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Sample records for supavej chev kidson

  1. Erythroivorensin: A novel anti-inflammatory diterpene from the root-bark of Erythrophleum ivorense (A Chev.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Francis A; Annan, Kofi; Mensah, Abraham Y; Amponsah, Isaac K; Tocher, Derek A; Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-09-01

    The stem- and root-bark of Erythrophleum ivorense (A Chev., family, Fabaceae) are routinely employed in the West African traditional medicine to treat inflammation and a variety of other disease conditions. Although the chemistry and pharmacology of cassaine-type diterpene alkaloids isolated from the stem-bark of the plant are fairly established, the root-bark has not yet been investigated. In the present study, the crude aqueous-alcohol extract of the root-bark was demonstrated to display a time- and dose (30-300 mg/kg p.o.)-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in chicks. Comprehensive chromatographic analysis coupled with spectroscopic and X-ray study further allowed the assignment of one of the major anti-inflammatory constituents as a novel cassaine-type diterpene, erythroivorensin. The other major constituents were known anti-inflammatory compounds: a triterpene, betulinic acid and a flavonoid, eriodictyol. The dose (10-100mg/kg p.o.)-dependent anti-inflammatory effects of the three compounds were either comparable or more significant than the positive control, diclofenac.

  2. A generalized nonlinear tempeature response function for some growth and developmental parameters in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. C. F. Liang & A. R. Ferguson

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    Streck Nereu Augusto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a major factor that affects metabolic processes in living organisms. Thermal time has been widely used to account for the effects of temperature on crop growth and development. However, the thermal time approach has been criticized because it assumes a linear relationship between the rate of crop growth or development and temperature. The response of the rate of crop growth and development to temperature is nonlinear. The objective of this study was to develop a generalized nonlinear temperature response function for some growth and developmental parameters in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. C. F. Liang & A. R. Ferguson. The nonlinear function has three coefficients (the cardinal temperatures, which were 0ºC, 25ºC, and 40ºC. Data of temperature response of relative growth rate, relative leaf area growth, net photosynthesis rate, and leaf appearance rate in kiwifruit (female cv. Hayward at two light levels, which are from published research, were used as independent data for evaluating the performance of the nonlinear and the thermal time functions. The results showed that the generalized nonlinear response function is better than the thermal time approach, and the temperature response of several growth and developmental parameters in kiwifruit can be described with the same response function.

  3. Comparison the Content of Hyperoside of Malus Doumeri(Bois) Chev. from Different Producing Area%不同产地广山楂中金丝桃苷含量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃葆; 江海燕; 蔡少芳; 付晓; 邓欢; 史勤怡

    2011-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱法测定不同产地的广山楂中金丝桃苷的含量。色谱柱:C18-ODS、流动相:乙腈-0.1%磷酸水溶液(12∶88)、流速:1ml/min、检测波长:360nm、柱温:30℃。结果表明:金丝桃苷在进样量为0.032~1.28μg的范围内呈良好的线性关系(r=0.9999),平均回收率为98.9%,RSD值为2.22%。不同产地广山楂金丝桃苷含量存在一定差异,其中贺州产广山楂金丝桃苷含量最高。%The content of hyperoside of Malus doumeri(Bois) Chev.from different producing area was determined by HPLC.The C_18 ODS was used at the temperature of 30℃.The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and 0.1% orthophosphoric acid(12∶88) with isocratic elution.The UV detector was set at 360nm with 1.0ml/min flow rate.Results showed that a new standard curve,y=1832.3x+15.938 and r=0.9999,was established.When the hyperoside sample size was between 0.032~1.28μg,the standard curve showed a good linear relationship with 98.9% average recovery and 2.22% RSD.According to the results from HPLC,the content of hyperoside of Malus doumeri(Bois) Chev.was various from different producing area.The highest content of hyperoside was found in Malus doumeri(Bois) Chev.produced in Hezhou.

  4. Modeling of Geographic Distribution of Malus doumeri%台湾林檎(Malus doumeri(Bois.) Chev.)地理分布模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷宏; 杨俊仙; 郑玉红; 汤庚国

    2012-01-01

    Specimens of Malus doumeri (Bois. ) Chev. from some herbaria, including the herbarium of Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (PE) , were re-identified in light of the latest taxonomic outcome of the genus Malus Mill. A total of 243 valuable distribution records were selected and digitized into the geographic coordinate data. Based on these data, the geographical distribution was mapped using DIVA-GIS. This distribution presents a pattern extending mainly from the southwest to southern and east in China, and disconnecting between Chinese Continent and Taiwan Island. It is almost consistent with the distribution of specimen records modeling with current bioclimatic data by BIOCLIM, and some potential distribution areas were found. Nineteen climate variables of the distribution points that fell in the envelope of variables of the Asia climate (spatial resolution 30 arc s) were analyzed by principal component analysis. Precipitation of wettest quarter, annual range of temperature, and precipitation of driest quarter were found to be dominant factors affecting the geographic distribution of M. doumery. Niches of dominant factors were interval only, and other niches overlapped among the varieties. The present and future potential distribution maps were predicted by BIOCLIM with current and future bioclimatic data (spatial resolution 30 arc s). Results showed that the overall distribution profile almost did not change, and it changed only in the scope and size of suitable area for each level within the entire distribution area. Based on the characteristics of ecological requirements and distribution trends of M. doumeri, the original region of M. doumeri is speculated in the borders between Yunnan, Cuangxi, Laos and Vietnam.%依据苹果属最新的系统分类学成果,重新鉴定了中国科学院植物研究所等标本馆的标本,选取了243个有价值的分布记录转换成地理坐标数据,用DIVA-GIS绘制了采集标本的

  5. In vitro viability and preservation of pollen grain of kiwi (Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa (A. Chev. A. Chev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas André Steinmacher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kiwi is a dioecious plant species, requiring cross pollination for fruit production. The objective of this study was toevaluate the in vitro viability and shelf life of pollen grains of two kiwi varieties. Flowers of the cultivars Matua and Tomuri werecollected and the pollen germinated in vitro, in culture medium containing agar (1 %, sucrose (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 % and boric acid(0 and 50 mg L-1H3BO3. Pollen grains were stored in a BOD incubator (25.0 °C, refrigerator (4.0 °C, freezer (-18.0 °C and in liquid N2 (-196.0 °C, and evaluated after 0, 40, 120, 240 and 365 days. The culture medium enriched with 12 % sucrose and 50 mgL-1 H3BO3 was the most suitable. Pollen grains can be stored for a short period in the refrigerator or freezer, and cryopreserved for at least one year.

  6. Terminalia Ivorensis A.Chev and Nauclea Diderrichii De Wild and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The incidence of the damping–off disease of two timber species Terminalia ivorensis and Nauclea ... Affected plants show water soaking at ground level causing ... diderrichii dried to 18% moisture content were collected from the seed bank.

  7. Variação estrutural quantitativa no lenho de Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev., Combretaceae

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    Urbinati Cláudia V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar a variação anatômica ao longo do caule de Terminalia ivorensis, estudaram-se amostras de madeira de três indivíduos, nos planos radial e axial. Para tal, corpos de prova foram obtidos a partir de discos de madeira, de 2 em 2cm, no sentido medula-câmbio. A metodologia usada para desenvolver o trabalho foi aquela tradicionalmente recomendada para estudos em anatomia vegetal. A descrição anatômica realizada seguiu as recomendações do IAWA Committee. No sentido radial do caule, alguns elementos anatômicos apresentaram tendências de variação definidas e significativas estatisticamente quando aplicado o teste Tukey para comparação de médias. São eles: freqüência, diâmetro e comprimento dos elementos de vaso, freqüência de raios/mm linear, comprimento dos raios em número de células, e comprimento e espessura da parede das fibras. Já no sentido axial, todas as variáveis analisadas não se mostraram estatisticamente significativas. Os resultados observados devemse, principalmente, à caracterização bem definida dos lenhos juvenil e adulto na madeira de Terminalia ivorensis.

  8. Antibacterial activity of the stem bark of Tieghemella Heckelii Pierre ex. A Chev against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipre, B G; Guessennd, N K; Koné, M W; Gbonon, V; Coulibaly, J K; Dosso, M

    2017-03-27

    Tieghemella heckelii (Sapotaceae) is a medicinal plant used in Africa, particularly in Côte d'Ivoire for treating various diseases including infections. Identification of prospective antibacterial compounds from stem bark of this plant as a result of its medicinal virtue, led to screening activity against methicillin resistant bacteria. Six extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and sterile distilled water) were prepared and tested on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using broth microdilution method for activity assessment. From this experiment, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the plant extracts were determined in sterile 96-well microplates in order to search for both bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects. Afterwards, data analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism5 software (One-way ANOVA and Turkey Multiple Comparison test). The results were then presented as Mean ± SD for experiment repeated three times. Four extracts (ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and sterile distilled water) showed credible potency, with strong, significant, and moderate growth inhibition of the MRSA tested. The MIC values which varied from 45 μg/mL to 97 μg/mL according to microbial phenotype, resolutely established the activity of the plant extracts. Additionally, the MBC values which varied, depending on the type of bacteria strain, revealed the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of the active extracts against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The present study is a confirmation of the therapeutic potential of Tieghemella heckelii and its promising contribution to the discovery of a novel antibacterial drug pertaining to these resistant strains.

  9. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of three herbal remedies for malaria in Ghana: Adenia cissampeloides (Planch. Harms., Termina liaivorensis A. Chev, and Elaeis guineensis Jacq

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    Kofi Annan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal remedies of Adenia cissampeloides, Terminalia ivorensis, and Elaeis guineensis among others have been used in Ghana for the treatment of various ailments including malaria. However, most of these remedies have not been scientifically investigated. Objective: This study, therefore, seeks to investigate the anti-plasmodial activity of these plants. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extracts of A. cissampeloides stem, T. ivorensis stem bark, and E. guineensis leaves were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Thin blood films were used to assess the level of parasitemia and growth inhibition of the extracts. Results: The IC 50 of A. cissampeloides, T. ivorensis, and E. guineensis were 8.521, 6.949, and 1.195 μg/ml, respectively, compared to artesunate with IC 50 of 0.031 μg/ml. Conclusion: The result of this study appears to confirm the folkloric anti-malarial use these plants.

  10. EFEITOS DO ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO E DA BAIXA TEMPERATURA NA GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE KIWI (Actinidia deliciosa, A. Chev. CULTIVAR BRUNO

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    B MATTIUZ

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available O kiwi é uma frutífera exótica de clima temperado cuja principal característica de seus frutos é o alto teor de vitamina C. A propagação por semente é de importância, pois além de produzir plantas que se destinem à porta-enxertos, contribui para a obtenção de novas cultivares. Pesquisas tem demonstrado um baixo índice de germinação das sementes de kiwi. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar dois diferentes métodos de elevação do índice de germinação de sementes de kiwi, da cultivar Bruno: estratificação à baixa temperatura (4 0C, através dos tratamentos de zero, duas e quatro semanas; ácido giberélico (AG3 testado em cinco diferentes concentrações (0, 100, 500, 1.000 e 2.500 ppm. A testemunha, para ambos os métodos, apresentou um baixo percentual de germinação das sementes (2,49%. Sementes não submetidas aos tratamentos de estratificação, mostraram uma resposta significativa aos tratamentos com AG3, até a concentração de 500 ppm, após a qual se mantiveram constantes. O índice máximo de germinação de sementes não estratificadas, foi de 36,85% com 2.500 ppm de AG3. A estratificação (40C, através de seus tratamentos de duas e quatro semanas, apresentou um efeito significativo na germinação das sementes (70,23%, não ocorrendo diferença significativa entre estes. Conclui-se que o melhor método de ampliação do índice de germinação de sementes de kiwi da cultivar Bruno, foi a estratificação à baixa temperatura (40C, com tratamentos de duas ou quatro semanas de estratificação.The kiwifruit is an exotic fruit tree of temperate climate whose main characteristic is the high content of vitamin C. Seed propagation of this species is very important to produce new varieties and rootstocks. Research results have demonstrated that this species shows a low porcentage of seed germination. The objective of this study was to evaluate different procedures to overcome seed dormancy: stratification (4°C for 2 and 4 weeks; (gibberelic acid GA3 with 0, 100, 500, 1,000 and 2,500 ppm. The seed germination of the check was 2,49%. Seeds not submitted to the stratification treatment showed a significative response to GA3 doses until 500 ppm. Seeds submitted to the stratification treatment (2 and 4 weeks did not show response to GA3. The highest level of germination was 36.85% at the level of 2,500 ppm. There was a significant effect of stratification on seed germination (70,23%, however not between the two treatments. Seeds stratified for 2 weeks showed a significantly higher germination than the seeds submitted to the 500 ppm GA3 treatment. In conclusion, stratification for two weeks was the best procedure to overcome satisfactorly kiwi seed dormancy, cv. Bruno.

  11. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of three herbal remedies for malaria in Ghana: Adenia cissampeloides (Planch.) Harms., Termina liaivorensis A. Chev, and Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Kofi; Sarpong, K; Asare, C; Dickson, R; Amponsah, Ki; Gyan, B; Ofori, M; Gbedema, Sy

    2012-10-01

    Herbal remedies of Adenia cissampeloides, Terminalia ivorensis, and Elaeis guineensis among others have been used in Ghana for the treatment of various ailments including malaria. However, most of these remedies have not been scientifically investigated. This study, therefore, seeks to investigate the anti-plasmodial activity of these plants. The ethanolic extracts of A. cissampeloides stem, T. ivorensis stem bark, and E. guineensis leaves were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Thin blood films were used to assess the level of parasitemia and growth inhibition of the extracts. The IC (50) of A. cissampeloides, T. ivorensis, and E. guineensis were 8.521, 6.949, and 1.195 μg/ml, respectively, compared to artesunate with IC(50) of 0.031 μg/ml. The result of this study appears to confirm the folkloric anti-malarial use these plants.

  12. Domestication paysanne des arbres fruitiers forestiers : cas de Coula edulis Bail, Olacaceae, et de Tieghemella heckelii Pierre ex A. Chev., Sapotaceae, autour du Parc National de Taï, Côte d'Ivoire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnéhin, L.

    2000-01-01

    In Côte d'Ivoire agriculture has confined the forest to national parks and state forests. Forest species are disappearing from the rural landscape and the products of these species get ever rarer. Thus, the rural population goes out collecting these products in national parks and state forests, the

  13. The South African Species of Myrica

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    D. J. B. Killick

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available The South African species of Myrica are revised, the 19 species previously recognized being reduced to 9. One variety is elevated to specific rank, viz. M. conifera Burm.f. var.  Integra A. Chev. becomes M. Integra (A. Chev. Killick.

  14. Vector competence of three North American strains of Aedes albopictus for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardelis, Michael R; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Andre, Richard G; Roberts, Donald R

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate the potential for North American (NA) Aedes albopictus to transmit West Nile virus (WN), mosquito strains derived from 3 NA sources (Frederick County, Maryland, FRED strain; Cheverly, MD, CHEV strain; Chambers and Liberty counties, Texas, TAMU strain) were tested. These strains were tested along with a previously tested strain from a Hawaiian source (OAHU strain). Mosquitoes were fed on 2- to 3-day-old chickens previously inoculated with a New York strain (Crow 397-99) of WN. All of the NA strains were competent laboratory vectors of WN, with transmission rates of 36, 50, 83, and 92% for the FRED, CHEV, OAHU, and TAMU strains, respectively. The extrinsic incubation period for WN in Ae. albopictus held at 26 degrees C was estimated to be 10 days. Based on efficiency of viral transmission, evidence of natural infection, bionomics, and distribution, Ae. albopictus could be an important bridge vector of WN in the southeastern USA.

  15. Optimal Energy Management for a Complex Hybrid Electric Vehicle:Tolerating Power-loss of Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pei-zhi; YIN Cheng-liang; ZHANG Yong; WU Zhi-wei

    2009-01-01

    The energy management may perform well under normal conditions, but may lead to poor behavior under abnormal situations. To tackle this problem, an optimal control strategy called rule-based equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy (RECMS) is developed for a new complex hybrid electric vehicle (CHEV).It optimizes the energy efficiency and drive performance to cater for normal and power-loss operations of the tractive motor. Firstly, the strategy formulates a novel objective function based on the equivalent fuel concept.By accounting for the actual fuel cost, the equivalent fuel cost for the electric machines and virtual fuel cost for the drivability, the cost function is obtained. Furthermore, some penalty factors are presented to optimize the performance target. Finally, experiments for a practical CHEV are performed to validate a simulation model.Then simulations are carried out for both rule-based and RECMS. The results show that the optimal energy management is working well.

  16. Bidrag til Den Store Danske Encyklopædi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Bent

    2002-01-01

    18 artikler: Edouard Balladur, José Bové, Jean-Pierre Chevènement, Jacques Chirac, Laurent Fabius, Front national, Lionel Jospin, Alain Juppé, Pierre Mauroy, Parti communiste français, Parti socialiste, Charles Pasqua, Jean-Marie Le Pen, Jean-Pierre Raffarin, Rassemblement pour la République, Mic......, Michel Rocard, Union pour la démocratie française, Les Verts....

  17. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

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    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  18. Diversité floristique sous canopée en plantation forestière de Mangombe-Edea (Cameroun

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    Makombu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic diversity under canopy in forest plantation of Mangombe-Edea (Cameroon. Trees plantation of Mangombe is situated in rain forest of low altitude. Six plots among which one of Mansonia altissima (A.Chev. A.Chev., 2 of Lovoa trichilioides Harms, 3 of Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev. and one perturbed natural forest are concerned by this study. The work consisted to the evaluation of the floristic diversity under canopy in order to appreciate the influence of forest plantation on natural regeneration. A total of 26 families, 42 genders and 46 species were censured. Meliaceae and Apocynaceae are present in all the plots. In plot one of T. ivorensis, M. altissima and natural forest, the low value of equitability of Pielou traduces the dominance of flora by few species and the transitory situation of the ecosystem. On contrary the rest of plots present a good repartition of individuals among the species. One can notice a weak organization of the ecologic system in M. altissima plot, this corresponds to favourable conditions of environment for installation of many species represented by a few number of individuals. Shannon indices, relatively low in plot one of T. ivorensis characterize an ecosystem where one species is dominant. Globally, the regeneration under canopy is reconstituted progressively and remains less diversified than the nearest natural forest. Creation of genetic pool through selective entertainment under canopy will permit polycyclic management of plots for sustainable production of wood.

  19. Scarabaeidae family species in the Carica papaya L. in Ciego de Ávila

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    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in Carica papaya L. plantations, as Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985 establishes, in the Citric Enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between º May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species. Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Anomala calceata Chev. y Phyllophaga crenaticollis Blanch are associated to Carica papaya L. crops in these areas.

  20. A direct-sensing galactose chemoreceptor recently evolved in invasive strains of Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Christopher J.; King, Rebecca M.; Shewell, Lucy K.; Tram, Greg; Najnin, Tahria; Hartley-Tassell, Lauren E.; Wilson, Jennifer C.; Fleetwood, Aaron D.; Zhulin, Igor B.; Korolik, Victoria

    2016-10-01

    A rare chemotaxis receptor, Tlp11, has been previously identified in invasive strains of Campylobacter jejuni, the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Here we use glycan and small-molecule arrays, as well as surface plasmon resonance, to show that Tlp11 specifically interacts with galactose. Tlp11 is required for the chemotactic response of C. jejuni to galactose, as shown using wild type, allelic inactivation and addition mutants. The inactivated mutant displays reduced virulence in vivo, in a model of chicken colonization. The Tlp11 sensory domain represents the first known sugar-binding dCache_1 domain, which is the most abundant family of extracellular sensors in bacteria. The Tlp11 signalling domain interacts with the chemotaxis scaffolding proteins CheV and CheW, and comparative genomic analysis indicates a likely recent evolutionary origin for Tlp11. We propose to rename Tlp11 as CcrG, Campylobacter ChemoReceptor for Galactose.

  1. A simple technique based on a single optical trap for the determination of bacterial swimming pattern.

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    Ignacio A Martínez

    Full Text Available Bacterial motility is associated to a wide range of biological processes and it plays a key role in the virulence of many pathogens. Here we describe a method to distinguish the dynamic properties of bacteria by analyzing the statistical functions derived from the trajectories of a bacterium trapped by a single optical beam. The approach is based on the model of the rotation of a solid optically trapped sphere. The technique is easily implemented in a biological laboratory, since with only a small number of optical and electronic components a simple biological microscope can be converted into the required analyzer. To illustrate the functionality of this method, we probed several Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutants that differed from the wild-type with respect to their swimming patterns. In a further application, the motility dynamics of the S. Typhimurium cheV mutant were characterized.

  2. Scarabaeidae species associate to guava ( Psidium guajava L. in Ciego de Ávila, Cuba

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    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se colocó una trampa de luz blanca en las plantaciones de la Guayaba (Psidium guajava L., según establece Sisne, 2009 y MINAG, 1985, en la Empresa Cítricos de Ciego de Ávila durante el período comprendido entre mayo y julio del año 2010 con el objetivo de determinar la composición de géneros y especies del orden Coleoptera familia Scarabaeidae asociadas al agroecosistema. Se determinó que las especies Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, y Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. están asociadas al cultivo de la Guayaba en estas áreas.

  3. Identification and validation of reference genes for accurate normalization of real-time quantitative PCR data in kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferradás, Yolanda; Rey, Laura; Martínez, Óscar; Rey, Manuel; González, Ma Victoria

    2016-05-01

    Identification and validation of reference genes are required for the normalization of qPCR data. We studied the expression stability produced by eight primer pairs amplifying four common genes used as references for normalization. Samples representing different tissues, organs and developmental stages in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa (A. Chev.) A. Chev.) were used. A total of 117 kiwifruit samples were divided into five sample sets (mature leaves, axillary buds, stigmatic arms, fruit flesh and seeds). All samples were also analysed as a single set. The expression stability of the candidate primer pairs was tested using three algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper). The minimum number of reference genes necessary for normalization was also determined. A unique primer pair was selected for amplifying the 18S rRNA gene. The primer pair selected for amplifying the ACTIN gene was different depending on the sample set. 18S 2 and ACT 2 were the candidate primer pairs selected for normalization in the three sample sets (mature leaves, fruit flesh and stigmatic arms). 18S 2 and ACT 3 were the primer pairs selected for normalization in axillary buds. No primer pair could be selected for use as the reference for the seed sample set. The analysis of all samples in a single set did not produce the selection of any stably expressing primer pair. Considering data previously reported in the literature, we validated the selected primer pairs amplifying the FLOWERING LOCUS T gene for use in the normalization of gene expression in kiwifruit.

  4. Host adaption to the bacteriophage carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Kelly J; Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L; Connerton, Ian F

    2015-01-01

    The carrier state of the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni represents an alternative life cycle whereby virulent bacteriophages can persist in association with host bacteria without commitment to lysogeny. Host bacteria exhibit significant phenotypic changes that improve their ability to survive extra-intestinal environments, but exhibit growth-phase-dependent impairment in motility. We demonstrate that early exponential phase cultures become synchronised with respect to the non-motile phenotype, which corresponds with a reduction in their ability to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells. Comparative transcriptome analyses (RNA-seq) identify changes in gene expression that account for the observed phenotypes: downregulation of stress response genes hrcA, hspR and per and downregulation of the major flagellin flaA with the chemotactic response signalling genes cheV, cheA and cheW. These changes present mechanisms by which the host and bacteriophage can remain associated without lysis, and the cultures survive extra-intestinal transit. These data provide a basis for understanding a critical link in the ecology of the Campylobacter bacteriophage.

  5. Essential oil of three Uvaria species from Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel, Koffi A; Félix, Tonzibo Z; Figueredo, Gilles; Chalard, Pierre; N'guessan, Yao T

    2011-11-01

    Different parts of Uvaria ovata (Dunals) A, U. anonoides Baker f. and U. tortilis A. Chev were collected from Ivory Coast, in Toumodi (center), Agboville (south-east) and Sikensi (south), respectively. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, were investigated by CG and CG/MS. The proportion of the chromatographed constituents identified varied from 92.5% to 98.5%. For U. ovata, the root bark oil comprised mainly camphene (10.2%), beta-pinene (10.1%), epi-alpha-cadinol (13.2%) and intermedeol (9.7%), while the oil of the stem bark was dominated by epi-alpha-cadinol (27.3%), intermedeol (11.9%) and benzyl benzoate (13.4%). The oil of the leaves showed beta-caryophyllene (15.6%), germacrene D (24.2%) and benzyl benzoate (18.3%) as the most abundant constituents. The leaf oil of U. anonoides was rich in 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (15.5%), bicyclogermacrene (21.3%) and benzyl benzoate (8.7%), while, gamma-terpinene (31.7%), beta-caryophyllene (23.9%) and germacrene D (15.8%) constituted the main components of the stem bark oil of U. tortilis.

  6. Determination and validation of mTOR kinase-domain 3D structure by homology modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhlili W

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wiame Lakhlili,1 Gwénaël Chevé,2 Abdelaziz Yasri,2 Azeddine Ibrahimi1 1Laboratoire de Biotechnologie (MedBiotech, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Rabat, Université Mohammed V de Rabat, Rabat, Morroco; 2OriBase Pharma, Cap Gamma, Parc Euromédecine, Montpellier, France Abstract: The AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway is considered as one of the commonly activated and deregulated signaling pathways in human cancer. mTOR is associated with other proteins in two molecular complexes: mTOR complex 1/Raptor and the mTOR complex 2/Rictor. Using the crystal structure of the related lipid kinase PI3Kγ, we built a model of the catalytic region of mTOR. The modeling of the three-dimensional (3D structure of the mTOR was performed by homology modeling program SWISS-MODEL. The quality and validation of the obtained model were performed using PROCHECK and PROVE softwares. The overall stereochemical property of the protein was assessed by the Ramachandran plot. The model validation was also done by docking of known inhibitors. In this paper, we describe and validate a 3D model for the mTOR catalytic site.Keywords: mTOR, homology modeling, mTOR kinase-domain, docking

  7. Comparative shotgun proteomic analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum from butanol fermentation using glucose and xylose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivagnanam, Kumaran [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Raghavan, Vijaya G. S. [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Lefsrud, Mark G [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec

    2011-01-01

    Background: Butanol is a second generation biofuel produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum through acetonebutanol- ethanol (ABE) fermentation process. Shotgun proteomics provides a direct approach to study the whole proteome of an organism in depth. This paper focuses on shotgun proteomic profiling of C. acetobutylicum from ABE fermentation using glucose and xylose to understand the functional mechanisms of C. acetobutylicum proteins involved in butanol production. Results: We identified 894 different proteins in C. acetobutylicum from ABE fermentation process by two dimensional - liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) method. This includes 717 proteins from glucose and 826 proteins from the xylose substrate. A total of 649 proteins were found to be common and 22 significantly differentially expressed proteins were identified between glucose and xylose substrates. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that flagellar proteins are highly up-regulated with glucose compared to xylose substrate during ABE fermentation. Chemotactic activity was also found to be lost with the xylose substrate due to the absence of CheW and CheV proteins. This is the first report on the shotgun proteomic analysis of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 in ABE fermentation between glucose and xylose substrate from a single time data point and the number of proteins identified here is more than any other study performed on this organism up to this report.

  8. Comparative shotgun proteomic analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum from butanol fermentation using glucose and xylose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verberkmoes Nathan C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Butanol is a second generation biofuel produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE fermentation process. Shotgun proteomics provides a direct approach to study the whole proteome of an organism in depth. This paper focuses on shotgun proteomic profiling of C. acetobutylicum from ABE fermentation using glucose and xylose to understand the functional mechanisms of C. acetobutylicum proteins involved in butanol production. Results We identified 894 different proteins in C. acetobutylicum from ABE fermentation process by two dimensional - liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS method. This includes 717 proteins from glucose and 826 proteins from the xylose substrate. A total of 649 proteins were found to be common and 22 significantly differentially expressed proteins were identified between glucose and xylose substrates. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that flagellar proteins are highly up-regulated with glucose compared to xylose substrate during ABE fermentation. Chemotactic activity was also found to be lost with the xylose substrate due to the absence of CheW and CheV proteins. This is the first report on the shotgun proteomic analysis of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 in ABE fermentation between glucose and xylose substrate from a single time data point and the number of proteins identified here is more than any other study performed on this organism up to this report.

  9. Comparative shotgun proteomic analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum from butanol fermentation using glucose and xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Butanol is a second generation biofuel produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process. Shotgun proteomics provides a direct approach to study the whole proteome of an organism in depth. This paper focuses on shotgun proteomic profiling of C. acetobutylicum from ABE fermentation using glucose and xylose to understand the functional mechanisms of C. acetobutylicum proteins involved in butanol production. Results We identified 894 different proteins in C. acetobutylicum from ABE fermentation process by two dimensional - liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) method. This includes 717 proteins from glucose and 826 proteins from the xylose substrate. A total of 649 proteins were found to be common and 22 significantly differentially expressed proteins were identified between glucose and xylose substrates. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that flagellar proteins are highly up-regulated with glucose compared to xylose substrate during ABE fermentation. Chemotactic activity was also found to be lost with the xylose substrate due to the absence of CheW and CheV proteins. This is the first report on the shotgun proteomic analysis of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 in ABE fermentation between glucose and xylose substrate from a single time data point and the number of proteins identified here is more than any other study performed on this organism up to this report. PMID:22008648

  10. A network characteristic that correlates environmental and genetic robustness.

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    Zeina Shreif

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As scientific advances in perturbing biological systems and technological advances in data acquisition allow the large-scale quantitative analysis of biological function, the robustness of organisms to both transient environmental stresses and inter-generational genetic changes is a fundamental impediment to the identifiability of mathematical models of these functions. An approach to overcoming this impediment is to reduce the space of possible models to take into account both types of robustness. However, the relationship between the two is still controversial. This work uncovers a network characteristic, transient responsiveness, for a specific function that correlates environmental imperturbability and genetic robustness. We test this characteristic extensively for dynamic networks of ordinary differential equations ranging up to 30 interacting nodes and find that there is a power-law relating environmental imperturbability and genetic robustness that tends to linearity as the number of nodes increases. Using our methods, we refine the classification of known 3-node motifs in terms of their environmental and genetic robustness. We demonstrate our approach by applying it to the chemotaxis signaling network. In particular, we investigate plausible models for the role of CheV protein in biochemical adaptation via a phosphorylation pathway, testing modifications that could improve the robustness of the system to environmental and/or genetic perturbation.

  11. ACTINIDIA DELICIOSA: A REVIEW

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    Keyur V Shastri et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. C. F. Liang et A. R. Ferguson is a sub-family of the genus Actinidia, which is also known as Chinese gooseberry, kiwifruit, yangtao, etc. in China, and consists of 55–60 species. The genus Actinidia is a dioecious plant and is widely distributed on the Asian continent. It is also native to China and most of the species are cultured in the southwest of China. Out of all species, only A. deliciosa is intensely cultivated all over the world. In addition, the fruit of Actinidia deliciosa has been acclaimed for its native and medicinal values. It contains several phytoconstituents belonging to category of triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, quinones and steroids. The roots of Actinidia deliciosa has been used as a traditional drug in China for a long time and are reported as Chinese folk remedy for various diseases, such as hepatitis, pyorrhea, gingivitis, edema, rheumatoid arthritis, and also various forms of cancer. Kiwi fruit has been used as mild laxative and a rich source of Vitamins. The fruits, stems and roots are diuretic, febrifuge and sedative. The seeds are used as natural blood thinner. Actinidia deliciosa has thereby recently acquired interest due to its attractive potential application in indigenous drugs.

  12. Wood Species for the Biedermeier Furniture - A Microscopic Characterisation for Scientific Conservation

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    L. Gurau

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood species identification is an important, compulsory step in the scientific conservation of the historic furniture as a significant part of the cultural heritage. It is known that a visual examination of an investigated sample does not always bring enough information about the original species and that a microscopic approach is more reliable. Species identification can be performed if the microscopic images are interpreted for common, but also for specific features and characteristics, by means of identification keys and in comparison with reference images. This paper provides the microscopic characterization with identification keys for six hardwood species, some of the most common in Biedermeier furniture (elm - Ulmus glabra Huds., cherry - Prunus avium L., walnut - Juglans regia L.,pear - Pyrus communis L., aspen - Populus tremula L., African mahogany - Khaya ivorensis A. Chev.. The characterization can be used for wood identification purposes by laboratories working in the field of cultural heritage wood conservation. This work is part of a recent research project that aims to develop and implement a scientific investigation for furniture conservation.

  13. Medicinal plants use in central Togo (Africa) with an emphasis on the timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Karou, Simplice D; Agban, Amégninou; Bako, Mamouda; Batawila, Komlan; Bawa, Moctar L; Gbeassor, Mensavi; de Souza, Comlan

    2012-04-01

    Plant-based remedies continue to play a key role in the health care of people in Togo; however, there is a lack of published data in medicinal plants and medical practices of the people in the country. This study was aimed at documenting the plant utilization in the Tem folk medicine in the central region of Togo. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted with traditional healers in the central region of Togo using a semi-structured questionnaire. This study demonstrated that local specialists in the central region of Togo tend to agree with each other in terms of the plants used to treat diabetes (ICF = 0.38), infertility, and abdominal pains (ICF = 0.33), but cite a much more diverse groups of plants to treat problems related to arterial hypertension, sickle cell disease, and abscess. They use 144 herbal concoctions made of 72 plants, distributed among 36 botanical families. The Euphorbiaceae family with eight species was best represented in terms of the number of species. The species with the highest use value were Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss. (Meliaceae) (UV = 0.36), Anthocleista djalonensis A. Chev. (Gentianaceae) (UV = 0.27), Trichilia emetica Vahl (Meliaceae) (UV = 0.25), and Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E. A. Bruce (Rubiaceae) (UV = 0.21). They also rely on the timing in the plant processing and the administration of herbal remedies. All these findings are based on empirical observations; laboratory screenings are needed to check the effectiveness of these plants.

  14. Anti-Fungal Activity and Allelopathic Influence of Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae Essential Oils on Actinidia deliciosa in vitro Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Levchyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of research of Vitex agnus-castus L. plants from the collection of M. M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden, NAS of Ukraine are given. The species belongs to a group of prospective essential oil plants which are characterized by valuable medicinal, food, aromatic, honey, technical and decorative properties, and can be used in many industries, including pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food. The quantitative content and qualitative composition of the vegetating plant’s essential oil are determined, its antifungal influence on the cultures of Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternatа andFusarium culmorum is assessed. Antifungal properties of V. agnus-castus essential oil were used to sterilize Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev C.F. Liang & A.R. Fergusonexplants introduced in vitro. V. agnus-castusessential oil is shown to have allelopathic effect on A. deliciosa plants. The possibility of using the oil in vitro to cultivate A. deliciosa callus as a source of bioactive substances and to enhance the effectiveness of biotechnological methods of plant propagation is discussed.

  15. Antinociceptive Effect of Tephrosia sinapou Extract in the Acetic Acid, Phenyl-p-benzoquinone, Formalin, and Complete Freund’s Adjuvant Models of Overt Pain-Like Behavior in Mice

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    Renata M. Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tephrosia toxicaria, which is currently known as Tephrosia sinapou (Buc’hoz A. Chev. (Fabaceae, is a source of compounds such as flavonoids. T. sinapou has been used in Amazonian countries traditional medicine to alleviate pain and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of T. sinapou ethyl acetate extract in overt pain-like behavior models in mice by using writhing response and flinching/licking tests. We demonstrated in this study that T. sinapou extract inhibited, in a dose (1–100 mg/kg dependent manner, acetic acid- and phenyl-p-benzoquinone- (PBQ- induced writhing response. Furthermore, it was active via intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and peroral routes of administration. T. sinapou extract also inhibited formalin- and complete Freund’s adjuvant- (CFA- induced flinching/licking at 100 mg/kg dose. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that T. sinapou ethyl acetate extract reduces inflammatory pain in the acetic acid, PBQ, formalin, and CFA models of overt pain-like behavior. Therefore, the potential of analgesic activity of T. sinapou indicates that it deserves further investigation.

  16. Effects of Hydrogen Cyanamide on the Floral Morphogenesis of Kiwifruit Buds Efectos de la Cianamida de Hidrógeno sobre la Morfogénesis Floral de Kiwi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Engin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of hydrogen cyanamide (HC on the flower bud development of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson. ‘Hayward’ was studied. The bud samples were taken every 5-10 d starting from dormant season (March and fixed in FAA (10% formalin, 50% ethanol, 5% glacial acetic acid. Flower bud development was compared in three HC concentrations and the control. 1%, 2%, and 3% of HC was applied 35 d before the expected natural bud break. During the onset of bud break, only 57.6% of control buds had sepal primordia developed. On the other hand, HC treated buds had almost completed their stamen formation and started stigma primordia. When the control vines were in advanced bud break, gynoecial plateau already began to form in the vines treated with 2 and 3% HC. Vines treated with 1% HC lagged a little behind and had not started developing the gynoecial plateau. As the bud developed from the open cluster to the tight bud stage, the differences between the control and HC treated plants were more distinct. However, there were no differences between HC treatments as the ovule initiation took place in the buds.El presente estudio evalúa la influencia de la aplicación de cianamida de hidrogeno (HC sobre el desarrollo de las yemas florales de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson cv. Hayward. Las muestras de yemas se tomaron cada 5-10 días comenzando en la época de dormancia en marzo y se fijaron en FAA (10% formaldehido, 50% etanol, 5% ácido acético glacial. Se comparó el desarrollo de las yemas florales en tres concentraciones de HC y el control. Se aplicó HC al 1%, 2% y 3% 35 días antes del brote natural de las yemas. En el momento de la apertura de las yemas, sólo el 57,6% de las yemas de control habían desarrollado los primordios de los sépalos. Por el contrario, las yemas tratadas con HC casi habían completado la formación de estambres y habían empezado el desarrollo de primordios

  17. Possible climate warming effects on vegetation, forests, biotic (insect, pathogene) disturbances and agriculture in Central Siberia for 1960- 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.; Lysanova, G. I.; Baranchikov, Y. N.; Kuzmina, N. A.

    2012-04-01

    Regional Siberian studies have already registered climate warming over the last half a century (1960-2010). Our analysis showed that winters are already 2-3°C warmer in the north and 1-2°C warmer in the south by 2010. Summer temperatures increased by 1°C in the north and by 1-2°C in the south. Change in precipitation is more complicated, increasing on average 10% in middle latitudes and decreasing 10-20% in the south, promoting local drying in already dry landscapes. Our goal was to summarize results of research we have done for the last decade in the context of climate warming and its consequences for biosystems in Central Siberia. We modeled climate change effects on vegetation shifts, on forest composition and agriculture change, on the insect Siberian moth (Dendrolimus suprans sibiricus Tschetv) and pathogene (Lophodermium pinastri Chev) ranges in Central Siberia for a century (1960-2050) based on historical climate data and GCM-predicted data. Principal results are: In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over 50% of central Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats; At least half of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture at the end of the century although potential croplands would be limited by the availability of suitable soils agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming Crop production may twofold increase as climate warms during the century; traditional crops (grain, potato

  18. La métropolisation en Pologne : le fonctionnement et l’avenir des espaces métropolitains polonais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pyka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La Pologne, comme tous les autres pays européens, est exposée au processus de métropolisation qui modifie l’espace et le fonctionnement des villes et des agglomérations polonaises. Même s’il reste difficile d’affirmer qu’il existe en Pologne des métropoles au sens propre du terme, il est sûr que les villes polonaises et les agglomérations les plus importantes développent des fonctions métropolitaines et deviennent des pôles de croissance économique importants aux niveaux régional et national.Les recherches menées permettent d’identifier en Pologne environ sept espaces métropolitains, dont les plus importants restent Varsovie et la Conurbation Silésienne de Katowice.Le phénomène de métropolisation constitue la source de multiples opportunités mais entraîne aussi plusieurs effets pervers ainsi que des coûts sociaux. C’est pourquoi il apparaît aussi important de créer des outils institutionnels de gestion intégrée des espaces métropolitains. Aujourd’hui il manque en Pologne de tels outils institutionnels, la loi d’agglomération qui correspondrait à la loi Chevènement n’existe toujours pas et l’intercommunalité qui se développe difficilement reste au niveau des syndicats à vocation unique sans sources financières propres.Cette situation est particulièrement problématique pour la « Métropole Silesia » qui fonctionne sur le territoire de la Conurbation Silésienne et, se composant de 14 villes indépendantes, rencontre des difficultés importantes dans la coordination de ses politiques urbaines.Poland like other European countries is the place of occurrence of metropolization phenomenon which influences the space and functioning of Polish cities and agglomerations. Although it is really difficult to answer to the question concerning the existence of metropolis in the full sense of this word in Polish space we may be certain that the biggest Polish agglomerations develop metropolitan

  19. Outcomes of the distal intraarticular humeral fractures treated by olecranon osteotomy

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    Erhan Yılmaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the management and outcome of intraarticular fractures of the distal humerus treated by open reduction and internal fixation using the olecranon osteotomy technique. Materials and methods: Twenty-one patients with in-traarticular fractures of the distal humerus were treated by open reduction and internal fixation. The mean age of the patients was 41.6 years and the mean follow-up pe-riod was 25.3 months. All fractures were type C accord-ing to the AO/ASIF fracture classification system. Chev-ron type olecranon osteotomy was performed within 12-24 h after the injury in all cases but 4 of them. Physical and radiological examination of patients with the appro-priate range checks were made.Results: All fractures united within average duration of 3.2 months. Excellent or good results were found in pa-tients less than 50 years-old, in women, when passing time from injury to surgery was within 12 hours and when early mobilization was achieved. The complica-tions were seen as 2 (9.6% transient neuropraxia of the ulnar nerve, 2 (9.6% failure of fixation, 1 (4.8% het-erotopic ossification and 1 (4.8% olecranon non-union. Fracture type (C1 and time from occurrence of injury to surgery (<12 hours are the main prognostic factors for achieving the excellent/ good functional results.Conclusions: The critical factors for a successful out-come of intraarticular fractures of the distal humerus in-cluded meticulous surgical technique, stable internal fix-ation, surgical experimentation and early controlled postoperative mobilization.

  20. Identification and Characterization of a 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate Synthase Gene From Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis%思茅松1-脱氧-D-木酮糖-5-磷酸合酶(DXS)基因的克隆及功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 周旭; 毕玮; 杨宇明; 李江; 王娟

    2015-01-01

    1-脱氧-D-木酮糖-5-磷酸合酶(DXS)是甲基-D-赤藓醇-4-磷酸(MEP)途径中的第一个酶,也是限速酶.本文根据思茅松(Pinus kesiya var.langbianensis (A.Chev.)Gaussen)树皮转录组数据分析结果,获得思茅松DXS基因片段,然后根据获得的基因片段设计特异引物,运用RT-PCR和RACE技术从思茅松树皮中克隆得到完整的DXS基因(PkDXS1).PkDXS1基因的cDNA全长序列2 888 bp,含有1个2 223 bp的开放阅读框(ORF),编码740个氨基酸,该基因推断的蛋白与赤松(Pinus densiflora Siebold&Zucc)DXS蛋白的相似性为99%,与欧洲云杉(Piceaabies (L.)H.Karst.)DXS的相似性为97%;经氨基酸序列比对,推断思茅松DXS具有高等植物DXS酶特有的叶绿体转运肽,二磷酸硫胺结合位点和转酮醇酶结构域.半定量RT-PCR检测表明树皮的创伤促进DXS基因的表达.

  1. Coupling of physiological and proteomic analysis to understand the ethylene- and chilling-induced kiwifruit ripening syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis S Minas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson, cv. ‘Hayward’ is classified as climacteric fruit and the initiation of endogenous ethylene production following harvest is induced by exogenous ethylene or chilling exposure. To understand the biological basis of this ‘dilemma’, kiwifruit ripening responses were characterized at 20 oC following treatments with exogenous ethylene (100 μL L-1, 20 oC, 24 h or/and chilling temperature (0 oC, 10 d. All treatments elicited kiwifruit ripening and induced softening and endogenous ethylene biosynthesis, as determined by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC content and ACC synthase (ACS and ACC oxidase (ACO enzyme activities after 10 d of ripening at 20 oC. Comparative proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE-PAGE and nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS revealed 81 kiwifruit proteins associated with ripening. Thirty-one kiwifruit proteins were identified as commonly regulated by the three treatments accompanied by dynamic changes of 10 proteins specific to exogenous ethylene, 2 to chilling treatment and 12 to their combination. Ethylene and/or chilling-responsive proteins were mainly involved in disease/defense, energy, protein destination/storage and cell structure/cell wall. Interactions between the identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, allowing a more complete insight into biological pathways and molecular functions affected by ripening. The present approach provides a quantitative basis for understanding the ethylene- and chilling-induced kiwifruit ripening and climacteric fruit ripening in general.

  2. Allelopathic effects of the invasive Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. on selected native plant species in Middle Awash, Southern Afar Rift of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Getachew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effects of the invasive Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. was studied on seed germination and seedling growth of Acacia nilotica(L. Willd. ex Del., Acacia tortilis (Forssk. Hayne, Cenchrus ciliaris L. and Enteropogon rupestris (J.A. Schmidt A. Chev. Vegetation sampling in different habitat types in the area was made to identify the target plant species. Comparison of canopy characteristics among P. juliflora, A. nilotica and A. tortilis was also made to observe differences if any in canopy closure. P. juliflora was recorded in all habitat types in highest density and observed affecting the plant diversity there in. Its growth characteristics and dense thicket formation restrict light to the ground flora and hence diminishes plant diversity. Leaf, bark and root aqueous extract of P. juliflora at 0, 0.5, 0.8, 1, 2 and 6% wereprepared and their effect studied on germination percentage and seedling growth of the study plant species. Germination of A. nilotica and A. tortilis was not affected by all aqueous extracts of different organ parts of P. juliflora while leaf and root extracts at higher concentrations inhibited germination of C. ciliaris and E. rupestris. Shoot and root growth of the study species were inhibited by leaf and root at higher concentrations. Seed germination of all species except A. nilotica was inhibited by soil amended with decaying plant parts and under canopy soil. The effect is species specific and annuals (grasses and herbs were affected more than perennials. Leaf seems to contain greater number/amount of inhibitors than does root and bark. Bark seems to contain the least. Heavy accumulation of toxic substances at under canopy soil of P. juliflora may be one of the reasons for its invasiveness and low plant diversity.

  3. Arabinogalactan proteins in plants

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    Ewa Szczuka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AGPs (arabinogalactan-proteins are the major constituent of arabic gum and have been used as emulsifiers and stabilizing agents. They are also one of the most abundant and heterogeneous class forming a large family of proteoglycans that sculpt the surface not only of plant but also of all eukaryotic cells. Undoubtedly, AGPs appear in numerous biological processes, playing diverse functions. Despite their abundance in nature and industrial utility, the in vivofunction(s of AGPs still remains unclear or even unknown. AGPs are commonly distributed in different plant organs and probably participate in all aspects of plant growth and development including reproduction (e.g. they are present in the stigma including stigma exudates, and in transmitting tissues in styles, pollen grains, and pollen tubes. The functions and evident involvement of AGPs in sexual plant reproduction in a few plant species as Actinidia deliciosa (A.Chev. C.F.Liang & A.R.Ferguson, Amaranthus hypochondriacus L., Catharanthus roseus (L. G.Don, Lolium perenneL. and Larix deciduaMill. are known from literature. The localization of two kinds of AGP epitopes, recognized by the JIM8 and JIM13 mAbs, in anatomically different ovules revealed some differences in spatial localization of these epitopes in ovules of monocots Galanthus nivalis L. and Galtonia candicans (Baker Decne. and dicots like Oenothera species and Sinapis albaL. A detailed study of the localization of AGPs in egg cells, zygotes, including the zygote division stage, and in two-celled proembryos in Nicotiana tabacumL. prompts consideration of the necessity of their presence in the very early steps of ontogenesis. The selective labeling obtained with AGP mAbs JIM8, JIM13, MAC207, and LM2 during Arabidopsis thaliana(L. Heynh. development suggests that some AGPs can be regarded as molecular markers for gametophytic cell differentiation. Moreover, the results show evident differences in the distribution of specific AGP

  4. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    pepper tree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), ti plant, Cordyline terminate (L.) Chev.(Liliales: Liliaceae), guava and several Citrus spp. were identified as preferred roosting hosts for oriental fruit fly. Guava had not previously been identified as a preferred roosting host for melon fly. Other than for the use of panax as a roosting host, there has previously been little attention to roosting hosts for oriental fruit fly. Establishment of preferred roosting hosts as crop borders may help to improve suppression of both fruit fly species by providing sites for bait spray applications. Further research is needed to assess the use of vegetation bordering other host crops as roosting hosts, especially for oriental fruit fly.

  5. Analysis of the ArcA regulon in anaerobically grown Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium

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    Porwollik Steffen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is a Gram-negative pathogen that must successfully adapt to the broad fluctuations in the concentration of dissolved dioxygen encountered in the host. In Escherichia coli, ArcA (Aerobic Respiratory Control helps the cells to sense and respond to the presence of dioxygen. The global role of ArcA in E. coli is well characterized; however, little is known about its role in anaerobically grown S. Typhimurium. Results We compared the transcriptional profiles of the virulent wild-type (WT strain (ATCC 14028s and its isogenic arcA mutant grown under anaerobic conditions. We found that ArcA directly or indirectly regulates 392 genes (8.5% of the genome; of these, 138 genes are poorly characterized. Regulation by ArcA in S. Typhimurium is similar, but distinct from that in E. coli. Thus, genes/operons involved in core metabolic pathways (e.g., succinyl-CoA, fatty acid degradation, cytochrome oxidase complexes, flagellar biosynthesis, motility, and chemotaxis were regulated similarly in the two organisms. However, genes/operons present in both organisms, but regulated differently by ArcA in S. Typhimurium included those coding for ethanolamine utilization, lactate transport and metabolism, and succinate dehydrogenases. Salmonella-specific genes/operons regulated by ArcA included those required for propanediol utilization, flagellar genes (mcpAC, cheV, Gifsy-1 prophage genes, and three SPI-3 genes (mgtBC, slsA, STM3784. In agreement with our microarray data, the arcA mutant was non-motile, lacked flagella, and was as virulent in mice as the WT. Additionally, we identified a set of 120 genes whose regulation was shared with the anaerobic redox regulator, Fnr. Conclusion(s We have identified the ArcA regulon in anaerobically grown S. Typhimurium. Our results demonstrated that in S. Typhimurium, ArcA serves as a transcriptional regulator coordinating cellular metabolism, flagella

  6. Characterisation of a multi-ligand binding chemoreceptor CcmL (Tlp3 of Campylobacter jejuni.

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    Hossinur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide with over 500 million cases annually. Chemotaxis and motility have been identified as important virulence factors associated with C. jejuni colonisation. Group A transducer-like proteins (Tlps are responsible for sensing the external environment for bacterial movement to or away from a chemical gradient or stimulus. In this study, we have demonstrated Cj1564 (Tlp3 to be a multi-ligand binding chemoreceptor and report direct evidence supporting the involvement of Cj1564 (Tlp3 in the chemotaxis signalling pathway via small molecule arrays, surface plasmon and nuclear magnetic resonance (SPR and NMR as well as chemotaxis assays of wild type and isogenic mutant strains. A modified nutrient depleted chemotaxis assay was further used to determine positive or negative chemotaxis with specific ligands. Here we demonstrate the ability of Cj1564 to interact with the chemoattractants isoleucine, purine, malic acid and fumaric acid and chemorepellents lysine, glucosamine, succinic acid, arginine and thiamine. An isogenic mutant of cj1564 was shown to have altered phenotypic characteristics of C. jejuni, including loss of curvature in bacterial cell shape, reduced chemotactic motility and an increase in both autoagglutination and biofilm formation. We demonstrate Cj1564 to have a role in invasion as in in vitro assays the tlp3 isogenic mutant has a reduced ability to adhere and invade a cultured epithelial cell line; interestingly however, colonisation ability of avian caeca appears to be unaltered. Additionally, protein-protein interaction studies revealed signal transduction initiation through the scaffolding proteins CheV and CheW in the chemotaxis sensory pathway. This is the first report characterising Cj1564 as a multi-ligand receptor for C. jejuni, we therefore, propose to name this receptor CcmL, Campylobacter chemoreceptor for multiple ligands. In conclusion, this study

  7. Light quality management in fruit orchards: physiological and technological aspects Manejo de la calidad de la luz en huertos frutales: Aspectos fisiológicos y tecnológicos

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    Richard M. Bastías

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Light quality (sunlight spectrum management promises to provide a new technological alternative to sustainable production in horticultural crops. However, little information exists about physiological and technological aspects on light quality management in fruit crops. Sunlight composition changes widely in orchard canopies, inducing different plant responses in fruit trees mediated by phytochrome (PHY and cryptochrome (CRY activity. High proportion of far-red (FR in relation to red (R light increases shoot elongation, while blue (B light induces shoot dwarfing. Red and ultraviolet (UV light increases fruit skin anthocyanin synthesis, while FR light shows a negative effect. Red and B light can also alter leaf morpho-physiological traits in fruit trees, such palisade thickness, stomatal aperture, and chlorophyll content. Besides improvement of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR availability, the use of reflective films improves UV and R light proportion, with positive effects on PHY mediated-responses (fruit color, fruit weight, shoot growth, as reported in apple (Malus domestica Borkh., peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, and sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L. L.. Colored nets widely alter spectral light composition with effects on plant growth, yield, and quality in apple, kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa A. Chev. C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson, peach, and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. orchards. Mechanisms of colored nets seem to be associated to photosynthetic and morphogenetic process regulated by PAR availability, R/B light proportion, and CRY activity. Alteration of light quality affects significantly fruit tree plant responses and could be a useful tool for sustainable (e.g. lower use of chemicals and labor-practices management of yield and quality in modern orchards.El manejo de la calidad de la luz (espectro de la luz solar promete proveer una nueva alternativa tecnológica para la producción sostenible de cultivos hortícolas. Sin

  8. La ética hacia el futuro

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    Jaime Campos

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available

    El honor y la responsabilidad de haber sido elegido presidente del Círculo André Lambling me han conducido a reflexiones intelectuales sobre la moral en general y las éticas en particular, que han dado como resultado más interrogantes que respuestas.

    Comienzo por analizar dos hechos concretos: primero, el espíritu abierto de los miembros del Círculo que permitió a un médico no europeo orientar temporalmente esta asociación pluricultural construida alrededor de la inteligencia y del saber, y en segundo lugar un informe de Noelle Lenoir, dirigido al ex primer Ministro Francés Michel Rocard sobre una “ética biomédica a la francesa” que, en el capítulo dedicado a las relaciones Norte,c;ur, escribe: “Laética en los países pobres debería primero consistir en hacer llegar a la población los cuidados básicos, una higiene de vida aceptable, una alimentación sufIciente”, pero la divergencia de ideas está también presente en el seno de la alta burocracia, puesto que según el señor Chevénement “En todo el mundo hay que mantener referencia a valores universales”, porque la preservación de la vida, la búsqueda del bienestar y el amor por el conocimiento pertenecen a la humanidad. He juzgado entonces necesario consultar algunos autores a los cuales hago referencia, que influyeron de una u otra forma en esta exposición.

    Yo considero que en materia de ética, así como en varios campos del saber, lo absoluto no existe y es bueno recordar que, durante siglos, la moral ha estado basada en el resentimiento, en el placer de la delación, y hasta en el odio. Por esta razón, la moral no puede conceder ninguna autoridad ni ningún poder, porque como lo manifestó Sartre: “Un acto no es moral sino cuando es libre”.

    En la actualidad los debates sociales transcurren a través de los medios de comunicación en donde predomina la dictadura de la imagen, imagen que ha invadido nuestro espacio social y nuestras

  9. Y avait-il antéposition stylistique en ancien français ?

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    Labelle Marie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail porte sur un type de déviation à l’ordre habituel SVO dans les subordonnées de l’ancien français. Il s’agit des subordonnées du type de (1 qui présentent à la gauche du verbe un élément autre que le sujet, mais qui se distinguent de la construction à verbe second (V2, typique des principales, par le fait que le phénomène peut se retrouver dans des subordonnées excluant V2 — comme les relatives, les interrogatives indirectes et les subordonnées temporelles — et que l’expression déplacée peut être une catégorie lexicale (verbe non tensé, adverbe, adjectif. Dans tous ces cas, nous parlerons de déplacement stylistique à gauche de l’élément déplacé. (1 Qant levé furent del mangier, … Quant ils eurent terminé le repas … [Chev. à la Charrette, in Mathieu 2006 ex. (7a] Certaines similitudes entre la construction en (1 et l’antéposition stylistique (stylistic fronting de l’islandais ont amené plusieurs chercheurs à considérer que cette construction est un cas d’antéposition stylistique. Dans la première partie de l’article, il est montré que le déplacement stylistique à gauche de l’ancien français illustré en (1 a des propriétés suffisamment différentes de l’antéposition stylistique de l’islandais pour que l’on distingue les deux constructions. Contrairement à l’antéposition stylistique, le déplacement stylistique à gauche n’est pas soumis à une hiérarchie d’accessibilité et des constituants lourds, incluant des VP, peuvent occuper la position préverbale. De plus, la construction française ne requiert pas que le sujet soit absent de la position canonique de sujet, de sorte que l’on observe des propositions de type SXV et XSV. Dans la deuxième partie du travail, une analyse est proposée pour les subordonnées de type (SXV et XSV. L’ordre (SXV relativement fréquent en ancien français, est analysé comme le résultat du déplacement d’une t