bands, consistent with our previously determined age of $6.4\\pm0.5$~Myr. The photometric masses of the three clusters are 4--$7\\times10^5$~\\Msol, and their sizes are $R_{\\rm eff}=159$, 104, 59~mas ($\\sim$2.8, 1.8, 1.0~pc) for A1,2 and 3. The STIS spectra yielded radial velocities of $320\\pm2$, $330\\pm6$, and $336\\pm5$~\\kms\\ for A1,2, and 3, placing them at the eastern end of the $x_2$ orbits of M82's bar. Clusters A2 and A3 are in high density (800--1000~\\cmt) environments, and like A1, are surrounded by compact H\\two\\ regions. We suggest the winds from A2 and A3 have stalled, as in A1, due to the high ISM ambient pressure. We ...

  4. An optical-near-IR study of a triplet of super star clusters in the starburst core of M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westmoquette, M. S. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Bastian, N. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Smith, L. J. [Space Telescope Science Institute and European Space Agency, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seth, A. C. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Gallagher III, J. S.; Ryon, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 5534 Sterling, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Silich, S.; Mayya, Y. D.; González, D. Rosa [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electronica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, C.P. 72840, Puebla (Mexico); Muñoz-Tuñón, C., E-mail: westmoquette@gmail.com [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/vía Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-07-10

    We present HST/STIS optical and Gemini/NIFS near-IR IFU spectroscopy and archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the triplet of super star clusters (A1, A2, and A3) in the core of the M82 starburst. Using model fits to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectra and the weakness of red supergiant CO absorption features (appearing at ∼6 Myr) in the NIFS H-band spectra, the ages of A2 and A3 are 4.5 ± 1.0 Myr. A1 has strong CO bands, consistent with our previously determined age of 6.4 ± 0.5 Myr. The photometric masses of the three clusters are 4-7 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉}, and their sizes are R{sub eff} = 159, 104, 59 mas (∼2.8, 1.8, 1.0 pc) for A1, A2, and A3. The STIS spectra yielded radial velocities of 320 ± 2, 330 ± 6, and 336 ± 5 km s{sup –1} for A1, A2, and A3, placing them at the eastern end of the x{sub 2} orbits of M82's bar. Clusters A2 and A3 are in high-density (800-1000 cm{sup –3}) environments, and like A1, are surrounded by compact H II regions. We suggest the winds from A2 and A3 have stalled, as in A1, due to the high ISM ambient pressure. We propose that the three clusters were formed in situ on the outer x{sub 2} orbits in regions of dense molecular gas subsequently ionized by the rapidly evolving starburst. The similar radial velocities of the three clusters and their small projected separation of ∼25 pc suggest that they may merge in the near future unless this is prevented by velocity shearing.

  5. Sdssj103913.70+533029.7: a super star cluster in the outskirts of a galaxy merger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Gillian R.; Tremonti, Christy A.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Schlegel, David J.; Yanny, Brian; Beers, Timothy C.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Wilhelm, Ron; Lupton, Robert; Gunn, James E.; Niederste-Ostholt, Martin; Schneider, Donald P.; Covey, Kevin; Seth, Anil; Ivezic, Zeljko; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Helmboldt, Joe; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Kleinman, Scot J.; Long, Dan; /Princeton U. /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Lick Observ. /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /Michigan State U. /Texas U.,

    2005-11-01

    We describe the serendipitous discovery in the spectroscopic data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey of a star-like object, SDSSJ103913.70+533029.7, at a heliocentric radial velocity of +1012 km s{sup -1}. Its proximity in position and velocity to the spiral galaxy NGC 3310 suggests an association with the galaxy. At this distance, SDSSJ103913.70+533029.7 has the luminosity of a super star cluster and a projected distance of 17 kpc from NGC 3310. Its spectroscopic and photometric properties imply a mass of > 10{sup 6} M{sub {circle_dot}} and an age close to that of the tidal shells seen around NGC 3310, suggesting that it formed in the event which formed the shells.

  6. Gaps in globular cluster streams: giant molecular clouds can cause them too

    CERN Document Server

    Amorisco, Nicola C; Vegetti, Simona; White, Simon D M

    2016-01-01

    As a result of their internal dynamical coherence, thin stellar streams formed by disrupting globular clusters (GCs) can act as detectors of dark matter (DM) substructure in the Galactic halo. Perturbations induced by close flybys amplify into detectable density gaps, providing a probe both of the abundance and of the masses of DM subhaloes. Here, we use N-body simulations to show that the Galactic population of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) can also produce gaps (and clumps) in GC streams, and so may confuse the detection of DM subhaloes. We explore the cases of streams analogous to the observed Palomar 5 and GD1 systems, quantifying the expected incidence of structure caused by GMC perturbations. Deep observations should detect such disturbances regardless of the substructure content of the Milky Way's halo. Detailed modelling will be needed to demonstrate that any detected gaps or clumps were produced by DM subhaloes rather than by molecular clouds.

  7. On the Heating Efficiency Derived from Observations of Young Super Star Clusters in M82

    CERN Document Server

    Silich, Sergiy; Campos, Ana Torres; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Melo, Ana Monreal-Ibero Veronica

    2009-01-01

    Here we discuss the mechanical feedback that massive stellar clusters provide to the interstellar medium of their host galaxy. We apply an analytic theory developed in a previous study for M82-A1 to a sample of 10 clusters located in the central zone of the starburst galaxy M82, all surrounded by compact and dense HII regions. We claim that the only way that such HII regions can survive around the selected clusters, is if they are embedded into a high pressure ISM and if the majority of their mechanical energy is lost within the star cluster volume via strong radiative cooling. The latter implies that these clusters have a low heating efficiency, $\\eta$, and evolve in the bimodal hydrodynamic regime. In this regime the shock-heated plasma in the central zones of a cluster becomes thermally unstable, loses its pressure and is accumulated there, whereas the matter injected by supernovae and stellar winds outside of this volume forms a high velocity outflow - the star cluster wind. We calculated the heating effi...

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF PHOTOGRAMMETRIC POINT CLOUDS OF SCAFFOLDS FOR CONSTRUCTION SITE MONITORING USING SUBSPACE CLUSTERING AND PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for the classification of photogrammetric point clouds of scaffolding components in a construction site, aiming at making a preparation for the automatic monitoring of construction site by reconstructing an as-built Building Information Model (as-built BIM. The points belonging to tubes and toeboards of scaffolds will be distinguished via subspace clustering process and principal components analysis (PCA algorithm. The overall workflow includes four essential processing steps. Initially, the spherical support region of each point is selected. In the second step, the normalized cut algorithm based on spectral clustering theory is introduced for the subspace clustering, so as to select suitable subspace clusters of points and avoid outliers. Then, in the third step, the feature of each point is calculated by measuring distances between points and the plane of local reference frame defined by PCA in cluster. Finally, the types of points are distinguished and labelled through a supervised classification method, with random forest algorithm used. The effectiveness and applicability of the proposed steps are investigated in both simulated test data and real scenario. The results obtained by the two experiments reveal that the proposed approaches are qualified to the classification of points belonging to linear shape objects having different shapes of sections. For the tests using synthetic point cloud, the classification accuracy can reach 80%, with the condition contaminated by noise and outliers. For the application in real scenario, our method can also achieve a classification accuracy of better than 63%, without using any information about the normal vector of local surface.

  9. Classification of Photogrammetric Point Clouds of Scaffolds for Construction Site Monitoring Using Subspace Clustering and PCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Tuttas, S.; Heogner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an approach for the classification of photogrammetric point clouds of scaffolding components in a construction site, aiming at making a preparation for the automatic monitoring of construction site by reconstructing an as-built Building Information Model (as-built BIM). The points belonging to tubes and toeboards of scaffolds will be distinguished via subspace clustering process and principal components analysis (PCA) algorithm. The overall workflow includes four essential processing steps. Initially, the spherical support region of each point is selected. In the second step, the normalized cut algorithm based on spectral clustering theory is introduced for the subspace clustering, so as to select suitable subspace clusters of points and avoid outliers. Then, in the third step, the feature of each point is calculated by measuring distances between points and the plane of local reference frame defined by PCA in cluster. Finally, the types of points are distinguished and labelled through a supervised classification method, with random forest algorithm used. The effectiveness and applicability of the proposed steps are investigated in both simulated test data and real scenario. The results obtained by the two experiments reveal that the proposed approaches are qualified to the classification of points belonging to linear shape objects having different shapes of sections. For the tests using synthetic point cloud, the classification accuracy can reach 80%, with the condition contaminated by noise and outliers. For the application in real scenario, our method can also achieve a classification accuracy of better than 63%, without using any information about the normal vector of local surface.

  10. The Formation of First Generation Stars and Globular Clusters in Protogalactic Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, S

    2003-07-07

    Within collapsing protogalaxies, thermal instability leads to the formation of a population of cool fragments which are confined by the pressure of a residual hot background medium. The critical mass required for the cold clouds to become gravitationally unstable and to form stars is determined by both their internal temperature and external pressure. Massive first generation stars form in primordial clouds with sufficient column density to shield themselves from external UV photons emitted by nearby massive stars or AGNs. Less massive photoionized clouds gain mass due to ram pressure stripping by the residual halo gas. Collisions may also trigger thermal instability and fragmentation into cloudlets. While most cloudlets have substellar masses, the largest become self-gravitating and collapse to form protostellar cores without further fragmentation. The initial stellar mass function is established as these cores capture additional residual cloudlets. Energy dissipation from the mergers ensures that the cluster remains bound in the limit of low star formation efficiency. Dissipation also promotes the formation and retention of the most massive stars in the cluster center. On the scale of the protogalactic clouds, the formation of massive stars generates intense UV radiation which photoionizes gas and quenches star formation in nearby regions. As gas density accumulates in the center of the galactic potential, the self-regulated star formation rate increases. At the location where most of the residual gas can be converted into stars on its internal dynamical timescale, a galaxy attains its asymptotic kinematic structure such as exponential profiles, Tully-Fisher, and Faber-Jackson laws.

  11. Application of a Cloud-Texture Analysis Scheme to the Cloud Cluster Structure Recognition and Rainfall Estimation in a Mesoscale Rainstorm Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It is thought that satellite infrared (IR) images can aid the recognition of the structure of the cloud and aid the rainfall estimation. In this article, the authors explore the application of a classification method relevant to four texture features, viz. energy, entropy, inertial-quadrature and local calm, to the study of the structure of a cloud cluster displaying a typical meso-scale structure on infrared satellite images.The classification using the IR satellite images taken during 4-5 July 2003, a time when a meso-scale torrential rainstorm was occurring over the Yangtze River basin, illustrates that the detailed structure of the cloud cluster can be obviously seen by means of the neural network classification method relevant to textural features, and the relationship between the textural energy and rainfall indicates that the structural variation of a cloud cluster can be viewed as an exhibition of the convection intensity evolvement. These facts suggest that the scheme of following a classification method relevant to textural features applied to cloud structure studies is helpful for weather analysis and forecasting.

  12. Rockfall detection from terrestrial LiDAR point clouds: A clustering approach using R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marj Tonini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed a series of terrestrial LiDAR point clouds acquired over a cliff in Puigcercos (Catalonia, Spain. The objective was to detect and extract individual rockfall events that occurred during a time span of six months and to investigate their spatial distribution. To this end local and global cluster algorithms were applied. First we used the nearest neighbor clutter removal (NNCR method in combination with the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm to separate feature points from clutter; then a density based algorithm (DBSCAN allowed us to isolate the single cluster features which represented the rockfall events. Finally we estimated the Ripley's K-function to analyze the global spatial pattern of the identified rockfalls. The computations for the cluster analyses were carried out using R free software for statistical computing and graphics. The local cluster analysis allowed a proper identification and characterization of more than 600 rockfalls. The global spatial pattern analysis showed that these rockfalls were clustered and provided the range of distances at which these events tend to be aggregated.

  13. CCD SDSS gr photometry of poorly studied star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Piatti, Andres E

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time CCD SDSS gr photometry, obtained at the Gemini South telescope with the GMOS attached, of stars in the field of the poorly studied star clusters NGC1768, HS85, SL676, NGC2107, NGC2190, and SL866, which are distributed in the main body of the Large Magellanic Cloud. We applied a subtraction procedure to statistically clean the cluster CMDs from field star contamination. In order to disentangle cluster features from those belonging to their surrounding fields, we applied a subtraction procedure which makes use of variable cells to reproduce the field star Color-Magnitude Diagrams (CMDs) as closely as possible. We then traced their stellar density radial profiles from star counts performed over the cleaned field stars dataset and derived their radii. Using the cleaned cluster CMDs, we estimated ages and metallicities from matching theoretical isochrones computed for the SDSS system. The studied star clusters have ages from 0.1 up to 2.0 Gyr and are of slightly metal-poor metal conte...

  14. Embedded Stellar Clusters in the W3/W4/W5 Molecular Cloud Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, J M; Snell, R L; Carpenter, John M.; Heyer, Mark H.; Snell, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the embedded stellar content in the vicinity of the W3/W4/W5 HII regions using the FCRAO Outer Galaxy 12CO(J=1-0) Survey, the IRAS Point Source Catalog, published radio continuum surveys, and new near-infrared and molecular line observations. Thirty-four IRAS Point Sources are identified that have far-infrared colors characteristic of embedded star forming regions, and we have obtained K' mosaics and 13CO(J=1-0) maps for 32 of them. Ten of the IRAS sources are associated with an OB star and 19 with a stellar cluster, although three OB stars are not identified with a cluster. Half of the embedded stellar population identified in the K' images is found in just the 5 richest clusters, and 61% is contained in IRAS sources associated with an embedded OB star. Thus rich clusters around OB stars contribute substantially to the stellar population currently forming in the W3/W4/W5 region. Approximately 39% of the cluster population is embedded in small clouds with an average mass of ~130 Mo that are located...

  15. Super stellar clusters with a bimodal hydrodynamic solution: an Approximate Analytic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Wünsch, R; Palous, J; Tenorio-Tagle, G

    2007-01-01

    We look for a simple analytic model to distinguish between stellar clusters undergoing a bimodal hydrodynamic solution from those able to drive only a stationary wind. Clusters in the bimodal regime undergo strong radiative cooling within their densest inner regions, which results in the accumulation of the matter injected by supernovae and stellar winds and eventually in the formation of further stellar generations, while their outer regions sustain a stationary wind. The analytic formulae are derived from the basic hydrodynamic equations. Our main assumption, that the density at the star cluster surface scales almost linearly with that at the stagnation radius, is based on results from semi-analytic and full numerical calculations. The analytic formulation allows for the determination of the threshold mechanical luminosity that separates clusters evolving in either of the two solutions. It is possible to fix the stagnation radius by simple analytic expressions and thus to determine the fractions of the depo...

  16. Super-distant molecular hybridization of plant seeds by ion beam-mediated gene cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The N beam-mediated distant molecular hybridization between Ginkgo biloba I and watermelon was studied. The results showed that the ester gene of Ginkgo biloba L was successfully expressed in two varieties of watermelon. 3-16 and SR2-14-2, in both of which the ester quantities were measured as 17.0756 μg/g and 45.9998 μg/g respectively. Meanwhile, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in leaves of the watennelon expressing ester gene was increased twofold as compared to that of the control, showing that ion beam could mediate distant and/or super-distant donor gene expression in the cells of a receptor. Furthermore, the molecular nechanism of distant hybridization was analyzed.

  17. Clustered localization of STAT3 during the cell cycle detected by super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Chen, Junling; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Jiang, Junguang; Tong, Ti; Wang, Hongda

    2017-06-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays a key role in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and immune responses. In particular, STAT3 has emerged as a potential molecular target for cancer therapy. The functional role and standard activation mechanism of STAT3 have been well studied, however, the spatial distribution of STAT3 during the cell cycle is poorly known. Therefore, it is indispensable to study STAT3 spatial arrangement and nuclear-cytoplasimic localization at the different phase of cell cycle in cancer cells. By direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy imaging, we find that STAT3 forms various number and size of clusters at the different cell-cycle stage, which could not be clearly observed by conventional fluorescent microscopy. STAT3 clusters get more and larger gradually from G1 to G2 phase, during which time transcription and other related activities goes on consistently. The results suggest that there is an intimate relationship between the clustered characteristic of STAT3 and the cell-cycle behavior. Meanwhile, clustering would facilitate STAT3 rapid response to activating signals due to short distances between molecules. Our data might open a new door to develop an antitumor drug for inhibiting STAT3 signaling pathway by destroying its clusters.

  18. Candidate free-floating super-Jupiters in the young sigma Orionis open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Bihain, G; Osorio, M R Zapatero; Béjar, V J S; Villó-Pérez, I; Díaz-Sánchez, A; Pérez-Garrido, A; Caballero, J A; Bailer-Jones, C A L; Navascués, D Barrado y; Eislöffel, J; Forveille, T; Goldman, B; Henning, T; Martín, E L; Mundt, R

    2009-01-01

    Free-floating substellar candidates with estimated theoretical masses of as low as ~5 Jupiter masses have been found in the ~3 Myr old sigma Orionis open cluster. As the overlap with the planetary mass domain increases, the question of how these objects form becomes important. The determination of their number density and whether a mass cut-off limit exists is crucial to understanding their formation. We propose to search for objects of yet lower masses in the cluster and determine the shape of the mass function at low mass. Using new- and (re-analysed) published IZJHKs[3.6]-[8.0]-band data of an area of 840 arcmin2, we performed a search for LT-type cluster member candidates in the magnitude range J=19.5-21.5 mag, based on their expected magnitudes and colours. Besides recovering the T type object S Ori 70 and two other known objects, we find three new cluster member candidates, S Ori 72-74, with J=21 mag and within 12 arcmin of the cluster centre. They have theoretical masses of 4 (-2,+3) M_Jup and are amon...

  19. Progressive star formation in the young galactic super star cluster NGC 3603

    CERN Document Server

    Beccari, Giacomo; De Marchi, Guido; Paresce, Francesco; Young, Erick; Andersen, Morten; Panagia, Nino; Balick, Bruce; Bond, Howard; Calzetti, Daniela; Carollo, C Marcella; Disney, Michael J; Dopita, Michael A; Frogel, Jay A; Hall, Donald N B; Holtzman, Jon A; Kimble, Randy A; McCarthy, Patrick J; O'Connell, Robert W; Saha, Abhijit; Silk, Joseph I; Trauger, John T; Walker, Alistair R; Whitmore, Bradley C; Windhorst, Rogier A

    2010-01-01

    Early release science observations of the cluster NGC3603 with the WFC3 on the refurbished HST allow us to study its recent star formation history. Our analysis focuses on stars with Halpha excess emission, a robust indicator of their pre-main sequence (PMS) accreting status. The comparison with theoretical PMS isochrones shows that 2/3 of the objects with Halpha excess emission have ages from 1 to 10 Myr, with a median value of 3 Myr, while a surprising 1/3 of them are older than 10 Myr. The study of the spatial distribution of these PMS stars allows us to confirm their cluster membership and to statistically separate them from field stars. This result establishes unambiguously for the first time that star formation in and around the cluster has been ongoing for at least 10-20 Myr, at an apparently increasing rate.

  20. CLUSTOM-CLOUD: In-Memory Data Grid-Based Software for Clustering 16S rRNA Sequence Data in the Cloud Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongsu Oh

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing can produce hundreds of thousands of 16S rRNA sequence reads corresponding to different organisms present in the environmental samples. Typically, analysis of microbial diversity in bioinformatics starts from pre-processing followed by clustering 16S rRNA reads into relatively fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs. The OTUs are reliable indicators of microbial diversity and greatly accelerate the downstream analysis time. However, existing hierarchical clustering algorithms that are generally more accurate than greedy heuristic algorithms struggle with large sequence datasets. To keep pace with the rapid rise in sequencing data, we present CLUSTOM-CLOUD, which is the first distributed sequence clustering program based on In-Memory Data Grid (IMDG technology-a distributed data structure to store all data in the main memory of multiple computing nodes. The IMDG technology helps CLUSTOM-CLOUD to enhance both its capability of handling larger datasets and its computational scalability better than its ancestor, CLUSTOM, while maintaining high accuracy. Clustering speed of CLUSTOM-CLOUD was evaluated on published 16S rRNA human microbiome sequence datasets using the small laboratory cluster (10 nodes and under the Amazon EC2 cloud-computing environments. Under the laboratory environment, it required only ~3 hours to process dataset of size 200 K reads regardless of the complexity of the human microbiome data. In turn, one million reads were processed in approximately 20, 14, and 11 hours when utilizing 20, 30, and 40 nodes on the Amazon EC2 cloud-computing environment. The running time evaluation indicates that CLUSTOM-CLOUD can handle much larger sequence datasets than CLUSTOM and is also a scalable distributed processing system. The comparative accuracy test using 16S rRNA pyrosequences of a mock community shows that CLUSTOM-CLOUD achieves higher accuracy than DOTUR, mothur, ESPRIT-Tree, UCLUST and Swarm. CLUSTOM-CLOUD

  1. Multiple Populations in the Old and Massive Small Magellanic Cloud Globular Cluster NGC 121

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, E.; Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Origlia, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.

    2016-10-01

    We used a combination of optical and near-UV Hubble Space Telescope photometry and FLAMES/ESO-VLT high-resolution spectroscopy to characterize the stellar content of the old and massive globular cluster (GC) NGC 121 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We report on the detection of multiple stellar populations, the first case in the SMC stellar cluster system. This result enforces the emerging scenario in which the presence of multiple stellar populations is a distinctive-feature of old and massive GCs regardless of the environment, as far as the light-element distribution is concerned. We find that second-generation (SG) stars are more centrally concentrated than first-generation (FG) ones. More interestingly, at odds with what is typically observed in Galactic GCs, we find that NGC 121 is the only cluster so far to be dominated by FG stars that account for more than 65% of the total cluster mass. In the framework where GCs were born with 90%-95% of FG stars, this observational finding would suggest that either NGC 121 experienced a milder stellar mass-loss with respect to Galactic GCs or it formed a smaller fraction of SG stars. Based on observations collected with NASA/ESA HST, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555 and collected at the ESO-VLT under the program 086.D-0665.

  2. Chemical Compositions of Red Giant Stars in Old Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, J A; Stetson, P B; Ivans, Inese I.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Stetson, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    We have observed ten red giant stars in four old Large Magellanic Cloud globular clusters with the high-resolution spectrograph MIKE on the Magellan Landon Clay 6.5-m telescope. The stars in our sample have up to 20 elemental abundance determinations for the alpha-, iron-peak, and neutron-capture element groups. We have also derived abundances for the light odd-Z elements Na and Al. We find NGC 2005 and NGC 2019 to be more metal-rich than previous estimates from the Ca II triplet, and we derive [Fe/H] values closer to those obtained from the slope of the red giant branch. However, we confirm previous determinations for Hodge 11 and NGC 1898 to within 0.2 dex. The LMC cluster [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] ratios are comparable to the values observed in old Galactic globular cluster stars, as are the abundances [Y/Fe], [Ba/Fe], and [Eu/Fe]. The LMC clusters do not share the low-Y behavior observed in some dwarf spheroidal galaxies. [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and [V/Fe] in the LMC, however, are significantly lower than what is see...

  3. Multiple populations in the old and massive Small Magellanic Cloud globular cluster NGC121

    CERN Document Server

    Dalessandro, E; Mucciarelli, A; Origlia, L; Ferraro, F R; Lanzoni, B

    2016-01-01

    We used a combination of optical and near-UV Hubble Space Telescope photometry and FLAMES/ESO-VLT high-resolution spectroscopy to characterize the stellar content of the old and massive globular cluster (GC) NGC121 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We report on the detection of multiple stellar populations, the first case in the SMC stellar cluster system. This result enforces the emerging scenario in which the presence of multiple stellar populations is a distinctive-feature of old and massive GCs regardless of the environment, as far as the light element distribution is concerned. We find that second population (SG) stars are more centrally concentrated than first (FG) ones. More interestingly, at odds with what typically observed in Galactic GCs, we find that NGC121 is the only cluster so far to be dominated by FG stars that account for more than 65% of the total cluster mass. In the framework where GCs were born with a 90-95% of FG stars, this observational finding would suggest that either NGC121 expe...

  4. A Legacy Magellanic Clouds Star Clusters Sample for the Calibration of Stellar Evolution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouesneau, Morgan

    2014-10-01

    Stellar evolution models are fundamental to all studies in astrophysics. These models are the foundations of the interpretation of colors and luminosities of stars necessary to address problems ranging from galaxy formation to determining the habitable zone of planets and interstellar medium properties. For decades the standard calibration of these models relied on a handful of star clusters. However, large uncertainties remain in the fundamental parameters underlying stellar evolution models. The project we propose is two-fold. First we propose to generate a new high quality reference dataset of the resolved stars in 121 Magellanic Cloud clusters, selected from 18 past programs to efficiently sample a large grid of stellar evolution models. Our team will measure the photometry of individual stars in those clusters and characterize individual completeness and photometric uncertainties. Second, we will migrate the calibration of the stellar evolution into a fully probabilistic framework, that will not only reflect the state-of-the-art, but will also be published with fully characterized uncertainties, based on the entire reference data set, rather than a few select clusters.We have entered an era dominated by large surveys {e.g. SDSS, PanSTARRS, Gaia, LSST} where the variations between families of stellar models are greater than the nominal precision of the instruments. Our proposed program will provide a library needed for a convergence in the stellar models and our understanding of stellar evolution.

  5. vbyCaHbeta CCD Photometry of Clusters. VIII. The Super-Metal Rich, Old Open Cluster NGC 6791

    CERN Document Server

    Anthony-Twarog, B J; Mayer, L

    2006-01-01

    CCD photometry on the intermediate-band vbyCaHbeta system is presented for the metal-rich, old open cluster, NGC 6791. Preliminary analysis led to [Fe/H] above +0.4 with an anomalously high reddening and an age below 5 Gyr. A revised calibration between (b-y)_0 and [Fe/H] at a given temperature shows that the traditional color-metallicity relations underestimate the color of the turnoff stars at high metallicity. With the revised relation, the metallicity from hk and the reddening for NGC 6791 become [Fe/H] = +0.45 +/- 0.04 and E(b-y) = 0.113 +/- 0.012 or E(B-V) = 0.155 +/- 0.016. Using the same technique, reanalysis of the photometry for NGC 6253 produces [Fe/H] = +0.58 +/-0.04 and E(b-y) = 0.120 +/- 0.018 or E(B-V) = 0.160 +/- 0.025. The errors quoted include both the internal and external errors. For NGC 6791, the metallicity from m_1 is a factor of two below that from hk, a result that may be coupled to the consistently low metal abundance from DDO photometry of the cluster and the C-deficiency found from...

  6. Ultra Violet Escape Fractions from Giant Molecular Clouds During Early Cluster Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Corey S; Klessen, Ralf S

    2016-01-01

    The UV photon escape fraction from molecular clouds is a key parameter for understanding the ionization of the Interstellar Medium (ISM), and extragalactic processes, such as cosmic reionization. We present the ionizing photon flux and the corresponding photon escape fraction (f$_{esc}$) arising as a consequence of star cluster formation in a turbulent, 10$^6$ M$_{\\odot}$ GMC, simulated using the code FLASH. We make use of sink particles to represent young, star-forming clusters coupled with a radiative transfer scheme to calculate the emergent UV flux. We find that the ionizing photon flux across the cloud boundary is highly variable in time and space due to the turbulent nature of the intervening gas. The escaping photon fraction remains at $\\sim$5% for the first 2.5 Myr, followed by two pronounced peaks at 3.25 and 3.8 Myr with a maximum f$_{esc}$ of 30% and 37%, respectively. These peaks are due to the formation of large HII regions, that expand into regions of lower density and some of which reach the cl...

  7. Electron affinities of d1 transition metal chloride clusters and onset of super halogen behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Swayamprabha; Joseph, Jorly; Jena, Purusottam

    2011-03-01

    Geometry, electronic structure, and electron affinity of d1 transition metal chloride clusters (MCl n , M = Sc,Y, La; n = 1--5) have been calculated using density functional theory. Chlorine atoms are chemically bound in all cases except for MCl 5 . The electron affinities of MCl n (n = 1--3) are small and increase only marginally as a function of n until the valence of the metal atom is consumed. Beyond this, they rise sharply and reach a value of 5.96, 6.03 and 5.90 eV for ScCl 4 , YCl 4 and LaCl 4 , respectively and remain high for n = 5. MCl n , (n = 4,5) clusters, therefore, behave as superhalogens. Results are compared with available experimental data

  8. The Spectroscopic Study of Estrogen and its Hydrated Clusters in a Super Sonic Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Fumiya; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Ebata, Takayuki

    2012-06-01

    Structures of estrogen and its hydrated clusters have been studied by several laser spectroscopies in supersonic jet. The electronic spectrum of estrogen shows several origin bands. By observing UV-UV hole-burning and IR-UV spectra, it is concluded they are due to different conformers originating from difference of orientation of OH group(s). We also observed electronic and IR spectra of estrogen-H_2O. By aids of DFT calculations, the conformations and hydrated structures are determined.

  9. Electrostatic solitary waves in current layers: from Cluster observations during a super-substorm to beam experiments at the LAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Pickett

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs have been observed by several spacecraft in the current layers of Earth's magnetosphere since 1982. ESWs are manifested as isolated pulses (one wave period in the high time resolution waveform data obtained on these spacecraft. They are thus nonlinear structures generated out of nonlinear instabilities and processes. We report the first observations of ESWs associated with the onset of a super-substorm that occurred on 24 August 2005 while the Cluster spacecraft were located in the magnetotail at around 18–19 RE and moving northward from the plasma sheet to the lobes. These ESWs were detected in the waveform data of the WBD plasma wave receiver on three of the Cluster spacecraft. The majority of the ESWs were detected about 5 min after the super-substorm onset during which time 1 the PEACE electron instrument detected significant field-aligned electron fluxes from a few 100 eV to 3.5 keV, 2 the EDI instrument detected bursts of field-aligned electron currents, 3 the FGM instrument detected substantial magnetic fluctuations and the presence of Alfvén waves, 4 the STAFF experiment detected broadband electric and magnetic waves, ion cyclotron waves and whistler mode waves, and 5 CIS detected nearly comparable densities of H+ and O+ ions and a large tailward H+ velocity. We compare the characteristics of the ESWs observed during this event to those created in the laboratory at the University of California-Los Angeles Plasma Device (LAPD with an electron beam. We find that the time durations of both space and LAPD ESWs are only slightly larger than the respective local electron plasma periods, indicating that electron, and not ion, dynamics are responsible for generation of the ESWs. We have discussed possible mechanisms for generating the ESWs in space, including the beam and kinetic Buneman type instabilities and the acoustic instabilities. Future studies will examine these mechanisms in

  10. Bruck 88 : a young star cluster with an old age resemblance in the outskirts of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Piatti, Andrés E

    2014-01-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric results for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) cluster Bruck 88. From the comparison of the cluster integrated spectrum with template cluster spectra we found that the Milky Way globular cluster template spectra are the ones which best resemble it. However, the extracted cluster colour magnitude diagram reveals that Bruck 88 is a young cluster (log(t) = 8.1 +- 0.1). The derived cluster age is compatible with the presence of a Bright Red Giant (BRG) star located ~ 2.6 arcsec in the sky from the cluster centre. We serendipitously observed HW 33, a star cluster located ~ 3 arcmin to the south-east from Bruck 88. We obtained for the cluster the same age than Bruck 88 and surprisingly, a BRG star located within the cluster radius also appears to be compatible with the cluster age. We estimated the MK type of the BRG star in the Bruck 88 field to be in the range G9 II/Ib - K1 III. By combining the spectrum of a star within this MK type range with a 100-150 Myr template cluster...

  11. Young stellar clusters in the Rosette molecular cloud. Arguments against triggered star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Cambrésy, L; Feher, O; Tóth, L V; Schneider, N

    2013-01-01

    The Rosette complex is a well studied region of the galactic plane which presents the apparent characteristics of a triggered star forming region. This is however still debated as no strong evidence corroborates this statement. In this study, we focus on characterizing the young stellar population in the Rosette to improve our understanding of the processes that regulate the star formation in this region. We propose an original method relying on the joint analysis of the star color and density in the near-infrared. It leads to the mapping of the molecular cloud spatial distribution and the detection of the embedded clusters with their characterization in term of member number and age estimation. We identified 13 clusters, 2 of them are new discoveries, and we estimated that the total number of young stellar objects in the Rosette ranges between 4000 and 8000 members. We found the age distribution of the young clusters is not consistent with a general triggered scenario for the star formation in this molecular...

  12. Flux closure during a substorm observed by Cluster, Double Star, IMAGE FUV, SuperDARN, and Greenland magnetometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine magnetic flux closure during an extended substorm interval on 29 August 2004 involving a two-stage onset and subsequent re-intensifications. Cluster and Double Star provide observations of magnetotail dynamics, while the corresponding auroral evolution, convection response, and substorm current wedge development are monitored by IMAGE FUV, SuperDARN, and the Greenland magnetometer chain, respectively. The first stage of onset is associated with the reconnection of closed flux in the plasma sheet; this is accompanied by a short-lived auroral intensification, a modest substorm current wedge magnetic bay, but no significant ionospheric convection enhancement. The second stage follows the progression of reconnection to the open field lines of the lobes; accompanied by prolonged auroral bulge and westward-travelling surge development, enhanced magnetic bays and convection. We find that the tail dynamics are highly influenced by ongoing dayside creation of open flux, leading to flux pile-up in the near-tail and a step-wise down-tail motion of the tail reconnection site. In all, 5 dipolarizations are observed, each associated with the closure of ~0.1 GWb of flux. Very simple calculations indicate that the X-line should progress down-tail at a speed of 20 km s-1, or 6 RE between each dipolarization.

  13. First Science Results From SOFIA/FORCAST: Super-Resolution Imaging of the S140 Cluster at 37\\micron

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Paul M; Herter, Terry L; Gull, George; Schoenwald, Justin; Keller, Luke D; De Buizer, James M; Vacca, William; Reach, William; Becklin, E E

    2012-01-01

    We present 37\\micron\\ imaging of the S140 complex of infrared sources centered on IRS1 made with the FORCAST camera on SOFIA. These observations are the longest wavelength imaging to resolve clearly the three main sources seen at shorter wavelengths, IRS 1, 2 and 3, and are nearly at the diffraction limit of the 2.5-m telescope. We also obtained a small number of images at 11 and 31\\micron\\ that are useful for flux measurement. Our images cover the area of several strong sub-mm sources seen in the area -- SMM 1, 2, and 3 -- that are not coincident with any mid-infrared sources and are not visible in our longer wavelength imaging either. Our new observations confirm previous estimates of the relative dust optical depth and source luminosity for the components in this likely cluster of early B stars. We also investigate the use of super-resolution to go beyond the basic diffraction limit in imaging on SOFIA and find that the van Cittert algorithm, together with the "multi-resolution" technique, provides excelle...

  14. Mass segregation in rich clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud - III. Implications for the initial mass function

    CERN Document Server

    De Grijs, R; MacKey, A D; Wilkinson, M I; Beaulieu, S F; Johnson, R A; Santiago, B X

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of core radii of rich clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) systematically increases in both upper limit and spread with increasing cluster age. Cluster-to-cluster variations in the stellar initial mass function (IMF) have been suggested as an explanation. We discuss the implications of the observed degree of mass segregation in our sample clusters for the shape of the initial mass function. Our results are based on Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 observations of six rich star clusters in the LMC, selected to include three pairs of clusters of similar age, metallicity, and distance from the LMC centre, and exhibiting a large spread in core radii between the clusters in each pair. All clusters show clear evidence of mass segregation: (i) their luminosity function slopes steepen with increasing cluster radius, and (ii) the brighter stars are characterized by smaller core radii. For all sample clusters, both the slope of the luminosity function in the cluster centres and the degree of mass s...

  15. Clustering of Local Group distances: publication bias or correlated measurements? III. The Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    de Grijs, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at providing a firm mean distance estimate to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), and thus to place it within the internally consistent Local Group distance framework we recently established, we compiled the current-largest database of published distance estimates to the galaxy. Based on careful statistical analysis, we derive mean distance estimates to the SMC using eclipsing binary systems, variable stars, stellar population tracers, and star cluster properties. Their weighted mean leads to a final recommendation for the mean SMC distance of $(m-M)_0^{\\rm SMC} = 18.96 \\pm 0.02$ mag, where the uncertainty represents the formal error. Systematic effects related to lingering uncertainties in extinction corrections, our physical understanding of the stellar tracers used, and the SMC's complex geometry---including its significant line-of-sight depth, its irregular appearance which renders definition of the galaxy's center uncertain, as well as its high inclination and possibly warped disk---may contribute a...

  16. Design Architecture-Based on Web Server and Application Cluster in Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Shah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud has been a computational and storage solution for many data centric organizations. The problem today those organizations are facing from t he cloud is in data searching in an efficient manner. A framework is required to distribute the w ork of searching and fetching from thousands of computers. The data in HDFS is scatter ed and needs lots of time to retrieve. The major idea is to design a web server in the map pha se using the jetty web server which will give a fast and efficient way of searching data in MapRe duce paradigm. For real time processing on Hadoop, a searchable mechanism is implemented in HD FS by creating a multilevel index in web server with multi-level index keys. The web ser ver uses to handle traffic throughput. By web clustering technology we can improve the applicatio n performance. To keep the work down, the load balancer should automatically be able to distr ibute load to the newly added nodes in the server.

  17. 基于超网络视角的产业集群升级研究%Industrial Cluster Upgrading Based on Super-network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅; 王文平

    2012-01-01

    依据创新能力对集群升级内涵进行了诠释.根据知识和社会关系水平将集群升级转化为由社会网络、显性知识网络和隐性知识网络互动的超网络.运用变分不等式理论和最优化问题的关系,求得网络的洽合流和超网络的均衡状态.探究了集群规模、数量等变动所导致的网络中流和超网络均衡状态的变化,直至最终实现集群升级.最后结合案例分析网络互动的现实意义及今后研究方向.%In this paper, the industrial cluster upgrading is interpreted based on innovation ability. According to knowledge and social relations level, cluster upgrading is converted into the super-network interacted with social, explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge network. By using the relationship between variational inequality theory and optimization problem, the flows hij*, q* eij q*tij a-mong explicit knowledge network, tacit knowledge network and social network are obtained, and the equilibrium of cluster super-network is also achieved. The change of flows in network and equilibrium of cluster super-network caused by alteration of cluster size, number etc are approached. The cluster upgrade is realized in unceasing variation of equilibrium. Finally, practical significance of interaction among network is illustrated based on case and further research direction is pointed out.

  18. TethysCluster: A comprehensive approach for harnessing cloud resources for hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.; Jones, N.; Ames, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in water resources modeling are improving the information that can be supplied to support decisions affecting the safety and sustainability of society. However, as water resources models become more sophisticated and data-intensive they require more computational power to run. Purchasing and maintaining the computing facilities needed to support certain modeling tasks has been cost-prohibitive for many organizations. With the advent of the cloud, the computing resources needed to address this challenge are now available and cost-effective, yet there still remains a significant technical barrier to leverage these resources. This barrier inhibits many decision makers and even trained engineers from taking advantage of the best science and tools available. Here we present the Python tools TethysCluster and CondorPy, that have been developed to lower the barrier to model computation in the cloud by providing (1) programmatic access to dynamically scalable computing resources, (2) a batch scheduling system to queue and dispatch the jobs to the computing resources, (3) data management for job inputs and outputs, and (4) the ability to dynamically create, submit, and monitor computing jobs. These Python tools leverage the open source, computing-resource management, and job management software, HTCondor, to offer a flexible and scalable distributed-computing environment. While TethysCluster and CondorPy can be used independently to provision computing resources and perform large modeling tasks, they have also been integrated into Tethys Platform, a development platform for water resources web apps, to enable computing support for modeling workflows and decision-support systems deployed as web apps.

  19. Business models and business model innovation in a “Secure and Distributed Cloud Clustering (DISC) Society”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Taran, Yariv

    2011-01-01

    of secure business models and how business models can be operated and innovated in a secure context have intensified tremendously. The development of new mobile and wireless security technologies gives hopes to really realize a secure cloud clustering society where business models can act and be innovated......The development and innovation of business models to a secure distributed cloud clustering society (DISC)—is indeed still a complex venture and has not been widely researched yet. Numerous types of security technologies are in these years proposed and in the “slip stream” of these the study...... secure—but we still have some steps to go before we reach the final destination. The paper gives a conceptual futuristic outlook on behalf of the input from SW2010 and state of the art business model research to what we can expect of business Model and business model innovation in a future secure cloud...

  20. Brackett Lines from the Super Star Cluster Nebulae in He 2-10

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, A L; Beck, S C; Crostwaite, L P; Meier, D S; Henry, Alaina L.; Turner, Jean L.; Beck, Sara C.; Crostwaite, Lucian P.; Meier, David S.

    2006-01-01

    We present high spectral resolution (v~12-16 km/s) Brackett line spectroscopy of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Henize 2-10 made with NIRSPEC on the Keck Telescope. The spatial resolution is seeing limited, at 1". We detect two distinct kinematic features separated by approximately 3", with heliocentric velocities of ~860 and ~890 km/s. In addition to a narrow core, the line profiles also display a broad, low intensity feature on the blue side of the centroid, which we attribute to an outflow. This may be a sign of aging in the clusters. We compare to archival high resolution Very Large Array (VLA) data at 1.3 cm, and find that the centimeter wavelength emission is resolved into six sources. These radio sources are organized into two larger groups, which we associate with the two kinematic peaks in the Brackett spectrum. We estimate a Lyman continuum rate of at least 7 x 10^52 s^-1, with a corresponding stellar mass of 6 x 10^6 M_sun is required to ionize the nebulae. We also estimate the size of the nebulae f...

  1. Star Formation in the Extreme Outer Galaxy: Digel Cloud 2 Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Yasui, Chikako; Tokunaga, Alan T; Terada, Hiroshi; Saito, Masao

    2007-01-01

    As a first step for studying star formation in the extreme outer Galaxy (EOG), we obtained deep near-infrared images of two embedded clusters at the northern and southern CO peaks of Cloud 2, which is one of the most distant star forming regions in the outer Galaxy (galactic radius R_g ~ 19 kpc). With high spatial resolution (FWHM ~ 0".35) and deep imaging (K ~ 21 mag) with the IRCS imager at the Subaru telescope, we detected cluster members with a mass detection limit of < 0.1 M_{sun}, which is well into the substellar regime. These high quality data enables a comparison of EOG to those in the solar neighborhood on the same basis for the first time. Before interpreting the photometric result, we have first constructed the NIR color-color diagram (dwarf star track, classical T Tauri star (CTTS) locus, reddening law) in the Mauna Kea Observatory filter system and also for the low metallicity environment since the metallicity in EOG is much lower than those in the solar neighborhood. The estimated stellar de...

  2. Predicted Sizes of Pressure-Supported HI Clouds in the Outskirts of the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhart, Blakesley

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the ALFALFA Arecibo HI survey of galaxies and the Virgo cluster X-ray pressure profiles from XMM-Newton, we investigate the possibility that starless dark HI clumps, also known as "dark galaxies", could be supported by external pressure in the surrounding intercluster medium. We find that the starless HI clump masses, velocity dispersions and positions allow them to be in pressure equilibrium with the X-ray gas near the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We predict the sizes of these clumps to range from 1kpc to 10kpc, in agreement with the range of sizes found for spatially resolved HI starless clumps outside of Virgo. Based on the predicted HI surface density of the Virgo sources, as well as a sample of other resolved ALFALFA HI dark clumps with follow up optical/radio observations, we predict that most of the HI dark clumps are on the cusp of forming stars. These HI sources therefore mark the transition between starless HI clouds and dwarf galaxies with stars.

  3. Cloud Structure of Galactic OB Cluster-forming Regions from Combining Ground- and Space-based Bolometric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuxin; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Li, Di; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Ginsburg, Adam; Pineda, Jaime E.; Qian, Lei; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; McLeod, Anna Faye; Rosolowsky, Erik; Dale, James E.; Immer, Katharina; Koch, Eric; Longmore, Steve; Walker, Daniel; Testi, Leonardo

    2016-09-01

    We have developed an iterative procedure to systematically combine the millimeter and submillimeter images of OB cluster-forming molecular clouds, which were taken by ground-based (CSO, JCMT, APEX, and IRAM-30 m) and space telescopes (Herschel and Planck). For the seven luminous (L\\gt {10}6 L ⊙) Galactic OB cluster-forming molecular clouds selected for our analyses, namely W49A, W43-Main, W43-South, W33, G10.6-0.4, G10.2-0.3, and G10.3-0.1, we have performed single-component, modified blackbody fits to each pixel of the combined (sub)millimeter images, and the Herschel PACS and SPIRE images at shorter wavelengths. The ˜10″ resolution dust column density and temperature maps of these sources revealed dramatically different morphologies, indicating very different modes of OB cluster-formation, or parent molecular cloud structures in different evolutionary stages. The molecular clouds W49A, W33, and G10.6-0.4 show centrally concentrated massive molecular clumps that are connected with approximately radially orientated molecular gas filaments. The W43-Main and W43-South molecular cloud complexes, which are located at the intersection of the Galactic near 3 kpc (or Scutum) arm and the Galactic bar, show a widely scattered distribution of dense molecular clumps/cores over the observed ˜10 pc spatial scale. The relatively evolved sources G10.2-0.3 and G10.3-0.1 appear to be affected by stellar feedback, and show a complicated cloud morphology embedded with abundant dense molecular clumps/cores. We find that with the high angular resolution we achieved, our visual classification of cloud morphology can be linked to the systematically derived statistical quantities (i.e., the enclosed mass profile, the column density probability distribution function (N-PDF), the two-point correlation function of column density, and the probability distribution function of clump/core separations). In particular, the massive molecular gas clumps located at the center of G10.6-0.4 and

  4. The clustered nature of star formation. Pre--main-sequence clusters in the star-forming region NGC 602/N90 in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A; Dolphin, Andrew E; Gennaro, Mario; Tognelli, Emanuele; Moroni, Pier Giorgio Prada

    2012-01-01

    Located at the tip of the wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), the star-forming region NGC602/N90 is characterized by the HII nebular ring N90 and the young cluster of pre--main-sequence (PMS) and early-type main sequence stars NGC602. We present a thorough cluster analysis of the stellar sample identified with HST/ACS camera in the region. We show that apart from the central cluster, low-mass PMS stars are congregated in thirteen additional small compact sub-clusters at the periphery of NGC602. We find that the spatial distribution of the PMS stars is bimodal, with an unusually large fraction (~60%) of the total population being clustered, while the remaining is diffusely distributed in the inter-cluster area. From the corresponding color-magnitude diagrams we disentangle an age-difference of ~2.5Myr between NGC602 and the compact sub-clusters which appear younger. The diffuse PMS population appears to host stars as old as those in NGC602. Almost all detected PMS sub-clusters appear to be centrally conc...

  5. Spectral evolution of star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud: I. Blue concentrated clusters in the age range 40-300 Myr

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, J F C; Ahumada, A V; Bica, E; Piatti, A E; Parisi, M C

    2005-01-01

    Integrated spectroscopy of a sample of 17 blue concentrated Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) clusters is presented and its spectral evolution studied. The spectra span the range ~3600-6800A with a resolution of ~14A FWHM, being used to determine cluster ages and, in connection with their spatial distribution, to explore the LMC structure and cluster formation history. Cluster reddening values were estimated by interpolation, using the available extinction maps. We used two methods to derive cluster ages: (i) template matching, in which line strengths and continuum distribution of the cluster spectra were compared and matched to those of template clusters with known astrophysical properties, and (ii) equivalent width (EW) method, in which new age/metallicity calibrations were used together with diagnostic diagrams involving the sum of EWs of selected spectral lines (KCaII, G band (CH), MgI, Hdelta, Hgamma and Hbeta). The derived cluster ages range from 40Myr (NGC2130 and SL237) to 300Myr (NGC1932 and SL709), a goo...

  6. The search for multiple populations in Magellanic Cloud Clusters - III. No evidence for multiple populations in the SMC cluster NGC 419

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martocchia, S.; Bastian, N.; Usher, C.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Niederhofer, F.; Cabrera-Ziri, I.; Dalessandro, E.; Hollyhead, K.; Kacharov, N.; Lardo, C.; Larsen, S.; Mucciarelli, A.; Platais, I.; Salaris, M.; Cordero, M.; Geisler, D.; Hilker, M.; Li, C.; Mackey, D.

    2017-07-01

    We present the third paper about our ongoing Hubble Space Telescope survey for the search for multiple stellar populations (MPs) within Magellanic Cloud clusters. We report here the analysis of NGC 419, an ˜1.5 Gyr old, massive (≳2 × 105 M⊙) star cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). By comparing our photometric data with stellar isochrones, we set a limit on [N/Fe] enhancement of ≲+0.5 dex and hence we find that no MPs are detected in this cluster. This is surprising because in the first two papers of this series, we found evidence for MPs in four other SMC clusters (NGC 121; Lindsay 1, NGC 339, NGC 416), aged from 6 Gyr up to ˜10-11 Gyr. This finding raises the question whether age could play a major role in the MPs phenomenon. Additionally, our results appear to exclude mass or environment as the only key factors regulating the existence of a chemical enrichment, since all clusters studied so far in this survey are equally massive (˜1-2 × 105 M⊙) and no particular patterns are found when looking at their spatial distribution in the SMC.

  7. Globular cluster formation with multiple stellar populations: self-enrichment in fractal massive molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2017-08-01

    Internal chemical abundance spreads are one of fundamental properties of globular clusters (GCs) in the Galaxy. In order to understand the origin of such abundance spreads, we numerically investigate GC formation from massive molecular clouds (MCs) with fractal structures using our new hydrodynamical simulations with star formation and feedback effects of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We particularly investigate star formation from gas chemically contaminated by SNe and AGB stars ('self-enrichment') in forming GCs within MCs with different initial conditions and environments. The principal results are as follows. GCs with multiple generations of stars can be formed from merging of hierarchical star cluster complexes that are developed from high-density regions of fractal MCs. Feedback effects of SNe and AGB stars can control the formation efficiencies of stars formed from original gas of MCs and from gas ejected from AGB stars. The simulated GCs have strong radial gradients of helium abundances within the central 3 pc. The original MC masses need to be as large as 107 M⊙ for a canonical initial stellar mass function (IMF) so that the final masses of stars formed from AGB ejecta can be ∼105 M⊙. Since star formation from AGB ejecta is rather prolonged (∼108 yr), their formation can be strongly suppressed by SNe of the stars themselves. This result implies that the so-called mass budget problem is much more severe than ever thought in the self-enrichment scenario of GC formation and thus that IMF for the second generation of stars should be 'top-light'.

  8. User preferences-aware recommendation for trustworthy cloud services based on fuzzy clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马华; 胡志刚

    2015-01-01

    The cloud computing has been growing over the past few years, and service providers are creating an intense competitive world of business. This proliferation makes it hard for new users to select a proper service among a large amount of service candidates. A novel user preferences-aware recommendation approach for trustworthy services is presented. For describing the requirements of new users in different application scenarios, user preferences are identified by usage preference, trust preference and cost preference. According to the similarity analysis of usage preference between consumers and new users, the candidates are selected, and these data about service trust provided by them are calculated as the fuzzy comprehensive evaluations. In accordance with the trust and cost preferences of new users, the dynamic fuzzy clusters are generated based on the fuzzy similarity computation. Then, the most suitable services can be selected to recommend to new users. The experiments show that this approach is effective and feasible, and can improve the quality of services recommendation meeting the requirements of new users in different scenario.

  9. Can rotation explain the multiple main sequence turn-offs of Magellanic Cloud star clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Girardi, Leo; Miglio, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Many intermediate age star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds present multiple main sequence turn-offs (MMSTO), which challenge the classical idea that star formation in such objects took place over short timescales. It has been recently suggested that the presence of fast rotators among main sequence stars could be the cause of such features (Bastian & de Mink 2009), hence relaxing the need for extended periods of star formation. In this letter, we compute evolutionary tracks and isochrones of models with and without rotation. We find that, for the same age and input physics, both kinds of models present turn-offs with an almost identical position in the colour-magnitude diagrams. As a consequence, a dispersion of rotational velocities in coeval ensembles of stars could not explain the presence of MMSTOs. We construct several synthetic colour-magnitude diagrams for the different kinds of tracks and combinations of them. The models that best reproduce the morphology of observed MMSTOs are clearly those ass...

  10. Clustering of Local Group distances: publication bias or correlated measurements? I. The Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    de Grijs, Richard; Bono, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) represents a key local rung of the extragalactic distance ladder. Yet, the galaxy's distance modulus has long been an issue of contention, in particular in view of claims that most newly determined distance moduli cluster tightly - and with a small spread - around the "canonical" distance modulus, (m-M)_0 = 18.50 mag. We compiled 233 separate LMC distance determinations published between 1990 and 2013. Our analysis of the individual distance moduli, as well as of their two-year means and standard deviations resulting from this largest data set of LMC distance moduli available to date, focuses specifically on Cepheid and RR Lyrae variable-star tracer populations, as well as on distance estimates based on features in the observational Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We conclude that strong publication bias is unlikely to have been the main driver of the majority of published LMC distance moduli. However, for a given distance tracer, the body of publications leading ...

  11. The insidious boosting of TP-AGB stars in intermediate-age Magellanic Cloud clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Girardi, Leo; Bressan, Alessandro; Rosenfield, Philip

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) In the recent controversy about the role of TP-AGB stars in evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) models of galaxies, one particular aspect is puzzling: TP-AGB models aimed at reproducing the lifetimes and integrated fluxes of the TP-AGB phase in Magellanic Cloud (MC) clusters, when incorporated into EPS models, are found to overestimate the TP-AGB contribution in resolved star counts and integrated spectra of galaxies. In this paper, we call attention to a particular evolutionary aspect that in all probability is the main cause of this conundrum. As soon as stellar populations intercept the ages at which RGB stars first appear, a sudden change in the lifetime of the core He-burning phase causes a temporary boost in the production rate of subsequent evolutionary phases, including the TP-AGB. For a timespan of about 0.1 Gyr, triple TP-AGB branches develop at slightly different initial masses, causing their frequency and contribution to the integrated luminosity of the stellar population to increas...

  12. Ca II Triplet Spectroscopy of Small Magellanic Cloud Red Giants. III. Abundances and Velocities for a Sample of 14 Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Parisi, M C; Clariá, J J; Villanova, S; Marcionni, N; Sarajedini, A; Grocholski, A J

    2015-01-01

    We obtained spectra of red giants in 15 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters in the region of the CaII lines with FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). We determined the mean metallicity and radial velocity with mean errors of 0.05 dex and 2.6 km/s, respectively, from a mean of 6.5 members per cluster. One cluster (B113) was too young for a reliable metallicity determination and was excluded from the sample. We combined the sample studied here with 15 clusters previously studied by us using the same technique, and with 7 clusters whose metallicities determined by other authors are on a scale similar to ours. This compilation of 36 clusters is the largest SMC cluster sample currently available with accurate and homogeneously determined metallicities. We found a high probability that the metallicity distribution is bimodal, with potential peaks at -1.1 and -0.8 dex. Our data show no strong evidence of a metallicity gradient in the SMC clusters, somewhat at odds with recent evidence from CaT spectra of a lar...

  13. An Analysis of the Population of Extended Main Sequence Turn-off Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Piatti, Andrés E

    2016-01-01

    We combine a number of recent studies of the extended main sequence turn-off (eMSTO) phenomenon in intermediate age stellar ($1-2$ Gyr) clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) in order to investigate its origin. By employing the largest sample of eMSTO LMC clusters so far used, we show that cluster core radii, masses, and dynamical state are not related to the genesis of eMSTOs. Indeed, clusters in our sample have core radii, masses and age-relaxation time ratios in the range $\\approx$ 2--6 pc, 3.35- 5.50 (log($M_{cls}$/$M_\\odot$) and 0.2-8.0, respectively. These results imply that the eMSTO phenomenon is not caused by actual age spreads within the clusters. Furthermore, we confirm from a larger cluster sample recent results including young eMSTO LMC clusters, that the FWHM at the MSTOs correlates most strongly with cluster age, suggesting that a stellar evolutionary effect is the underlying cause.

  14. An Analysis of the Population of Extended Main Sequence Turn-off Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Bastian, Nate

    2016-08-01

    We combine a number of recent studies of the extended main sequence turn-off (eMSTO) phenomenon in intermediate age stellar (1 - 2 Gyr) clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) in order to investigate its origin. By employing the largest sample of eMSTO LMC clusters so far used, we show that cluster core radii, masses, and dynamical state are not related to the genesis of eMSTOs. Indeed, clusters in our sample have core radii, masses and age-relaxation time ratios in the range ≈ 2-6 pc, 3.35- 5.50 (log(Mcls/M⊙) and 0.2-8.0, respectively. These results imply that the eMSTO phenomenon is not caused by actual age spreads within the clusters. Furthermore, we confirm from a larger cluster sample recent results including young eMSTO LMC clusters, that the FWHM at the MSTOs correlates most strongly with cluster age, suggesting that a stellar evolutionary effect is the underlying cause.

  15. Metallicities and radial velocities of two stellar clusters located in the outer regions of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramajo, L. V.; Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Geisler, D.; Vásquez, S.; Da Costa, G.; Grebel, E. K.

    2016-08-01

    We studied near-infrared spectra of red giant stars in two Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters. We used the Caii lines to measure radial velocities as well as the equivalent widths of these lines to determine metallicity. The two studied clusters (L32 and L38) are projected on the outer regions of the SMC so they are particularly interesting to examine the possible existence of a change of sign in the metallicity gradient in the outer regions, as suggested by a recent study.

  16. The VMC Survey - XXI. New star cluster candidates discovered from infrared photometry in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Piatti, Andrés E; Rubele, Stefano; Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L; Oliveira, Joana M; Bekki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We report the first search for new star clusters performed using the VISTA near-infrared YJKs Magellanic Clouds survey (VMC) data sets. We chose a pilot field of ~ 0.4 deg^2 located in the South-West of the Small Magelllanic Cloud (SMC) bar, where the star field is among the densest and highest reddened region in the galaxy. In order to devise an appropriate automatic procedure we made use of dimensions and stellar densities observed in the VMC data sets of the known clusters in this area. We executed different kernel density estimations over a sample of more than 358000 stars with magnitudes measured in the three YJKs filters. We analysed the new cluster candidates whose colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), cleaned from field star contamination, were used to assess the clusters' reality and estimate reddenings and ages of the genuine systems. As a result 38 objects (~ a 55% increase in the known star clusters located in the surveyed field) of 0.15 - 0.40 arcmin (2.6 - 7.0 pc) in radius resulted to have near-inf...

  17. The VMC Survey - XXI. New star cluster candidates discovered from infrared photometry in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Rubele, Stefano; Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Bekki, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    We report the first search for new star clusters performed using the VISTA near-infrared YJKs Magellanic Clouds survey (VMC) data sets. We chose a pilot field of ˜0.4 deg2 located in the South-west of the Small Magelllanic Cloud bar, where the star field is among the densest and highest reddened region in the galaxy. In order to devise an appropriate automatic procedure we made use of dimensions and stellar densities observed in the VMC data sets of the known clusters in this area. We executed different kernel density estimations over a sample of more than 358 000 stars with magnitudes measured in the three YJKs filters. We analysed the new cluster candidates whose colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), cleaned from field star contamination, were used to assess the clusters' reality and estimate reddenings and ages of the genuine systems. As a result 38 objects (≈ a 55 per cent increase in the known star clusters located in the surveyed field) of 0.15-0.40 arcmin (2.6-7.0 pc) in radius resulted to have near-infrared CMD features which resemble those of star clusters of young to moderate intermediate age (log(t yr-1) ˜7.5-9.0). Most of the new star cluster candidates are hardly recognizable in optical images without the help of a sound star field decontaminated CMD analysis. For highly reddened star cluster candidates (E(B - V) ≥ 0.6 mag) the VMC data sets were necessary in order to recognize them.

  18. Population Parameters of Intermediate-Age Star Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. II. New Insights from Extended Main Sequence Turnoffs in 7 Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Chandar, Rupali

    2011-01-01

    We discuss new photometry from high-resolution images of 7 intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We fit color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with several different sets of theoretical isochrones, and determine systematic uncertainties for population parameters when derived using any one set of isochrones. The cluster CMDs show several interesting features, including extended main sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions, narrow red giant branches, and clear sequences of unresolved binary stars. We show that the extended MSTOs are not caused by photometric uncertainties, contamination by field stars, or the presence of binary stars. Enhanced helium abundances in a fraction of cluster stars are also ruled out as the reason for the extended MSTOs. Quantitative comparisons with simulations indicate that the MSTO regions are better described by a spread in ages than by a bimodal age distribution, although we can not ...

  19. CA II TRIPLET SPECTROSCOPY OF SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD RED GIANTS. III. ABUNDANCES AND VELOCITIES FOR A SAMPLE OF 14 CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Marcionni, N. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, Córdoba, CP 5000 (Argentina); Geisler, D.; Villanova, S. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Grocholski, A. J., E-mail: celeste@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: claria@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: nmarcionni@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: svillanova@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: grocholski@phys.lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We obtained spectra of red giants in 15 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters in the region of the Ca ii lines with FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope. We determined the mean metallicity and radial velocity with mean errors of 0.05 dex and 2.6 km s{sup −1}, respectively, from a mean of 6.5 members per cluster. One cluster (B113) was too young for a reliable metallicity determination and was excluded from the sample. We combined the sample studied here with 15 clusters previously studied by us using the same technique, and with 7 clusters whose metallicities determined by other authors are on a scale similar to ours. This compilation of 36 clusters is the largest SMC cluster sample currently available with accurate and homogeneously determined metallicities. We found a high probability that the metallicity distribution is bimodal, with potential peaks at −1.1 and −0.8 dex. Our data show no strong evidence of a metallicity gradient in the SMC clusters, somewhat at odds with recent evidence from Ca ii triplet spectra of a large sample of field stars. This may be revealing possible differences in the chemical history of clusters and field stars. Our clusters show a significant dispersion of metallicities, whatever age is considered, which could be reflecting the lack of a unique age–metallicity relation in this galaxy. None of the chemical evolution models currently available in the literature satisfactorily represents the global chemical enrichment processes of SMC clusters.

  20. The Search for Multiple Populations in Magellanic Cloud Clusters II: The Detection of Multiple Populations in Three Intermediate-Age SMC Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Niederhofer, F; Kozhurina-Platais, V; Larsen, S; Hollyhead, K; Lardo, C; Cabrera-Ziri, I; Kacharov, N; Platais, I; Salaris, M; Cordero, M; Dalessandro, E; Geisler, D; Hilker, M; Li, C; Mackey, D; Mucciarelli, A

    2016-01-01

    This is the second paper in our series about the search for multiple populations in Magellanic Cloud star clusters using the Hubble Space Telescope. Here we report the detection of multiple stellar populations in the colour-magnitude diagrams of the intermediate-age clusters Lindsay 1, NGC 416 and NGC 339. With ages between 6.0 and 7.5 Gyr, these clusters are the youngest ones in which chemical abundance spreads have been detected so far. This confirms that the appearance of multiple populations is not restricted to only ancient globular clusters, but may also be a common feature in clusters as young as 6 Gyr. Our results are in agreement with a recent spectroscopic study of Lindsay 1. We found that the fraction of enriched stars in NGC 416 is ~45% whereas it is ~25% in NGC 339 and ~36% in Lindsay 1. Similar to NGC 121, these fractions are lower than the average value for globular clusters in the Milky Way.

  1. Swift reveals a ~5.7 day super-orbital period in the M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158

    CERN Document Server

    Barnard, R; Murrray, S S

    2015-01-01

    The M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158 (a.k.a. Bo 158) exhibits intensity dips on a 2.78 hr period in some observations, but not others. The short period suggests a low mass ratio, and an asymmetric, precessing disk due to additional tidal torques from the donor star since the disk crosses the 3:1 resonance. Previous theoretical 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamical modeling suggested a super-orbital disk precession period 29$\\pm$1 times the orbital period, i.e. $\\sim$81$\\pm$3 hr. We conducted a Swift monitoring campaign of 30 observations over ~1 month in order to search for evidence of such a super-orbital period. Fitting the 0.3--10 keV Swift XRT luminosity lightcurve with a sinusoid yielded a period of 5.65+/-0.05 days, and a >5$\\sigma$ improvement in $\\chi^2$ over the best fit constant intensity model. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram revealed that periods 5.4--5.8 days were detected at a >3$\\sigma$ level, with a peak at 5.6 days. We consider this strong evidence for a 5.65 day super-orbital period, ~70\\% l...

  2. Feedback in the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/9): I. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Winds from Super Star Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, A; Graham, J

    2007-06-05

    We present high-resolution (R {approx} 24,600) near-IR spectroscopy of the youngest super star clusters (SSCs) in the prototypical starburst merger, the Antennae Galaxies. These SSCs are young (3-7 Myr old) and massive (10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} M{sub {circle_dot}} for a Kroupa IMF) and their spectra are characterized by broad, extended Brackett {gamma} emission, so we refer to them as emission-line clusters (ELCs) to distinguish them from older SSCs. The Br {gamma} lines of most ELCs have supersonic widths (60-110 km s{sup -1} FWHM) and non-Gaussian wings whose velocities exceed the clusters escape velocities. This high-velocity unbound gas is flowing out in winds that are powered by the clusters massive O and W-R stars over the course of at least several crossing times. The large sizes of some ELCs relative to those of older SSCs may be due to expansion caused by these outflows; many of the ELCs may not survive as bound stellar systems, but rather dissipate rapidly into the field population. The observed tendency of older ELCs to be more compact than young ones is consistent with the preferential survival of the most concentrated clusters at a given age.

  3. Self-adaptive prediction of cloud resource demands using ensemble model and subtractive-fuzzy clustering based fuzzy neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijia; Zhu, Yuanchang; Di, Yanqiang; Feng, Shaochong

    2015-01-01

    In IaaS (infrastructure as a service) cloud environment, users are provisioned with virtual machines (VMs). To allocate resources for users dynamically and effectively, accurate resource demands predicting is essential. For this purpose, this paper proposes a self-adaptive prediction method using ensemble model and subtractive-fuzzy clustering based fuzzy neural network (ESFCFNN). We analyze the characters of user preferences and demands. Then the architecture of the prediction model is constructed. We adopt some base predictors to compose the ensemble model. Then the structure and learning algorithm of fuzzy neural network is researched. To obtain the number of fuzzy rules and the initial value of the premise and consequent parameters, this paper proposes the fuzzy c-means combined with subtractive clustering algorithm, that is, the subtractive-fuzzy clustering. Finally, we adopt different criteria to evaluate the proposed method. The experiment results show that the method is accurate and effective in predicting the resource demands.

  4. Colour-magnitude diagrams of star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds from wide-field electronography. 1. Hodge 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, J. (Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Observatory); Blecha, A. (Observatoire de Geneva (Switzerland)); Walker, M.F. (Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA (USA))

    1984-12-01

    Utilizing the good image quality and large field available with the 9-cm McMullan electronographic camera when attached to the Danish 1.54-m Ritchey-Chretien reflector at La Silla, Chile, a number of star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds have been observed in order to determine their colour-magnitude diagrams with proper correction for the field star contribution. In Hodge 11, the first cluster to be reported from this programme, good measurements have been obtained of 180 stars in the annular field 34 <= R <= 71 arcsec of the cluster itself, and of 154 stars in a nearby control field of similar area, to a limit of V of the order of 22.

  5. Self-Adaptive Prediction of Cloud Resource Demands Using Ensemble Model and Subtractive-Fuzzy Clustering Based Fuzzy Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijia; Zhu, Yuanchang; Di, Yanqiang; Feng, Shaochong

    2015-01-01

    In IaaS (infrastructure as a service) cloud environment, users are provisioned with virtual machines (VMs). To allocate resources for users dynamically and effectively, accurate resource demands predicting is essential. For this purpose, this paper proposes a self-adaptive prediction method using ensemble model and subtractive-fuzzy clustering based fuzzy neural network (ESFCFNN). We analyze the characters of user preferences and demands. Then the architecture of the prediction model is constructed. We adopt some base predictors to compose the ensemble model. Then the structure and learning algorithm of fuzzy neural network is researched. To obtain the number of fuzzy rules and the initial value of the premise and consequent parameters, this paper proposes the fuzzy c-means combined with subtractive clustering algorithm, that is, the subtractive-fuzzy clustering. Finally, we adopt different criteria to evaluate the proposed method. The experiment results show that the method is accurate and effective in predicting the resource demands. PMID:25691896

  6. THE CLUSTERED NATURE OF STAR FORMATION. PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE CLUSTERS IN THE STAR-FORMING REGION NGC 602/N90 IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Gennaro, Mario [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schmeja, Stefan [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, P.O. Box 11337, Tucson, AZ 85734 (United States); Tognelli, Emanuele; Prada Moroni, Pier Giorgio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Enrico Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, largo Pontecorvo 3, Pisa I-56127 (Italy)

    2012-03-20

    Located at the tip of the wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), the star-forming region NGC 602/N90 is characterized by the H II nebular ring N90 and the young cluster of pre-main-sequence (PMS) and early-type main-sequence stars NGC 602, located in the central area of the ring. We present a thorough cluster analysis of the stellar sample identified with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys in the region. We show that apart from the central cluster low-mass PMS stars are congregated in 13 additional small, compact sub-clusters at the periphery of NGC 602, identified in terms of their higher stellar density with respect to the average background density derived from star counts. We find that the spatial distribution of the PMS stars is bimodal, with an unusually large fraction ({approx}60%) of the total population being clustered, while the remaining is diffusely distributed in the intercluster area, covering the whole central part of the region. From the corresponding color-magnitude diagrams we disentangle an age difference of {approx}2.5 Myr between NGC 602 and the compact sub-clusters, which appear younger, on the basis of comparison of the brighter PMS stars with evolutionary models, which we accurately calculated for the metal abundance of the SMC. The diffuse PMS population appears to host stars as old as those in NGC 602. Almost all detected PMS sub-clusters appear to be centrally concentrated. When the complete PMS stellar sample, including both clustered and diffused stars, is considered in our cluster analysis, it appears as a single centrally concentrated stellar agglomeration, covering the whole central area of the region. Considering also the hot massive stars of the system, we find evidence that this agglomeration is hierarchically structured. Based on our findings, we propose a scenario according to which the region NGC 602/N90 experiences an active clustered star formation for the last {approx}5 Myr. The central cluster NGC 602 was

  7. The Effect of Light Therapy on Superficial Radial Nerve Conduction Using a Clustered Array of Infrared Super luminous Diodes and Red Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telemeco, Todd Allen; Schrank, Edward Carl

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lasers, light emitting diodes (LEDs) and super luminous diodes (SLDs) are widely used to treat selected musculoskeletal, integumentary and neurological conditions.The mechanisms underlying the reported treatment effects of light therapy are unclear and the physiologic effect of light on a variety of tissues, particularly neurological, is mostly unknown. A few researchers have reported on the effects of lasers and to a lesser extent infrared LEDs on nerve conduction in superficial nerves, but there is little evidence of the effects of SLDs and red LEDs on conduction parameters of peripheral nerves. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a light therapy generated by cluste rprobe containing an array of infrared super luminous and red light emitting diodes on superficial radial nerve conduction. Methods: This was a single blind, randomized controlled trial conducted in an academic clinical laboratory. Thirty-two healthy participants (mean age = 25 years) were randomized to a treatment group or a placebo group. The treatment group received light irradiation through the application of a cluster probe containing 32 infrared (880nm) SLDs and 4 red (660nm) LEDs for 30 seconds at a dose of 6 J/cm2 to each of the two 5 cm2 segments of skin overlying the superficial radial nerve. The placebo group received identical set-up without the application of light irradiation. Negative peak latency (NPL) and conduction velocity (NCV) for the superficial radial nerve were measured before treatment and for 10-minutes following treatment at 2-minute intervals. Skin temperature was monitored throughout. Results: No significant differences between groups and over time for NPL, NCV, or temperature difference scores were identified. However, a significant increase in skin temperature was measured over time at each time point compared to baseline. Conclusion: Light irradiation using a cluster probe containing infrared super luminous and red light emitting diodes

  8. A unified model for the maximum mass scales of molecular clouds, stellar clusters and high-redshift clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina-Campos, Marta; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik

    2017-08-01

    We present a simple, self-consistent model to predict the maximum masses of giant molecular clouds (GMCs), stellar clusters and high-redshift clumps as a function of the galactic environment. Recent works have proposed that these maximum masses are set by shearing motions and centrifugal forces, but we show that this idea is inconsistent with the low masses observed across an important range of local-Universe environments, such as low-surface density galaxies and galaxy outskirts. Instead, we propose that feedback from young stars can disrupt clouds before the global collapse of the shear-limited area is completed. We develop a shear-feedback hybrid model that depends on three observable quantities: the gas surface density, the epicylic frequency and the Toomre parameter. The model is tested in four galactic environments: the Milky Way, the Local Group galaxy M31, the spiral galaxy M83 and the high-redshift galaxy zC406690. We demonstrate that our model simultaneously reproduces the observed maximum masses of GMCs, clumps and clusters in each of these environments. We find that clouds and clusters in M31 and in the Milky Way are feedback-limited beyond radii of 8.4 and 4 kpc, respectively, whereas the masses in M83 and zC406690 are shear-limited at all radii. In zC406690, the maximum cluster masses decrease further due to their inspiral by dynamical friction. These results illustrate that the maximum masses change from being shear-limited to being feedback-limited as galaxies become less gas rich and evolve towards low shear. This explains why high-redshift clumps are more massive than GMCs in the local Universe.

  9. Ionizing feedback from massive stars in massive clusters III: Disruption of partially unbound clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, J E; Bonnell, I A

    2012-01-01

    We extend our previous SPH parameter study of the effects of photoionization from O-stars on star-forming clouds to include initially unbound clouds. We generate a set of model clouds in the mass range $10^{4}-10^{6}$M$_{\\odot}$ with initial virial ratios $E_{\\rm kin}/E_{\\rm pot}$=2.3, allow them to form stars, and study the impact of the photoionizing radiation produced by the massive stars. We find that, on the 3Myr timescale before supernovae are expected to begin detonating, the fractions of mass expelled by ionizing feedback is a very strong function of the cloud escape velocities. High-mass clouds are largely unaffected dynamically, while lower-mass clouds have large fractions of their gas reserves expelled on this timescale. However, the fractions of stellar mass unbound are modest and significant portions of the unbound stars are so only because the clouds themselves are initially partially unbound. We find that ionization is much more able to create well-cleared bubbles in the unbound clouds, owing t...

  10. From fields to a super-cluster: the role of the environment at z=0.84 with HiZELS

    CERN Document Server

    Sobral, David; Smail, Ian; Geach, Jim

    2010-01-01

    At z=0, clusters are primarily populated by red, elliptical and massive galaxies, while blue, spiral and lower-mass galaxies are common in low-density environments. Understanding how and when these differences were established is of absolute importance for our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution, but results at high-z remain contradictory. By taking advantage of the widest and deepest H-alpha narrow-band survey at z=0.84 over the COSMOS and UKIDSS UDS fields, probing a wide range of densities (from poor fields to rich groups and clusters, including a confirmed super-cluster with a striking filamentary structure), we show that the fraction of star-forming galaxies falls continuously from ~40% in fields to approaching 0% in rich groups/clusters. We also find that the median SFR increases with environmental density, at least up to group densities - but only for low and medium mass galaxies, and thus such enhancement is mass-dependent at z~1. The environment also plays a role in setting the faint-end ...

  11. (Super)alkali atoms interacting with the σ electron cloud: a novel interaction mode triggers large nonlinear optical response of M@P₄ and M@C₃H₆ (M=Li, Na, K and Li₃O).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingang; Yu, Guangtao; Huang, Xuri; Chen, Wei; Niu, Min

    2013-12-01

    Under high-level ab initio calculations, the geometrical structures and nonlinear optical properties of M@P₄ (M=Li, Na, K and Li₃O) and M@C₃H₆ (M=Li and Li₃O) were investigated; all were found to exhibit considerable first hyperpolarizabilities (18110, 1440, 22490, 50487, 2757 and 31776 au, respectively). The computational results revealed that when doping the (super)alkali atom M into the tetrahedral P₄ molecule, the original dual spherical aromaticity of the P₄ moiety is broken and new σ electron cloud is formed on the face of P₄ part interacting with the M atom. It was found that interaction of the (super)alkali atom with the σ electron cloud is a novel mode to produce diffuse excess electrons effectively to achieve a considerable β₀ value. Further, beyond the alkali atom, employing the superalkali unit can be a more effective approach to significantly enhance the first hyperpolarizability of the systems, due to the much lower vertical ionization potential. These results were further supported by the case of the (super)alkali atom interacting with the cyclopropane C₃H₆ molecule with its typical σ aromatic electron cloud. Moreover, the β₀ values of the M@P₄ series are nonmonotonic dependent on alkali atomic number, namely, 1440 au (M = Na) alkali atom and the interacting surface with the σ electron cloud in P4 is a crucial geometrical factor in determining their first hyperpolarizabilities. These intriguing findings will be advantageous for promoting the design of novel high-performance nonlinear optical materials.

  12. Discovery of two embedded clusters with WISE in the high Galactic latitude cloud HRK 81.4-77.8

    CERN Document Server

    Camargo, Denilso; Bonatto, Charles; Salerno, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Molecular clouds at very high latitude ($b>60^{\\circ}$) away from the Galactic plane are rare and in general are expected to be non-star-forming. However, we report the discovery of two embedded clusters (Camargo 438 and Camargo 439) within the high-latitude molecular cloud HRK 81.4-77.8 using WISE. Camargo 439 with Galactic coordinates $\\ell=81.11^{\\circ}$ and $b=-77.84^{\\circ}$ is an $\\sim2$ Myr embedded cluster (EC) located at a distance from the Sun of $d_{\\odot}=5.09\\pm0.47$ kpc. Adopting the distance of the Sun to the Galactic centre $R_{\\odot}=7.2$ kpc we derive for Camargo 439 a Galactocentric distance of $R_{GC}=8.70\\pm0.26$ kpc and a vertical distance from the plane of $-4.97\\pm0.46$ kpc. Camargo 438 at $\\ell=79.66^{\\circ}$ and $b=-78.86^{\\circ}$ presents similar values. The derived parameters for these two ECs put HRK 81.4-77.8 in the halo at a distance from the Galactic centre of $\\sim8.7$ kpc and $\\sim5.0$ kpc from the disc. Star clusters provide the only direct means to determine the high latitu...

  13. CubeSat Cloud: A framework for distributed storage, processing and communication of remote sensing data on cubesat clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Obulapathi Nayudu

    CubeSat Cloud is a novel vision for a space based remote sensing network that includes a collection of small satellites (including CubeSats), ground stations, and a server, where a CubeSat is a miniaturized satellite with a volume of a 10x10x10 cm cube and has a weight of approximately 1 kg. The small form factor of CubeSats limits the processing and communication capabilities. Implemented and deployed CubeSats have demonstrated about 1 GHz processing speed and 9.6 kbps communication speed. A CubeSat in its current state can take hours to process a 100 MB image and more than a day to downlink the same, which prohibits remote sensing, considering the limitations in ground station access time for a CubeSat. This dissertation designs an architecture and supporting networking protocols to create CubeSat Cloud, a distributed processing, storage and communication framework that will enable faster execution of remote sensing missions on CubeSat clusters. The core components of CubeSat Cloud are CubeSat Distributed File System, CubeSat MapMerge, and CubeSat Torrent. The CubeSat Distributed File System has been created for distributing of large amounts of data among the satellites in the cluster. Once the data is distributed, CubeSat MapReduce has been created to process the data in parallel, thereby reducing the processing load for each CubeSat. Finally, CubeSat Torrent has been created to downlink the data at each CubeSat to a distributed set of ground stations, enabling faster asynchronous downloads. Ground stations send the downlinked data to the server to reconstruct the original image and store it for later retrieval. Analysis of the proposed CubeSat Cloud architecture was performed using a custom-designed simulator, called CubeNet and an emulation test bed using Raspberry Pi devices. Results show that for cluster sizes ranging from 5 to 25 small satellites, faster download speeds up to 4 to 22 times faster - can be achieved when using CubeSat Cloud, compared to a

  14. Observational templates of star cluster disruption. The stellar group NGC 1901 in front of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, G; Villanova, S; Bidin, C M; le de Marcos, C F; Baumgardt, H; Solivella, G; Carraro, Giovanni; Marcos, Raul de la Fuente; Villanova, Sandro; Bidin, Christian Moni; Marcos, Carlos de le Fuente; Baumgardt, Holger; Solivella, Gladys

    2007-01-01

    Observations indicate that present-day star formation in the Milky Way disk takes place in stellar ensembles or clusters rather than in isolation. Bound, long lived stellar groups are known as open clusters. They gradually lose stars and in their final evolutionary stages they are severely disrupted leaving an open cluster remnant made of a few stars. In this paper, we study in detail the stellar content and kinematics of the poorly populated star cluster NGC1901. This object appears projected against the Large Magellanic Cloud. The aim of the present work is to derive the current evolutionary status, binary fraction, age and mass of this stellar group. These are fundamental quantities to compare with those from N-body models in order to study the most general topic of star cluster evolution and dissolution.The analysis is performed using wide-field photometry in the UBVI pass-band, proper motions from the UCAC.2 catalog, and 3 epochs of high resolution spectroscopy, as well as results from extensive N-body c...

  15. A VLT/FLAMES STUDY OF THE PECULIAR INTERMEDIATE-AGE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTER NGC 1846. I. KINEMATICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, A. D.; Da Costa, G. S.; Yong, D. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, via Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Ferguson, A. M. N., E-mail: dougal@mso.anu.edu.au [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present high-resolution VLT/FLAMES observations of red giant stars in the massive intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 1846, which, on the basis of its extended main-sequence turnoff (EMSTO), possesses an internal age spread of Almost-Equal-To 300 Myr. We describe in detail our target selection and data reduction procedures, and construct a sample of 21 stars possessing radial velocities indicating their membership of NGC 1846 at high confidence. We consider high-resolution spectra of the planetary nebula Mo-17, and conclude that this object is also a member of the cluster. Our measured radial velocities allow us to conduct a detailed investigation of the internal kinematics of NGC 1846, the first time this has been done for an EMSTO system. The key result of this work is that the cluster exhibits a significant degree of systemic rotation, of a magnitude comparable to the mean velocity dispersion. Using an extensive suite of Monte Carlo models we demonstrate that, despite our relatively small sample size and the substantial fraction of unresolved binary stars in the cluster, the rotation signal we detect is very likely to be genuine. Our observations are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of simulations modeling the formation of multiple populations of stars in globular clusters, where a dynamically cold, rapidly rotating second generation is a common feature. NGC 1846 is less than one relaxation time old, so any dynamical signatures encoded during its formation ought to remain present.

  16. Statistics of Stellar Populations of Star Clusters and Surrounding Fields in the Outer Disk of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, J F C; Claria, J J; Bica, E; Geisler, D; Dottori, H

    1999-01-01

    A comparative analysis of Washington color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for 14 star clusters and respective surrounding fields in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) outer disk is presented. Each CCD frame including field and respective cluster covers an area of 185 arcmin^2. The stellar population sampled is of intermediate age and metallicity. CMD radial analysis involving star count ratios, morphology and integrated light properties are carried out. Luminosity functions (LFs) are also presented. Two main results are: (i) Within the range 4

  17. Identification of a new relatively old star cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Piatti, Andrés E

    2012-01-01

    We present results on the age and metallicity estimates of the astonishingly unstudied SMC cluster ESO 51-SC09, from CCD BVI photometry obtained at the ESO NTT with the EMMI attached. ESO 51-SC09 turns out to be a relatively small cluster (FWHM = (10 +- 1) pc) located ~ 4 deg northward from the galaxy center. We report for the first time a mean cluster age of (7.0 +- 1.3) Gyr and a mean cluster metallicity of [Fe/H] = (-1.00 +- 0.15) dex, concluding that ESO 51-SC09 belongs to the group of the oldest SMC clusters. We found that the cluster is projected onto a dominant field stellar population older (age ~ 10-13 Gyr) and more metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -1.3 +- 0.2 dex), so that the cluster could reach its current location because of its orbital motion.

  18. Ellipticity-age relation for globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 1. Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenk, C.S.; Fall, S.M. (Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy)

    1982-05-01

    The ellipticities of 52 globular clusters in the LMC and 93 in the Galaxy have been estimated by the eye-measurement of their images on Sky Survey enlargements. These were checked against star counts in 12 clusters of the LMC sample, using a procedure developed for this purpose, and against star counts in 19 clusters of the galactic sample, using determinations reported by Kholopov. The results from the eye and count methods are in excellent agreement and a comparison of the two samples shows that the globular clusters in the LMC are significantly flatter than those in the Galaxy. As a means of investigating evolutionary effects, UBV photometry has been used to arrange the LMC clusters in a sequence of relative ages that is equivalent to the one devised by Searle, Wilkinson and Bagnuolo. The results show that young clusters are flatter on average than old clusters and that the shapes of the oldest clusters in the LMC are similar to those of galactic globular clusters. The dependence of ellipticity on age may be due to changes in the shapes of the clusters, changes in the condition of their formation or some combination of both effects.

  19. A 3D clustering approach for point clouds to detect and quantify changes at a rock glacier front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, Natan; Tonini, Marj; Lane, Stuart N.

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) are extensively used in geomorphology to remotely-sense landforms and surfaces of any type and to derive digital elevation models (DEMs). Modern devices are able to collect many millions of points, so that working on the resulting dataset is often troublesome in terms of computational efforts. Indeed, it is not unusual that raw point clouds are filtered prior to DEM creation, so that only a subset of points is retained and the interpolation process becomes less of a burden. Whilst this procedure is in many cases necessary, it implicates a considerable loss of valuable information. First, and even without eliminating points, the common interpolation of points to a regular grid causes a loss of potentially useful detail. Second, it inevitably causes the transition from 3D information to only 2.5D data where each (x,y) pair must have a unique z-value. Vector-based DEMs (e.g. triangulated irregular networks) partially mitigate these issues, but still require a set of parameters to be set and a considerable burden in terms of calculation and storage. Because of the reasons above, being able to perform geomorphological research directly on point clouds would be profitable. Here, we propose an approach to identify erosion and deposition patterns on a very active rock glacier front in the Swiss Alps to monitor sediment dynamics. The general aim is to set up a semiautomatic method to isolate mass movements using 3D-feature identification directly from LiDAR data. An ultra-long range LiDAR RIEGL VZ-6000 scanner was employed to acquire point clouds during three consecutive summers. In order to isolate single clusters of erosion and deposition we applied the Density-Based Scan Algorithm with Noise (DBSCAN), previously successfully employed by Tonini and Abellan (2014) in a similar case for rockfall detection. DBSCAN requires two input parameters, strongly influencing the number, shape and size of the detected clusters: the minimum number of

  20. The chemical composition of red giant stars in four intermediate-age clusters of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Mucciarelli, A; Origlia, L; Ferraro, F R

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the chemical abundance analysis of a sample of 27 red giant stars located in 4 popolous intermediate-age globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud, namely NGC 1651, 1783, 1978 and 2173. This analysis is based on high-resolution (R ~ 47000) spectra obtained with the UVES@VLT spectrograph. For each cluster we derived up to 20 abundance ratios sampling the main chemical elemental groups, namely light odd-Z, alpha, iron-peak and neutron-capture elements. All the analysed abundance patterns behave similarly in the 4 clusters and also show negligible star-to-star scatter within each cluster. We find [Fe/H]=-0.30+-0.03, -0.35+-0.02, -0.38+-0.02 and -0.51+-0.03 dex for NGC 1651, 1783, 1978 and 2173, respectively. The measurement of light odd-Z nuclei gives slightly subsolar [Na/Fe] and a more significant [Al/Fe] depletion (~ -0.50 dex). The [alpha / Fe] abundance ratios are nearly solar, while the iron-peak elements well trace that one of the iron. s-process elements behave in a peculiar way...

  1. The binary fractions in the massive young Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters NGC 1805 and NGC 1818

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai

    2013-01-01

    Using high-resolution data sets obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, we investigate the radial distributions of the F-type main-sequence binary fractions in the massive young Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters NGC 1805 and NGC 1818. We apply both an isochrone-fitting approach and chi^2 minimization using Monte Carlo simulations, for different mass-ratio cut-offs, q, and present a detailed comparison of the methods' performance. Both methods yield the same radial binary fraction profile for the same cluster, which therefore supports the robustness and applicability of either method to young star clusters which are as yet unaffected by the presence of multiple stellar populations. The binary fractions in these two clusters are characterized by opposite trends in their radial profiles. NGC 1805 exhibits a decreasing trend with increasing radius in the central region, followed by a slow increase to the field's binary-fraction level, while NGC 1818 shows a monotonically increasing trend. This may indicate d...

  2. Super Massive Star Clusters: From Superwinds to a Cooling Catastrophe and the Re-processing of the Injected Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Silich, S; Muñoz-Tunón, C; Palous, J

    2006-01-01

    Different hydrodynamic regimes for the gaseous outflows generated by multiple supernovae explosions and stellar winds occurring within compact and massive star clusters are discussed. It is shown that there exists the threshold energy that separates clusters whose outflows evolve in the quasi-adiabatic or radiative regime from those within which catastrophic cooling and a positive feedback star-forming mode sets in. The role of the surrounding ISM and the observational appearance of the star cluster winds evolving in different hydrodynamic regimes are also discussed.

  3. Selective on site separation and detection of molecules in diluted solutions with super-hydrophobic clusters of plasmonic nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Gentile, Francesco T.

    2014-01-01

    Super-hydrophobic surfaces are bio-inspired interfaces with a superficial texture that, in its most common evolution, is formed by a periodic lattice of silicon micro-pillars. Similar surfaces reveal superior properties compared to conventional flat surfaces, including very low friction coefficients. In this work, we modified meso-porous silicon micro-pillars to incorporate networks of metal nano-particles into the porous matrix. In doing so, we obtained a multifunctional-hierarchical system in which (i) at a larger micrometric scale, the super-hydrophobic pillars bring the molecules dissolved in an ultralow-concentration droplet to the active sites of the device, (ii) at an intermediate meso-scale, the meso-porous silicon film adsorbs the low molecular weight content of the solution and, (iii) at a smaller nanometric scale, the aggregates of silver nano-particles would measure the target molecules with unprecedented sensitivity. In the results, we demonstrated how this scheme can be utilized to isolate and detect small molecules in a diluted solution in very low abundance ranges. The presented platform, coupled to Raman or other spectroscopy techniques, is a realistic candidate for the protein expression profiling of biological fluids. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  4. The real population of star clusters in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2017-09-01

    We report results on star clusters located in the south-eastern half of the Large Magellanic (LMC) bar from Washington CT1 photometry. Using appropriate kernel density estimators, we detected 73 star cluster candidates, three of which do not show any detectable trace of star cluster sequences in their colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). We did not detect the other 38 previously catalogued clusters, which could not be recognized when visually inspecting the C and T1 images either; the distribution of stars in their respective fields do not resemble that of a stellar aggregate. They represent 33 per cent of all catalogued objects located within the analysed LMC bar field. From matching theoretical isochrones to the cluster CMDs cleaned from field star contamination, we derived ages in the range 7.2 http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/606/A21

  5. Integrated spectral analysis of 18 concentrated star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Piatti, A E; Bica, E; Claria, J J; Parisi, M C

    2005-01-01

    We present in this study flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the range 3600-6800A for 18 concentrated SMC clusters. Cluster reddening values were estimated by interpolation between the extinction maps of Burstein & Heiles (1982, AJ, 87, 1165) and Schlegel et al. (1998, ApJ, 500, 525). The cluster parameters were derived from the template matching procedure by comparing the line strengths and continuum distribution of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known parameters and from the equivalent width (EW) method. In this case, new calibrations were used together with diagnostic diagrams involving the sum of EWs of selected spectral lines. A very good agreement between ages derived from both methods was found. The final cluster ages obtained from the weighted average of values taken from the literature and the present measured ones range from 15 Mr (e.g. L51) to 7 Gyr (K3). Metal abundances have been derived for only 5 clusters from the present sample, while metallicity values d...

  6. Testing Stellar Population Models with Star Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Beasley, M A; Sharples, R M; Beasley, Michael A.; Hoyle, Fiona; Sharples, Ray M.

    2002-01-01

    We present high S/N integrated spectra of 24 star clusters in the LMC obtained using the FLAIR spectrograph at the UK Schmidt. The spectra have been placed onto the Lick/IDS system in order to test the calibration of Simple Stellar Population (SSP) models. We have compared the SSP-predicted metallicities of the clusters with literature Ca-Triplet values, and find that there is good agreement in the range --2.10 0. We present metallicities for 11 clusters with no previous measurements. Comparison of the SSP ages of the clusters (from Balmer lines) with the literature data shows good agreement for the majority. This includes six old globular clusters in our sample, which have ages consistent with their HST CMD turn-offs. However, two clusters, NGC 1754 and NGC 2005, have Hbeta line-strengths which lead to ages which are too young (~8 and ~6 Gyr respectively at 3 sigma) for their HST CMDs. Comparison between the horizontal branch (HB) morphology and Balmer lines of these clusters suggests that blue HBs have inc...

  7. The Youngest Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Sara

    2014-01-01

    It is likely that all stars are born in clusters, but most clusters are not bound and disperse. None of the many protoclusters in our Galaxy are likely to develop into long-lived bound clusters. The Super Star Clusters (SSCs) seen in starburst galaxies are more massive and compact and have better chances of survival. The birth and early development of SSCs takes place deep in molecular clouds, and during this crucial stage the embedded clusters are invisible to optical or UV observations but are studied via the radio-infared supernebulae (RISN) they excite. We review observations of embedded clusters and identify RISN within 10 Mpc whose exciting clusters have a million solar masses or more in volumes of a few cubic parsecs and which are likely to not only survive as bound clusters, but to evolve into objects as massive and compact as Galactic globulars. These clusters are distinguished by very high star formation efficiency eta, at least a factor of 10 higher than the few percent seen in the Galaxy, probably...

  8. The Old, Super-Metal-Rich Open Cluster, NGC 6791 - Elemental Abundances in Turn-off Stars from Keck/HIRES Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Deliyannis, Constantine P

    2014-01-01

    The study of star clusters has advanced our understanding of stellar evolution, Galactic chemical evolution and nucleosynthesis. Here we investigate the composition of turn-off stars in the intriguing open cluster, NGC 6791, which is old, but super-metal-rich with high-resolution (46,000) Keck/HIRES spectra. We find [Fe/H] = +0.30 +/-0.02 from measurements of some 40 unblended, unsaturated lines of both Fe I and Fe II in eight turn-off stars. Our O abundances come from the O I triplet near 7774 A and we do a differential analysis relative to the Sun from our Lunar spectrum also obtained with Keck/HIRES. The O results are corrected for small nLTE effects. We find consistent ratios of [O/Fe]n with a mean of $-$0.06 +/-0.02. This continues the trend of decreasing [O/Fe] with increasing [Fe/H] found in field stars that are also both old and metal-rich. The small range in our oxygen abundances is consistent with a single population of stars. Our results for the alpha elements [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe]...

  9. First Observational Signature of Rotational Deceleration in a Massive, Intermediate-age Star Cluster in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiaohan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai

    2016-01-01

    While the extended main-sequence turn-offs (eMSTOs) found in almost all 1--2 Gyr-old star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds are often explained by postulating extended star-formation histories, the tight subgiant branches (SGBs) seen in some clusters challenge this popular scenario. Puzzlingly, the SGB of the eMSTO cluster NGC 419 is significantly broader at bluer than at redder colors. We carefully assess and confirm the reality of this observational trend. If we would assume that the widths of the features in color--magnitude space were entirely owing to a range in stellar ages, the star-formation histories of the eMSTO stars and the blue SGB region would be significantly more prolonged than that of the red part of the SGB. This cannot be explained by assuming an internal age spread. We show that rotational deceleration of a population of rapidly rotating stars, a currently hotly debated alternative scenario, naturally explains the observed trend along the SGB. Our analysis shows that a `converging' SGB cou...

  10. Be stars in and around young clusters in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, S C; Bessell, M S; Keller, Stefan C; Wood, Peter R; Bessell, Michael S

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a search for Be stars in six fields centered on the young clusters NGC 330 and NGC 346 in the SMC, and NGC 1818, NGC 1948, NGC 2004 and NGC 2100 in the LMC. Be stars were identified by differencing R band and narrow-band H$\\alpha$ CCD images. Our comparatively large images provide substantial Be star populations both within the clusters and in their surrounding fields. Magnitudes, positions and finding charts are given for the 224 Be stars found. The fraction of Be stars to normal B stars within each cluster is found to vary significantly although the average ratio is similar to the average Be to B star ratio found in the Galaxy. In some clusters, the Be star population is weighted to magnitudes near the main sequence turn-off. The Be stars are redder in $V

  11. Two Populations of Molecular Clouds in the Antennae Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Lisa H; Ho, Luis C

    2012-01-01

    Super star clusters --- extremely massive clusters found predominately in starburst environments --- are essential building blocks in the formation of galaxies and thought to dominate star formation in the high-redshift universe. However, the transformation from molecular gas into these ultra-compact star clusters is not well understood. To study this process, we used the Submillimeter Array and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer to obtain high angular resolution (~1.5" or 160 pc) images of the Antennae overlap region in CO(2--1) to search for the molecular progenitors of the super star clusters. We resolve the molecular gas distribution into a large number of clouds, extending the differential cloud mass function down to a 5\\sigma completeness limit of 3.8x10^5 M_sun. We identify a distinct break in the mass function around log M_mol/M_sun ~ 6.5, which separates the molecular clouds into two distinct populations. The smaller, less massive clouds reside in more quiescent areas in the region, while the larger,...

  12. Super Helium-Rich Population and the Origin of Extreme Horizontal-Branch Stars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Y W; Han, S I; Chung, C; Ree, C H; Sohn, Y J; Kim, Y C; Yoon, S J; Yi, S K; Demarque, P; Lee, Young-Wook; Joo, Seok-Joo; Han, Sang-Il; Chung, Chul; Ree, Chang H.; Sohn, Young-Jong; Kim, Yong-Cheol; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Demarque, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Recent observations for the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of the massive globular cluster Omega Centauri have shown that it has a striking double main sequence (MS), with a minority population of bluer and fainter MS well separated from a majority population of MS stars. Here we confirm, with the most up-to-date Y2 isochrones, that this special feature can only be reproduced by assuming a large variation (Delta Y = 0.15) of primordial helium abundance among several distinct populations in this cluster. We further show that the same helium enhancement required for this special feature on the MS can by itself reproduce the extreme horizontal-branch (HB) stars observed in Omega Cen, which are hotter than normal HB stars. Similarly, the complex features on the HBs of other globular clusters, such as NGC 2808, are explained by large internal variations of helium abundance. Supporting evidence for the helium-rich population is also provided by the far-UV (FUV) observations of extreme HB stars in these clusters, w...

  13. Opportunistic usage of the CMS online cluster using a cloud overlay

    CERN Document Server

    Chaze, Olivier; Andronidis, Anastasios; Behrens, Ulf; Branson, James; Brummer, Philipp; Contescu, Alexandru-Cristian; Cittolin, Sergio; Craigs, Benjamin; Darlea, Georgiana-Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dobson, M; Doualot, Nicolas; Erhan, Samim; Fulcher, Jonathan Richard; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, Andre Georg; Jimenez-Estupiñán, Raul; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Schwick, Christoph; Reis, Thomas; Simelevicius, Dainius; Zejdl, Petr

    2016-01-01

    After two years of maintenance and upgrade, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world, has started its second three year run. Around 1500 computers make up the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) Online cluster. This cluster is used for Data Acquisition of the CMS experiment at CERN, selecting and sending to storage around 20 TBytes of data per day that are then analysed by the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) infrastructure that links hundreds of data centres worldwide. 3000 CMS physicists can access and process data, and are always seeking more computing power and data. The backbone of the CMS Online cluster is composed of 16000 cores which provide as much computing power as all CMS WLCG Tier1 sites (352K HEP-SPEC-06 score in the CMS cluster versus 300K across CMS Tier1 sites). The computing power available in the CMS cluster can significantly speed up the processing of data, so an effort has been made to allocate the resources of the CMS Online cluster to t...

  14. The "Nessie" Nebula: Cluster Formation in a Filamentary Infrared Dark Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, James M; Chambers, Edward T; Rathborne, Jill M; Simon, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The "Nessie" Nebula is a filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC) with a large aspect ratio of over 150:1 (1.5 degrees x 0.01 degrees, or 80 pc x 0.5 pc at a kinematic distance of 3.1 kpc). Maps of HNC (1-0) emission, a tracer of dense molecular gas, made with the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra telescope, show an excellent morphological match to the mid-IR extinction. Moreover, because the molecular line emission from the entire nebula has the same radial velocity to within +/- 3.4 km/s, the nebula is a single, coherent cloud and not the chance alignment of multiple unrelated clouds along the line of sight. The Nessie Nebula contains a number of compact, dense molecular cores which have a characteristic projected spacing of ~ 4.5 pc along the filament. The theory of gravitationally bound gaseous cylinders predicts the existence of such cores, which, due to the "sausage" or "varicose" fluid instability, fragment from the cylinder at a characteristic length scale. If turbulent pressure dominates over...

  15. A survey of clustering algorithms based on cloud computing platform%基于云计算平台的聚类算法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦杏; 缪裕青; 邱良佩; 文益民

    2013-01-01

    In order to discover useful information from massive data more efficiently,data mining based on cloud computing comes into being and attracts large amounts of attention.Cloud computing is an emerging technology with powerful capacities of data collecting,storing and computing.It offers great opportunities for data mining.As one of the main fields of data mining,clustering analysis has been widely applied in many domains.Firstly cloud computing technologies and its current state are introduced briefly.Then the existing clustering algorithms based on cloud computing environment are analyzed and categorized.After some major challenges of clustering on cloud computing platform are listed,a prospect of this field is given.%基于云计算平台的数据挖掘主要目的是为了更好地处理海量数据,挖掘有用的信息.云计算为海量数据挖掘提供了强大的数据收集、存储和计算能力,简述了云计算技术及其研究现状,详细介绍了基于云计算平台的聚类算法,总结在云计算平台研究聚类所遇到的新问题,对基于云计算平台的聚类发展趋势进行展望.

  16. Artificial Intelligence based Solver for Governing Model of Radioactivity Cooling, Self-gravitating Clouds and Clusters of Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Ali Khan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a reliable alternate platform is developed based on artificial neural network optimized with soft computing technique for a non-linear singular system that can model complex physical phenomenas of the nature like radioactivity cooling, self-gravitating clouds and clusters of galaxies. The trial solution is mathematically represented by feed-forward neural network. A cost function is defined in an unsupervised manner that is optimized by a probabilistic meta-heuristic global search technique based on annealing in metallurgy. The results of the designed scheme are evaluated by comparing with the desired response of the system. The applicability, stability and reliability of the proposed method is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Theoretical fit of Cepheid light an radial velocity curves in the Large Magellanic Cloud cluster NGC 1866

    CERN Document Server

    Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Musella, Ilaria; Brocato, Enzo

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of multifilter (U,B,V, I and K) light and radial velocity curves of five Classical Cepheids in NGC 1866, a young massive cluster of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The best fit models accounting for the luminosity and radial velocity variations of the five selected variables, four pulsating in the fundamental mode and one in the first overtone, provide direct estimates of their intrinsic stellar parameters and individual distances. The resulting stellar properties indicate a slightly brighter Mass Luminosity relation than the canonical one, possibly due to mild overshooting and/or mass loss. As for the inferred distances, the individual values are consistent within the uncertainties. Moreover, their weighted mean value corresponds to a distance modulus of 18.56 + - 0.03 (stat) + - 0.1 (syst) mag, in agreement with several independent results in the literature.

  18. The x ray population in globular clusters and three crab-like SNR in the large Magellanic cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, David J.

    1993-01-01

    This document is to serve as the requisite Final Technical Report on grant NAG5-1557 which was awarded under the NASA ROSAT Guest Investigator Program to Columbia University. In response to the NASA Research Anouncement describing the first round of Guest Investigations to be carried out under the U.S.-German ROSAT Program (AO-1), the PI submitted several proposals, three of which were accepted in part: (1) the x-ray population of globular clusters; (2) three crab-like SNR in the Large Magellanic Cloud; and (3) x rays from nearby radio pulsars. The status of these three programs as of 31 May 1993, the termination date of the grant, is reported.

  19. The formation of super-rings

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G

    1980-01-01

    The author has calculated the collision of a small neutral cloud (surface density approximately 10/sup 19/ cm/sup -2/) with a constant density galactic disk. Through the collision, a large amount of energy is deposited in a small volume of the galaxy, resulting in a supersonic expansion of very hot (10/sup 6/-10/sup 7/K) gas into the Galaxy and out of the galactic disk. The expansion generates a large cavity (a super-ring) with physical characteristics (diameter, velocity of expansion, etc.) in agreement with the observations, and a large volume of hot low-density gas with properties similar to those of the observed coronal gas. (31 refs).

  20. Clustering and Functional Coupling of Diverse Ion Channels and Signaling Proteins Revealed by Super-resolution STORM Microscopy in Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Carver, Chase M; Choveau, Frank S; Shapiro, Mark S

    2016-10-19

    The fidelity of neuronal signaling requires organization of signaling molecules into macromolecular complexes, whose components are in intimate proximity. The intrinsic diffraction limit of light makes visualization of individual signaling complexes using visible light extremely difficult. However, using super-resolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), we observed intimate association of individual molecules within signaling complexes containing ion channels (M-type K(+), L-type Ca(2+), or TRPV1 channels) and G protein-coupled receptors coupled by the scaffolding protein A-kinase-anchoring protein (AKAP)79/150. Some channels assembled as multi-channel supercomplexes. Surprisingly, we identified novel layers of interplay within macromolecular complexes containing diverse channel types at the single-complex level in sensory neurons, dependent on AKAP79/150. Electrophysiological studies revealed that such ion channels are functionally coupled as well. Our findings illustrate the novel role of AKAP79/150 as a molecular coupler of different channels that conveys crosstalk between channel activities within single microdomains in tuning the physiological response of neurons.

  1. A Comparison of Optical and Near-Infrared Colours of Magellanic Cloud Star Clusters with Predictions of Simple Stellar Population Models

    CERN Document Server

    Pessev, P M; Puzia, T H; Chandar, R

    2008-01-01

    We present integrated JHK_s 2MASS photometry and a compilation of integrated-light optical photoelectric measurements for 84 star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds. These clusters range in age from ~200 Myr to >10 Gyr, and have [Fe/H] values from -2.2 to -0.1 dex. We find a spread in the intrinsic colours of clusters with similar ages and metallicities, at least some of which is due to stochastic fluctuations in the number of bright stars residing in low-mass clusters. We use 54 clusters with the most reliable age and metallicity estimates as test particles to evaluate the performance of four widely used SSP models in the optical/NIR colour-colour space. All models reproduce the reddening-corrected colours of the old (>10 Gyr) globular clusters quite well, but model performance varies at younger ages. In order to account for the effects of stochastic fluctuations in individual clusters, we provide composite B-V, B-J, V-J, V-Ks and J-Ks colours for Magellanic Cloud clusters in several different age intervals. ...

  2. A Novel Method to Automatically Detect and Measure the Ages of Star Clusters in Nearby Galaxies: Application to the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsakis, T.; Bonfini, P.; González-Lópezlira, R. A.; Ramírez-Siordia, V. H.; Bruzual, G.; Charlot, S.; Maravelias, G.; Zaritsky, D.

    2017-08-01

    We present our new, fully automated method to detect and measure the ages of star clusters in nearby galaxies, where individual stars can be resolved. The method relies purely on statistical analysis of observations and Monte-Carlo simulations to define stellar overdensities in the data. It decontaminates the cluster color-magnitude diagrams and, using a revised version of the Bayesian isochrone fitting code of Ramírez-Siordia et al., estimates the ages of the clusters. Comparisons of our estimates with those from other surveys show the superiority of our method to extract and measure the ages of star clusters, even in the most crowded fields. An application of our method is shown for the high-resolution, multiband imaging of the Large Magellanic Cloud. We detect 4850 clusters in the 7 deg2 we surveyed, 3451 of which have not been reported before. Our findings suggest multiple epochs of star cluster formation, with the most probable occurring ˜310 Myr ago. Several of these events are consistent with the epochs of the interactions among the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, and the Galaxy, as predicted by N-body numerical simulations. Finally, the spatially resolved star cluster formation history may suggest an inside-out cluster formation scenario throughout the LMC, for the past 1 Gyr.

  3. Star formation in bright-rimmed clouds and cluster associated with W5 E H{\\sc ii} region

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Neelam; Ogura, K; Jose, J; Ojha, D K; Samal, M R; Mito, H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of photometric investigations of the central cluster of the W5 E region as well as a follow-up study of the triggered star formation in and around bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs). We have carried out wide field $UBVI_c$ and deep $VI_c$ photometry of the W5 E H{\\sc ii} region. A distance of $\\sim$2.1 kpc and a mean age of $\\sim$1.3 Myr have been obtained for the central cluster. The young stellar objects (YSOs) associated with the region are identified on the basis of near-infrared and mid-infrared observations. We confirmed our earlier results that the average age of the YSOs lying on/inside the rim are younger than those lying outside the rim. The global distribution of the YSOs shows an aligned distribution from the ionising source to the BRCs. These facts indicate that a series of radiation driven implosion processes proceeded from near the central ionising source towards the periphery of the W5 E H{\\sc ii} region. We found that, in general, the age distributions...

  4. B, V photometry for ∼19,000 stars in and around the Magellanic Cloud globular clusters NGC 1466, NGC 1841, NGC 2210, NGC 2257, and reticulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Young-Beom [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nemec, James M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Camosun College, Victoria, BC V8P 5J2 (Canada); Walker, Alistair R.; Kunder, Andrea M., E-mail: ybjeon@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: nemec@camosun.ca, E-mail: jmn@isr.bc.ca, E-mail: awalker@ctio.noao.edu, E-mail: akunder@ctio.noao.edu [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2014-06-01

    Homogeneous B, V photometry is presented for 19,324 stars in and around 5 Magellanic Cloud globular clusters: NGC 1466, NGC 1841, NGC 2210, NGC 2257, and Reticulum. The photometry is derived from eight nights of CCD imaging with the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory 0.9 m SMARTS telescope. Instrumental magnitudes were transformed to the Johnson B, V system using accurate calibration relations based on a large sample of Landolt-Stetson equatorial standard stars, which were observed on the same nights as the cluster stars. Residual analysis of the equatorial standards used for the calibration, and validation of the new photometry using Stetson's sample of secondary standards in the vicinities of the five Large Magellanic Cloud clusters, shows excellent agreement with our values in both magnitudes and colors. Color-magnitude diagrams reaching to the main-sequence turnoffs at V ∼ 22 mag, sigma-magnitude diagrams, and various other summaries are presented for each cluster to illustrate the range and quality of the new photometry. The photometry should prove useful for future studies of the Magellanic Cloud globular clusters, particularly studies of their variable stars.

  5. FIRST SCIENCE RESULTS FROM SOFIA/FORCAST: SUPER-RESOLUTION IMAGING OF THE S140 CLUSTER AT 37 {mu}m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Paul M. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Adams, Joseph D.; Herter, Terry L.; Gull, George; Schoenwald, Justin, E-mail: pmh@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: jdadams@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: tlh10@cornell.edu, E-mail: geg3@cornell.edu, E-mail: jps10@cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); and others

    2012-04-20

    We present 37 {mu}m imaging of the S140 complex of infrared sources centered on IRS1 made with the FORCAST camera on SOFIA. These observations are the longest wavelength imaging to resolve clearly the three main sources seen at shorter wavelengths, IRS 1, 2, and 3, and are nearly at the diffraction limit of the 2.5 m telescope. We also obtained a small number of images at 11 and 31 {mu}m that are useful for flux measurement. Our images cover the area of several strong submillimeter sources seen in the area-SMM 1, 2, and 3-that are not coincident with any mid-infrared sources and are not visible in our longer wavelength imaging either. Our new observations confirm previous estimates of the relative dust optical depth and source luminosity for the components in this likely cluster of early B stars. We also investigate the use of super-resolution to go beyond the basic diffraction limit in imaging on SOFIA and find that the van Cittert algorithm, together with the 'multi-resolution' technique, provides excellent results.

  6. A multi-beam HI survey of the Virgo Cluster - two isolated HI clouds ?

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, J; Sabatini, S; Van Driel, W; Baes, M; Boyce, P; De Blok, W J G; Disney, M; Evans, R; Kilborn, V; Lang, R; Linder, S; Roberts, S; Smith, R; Evans, Rh.

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out a fully sampled large area ($4^{\\circ} \\times 8^{\\circ}$) 21cm \\HI line survey of part of the Virgo cluster using the Jodrell Bank multi-beam instrument. The survey has a sensitivity some 3 times better than the standard HIJASS and HIPASS surveys. We detect 31 galaxies, 27 of which are well known cluster members. The four new detections have been confirmed in the HIPASS data and by follow up Jodrell Bank pointed observations. One object lies behind M86, but the other 3 have no obvious optical counter parts upon inspection of the digital sky survey fields. These 3 objects were mapped at Arecibo with a smaller \\am{3}{6} HPBW and a 4 times better sensitivity than the Jodrell Bank data, which allow an improved determination of the dimensions and location of two of the objects, but surprisingly failed to detect the third. The two objects are resolved by the Arecibo beam giving them a size far larger than any optical images in the nearby field. To our mass limit of $5 \\times 10^{7}$ $\\frac{\\Delt...

  7. The realm of the Galactic globular clusters and the mass of their primordial clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Cassisi, Santi; Silich, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    By adopting the empirical constraints related to the estimates of Helium enhancement ($\\Delta Y$), present mass ratio between first and second stellar generations ($M_{1G}/M_{2G}$) and the actual mass of Galactic globular clusters ($M_{GC}$), we envisage a possible scenario for the formation of these stellar systems. Our approach allows for the possible loss of stars through evaporation or tidal interactions and different star formation efficiencies. In our approach the star formation efficiency of the first generation ($\\epsilon_{1G}$) is the central factor that links the stellar generations as it not only defines both the mass in stars of the first generation and the remaining mass available for further star formation, but it also fixes the amount of matter required to contaminate the second stellar generation. In this way, $\\epsilon_{1G}$ is fully defined by the He enhancement between successive generations in a GC. We also show that globular clusters fit well within a $\\Delta Y$ {\\it vs} $M_{1G}/M_{2G}$ d...

  8. THE INSIDIOUS BOOSTING OF THERMALLY PULSING ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS IN INTERMEDIATE-AGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardi, Léo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Marigo, Paola [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bressan, Alessandro [SISSA, via Bonomea 365, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Rosenfield, Philip [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    In the recent controversy about the role of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars in evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) models of galaxies, one particular aspect is puzzling: TP-AGB models aimed at reproducing the lifetimes and integrated fluxes of the TP-AGB phase in Magellanic Cloud (MC) clusters, when incorporated into EPS models, are found to overestimate, to various extents, the TP-AGB contribution in resolved star counts and integrated spectra of galaxies. In this paper, we call attention to a particular evolutionary aspect, linked to the physics of stellar interiors, that in all probability is the main cause of this conundrum. As soon as stellar populations intercept the ages at which red giant branch stars first appear, a sudden and abrupt change in the lifetime of the core He-burning phase causes a temporary 'boost' in the production rate of subsequent evolutionary phases, including the TP-AGB. For a timespan of about 0.1 Gyr, triple TP-AGB branches develop at slightly different initial masses, causing their frequency and contribution to the integrated luminosity of the stellar population to increase by a factor of ∼2. The boost occurs for turn-off masses of ∼1.75 M{sub ☉}, just in the proximity of the expected peak in the TP-AGB lifetimes (for MC metallicities), and for ages of ∼1.6 Gyr. Coincidently, this relatively narrow age interval happens to contain the few very massive MC clusters that host most of the TP-AGB stars used to constrain stellar evolution and EPS models. This concomitance makes the AGB-boosting particularly insidious in the context of present EPS models. As we discuss in this paper, the identification of this evolutionary effect brings about three main consequences. First, we claim that present estimates of the TP-AGB contribution to the integrated light of galaxies derived from MC clusters are biased toward too large values. Second, the relative TP-AGB contribution of single-burst populations

  9. cl-dash: rapid configuration and deployment of Hadoop clusters for bioinformatics research in the cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodor, Paul; Chawla, Amandeep; Clark, Andrew; Neal, Lauren

    2016-01-15

    : One of the solutions proposed for addressing the challenge of the overwhelming abundance of genomic sequence and other biological data is the use of the Hadoop computing framework. Appropriate tools are needed to set up computational environments that facilitate research of novel bioinformatics methodology using Hadoop. Here, we present cl-dash, a complete starter kit for setting up such an environment. Configuring and deploying new Hadoop clusters can be done in minutes. Use of Amazon Web Services ensures no initial investment and minimal operation costs. Two sample bioinformatics applications help the researcher understand and learn the principles of implementing an algorithm using the MapReduce programming pattern. Source code is available at https://bitbucket.org/booz-allen-sci-comp-team/cl-dash.git. hodor_paul@bah.com. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Building an Elastic Parallel OGC Web Processing Service on a Cloud-Based Cluster: A Case Study of Remote Sensing Data Processing Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xicheng Tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC proposed the geospatial Web Processing Service (WPS, standard OGC Web Service (OWS-based geospatial processing has become the major type of distributed geospatial application. However, improving the performance and sustainability of the distributed geospatial applications has become the dominant challenge for OWSs. This paper presents the construction of an elastic parallel OGC WPS service on a cloud-based cluster and the designs of a high-performance, cloud-based WPS service architecture, the scalability scheme of the cloud, and the algorithm of the elastic parallel geoprocessing. Experiments of the remote sensing data processing service demonstrate that our proposed method can provide a higher-performance WPS service that uses less computing resources. Our proposed method can also help institutions reduce hardware costs, raise the rate of hardware usage, and conserve energy, which is important in building green and sustainable geospatial services or applications.

  11. Rydberg Matter clusters of alkali metal atoms: the link between meteoritic matter, polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE), sporadic sodium layers, polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs, NLCs), and ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Olofson, Frans; Holmlid, Leif

    2010-01-01

    A material exists which links together the influx of meteoritic matter from interplanetary space, the polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE), the sporadic sodium layers, the polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs, NLCs), and the observed ion chemistry in the mesosphere. The evidence in these research fields is here analyzed and found to agree well with the properties of Rydberg Matter (RM). This material has been studied with numerous methods in the laboratory. Alkali atoms, mainly Na, reach the mesosphere in the form of interplanetary (meteoritic, cometary) dust. The planar RM clusters NaN usually contain N = 19, 37 or 61 atoms, and have the density of air at 90 km altitude where they float. The diameters of the clusters are 10-100 nm from laboratory high precision radio frequency spectroscopic studies. Such experiments show that RM clusters interact strongly with radar frequencies: this explains the radio frequency heating and reflection studies of PMSE layers. The clusters give the low temperature in the mesosphere...

  12. Short- and long-term variability of young stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster and Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Rivilla, V M; Sanz-Forcada, J; Jiménez-Serra, I; Forbrich, J; Martín-Pintado, J

    2015-01-01

    We used the Very Large Array to carry out a multi-epoch radio continuum monitoring of the Orion Nebula Cluster and Orion Molecular Cloud. Our observations reveal the presence of 19 sources. With the exception of the sources BN and C the sources show variability between the different epochs. We have found tentative evidence of variability in the massive object related with source I. Our observations also confirm radio flux density variations of a factor >2 on timescales of hours to days in 5 sources. One of these flaring sources, OHC-E, has been detected for the first time. We conclude that the radio emission arises from: i) highly-variable non-thermal gyrosynchrotron emission produced by electrons accelerated in the magnetospheres of pre-main sequence stars; ii) thermal emission from ionized gas and/or heated dust around massive objects and proplyds. Combining our sample with other radio monitoring and a X-ray catalog, we have studied the properties of 51 radio/X-ray stars. We have found severals hints of a d...

  13. Discovery of a New Member of the Inner Oort Cloud from The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Gwyn, Stephen; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Jordán, Andrés; Suc, Vincent; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of 2010 GB$_{174}$, a likely new member of the Inner Oort Cloud (IOC). 2010 GB$_{174}$ is one of 91 Trans Neptunian Objects (TNOs) and Centaurs discovered in a 76 deg$^2$ contiguous region imaged as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) --- a moderate ecliptic latitude survey reaching a mean limiting magnitude of $g^\\prime \\simeq 25.5$ --- using MegaPrime on the 3.6m Canada France Hawaii Telescope. 2010 GB$_{174}$ is found to have an orbit with semi-major axis $a\\simeq350.8$ AU, inclination $i \\simeq 21.6^\\circ$ and pericentre $q\\sim48.5$ AU. This is the second largest perihelion distance among known solar system objects. Based on the sky coverage and depth of the NGVS, we estimate the number of IOC members with sizes larger than 300 km ($H_V \\le 6.2$ mag) to be $\\simeq 11\\,000$. A comparison of the detection rate from the NGVS and the PDSSS (a characterized survey that `re-discovered' the IOC object Sedna) gives, for an assumed a power-law LF for IOC objects, a slope...

  14. Studies of 3D-cloud optical depth from small to very large values, and of the radiation and remote sensing impacts of larger-drop clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiscombe, Warren [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Marshak, Alexander [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Knyazikhin, Yuri [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Chiu, Christine [Univ. of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-05-04

    We have basically completed all the goals stated in the previous proposal and published or submitted journal papers thereon, the only exception being First-Principles Monte Carlo which has taken more time than expected. We finally finished the comprehensive book on 3D cloud radiative transfer (edited by Marshak and Davis and published by Springer), with many contributions by ARM scientists; this book was highlighted in the 2005 ARM Annual Report. We have also completed (for now) our pioneering work on new models of cloud drop clustering based on ARM aircraft FSSP data, with applications both to radiative transfer and to rainfall. This clustering work was highlighted in the FY07 “Our Changing Planet” (annual report of the US Climate Change Science Program). Our group published 22 papers, one book, and 5 chapters in that book, during this proposal period. All are listed at the end of this section. Below, we give brief highlights of some of those papers.

  15. The VMC survey - XVI. Spatial variation of the cluster-formation activity in the innermost regions of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Piatti, Andrés E; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Ivanov, Valentin D; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L; Marconi, Marcella; Rubele, Stefano; Bekki, Kenji; For, Bi-Qing

    2015-01-01

    We present results based on $YJK_{\\rm s}$ photometry of star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), distributed throughout the central part of the galaxy's bar and the 30 Doradus region. We analysed the field-star decontaminated colour--magnitude diagrams of 313 clusters to estimate their reddening values and ages. The clusters are affected by a mean reddening of $E(B-V) \\in [0.2,0.3]$ mag, where the average internal LMC reddening amounts to $\\sim$ 0.1--0.2 mag. The region covering 30 Doradus includes clusters with reddening values in excess of $E(B-V)$ = 0.4 mag. Our cluster sample spans the age range $7.0 \\le \\log(t$ yr$^{-1}) < 9.0$, represents an increase of 30 per cent in terms of the number of clusters with robust age estimates and comprises a statistically complete sample in the LMC regions of interest here. The resulting cluster frequencies suggest that the outermost regions of the LMC bar first experienced enhanced cluster formation -- $\\log(t$ yr$^{-1}) \\in [8.5,9.0]$ -- before the activit...

  16. Star Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Gieles, M.

    1993-01-01

    Star clusters are observed in almost every galaxy. In this thesis we address several fundamental problems concerning the formation, evolution and disruption of star clusters. From observations of (young) star clusters in the interacting galaxy M51, we found that clusters are formed in complexes of stars and star clusters. These complexes share similar properties with giant molecular clouds, from which they are formed. Many (70%) of the young clusters will not survive the fist 10 Myr, due to t...

  17. Ca II Triplet Spectroscopy of Small Magellanic Cloud Red Giants. IV. Abundances for a Large Sample of Field Stars and Comparison with the Cluster Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, M. C.; Geisler, D.; Carraro, G.; Clariá, J. J.; Villanova, S.; Gramajo, L. V.; Sarajedini, A.; Grocholski, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper represents a major step forward in the systematic and homogeneous study of Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) star clusters and field stars carried out by applying the calcium triplet technique. We present in this work the radial velocity and metallicity of approximately 400 red giant stars in 15 SMC fields, with typical errors of about 7 km s-1 and 0.16 dex, respectively. We added to this information our previously determined metallicity values for 29 clusters and approximately 350 field stars using the identical techniques. Using this enlarged sample, we analyze the metallicity distribution and gradient in this galaxy. We also compare the chemical properties of the clusters and of their surrounding fields. We find a number of surprising results. While the clusters, taken as a whole, show no strong evidence for a metallicity gradient (MG), the field stars exhibit a clear negative gradient in the inner region of the SMC, consistent with the recent results of Dobbie et al. For distances to the center of the galaxy less than 4°, field stars show a considerably smaller metallicity dispersion than that of the clusters. However, in the external SMC regions, clusters and field stars exhibit similar metallicity dispersions. Moreover, in the inner region of the SMC, clusters appear to be concentrated in two groups: one more metal-poor and another more metal-rich than field stars. Individually considered, neither cluster group presents an MG. Most surprisingly, the MG for both stellar populations (clusters and field stars) appears to reverse sign in the outer regions of the SMC. The difference between the cluster metallicity and the mean metallicity of the surrounding field stars turns out to be a strong function of the cluster metallicity. These results could be indicating different chemical evolution histories for these two SMC stellar populations. They could also indicate variations in the chemical behavior of the SMC in its internal and external regions.

  18. Seeding Conditions of Precipitation Enhancement Revealed by Multiple Spectral Data of Satellite.Ⅱ: Super-cooled Layer Clouds%卫星遥感人工增雨作业条件Ⅱ:层状云

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贵华; 余兴; 岳治国; 戴进; 徐小红; 朱延年

    2012-01-01

    通过卫星多光谱资料的定标,利用可见光反射率、3.7 μm和11 μm辐射亮温,反演了云顶粒子有效半径、云顶温度等云特征参数.运用图像合成技术,建立了反映云宏、微观特征的RGB合成图.利用发展的多光谱云微物理综合分析方法,通过极轨卫星分析了不同过冷层状云及其降水特征,结合增雨假设,总结出适宜人工增雨作业的卫星判据为:云厚大于1.5 km,云顶温度-5~-15℃时,有效半径小于25 μm;或云顶温度-15~-25℃时,有效半径小于15 μm.利用可见光反射率、云顶温度和有效半径多阈值建立人工增雨播云等级和分级显示.通过静止卫星跟踪云系演变,进一步确定播云部位和作业时机,指导人工增雨作业.%On the basis of calibration of multiple spectral satellite data, parameters of cloud properties such as particle effective radius and temperature of cloud tops were retrieved from the reflectance of visible channel and brightness temperature at 3.7 urn and 11 μm wavelengths. By means of imagery compositions such as code reflectance at visible and 3.7 μrn channels and a brightness temperature of 11 μm channel with primary colors of red, blue, and green (RGB), RGB composite imagery was developed to reflect the micro- and macrophysical properties of clouds. Multiple-spectral comprehensive methodology was used to analyze the microphysical properties and precipitation for super-cooled layer clouds via polar-orbit satellite data. On the basis of the assumption of precipitation enhancement and the analyzed results, the suitable criterion for rainfall enhancement for these types of clouds is summarized by the following parameters: Cloud thickness is greater than 1.5 km, and effective radius should be less than 25 μm when the temperature ranges between -5 ℃ and -15 ℃ and less than 15 μm when temperature is between -15 ℃ and -25 ℃. The classes of cloud seed ability for precipitation enhancement and

  19. A comparison of performance of automatic cloud coverage assessment algorithm for Formosat-2 image using clustering-based and spatial thresholding methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuo-Hsien

    2012-11-01

    Formosat-2 image is a kind of high-spatial-resolution (2 meters GSD) remote sensing satellite data, which includes one panchromatic band and four multispectral bands (Blue, Green, Red, near-infrared). An essential sector in the daily processing of received Formosat-2 image is to estimate the cloud statistic of image using Automatic Cloud Coverage Assessment (ACCA) algorithm. The information of cloud statistic of image is subsequently recorded as an important metadata for image product catalog. In this paper, we propose an ACCA method with two consecutive stages: preprocessing and post-processing analysis. For pre-processing analysis, the un-supervised K-means classification, Sobel's method, thresholding method, non-cloudy pixels reexamination, and cross-band filter method are implemented in sequence for cloud statistic determination. For post-processing analysis, Box-Counting fractal method is implemented. In other words, the cloud statistic is firstly determined via pre-processing analysis, the correctness of cloud statistic of image of different spectral band is eventually cross-examined qualitatively and quantitatively via post-processing analysis. The selection of an appropriate thresholding method is very critical to the result of ACCA method. Therefore, in this work, We firstly conduct a series of experiments of the clustering-based and spatial thresholding methods that include Otsu's, Local Entropy(LE), Joint Entropy(JE), Global Entropy(GE), and Global Relative Entropy(GRE) method, for performance comparison. The result shows that Otsu's and GE methods both perform better than others for Formosat-2 image. Additionally, our proposed ACCA method by selecting Otsu's method as the threshoding method has successfully extracted the cloudy pixels of Formosat-2 image for accurate cloud statistic estimation.

  20. Population Parameters of Intermediate-Age Star Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. III. Dynamical Evidence for a Range of Ages Being Responsible for Extended Main Sequence Turnoffs

    CERN Document Server

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Chandar, Rupali; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera

    2011-01-01

    We present new analysis of 11 intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. Seven of the clusters feature main sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions that are wider than can be accounted for by a simple stellar population, whereas their red giant branches indicate a single value of [Fe/H]. The star clusters cover a range in present-day mass from about 1E4 to 2E5 solar masses. We compare radial distributions of stars in the upper and lower parts of the MSTO region, and calculate cluster masses and escape velocities from the present time back to a cluster age of 10 Myr. Our main result is that for all clusters in our sample with estimated escape velocities > 15 km/s at an age of 10 Myr, the stars in the brightest half of the MSTO region are significantly more centrally concentrated than the stars in the faintest half AND more massive red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch stars. This is not the case for clusters with escape velocities < 10...

  1. 基于知识守门者的超集群知识网络自主构建研究%Research on the Building of Super Cluster Knowledge Networks based on the Knowledge Gatekeepers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑准; 唐靖; 王国顺

    2014-01-01

    The research indicates that for the internal and external reasons the cluster knowledge networks will fall into a situation of closing and petrifaction,so cluster knowledge networks should upgrade to super cluster knowledge networks. The article thinks that super cluster knowledge networks is a complicated network that is built by knowledge gatekeeper, beyond the region even beyond the national boundaries and composed by differentiated internal-central network and struc-tural holes.Building the super cluster knowledge networks has great meanings for our Chinese cluster's global knowledge absorption and knowledge diffusion and usage in the clusters.%研究表明,发展中国家集群知识网络演化到一定阶段,往往会因为内外部原因陷入一种网络封闭和僵化状态,对此,必须实现集群知识网络向超集群知识网络的战略升级。对超集群知识网络范围、网络主体和网络开放性特征进行深入分析,认为超集群知识网络是一种跨区域甚至是跨越国界的、由多样化内聚网和结构洞所组成的一种复杂网络结构,而集群中的一类重要异质性主体---知识守门者能在网络构建方面发挥重要作用。以知识守门者为核心构建超集群知识网络,对于我国产业集群知识获取以及集群内的知识扩散与运用具有重要意义。

  2. Super Special Codes using Super Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Ilanthenral, K

    2010-01-01

    The new classes of super special codes are constructed in this book using the specially constructed super special vector spaces. These codes mainly use the super matrices. These codes can be realized as a special type of concatenated codes. This book has four chapters. In chapter one basic properties of codes and super matrices are given. A new type of super special vector space is constructed in chapter two of this book. Three new classes of super special codes namely, super special row code, super special column code and super special codes are introduced in chapter three. Applications of these codes are given in the final chapter.

  3. Genetic fuzzy clustering algorithm for point cloud data segmentation%应用遗传模糊聚类实现点云数据区域分割

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海伦; 黎荣; 丁国富; 葛源坤

    2012-01-01

    为了准确地实现点云数据的区域分割,将基于遗传算法的模糊聚类算法应用于逆向工程中的点云数据区域分割中.首先估算出法矢量、高斯曲率和平均曲率,并与坐标一起组成八维特征向量,用加权距离代替欧氏距离,然后通过遗传算法获得全局最优解的近似解;最后将近似解作为模糊聚类的初始解进行迭代,实现点云数据的区域分割,从而避免传统FCM算法的局部性和对初始解的敏感性,减少了迭代次数.以汽车钣金件为例,证明了应用遗传模糊聚类实现点云数据区域分割的有效性,并验证了该方法能快速、准确地实现点云数据的区域分割.%In order to realize point cloud data segmentation accurately, this paper applied genetic fuzzy clustering algorithm to the point cloud data segmentation in reverse engineering. First, it estimated the normal vector, Gaussian curvature and mean curvature, together with the coordinates of the eight-dimensional feature vector component, using weight distance replaced the Euclidean distance. Through the genetic algorithm, it obtained the approximate solution of the global optimal solution. Finally it used the approximate solution as the initial solutions of fuzzy clustering iteration achieved the point cloud data region segmentation , therefore, avoided the locality and sensitiveness of the initial condition of fuzzy clustering algorithm, at the same time, it reduced the number of iterations. Taking car sheet metal for an example proves the validation of genetic fuzzy clustering algorithm applied to the point cloud data segmentation. And point cloud data can be segmented fast and accurately by this algorithm.

  4. High-Performance Cloud Computing: A View of Scientific Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vecchiola, Christian; Buyya, Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    Scientific computing often requires the availability of a massive number of computers for performing large scale experiments. Traditionally, these needs have been addressed by using high-performance computing solutions and installed facilities such as clusters and super computers, which are difficult to setup, maintain, and operate. Cloud computing provides scientists with a completely new model of utilizing the computing infrastructure. Compute resources, storage resources, as well as applications, can be dynamically provisioned (and integrated within the existing infrastructure) on a pay per use basis. These resources can be released when they are no more needed. Such services are often offered within the context of a Service Level Agreement (SLA), which ensure the desired Quality of Service (QoS). Aneka, an enterprise Cloud computing solution, harnesses the power of compute resources by relying on private and public Clouds and delivers to users the desired QoS. Its flexible and service based infrastructure...

  5. A Spectroscopically Confirmed Excess of 24 micron Sources in a Super Galaxy Group at z=0.37: Enhanced Dusty Star Formation Relative to the Cluster and Field Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, Kim-Vy H; Moustakas, John; Bai, Lei; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Holden, Bradford P; Zaritsky, Dennis; Kautsch, Stefan J

    2009-01-01

    To trace how dust-obscured star formation varies with environment, we compare the fraction of 24 micron sources in a super galaxy group to the field and a rich galaxy cluster at z~0.35. We draw on multi-wavelength observations that combine Hubble, Chandra, and Spitzer imaging with extensive optical spectroscopy (>1800 redshifts) to isolate galaxies in each environment and thus ensure a uniform analysis. We focus on the four galaxy groups in supergroup 1120-12 that will merge to form a galaxy cluster comparable in mass to Coma. We find that 1) the fraction of supergroup galaxies with SFR(IR)>3 Msun/yr is four times higher than in the cluster (32% vs. 7%); 2) the supergroup's infrared luminosity function confirms that it has a higher density of IR members compared to the cluster and includes bright IR sources not found in galaxy clusters at z0.5 Mpc); once their star formation is quenched, most will evolve into faint red galaxies. Our analysis indicates that the supergroup's 24 micron population also differs fr...

  6. Super Factories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D G Hitlin

    2006-11-01

    Heavy-flavor physics, in particular and physics results from the factories, currently provides strong constraints on models of physics beyond the Standard Model. A new generation of colliders, Super Factories, with 50 to 100 times the luminosity of existing colliders, can, in a dialog with LHC and ILC, provide unique clarification of new physics phenomena seen at those machines.

  7. Belle II public and private cloud management in VMDIRAC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzymkowski, Rafa; Hara, Takanori; Belle computing Group, II

    2015-12-01

    The role of cloud computing technology in the distributed computing for HEP experiments grows rapidly. Some experiments (Atlas, BES-III, LHCb) already exploit private and public cloud resources for the data processing. Future experiments such as Belle II or upgraded LHC experiments will largely rely on the availability of cloud resources and therefore their computing models have to be adjusted to the specific features of cloud environment, in particular to the on-demand computing paradigm. Belle II experiment at SuperKEKB will start physics run in 2017. Belle II computing requirements are challenging. The data size at the level of hundred PB is expected after several years of operation, around 2020. The baseline solution selected for distributed processing is the DIRAC system. DIRAC can handle variety of computing resources including Grids, Clouds and independent clusters. Cloud resources can be connected by VMDIRAC module through public interfaces. In particular the mechanism of dynamic activation of new virtual machines with reserved job slots for new tasks in case of an increasing demand for computing resources is introduced. This work is focused on VMDIRAC interaction with public (Amazon EC2) and private (CC1) cloud. The solution applied by Belle II experiment and the experience from Monte Carlo production campaigns will be presented. Updated computation costs for different use cases will be shown.

  8. New Clues to the Cause of Extended Main Sequence Turn-Offs in Intermediate-Age Star Clusters in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Correnti, Matteo; Kalirai, Jason S; Girardi, Leo; Puzia, Thomas H; Kerber, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    We use the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain deep, high resolution images of two intermediate-age star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud of relatively low mass ($\\approx$ $10^4$ $M_{\\odot}$) and significantly different core radii, namely NGC2209 and NGC2249. For comparison purposes, we also re-analyzed archival HST images of NGC1795 and IC2146, two other relatively low mass star clusters. From the comparison of the observed color-magnitude diagrams with Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the main sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions in NGC2209 and NGC2249 are significantly wider than that derived from simulations of simple stellar populations, while those in NGC1795 and IC2146 are not. We determine the evolution of the clusters' masses and escape velocities from an age of 10 Myr to the present age. We find that the differences among these clusters can be explained by dynamical evolution arguments if the currently extended clusters (NGC2209 and IC2146) experienced...

  9. From cloud crash to star birth: star formation in cloud collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Kazuhiro; Tasker, Elizabeth; Habe, Asao

    2015-08-01

    Much speculation surrounds the role of collisions between giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the galactic star formation rate.Once thought to be uncommon occurrences, observations and simulation now suggestthese could explain the formation of our most massive stars and super star clusters.To explore the result of such interactions, we simulated idealised GMC collisions with star formation and radiative feedback processes.Our results suggest that the star population formed has a stellar mass function index of -0.1 (compared with -1.4 for the non-collisional population),in good agreement with the observations of the assumed cloud collision case, NGC6334 (Munoz et al. 2007).Radiative feedback has a relatively modest dynamical effect on the collisional gas distribution,but increases the star formation rate post collision as the expanding HII bubbles trigger a subsequent stellar population.

  10. Cluster Forests

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Donghui; Jordan, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by Random Forests (RF) in the context of classification, we propose a new clustering ensemble method---Cluster Forests (CF). Geometrically, CF randomly probes a high-dimensional data cloud to obtain "good local clusterings" and then aggregates via spectral clustering to obtain cluster assignments for the whole dataset. The search for good local clusterings is guided by a cluster quality measure $\\kappa$. CF progressively improves each local clustering in a fashion that resembles the tree growth in RF. Empirical studies on several real-world datasets under two different performance metrics show that CF compares favorably to its competitors. Theoretical analysis shows that the $\\kappa$ criterion is shown to grow each local clustering in a desirable way---it is "noise-resistant." A closed-form expression is obtained for the mis-clustering rate of spectral clustering under a perturbation model, which yields new insights into some aspects of spectral clustering.

  11. Finding Tropical Cyclones on a Cloud Computing Cluster: Using Parallel Virtualization for Large-Scale Climate Simulation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenkamp, Daren; Sim, Alexander; Wehner, Michael; Wu, Kesheng

    2010-09-30

    Extensive computing power has been used to tackle issues such as climate changes, fusion energy, and other pressing scientific challenges. These computations produce a tremendous amount of data; however, many of the data analysis programs currently only run a single processor. In this work, we explore the possibility of using the emerging cloud computing platform to parallelize such sequential data analysis tasks. As a proof of concept, we wrap a program for analyzing trends of tropical cyclones in a set of virtual machines (VMs). This approach allows the user to keep their familiar data analysis environment in the VMs, while we provide the coordination and data transfer services to ensure the necessary input and output are directed to the desired locations. This work extensively exercises the networking capability of the cloud computing systems and has revealed a number of weaknesses in the current cloud system software. In our tests, we are able to scale the parallel data analysis job to a modest number of VMs and achieve a speedup that is comparable to running the same analysis task using MPI. However, compared to MPI based parallelization, the cloud-based approach has a number of advantages. The cloud-based approach is more flexible because the VMs can capture arbitrary software dependencies without requiring the user to rewrite their programs. The cloud-based approach is also more resilient to failure; as long as a single VM is running, it can make progress while as soon as one MPI node fails the whole analysis job fails. In short, this initial work demonstrates that a cloud computing system is a viable platform for distributed scientific data analyses traditionally conducted on dedicated supercomputing systems.

  12. What are super-enhancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Sebastian; Lieb, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    The term 'super-enhancer' has been used to describe groups of putative enhancers in close genomic proximity with unusually high levels of Mediator binding, as measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq). Here we review the identification and composition of super-enhancers, describe links between super-enhancers, gene regulation and disease, and discuss the functional significance of enhancer clustering. We also provide our perspective regarding the proposition that super-enhancers are a regulatory entity conceptually distinct from what was known before the introduction of the term. Our opinion is that there is not yet strong evidence that super-enhancers are a novel paradigm in gene regulation and that use of the term in this context is not currently justified. However, the term likely identifies strong enhancers that exhibit behaviors consistent with previous models and concepts of transcriptional regulation. In this respect, the super-enhancer definition is useful in identifying regulatory elements likely to control genes important for cell type specification.

  13. Globular Cluster Abundances from High-Resolution, Integrated-Light Spectroscopy. IV. The Large Magellanic Cloud: $\\alpha$, Fe-peak, Light, and Heavy Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Colucci, J E; Cameron, S A; McWilliam, A

    2011-01-01

    We present detailed chemical abundances in 8 clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We measure abundances of 22 elements for clusters spanning a range in age of 0.05 to 12 Gyr, providing a comprehensive picture of the chemical enrichment and star formation history of the LMC. The abundances were obtained from individual absorption lines using a new method for analysis of high resolution ($R\\sim$25,000) integrated light spectra of star clusters. This method was developed and presented in Papers I, II, and III of this series. In this paper, we develop an additional integrated light $\\chi^2$-minimization spectral synthesis technique to facilitate measurement of weak ($\\sim$15 m\\AA) spectral lines and abundances in low signal-to-noise ratio data (S/N$\\sim$30). Additionally, we supplement the integrated light abundance measurements with detailed abundances that we measure for individual stars in the youngest clusters (Age$+0.5$) and increases with decreasing age, indicating a strong contribution of low-meta...

  14. The VMC survey - XVII. The proper motion of the Small Magellanic Cloud and of the Milky Way globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    Cioni, Maria-Rosa L; Girardi, Leo; de Grijs, Richard; Irwin, Mike J; Ivanov, Valentin D; Marconi, Marcella; Oliveira, Joana M; Piatti, Andres E; Ripepi, Vincenzo; van Loon, Jacco Th

    2015-01-01

    In this study we use multi-epoch near-infrared observations from the VISTA survey of the Magellanic Cloud system (VMC) to measure the proper motion of different stellar populations in a tile of 1.5 deg sq. in size in the direction of the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tuc. We obtain the proper motion of the cluster itself, of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), and of the field Milky Way stars. Stars of the three main stellar components are selected from their spatial distribution and their distribution in colour-magnitude diagrams. Their average coordinate displacement is computed from the difference between multiple Ks-band observations for stars as faint as Ks=19 mag. Proper motions are derived from the slope of the best-fitting line among 10 VMC epochs over a time baseline of ~1 yr. Background galaxies are used to calibrate the absolute astrometric reference frame. The resulting absolute proper motion of 47 Tuc is (mu_alpha cos(delta), mu_delta)=(+7.26+/-0.03, -1.25+/-0.03) mas/yr. This measurement refers to ...

  15. New clues to the cause of extended main-sequence turnoffs in intermediate-age star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correnti, Matteo; Goudfrooij, Paul; Kalirai, Jason S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Puzia, Thomas H. [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Macul 7820436, Santiago (Chile); Kerber, Leandro, E-mail: correnti@stsci.edu, E-mail: goudfroo@stsci.edu, E-mail: jkalirai@stsci.edu, E-mail: leo.girardi@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: tpuzia@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: lkerber@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Rodovia Ilhéus-Itabuna, km 16, 45662-000 Ilhéus, Bahia (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    We use the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain deep, high-resolution images of two intermediate-age star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud of relatively low mass (≈10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}) and significantly different core radii, namely NGC 2209 and NGC 2249. For comparison purposes, we also reanalyzed archival HST images of NGC 1795 and IC 2146, two other relatively low-mass star clusters. From the comparison of the observed color-magnitude diagrams with Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions in NGC 2209 and NGC 2249 are significantly wider than that derived from simulations of simple stellar populations, while those in NGC 1795 and IC 2146 are not. We determine the evolution of the clusters' masses and escape velocities from an age of 10 Myr to the present age. We find that differences among these clusters can be explained by dynamical evolution arguments if the currently extended clusters (NGC 2209 and IC 2146) experienced stronger levels of initial mass segregation than the currently compact ones (NGC 2249 and NGC 1795). Under this assumption, we find that NGC 2209 and NGC 2249 have estimated escape velocities, V {sub esc} ≳ 15 km s{sup –1} at an age of 10 Myr, large enough to retain material ejected by slow winds of first-generation stars, while the two clusters that do not feature extended MSTOs have V {sub esc} ≲ 12 km s{sup –1} at that age. These results suggest that the extended MSTO phenomenon can be better explained by a range of stellar ages rather than a range of stellar rotation velocities or interacting binaries.

  16. The Super Patalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.

  17. dbSUPER: a database of super-enhancers in mouse and human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aziz; Zhang, Xuegong

    2016-01-04

    Super-enhancers are clusters of transcriptional enhancers that drive cell-type-specific gene expression and are crucial to cell identity. Many disease-associated sequence variations are enriched in super-enhancer regions of disease-relevant cell types. Thus, super-enhancers can be used as potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis and therapeutics. Current studies have identified super-enhancers in more than 100 cell types and demonstrated their functional importance. However, a centralized resource to integrate all these findings is not currently available. We developed dbSUPER (http://bioinfo.au.tsinghua.edu.cn/dbsuper/), the first integrated and interactive database of super-enhancers, with the primary goal of providing a resource for assistance in further studies related to transcriptional control of cell identity and disease. dbSUPER provides a responsive and user-friendly web interface to facilitate efficient and comprehensive search and browsing. The data can be easily sent to Galaxy instances, GREAT and Cistrome web-servers for downstream analysis, and can also be visualized in the UCSC genome browser where custom tracks can be added automatically. The data can be downloaded and exported in variety of formats. Furthermore, dbSUPER lists genes associated with super-enhancers and also links to external databases such as GeneCards, UniProt and Entrez. dbSUPER also provides an overlap analysis tool to annotate user-defined regions. We believe dbSUPER is a valuable resource for the biology and genetic research communities.

  18. Pulsed flows at the high-altitude cusp poleward boundary, and associated ionospheric convection and particle signatures, during a Cluster - FAST - SuperDARN- Søndrestrøm conjunction under a southwest IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Particle and magnetic field observations during a magnetic conjunction Cluster 1-FAST-Søndrestrøm within the field of view of SuperDARN radars on 21 January 2001 allow us to draw a detailed, comprehensive and self-consistent picture at three heights of signatures associated with transient reconnection under a steady south-westerly IMF (clock angle ≈130°. Cluster 1 was outbound through the high altitude (~12RE exterior northern cusp tailward of the bifurcation line (geomagnetic Bx>0 when a solar wind dynamic pressure release shifted the spacecraft into a boundary layer downstream of the cusp. The centerpiece of the investigation is a series of flow bursts observed there by the spacecraft, which were accompanied by strong field perturbations and tailward flow deflections. Analysis shows these to be Alfvén waves. We interpret these flow events as being due to a sequence of reconnected flux tubes, with field-aligned currents in the associated Alfvén waves carrying stresses to the underlying ionosphere, a view strengthened by the other observations. At the magnetic footprint of the region of Cluster flow bursts, FAST observed an ion energy-latitude disperison of the stepped cusp type, with individual cusp ion steps corresponding to individual flow bursts. Simultaneously, the SuperDARN Stokkseyri radar observed very strong poleward-moving radar auroral forms (PMRAFs which were conjugate to the flow bursts at Cluster. FAST was traversing these PMRAFs when it observed the cusp ion steps. The Søndrestrøm radar observed pulsed ionospheric flows (PIFs just poleward of the convection reversal boundary. As at Cluster, the flow was eastward (tailward, implying a coherent eastward (tailward motion of the hypothesized open flux tubes. The joint Søndrestrøm and FAST observations indicate that the open/closed field line boundary was equatorward of the convection reversal boundary by ~2°. The unprecedented accuracy

  19. Automatic Cloud Bursting under FermiCloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao [Fermilab; Shangping, Ren [IIT; Garzoglio, Gabriele [Fermilab; Timm, Steven [Fermilab; Bernabeu, Gerard [Fermilab; Kim, Hyun Woo; Chadwick, Keith; Jang, Haengjin [KISTI, Daejeon; Noh, Seo-Young [KISTI, Daejeon

    1900-01-01

    Cloud computing is changing the infrastructure upon which scientific computing depends from supercomputers and distributed computing clusters to a more elastic cloud-based structure. The service-oriented focus and elasticity of clouds can not only facilitate technology needs of emerging business but also shorten response time and reduce operational costs of traditional scientific applications. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is currently in the process of building its own private cloud, FermiCloud, which allows the existing grid infrastructure to use dynamically provisioned resources on FermiCloud to accommodate increased but dynamic computation demand from scientists in the domains of High Energy Physics (HEP) and other research areas. Cloud infrastructure also allows to increase a private cloud’s resource capacity through “bursting” by borrowing or renting resources from other community or commercial clouds when needed. This paper introduces a joint project on building a cloud federation to support HEP applications between Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Korea Institution of Science and Technology Information, with technical contributions from the Illinois Institute of Technology. In particular, this paper presents two recent accomplishments of the joint project: (a) cloud bursting automation and (b) load balancer. Automatic cloud bursting allows computer resources to be dynamically reconfigured to meet users’ demands. The load balance algorithm which the cloud bursting depends on decides when and where new resources need to be allocated. Our preliminary prototyping and experiments have shown promising success, yet, they also have opened new challenges to be studied

  20. Automatic Cloud Bursting under FermiCloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao [Fermilab; Shangping, Ren [IIT; Garzoglio, Gabriele [Fermilab; Timm, Steven [Fermilab; Bernabeu, Gerard [Fermilab; Kim, Hyun Woo; Chadwick, Keith; Jang, Haengjin [KISTI, Daejeon; Noh, Seo-Young [KISTI, Daejeon

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing is changing the infrastructure upon which scientific computing depends from supercomputers and distributed computing clusters to a more elastic cloud-based structure. The service-oriented focus and elasticity of clouds can not only facilitate technology needs of emerging business but also shorten response time and reduce operational costs of traditional scientific applications. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is currently in the process of building its own private cloud, FermiCloud, which allows the existing grid infrastructure to use dynamically provisioned resources on FermiCloud to accommodate increased but dynamic computation demand from scientists in the domains of High Energy Physics (HEP) and other research areas. Cloud infrastructure also allows to increase a private cloud’s resource capacity through “bursting” by borrowing or renting resources from other community or commercial clouds when needed. This paper introduces a joint project on building a cloud federation to support HEP applications between Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Korea Institution of Science and Technology Information, with technical contributions from the Illinois Institute of Technology. In particular, this paper presents two recent accomplishments of the joint project: (a) cloud bursting automation and (b) load balancer. Automatic cloud bursting allows computer resources to be dynamically reconfigured to meet users’ demands. The load balance algorithm which the cloud bursting depends on decides when and where new resources need to be allocated. Our preliminary prototyping and experiments have shown promising success, yet, they also have opened new challenges to be studied

  1. Color-magnitude diagrams of star clusters in the Magellanic clouds from wide-field electronography. Part 3: NGC 1841

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, J.; Blecha, A.; Walker, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    The color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of NGC 1841, an outlying globular cluster in the Magellanic System, was constructed from electronographic photometry of 390 stars in the annular field R between 22 and 72'', to a limit of V = 22.5. The detailed CMD confirms classifications of NGC 1841 as belonging to the oldest and most metal-poor population of the Magellanic System. For an adopted reddening of E (B-V) = 0.15, the CMD of NGC 1841 closely matches that of the galactic globular cluster M 92, indicating that the clusters are of similar age and metal abundance. The fit of the 2 CMDs yields a distance modulus to NGC 1841 of (m-M)o = 18.1 + or - 0.3. This places NGC 1841 within the disk system formed by the other old LMC clusters 10 kpc from the center of the LMC itself, in contrast to earlier results placing it well beyond the LMC. It also eliminates the discrepancy between the luminosities of its giant stars and similar Galactic globular cluster giants.

  2. High-resolution Near-infrared Observations of a Small Cluster Associated with a Bright-rimmed Cloud in W5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Rieko; Sugitani, Koji; Miao, Jingqi; Fukuda, Naoya; Watanabe, Makoto; Kusune, Takayoshi; Pickles, Andrew J.

    2017-08-01

    We carried out near-infrared (IR) observations to examine star formation toward the bright-rimmed cloud SFO 12, of which the main exciting star is O7V star in W5-W. We found a small young stellar object (YSO) cluster of six members embedded in the head of SFO 12 facing its exciting star, aligned along the UV radiation incident direction from the exciting star. We carried out high-resolution near-IR observations with the Subaru adaptive optics (AO) system and revealed that three of the cluster members appear to have circumstellar envelopes, one of which shows an arm-like structure in its envelope. Our near-IR and {L}\\prime -band photometry and Spitzer IRAC data suggest that formation of two members at the tip side occurred in advance of other members toward the central part, under our adopted assumptions. Our near-IR data and previous studies imply that more YSOs are distributed in the region just outside the cloud head on the side of the main exciting star, but there is little sign of star formation toward the opposite side. We infer that star formation has been sequentially occurring from the exciting star side to the central part. We examined archival data of far-infrared and CO (J=3-2) which reveals that, unlike in the optical image, SFO 12 has a head-tail structure that is along the UV incident direction. This suggests that SFO 12 is affected by strong UV from the main exciting star. We discuss the formation of this head-tail structure and star formation there by comparing with a radiation-driven implosion (RDI) model.

  3. Observer study for evaluating potential utility of a super-high-resolution LCD in the detection of clustered microcalcifications on digital mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Abe, Hiroyuki; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Schmidt, Robert A; Doi, Kunio

    2010-04-01

    We evaluated the potential utility of a newly developed liquid-crystal display (LCD), which used an independent sub-pixel drive (ISD) technique for increasing the spatial resolution of a standard LCD three times in one direction, by use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and a two-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC) method to determine improvement in radiologists' accuracy in the detection of clustered microcalcifications (MCLs) on digital mammograms. We used a standard LCD without and with the ISD technique, which can increase the spatial resolution of the LCD three times in one direction from three mega- to nine megapixels without changes in the size of the display. We used 60 single views of digital mammograms (30 with and 30 without clustered MCLs) for ROC studies and 60 regions of interest (ROIs) with clustered MCLs for 2AFC studies. In the ROC study, seven radiologists attempted to detect clustered MCLs without and with the ISD on the same LCD. In the 2AFC study, the same observer group compared the visibility of MCLs by use of the LCD without and with the ISD. Our institutional review board approved the use of this database and the participation of radiologists in this study. The accuracy in detecting clustered MCLs in the ROC study was improved by use of the LCD with the ISD, but the improvement was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). However, the superiority of the LCD with the ISD was demonstrated as significant (p LCD with ISD can improve the visibility of clustered MCLs when high-resolution digital mammograms are available.

  4. A Cluster of Low-Redshift Lyman-$\\alpha$ Clouds toward PKS 2155-304; 1, Limits on Metals and D/H

    CERN Document Server

    Shull, J M; Stocke, J T; Giroux, M L; Van Gorkom, J H; Lee, Y H; Carilli, C L; Penton, Steven V.; Stocke, John T.; Giroux, Mark L.; Lee, Yong-Han; Carilli, Chris

    1998-01-01

    We report observations from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the VLA on the galactic environment, metallicity, and D/H in strong low-redshift Lya absorption systems toward the bright BL Lac object PKS 2155-304. GHRS/G160M spectra at 20 km/s resolution show 14 Lya absorbers, 6 clustered at cz = 16,100-18,500 km/s. ORFEUS claimed LyC absorption at z = 0.056 with N(HI) = (2-5)x10^16 cm^-2, while our Lya data suggest N(HI) = (3-10)x10^14 cm^-2. Higher columns are possible if the Lya line core at 17,000 +/- 50 km/s contains narrow HI components. We identify the Lya cluster with a group of five HI galaxies offset by 400-800 kpc from the sightline. The two strongest absorption features cover the same velocity range as the HI emission in the two galaxies closest to the line of sight. If the Lya is associated with these galaxies, they must have huge halos of highly turbulent, mostly ionized gas. The Lya absorption could also arise from an extended sheet of intragroup gas, or from smaller primordial clouds and halo...

  5. Cloud Computing: A study of cloud architecture and its patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Handa,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet. Cloud computing is a paradigm shift following the shift from mainframe to client–server in the early 1980s. Cloud computing can be defined as accessing third party software and services on web and paying as per usage. It facilitates scalability and virtualized resources over Internet as a service providing cost effective and scalable solution to customers. Cloud computing has evolved as a disruptive technology and picked up speed with the presence of many vendors in cloud computing space. The evolution of cloud computing from numerous technological approaches and business models such as SaaS, cluster computing, high performance computing, etc., signifies that the cloud IDM can be considered as a superset of all the corresponding issues from these paradigms and many more. In this paper we will discuss Life cycle management, Cloud architecture, Pattern in Cloud IDM, Volatility of Cloud relations.

  6. Spitzer Infrared Spectrographic point source classification in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffle, Paul M E; Jones, O C; Sloan, G C; Kraemer, K E; Woods, Paul M; Boyer, M L; Srinivasan, S; Antoniou, V; Lagadec, E; Matsuura, M; McDonald, I; Oliveira, J M; Sargent, B A; Sewilo, M; Szczerba, R; van Loon, J Th; Volk, K; Zijlstra, A A

    2015-01-01

    The Magellanic clouds are uniquely placed to study the stellar contribution to dust emission. Individual stars can be resolved in these systems even in the mid-infrared, and they are close enough to allow detection of infrared excess caused by dust.We have searched the Spitzer Space Telescope data archive for all Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) staring-mode observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and found that 209 Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) point sources within the footprint of the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SAGE-SMC) Spitzer Legacy programme were targeted, within a total of 311 staring mode observations. We classify these point sources using a decision tree method of object classification, based on infrared spectral features, continuum and spectral energy distribution shape, bolometric luminosity, cluster membership and variability information. We find 58 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, 51 young stellar objects (YSOs), 4 post-AGB objects, 22 Red Super...

  7. s-Processing in the Galactic Disk. I. Super-Solar Abundances of Y, Zr, La, Ce in Young Open Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Maiorca, E; Busso, M; Magrini, L; Palmerini, S

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study, based on homogeneous barium abundance measurements in open clusters, a trend of increasing [Ba/Fe] ratios for decreasing cluster age was reported. We present here further abundance determinations, relative to four other elements hav- ing important s-process contributions, with the aim of investigating whether the growth found for [Ba/Fe] is or not indicative of a general property, shared also by the other heavy elements formed by slow neutron captures. In particular, we derived abundances for yttrium, zirconium, lanthanum and cerium, using equivalent widths measurements and the MOOG code. Our sample includes 19 open clusters of different ages, for which the spectra were obtained at the ESO VLT telescope, using the UVES spectrometer. The growth previously suggested for Ba is confirmed for all the elements analyzed in our study. This fact implies significant changes in our views of the Galactic chemical evolution for elements beyond iron. Our results necessarily require that very low-mass AGB...

  8. Cloud chamber experiments on the origin of ice crystal complexity in cirrus clouds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valery N Shcherbakov; Carl G Schmitt; Andrew J Heymsfield

    2016-01-01

    ...) cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). A new experimental procedure was applied to grow and sublimate ice particles at defined super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for temperatures in the -40 to -60-°C range...

  9. Optical spectroscopy of the candidate luminous white dwarf in the young Large Magellanic Cloud cluster NGC 1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, M. R.; Saffer, R. A.; Gilmore, G. F.; Napiwotzki, R.

    1999-11-01

    An optical spectrum of the Elson et al. candidate luminous white dwarf in the young LMC cluster NGC 1818 shows conclusively that it is not a degenerate star. A model atmosphere fit gives Teff~31500K and logg~4.4, typical of a normal main-sequence B star. However, if it is a true LMC member then the star is underluminous by almost 3mag. Its position in the cluster colour-magnitude diagram also rules out the possibility that this is an ordinary B star. The luminosity is, however, consistent with a ~0.5-Msolar post-asymptotic giant branch or post-extended horizontal branch object, although if it has evolved via single-star evolution from a high-mass (7.6-9.0Msolar) progenitor then we might expect it to have a much higher mass, ~0.9Msolar. Alternatively, it may have evolved in a close binary. In this case the object offers no implications for the maximum mass for white dwarf progenitors, or the initial-final mass relation. Finally, we suggest that it could in fact be an evolved member of the LMC disc, and merely projected by chance on to NGC 1818. Spectroscopically, though, we cannot distinguish between these evolutionary states without higher resolution (echelle) data.

  10. The Framework and Mode of Cloud Manufacturing Public Service Platform for Regional Industry Clusters%面向区域产业集群的云制造服务平台架构与模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛磊; 林宏权; 刘继红

    2012-01-01

    为了提高我国东部沿海中小企业集聚地区从“块状经济”向现代产业集群转型过程中的创新、协同和服务的能力,结合云制造和服务型制造的理念,提出了建设面向区域产业集群的云制造公共服务平台的解决方案,建立了面向区域产业集群的云制造公共服务平台的体系架构,研究了一种依托行业核心龙头企业的区域多中心运营模式及相应的服务模式方案,为进一步深入与系统地开展面向区域产业集群的云制造公共服务平台的研究、开发和应用实施提供了基础.%In order to improve the innovation, collaboration, and service ability of the eastern coastal small and medium - 9ized enterprises cluster region during the transformation from a " massive economy" to a modern industry cluster, re-ferring to cloud manufacturing and service - oriented manufacturing concept, this paper proposes a solution to construct a cloud manufacturing public service platform for the regional industry cluster. The framework of the cloud manufacturing public service platform for the regional industry cluster is established- A leading - enterprises - dependent operation mode with multiple regional centers is addressed. And the corresponding implementation scheme is explored. This research can provide reference for the further and systematic research, development, and implementation of the regional industry clus-ters' cloud manufacturing public platform.

  11. Discovery of a new Wolf-Rayet star and a candidate star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud with Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Gvaramadze, V V; Kniazev, A Y; Schnurr, O; Shenar, T; Sander, A; Hainich, R; Langer, N; Hamann, W -R; Chu, Y -H; Gruendl, R A

    2014-01-01

    We report the first-ever discovery of a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star in the Large Magellanic Cloud via detection of a circular shell with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up observations with Gemini-South resolved the central star of the shell into two components separated from each other by approx 2 arcsec (or approx 0.5 pc in projection). One of these components turns out to be a WN3 star with H and He lines both in emission and absorption (we named it BAT99 3a using the numbering system based on extending the Breysacher et al. catalogue). Spectroscopy of the second component showed that it is a B0 V star. Subsequent spectroscopic observations of BAT99 3a with the du Pont 2.5-m telescope and the Southern African Large Telescope revealed that it is a close, eccentric binary system, and that the absorption lines are associated with an O companion star. We analyzed the spectrum of the binary system using the non-LTE Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) code, confirming that the WR component is a very hot (approx 90 kK) WN sta...

  12. The formation and evolution of star clusters in interacting galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Maji, Moupiya; Li, Yuexing; Charlton, Jane; Hernquist, Lars; Knebe, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Observations of globular clusters show that they have universal lognormal mass functions with a characteristic peak at $\\sim 2\\times 10^{5}\\, {\\rm{M_{\\odot}}}$, but the origin of this peaked distribution is highly debated. Here we investigate the formation and evolution of star clusters in interacting galaxies using high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations performed with two different codes in order to mitigate numerical artifacts. We find that massive star clusters in the range of $\\sim 10^{5.5} - 10^{7.5}\\, {\\rm{M_{\\odot}}}$ form preferentially in the highly-shocked regions produced by galaxy interactions. The nascent cluster-forming clouds have high gas pressures in the range of $P/k \\sim 10^8 - 10^{12}\\, \\rm{K}\\,\\rm{cm^{-3}}$, which is $\\sim 10^4 - 10^8$ times higher than the typical pressure of the interstellar medium but consistent with recent observations of a pre-super star cluster cloud in the Antennae Galaxies. Furthermore, these massive star clusters have quasi-lognormal initial mass functions wi...

  13. Variable Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Cluster NGC 2257. I. Results Based on 2007-2008 B, V Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, James M.; Walker, Alistair; Jeon, Young-Beom

    2009-11-01

    The variable stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 2257 are reinvestigated using photometry (to ~20th mag) of over 400 new B, V CCD images taken with the CTIO 0.9 m telescope on 14 nights in 2007 December and 2008 January. New period searches have been made using two independent algorithms (CLEAN, Period04); the resultant periods of most of the stars are consistent with the pulsation periods derived previously, and where there are discrepancies these have been resolved. For the B and V light curves, accurate Fourier coefficients and parameters are given. Six new variable stars have been discovered (V45-50), including a bright candidate long-period variable star showing secondary oscillations (V45) and two anomalously bright RRc stars (V48 and V50), which are shown to be brightened and reddened by nearby red giant stars. Also discovered among the previously known variable stars are three double-mode RR Lyrae stars (V8, V16, and V34) and several Blazhko variables. Archival Hubble Space Telescope images and the photometry by Johnson et al. have been used to define better the properties of the most crowded variable stars. The total number of cluster variable stars now stands at forty-seven: 23 RRab stars, four of which show Blazhko amplitude variations; 20 RRc stars, one showing clear Blazhko variations and another showing possible Blazhko variations; the three RRd stars, all having the dominant period ~0.36 day and period ratios P 1/P 0 ~0.7450; and an LPV star located near the tip of the red giant branch. A comparison of the RRd stars with those in other environments shows them to be most similar to those in IC4499.

  14. Research on cloud computing solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudvikas Kaklauskas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing can be defined as a new style of computing in which dynamically scala-ble and often virtualized resources are provided as a services over the Internet. Advantages of the cloud computing technology include cost savings, high availability, and easy scalability. Voas and Zhang adapted six phases of computing paradigms, from dummy termi-nals/mainframes, to PCs, networking computing, to grid and cloud computing. There are four types of cloud computing: public cloud, private cloud, hybrid cloud and community. The most common and well-known deployment model is Public Cloud. A Private Cloud is suited for sensitive data, where the customer is dependent on a certain degree of security.According to the different types of services offered, cloud computing can be considered to consist of three layers (services models: IaaS (infrastructure as a service, PaaS (platform as a service, SaaS (software as a service. Main cloud computing solutions: web applications, data hosting, virtualization, database clusters and terminal services. The advantage of cloud com-puting is the ability to virtualize and share resources among different applications with the objective for better server utilization and without a clustering solution, a service may fail at the moment the server crashes.DOI: 10.15181/csat.v2i2.914

  15. Massive Stars in the Quintuplet Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figer, Donald F.; McLean, Ian S.; Morris, Mark

    1999-03-01

    We present near-infrared photometry and K-band spectra of newly identified massive stars in the Quintuplet cluster, one of the three massive clusters projected within 50 pc of the Galactic center. We find that the cluster contains a variety of massive stars, including more unambiguously identified Wolf-Rayet stars than any cluster in the Galaxy, and over a dozen stars in earlier stages of evolution, i.e., luminous blue variables (LBVs), Ofpe/WN9, and OB supergiants. One newly identified star is the second luminous blue variable in the cluster, after the ``Pistol star.'' Although we are unable to provide certain spectral classifications for the five enigmatic Quintuplet-proper members, we tentatively propose that they are extremely dusty versions of the WC stars found elsewhere in the cluster and similar to the dozen or so known examples in the Galaxy. Although the cluster parameters are uncertain because of photometric errors and uncertainties in stellar models, i.e., extrapolating initial masses and estimating ionizing fluxes, we have the following conclusions. Given the evolutionary stages of the identified stars, the cluster appears to be about 4+/-1 Myr old, assuming coeval formation. The total mass in observed stars is ~103 Msolar, and the implied mass is ~104 Msolar, assuming a lower mass cutoff of 1 Msolar and a Salpeter initial mass function. The implied mass density in stars is greater than or similar to a few thousand Msolar pc-3. The newly identified stars increase the estimated ionizing flux from this cluster by about an order of magnitude with respect to earlier estimates, to 1050.9 photons s-1, or roughly what is required to ionize the nearby ``Sickle'' H II region (G0.18-0.04). The total luminosity from the massive cluster stars is ~107.5 Lsolar, enough to account for the heating of the nearby molecular cloud, M0.20-0.033. We propose a picture that integrates most of the major features in this part of the sky, excepting the nonthermal filaments. We

  16. A Virialized Filamentary Infrared Dark Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Audra K; Kainulainen, Jouni; Caselli, Paola; Butler, Michael J; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Fontani, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The initial conditions of massive star and star cluster formation are expected to be cold, dense and high column density regions of the interstellar medium, which can reveal themselves via near, mid and even far-infrared absorption as Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs). Elucidating the dynamical state of IRDCs thus constrains theoretical models of these complex processes. In particular, it is important to assess whether IRDCs have reached virial equilibrium, where the internal pressure balances that due to the self-gravitating weight of the cloud plus the pressure of the external environmental. We study this question for the filamentary IRDC G035.39-00.33 by deriving mass from combined NIR & MIR extinction maps and velocity dispersion from C18O (1-0) & (2-1) line emission. In contrast to our previous moderately super-virial results based on 13CO emission and MIR-only extinction mapping, with improved mass measurements we now find that the filament is consistent with being in virial equilibrium, at least in ...

  17. Cluster-cluster clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales.

  18. Cluster-cluster clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C.S.

    1985-08-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales. 30 references.

  19. Calculus super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Calculus I Super Review includes a review of functions, limits, basic derivatives, the definite integral, combinations, and permutations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much you've learned - and where you need more study. Makes an excellent study aid and textbook companion. Great for self-study!DETAILS- From cover to cover, each in-depth topic review is easy-to-follow and easy-to-grasp - Perfect when preparing for

  20. Algebra & trigonometry super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Algebra and Trigonometry Super Review includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, equations, linear equations and systems of linear equations, inequalities, relations and functions, quadratic equations, equations of higher order, ratios, proportions, and variations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much y

  1. The impact of a massive star cluster on its surrounding matter in the Antennae overlap region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C. N.; Boulanger, F.

    2017-04-01

    Super star clusters (SSCs), likely the progenitors of globular clusters, are one of the most extreme forms of star formation. Understanding how SSCs form is an observational challenge. Theoretical studies establish that, to form such clusters, the dynamical timescale of their parent clouds has to be shorter than the timescale of the disruption of their parent clouds by stellar feedback. However, due to insufficient observational support, it is still unclear how feedback from SSCs acts on the matter surrounding them. Studying feedback in SSCs is essential to understanding how such clusters form. Based on ALMA and VLT observations, we study this process in a SSC in the overlap region of the Antennae galaxies (22 Mpc), a spectacular example of a burst of star formation triggered by the encounter of two galaxies. We analyze a unique massive ( 107M⊙) and young (1-3.5 Myr) SSC, still associated with compact molecular and ionized gas emission, which suggest that it may still be embedded in its parent molecular cloud. The cluster has two CO velocity components, a low-velocity one spatially associated with the cluster, and a high-velocity one distributed in a bubble-like shape around the cluster. Our results on the low-velocity component suggest that this gas did not participate in the formation of the SSC. We propose that most of the parent cloud has already been blown away, accelerated at the early stages of the SSC evolution by radiation pressure, in a timescale 1 Myr. The high-velocity component may trace outflowing molecular gas from the parent cloud. Supporting evidence is found in shock-heated H2 gas and escaping Brγ gas associated with this component. The low-velocity component may be gas that was near the SSC when it formed but not part of its parent cloud or clumps that migrated from the SGMC environment. This gas would be dispersed by stellar winds and supernova explosions. The existing data is inconclusive as to whether or not the cluster is bound and will

  2. An airborne microwave radiometer and measurements of cloud liquid water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Hengchi; JIN Dezhen; WEI Chong; SHEN Zhilai

    2003-01-01

    A single-channel (9.5 mm) airborne microwave radiometer with one antenna is developed. The retrieval methods and primary observation results of cloud liquid water and super-cooled cloud liquid water are discussed. The aircraft experiments show that the cloud liquid water and super-cooled liquid water can be sensitively monitored at some level of accuracy by the radiometer. The results of cloud liquid water content are reasonable and correspond well with the surface radar echo intensity. The design of the airborne radiometer and its retrieval methods are feasible, giving it application value.

  3. Search Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this ... of Top 110 zoster vaccine Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search ...

  4. Super Tomboy Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sparked by Super Girl, the androgynous look is in among Chinese youth On September 8, this year's top six contestants on the Super Girl television show, a singing contest for young women, stepped into the spotlight. Nearly none of them had long black hair or wore evening gowns, traditionally associated with beauty in China. Rather, they

  5. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  6. Star Formation and Outflows in Molecular Clouds: The Role of Radiative Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskutti, Sudhir; Ostriker, Eve C.

    2015-08-01

    Radiation feedback from massive clusters is expected to play a key role in setting the rate and efficiency of star formation on the scale of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs). However, due to the extreme cost of implementing full radiative transfer in 3D hydrodynamic simulations, the influence of radiation feedback on GMCs has been poorly understood. We employ the recently developed Hyperion extension of the Athena code, which solves the equations of radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) using the Reduced Speed of Light (RSL) approximation and M1 closure of the moment equations, to investigate the effects of direct, non-ionizing UV radiation on cloud dynamical evolution and star formation. Our model GMCs span a range of surface densities between 10 and 500 solar masses per square parsec, making them optically thick to UV and thin to reprocessed IR.We find that radiation feedback has little effect on the density structure in the cloud or its star formation rate, both of which are set by the interaction between turbulence and gravity. Instead, the main effect of radiation is to truncate star formation and disperse gas rapidly whena sufficiently luminous cluster has formed. We show that our numerical results can be explained by a simple paradigm of feedback-limited star formation that operates across a wide range of cloud surface densities. In this model, stars form steadily in a turbulent medium with log-normally distributed surface and volume densities, and successively larger portions of the original cloud become unbound when the forces on successively denser local patches of gas become super-Eddington. The global stellar efficiency in a GMC is therefore set not by the radiative force at the mean cloud surface density, but by the Eddington ratio in the high surface density tail of the gas distribution.

  7. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...... the contributions of different authors to the basic concepts of each group. Furthermore, common issues in super-resolution algorithms, such as imaging models and registration algorithms, optimization of the cost functions employed, dealing with color information, improvement factors, assessment of super...

  8. NETL Super Computer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NETL Super Computer was designed for performing engineering calculations that apply to fossil energy research. It is one of the world’s larger supercomputers,...

  9. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    and aerial imaging to medical image processing, to facial image analysis, text image analysis, sign and number plates reading, and biometrics recognition, to name a few. This has resulted in many research papers, each developing a new super-resolution algorithm for a specific purpose. The current......Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...... the contributions of different authors to the basic concepts of each group. Furthermore, common issues in super-resolution algorithms, such as imaging models and registration algorithms, optimization of the cost functions employed, dealing with color information, improvement factors, assessment of super...

  10. Super-Kamiokande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Lluís Martí

    2016-06-01

    The Super-Kamiokande experiment performs a large variety of studies, many of them in the neutrino sector. The archetypes are atmospheric neutrino (recently awarded with the Nobel prize for Mr. T. Kajita) and the solar neutrinos analyses. In these proceedings we report our latest results and present updates to indirect dark matter searches, our solar neutrino analysis and discuss the future upgrade of Super-Kamiokande by loading gadolinium into our ultra-pure water.

  11. The Super Girl Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ In recent years, Changsha,the capital city of Hunan Province, has become famous across China for its innovative TV channel, in particular the cultural phenomenon of the Super Girl talent show. And as far as culture goes, Hunan TV is merely a reflection of a renaissance happening in the city. Animation, music halls, drama festivals and a famous book market are just some of the city's cultural sectors that are benefiting from the fame and notoriety of the Super Girl show.

  12. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Dirac Hierarchy and Its Super Hamiltonian Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤福财

    2012-01-01

    We construct nonlinear super integrable couplings of the super integrable Dirac hierarchy based on an enlarged matrix Lie superalgebra. Then its super Hamiltonian structure is furnished by super trace identity. As its reduction, we gain the nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable Dirac hierarchy.

  13. Deforming super Riemann surfaces with gravitinos and super Schottky groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Playle, Sam [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-12-12

    The (super) Schottky uniformization of compact (super) Riemann surfaces is briefly reviewed. Deformations of super Riemann surface by gravitinos and Beltrami parameters are recast in terms of super Schottky group cohomology. It is checked that the super Schottky group formula for the period matrix of a non-split surface matches its expression in terms of a gravitino and Beltrami parameter on a split surface. The relationship between (super) Schottky groups and the construction of surfaces by gluing pairs of punctures is discussed in an appendix.

  14. Galactic Super-volcano in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    A galactic "super-volcano" in the massive galaxy M87 is erupting and blasting gas outwards, as witnessed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and NSF's Very Large Array. The cosmic volcano is being driven by a giant black hole in the galaxy's center and preventing hundreds of millions of new stars from forming. Astronomers studying this black hole and its effects have been struck by the remarkable similarities between it and a volcano in Iceland that made headlines earlier this year. At a distance of about 50 million light years, M87 is relatively close to Earth and lies at the center of the Virgo cluster, which contains thousands of galaxies. M87's location, coupled with long observations over Chandra's lifetime, has made it an excellent subject for investigations of how a massive black hole impacts its environment. "Our results show in great detail that supermassive black holes have a surprisingly good control over the evolution of the galaxies in which they live," said Norbert Werner of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, who led one of two papers describing the study. "And it doesn't stop there. The black hole's reach extends ever farther into the entire cluster, similar to how one small volcano can affect practically an entire hemisphere on Earth." The cluster surrounding M87 is filled with hot gas glowing in X-ray light, which is detected by Chandra. As this gas cools, it can fall toward the galaxy's center where it should continue to cool even faster and form new stars. However, radio observations with the Very Large Array suggest that in M87 jets of very energetic particles produced by the black hole interrupt this process. These jets lift up the relatively cool gas near the center of the galaxy and produce shock waves in the galaxy's atmosphere because of their supersonic speed. The scientists involved in this research have found the interaction of this cosmic

  15. The building blocks to the architecture of a cloud platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvelase, P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is on the identification of components that are general across cloud platforms. These components are classified under hardware, virtualisation and cloud management. These building blocks encompass nodes and clusters, hypervisors...

  16. Cloud Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthing, Hans Henrik

    Denne præsentation beskriver fordele og værdier ved anvendelse af Cloud Computing. Endvidere inddrager resultater fra en række internationale analyser fra ISACA om Cloud Computing.......Denne præsentation beskriver fordele og værdier ved anvendelse af Cloud Computing. Endvidere inddrager resultater fra en række internationale analyser fra ISACA om Cloud Computing....

  17. Explosive Super-eruptions: Problems and Prejudices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, S.

    2010-12-01

    A super-eruption is defined as one with a magma yield > 10^15 kg (magnitude (M) 8). The term has mainly been applied to large-scale, caldera and ignimbrite-forming explosive eruptions, but it can be applied to all eruptions that released > 10^15 kg of magma. For effusive volcanism, evidence suggests that individual eruptions of this size ( > ~ 370 km^3 of typical basalt or > 450 km^3 of rhyolite flood lava) arise only during periods of LIP formation. The super-eruption concept raises interesting questions about genesis and storage of magmas that feed these vast events. Deposits of major explosive eruptions are Plinian fallout, ignimbrite sheets, and co-ignimbrite ash fall. Based on earlier suggestions and evidence, widespread outflow ignimbrite (O), co-ignimbrite ash (A), and inter-caldera ignimbrite (I) are all major components of the total super-eruption deposit and may tend towards being subequal. In super-eruption deposits, the reported volume of vent-derived Plinian eruption column fallout is often a minor component of the total volume, yet in several cases (Oruanui, Taupo, 26 ka ago, M 8.1; Bishop Tuff, 760 ka, M 8.2; Bandelier (Otowi) Tuff, 1.6 Ma, M8) it is now recognized that vent-derived columns persisted for most of the eruption. Thus, distally, the ash-fall derived from co-ignimbrite ash clouds may be mixed with contemporaneous fallout from a vertical column. Some major ignimbrites have no reported associated Plinian deposit; the huge Young Toba Tuff (YTT, 74 ka, M 8.8) is a significant example. However, the very widespread Toba ash-fall deposit constitutes ~ 40 % of the total mass of magma erupted and is presumed to be co-ignimbrite. Timing of the onset of column collapse probably controls whether a recognizable Plinian deposit is laid down. All super-eruptions probably produce extensive fallout deposits, and this is generally of vent-derived and pyroclastic-flow-derived origin. Establishing the relationships between large-scale ignimbrites and their

  18. Research of Web Documents Clustering Based on Dynamic Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun-hua; CHEN Shi-hong

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual clustering is mainly used for solving the deficiency and incompleteness of domain knowledge.Based on conceptual clustering technology and aiming at the institutional framework and characteristic of Web theme information, this paper proposes and implements dynamic conceptual clustering algorithm and merging algorithm for Web documents, and also analyses the super performance of the clustering algorithm in efficiency and clustering accuracy.

  19. Cloud optics

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, A

    2006-01-01

    Clouds affect the climate of the Earth, and they are an important factor in the weather. Therefore, their radiative properties must be understood in great detail. This book summarizes current knowledge on cloud optical properties, for example their ability to absorb, transmit, and reflect light, which depends on the clouds' geometrical and microphysical characteristics such as sizes of droplets and crystals, their shapes, and structures. In addition, problems related to the image transfer through clouds and cloud remote sensing are addressed in this book in great detail. This book can be an im

  20. Mirroring Mobile Phone in the Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Z.Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a framework of Mirroring Mobile Phone in the Clouds (MMPC) to speed up data/computing intensive applications on a mobile phone by taking full advantage of the super computing power of the clouds. An application on the mobile phone is dynamically partitioned in such a way that the heavy-weighted part is always running on a mirrored server in the clouds while the light-weighted part remains on the mobile phone. A performance improvement (an energy consumption reduction of 70...

  1. A Science Cloud: OneSpaceNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Y.; Murata, K. T.; Watari, S.; Kato, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Inoue, S.; Tsubouchi, K.; Fukazawa, K.; Kimura, E.; Tatebe, O.; Shimojo, S.

    2010-12-01

    Main methodologies of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (STP) so far are theoretical, experimental and observational, and computer simulation approaches. Recently "informatics" is expected as a new (fourth) approach to the STP studies. Informatics is a methodology to analyze large-scale data (observation data and computer simulation data) to obtain new findings using a variety of data processing techniques. At NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan) we are now developing a new research environment named "OneSpaceNet". The OneSpaceNet is a cloud-computing environment specialized for science works, which connects many researchers with high-speed network (JGN: Japan Gigabit Network). The JGN is a wide-area back-born network operated by NICT; it provides 10G network and many access points (AP) over Japan. The OneSpaceNet also provides with rich computer resources for research studies, such as super-computers, large-scale data storage area, licensed applications, visualization devices (like tiled display wall: TDW), database/DBMS, cluster computers (4-8 nodes) for data processing and communication devices. What is amazing in use of the science cloud is that a user simply prepares a terminal (low-cost PC). Once connecting the PC to JGN2plus, the user can make full use of the rich resources of the science cloud. Using communication devices, such as video-conference system, streaming and reflector servers, and media-players, the users on the OneSpaceNet can make research communications as if they belong to a same (one) laboratory: they are members of a virtual laboratory. The specification of the computer resources on the OneSpaceNet is as follows: The size of data storage we have developed so far is almost 1PB. The number of the data files managed on the cloud storage is getting larger and now more than 40,000,000. What is notable is that the disks forming the large-scale storage are distributed to 5 data centers over Japan (but the storage

  2. UAV cluster information countermeasure system based on cogni tive cloud%基于认知云的无人机群组信息对抗系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏抗; 朱伟强; 田达; 杨绿溪

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive‐cloud information countermeasure system consists of a swarm of long‐endurance , low‐cost electronic warfare (EW) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and a cloud computing network .The electronic support (ES) UAVs are expected to collect the information on threat emitters in a timely manner . The cloud computing network fuses the sensing results ,generates tactical pictures indicating the battlefield sit‐uation ,plans the information operation strategy autonomously ,and directs the electronic attack (EA) UAVs to fulfill the jamming or information access spoofing missions .Finally ,the cloud computing network evaluates effectiveness of the countermeasure according to the information collected by the ES UAVs ,thus closes the observe‐orient‐decide‐act (OODA) loop .Stand‐in operation may ease the UAV payload complexity to a certain extent ,which in turn ,leads to the more efficient ,low power and miniaturized design .%基于认知云的无人机群组信息对抗系统由长航时、低成本的电子战无人机群组和云计算网络构成。侦察无人机负责有限范围内的信息侦收,云计算网络融合无人机群感知结果,生成广域信息态势,动态制定系统层对抗策略,调度攻击无人机实施电磁频谱压制或信息接入攻击,同时评估对抗效能,实现信息攻防闭环。无人机群组抵近工作,可显著降低载荷设计复杂度,实现小型化、低功耗与有效性的统一设计。

  3. SuperQuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Kjeldsen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    SuperQuant is a quantitative proteomics data processing approach that uses complementary fragment ions to identify multiple co-isolated peptides in tandem mass spectra allowing for their quantification. This approach can be applied to any shotgun proteomics data set acquired with high mass accura...... of the same proteins were close to the values typical for other precursor ion-based quantification methods. The raw data is deposited to ProteomeXchange (PXD001907). The developed node is available for testing at https://github.com/caetera/SuperQuantNode....

  4. Virtualized cloud data center networks issues in resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Linjiun

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the characteristics of virtualized cloud networking, identifies the requirements of cloud network management, and illustrates the challenges in deploying virtual clusters in multi-tenant cloud data centers. The book also introduces network partitioning techniques to provide contention-free allocation, topology-invariant reallocation, and highly efficient resource utilization, based on the Fat-tree network structure. Managing cloud data center resources without considering resource contentions among different cloud services and dynamic resource demands adversely affects the performance of cloud services and reduces the resource utilization of cloud data centers. These challenges are mainly due to strict cluster topology requirements, resource contentions between uncooperative cloud services, and spatial/temporal data center resource fragmentation. Cloud data center network resource allocation/reallocation which cope well with such challenges will allow cloud services to be provisioned with ...

  5. Comprehensive cluster analysis with Transitivity Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkop, Tobias; Emig, Dorothea; Truss, Anke; Albrecht, Mario; Böcker, Sebastian; Baumbach, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Transitivity Clustering is a method for the partitioning of biological data into groups of similar objects, such as genes, for instance. It provides integrated access to various functions addressing each step of a typical cluster analysis. To facilitate this, Transitivity Clustering is accessible online and offers three user-friendly interfaces: a powerful stand-alone version, a web interface, and a collection of Cytoscape plug-ins. In this paper, we describe three major workflows: (i) protein (super)family detection with Cytoscape, (ii) protein homology detection with incomplete gold standards and (iii) clustering of gene expression data. This protocol guides the user through the most important features of Transitivity Clustering and takes ∼1 h to complete.

  6. 异构云中面向集群负载均衡的任务调度策略%Task scheduling strategy based on load balance of cluster in heterogeneous cloud environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫宁; 高龙

    2013-01-01

    Load balancing is an important means to improve resource utilization and system stability.Based on Adaptive Mutation Particle Swarm Optimization(AMPSO) algorithm,a new task scheduling model and strategy about load balancing for cluster in heterogeneous cloud environment were proposed.In order to maximize customer satisfaction degree and reduce the total execution time of a collection of tasks under ensuring the system load as much balanced as possible,a concept of user bias degree on cluster node performance such as safety and reliability and a method of grasping the degree of preference on security and reliability of cluster nodes and estimating the load information of the tasks were added into the design of scheduling policy.The simulation shows that the improved AMPSO algorithm performs better than the original AMPSO algorithm and the basic Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO) algorithm at convergence speed and the capacity of jumping out the local optimum.The results prove that the improved AMPSO can better improve the profit margins of the cloud service provider while ensuring the load balancing of the cluster.%负载均衡是提高资源利用率和系统稳定性的重要手段.基于改进的自适应变异粒子群算法,提出了一种异构环境下面向集群负载均衡的任务调度策略.在调度策略的设计中,融入了经济学“二八”定律,通过把握用户对集群节点安全性和可靠性的偏好程度并预估任务的负载信息,在保证系统负载尽量均衡的前提下,最小化任务执行时间的同时提高大客户满意度.仿真实验显示,改进的自适应变异粒子群算法比未改进的自适应变异粒子群算法和基本粒子群算法在收敛速度和跳出局部最优两个方面都有更好的表现.结果表明,改进的自适应变异粒子群算法在保证集群负载均衡的同时可以更好地提高云服务提供商的利润空间.

  7. "Super Roman Pots"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    Remotely controlled re-entrant vacuum vessels, with very thin (0.17 mm) central windows, that will be installed in each downstream arm of intersection I-8. Detectors for a coming physics experiment, placed inside these "Super Roman Pots", can be moved very close to the circulating ISR beams.

  8. A Super Roman Pot

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Remotely controlled re-entrant vacuum vessels, with very thin (0.17 mm) central windows, that were installed in each downstream arm of the ISR intersection I-8. Detectors placed inside these Super Roman Pots could be moved very close to the circulating ISR beams. (See Annual Report 1974 p. 110.)

  9. Formation of discs around super-massive black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Goicovic, Felipe G; Sesana, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We model numerically the evolution of $10^4M_\\odot$ turbulent molecular clouds in near-radial infall onto $10^6M_\\odot$, equal-mass super-massive black hole binaries, using a modified version of the SPH code GADGET-3. We investigate the different gas structures formed depending on the relative inclination between the binary and the cloud orbits. Our first results indicate that an aligned orbit produces mini-discs around each black hole, almost aligned with the binary; a perpendicular orbit produces misaligned mini-discs; and a counter-aligned orbit produces a circumbinary, counter-rotating ring.

  10. 云模式用户行为关联聚类的协同过滤推荐算法%Cloud pattern collaborative filtering recommenderalgorithm using user behavior correlation clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪蓉; 万年红

    2011-01-01

    传统的协同过滤推荐算法基于互联网模式单纯从某个角度研究电子商务推荐问题,推荐质量明显不高.为改善推荐效果,提高推荐系统的伸缩性和实用价值,基于研究云模式的用户行为相似性度量公式、用户行为等级函数、关联规则函数,定义关联聚类方法,改进相应算法,提出一种云模式用户行为关联聚类的协同过滤推荐算法.最后使用MovieLens和阿里巴巴的云测试数据进行局部实验与全局实验,并对各种算法的实验结果进行对比分析.实验结果表明,该算法推荐效果明显优于传统算法,具有较强的伸缩性和较高的实用价值.%The traditional collaborative filtering recommender algorithms based on Internet pattern research merely E-commerce recommender problem from one angle, and their recommender quality is evidently not high. To improve recommender efficiency, and to achieve scalability and utility of recommendation systems, with studying user behavior similarity measure formula, grade function and correlation rule function based on cloud pattern, a correlation clustering method was put forward. To improve the corresponding algorithms, a cloud pattern collaborative filtering recommender algorithm based on user behavior correlation clustering was proposed. Finally, the improved algorithms were validated by local and global experiments using MovieLens and Alibaba cloud testing data. The experimental results show that the recommender efficiency of the proposed algorithm is obviously higher than those of traditional algorithms, and it has stronger scalability and higher utility.

  11. The Serpens Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Eiroa, C; Casali, M M

    2008-01-01

    The Serpens cloud has received considerable attention in the last years, in particular the small region known as the Serpens cloud core where a plethora of star formation related phenomena are found. This review summarizes our current observational knowledge of the cloud, with emphasis on the core. Recent results are converging to a distance for the cloud of ~ 230 +- 20 pc, an issue which has been controversial over the years. We present the gas and dust properties of the cloud core and describe its structure and appearance at different wavelengths. The core contains a dense, very young, low mass stellar cluster with more than 300 objects in all evolutionary phases, from collapsing gaseous condensations to pre-main sequence stars. We describe the behaviour and spatial distribution of the different stellar populations (mm cores, Classes 0, I and II sources). The spatial concentration and the fraction number of Class 0/Class I/Class II sources is considerably larger in the Serpens core than in any other low mas...

  12. Antarctic clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Lachlan-Cope, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Sensitivity studies with global climate models show that, by their influence on the radiation balance, Antarctic clouds play a major role in the climate system, both directly at high southern latitudes and indirectly globally, as the local circulation changes lead to global teleconnections. Unfortunately, observations of cloud distribution in the Antarctic are limited and often of low quality because of the practical difficulty in observing clouds in the harsh Antarctic environment. The best ...

  13. Simulation study on bi-stability of cloud-rain system and cosmic ray influence on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Kanya; Hasegawa, Koichi; Shima, Shin-ichiro

    2012-07-01

    Although it has been pointed out many times that there is the correlation between solar activity, such as the Schwabe (11 year) cycle and the Maunder-type minima, and climate variability, the mechanism whereby the sun may affect climate is not yet well understood. Svensmark and Friis-Christensen (1997) proposed that galactic cosmic ray may control cloud through the ionization of atmosphere and the ion-induced nucleation. Recently, Kirkby et al. (2011) indicated in basis of experiments with artificial cosmic ray that the ion-induced nucleation is possible in the atmosphere if some conditions for chemical compounds and temperature are satisfied. However, although the experimental data show that the ion-induced nucleation rate for 1.7 nm diameter cluster J _{1.7}=10 ^{-2} to 10 ^{1}cm ^{-3}s ^{-1}, it is not yet clear how this rate affects cloud and climate. In this study, aiming at clarifying how the cloud-rain system depends on the change in the formation rate of cloud condensation nuclear, we have performed a systematic simulation study using super-droplet cloud model. The super-droplet cloud model is a novel computational technique to calculate the macro- and micro-physics of clouds (Shima, Kusano et al. 2009). We have implemented the super-droplet method on the cloud resolving model CReSS (Tsuboki & Sakakibara 2006), and developed an add-on function to create aerosols dynamically. Using it, we have surveyed the quasi-equilibrium state of cloud-rain system for different formation rate of 30 nm diameter aerosol J _{30}. The initial and boundary conditions are given by the data-set of RICO (Rain In Cumulus over the Ocean) project. As the results of simulations for J _{30} from 10 ^{-6} to 10 ^{0} cm ^{-3}s ^{-1}, we find that the cloud water path remains about 5 gm ^{-2} when J _{30} is smaller than 10 ^{-3}cm ^{-3}s ^{-1}, but it quickly increases to 20 gm ^{-2} for J _{30}=10 ^{-2}cm ^{-3}s ^{-1} and it keeps the value for higher J _{30}. On the other hand, the

  14. Final Report for Cloud-Aerosol Physics in Super-Parameterized Atmospheric Regional Climate Simulations (CAP-SPARCS)(DE-SC0002003) for 8/15/2009 through 8/14/2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Lynn M; Somerville, Richard C.J.

    2012-11-05

    Improving the representation of local and non-local aerosol interactions in state-of-the-science regional climate models is a priority for the coming decade (Zhang, 2008). With this aim in mind, we have combined two new technologies that have a useful synergy: (1) an aerosol-enabled regional climate model (Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry WRF-Chem), whose primary weakness is a lack of high quality boundary conditions and (2) an aerosol-enabled multiscale modeling framework (PNNL Multiscale Aerosol Climate Model (MACM)), which is global but captures aerosol-convection-cloud feedbacks, and thus an ideal source of boundary conditions. Combining these two approaches has resulted in an aerosol-enabled modeling framework that not only resolves high resolution details in a particular region, but crucially does so within a global context that is similarly faithful to multi-scale aerosol-climate interactions. We have applied and improved the representation of aerosol interactions by evaluating model performance over multiple domains, with (1) an extensive evaluation of mid-continent precipitation representation by multiscale modeling, (2) two focused comparisons to transport of aerosol plumes to the eastern United States for comparison with observations made as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT), with the first being idealized and the second being linked to an extensive wildfire plume, and (3) the extension of these ideas to the development of a new approach to evaluating aerosol indirect effects with limited-duration model runs by nudging to observations. This research supported the work of one postdoc (Zhan Zhao) for two years and contributed to the training and research of two graduate students. Four peer-reviewed publications have resulted from this work, and ground work for a follow-on project was completed.

  15. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Antonopoulos, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing has recently emerged as a subject of substantial industrial and academic interest, though its meaning and scope is hotly debated. For some researchers, clouds are a natural evolution towards the full commercialisation of grid systems, while others dismiss the term as a mere re-branding of existing pay-per-use technologies. From either perspective, 'cloud' is now the label of choice for accountable pay-per-use access to third party applications and computational resources on a massive scale. Clouds support patterns of less predictable resource use for applications and services a

  16. Evidence for the non-destruction of the Most Massive Molecular Clouds even after they have given Birth to Massive Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, J.; Beckman, J.; Font, J.; Camps-Fariña, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Serrano-Borlaff, A.

    2017-03-01

    We have combined observations of the Antennae galaxies from the radio interferometer ALMA and from the optical interferometer GHαFaS (Galaxy Hα Fabry-Perot System). The two sets of observations have comparable angular and spectral resolutions, enabling us to identify 142 giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and 303 Hii regions. We have measured, and compared, their basic physical properties (radius, velocity dispersion, luminosity). We study the mass functions of Hii regions and GMCs, where a double population of Hii regions due to a double population of GMCs is found. Using the velocity dispersion measurements, we claim that the difference between the regimes is the nature of the dominant binding force. For the regions in the lower mass range, the dominant force is the external pressure, while in the higher mass range it is the internal gravity of the clouds. We have applied the same method to similar observations (GHαFaS & ALMA) of Arp 236 and NGC 1614 finding similar results.

  17. Cloud chamber experiments on the origin of ice crystal complexity in cirrus clouds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Schnaiter; E. Järvinen; P. Vochezer; A. Abdelmonem; R. Wagner; O. Jourdan; G. Mioche; V. N. Shcherbakov; C. G. Schmitt; U. Tricoli; Z. Ulanowski; A. J. Heymsfield

    2015-01-01

    ...) cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). A new experimental procedure was applied to grow and sublimate ice particles at defined super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for temperatures in the −40 to −60 °C range...

  18. The frequency and nature of `cloud-cloud collisions' in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, C. L.; Pringle, J. E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate cloud-cloud collisions and giant molecular cloud evolution in hydrodynamic simulations of isolated galaxies. The simulations include heating and cooling of the interstellar medium (ISM), self-gravity and stellar feedback. Over time-scales scales is more complex and involves a greater fraction of intercloud material. We find that mergers or collisions occur every 8-10 Myr (1/15th of an orbit) in a simulation with spiral arms, and once every 28 Myr (1/5th of an orbit) with no imposed spiral arms. Both figures are higher than expected from analytic estimates, as clouds are not uniformly distributed in the galaxy. Thus, clouds can be expected to undergo between zero and a few collisions over their lifetime. We present specific examples of cloud-cloud interactions in our results, including synthetic CO maps. We would expect cloud-cloud interactions to be observable, but find they appear to have little or no impact on the ISM. Due to a combination of the clouds' typical geometries, and moderate velocity dispersions, cloud-cloud interactions often better resemble a smaller cloud nudging a larger cloud. Our findings are consistent with the view that spiral arms make little difference to overall star formation rates in galaxies, and we see no evidence that collisions likely produce massive clusters. However, to confirm the outcome of such massive cloud collisions we ideally need higher resolution simulations.

  19. Some Algorithms for Weather Prediction Using Thin Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moneeshaa.J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Clouds are important for climatic changes in the atmosphere. Cloud images are taken by visible and infrared satellites. Both visible and infrared satellites, the clouds that are not very white are calledThin Clouds. So, the identification of a thin cloud is hard to find out. In this paper, some algorithms for spotting thin clouds are proposed. They are HSL (Hue Saturation Light, ROI (Region of Interest, Watershed, Demirel and Color Segmentation. HSL (Hue Saturation Light is used for finding the ratio of color in the cloud image, ROI (Region of Interest is used for removing the cloud and the sky elements of the cloud image, Watershed and Demirel algorithm are used to segment the Thin Clouds. The extract values from the cloud image are measured using Gaussian Filter. The weather forecasting is carried out by comparing the images in the database after performing color segmentation by k-means clustering.

  20. Managing Clouds in Cloud Platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmat, Kamal A

    2010-01-01

    Managing cloud services is a fundamental challenge in todays virtualized environments. These challenges equally face both providers and consumers of cloud services. The issue becomes even more challenging in virtualized environments that support mobile clouds. Cloud computing platforms such as Amazon EC2 provide customers with flexible, on demand resources at low cost. However, they fail to provide seamless infrastructure management and monitoring capabilities that many customers may need. For instance, Amazon EC2 doesn't fully support cloud services automated discovery and it requires a private set of authentication credentials. Salesforce.com, on the other hand, do not provide monitoring access to their underlying systems. Moreover, these systems fail to provide infrastructure monitoring of heterogenous and legacy systems that don't support agents. In this work, we explore how to build a cloud management system that combines heterogeneous management of virtual resources with comprehensive management of phys...

  1. The JASMIN Cloud: specialised and hybrid to meet the needs of the Environmental Sciences Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Philip; Lawrence, Bryan; Churchill, Jonathan; Pritchard, Matt

    2014-05-01

    Cloud computing provides enormous opportunities for the research community. The large public cloud providers provide near-limitless scaling capability. However, adapting Cloud to scientific workloads is not without its problems. The commodity nature of the public cloud infrastructure can be at odds with the specialist requirements of the research community. Issues such as trust, ownership of data, WAN bandwidth and costing models make additional barriers to more widespread adoption. Alongside the application of public cloud for scientific applications, a number of private cloud initiatives are underway in the research community of which the JASMIN Cloud is one example. Here, cloud service models are being effectively super-imposed over more established services such as data centres, compute cluster facilities and Grids. These have the potential to deliver the specialist infrastructure needed for the science community coupled with the benefits of a Cloud service model. The JASMIN facility based at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory was established in 2012 to support the data analysis requirements of the climate and Earth Observation community. In its first year of operation, the 5PB of available storage capacity was filled and the hosted compute capability used extensively. JASMIN has modelled the concept of a centralised large-volume data analysis facility. Key characteristics have enabled success: peta-scale fast disk connected via low latency networks to compute resources and the use of virtualisation for effective management of the resources for a range of users. A second phase is now underway funded through NERC's (Natural Environment Research Council) Big Data initiative. This will see significant expansion to the resources available with a doubling of disk-based storage to 12PB and an increase of compute capacity by a factor of ten to over 3000 processing cores. This expansion is accompanied by a broadening in the scope for JASMIN, as a service available to

  2. Cloud Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Rama; Raths, David; Schaffhauser, Dian; Skelly, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    For many IT shops, the cloud offers an opportunity not only to improve operations but also to align themselves more closely with their schools' strategic goals. The cloud is not a plug-and-play proposition, however--it is a complex, evolving landscape that demands one's full attention. Security, privacy, contracts, and contingency planning are all…

  3. Cloud Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    This article features a major statewide initiative in North Carolina that is showing how a consortium model can minimize risks for districts and help them exploit the advantages of cloud computing. Edgecombe County Public Schools in Tarboro, North Carolina, intends to exploit a major cloud initiative being refined in the state and involving every…

  4. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Mirashe, Shivaji P

    2010-01-01

    Computing as you know it is about to change, your applications and documents are going to move from the desktop into the cloud. I'm talking about cloud computing, where applications and files are hosted on a "cloud" consisting of thousands of computers and servers, all linked together and accessible via the Internet. With cloud computing, everything you do is now web based instead of being desktop based. You can access all your programs and documents from any computer that's connected to the Internet. How will cloud computing change the way you work? For one thing, you're no longer tied to a single computer. You can take your work anywhere because it's always accessible via the web. In addition, cloud computing facilitates group collaboration, as all group members can access the same programs and documents from wherever they happen to be located. Cloud computing might sound far-fetched, but chances are you're already using some cloud applications. If you're using a web-based email program, such as Gmail or Ho...

  5. SuperSegger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianidou, Stella; Brennan, Connor; Nissen, Silas B

    2016-01-01

    -colonies with many cells, facilitating the analysis of cell-cycle dynamics in bacteria as well as cell-contact mediated phenomena. This package has a range of built-in capabilities for characterizing bacterial cells, including the identification of cell division events, mother, daughter, and neighboring cells......Many quantitative cell biology questions require fast yet reliable automated image segmentation to identify and link cells from frame-to-frame, and characterize the cell morphology and fluorescence. We present SuperSegger, an automated MATLAB-based image processing package well......-suited to quantitative analysis of high-throughput live-cell fluorescence microscopy of bacterial cells. SuperSegger incorporates machine-learning algorithms to optimize cellular boundaries and automated error resolution to reliably link cells from frame-to-frame. Unlike existing packages, it can reliably segment micro...

  6. NASA Super Pressure Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    NASA is in the process of qualifying the mid-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB) to provide constant density altitude flight for science investigations at polar and mid-latitudes. The status of the development of the 18.8 million cubic foot SPB capable of carrying one-tone of science to 110,000 feet, will be given. In addition, the operating considerations such as launch sites, flight safety considerations, and recovery will be discussed.

  7. Super-diversité

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.J.; Schneider, J.; Lelie, F.

    2013-01-01

    Le concept de super-diversité, en cernant les conditions d'un scénario 'avenir optimiste, offre un nouvel éclairage au débat sur l'intégration. Nous sommes à la croisée des chemins. Cette étude comparative internationale montre qu'un avenir souriant se profile dans les villes qui donnent des chances

  8. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator...

  9. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...

  10. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  11. Super Fuzzy Matrices and Super Fuzzy Models for Social Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Amal, K

    2008-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of fuzzy super matrices and operations on them. This book will be highly useful to social scientists who wish to work with multi-expert models. Super fuzzy models using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, Fuzzy Relational Maps, Bidirectional Associative Memories and Fuzzy Associative Memories are defined here. The authors introduce 13 multi-expert models using the notion of fuzzy supermatrices. These models are described with illustrative examples. This book has three chapters. In the first chaper, the basic concepts about super matrices and fuzzy super matrices are recalled. Chapter two introduces the notion of fuzzy super matrices adn their properties. The final chapter introduces many super fuzzy multi expert models.

  12. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    CERN Document Server

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce $\\beta$-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated $\\alpha/\\beta$-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  13. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Hadasz, Leszek; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/ β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  14. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciosmak, Paweł [Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Mechanics, University of Warsaw,ul. Banacha 2, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Hadasz, Leszek [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Manabe, Masahide [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Sułkowski, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-10-10

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce β-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated α/β-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  15. Screaming Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikke, Svein; Egill Kristjánsson, Jón; Nordli, Øyvind

    2017-04-01

    "Mother-of-pearl clouds" appear irregularly in the winter stratosphere at high northern latitudes, about 20-30 km above the surface of the Earth. The size range of the cloud particles is near that of visible light, which explains their extraordinary beautiful colours. We argue that the Norwegian painter Edvard Munch could well have been terrified when the sky all of a sudden turned "bloodish red" after sunset, when darkness was expected. Hence, there is a high probability that it was an event of mother-of-pearl clouds which was the background for Munch's experience in nature, and for his iconic Scream. Currently, the leading hypothesis for explaining the dramatic colours of the sky in Munch's famous painting is that the artist was captivated by colourful sunsets following the enormous Krakatoa eruption in 1883. After carefully considering the historical accounts of some of Munch's contemporaries, especially the physicist Carl Störmer, we suggest an alternative hypothesis, namely that Munch was inspired by spectacular occurrences of mother-of-pearl clouds. Such clouds, which have a wave-like structure akin to that seen in the Scream were first observed and described only a few years before the first version of this motive was released in 1892. Unlike clouds related to conventional weather systems in the troposphere, mother-of-pearl clouds appear in the stratosphere, where significantly different physical conditions prevail. This result in droplet sizes within the range of visible light, creating the spectacular colour patterns these clouds are famous for. Carl Störmer observed such clouds, and described them in minute details at the age of 16, but already with a profound interest in science. He later noted that "..these mother-of-pearl clouds was a vision of indescribable beauty!" The authors find it logical that the same vision could appear scaring in the sensible mind of a young artist unknown to such phenomena.

  16. Super-enhancers in the control of cell identity and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnisz, Denes; Abraham, Brian J; Lee, Tong Ihn; Lau, Ashley; Saint-André, Violaine; Sigova, Alla A; Hoke, Heather A; Young, Richard A

    2013-11-07

    Super-enhancers are large clusters of transcriptional enhancers that drive expression of genes that define cell identity. Improved understanding of the roles that super-enhancers play in biology would be afforded by knowing the constellation of factors that constitute these domains and by identifying super-enhancers across the spectrum of human cell types. We describe here the population of transcription factors, cofactors, chromatin regulators, and transcription apparatus occupying super-enhancers in embryonic stem cells and evidence that super-enhancers are highly transcribed. We produce a catalog of super-enhancers in a broad range of human cell types and find that super-enhancers associate with genes that control and define the biology of these cells. Interestingly, disease-associated variation is especially enriched in the super-enhancers of disease-relevant cell types. Furthermore, we find that cancer cells generate super-enhancers at oncogenes and other genes important in tumor pathogenesis. Thus, super-enhancers play key roles in human cell identity in health and in disease.

  17. Securing Cloud from Cloud Drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niva Das

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, in the world of communication, connected systems is growing at a rapid pace. To accommodate this growth the need for computational power and storage is also increasing at a similar rate. Companies are investing a large amount of resources in buying, maintaining and ensuring availability of the system to their customers. To mitigate these issues, cloud computing is playing a major role [1]. The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the ‘50s but the term entering into widespread usage can be traced to 2006 when Amazon.com announced the Elastic Compute Cloud. In this paper, we will discuss about cloud security approaches. We have used the term “CloudDrain” to define data leakage in case of security compromise.

  18. Cloud migration

    CERN Document Server

    Höllwarth, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    This book is designed for managers and entrepreneurs, who are considering improving the economics and flexibility of their IT solutions and infrastructures. The book is also for readers who wish to learn more about the Cloud, but do not want to become specialists.This book discusses the technical, legal, fiscal, economic, organisational and environmental aspects of Cloud services. If you are looking for practical advice on vendor selection and certification, as well as real world Cloud project case studies, this is the book to consult.It is the result of a highly cooper

  19. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Baun, Christian; Nimis, Jens; Tai, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is a buzz-word in today's information technology (IT) that nobody can escape. But what is really behind it? There are many interpretations of this term, but no standardized or even uniform definition. Instead, as a result of the multi-faceted viewpoints and the diverse interests expressed by the various stakeholders, cloud computing is perceived as a rather fuzzy concept. With this book, the authors deliver an overview of cloud computing architecture, services, and applications. Their aim is to bring readers up to date on this technology and thus to provide a common basis for d

  20. A Super-Resolution Laser Altimetry Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaomei; Hu, Yongxiang; Trepte, Charles; Liu, Zhaoyan

    2014-01-01

    A super-resolution laser altimetry technique has been proposed to provide improved lidar altimetry from Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) lidar data, and it is applicable to other similar atmospheric profiling lidar with low-pass filters. To achieve high altimetry resolution, the new technique relies on an empirical relationship between the peak signal ratio and the distance between land surface and the peak signal range bin center, which is directly derived from the CALIPSO lidar measurements and does not require the CALIPSO's transient response. The CALIPSO surface elevation results in Northern America retrieved by the new technique agree with the National Elevation Database high resolution elevation maps, and the comparisons suggest that the precision of the technique is much better than 1.4 m. The preliminary data product of land surface elevation retrieved by the new technique from CALIPSO lidar measurements is available to the altimetry community for evaluation.

  1. An explanation for some fallstreak clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    Full Text Available Fallstreak cirrus clouds are associated with super-saturated air, together with waves, instabilities and/or turbulence; however, their precise cause is usually uncertain. This paper uses already-published satellite, radiosonde and radar data, reanalysed to study some large fallstreaks which had been previously overlooked. The fallstreaks – up to 60 km long with a parent cloud 20 km wide – are caused by lifting and/or turbulence from a mountain wave, rather than, for example, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. If turbulent breaking of mountain waves affects ice particle formation, this may be relevant for the seeder-feeder effect on orographic rain, and the efficiency of mountain-wave polar stratospheric clouds for ozone depletion.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence; waves and tides – Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry

  2. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties...

  3. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application results of a previous and current EU-project on super insulating glazing based on monolithic silica aerogel. Prototypes measuring approx. 55´55 cm2 have been made with 15 mm evacuated aerogel between two layers of low-iron glass. Anti-reflective treatment...... of the glass and a heat-treatment of the aerogel increases the visible quality and the solar energy transmittance. A low-conductive rim seal solution with the required vacuum barrier properties has been developed along with a reliable assembly and evacuation process. The prototypes have a centre heat loss...

  4. Super-heptazethrene

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Wangdong

    2016-05-30

    The challenging synthesis of a laterally extended heptazethrene molecule, the super-heptazethrene derivative SHZ-CF3, is reported. This molecule was prepared using a strategy involving a multiple selective intramolecular Friedel–Crafts alkylation followed by oxidative dehydrogenation. Compound SHZ-CF3 exhibits an open-shell singlet diradical ground state with a much larger diradical character compared with the heptazethrene derivatives. An intermediate dibenzo-terrylene SHZ-2H was also obtained during the synthesis. This study provides a new synthetic method to access large-size quinoidal polycyclic hydrocarbons with unique physical properties.

  5. Cloud Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark Talmage

    2004-05-01

    Cloud formation is crucial to the heritage of modern physics, and there is a rich literature on this important topic. In 1927, Charles T.R. Wilson was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for applications of the cloud chamber.2 Wilson was inspired to study cloud formation after working at a meteorological observatory on top of the highest mountain in Scotland, Ben Nevis, and testified near the end of his life, "The whole of my scientific work undoubtedly developed from the experiments I was led to make by what I saw during my fortnight on Ben Nevis in September 1894."3 To form clouds, Wilson used the sudden expansion of humid air.4 Any structure the cloud may have is spoiled by turbulence in the sudden expansion, but in 1912 Wilson got ion tracks to show up by using strobe photography of the chamber immediately upon expansion.5 In the interim, Millikan's study in 1909 of the formation of cloud droplets around individual ions was the first in which the electron charge was isolated. This study led to his famous oil drop experiment.6 To Millikan, as to Wilson, meteorology and physics were professionally indistinct. With his meteorological physics expertise, in WWI Millikan commanded perhaps the first meteorological observation and forecasting team essential to military operation in history.7 But even during peacetime meteorology is so much of a concern to everyone that a regular news segment is dedicated to it. Weather is the universal conversation topic, and life on land could not exist as we know it without clouds. One wonders then, why cloud formation is never covered in physics texts.

  6. Scalable cloud without dedicated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batkovich, D. V.; Kompaniets, M. V.; Zarochentsev, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    We present a prototype of a scalable computing cloud. It is intended to be deployed on the basis of a cluster without the separate dedicated storage. The dedicated storage is replaced by the distributed software storage. In addition, all cluster nodes are used both as computing nodes and as storage nodes. This solution increases utilization of the cluster resources as well as improves fault tolerance and performance of the distributed storage. Another advantage of this solution is high scalability with a relatively low initial and maintenance cost. The solution is built on the basis of the open source components like OpenStack, CEPH, etc.

  7. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rubio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwavelenghts studies of massive star formation regions in the LMC and SMC reveal that a second generation of stars is being formed in dense molecular clouds located in the surroundings of the massive clusters. These dense molecular clouds have survive the action of massive star UV radiation elds and winds and they appear as compact dense H2 knots in regions of weak CO emission. We present results of observations obtained towards massive star forming regions in the low metallicity molecular clouds in the Magellanic Clouds and investigate its implication on star formation in the early universe.

  8. Quantitative super-resolution microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkes, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Super-Resolution Microscopy is an optical fluorescence technique. In this thesis we focus on single molecule super-resolution, where the position of single molecules is determined. Typically these molecules can be localized with a 10 to 30nm precision. This technique is applied in four different s

  9. The rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tovmassian, Hrant M

    2015-01-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher of the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with $a/b>1.8$ and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy in which does not differ significantly from the cluster cD galaxy. Seventeen out of studied 65 clusters are found to be rotating. It was found that the detection rate is sufficiently high for flat clusters, over 60\\%, and clusters of BMI type with dominant cD galaxy, ~ 35%. The obtained results show that clusters were formed from the huge primordial gas clouds and preserved the rotation of the primordial clouds, unless they did not have merging with other clusters and groups of galaxies, in the result of which the rotation has been prevented.

  10. An Approach to Ad hoc Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Graham; Macdonald, Angus; Fernandes, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    We consider how underused computing resources within an enterprise may be harnessed to improve utilization and create an elastic computing infrastructure. Most current cloud provision involves a data center model, in which clusters of machines are dedicated to running cloud infrastructure software. We propose an additional model, the ad hoc cloud, in which infrastructure software is distributed over resources harvested from machines already in existence within an enterprise. In contrast to the data center cloud model, resource levels are not established a priori, nor are resources dedicated exclusively to the cloud while in use. A participating machine is not dedicated to the cloud, but has some other primary purpose such as running interactive processes for a particular user. We outline the major implementation challenges and one approach to tackling them.

  11. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    users in very different ways and for various purposes. The book provides many stimulating examples of resource-sharing applications. Enabling technologies for mobile clouds are also discussed, highlighting the key role of network coding. Mobile clouds have the potential to enhance communications...... of resource sharing takes a wider and deeper meaning, creating the foundations for a global real-time multidimensional resource pool, the underlying infrastructure for shareconomy. Above all, this is an inspiring book for anyone who is concerned about the future of wireless and mobile communications networks...... and their relationship with Social networks. Key Features: Provides fundamental ideas and promising concepts for exploiting opportunistic cooperation and cognition in wireless and mobile networks Gives clear definitions of mobile clouds from different perspectives Associates mobile and wireless networks with social...

  12. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties...... of aerogel glazing will allow for a positive net energy gain even for north facing vertical windows in a Danish climate during the heating season. This means that high quality daylight can be obtained even with additional energy gain. On behalf of the partners of the two EU projects, results related...

  13. Super Marginal Model Analysis of the Endogenous Evolution of Industrial Cluster from the Angle of Roundabout Production%迂回生产视角下产业集群内生演化超边际模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军辉

    2014-01-01

    Different from the existing research which describes the external feature of industrial cluster as its revolution mechanism,this paper utilizes the infra-marginal analysis method and constructs a universally endogenous professionalized general dynamic equilibrium model,based on the theoretical essence that industrial evolution stems from the increasing of industrial tortuosity.By setting diverse parameters,this paper stimulates the output changes of the intermediate and final products.Through mathematical model analysis into three stages,it finds that two predominant factors which exert influence on the form of industrial cluster evolution are "the specialized economic degree of intermediate products" and "the degree of complementary economy".When the former parameter surpasses the latter,industrial cluster evolution shows a stable and hierarchical process.On the contrary,when the latter parameter overrides the former,industrial cluster evolution represents a reversible and instable step-evolution process.The conclusion can be used as a theoretical reference for industrial development model and path of China's different areas.%不同于将产业集群静态外部特征描述作为其演进机理的现有成果,文章围绕集群演进源自产业迂回度增加这一理论实质,运用超边际分析方法,构建了普适意义上的内生专业化一般动态均衡模型,通过不同的参数设置,模拟中间及最终产品的产出变化.经过三个阶段的数理模型分析,发现“中间产品生产的专业化经济程度”和“互补性经济程度”是影响产业集群演化过程型态的关键因素.当前者强于后者时,集群发展将呈现稳定的递阶演化;相反,则会出现可逆、不稳的阶跃式演化.该结论将为我国不同区域的产业发展模式与道路选择提供理论参考.

  14. Cloud radiative properties and aerosol - cloud interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviana Vladutescu, Daniela; Gross, Barry; Li, Clement; Han, Zaw

    2015-04-01

    The presented research discusses different techniques for improvement of cloud properties measurements and analysis. The need for these measurements and analysis arises from the high errors noticed in existing methods that are currently used in retrieving cloud properties and implicitly cloud radiative forcing. The properties investigated are cloud fraction (cf) and cloud optical thickness (COT) measured with a suite of collocated remote sensing instruments. The novel approach makes use of a ground based "poor man's camera" to detect cloud and sky radiation in red, green, and blue with a high spatial resolution of 30 mm at 1km. The surface-based high resolution photography provides a new and interesting view of clouds. As the cloud fraction cannot be uniquely defined or measured, it depends on threshold and resolution. However as resolution decreases, cloud fraction tends to increase if the threshold is below the mean, and vice versa. Additionally cloud fractal dimension also depends on threshold. Therefore these findings raise concerns over the ability to characterize clouds by cloud fraction or fractal dimension. Our analysis indicate that Principal Component analysis may lead to a robust means of quantifying cloud contribution to radiance. The cloud images are analyzed in conjunction with a collocated CIMEL sky radiometer, Microwave Radiometer and LIDAR to determine homogeneity and heterogeneity. Additionally, MFRSR measurements are used to determine the cloud radiative properties as a validation tool to the results obtained from the other instruments and methods. The cloud properties to be further studied are aerosol- cloud interaction, cloud particle radii, and vertical homogeneity.

  15. Software-Defined Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂华; 杨晓君; 刘淘英

    2015-01-01

    The cluster architecture has played an important role in high-end computing for the past 20 years. With the advent of Internet services, big data, and cloud computing, traditional clusters face three challenges: 1) providing flexible system balance among computing, memory, and I/O capabilities;2) reducing resource pooling overheads;and 3) addressing low performance-power efficiency. This position paper proposes a software-defined cluster (SDC) architecture to deal with these challenges. The SDC architecture inherits two features of traditional cluster: its architecture is multicomputer and it has loosely-coupled interconnect. SDC provides two new mechanisms: global I/O space (GIO) and hardware-supported native access (HNA) to remote devices. Application software can define a virtual cluster best suited to its needs from resources pools provided by a physical cluster, and traditional cluster ecosystems need no modification. We also discuss a prototype design and implementation of a 32-processor cloud server utilizing the SDC architecture.

  16. Xinjiang Girl World Super Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Leading Chinese model Yue Mei won thetitle of World Super Model at the ’98 WorldSuper Model Competition held in FranceSeptember 6 - 17. Yue, a university studentfrom the Xinjiang Uygur AutonomousRegion, had won the top title at ’98 ChinaSuper Model Competition held in Beijingone month earier.After that, she underwentone month’s professional modeling trainingwith the New Silk Road ModelingManagement Company before setting off forthe world competition. In France, Yueimpressed the judges with her strikingfeatures, and display of oriental elegance and

  17. Emission Spectroscopy of the Super-Earth 55 Cnc e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomir, Diana; Bean, Jacob; Kreidberg, Laura; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Line, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Recent surveys have revealed an extraordinary and unexplained diversity of low-mass exoplanets. The main frontier for constraining the nature and origins of these planets is atmospheric characterization to reveal their detailed physical properties. Previous spectroscopic observations of small exoplanets have been focused on transmission measurements, but these studies are often limited by clouds. We are turning small exoplanet characterization in a new direction with multi-wavelength observations (Warm Spitzer and HST WFC3) of the dayside of 55 Cnc e, a quintessential super-Earth in a tight orbit and transiting a nearby star. We will present the first dayside emission spectrum of a super-Earth, which we use to distinguish between different atmospheric compositions and constrain the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere. Our results for 55 Cnc e will guide JWST emission spectroscopy of a much larger sample of small close-in transiting exoplanets.

  18. SuperB Progress Reports Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Biagini, Maria Enrica; Boscolo, M; Buonomo, B; Demma, T; Drago, A; Esposito, M; Guiducci, S; Mazzitelli, G; Pellegrino, L; Preger, M A; Raimondi, P; Ricci, R; Rotundo, U; Sanelli, C; Serio, M; Stella, A; Tomassini, S; Zobov, M; Bertsche, K; Brachman, A; Cai, Y; Chao, A; Chesnut, R; Donald, M.H; Field, C; Fisher, A; Kharakh, D; Krasnykh, A; Moffeit, K; Nosochkov, Y; Pivi, M; Seeman, J; Sullivan, M.K; Weathersby, S; Weidemann, A; Weisend, J; Wienands, U; Wittmer, W; Woods, M; Yocky, G; Bogomiagkov, A; Koop, I; Levichev, E; Nikitin, S; Okunev, I; Piminov, P; Sinyatkin, S; Shatilov, D; Vobly, P; Bosi, F; Liuzzo, S; Paoloni, E; Bonis, J; Chehab, R; Le Meur, G; Lepercq, P; Letellier-Cohen, F; Mercier, B; Poirier, F; Prevost, C; Rimbault, C; Touze, F; Variola, A; Bolzon, B; Brunetti, L; Jeremie, A; Baylac, M; Bourrion, O; De Conto, J M; Gomez, Y; Meot, F; Monseu, N; Tourres, D; Vescovi, C; Chanci, A; Napoly, O; Barber, D P; Bettoni, S; Quatraro, D

    2010-01-01

    This report details the present status of the Accelerator design for the SuperB Project. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  19. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; /INFN, Pavia /Bergamo U., Ingengneria Dept.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; /Bergen U.; Carbone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Gabrielli, A.; Galli, D.; Giorgi, F.; Marconi, U.; Perazzini, S.; Sbarra, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Caltech /Carleton U. /Cincinnati U. /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /UC, Irvine /Taras Shevchenko U. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Frascati /INFN, Legnaro /Orsay, IPN /Maryland U. /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Caltech /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /PNL, Richland /Queen Mary, U. of London /Rutherford /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome2 /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /INFN, Rome3 /Rome III U. /SLAC /Tel Aviv U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Padua /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /TRIUMF /British Columbia U. /Montreal U. /Victoria U.

    2012-02-14

    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  20. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    examples of mobile clouds applications, based on both existing commercial initiatives as well as proof-of-concept test-beds. Visions and prospects are also discussed, paving the way for further development. As mobile networks and social networks become more and more reliant on each other, the concept...

  1. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas;

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...

  2. Exploring the Venus global super-rotation using a comprehensive general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J. M.; Read, P. L.

    2016-12-01

    The atmospheric circulation in Venus is well known to exhibit strong super-rotation. However, the atmospheric mechanisms responsible for the formation of this super-rotation are still not fully understood. In this work, we developed a new Venus general circulation model to study the most likely mechanisms driving the atmosphere to the current observed circulation. Our model includes a new radiative transfer, convection and suitably adapted boundary layer schemes and a dynamical core that takes into account the dependence of the heat capacity at constant pressure with temperature. The new Venus model is able to simulate a super-rotation phenomenon in the cloud region quantitatively similar to the one observed. The mechanisms maintaining the strong winds in the cloud region were found in the model results to be a combination of zonal mean circulation, thermal tides and transient waves. In this process, the semi-diurnal tide excited in the upper clouds has a key contribution in transporting axial angular momentum mainly from the upper atmosphere towards the cloud region. The magnitude of the super-rotation in the cloud region is sensitive to various radiative parameters such as the amount of solar radiative energy absorbed by the surface, which controls the static stability near the surface. In this work, we also discuss the main difficulties in representing the flow below the cloud base in Venus atmospheric models. Our new radiative scheme is more suitable for 3D Venus climate models than those used in previous work due to its easy adaptability to different atmospheric conditions. This flexibility of the model was crucial to explore the uncertainties in the lower atmospheric conditions and may also be used in the future to explore, for example, dynamical-radiative-microphysical feedbacks.

  3. What's So Super about Superfoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with meals. The Skinny on Common Super Foods Salmon is a fatty fish that’s low in saturated ... soy nuts are high in polyunsaturated fat, fiber, vitamins and minerals but low in saturated fat. They ...

  4. Super Ministries,Better Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Chinese lawmakers on March 15th endorsed a State Counci l proposal for institutional overhaul of the tentral government,which involves the establishment of"super ministries"concerning energy,transport,industry and environmental protection.

  5. The Next Generation Microlensing Search: SuperMacho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, A; Cook, K; Hiriart, R; Keller, S; Miknaitis, G; Nilolaev, S; Olsen, K; Prochter, G; Rest, A; Schmidt, B; Smith, C; Stubbs, C; Suntzeff, N; Welch, D; Becker, A; Clocchiati, A; Covarrubias, R

    2003-10-27

    Past microlensing experiments such as the MACHO project have discovered the presence of a larger than expected number of microlensing events toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These events could represent a large fraction of the dark matter in the halo of our Galaxy, if they are indeed due to halo lenses. However the locations of most of the lenses are poorly defined. The SuperMacho project will detect and follow up {approx}60 microlensing events exhibiting special properties due to binarity, etc., will allow us to better determine the location and nature of the lenses causing the LMC microlensing events.

  6. Developing cloud chambers with high school students

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Ryo; Sato, Shoma; Zeze, Syoji

    2013-01-01

    The result and outcome of the cloud chamber project, which aims to develop a cloud chamber useful for science education is reported in detail. A project includes both three high school students and a teacher as a part of Super Science High School (SSH) program in our school. We develop a dry ice free cloud chamber using salt and ice (or snow). Technical detail of the chamber is presented. We also argue how the project affects student's cognition, motivation, academic skills and behavior. The research project had been done in very similar way to those of professional researchers, i.e., planning research, applying fund, writing a paper and giving a talk in conferences. From interviews with students, we learn that such style of scientific activity is very effective in promoting student's motivation for learning science.

  7. Developing Cloud Chambers with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Ryo; Tan, Nobuaki; Sato, Shoma; Zeze, Syoji

    The result and outcome of the cloud chamber project, which aims to develop a cloud chamber useful for science education is reported in detail. A project includes both three high school students and a teacher as a part of Super Science High School (SSH) program in our school. We develop a dry-ice-free cloud chamber using salt and ice (or snow). Technical details of the chamber are described. We also argue how the project have affected student's cognition, motivation, academic skills and behavior. The research project has taken steps of professional researchers, i.e., in planning research, applying fund, writing a paper and giving a talk in conferences. From interviews with students, we have learnt that such style of scientific activity is very effective in promoting student's motivation for learning science.

  8. Holography based super resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Anwar; Mudassar, Asloob A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes the simulation of a simple technique of superresolution based on holographic imaging in spectral domain. The input beam assembly containing 25 optical fibers with different orientations and positions is placed to illuminate the object in the 4f optical system. The position and orientation of each fiber is calculated with respect to the central fiber in the array. The positions and orientations of the fibers are related to the shift of object spectrum at aperture plane. During the imaging process each fiber is operated once in the whole procedure to illuminate the input object transparency which gives shift to the object spectrum in the spectral domain. This shift of the spectrum is equal to the integral multiple of the pass band aperture width. During the operation of single fiber (ON-state) all other fibers are in OFF-state at that time. The hologram recorded by each fiber at the CCD plane is stored in computer memory. At the end of illumination process total 25 holograms are recorded by the whole fiber array and by applying some post processing and specific algorithm single super resolved image is obtained. The superresolved image is five times better than the band-limited image. The work is demonstrated using computer simulation only.

  9. Rain initiation in warm clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Dallas, Vassilios

    2010-01-01

    Assuming perfect collision efficiency, we demonstrate that turbulence can initiate and sustain rapid growth of very small water droplets in air even when these droplets are too small to cluster, and even without having to take gravity and small-scale intermittency into account. This is because the range of local Stokes numbers of identical droplets in the turbulent flow field is broad enough even when small-scale intermittency is neglected. This demonstration is given for turbulence which is one order of magnitude less intense than typically in warm clouds but with a volume fraction which, even though small, is nevertheless large enough for an estimated a priori frequency of collisions to be ten times larger than in warm clouds. However, the time of growth in these conditions turns out to be one order of magnitude smaller than in warm clouds.

  10. Cloud management and security

    CERN Document Server

    Abbadi, Imad M

    2014-01-01

    Written by an expert with over 15 years' experience in the field, this book establishes the foundations of Cloud computing, building an in-depth and diverse understanding of the technologies behind Cloud computing. In this book, the author begins with an introduction to Cloud computing, presenting fundamental concepts such as analyzing Cloud definitions, Cloud evolution, Cloud services, Cloud deployment types and highlighting the main challenges. Following on from the introduction, the book is divided into three parts: Cloud management, Cloud security, and practical examples. Part one presents the main components constituting the Cloud and federated Cloud infrastructure(e.g., interactions and deployment), discusses management platforms (resources and services), identifies and analyzes the main properties of the Cloud infrastructure, and presents Cloud automated management services: virtual and application resource management services. Part two analyzes the problem of establishing trustworthy Cloud, discuss...

  11. Super Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy and Tracking of Bacterial Flotillin (Reggie Paralogs Provide Evidence for Defined-Sized Protein Microdomains within the Bacterial Membrane but Absence of Clusters Containing Detergent-Resistant Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Dempwolff

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological membranes have been proposed to contain microdomains of a specific lipid composition, in which distinct groups of proteins are clustered. Flotillin-like proteins are conserved between pro-and eukaryotes, play an important function in several eukaryotic and bacterial cells, and define in vertebrates a type of so-called detergent-resistant microdomains. Using STED microscopy, we show that two bacterial flotillins, FloA and FloT, form defined assemblies with an average diameter of 85 to 110 nm in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Interestingly, flotillin microdomains are of similar size in eukaryotic cells. The soluble domains of FloA form higher order oligomers of up to several hundred kDa in vitro, showing that like eukaryotic flotillins, bacterial assemblies are based in part on their ability to self-oligomerize. However, B. subtilis paralogs show significantly different diffusion rates, and consequently do not colocalize into a common microdomain. Dual colour time lapse experiments of flotillins together with other detergent-resistant proteins in bacteria show that proteins colocalize for no longer than a few hundred milliseconds, and do not move together. Our data reveal that the bacterial membrane contains defined-sized protein domains rather than functional microdomains dependent on flotillins. Based on their distinct dynamics, FloA and FloT confer spatially distinguishable activities, but do not serve as molecular scaffolds.

  12. Super Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy and Tracking of Bacterial Flotillin (Reggie) Paralogs Provide Evidence for Defined-Sized Protein Microdomains within the Bacterial Membrane but Absence of Clusters Containing Detergent-Resistant Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempwolff, Felix; Schmidt, Felix K.; Hervás, Ana B.; Stroh, Alex; Rösch, Thomas C.; Riese, Cornelius N.; Dersch, Simon; Heimerl, Thomas; Lucena, Daniella; Hülsbusch, Nikola; Stuermer, Claudia A. O.; Takeshita, Norio; Fischer, Reinhard; Graumann, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Biological membranes have been proposed to contain microdomains of a specific lipid composition, in which distinct groups of proteins are clustered. Flotillin-like proteins are conserved between pro—and eukaryotes, play an important function in several eukaryotic and bacterial cells, and define in vertebrates a type of so-called detergent-resistant microdomains. Using STED microscopy, we show that two bacterial flotillins, FloA and FloT, form defined assemblies with an average diameter of 85 to 110 nm in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Interestingly, flotillin microdomains are of similar size in eukaryotic cells. The soluble domains of FloA form higher order oligomers of up to several hundred kDa in vitro, showing that like eukaryotic flotillins, bacterial assemblies are based in part on their ability to self-oligomerize. However, B. subtilis paralogs show significantly different diffusion rates, and consequently do not colocalize into a common microdomain. Dual colour time lapse experiments of flotillins together with other detergent-resistant proteins in bacteria show that proteins colocalize for no longer than a few hundred milliseconds, and do not move together. Our data reveal that the bacterial membrane contains defined-sized protein domains rather than functional microdomains dependent on flotillins. Based on their distinct dynamics, FloA and FloT confer spatially distinguishable activities, but do not serve as molecular scaffolds. PMID:27362352

  13. Super Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy and Tracking of Bacterial Flotillin (Reggie) Paralogs Provide Evidence for Defined-Sized Protein Microdomains within the Bacterial Membrane but Absence of Clusters Containing Detergent-Resistant Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempwolff, Felix; Schmidt, Felix K; Hervás, Ana B; Stroh, Alex; Rösch, Thomas C; Riese, Cornelius N; Dersch, Simon; Heimerl, Thomas; Lucena, Daniella; Hülsbusch, Nikola; Stuermer, Claudia A O; Takeshita, Norio; Fischer, Reinhard; Eckhardt, Bruno; Graumann, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    Biological membranes have been proposed to contain microdomains of a specific lipid composition, in which distinct groups of proteins are clustered. Flotillin-like proteins are conserved between pro-and eukaryotes, play an important function in several eukaryotic and bacterial cells, and define in vertebrates a type of so-called detergent-resistant microdomains. Using STED microscopy, we show that two bacterial flotillins, FloA and FloT, form defined assemblies with an average diameter of 85 to 110 nm in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Interestingly, flotillin microdomains are of similar size in eukaryotic cells. The soluble domains of FloA form higher order oligomers of up to several hundred kDa in vitro, showing that like eukaryotic flotillins, bacterial assemblies are based in part on their ability to self-oligomerize. However, B. subtilis paralogs show significantly different diffusion rates, and consequently do not colocalize into a common microdomain. Dual colour time lapse experiments of flotillins together with other detergent-resistant proteins in bacteria show that proteins colocalize for no longer than a few hundred milliseconds, and do not move together. Our data reveal that the bacterial membrane contains defined-sized protein domains rather than functional microdomains dependent on flotillins. Based on their distinct dynamics, FloA and FloT confer spatially distinguishable activities, but do not serve as molecular scaffolds.

  14. Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The second half of the 20th century has been characterized by an explosive development in information technology (Maney, Hamm, & O'Brien, 2011). Processing power, storage capacity and network bandwidth have increased exponentially, resulting in new possibilities and shifting IT paradigms. In step...... with technological changes, the paradigmatic pendulum has swung between increased centralization on one side and a focus on distributed computing that pushes IT power out to end users on the other. With the introduction of outsourcing and cloud computing, centralization in large data centers is again dominating...... the IT scene. In line with the views presented by Nicolas Carr in 2003 (Carr, 2003), it is a popular assumption that cloud computing will be the next utility (like water, electricity and gas) (Buyya, Yeo, Venugopal, Broberg, & Brandic, 2009). However, this assumption disregards the fact that most IT production...

  15. Cloud classification using whole-sky imager data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buch, K.A. Jr.; Sun, C.H.; Thorne, L.R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Clouds are one of the most important moderators of the earth radiation budget and one of the least understood. The effect that clouds have on the reflection and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation is strongly influenced by their shape, size, and composition. Physically accurate parameterization of clouds is necessary for any general circulation model (GCM) to yield meaningful results. The work presented here is part of a larger project that is aimed at producing realistic three-dimensional (3D) volume renderings of cloud scenes based on measured data from real cloud scenes. These renderings will provide the important shape information for parameterizing GCMs. The specific goal of the current study is to develop an algorithm that automatically classifies (by cloud type) the clouds observed in the scene. This information will assist the volume rendering program in determining the shape of the cloud. Much work has been done on cloud classification using multispectral satellite images. Most of these references use some kind of texture measure to distinguish the different cloud types and some also use topological features (such as cloud/sky connectivity or total number of clouds). A wide variety of classification methods has been used, including neural networks, various types of clustering, and thresholding. The work presented here uses binary decision trees to distinguish the different cloud types based on cloud features vectors.

  16. The formation and dynamical evolution of young star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations have revealed a variety of young star clusters, including embedded systems, young massive clusters, and associations. We study the formation and dynamical evolution of these clusters using a combination of simulations and theoretical models. Our simulations start with a turbulent molecular cloud that collapses under its own gravity. The stars are assumed to form in the densest regions in the collapsing cloud after an initial free-fall times of the molecular cloud. The dynamical evolution of these stellar distributions are continued by means of direct $N$-body simulations. The molecular clouds typical for the Milky Way Galaxy tend to form embedded clusters which evolve to resemble open clusters. The associations were initially considerably more clumpy, but lost their irregularity in about a dynamical time scale due to the relaxation process. The densest molecular clouds, which are absent in the Milky Way but are typical in starburst galaxies, form massive young star clusters. They indeed ar...

  17. Searching for GC-like abundance patterns in young massive clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera-Ziri, I; Davies, B; Bastian, N; Beccari, G; Larsen, S S; Hernandez, S

    2016-01-01

    Studies during the last decade have revealed that nearly all Globular Clusters (GCs) host multiple populations (MPs) of stars with a distinctive chemical patterns in light elements. No evidence of such MPs has been found so far in lower-mass ($ 10^5$ M$_{\\odot}$) clusters in the Local Group. Young massive clusters (YMCs) have masses and densities similar to those expected of young GCs in the early universe, and their near-infrared (NIR) spectra are dominated by the light of red super giants (RSGs). The spectra of these stars may be used to determine the cluster's abundances, even though the individual stars cannot be spatially resolved from one another. We carry out a differential analysis between the Al lines of YMC NGC 1705: 1 and field Small Magellanic Cloud RSGs with similar metallicities. We exclude at high confidence extreme [Al/Fe] enhancements similar to those observed in GCs like NGC 2808 or NGC 6752. However, smaller variations cannot be excluded.

  18. Bubble cloud dynamics in a high-pressure spherical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Phillip Andrew

    A bubble cloud is a population of bubbles confined to a region within a fluid. Bubble clouds play a large role in a variety of naturally occurring phenomena and man-made applications (e.g., ocean noise, cavitation damage, sonoluminescence, ultrasonic cleaning, drug delivery, lithotripsy). It is important, therefore, to understand the behavior of bubble clouds so that their effects may be enhanced or diminished as desired. This work explores and characterizes the properties of bubble clouds nucleated inside a high-pressure spherical acoustic resonator, in connection with recent interest in acoustic inertial confinement fusion (acoustic ICF). A laser system was developed to repeatably nucleate a cloud of bubbles inside the resonator. The resulting events were then observed, primarily with schlieren imaging methods. Preliminary studies of the bubble cloud dynamics showed the sensitivity of the initial cloud to nucleation parameters including the phase of nucleation, the laser energy, and the acoustic power. After many acoustic cycles, some bubble clouds are observed to evolve into a tight cluster. The formation of these clusters correlates with initial bubble distributions which have a large cloud interaction parameter, β. Cluster dynamics are seen to be largely driven by reconverging shock waves from previous collapses reflected from the resonator's interior surface. Initial expansion of the cluster boundary is on the order of 8 mm/µs and the maximum radius approaches 3 mm. Shock pressures are estimated to be > 10 GPa at a radius of 100 µm using weak shock theory.

  19. Resource Optimization Based on Demand in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Ramanathan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A Cloud Computing gives the opportunity to dynamically scale the computing resources for application. Cloud Computing consist of large number of resources, it is called resource pool. These resources are shared among the cloud consumer using virtualization technology. Virtualization technologies engaged in cloud environment is resource consolidation and management. Cloud consists of physical and virtual resources. Cloud performance is important for Cloud Provider perspective predicts the dynamic nature of users, user demands and application demand. The cloud consumer perspective, the job should be completed on time with minimum cost and limited resources. Finding optimum resource allocation is difficult in huge system like Cluster, Data Centre and Grid. In this study we present two types of resource allocation schemes such as Commitment Allocation (CA and Over Commitment Allocation (OCA in the physical and virtual level resource. These resource allocation schemes helps to identify the virtual resource utilization and physical resource availability.

  20. Cloud Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 1 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. This image was acquired during mid-spring near the North Pole. The linear water-ice clouds are now regional in extent and often interact with neighboring cloud system, as seen in this image. The bottom of the image shows how the interaction can destroy the linear nature. While the surface is still visible through most of the clouds, there is evidence that dust is also starting to enter the atmosphere. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 258.8 East (101.2 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara

  1. Big data mining analysis method based on cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing Qiu; Cui, Hong Gang; Tang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    Information explosion era, large data super-large, discrete and non-(semi) structured features have gone far beyond the traditional data management can carry the scope of the way. With the arrival of the cloud computing era, cloud computing provides a new technical way to analyze the massive data mining, which can effectively solve the problem that the traditional data mining method cannot adapt to massive data mining. This paper introduces the meaning and characteristics of cloud computing, analyzes the advantages of using cloud computing technology to realize data mining, designs the mining algorithm of association rules based on MapReduce parallel processing architecture, and carries out the experimental verification. The algorithm of parallel association rule mining based on cloud computing platform can greatly improve the execution speed of data mining.

  2. Emittance growth induced by electron cloud in proton storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, Elena; Coppa, G

    2006-01-01

    In proton and positron storage rings with many closely spaced bunches, a large number of electrons can accumulate in the beam pipe due to various mechanisms (photoemission, residual gas ionization, beam-induced multipacting). The so-formed electron cloud interacts with the positively charged bunches, giving rise to instabilities, emittance growth and losses. This phenomenon has been observed in several existing machines such as the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), whose operation has been constrained by the electron-cloud problem, and it is a concern for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), under construction at CERN. The interaction between the beam and the electron cloud has features which cannot be fully taken into account by the conventional and known theories from accelerators and plasma physics. Computer simulations are indispensable for a proper prediction and understanding of the instability dynamics. The main feature which renders the beam-cloud interactions so peculiar is that the the electron cloud...

  3. Globular cluster-massive black hole interactions in galactic centers

    CERN Document Server

    Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R

    2016-01-01

    Many, if not all, galaxies host massive compact objects at their centers. They are present as singularities (super massive black holes) or high density star clusters (nuclear tar clusters). In some cases they coexist, and interact more or less strongly. In this short paper I will talk of the 'merger' globular cluster scenario, which has been shown in the past to be an explanation of the substantial mass accumulation in galactic centers. In particular, I will present the many astrophysical implications of such scenario pointing the attention on the mutual feedback of orbitally decaying globular clusters with massive and super massive black holes.

  4. Electrically tuned super-capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Tazima S

    2015-01-01

    Fast charging and discharging of large amounts of electrical energy make super-capacitors ideal for short-term energy storage [1-5]. In its simplest form, the super-capacitor is an electrolytic capacitor made of an anode and a cathode immersed in an electrolyte. As for an ordinary capacitor, minimizing the charge separation distance and increasing the electrode area increase capacitance. In super-capacitors, charge separation is of nano-meter scale at each of the electrode interface (the Helmholtz double layer). Making the electrodes porous increases their effective surface area [6-8]. A separating layer between the anode and the cathode electrodes is used to minimize unintentional electrical discharge (Figure 1). Here we show how to increase the capacitance of super-capacitors by more than 45 percent when modifying the otherwise passive separator layer into an active diode-like structure. Active control of super-capacitors may increase their efficiency during charge and discharge cycles. Controlling ion flow...

  5. Quantization of super Teichmueller spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghaei, Nezhla

    2016-08-15

    The quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of Riemann surfaces has found important applications to conformal field theory and N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories. We construct a quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces, using coordinates associated to the ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. We construct a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations. Therefore, we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential. In the quantum Teichmueller theory, it was observed that the key object defining the Teichmueller theory has a close relation to the representation theory of the Borel half of U{sub q}(sl(2)). In our research we observed that the role of U{sub q}(sl(2)) is taken by quantum superalgebra U{sub q}(osp(1 vertical stroke 2)). A Borel half of U{sub q}(osp(1 vertical stroke 2)) is the super quantum plane. The canonical element of the Heisenberg double of the quantum super plane is evaluated in certain infinite dimensional representations on L{sup 2}(R) x C{sup 1} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 1} and compared to the flip operator from the Teichmueller theory of super Riemann surfaces.

  6. Cloud cover typing from environmental satellite imagery. Discriminating cloud structure with Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T. L.; Huning, J. R.; Glackin, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The use of two dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) subjected to pattern recognition technology for the identification and classification of low altitude stratus cloud structure from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery was examined. The development of a scene independent pattern recognition methodology, unconstrained by conventional cloud morphological classifications was emphasized. A technique for extracting cloud shape, direction, and size attributes from GOES visual imagery was developed. These attributes were combined with two statistical attributes (cloud mean brightness, cloud standard deviation), and interrogated using unsupervised clustering amd maximum likelihood classification techniques. Results indicate that: (1) the key cloud discrimination attributes are mean brightness, direction, shape, and minimum size; (2) cloud structure can be differentiated at given pixel scales; (3) cloud type may be identifiable at coarser scales; (4) there are positive indications of scene independence which would permit development of a cloud signature bank; (5) edge enhancement of GOES imagery does not appreciably improve cloud classification over the use of raw data; and (6) the GOES imagery must be apodized before generation of FFTs.

  7. Super-Virasoro anomaly, super-Weyl anomaly and the super-Liouville action for 2D supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, T; Suzuki, T; Fujiwara, Takanori; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tadao

    1996-01-01

    The relation between super-Virasoro anomaly and super-Weyl anomaly in N=1 NSR superstring coupled with 2D supergravity is investigated from canonical theoretical view point. The WZW action canceling the super-Virasoro anomaly is explicitly constructed. It is super-Weyl invariant but nonlocal functional of 2D supergravity. The nonlocality can be remedied by the super-Liouvlle action, which in turn recovers the super-Weyl anomaly. The final gravitational effective action turns out to be local but noncovariant super-Liouville action, describing the dynamical behavior of the super-Liouville fields. The BRST invariance of this approach is examined in the superconformal gauge and in the light-cone gauge.

  8. Super-resolution imaging of ESCRT-proteins at HIV-1 assembly sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Prescher

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT machinery is involved in membrane budding processes, such as multivesicular biogenesis and cytokinesis. In HIV-infected cells, HIV-1 hijacks the ESCRT machinery to drive HIV release. Early in the HIV-1 assembly process, the ESCRT-I protein Tsg101 and the ESCRT-related protein ALIX are recruited to the assembly site. Further downstream, components such as the ESCRT-III proteins CHMP4 and CHMP2 form transient membrane associated lattices, which are involved in virus-host membrane fission. Although various geometries of ESCRT-III assemblies could be observed, the actual membrane constriction and fission mechanism is not fully understood. Fission might be driven from inside the HIV-1 budding neck by narrowing the membranes from the outside by larger lattices surrounding the neck, or from within the bud. Here, we use super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to elucidate the size and structure of the ESCRT components Tsg101, ALIX, CHMP4B and CHMP2A during HIV-1 budding below the diffraction limit. To avoid the deleterious effects of using fusion proteins attached to ESCRT components, we performed measurements on the endogenous protein or, in the case of CHMP4B, constructs modified with the small HA tag. Due to the transient nature of the ESCRT interactions, the fraction of HIV-1 assembly sites with colocalizing ESCRT complexes was low (1.5%-3.4%. All colocalizing ESCRT clusters exhibited closed, circular structures with an average size (full-width at half-maximum between 45 and 60 nm or a diameter (determined using a Ripley's L-function analysis of roughly 60 to 100 nm. The size distributions for colocalizing clusters were narrower than for non-colocalizing clusters, and significantly smaller than the HIV-1 bud. Hence, our results support a membrane scission process driven by ESCRT protein assemblies inside a confined structure, such as the bud neck, rather than by large lattices

  9. Martian Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 June 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. This image was acquired during early spring near the North Pole. The linear 'ripples' are transparent water-ice clouds. This linear form is typical for polar clouds. The black regions on the margins of this image are areas of saturation caused by the build up of scattered light from the bright polar material during the long image exposure. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.1, Longitude 147.9 East (212.1 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip

  10. The Super-Kamiokande Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, C W

    2008-01-01

    Super-Kamiokande is a 50 kiloton water Cherenkov detector located at the Kamioka Observatory of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo. It was designed to study neutrino oscillations and carry out searches for the decay of the nucleon. The Super-Kamiokande experiment began in 1996 and in the ensuing decade of running has produced extremely important results in the fields of atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillations, along with setting stringent limits on the decay of the nucleon and the existence of dark matter and astrophysical sources of neutrinos. Perhaps most crucially, Super-Kamiokande for the first time definitively showed that neutrinos have mass and undergo flavor oscillations. This chapter will summarize the published scientific output of the experiment with a particular emphasis on the atmospheric neutrino results.

  11. Cloud Computing (4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bai; Xu Liutong

    2010-01-01

    @@ 8 Case Study Cloud computing is still a new phenomenon. Although many IT giants are developing their own cloud computing infrastructures,platforms, software, and services, few have really succeeded in becoming cloud computing providers.

  12. Blue skies for CLOUD

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Through the recently approved CLOUD experiment, CERN will soon be contributing to climate research. Tests are being performed on the first prototype of CLOUD, an experiment designed to assess cosmic radiation influence on cloud formation.

  13. Multi-Wavelength Spectroscopy of Super-Earth Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomir, Diana; Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian; Lothringer, Joshua; Knutson, Heather

    2017-01-01

    The Kepler mission has revealed that super-Earths (planets with radii between 1 and 4 R_Earth) are the most common class of planets in the Galaxy, though none are known in our own Solar System. These planets can theoretically have a wide range of compositions which we are just beginning to explore observationally. While studies based on Kepler data have revolutionized many areas of exoplanet research, the relative faintness of most of the host stars in the Kepler field means that atmospheric characterization of these super-Earths with currently available instruments is extremely challenging. However, a handful of transiting super-Earths are within reach of existing facilities. We have pointed both the HST and Spitzer toward these systems in an effort to paint a thorough picture of their atmospheres. Our transmission spectroscopy observations explore the transition region between terrestrial planets and miniature gas giants, and contribute to distinguishing between low-density hydrogen-dominated atmospheres and compact high-metallicity atmospheres. Transmission spectroscopy over a wide wavelength range is also essential to understanding the properties and effects of clouds in these atmospheres. The results of this program will inform the direction to be taken by future multi-wavelength studies of these worlds, in particular those enabled when the HST joins forces with the upcoming JWST.

  14. Microsphere Super-resolution Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zengbo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it was discovered that microsphere can generate super-resolution focusing beyond diffraction limit. This has led to the development of an exciting super-resolution imaging technique -microsphere nanoscopy- that features a record resolution of 50 nm under white lights. Different samples have been directly imaged in high resolution and real time without labelling, including both non-biological (nano devices, structures and materials) and biological (subcellular details, viruses) samples. This chapter reviews the technique, which covers its background, fundamentals, experiments, mechanisms as well as the future outlook.

  15. Interactive Super Mario Bros Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Patrikk D.; Olsen, Jeppeh M.; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    to encourage the evolution of desired behaviors. In this paper, we show how casual users can create controllers for \\emph{Super Mario Bros} through an interactive evolutionary computation (IEC) approach, without prior domain or programming knowledge. By iteratively selecting Super Mario behaviors from a set...... of candidates, users are able to guide evolution towards a variety of different behaviors, which would be difficult with an automated approach. Additionally, the user-evolved controllers perform similarly well as controllers evolved with a traditional fitness-based approach when comparing distance traveled...

  16. Quantisation of super Teichmueller theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghaei, Nezhla [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics; Pawelkiewicz, Michal; Techner, Joerg [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2015-12-15

    We construct a quantisation of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces using coordinates associated to ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. By constructing a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential.

  17. Quantisation of super Teichmueller theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aghaei, Nezhla; Teschner, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    We construct a quantisation of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces using coordinates associated to ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. By constructing a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential.

  18. Electron clouds in high energy hadron accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Fedor

    2013-08-29

    The formation of electron clouds in accelerators operating with positrons and positively charge ions is a well-known problem. Depending on the parameters of the beam the electron cloud manifests itself differently. In this thesis the electron cloud phenomenon is studied for the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) conditions, and for the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-100 as a part of the FAIR complex in Darmstadt, Germany. Under the FAIR conditions the extensive use of slow extraction will be made. After the acceleration the beam will be debunched and continuously extracted to the experimental area. During this process, residual gas electrons can accumulate in the electric field of the beam. If this accumulation is not prevented, then at some point the beam can become unstable. Under the SPS and LHC conditions the beam is always bunched. The accumulation of electron cloud happens due to secondary electron emission. At the time when this thesis was being written the electron cloud was known to limit the maximum intensity of the two machines. During the operation with 25 ns bunch spacing, the electron cloud was causing significant beam quality deterioration. At moderate intensities below the instability threshold the electron cloud was responsible for the bunch energy loss. In the framework of this thesis it was found that the instability thresholds of the coasting beams with similar space charge tune shifts, emittances and energies are identical. First of their kind simulations of the effect of Coulomb collisions on electron cloud density in coasting beams were performed. It was found that for any hadron coasting beam one can choose vacuum conditions that will limit the accumulation of the electron cloud below the instability threshold. We call such conditions the ''good'' vacuum regime. In application to SIS-100 the design pressure 10{sup -12} mbar corresponds to the good vacuum regime. The transition to the bad vacuum

  19. Reviewing Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Lopez, Manuel

    2017-07-01

    The star formation process involves a wide range of spatial scales, densities and temperatures. Herschel observations of the cold and low density molecular gas extending tens of parsecs, that constitutes the bulk of the molecular clouds of the Milky Way, have shown a network of dense structures in the shape of filaments. These filaments supposedly condense into higher density clumps to form individual stars or stellar clusters. The study of the kinematics of the filaments through single-dish observations suggests the presence of gas flows along the filaments, oscillatory motions due to gravity infall, and the existence of substructure inside filaments that may be threaded by twisted fibers. A few molecular clouds have been mapped with interferometric resolutions bringing more insight into the filament structure. Compression due to large-scale supersonic flows is the preferred mechanism to explain filament formation although the exact nature of the filaments, their origin and evolution are still not well understood. Determining the turbulence drivers behind the origin of the filaments, the relative importance of turbulence, gravity and magnetic fields on regulating the filament structure and evolution, and providing detailed insight on the substructure inside the filaments are among the current open questions in this research area.

  20. The construction of orthodox super rpp semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; GUO Yuqi; Kar Ping Shum

    2004-01-01

    We define orthodox super rpp semigroups and study their semilattice decompositions. Standard representation theorem of orthodox super rpp semigroups whose subband of idempotents is in the varieties of bands described by an identity with at most three variables are obtained.

  1. Uncover the Cloud for Geospatial Sciences and Applications to Adopt Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Huang, Q.; Xia, J.; Liu, K.; Li, J.; Xu, C.; Sun, M.; Bambacus, M.; Xu, Y.; Fay, D.

    2012-12-01

    Cloud computing is emerging as the future infrastructure for providing computing resources to support and enable scientific research, engineering development, and application construction, as well as work force education. On the other hand, there is a lot of doubt about the readiness of cloud computing to support a variety of scientific research, development and educations. This research is a project funded by NASA SMD to investigate through holistic studies how ready is the cloud computing to support geosciences. Four applications with different computing characteristics including data, computing, concurrent, and spatiotemporal intensities are taken to test the readiness of cloud computing to support geosciences. Three popular and representative cloud platforms including Amazon EC2, Microsoft Azure, and NASA Nebula as well as a traditional cluster are utilized in the study. Results illustrates that cloud is ready to some degree but more research needs to be done to fully implemented the cloud benefit as advertised by many vendors and defined by NIST. Specifically, 1) most cloud platform could help stand up new computing instances, a new computer, in a few minutes as envisioned, therefore, is ready to support most computing needs in an on demand fashion; 2) the load balance and elasticity, a defining characteristic, is ready in some cloud platforms, such as Amazon EC2, to support bigger jobs, e.g., needs response in minutes, while some are not ready to support the elasticity and load balance well. All cloud platform needs further research and development to support real time application at subminute level; 3) the user interface and functionality of cloud platforms vary a lot and some of them are very professional and well supported/documented, such as Amazon EC2, some of them needs significant improvement for the general public to adopt cloud computing without professional training or knowledge about computing infrastructure; 4) the security is a big concern in

  2. HUBBLE SPIES HUGE CLUSTERS OF STARS FORMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    BY ANCIENT ENCOUNTER This stunningly beautiful image [right] taken with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope shows the heart of the prototypical starburst galaxy M82. The ongoing violent star formation due to an ancient encounter with its large galactic neighbor, M81, gives this galaxy its disturbed appearance. The smaller picture at upper left shows the entire galaxy. The image was taken in December 1994 by the Kitt Peak National Observatory's 0.9-meter telescope. Hubble's view is represented by the white outline in the center. In the Hubble image, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the huge lanes of dust that crisscross M82's disk are another telltale sign of the flurry of star formation. Below the center and to the right, a strong galactic wind is spewing knotty filaments of hydrogen and nitrogen gas. More than 100 super star clusters -- very bright, compact groupings of about 100,000 stars -- are seen in this detailed Hubble picture as white dots sprinkled throughout M82's central region. The dark region just above the center of the picture is a huge dust cloud. A collaboration of European and American scientists used these clusters to date the ancient interaction between M82 and M81. About 600 million years ago, a region called 'M82 B' (the bright area just below and to the left of the central dust cloud) exploded with new stars. Scientists have discovered that this ancient starburst was triggered by the violent encounter with M81. M82 is a bright (eighth magnitude), nearby (12 million light-years from Earth) galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major (the Great Bear). The Hubble picture was taken Sept. 15, 1997. The natural-color composite was constructed from three Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 exposures, which were combined in chromatic order: 4,250 seconds through a blue filter (428 nm); 2,800 seconds through a green filter (520 nm); and 2,200 seconds through a red (820 nm) filter. Credits for Hubble image: NASA, ESA, R. de Grijs (Institute of

  3. Cloud-Top Entrainment in Stratocumulus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Cloud entrainment, the mixing between cloudy and clear air at the boundary of clouds, constitutes one paradigm for the relevance of small scales in the Earth system: By regulating cloud lifetimes, meter- and submeter-scale processes at cloud boundaries can influence planetary-scale properties. Understanding cloud entrainment is difficult given the complexity and diversity of the associated phenomena, which include turbulence entrainment within a stratified medium, convective instabilities driven by radiative and evaporative cooling, shear instabilities, and cloud microphysics. Obtaining accurate data at the required small scales is also challenging, for both simulations and measurements. During the past few decades, however, high-resolution simulations and measurements have greatly advanced our understanding of the main mechanisms controlling cloud entrainment. This article reviews some of these advances, focusing on stratocumulus clouds, and indicates remaining challenges.

  4. Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeVore, P. T. S.; Jiang, Y.; Lynch, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud.org) is the first silicon photonics interactive web tool. Here we report new features of this tool including mode propagation parameters and mode distribution galleries for user specified waveguide dimensions and wavelengths.......Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud.org) is the first silicon photonics interactive web tool. Here we report new features of this tool including mode propagation parameters and mode distribution galleries for user specified waveguide dimensions and wavelengths....

  5. Modeling Formation of Globular Clusters: Beacons of Galactic Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Gnedin, Oleg Y

    2010-01-01

    Modern hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation are able to predict accurately the rates and locations of the assembly of giant molecular clouds in early galaxies. These clouds could host star clusters with the masses and sizes of real globular clusters. I describe current state-of-the-art simulations aimed at understanding the origin of the cluster mass function and metallicity distribution. Metallicity bimodality of globular cluster systems appears to be a natural outcome of hierarchical formation and gradually declining fraction of cold gas in galaxies. Globular cluster formation was most prominent at redshifts z>3, when massive star clusters may have contributed as much as 20% of all galactic star formation.

  6. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian

    2013-04-21

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  7. Super Rice Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@I. Demand for super high yield rice in China   Rice is one of the main staple food in China. The performance of rice sector in production and yield had been very impressive in the last four decades. However, rice production and yield has stagnated since 1990.

  8. Super Girls Still Center Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The TV singing contest continues to draw a devoted audience, but will its impact on Chinese culture fall away like a shooting star? Ask any teenage girl in China to name the finalists of last year's Super Girl show and chances are she will instantly come up with the three big names.She'll probable

  9. Analysis of Forensic Super Timelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    BIB .1  vii List of Figures Figure Page...Hacker disconnects from User’s system  User clicks off Screen Saver  User closes Solitaire program  User logs off system BIB .1...analysis- tapestry_33836. BIB .2 Guðjónsson, K. (2010). Mastering the super timeline with log2timeline. SANS Gold Paper accepted June 29,2010

  10. Case study of the 9 April 2009 ‘brown’ cloud: Observations of usually high cloud droplet concentrations in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delene, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Cloud droplets nucleate on aerosol particles termed cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is well known that a larger number concentration of CCN results in a larger number concentration of droplets in developing cumulus clouds. However, the conditions where dust particles can serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and hence change cloud droplet concentration and precipitation formation processes is uncertain. Aircraft measurements of cloud droplet concentration between 13:20 and 13:30 UTC during the 9 April 2009 flight near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, show total cloud droplet concentration (3-50 µm in diameter) of 800 to 1200 #/cm-3 at a altitude of 18000 ft. Typical cloud droplet concentration for this type of cloud in the Riyadh region is approximately 400 #/cm-3 and is typical of observation made between 13:00 and 13:20 UTC during the 9 April 2009 flight at 18,000 ft. Photographs of ice accumulation on the unprotected leading edge of the aircraft’s wing due to the freezing of super cooled droplets show a color changed from white during the time of low droplet number condensation to brown during the high droplet number concentration. It is hypothesized that high droplet number concentration observations were the result of ingestion of a large about of dust particles by the cloud. : Case Study of the 9 April 2009 ‘Brown’ Cloud: Observations of Usually High Cloud Droplet Concentrations in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Hierarchical Clustering and Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hatziminaoglou, E; Manrique, A

    2000-01-01

    The growth of Super Massive Black Holes and the parallel development of activity in galactic nuclei are implemented in an analytic code of hierarchical clustering. The evolution of the luminosity function of quasars and AGN will be computed with special attention paid to the connection between quasars and Seyfert galaxies. One of the major interests of the model is the parallel study of quasar formation and evolution and the History of Star Formation.

  12. Distributed cloud association in downlink multicloud radio access networks

    KAUST Repository

    Dahrouj, Hayssam

    2015-03-01

    This paper considers a multicloud radio access network (M-CRAN), wherein each cloud serves a cluster of base-stations (BS\\'s) which are connected to the clouds through high capacity digital links. The network comprises several remote users, where each user can be connected to one (and only one) cloud. This paper studies the user-to-cloud-assignment problem by maximizing a network-wide utility subject to practical cloud connectivity constraints. The paper solves the problem by using an auction-based iterative algorithm, which can be implemented in a distributed fashion through a reasonable exchange of information between the clouds. The paper further proposes a centralized heuristic algorithm, with low computational complexity. Simulations results show that the proposed algorithms provide appreciable performance improvements as compared to the conventional cloud-less assignment solutions. © 2015 IEEE.

  13. Integration of Cloud resources in the LHCb Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Stagni, Federico; Cabarrou, Baptiste; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Charpentier, Philippe; Closier, Joel

    2014-01-01

    This contribution describes how Cloud resources have been integrated in the LHCb Distributed Computing. LHCb is using its specific Dirac extension (LHCbDirac) as an interware for its Distributed Computing. So far, it was seamlessly integrating Grid resources and Computer clusters. The cloud extension of DIRAC (VMDIRAC) allows the integration of Cloud computing infrastructures. It is able to interact with multiple types of infrastructures in commercial and institutional clouds, supported by multiple interfaces (Amazon EC2, OpenNebula, OpenStack and CloudStack) – instantiates, monitors and manages Virtual Machines running on this aggregation of Cloud resources. Moreover, specifications for institutional Cloud resources proposed by Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), mainly by the High Energy Physics Unix Information Exchange (HEPiX) group, have been taken into account. Several initiatives and computing resource providers in the eScience environment have already deployed IaaS in production during 2013. Keepin...

  14. Manufacturing Cloud Service Semantic Annotation Technology Based on Fuzzy Clustering%基于模糊聚类的制造云服务语义自动标注技术∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坤; 钟佩思; 张榛楠; 梁中源; 孙钰雁

    2015-01-01

    制造云服务语义自动标注技术是基于语义的制造云服务组合中涉及的关键技术之一。采用Web服务语义自动标注作为制造云服务语义描述的实现技术,针对制造云服务语义自动标注的本体域定位问题,提出了基于模糊聚类思想的制造云服务本体域定位算法FCDST-DOD,有效地解决了制造云服务本体域定位问题,实现制造云服务的语义自动描述,提高了Web服务语义自动标注的效率和质量。%The manufacturing cloud service automatic semantic annotation technology is one of the key tech-nologies involved in manufacturing cloud service composition based on semantic. The research report uses the Web service automatic semantic annotation as the implementation technology of manufacturing cloud service semantic description, and around the ontology domain location problem of manufacturing cloud service auto-matic semantic annotation, presents the ontology domain location algorithm called FCDST-DOD for manufac-turing cloud service based on the machine learning theory. It solves the problem of manufacturing cloud serv-ice ontology domain location effectively, achieves the automatic semantic description of the manufacturing cloud service and improves the efficiency and quality of Web service automatic semantic annotation.

  15. Satellite discrimination of snow/cloud surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, R. G.; Anderson, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Differentiation between cloud cover and snow surfaces using remotely sensed data is complicated by the similarity of their radiative temperatures, and also by their similar reflectances at visible wavelengths. A method of cloud analysis over snow-covered regions is presented, using 1.51-1.63 micron data from an experimental sensor on board a U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program platform. At these wavelengths, snow appears relatively 'black' while clouds are highly reflective. The spatial structure of the 1.51-1.63 micron reflectivity fields over a continuous snow surface are examined. Plots of mean reflectance against coefficients of variation for 4 x 4 pixel areas reveals a cluster of points have low reflectivity and low variability, corresponding to snow-covered (cloud free) areas, and a similar cluster with high reflectances corresponding to 100 per cent cloud cover. For the case of a single layered cloud, the radiances associated with partially filled fields of view are also inferred.

  16. Notes on counter-orbiting globular clusters in the Milky Way

    OpenAIRE

    Yankelevich, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    It is argued that Galactic globular clusters rotating retrograde may originate from prograde globular clusters that change their angular momenturm due to gravitational perturbations from the Magellanic Cloud galaxies. It is shown that those galactic globular clusters with orbits near the Lagrangiane point of the system "Milky Way - Maggellanic Clouds" can change the sign of their angular momentum in few Gyr time scale.

  17. Merging Timescales and Merger Rates of Star Clusters in Dense Star Cluster Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Fellhauer, M; Kroupa, P; Spurzem, R

    2001-01-01

    Interacting galaxies like the famous Antennae (NGC 4038/4039) or Stephan's Quintet (HCG 92) show considerable star forming activity in their tidal arms. High resolution images (e.g. from HST-observations) indicate that these regions consist of up to hundreds of massive stellar clusters or tidal dwarf galaxies (TDG). In this paper we investigate the future fate of these clusters of massive star clusters (in this work called super-clusters). We simulate compact super-clusters in the tidal field of a host-galaxy and investigate the influence of orbital and internal parameters on the rate and timescale of the merging process. We show that it is possible that such configurations merge and build a dwarf galaxy, which could be the primary mechanism of how long-lived dwarf satellite galaxies form. A detailed study of the merger object will appear in a follow-up paper.

  18. HPC on Competitive Cloud Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bientinesi, Paolo; Iakymchuk, Roman; Napper, Jeff

    Computing as a utility has reached the mainstream. Scientists can now easily rent time on large commercial clusters that can be expanded and reduced on-demand in real-time. However, current commercial cloud computing performance falls short of systems specifically designed for scientific applications. Scientific computing needs are quite different from those of the web applications that have been the focus of cloud computing vendors. In this chapter we demonstrate through empirical evaluation the computational efficiency of high-performance numerical applications in a commercial cloud environment when resources are shared under high contention. Using the Linpack benchmark as a case study, we show that cache utilization becomes highly unpredictable and similarly affects computation time. For some problems, not only is it more efficient to underutilize resources, but the solution can be reached sooner in realtime (wall-time). We also show that the smallest, cheapest (64-bit) instance on the studied environment is the best for price to performance ration. In light of the high-contention we witness, we believe that alternative definitions of efficiency for commercial cloud environments should be introduced where strong performance guarantees do not exist. Concepts like average, expected performance and execution time, expected cost to completion, and variance measures--traditionally ignored in the high-performance computing context--now should complement or even substitute the standard definitions of efficiency.

  19. Cloud Computing (1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bai; Xu Liutong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Editor's Desk: Cloud computing is a topic of intense interest in the Internet field. Major IT giants have launched their own cloud computing products. This four-part lecture series will discuss cloud computing technology in the following aspects: The first part provides a brief description of the origin and characteristics of cloud computing from the users view of point; the other parts introduce typical applications of cloud computing, technically analyze the specific content within the cloud, its components, architecture and computational paradigm, compare cloud computing to other distributed computing technologies, and discuss its successful cases, commercial models, related technical and economic issues, and development trends.

  20. Cloud Computing (2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bai; Xu Liutong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Editor's Desk: Cloud computing is a topic of intense interest in the Internet field. Major IT giants have launched their own cloud computing products. This four-part lecture series discusses cloud computing technology in the following aspects: The first part provided a brief description of the origin and characteristics of cloud computing from the users view of point; the other parts introduce typical applications of cloud computing, technically analyze the specific content within the cloud, its components, architecture and computational paradigm, compare cloud computing to other distributed computing technologies, and discuss its successful cases, commercial models, related technical and economic issues, and development trends.

  1. Cloud storage for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Linda; Loughlin, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    Understand cloud computing and save your organization time and money! Cloud computing is taking IT by storm, but what is it and what are the benefits to your organization? Hitachi Data Systems' Cloud Storage For Dummies provides all the answers, With this book, you discover a clear explanation of cloud storage, and tips for how to choose the right type of cloud storage for your organization's needs. You also find out how cloud storage can free up valuable IT resources, saving time and money. Cloud Storage For Dummies presents useful information on setting up a

  2. Robots and sensor clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Shakshuki, Elhadi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprises four chapters that address some of the latest research in clouds robotics and sensor clouds. The first part of the book includes two chapters on cloud robotics. The first chapter introduces a novel resource allocation framework for cloud robotics and proposes a Stackelberg game model and the corresponding task oriented pricing mechanism for resource allocation. In the second chapter, the authors apply Cloud Computing for building a Cloud-Based 3D Point Cloud extractor for stereo images. Their objective is to have a dynamically scalable and applicable to near real-time scenarios.  .

  3. CloudMC: a cloud computing application for Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras, H; Jiménez, R; Miras, C; Gomà, C

    2013-04-21

    This work presents CloudMC, a cloud computing application-developed in Windows Azure®, the platform of the Microsoft® cloud-for the parallelization of Monte Carlo simulations in a dynamic virtual cluster. CloudMC is a web application designed to be independent of the Monte Carlo code in which the simulations are based-the simulations just need to be of the form: input files → executable → output files. To study the performance of CloudMC in Windows Azure®, Monte Carlo simulations with penelope were performed on different instance (virtual machine) sizes, and for different number of instances. The instance size was found to have no effect on the simulation runtime. It was also found that the decrease in time with the number of instances followed Amdahl's law, with a slight deviation due to the increase in the fraction of non-parallelizable time with increasing number of instances. A simulation that would have required 30 h of CPU on a single instance was completed in 48.6 min when executed on 64 instances in parallel (speedup of 37 ×). Furthermore, the use of cloud computing for parallel computing offers some advantages over conventional clusters: high accessibility, scalability and pay per usage. Therefore, it is strongly believed that cloud computing will play an important role in making Monte Carlo dose calculation a reality in future clinical practice.

  4. Super-translations and super-rotations at the horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Donnay, Laura; Gonzalez, Hernan A; Pino, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We show that the asymptotic symmetries close to non-extremal black hole horizons are generated by an extension of super-translations. This group is generated by a semi-direct sum of Virasoro and abelian currents. The charges associated to the asymptotic Killing symmetries satisfy the same algebra. When considering the special case of the stationary black hole, the zero mode charges correspond to the angular momentum and the entropy at the horizon.

  5. Robust relations between CCN and the vertical evolution of cloud drop size distribution in deep convective clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, E.; Rosenfeld, D.; Andreae, M. O.; Costa, A. A.; Artaxo, P.

    2008-03-01

    In-situ measurements in convective clouds (up to the freezing level) over the Amazon basin show that smoke from deforestation fires prevents clouds from precipitating until they acquire a vertical development of at least 4 km, compared to only 1-2 km in clean clouds. The average cloud depth required for the onset of warm rain increased by ~350 m for each additional 100 cloud condensation nuclei per cm3 at a super-saturation of 0.5% (CCN0.5%). In polluted clouds, the diameter of modal liquid water content grows much slower with cloud depth (at least by a factor of ~2), due to the large number of droplets that compete for available water and to the suppressed coalescence processes. Contrary to what other studies have suggested, we did not observe this effect to reach saturation at 3000 or more accumulation mode particles per cm3. The CCN0.5% concentration was found to be a very good predictor for the cloud depth required for the onset of warm precipitation and other microphysical factors, leaving only a secondary role for the updraft velocities in determining the cloud drop size distributions. The effective radius of the cloud droplets (re) was found to be a quite robust parameter for a given environment and cloud depth, showing only a small effect of partial droplet evaporation from the cloud's mixing with its drier environment. This supports one of the basic assumptions of satellite analysis of cloud microphysical processes: the ability to look at different cloud top heights in the same region and regard their re as if they had been measured inside one well developed cloud. The dependence of re on the adiabatic fraction decreased higher in the clouds, especially for cleaner conditions, and disappeared at re≥~10 μm. We propose that droplet coalescence, which is at its peak when warm rain is formed in the cloud at re=~10 μm, continues to be significant during the cloud's mixing with the entrained air, cancelling out the decrease in re due to evaporation.

  6. Data Cloud Computing based on LINQ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junwen Lu; Yongsheng Hao; Lubin Zheng; Guanfeng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing has demonstrated that processing very large datasets over commodity cluster can be done simply given the right programming structure. Work to date, the many choices bring difficulty because it is difficult to make a best selection. The LINQ(Language Integrated Query) programming model can be extended to massively-paralel, data-driven computations. It not only provides a seamless transition path from computing on the top transitional stores like relational databases or XML to computing on the Cloud, but also ofers an object-oriented, compositional model. In this paper, we introduce LINQ into Cloud and discuss LINQ is a good selection for Data Cloud, and then the detail of file system management was described based on LINQ.

  7. Exploring the Venus global super-rotation using a comprehensive General Circulation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Mendonça, João M

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric circulation in Venus is well known to exhibit strong super-rotation. However, the atmospheric mechanisms responsible for the formation of this super-rotation are still not fully understood. In this work, we developed a new Venus general circulation model to study the most likely mechanisms driving the atmosphere to the current observed circulation. Our model includes a new radiative transfer, convection and suitably adapted boundary layer schemes and a dynamical core that takes into account the dependence of the heat capacity at constant pressure with temperature. The new Venus model is able to simulate a super-rotation phenomenon in the cloud region quantitatively similar to the one observed. The mechanisms maintaining the strong winds in the cloud region were found in the model results to be a combination of zonal mean circulation, thermal tides and transient waves. In this process, the semi-diurnal tide excited in the upper clouds has a key contribution in transporting axial angular momentu...

  8. The CLOUD experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiment as shown by Jasper Kirkby (spokesperson). Kirkby shows a sketch to illustrate the possible link between galactic cosmic rays and cloud formations. The CLOUD experiment uses beams from the PS accelerator at CERN to simulate the effect of cosmic rays on cloud formations in the Earth's atmosphere. It is thought that cosmic ray intensity is linked to the amount of low cloud cover due to the formation of aerosols, which induce condensation.

  9. Cloud Computing (3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bai; Xu Liutong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Editor's Desk: In the preceding two parts of this series, several aspects of cloud computing-including definition, classification, characteristics, typical applications, and service levels-were discussed. This part continues with a discussion of Cloud Computing Oopen Architecture and Market-Oriented Cloud. A comparison is made between cloud computing and other distributed computing technologies, and Google's cloud platform is analyzed to determine how distributed computing is implemented in its particular model.

  10. Cloud Robotics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Koken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics is a rapidly evolving field that allows robots to offload computation-intensive and storage-intensive jobs into the cloud. Robots are limited in terms of computational capacity, memory and storage. Cloud provides unlimited computation power, memory, storage and especially collaboration opportunity. Cloud-enabled robots are divided into two categories as standalone and networked robots. This article surveys cloud robotic platforms, standalone and networked robotic works such as grasping, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM and monitoring.

  11. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasa, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. To this end, we use a Halo Model framework complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD), and we work in full-sky. We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions, as the Gaussian part of the covariance can in fact become subdominant in certain configurations. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias, and demonstrating interesting mathematical properties. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeable better constraints, in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales....

  12. Chemical evolution of the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, B.; de Freitas Pacheco, J. A.; Idiart, T.

    We have obtained integrated spectra for 14 clusters in the Magellanic Clouds, on which the spectral indices Hβ, Mg2, Fe5270, Fe5335 were measured. Selecting indices whose behaviour depends essentially on age and metallicity (Hβ and ), together with (B-V) and (V-K) colours, we were able to determine age and metallicities for these clusters, using calibrations based on single stellar population models (Borges et al. 1995). A chemical evolution model which follows a star formation history as indicated by the field population is checked with the age and metallicity data for our sample star clusters.

  13. Molecular cloud evolution - V. Cloud destruction by stellar feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colín, Pedro; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Gómez, Gilberto C.

    2013-10-01

    We present a numerical study of the evolution of molecular clouds, from their formation by converging flows in the warm interstellar medium, to their destruction by the ionizing feedback of the massive stars they form. We improve with respect to our previous simulations by including a different stellar-particle formation algorithm, which allows them to have masses corresponding to single stars rather than to small clusters, and with a mass distribution following a near-Salpeter stellar initial mass function. We also employ a simplified radiative-transfer algorithm that allows the stellar particles to feedback on the medium at a rate that depends on their mass and the local density. Our results are as follows: (a) contrary to the results from our previous study, where all stellar particles injected energy at a rate corresponding to a star of ˜10 M⊙, the dense gas is now completely evacuated from 10 pc regions around the stars within 10-20 Myr, suggesting that this feat is accomplished essentially by the most massive stars. (b) At the scale of the whole numerical simulations, the dense gas mass is reduced by up to an order of magnitude, although star formation (SF) never shuts off completely, indicating that the feedback terminates SF locally, but new SF events continue to occur elsewhere in the clouds. (c) The SF efficiency (SFE) is maintained globally at the ˜10 per cent level, although locally, the cloud with largest degree of focusing of its accretion flow reaches SFE ˜30 per cent. (d) The virial parameter of the clouds approaches unity before the stellar feedback begins to dominate the dynamics, becoming much larger once feedback dominates, suggesting that clouds become unbound as a consequence of the stellar feedback, rather than unboundness being the cause of a low SFE. (e) The erosion of the filaments that feed the star-forming clumps produces chains of isolated dense blobs reminiscent of those observed in the vicinity of the dark globule B68.

  14. 伦敦SuperDesign展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柚子

    2011-01-01

    近日,英国伦敦Super Design展在伦敦Wakefield大街的The Dairy展厅如期举行。本次展览展出了来自包括知名设计师和新兴设计师的特别定制的工作室作品:到如今已经是第五个年头的伦敦Super Deslgn展,力图强发展,展出形式别出心裁、独树一帜,从一个崭新.活跃的角度集展示当代艺术。

  15. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  16. Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Higashi Mozumi, Hida city, Gifu prefecture (Japan)

    2005-08-15

    Results on atmospheric neutrino analysis at Super-Kamiokande I is presented. The whole data set of atmospheric neutrino sample in Super-Kamiokande I is consistently explained with an assumption of pure {nu}{sub {mu}}-{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations. The allowed range of parameters is 1.5x10{sup -3}<{delta}m{sup 2}<3.4x10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2{theta}>0.92 at 90% C.L. In the oscillation analysis, we improved the treatment of systematic errors so that they can be considered as independent. This makes possible to find which systematic errors have larger effect on the analysis results. Some sensitivity studies under several assumptions of improvements in systematic errors are presented.

  17. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... A cluster headache begins as a severe, sudden headache. The headache commonly strikes 2 to 3 hours after you fall ...

  18. Classification of Big Point Cloud Data Using Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.; Boehm, J.

    2015-08-01

    Point cloud data plays an significant role in various geospatial applications as it conveys plentiful information which can be used for different types of analysis. Semantic analysis, which is an important one of them, aims to label points as different categories. In machine learning, the problem is called classification. In addition, processing point data is becoming more and more challenging due to the growing data volume. In this paper, we address point data classification in a big data context. The popular cluster computing framework Apache Spark is used through the experiments and the promising results suggests a great potential of Apache Spark for large-scale point data processing.

  19. A high performance scientific cloud computing environment for materials simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Jorissen, Kevin; Rehr, John J

    2011-01-01

    We describe the development of a scientific cloud computing (SCC) platform that offers high performance computation capability. The platform consists of a scientific virtual machine prototype containing a UNIX operating system and several materials science codes, together with essential interface tools (an SCC toolset) that offers functionality comparable to local compute clusters. In particular, our SCC toolset provides automatic creation of virtual clusters for parallel computing, including tools for execution and monitoring performance, as well as efficient I/O utilities that enable seamless connections to and from the cloud. Our SCC platform is optimized for the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). We present benchmarks for prototypical scientific applications and demonstrate performance comparable to local compute clusters. To facilitate code execution and provide user-friendly access, we have also integrated cloud computing capability in a JAVA-based GUI. Our SCC platform may be an alternative to traditi...

  20. The Era of Super Capitalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The world has entered the "super capitalism" era when one third of its economic activities are controlled by less than 3 percent of global financial capital. This year,a global economic recession,triggered by the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis,seems unavoidable. To tackle international financial problems,Tao Dong,Chief Economist for Asia at Credit Suisse First Boston in Hong Kong,shared his insights with China Business Journal. Excerpts follow.

  1. BEWARE OF...SUPER GLUES!!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    What happened? A number of accidents have occurred with the use of 'Super Glues'. Some individuals have suffered injuries - severe irritation, or skin bonded together - through getting glue on their face and in their eyes. What are the hazards associated with glues? 'Super Glues' (i.e. cyanoacrylates): Are harmful if swallowed and are chemical irritants to the eyes, respiratory system and skin. Present the risk of polymerization (hardening) leading to skin damage. Be careful ! 'Super Glues' can bond to skin and eyes in seconds. Note: Other glues, resins and hardeners are also chemicals and as such can cause serious damage to the skin, eyes, respiratory or digestive tract. (For example: some components can be toxic, harmful, corrosive, sensitizing agents, etc.). How to prevent accidents in the future? Read the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for all of the glues you work with. Check the label on the container to find out which of the materials you work with are hazardous. Wear the right Per...

  2. Super-Eccentric Migrating Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, Aristotle; Dong, Subo; Tremaine, Scott

    2011-01-01

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e=0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e>0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is \\dot a \\propto a^0.5 and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/dlog a\\propto a^0.5. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  3. SUPER-ECCENTRIC MIGRATING JUPITERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socrates, Aristotle; Katz, Boaz; Dong Subo; Tremaine, Scott [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2012-05-10

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e = 0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e > 0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is a-dot {proportional_to}a{sup 1/2} and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/d log a{proportional_to}a{sup 1/2}. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  4. Genotyping in the cloud with Crossbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtowski, James; Schatz, Michael C; Langmead, Ben

    2012-09-01

    Crossbow is a scalable, portable, and automatic cloud computing tool for identifying SNPs from high-coverage, short-read resequencing data. It is built on Apache Hadoop, an implementation of the MapReduce software framework. Hadoop allows Crossbow to distribute read alignment and SNP calling subtasks over a cluster of commodity computers. Two robust tools, Bowtie and SOAPsnp, implement the fundamental alignment and variant calling operations respectively, and have demonstrated capabilities within Crossbow of analyzing approximately one billion short reads per hour on a commodity Hadoop cluster with 320 cores. Through protocol examples, this unit will demonstrate the use of Crossbow for identifying variations in three different operating modes: on a Hadoop cluster, on a single computer, and on the Amazon Elastic MapReduce cloud computing service.

  5. Super-Spreader Identification Using Meta-Centrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madotto, Andrea; Liu, Jiming

    2016-12-01

    Super-spreaders are the nodes of a network that can maximize their impacts on other nodes, e.g., in the case of information spreading or virus propagation. Many centrality measures have been proposed to identify such nodes from a given network. However, it has been observed that the identification accuracy based on those measures is not always satisfactory among different types of networks. In addition, the nodes identified by using single centrality are not always placed in the top section, where the super-spreaders are supposed to be, of the ranking generated by simulation. In this paper we take a meta-centrality approach by combining different centrality measures using a modified version of Borda count aggregation method. As a result, we are able to improve the performance of super-spreader identification for a broad range of real-world networks. While doing so, we discover a pattern in the centrality measures involved in the aggregation with respect to the topological structures of the networks used in the experiments. Further, we study the eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix, also known as Laplacian spectrum, and by using the Earth Mover’s distance as a metric for the spectrum, we are able to identify four clusters to explain the aggregation results.

  6. Quantitatively Assessing the Role of Clouds in the Transmission Spectrum of GJ 1214b

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214b show that it has a relatively featureless transmission spectrum. One suggestion is that these observations indicate that the planet's atmosphere is vertically compact, perhaps due to a water-rich composition that yields a large mean molecular weight. Another suggestion is that the atmosphere is hydrogen/helium-rich with clouds that obscure predicted absorption features. Previous models that incorporate clouds have included their effect without a...

  7. Construction and application of Red5 cluster based on OpenStack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaqing; Song, Jianxin

    2017-08-01

    With the application and development of cloud computing technology in various fields, the resource utilization rate of the data center has been improved obviously, and the system based on cloud computing platform has also improved the expansibility and stability. In the traditional way, Red5 cluster resource utilization is low and the system stability is poor. This paper uses cloud computing to efficiently calculate the resource allocation ability, and builds a Red5 server cluster based on OpenStack. Multimedia applications can be published to the Red5 cloud server cluster. The system achieves the flexible construction of computing resources, but also greatly improves the stability of the cluster and service efficiency.

  8. Hybrid cloud for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Halper, Fern; Kirsch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Understand the cloud and implement a cloud strategy for your business Cloud computing enables companies to save money by leasing storage space and accessing technology services through the Internet instead of buying and maintaining equipment and support services. Because it has its own unique set of challenges, cloud computing requires careful explanation. This easy-to-follow guide shows IT managers and support staff just what cloud computing is, how to deliver and manage cloud computing services, how to choose a service provider, and how to go about implementation. It also covers security and

  9. Secure cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Samarati, Pierangela; Singhal, Anoop; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a range of cloud computing security challenges and promising solution paths. The first two chapters focus on practical considerations of cloud computing. In Chapter 1, Chandramouli, Iorga, and Chokani describe the evolution of cloud computing and the current state of practice, followed by the challenges of cryptographic key management in the cloud. In Chapter 2, Chen and Sion present a dollar cost model of cloud computing and explore the economic viability of cloud computing with and without security mechanisms involving cryptographic mechanisms. The next two chapters addres

  10. First Super-Earth Atmosphere Analysed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The atmosphere around a super-Earth exoplanet has been analysed for the first time by an international team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope. The planet, which is known as GJ 1214b, was studied as it passed in front of its parent star and some of the starlight passed through the planet's atmosphere. We now know that the atmosphere is either mostly water in the form of steam or is dominated by thick clouds or hazes. The results will appear in the 2 December 2010 issue of the journal Nature. The planet GJ 1214b was confirmed in 2009 using the HARPS instrument on ESO's 3.6-metre telescope in Chile (eso0950) [1]. Initial findings suggested that this planet had an atmosphere, which has now been confirmed and studied in detail by an international team of astronomers, led by Jacob Bean (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), using the FORS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope. "This is the first super-Earth to have its atmosphere analysed. We've reached a real milestone on the road toward characterising these worlds," said Bean. GJ 1214b has a radius of about 2.6 times that of the Earth and is about 6.5 times as massive, putting it squarely into the class of exoplanets known as super-Earths. Its host star lies about 40 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Ophiuchus (the Serpent Bearer). It is a faint star [2], but it is also small, which means that the size of the planet is large compared to the stellar disc, making it relatively easy to study [3]. The planet travels across the disc of its parent star once every 38 hours as it orbits at a distance of only two million kilometres: about seventy times closer than the Earth orbits the Sun. To study the atmosphere, the team observed the light coming from the star as the planet passed in front of it [4]. During these transits, some of the starlight passes through the planet's atmosphere and, depending on the chemical composition and weather on the planet, specific wavelengths of light are

  11. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  12. A Fusion Model for CPU Load Prediction in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayu Xu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Load prediction plays a key role in cost-optimal resource allocation and datacenter energy saving. In this paper, we use real-world traces from Cloud platform and propose a fusion model to forecast the future CPU loads. First, long CPU load time series data are divided into short sequences with same length from the historical data on the basis of cloud control cycle. Then we use kernel fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm to put the subsequences into different clusters. For each cluster, with current load sequence, a genetic algorithm optimized wavelet Elman neural network prediction model is exploited to predict the CPU load in next time interval. Finally, we obtain the optimal cloud computing CPU load prediction results from the cluster and its corresponding predictor with minimum forecasting error. Experimental results show that our algorithm performs better than other models reported in previous works.

  13. On the Need of Network coding for Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Heide, Janus; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    This paper advocates the need of network coding for mobile clouds. Mobile clouds as well as network coding are describing two novel concepts. The concept of mobile clouds describes the potential of mobile devices to communicate with each other and form a cooperative cluster in which new services...... and potentials are created. Network coding on the other side enables the mobile cloud to communicate in a very efficient and secure way in terms of energy and bandwidth usage. Even though network coding can be applied in a variety of communication networks, it has some inherent features that makes it suitable...... for mobile clouds. The paper will list the benefits of network coding for mobile clouds as well as introduce both concepts in a tutorial way. The results used throughout this paper are collaborative work of different research institutes, but mainly taken from the mobile device group at Aalborg University....

  14. Cloud CPFP: a shotgun proteomics data analysis pipeline using cloud and high performance computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudgian, David C; Mirzaei, Hamid

    2012-12-07

    We have extended the functionality of the Central Proteomics Facilities Pipeline (CPFP) to allow use of remote cloud and high performance computing (HPC) resources for shotgun proteomics data processing. CPFP has been modified to include modular local and remote scheduling for data processing jobs. The pipeline can now be run on a single PC or server, a local cluster, a remote HPC cluster, and/or the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud. We provide public images that allow easy deployment of CPFP in its entirety in the AWS cloud. This significantly reduces the effort necessary to use the software, and allows proteomics laboratories to pay for compute time ad hoc, rather than obtaining and maintaining expensive local server clusters. Alternatively the Amazon cloud can be used to increase the throughput of a local installation of CPFP as necessary. We demonstrate that cloud CPFP allows users to process data at higher speed than local installations but with similar cost and lower staff requirements. In addition to the computational improvements, the web interface to CPFP is simplified, and other functionalities are enhanced. The software is under active development at two leading institutions and continues to be released under an open-source license at http://cpfp.sourceforge.net.

  15. On the magnetic field through the Upper Centaurs-Lupus Super bubble, in the vicinity of the Southern Coalsack

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, N D Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    The Southern Coalsack is located in the interior of the Upper Centaurus-Lupus (UCL) super bubble and shows many traits that point to a much more energetic environment than might be expected from a dark, starless molecular cloud. A hot, X-ray emitting, envelope surrounds the cloud, it has a very strong internal magnetic field and its darkest core seems to be on astronomical time scales "just about" to start forming stars. In order to probe the magnetic environment of the cloud and to compare with the optical/near infrared polarimetry-based field estimates for the cloud, we have acquired Faraday Rotation measurements towards the pulsar PSR J1210$-$6550, probing the magnetic field in the vicinity of the cloud, and a comparison target, PSR J1435$-$5954, at a similar line of sight distance but several degrees from the cloud. Both lines of sight hence primarily probe the UCL super bubble. The earlier estimates of the magnetic field inside the Coalsack, using the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method on optical and near-infrar...

  16. Cloud Processed CCN Affect Cloud Microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R., Jr.; Tabor, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Variations in the bimodality/monomodality of CCN spectra (Hudson et al. 2015) exert opposite effects on cloud microphysics in two aircraft field projects. The figure shows two examples, droplet concentration, Nc, and drizzle liquid water content, Ld, against classification of CCN spectral modality. Low ratings go to balanced separated bimodal spectra, high ratings go to single mode spectra, strictly monomodal 8. Intermediate ratings go merged modes, e.g., one mode a shoulder of another. Bimodality is caused by mass or hygroscopicity increases that go only to CCN that made activated cloud droplets. In the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Tropical (ICE-T) small cumuli with lower Nc, greater droplet mean diameters, MD, effective radii, re, spectral widths, σ, cloud liquid water contents, Lc, and Ld were closer to more bimodal (lower modal ratings) below cloud CCN spectra whereas clouds with higher Nc, smaller MD, re, σ, and Ld were closer to more monomodal CCN (higher modal ratings). In polluted stratus clouds of the MArine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) clouds that had greater Nc, and smaller MD, re, σ, Lc, and Ld were closer to more bimodal CCN spectra whereas clouds with lower Nc, and greater MD, re, σ, Lc, and Ld were closer to more monomodal CCN. These relationships are opposite because the dominant ICE-T cloud processing was coalescence whereas chemical transformations (e.g., SO2 to SO4) were dominant in MASE. Coalescence reduces Nc and thus also CCN concentrations (NCCN) when droplets evaporate. In subsequent clouds the reduced competition increases MD and σ, which further enhance coalescence and drizzle. Chemical transformations do not change Nc but added sulfate enhances droplet and CCN solubility. Thus, lower critical supersaturation (S) CCN can produce more cloud droplets in subsequent cloud cycles, especially for the low W and effective S of stratus. The increased competition reduces MD, re, and σ, which inhibit coalescence and thus reduce drizzle

  17. Low cost, highly effective parallel computing achieved through a Beowulf cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, Marc; Skelton, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    A Beowulf cluster is a means of bringing together several computers and using software and network components to make this cluster of computers appear and function as one computer with multiple parallel computing processors. A cluster of computers can provide comparable computing power usually found only in very expensive super computers or servers.

  18. Concentric traveling ionosphere disturbances triggered by Super Typhoon Meranti (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Min Yang; Lin, Charles C. H.; Yue, Jia; Tsai, Ho Fang; Sun, Yang Yi; Liu, Jann Yenq; Chen, Chia Hung

    2017-02-01

    Concentric traveling ionosphere disturbances (CTIDs) in total electron content triggered by Super Typhoon Meranti on 13 September 2016 are detected by using the ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems network in Taiwan. The CTIDs emanated outward before the typhoon landfall and lasted for more than 10 h. The characteristics of CTIDs agree with the gravity wave theory and exhibit spatial and temporal scales in wave periods of 8-30 min, horizontal wavelengths of 160-200 km, and horizontal phase velocities of 106-220 m/s. We also observe the CTIDs showing the stationary wave character. Broad spectra of CTIDs are excited after the rainbands of typhoon impinged on Central Mountain Range of Taiwan. The ray-tracing technique confirms that the CTIDs were excited by convective clouds, spiral rainbands, and the eyewall of Typhoon Meranti. This study provides new evidence of typhoon-induced concentric gravity waves in the ionosphere.

  19. Thermal Emission and Albedo Spectra of Super Earths with Flat Transmission Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, Caroline V; Marley, Mark S; Zahnle, Kevin; Line, Michael; Kempton, Eliza; Lewis, Nikole; Cahoy, Kerri

    2015-01-01

    Planets larger than Earth and smaller than Neptune are some of the most numerous in the galaxy, but observational efforts to understand this population have proved challenging because optically thick clouds or hazes at high altitudes obscure molecular features (Kreidberg et al. 2014b). We present models of super Earths that include thick clouds and hazes and predict their transmission, thermal emission, and reflected light spectra. Very thick, lofted clouds of salts or sulfides in high metallicity (1000x solar) atmospheres create featureless transmission spectra in the near-infrared. Photochemical hazes with a range of particle sizes also create featureless transmission spectra at lower metallicities. Cloudy thermal emission spectra have muted features more like blackbodies, and hazy thermal emission spectra have emission features caused by an inversion layer at altitudes where the haze forms. Close analysis of reflected light from warm (~400-800 K) planets can distinguish cloudy spectra, which have moderate ...

  20. Two-Component Super AKNS Equations and Their Finite-Dimensional Integrable Super Hamiltonian System

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Yu; Jingwei Han

    2014-01-01

    Starting from a matrix Lie superalgebra, two-component super AKNS system is constructed. By making use of monononlinearization technique of Lax pairs, we find that the obtained two-component super AKNS system is a finite-dimensional integrable super Hamiltonian system. And its Lax representation and $r$ -matrix are also given in this paper.