WorldWideScience

Sample records for suntec singapore 6-7

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT FOR THE UV DISINFECTION OF SECONDARY EFFLUENTS, SUNTEC, INC. MODEL LPX200 DISINFECTION SYSTEM - 03/09/WQPC-SWP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the SUNTEC LPX200 UV Disinfection System to develop the UV delivered dose flow relationship was conducted at the Parsippany-Troy Hills wastewater treatment plant test site in Parsippany, New Jersey. Two lamp modules were mounted parallel in a 6.5-meter lon...

  2. Singapore Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Singapore Math" is a collection of math curricula originally developed by Singapore's Ministry of Education and private textbook publishers for use in Singapore schools. "Singapore Math" curricula were developed under a national framework centered on problem solving that emphasizes computational skills as well as conceptual and strategic thinking…

  3. THE EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF SINGAPORE REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen Chiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the REIT industry is relatively new in Singapore, the objective of this research is to examine the operation efficiency among firms in the industry through the method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. In addition, the method of Tobit regression is applied to investigate the impact factors on efficiency. The results are as follows. First, none of 14 firms analyzed performs relatively efficiently based on the average efficiency scores over the sample periods of 2007 to first quarter of 2015. Nevertheless, it is found that First REIT and Suntec REIT are the most efficient and least efficient REITs respectively. Second, ROA is positively correlated to efficiency scores while the negative relationship is found with the debt ratio. Third, regarding property-type, retail REITSs perform better than commercial ones on average. However, the most efficient group is “others” which consists of one hospitality/residential REITs, one healthcare REITs, and three industrial REITs. Fourth, geographical diversification may not affect REIT’s efficiency. Meanwhile, REITs holding more properties overseas perform better than their counterparts on average. Last, in regards to size, small-size REITs significantly perform better in efficiency than those in other categories. Especially, medium-size and largesize REITs do not have significant differences on average in efficiency.

  4. Counseling in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Soo Yin; Neihart, Maureen F.

    2012-01-01

    Singapore, a tiny island nation, rose from 3rd- to 1st-world status in just 3 decades. Unlike in most developed countries, counseling in Singapore has a short history with faith-based beginnings and currently faces challenges to remain culturally relevant. The authors trace the development of Singapore's counseling services, provide an update…

  5. 36 CFR 6.7 - Mining wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.7 Mining wastes. (a) Solid waste from mining includes but is not limited to mining overburden, mining byproducts, solid waste from the extraction... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining wastes. 6.7 Section 6...

  6. Cancer care in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, J; Baggarley, S; Lee, KM

    2008-01-01

    Singapore is a small country, but it is ideally and centrally located to conveniently serve not only its population but also patients from the surrounding regions. It’s economy is sufficiently strong to maintain highly sophisticated and expensive equipment to manage a high level of healthcare, including oncology services. Cancer incidences in Singapore are on an upward trend based on the report of the Singapore Cancer Registry for the period of 2001-2005. Cancer is the number one cause of dea...

  7. Event coverage: ESMO Asia Congress returns to Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The second ESMO Asia 2016 Congress, led by an international committee to promote the sharing of expertise and interaction between regional and international experts in oncology, returned for a second appearance at the Suntec Convention and Exhibition Centre in Singapore recently. Organized by the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO, the Asian leg of the annual scientific and educational congress was held from December 16–19th, 2016 and attended by over 2,000 healthcare professionals and exhibitors, including representatives from AMOR who were also present to cover the event. ESMO Asia 2016 brought together oncologists from the Asian region and beyond to discuss important discoveries in oncology and to update delegates on the latest standards of care, the organizer noted in its media release. More specifically, delegates attending the meeting took the opportunity to exchange thoughts and ideas on current clinical challenges and novel treatment strategies for a variety of tumor subtypes, as well as to highlight emerging cancer therapeutics that are rapidly gaining attention in clinical settings. In addition to highlighting the latest in cancer research, the congress also sought to underscore bioethical, economic, and social challenges posed by cancer by addressing crucial issues such as the rising costs of treatments, the need for psychological support for patients, the need for better palliative care, and the vital importance of improving access to innovative drugs. In this edition of the ESMO Asia congress, the keynote lectures consisted of two topics: how the differences between tumors can impact the design of effective treatments, and the link between common Epstein-Barr virus and nasopharyngeal cancer. With these two keynote lectures setting the tone for the congress, delegates saw a wide range of key discussions pertaining to the clinical relevance of molecular advances and innovative treatment approaches. Moreover, sessions that

  8. Racialised Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    The Singapore education system plays a central role in the mythology of the young country's nation building project. The education system is portrayed as the cradle of Singapore's multiracialism, fostering racial harmony and understanding. Yet this historical study of primary school English textbooks from the 1970s to the present reveals that…

  9. Japanese Outbound Market to Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Aw, Yeow Keng

    2007-01-01

    This research examines Japanese tourists' perceptions of Image of Singapore and attempts to apply motivational theories to attract Japanese tourists not only to come but stay longer in Singapore. For the analysis, data were collected via a questionnaires-based survey among the 650 Japanese tourists at Singapore Changi Airport, Departure Hall. The purpose of survey is to find out Japanese tourists' perceptions of Singapore as a travel destination, their satisfactions toward Singapore and like...

  10. Singapore - The Nursing Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Doyle

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available In many ways Singapore still bears evidence of the period of British colonialism and the system of nursing service and nursing education is also still greatly influenced by the British system of nursing.

  11. The Singapore research story

    CERN Document Server

    Teck Seng, Low; Thampuran, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Singapore became independent in 1965, its leaders have invested tremendous efforts and resources to develop its economy in order to create jobs for its people and to support national development. This book describes the challenging journey of Singapore in developing a knowledge-based economy driven by research and innovation and the roles played by research institutes, universities, research manpower and appropriate collaboration between research institutes and industry. The book traces the foundations of Singapore's research story from the time of its independence in 1965 to the present day. Through interviews with the key players and research into the records, the establishment of the key institutes and the roles of a global cast of researchers, scientists and engineers in setting up the R&D infrastructure are outlined. The impact that the concerted efforts of the last 25 years to build up a credible and world-class research capability in Singapore is discussed, as are the tremendous challeng...

  12. POLITICAL MERITOCRACY IN SINGAPORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur ZHUK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the political regime of meritocracy in Singapore which was formed by Lee Kuan Yew. It compares different approaches of the concept of East and West in the social sphere. It analyses the approach to the formation of the personnel policy of the government of Lee Kuan Yew in public administration. The article studies the mechanism of formation of modern selection and training of civil servants in Singapore. It describes the basic institutions of formation of officials, the development of these institutions and their functionality at different times. It touches on some aspects of the transfer of experience of Singapore in the personnel policy in the case of China and Russia. The article describes the efficiency of meritocracy in Singapore, in particular, referred to the level of salaries of officials and place of Singapore in the rankings of international financial institutions. The main conclusion of the article is to prove the effectiveness of this system, and the ability to implement it in practice in Russia. 

  13. RDamage 6, 7, 8 & 9 Cassettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griego, Jeffrey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kaul, Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-08

    The RDamage series of ten experiments is part of a long-term collaboration with RFNC/VNIIEF in pulsed power technology. These experiments use a cylindrical configuration to study spallation damage, which allows for a natural recollection of the damaged material under proper driving conditions and post-shot collection of the damaged target material for subsequent metallographic analysis. Dynamic insitu experimental velocimetry diagnostics are also employed. LANL is responsible for the design of the experimental load and velocimetry system. VNIIEF is responsible for the design and construction of the driving explosive magnetic generator. In the RDamage-0, -1 and -2 experiments, data was collected about failure initiation of a well-characterized material (aluminum) in a cylindrical geometry. The RDamage-3, -4 and -5 experiments produced data on the behavior of material recollected after damage from pressures in the damage initiation regime. Data on the behavior of material recollected after complete failure was collected in the RDamage-6, -7, -8 and -9 experiments. This presentation shows the evolution of the load assembly through the experimental series.

  14. Higher Education and Entrepreneurial Citizenship in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Soren

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on Singapore's "Global Schoolhouse" project, this article discusses how efforts to transform Singapore into a "world class" knowledge economy entail changes to the status of citizenship in Singapore. The project of wooing top foreign universities to Singapore is permeated with an entrepreneurial ideal of Singapore as…

  15. Higher Education and Entrepreneurial Citizenship in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Soren

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on Singapore's "Global Schoolhouse" project, this article discusses how efforts to transform Singapore into a "world class" knowledge economy entail changes to the status of citizenship in Singapore. The project of wooing top foreign universities to Singapore is permeated with an entrepreneurial ideal of Singapore as…

  16. "Right" in Singapore English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Singapore English has been, and still is, an enigma for many scholars and researchers. In recent years, much attention has been given to the analysis of its particles. However, rather than focusing on the analysis of one particle or several particles and how they operate at the level of the sentence, this paper looks at a particular phenomenon in…

  17. Singapore Chooses Teachers Carefully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    At the heart of the plans and programs that launched Singapore's rise to the top of international education comparisons are the tiny nation-state's commitments to its teaching force beginning with its highly competitive selection process and carrying through its teacher training, its career-long professional development, and even an enhanced…

  18. MEMS in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Francis E.

    2001-03-01

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) can be termed as a crossroad technology. Cross road in the sense that it is an amalgamation of various disciplines to produce a solution. Cross road also, in the sense that it is disruptive to the way that solutions used to be provided. At the crossroad, a decision needs to be made either to do things the old way or to embrace the new technology. In this paper, a review is made to the research and development of MEMS technology with potentially widespread applications in Singapore. In most cases, these are preparations to a possible acceleration of MEMS related industry in this part of the world. However, the author also noted that the transfer of MEMS technology from the laboratory to the industry is not a trivial matter. A major decision has to be made due to the high capital outlay and the high operational costs involved. Further, many production related issues such as yield and packaging have to be considered. A large number of MEMS commercial outfits such as Bosch are serving internal customers. As a small country with limited resources, Singapore places great emphasis on building up MEMS research and development activities to support future high value-added design and fabrication. In this paper, some of the MEMS activities in the national universities and institutes in Singapore are introduced, and some recent progress and development of MEMS technology in Singapore are presented.

  19. 43 CFR 6.7 - Domestic patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Domestic patent protection. 6.7 Section 6.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.7 Domestic patent protection. (a) The Solicitor, upon determining that an invention...

  20. Singapore: An Aging Society

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Minsol; Lu, Phillip I Fan

    2015-01-01

    This project is a case study on Singapore and will investigate the issue of an aging population. This project draws upon the general theory of population aging and preference theory. The first part of our analysis is to investigate empirical data of Singapore’s population, fertility rates, mortality, and life expectancy. This is investigated through the use of the general theory of population aging. The second part of our project analyzes policymaking related to population and fertility in Si...

  1. Hoarding in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Kenneth Wei-Qiang; Lee, Wei Liang; How, Choon How; Ng, Beng Yeong

    2015-09-01

    Hoarding refers to an excessive acquisition of objects and inability to part with apparently valueless possessions. While it can lead to excessive clutter, distress and disability, it is important to note that not all cases of hoarding are pathological. This article aims to suggest how one can make recommendations to patients and families when they encounter someone exhibiting hoarding behaviour. It also introduces the Hoarding Task Force and relevant legislation in Singapore to address the issue of hoarding in the community.

  2. Higher Education and Entrepreneurial Citizenship in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Soren

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on Singapore's "Global Schoolhouse" project, this article discusses how efforts to transform Singapore into a "world class" knowledge economy entail changes to the status of citizenship in Singapore. The project of wooing top foreign universities to Singapore is permeated with an entrepreneurial ideal of Singapore…

  3. TAX REFORM IN SINGAPORE

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Rup Khadka

    1998-01-01

    Globalization has forced many governments to change their economic policies, including tax policies, in the recent years. It has had an even greater impact on Singapore’s economy due to the high degree of its openness with respect to trade and investment. In this context, Singapore undertook a major restructuring of its tax system in the early 1990s. The introduction of a modern value added tax system (goods and services tax) was a part of the overall tax reform package. This paper examines h...

  4. Going Underground in Singapore

    CERN Multimedia

    John Osborne (GS/SEM)

    2010-01-01

    Singapore has plans to build a massive Underground Science City (USC) housing R&D laboratories and IT data centres. A delegation involved in the planning to build the subterranean complex visited CERN on 18 October 2010 to learn from civil engineers and safety experts about how CERN plans and constructs its underground facilities.   The delegation from Singapore. The various bodies and corporations working on the USC project are currently studying the feasibility of constructing up to 40 caverns (60 m below ground) similar in size to an LHC experiment hall, in a similar type of rock. Civil engineering and geotechnical experts are calculating the maximum size of the cavern complex that can be safely built. The complex could one day accommodate between 3000 and 5000 workers on a daily basis, so typical issues of size and number of access shafts need to be carefully studied. At first glance, you might not think the LHC has much in common with the USC project; as Rolf Heuer pointed out: &ldq...

  5. 31 CFR 6.7 - Delegations of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegations of authority. 6.7 Section... UNDER THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 6.7 Delegations of authority. The Director... § 6.3 under the respective bureau or office. The Secretary of the Treasury may by order delegate...

  6. New Approach to Synthesis of 6,7-Dimethoxyisatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to synthesis of 6,7-dimethoxyisatin is reported.2-nitro-3, 4- dimethoxy mandelonitrile in glacial acetic acid was treated with the solution of stannous chloride in hydrochloric acid to give 6, 7-dimethoxyisatin in a high yield.

  7. Mammoth order for Singapore project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Two new hospitals in Singapore that form a new integrated healthcare hub, that feature a range of innovations in patient treatment and care, and are reportedly the country's first such healthcare facilities built together as an integrated development to complement each other's capabilities and services, were officially opened by Singapore's Prime Minister, Lee Hsien Loong, last October. Operated by Jurong Health, a public healthcare 'cluster' formed to facilitate the integration of healthcare services in the west of Singapore, the Ng Teng Fong Hospital and Jurong Community Hospital feature an extensive array of Gerflor flooring, selected, as the company explains in this article, for a combination of outstanding aesthetics, durability, safety, and hard wear.

  8. Presence of epoxide hydrolase activity in Aspergillus niger: Hydrolysis of 6', 7'-epoxybergamottin to 6', 7'-dihydroxybergamottin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 6', 7'-epoxybergamottin (EB) is one of major furanocoumarins in grapefruit. Previously, we have shown that Aspergillus niger has a capability of metabolizing EB into 6', 7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), which is further metabolized to bergaptol and bergaptol-5-sulfate in vivo. In this study, we at...

  9. Prefab Apartment Blocks in Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Per Oluf H

    1997-01-01

    Skaarup & Jespersen, Architects and Planners, has designed and built 625 housing units for Housing Development Board in Singapore after an international competition.Experiences from the Danish precast systems have been used.......Skaarup & Jespersen, Architects and Planners, has designed and built 625 housing units for Housing Development Board in Singapore after an international competition.Experiences from the Danish precast systems have been used....

  10. Singapore’s Declining Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    a culture where singles view marriage as a top life goal,” designed to be a resource for social interaction skill improvement and social interaction...part of the Marriage and Parenthood Package, the government of Singapore will pay up to one-half of in-vitro fertilization costs, depending on the...index.html 11 Singapore Government Online website. Family & Community Development @ e-citizen: Marriage and Parenthood Package. http

  11. Health technology assessment in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pwee, Keng Ho

    2009-07-01

    The Republic of Singapore is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. Its population enjoys good health and the Singapore Ministry of Health's mission is to promote good health and reduce illness, ensure access to good and affordable health care, and pursue medical excellence. This is achieved through a healthcare system that includes both private and public sector elements. The financing philosophy of Singapore's healthcare delivery system is based on individual responsibility and community support. Health care in Singapore is financed by a combination of taxes, employee medical benefits, compulsory health savings, insurance, and out-of-pocket payment. The capability for health technology assessment in Singapore was developed concurrently with its medical device regulation system in the 1990s. The first formal unit with health technology assessment (HTA) functions was established in September 1995. Today, HTA features in decision making for the Standard Drug List, licensing of medical clinics, the Health Service Development Programme, healthcare subsidies, and policy development. The public sector healthcare delivery clusters have also recently started health services research units with HTA functions. Singapore is organizing the 6th Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Annual Meeting in June 2009. Bringing this prestigious international conference to Asia for the first time will help raise awareness of HTA in the region.

  12. Singapore: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    in its success. Singapore achieved home rule in 1959 and joined with Malaya, Sabah, and Sarawak to form the Federation of Malaysia in 1963...Singapore from Malaysia . Amid serious doubts about its viability, Singapore became a separate independent nation on August 9, 1965. SINGAPORE...extensive land reclamation Ethnic Groups: 77% Chinese; 14% Malay; 8% Indian; 1% other Language: Chinese (official); Malay (official and national); Tamil

  13. A Critical Review on Singapore English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌婷

    2013-01-01

    A critical review is given on Singapore English. The historical introduction of the language provides readers a longitu-dinal insight into the development of this special variety. Then, the language features of Colloquial Singapore English and Stan-dard Singapore English are discussed, and a comparison of the use of Singapore and standard British English is made to show the differences in grammatical and lexical features of these two varieties of English.

  14. Metal allergy in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Anthony T J; Goh, C L

    2005-03-01

    This is a clinical epidemiologic study to determine the frequency of metal allergy among patch-tested patients in the years 2001-2003. The results are compared with those of previous studies. All patients diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, from January 2001 to December 2003 were studied retrospectively. The frequency of positive patch tests to the following metals were nickel 19.9%, chromate 5.6%, cobalt 8.2% and gold 8.3%. The frequency of nickel allergy has been steadily rising over the last 20 years. The most common sources of nickel allergy are costume jewelry, belt buckles, wrist watches and spectacle frames. After declining from 1984 to 1990, chromate and cobalt allergies have also been steadily increasing subsequently. The most common sources of chromate allergy were cement, leather and metal objects. Most positive patch tests to cobalt are regarded as co-sensitization due to primary nickel or chromate allergies. There has been a steep increase in positive patch tests to gold from 2001 to 2003, which is difficult to explain because the relevance and sources of such positive patch tests can rarely be determined with certainty. There has been an overall rise in the frequency of metal allergy in the last 20 years.

  15. Evolution of Singapore's School Mathematics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Berinderjeet

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of Singapore's school mathematics curriculum is in tandem with developments in the education system of Singapore. In the last six decades, economic policies of the government that are necessary for the survival of Singapore in a fast changing world have shaped the aims of the school mathematics curriculum. The present day curriculum…

  16. Inhibitory Effects of 5,6,7-Trihydroxyflavones on Tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kawabata

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Baicalein (1, 6-hydroxyapigenin (6, 6-hydroxygalangin (13 and 6-hydroxy-kaempferol (14, which are naturally occurring flavonoids from a set of 14 hydroxy-flavones tested, exhibited high inhibitory effects on tyrosinase with respect to L-DOPA,while each of the 5,6,7-trihydroxyflavones 1, 6, 13 or 14 acted as a cofactor tomonophenolase. Moreover, 6-hydroxykaempferol (14 showed the highest activity andwas a competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase compared to L-DOPA. 5,6,7-Trihydroxyflavones 1, 6, 13 or 14 showed also high antioxidant activities. Hence, weconclude that the 5,6,7-trihydroxy-flavones are useful as good depigmentation agentswith inhibitory effects in addition to their antioxidant properties.

  17. 38 CFR 6.7 - Claims of creditors, taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of benefits payable to any beneficiary under a United States Government life insurance policy do not... STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Beneficiary of United States Government Life Insurance § 6.7 Claims of... States Government life insurance policy shall be subject to levy for taxes due the United States by...

  18. 47 CFR 6.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 6... Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 6.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a... identify barriers to accessibility and usability as part of such a product design and development...

  19. Singapore Language Enhancer: Identity Included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Desmond

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the rhetoric of the four official languages (English, Mandarin, Malay and Tamil) in Singapore and the domestic aversion towards Chinese "dialects" and colloquial "Singlish". The "Speak Mandarin Campaign" alongside the "Speak Good English Movement" represent a display of intercultural…

  20. Disability in Singapore's Elderly Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Mithila; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Picco, Louisa; Jeyagurunathan, Anita; Shafie, Saleha Binte; Pang, Shirlene; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Seow, Esmond; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-07-01

    Disability increases an individual's dependence and negatively impacts their physical, mental, and social functioning. The current study aims to establish the prevalence and risk factors of disability in Singapore's population. Data was extracted from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly (WiSE) study. This cross-sectional study recruited participants aged 60 years and above (n = 2421) who were representative of Singapore's multiethnic population. We used the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0 to assess the severity of disability in our sample while establishing its associations and correlations with cognitive levels, sociodemographic variables, and chronic illness. Cognitive deficits, old age, female gender, Malay and Indian ethnicity, lack of education, retired or homemaker status, presence of chronic illness (specifically stroke, heart problems, depression, and dementia) were found to be significantly associated with disability in Singapore's elderly population. As hypothesised, participants with deficits in cognition were more likely to indicate higher WHODAS scores. The findings highlighted specific factors associated with disability in this multiethnic population. The identification of these factors would lead the way to the development of appropriate interventions.

  1. Continuum emission associated with 6.7-GHz methanol masers

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P; McCulloch, P M

    1995-01-01

    We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to search for continuum emission toward three strong 6.7-GHz methanol maser sources. For two of the sources, G339.88-1.26 and NGC 6334F (G351.42+0.64), we detect continuum emission closely associated with the methanol masers. A further three clusters of masers showed no radio continuum emission above our sensitivity limit of 1-5 mJy. We find the position of the 6.7-GHz methanol masers in G339.88-1.26 to be consistent with the hypothesis that the masers lie in the circumstellar disc surrounding a massive star. We also argue that one of the clusters of methanol masers in NGC 6334F provides indirect observational support for the circumstellar disc hypothesis.

  2. LHC sector 6-7 magnet training 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    On 31 october 2014, the LHC operations team carried out the first magnet traing for the LHC after LS1. A current of 9779 ampères (corresponding to a magnet energy of 5.8 Tev) was reached for sector 6-7 before the magnet quench. The footage includes comments by LHC Engineer In Charge Kajetan Furschberger and and LHC Operations team leader Mirko Pojer.

  3. Cost of solving mysteries of universe: $6.7 billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    "An international consortium of physicists on Thursday released the first detailed design of what they believe will be the next big thing in physics. The machine, 20 miles long, will slam together electrons and their opposites, positrons, to produce fireballs of energy re-creating conditions when the universe was only a trillionth of a second old. It would cost about $6.7 billion." (1 page)

  4. Station characteristics of the Singapore Infrasound Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, Anna; Taisne, Benoit; Caudron, Corentin; Garces, Milton; Avila Encillo, Jeffrey; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon

    2016-04-01

    Singapore, located in Southeast Asia, presents an ideal location for an additional regional infrasound array, with diverse persistent natural and anthropogenic regional infrasound sources, including ~750 active or potentially active volcanoes within 4,000 kilometers. Previous studies have focused on theoretical and calculated regional signal detection capability improvement with the addition of a Singapore array. The Earth Observatory of Singapore installed a five element infrasound array in northcentral Singapore in late 2014, and this station began consistent real-time data transmission mid-2015. The Singapore array uses MB2005s microbarometers and Nanometrics Taurus digitizers. Automated array processing is carried out with the INFrasonic EneRgy Nth Octave (INFERNO) energy estimation suite, and PMCC (Progressive MultiChannel Correlation). The addition of the Singapore infrasound array to the existing International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in the region has increased regional infrasound detection capability, which is illustrated with the preliminary work on three observed meteor events of various sizes in late 2015. A meteor observed in Bangkok, Thailand in early September, 2015 was picked up by the CTBTO, however, another meteor observed in Bangkok in November was only recorded on the Singapore array. Additionally, another meteor observed over Sumatra was only recorded by one IMS station and the Singapore array. This study uses array processing and Power Spectral Density results for both the Singapore and publicly available regional IMS stations to examine station characteristics and detection capability of the Singapore array in the context of the regional IMS network.

  5. AGR-5/6/7 Irradiation Test Predictions using PARFUME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skerjanc, William F.

    2017-09-14

    PARFUME, (PARticle FUel ModEl) a fuel performance modeling code used for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), was used to model the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-5/6/7 irradiation test using predicted physics and thermal hydraulics data. The AGR-5/6/7 test consists of the combined fifth, sixth, and seventh planned irradiations of the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The AGR-5/6/7 test train is a multi-capsule, instrumented experiment that is designed for irradiation in the 133.4-mm diameter north east flux trap (NEFT) position of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Each capsule contains compacts filled with uranium oxycarbide (UCO) unaltered fuel particles. This report documents the calculations performed to predict the failure probability of tristructural isotropic (TRISO)-coated fuel particles during the AGR-5/6/7 experiment. In addition, this report documents the calculated source term from the driver fuel. The calculations include modeling of the AGR-5/6/7 irradiation that is scheduled to occur from October 2017 to April 2021 over a total of 13 ATR cycles, including nine normal cycles and four Power Axial Locator Mechanism (PALM) cycle for a total between 500 – 550 effective full power days (EFPD). The irradiation conditions and material properties of the AGR-5/6/7 test predicted zero fuel particle failures in Capsules 1, 2, and 4. Fuel particle failures were predicted in Capsule 3 due to internal particle pressure. These failures were predicted in the highest temperature compacts. Capsule 5 fuel particle failures were due to inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) cracking causing localized stresses concentrations in the SiC layer. This capsule predicted the highest particle failures due to the lower irradiation temperature. In addition, shrinkage of the buffer and IPyC layer during irradiation resulted in formation of a buffer-IPyC gap. The two capsules at the two ends of the test train, Capsules 1 and 5 experienced the smallest buffer-IPyC gap

  6. Area Handbook Series: Singapore: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    strengthen the cultural ties of the Singapore Chinese to China by establishing a cultural club, a debating society, Singapore’s first Chinese-language...break up ethnic en- claves and resettle kampong dwellers in Housing and Development Board apartment complexes had a great effect on the Malays. Evi- dence...for Communications and Information 201 Singapore: A Country Study ineffective in the 1980s. The major issues were economic, involv- ing debate over the

  7. The Fresh-water Fishes of Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfred, E.R.

    1966-01-01

    CONTENTS Page Introduction 5 Materials................... 6 The environment................. 7 Ichthyological literature of Singapore........... 9 Aquarium fishes................. io Pond culture fishes................ n Introduced species................. 12 Acknowledgements................ 13 Syst

  8. Statistical Properties of 6.7 GHz Methanol Maser Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of 482 6.7 GHz methanol maser sourcesfrom the available literature, on their maser emission and the characteristics oftheir associated infrared sources. On the color-color diagram, more than 70% ofthe objects fall within a very small region (0.57 ≤ [25 - 12] ≤ 1.30 and 1.30 ≤[60 - 12] ≤ 2.50). This suggests that 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission occurs onlywithin a very short evolutionary phase during the earliest stage of star formation.The velocity ranges of the masers belong to two main groups: one from 1 to 10km s-1, and one from about 11 to 20 km s-1. These velocity ranges indicate thatthe masers are probably associated with both disks and outflows. The correlationsbetween the maser and infrared flux densities, and between the maser and infraredluminosities, suggest that far-infrared radiation is a possible pumping mechanismfor the masers which most probably originate from some outer molecular envelopesor disks.

  9. The Asian Values in Singapore`s Context of Use. The Curbsides of the Singapore`s Model of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Berna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Out of a sense of nationhood or out of mere circumstantial and specific relatings to a national context, it is altogether visible that anti-universalist debate is making headway in international relations, in cultural studies and in the political science, if we are to classify a broader consultation of events.This article is aimed at presenting how the Western ideas can be seen, in examination, as artificial structures, in the national context of Asia. The Asian Values are a very interesting evaluative specimen of the anti-universalist orations. In the case of many Asian states, they created settled forms of government, having an especial adaptation with the originating incidents that were their birthplace. With the inward of these units of contextualization, we will turn to the conferral of the Singapore democracy model and to its germane bloc and bond with the Asian Values. We will interrelate a personal conspectus regarding the correctness of the seal of fastening between the Asian Values and Singapore`s democracy model.

  10. Intrauterine devices in Singapore today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, T G; Ratnam, S S

    1984-01-01

    The IUD has been selected by less than 1% of contraceptive users in Singapore in the past 15 years, largely because of concerns about uterine perforation and a lack of professional training in insertion techniques. However, increased public awareness of the possible complications of oral contraceptives has led to an interest in the IUD as a family planning method and the Singapore Family Planning and Population Board has introduced the Multiload Cu 250 device at its clinic. The IUD is now considered a feasible method of contraception for women in Singapore, many of whom achieve their ideal family size of 2 children between the ages of 20-25 years. Successful use of the IUD is dependent upon placement of the device at the top of the uterine cavity by an experienced physician. All devices should be changed after 4 years to reduce the risk of complications. The newer IUDs have many advantages over inert and early copper-bearing IUDs in terms of safety and efficacy.

  11. Two of Singapore`s refiners expand despite lack of land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-08-14

    With 1.1 million b/d of refining capacity, Singapore is the world`s third largest concentrated refining center, trailing only the US Gulf Coast and Rotterdam areas. But space on the island is limited and land is expensive. Despite these restrictions, two of Singapore`s major refiners have found ways to expand their operations. Singapore Refining Co. Pte. Ltd. (SRC) is completing a major expansion project, set to come on stream this fall. And Mobil Oil Singapore Pte. Ltd. brought on stream a new UOP continuous catalytic reformer (CCR) and aromatics complex in January 1994. Both projects are described.

  12. Children's Rights: Television Programmes Aired in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Sheela; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its…

  13. Diglossia and Register Variation in Singapore English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiming, Bao; Huaqing, Hong

    2006-01-01

    Colloquial Singapore English is an outer circle variety that exhibits contact induced linguistic change. It has been characterized as the L variant in diglossic opposition to standard English. In this paper, the authors address two related issues: (1) the extent to which the Singapore English diglossia is supported by corpus data, and (2) the…

  14. Mother Tongues, English, and Religion in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Viniti

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of the effect of religion on language use in Singapore. Data come from the Sociolinguistic Survey of Singapore, 2006, a large-scale language survey linked to follow-up studies. The conceptual framework was based upon Castells' idea of a new social order in the network society; the main research questions were…

  15. Children's Rights: Television Programmes Aired in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Sheela; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its…

  16. Sorting Citizens: Differentiated Citizenship Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Li-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Using Singapore as a case study, this paper examines how the discourses of democratic elitism and meritocracy help allocate different citizen roles to students and define the nature of the social studies citizenship education programmes for different educational tracks. While the Singapore education system is not unique in its stratification of…

  17. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  18. Teacher Perceptions of Games in Singapore Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Elizabeth; Kin, Yeo Gee; Wadhwa, Bimlesh; Lim, John

    2012-01-01

    With the proliferation of entertainment games, supported by heavy investment in the underlying technologies, educators are now examining the educational values of gaming and attempting to incorporate games into their teaching. In Singapore, the game sector is worth many million Singapore dollars (SGDs), and gaming is an engaging activity of the…

  19. Singapore's Global Schoolhouse Strategy: Retreat or Recalibration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In 2002 a high-level economic review committee recommended that Singapore position itself as a "global schoolhouse". An ambitious target was set to attract 150,000 international students to Singapore by 2015 and to lift the education sector's contribution to GDP from 1.9% to 5% in the same timeframe. The global schoolhouse was viewed as…

  20. Integration of ICT into Education in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Horn Mun; Koh, Thiam Seng

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Singapore's use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to enhance its economic competitiveness and quality of life in the knowledge-based economy, describing the IT Masterplan in education; Singapore's education system; integration of ICT in primary through university education; preparing teachers for the ICT environment;…

  1. Japan og Singapore i Arktis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki; Watters, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    are interested in the Arctic. Looking at the Arctic engagement of Japan and Singapore, this paper finds that their interest in the Polar Regions is not necessarily a new phenomenon and that Arctic policy, as with the development of other foreign policy objectives, is a complex mix of national, bureaucratic...... and group interests. For Greenlandic and Danish policymakers, it may be useful to understand the genesis of Japan and Singapore’s Arctic policies and that their interest is complex and multi-faceted....

  2. The Singapore general election 1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinshan; Elklit, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The parliamentary eklection in singapore in January 1997 is examined, as is the particular electoral system ('the party block vote') which is found to be a central element in the electoral strategy of the ruling party, PAP. the functioning of this rare electoral system is, however, only one eleme...... in explaining how PAP has been able to win comfortable majorities in the House. The analysis contributes to the understandi9ng of how a semi-democratic regime can stay in power. The political and electoral process in relation to the 1997 election is also analysed...

  3. Exploring contributions from incomplete fusion in $^{6,7}$Li+$^{209}$Bi and $^{6,7}$Li+$^{198}$Pt reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Parkar, V V; Kailas, S

    2016-01-01

    We use the breakup absorption model to simultaneously describe the measured cross-sections of the Complete fusion (CF), Incomplete fusion (ICF), and Total fusion (TF) in nuclear reactions induced by weakly bound nuclei $^{6,7}$Li on $^{209}$Bi and $^{198}$Pt targets. The absorption cross-sections are calculated using the Continuum Discretized Coupled Channels (CDCC) method with different choices of short range imaginary potentials to get the ICF, CF and TF cross-sections. It is observed that the cross-sections for deuteron-ICF/deuteron-capture are of similar magnitude as the $\\alpha$-ICF/$\\alpha$-capture, in case of $^{6}$Li projectile, while the cross-sections for triton-ICF/triton-capture is more dominant than $\\alpha$-ICF/$\\alpha$-capture in case of $^{7}$Li projectile. Both these observations are also corroborated by the experimental data. The ratio of ICF to TF cross-sections, which defines the value of fusion suppression factor is found to be in agreement with the data available from the literature. The...

  4. The Melithaeidae (Coelenterata: Octocorallia) of Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ofwegen, van L.P.; Goh, N.K.C.; Chou, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    Four species of Melithaeidae from Singapore waters are described and depicted: Melithaea ochracea (Linnaeus, 1758), Mopsella rubeola (Wright & Studer, 1889), M. retifera (Lamarck, 1816), and Acabaria robusta (Shann, 1912). Variation and synonymy are discussed.

  5. The evolution of sports medicine in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Benedict

    2013-10-01

    Sports medicine is a relatively new subspecialty in Singapore. This commentary chronicles its evolution in Singapore from 1969, through various milestones, to the present day. The first sports medicine clinic in Singapore was established in 1971 at Farrer Park. Notable institutions that followed include the Sports Medicine and Research Centre (1973), Soldier Performance Centre, Changi Sports Medicine Centre (2003), Singapore Sports Medicine Centre (2006), and other multidisciplinary centres of restructured hospitals. Formal groundwork to establish sports medicine as a subspecialty began in 2005, with its first trainee commencing traineeship at the Changi Sports Medicine Centre in 2007, and culminated in the subspecialty register at the beginning of 2011. Also captured in this discussion are the broader scopes of sports medicine, including military sports medicine, the sports sciences, exercise medicine, and event medical coverage.

  6. Udvikling. Singapores store væksteventyr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik; Fleming, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The economic development of Singapore has been a success story. The analysis examines the main actors in this development and raises the question whether the country can take the next step to become a smart nation.......The economic development of Singapore has been a success story. The analysis examines the main actors in this development and raises the question whether the country can take the next step to become a smart nation....

  7. Singapore-US Strategic Dialogue on Biosecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    infectious disease outbreaks with epidemic potential, as Singapore is an island with heavy, daily traffic as a result of trade, tourism , and workers...geography—Singapore is an island with heavy, daily traffic as a result of trade, tourism , and workers from Indonesia and Malaysia. The American...underscoring teamwork among scientists as a major driving force behind innovation. Participants discussed issues surrounding the “ dark side” of the

  8. The Singapore Global Schoolhouse: An Analysis of the Development of the Tertiary Education Landscape in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pak Tee; Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to analyse the Singapore government's recent attempt to make Singapore a "Global Schoolhouse" by transforming its tertiary education sector. It aims to examine the government's attempt to promote greater diversity and autonomy in the tertiary education landscape; it also aims to examine the government's systems…

  9. Singapore Airlines and South African Airways Sign Codeshare Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ From 15 September 2006, Singapore Airlines' customers will be able to travel to more destinations in South Africa thanks to a new codeshare agreement signed by Singapore Airlines and South African Airways (SAA).

  10. China-ASEAN Association Entrepreneur Council Member Delegation in Singapore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The China-ASEAN Association Entrepreneur Council Member Delegation, comprising ten people, visited Singapore from February 22 to March 1, 2009 at the invitation of the Singapore-China Friendship Association. During the visit, members of the

  11. The effects of oligomerization on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm4/6/7 function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davey Megan J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minichromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are related by sequence and form a variety of complexes that unwind DNA, including Mcm4/6/7. A Mcm4/6/7 trimer forms one half of the Mcm2-7 hexameric ring and can be thought of as the catalytic core of Mcm2-7, the replicative helicase in eukaryotic cells. Oligomeric analysis of Mcm4/6/7 suggests that it forms a hexamer containing two Mcm4/6/7 trimers, however, under certain conditions trimeric Mcm4/6/7 has also been observed. The functional significance of the different Mcm4/6/7 oligomeric states has not been assessed. The results of such an assessment would have implications for studies of both Mcm4/6/7 and Mcm2-7. Results Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm4/6/7 reconstituted from individual subunits exists in an equilibrium of oligomeric forms in which smaller oligomers predominate in the absence of ATP. In addition, we found that ATP, which is required for Mcm4/6/7 activity, shifts the equilibrium towards larger oligomers, likely hexamers of Mcm4/6/7. ATPγS and to a lesser extent ADP also shift the equilibrium towards hexamers. Study of Mcm4/6/7 complexes containing mutations that interfere with the formation of inter-subunit ATP sites (arginine finger mutants indicates that full activity of Mcm4/6/7 requires all of its ATP sites, which are formed in a hexamer and not a trimer. In keeping with this observation, Mcm4/6/7 binds DNA as a hexamer. Conclusions The minimal functional unit of Mcm4/6/7 is a hexamer. One of the roles of ATP binding by Mcm4/6/7 may be to stabilize formation of hexamers.

  12. Breast cancer in Singapore: some perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Lazaro, Ana Richelia; Thilagaratnam, Shyamala; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy among Singapore women, accounting for 29.7% of all female cancers, with an age-standardized rate of 54.9 per 100,000 per year. It has been the most frequent cancer in Singapore women for the last 30 years, with the highest rates previously reported in those aged between 45 and 49 years, but with a more recent observation of a change in peak age group to women in their late 50s. About 1,100 new cases are diagnosed annually and approximately 270 women die in Singapore each year from breast cancer. In the multiethnic population of Singapore, it has been noted that rising breast cancer incidence is consistent across all three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Indians). Singapore has among the highest breast cancer incidence in Asia. Possible explanations include rapid urbanization, improvement in socio-economic status, and adoption of a western lifestyle. Our experience with the Singapore breast screening pilot project (1994-1997) and the national breast-screening program (BreastScreen Singapore) has led to increased understanding of this disease in the country. Data from the pilot project showed that breast screening is just as effective in a predominantly Asian population as in the west. Early breast cancer accounted for most breast cancers detected, with pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) comprising 26% of all screen-detected cancers in the pilot study. In the currently on-going BreastScreen Singapore, DCIS forms >30% of all breast cancers among pre-menopausal women, a relatively high proportion probably accounted for partially by the greater participation of women aged between 40 and 49 years. Despite the ready availability of subsidized mammographic screening, there are still women in Singapore who present with locally advanced breast cancer. Clinical management of an increasing number of women with breast cancer embraces a multidisciplinary team-based approach, with regular discussions of therapeutic

  13. 76 FR 60100 - The Singapore Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... COMMISSION The Singapore Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application September 22, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). Applicant: The Singapore Fund, Inc. (the ``Fund''). ACTION: Notice of... objective is to seek long-term capital appreciation through investment primarily in Singapore...

  14. Mother Tongue Education in Singapore: Concerns, Issues and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In 1966, the Singapore Government implemented the English-knowing bilingual policy which made it mandatory for all Chinese students to study English as a "First Language" and the Chinese language (CL) as a "Mother Tongue Language" in Singapore schools. Using key literature relevant to Singapore's bilingual educational policy…

  15. Moving towards Quality Physical Education: Physical Education Provision in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Michael; Lim, Boon San Coral; Wang, Chee Keng John; Tan, Wee Keat Clara; MacPhail, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the provision of physical education (PE) in Singapore. Singapore is a small island city state of approximately 699 square kilometres with a population of about 4 million people. This article aims to highlight the current status of PE in Singapore schools and compare it against suggested international standards and…

  16. Mother Tongue Education in Singapore: Concerns, Issues and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In 1966, the Singapore Government implemented the English-knowing bilingual policy which made it mandatory for all Chinese students to study English as a "First Language" and the Chinese language (CL) as a "Mother Tongue Language" in Singapore schools. Using key literature relevant to Singapore's bilingual educational…

  17. National Cancer Center Singapore: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Melissa; Soo, Khee Chee

    2016-02-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in Singapore, comprising almost 30% of annual deaths. The incidence and prevalence continue to rise, resulting in Singapore having the highest age-standardized rate of cancer in southeast Asia. A review of national health policies in 1992 resulted in the creation of a National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS) in 1999. The current NCCS, with its three pillars of clinical service, research and education, manages about 70% of all new cancer cases in the countries public healthcare system. As it outgrows its current outfit and looks to the new NCCS building in 2020, the goal must be for strategic planning to attract and retain the best minds and heart in the field of cancer if it were to continue to be successful in achieving its vision and mission. This article chronicles the NCCS's history and details the foundation of its strategic plans.

  18. GOVERNANCE AND ECONOMIC CHANGE IN SINGAPORE

    OpenAIRE

    SOO ANN LEE

    2015-01-01

    The Singapore economy went through several changes due to changes in its mode of governance from being a trading outpost of the East India Company (EIC) to being part of the colony of the Straits Settlements, and more recently to being a British colony by itself, then to being part of Malaysia and now an independent republic. These modes of governance enabled the economy to grow until Singapore became more important and also more closely linked to the outside world. British rule, British capi...

  19. Heterocyclic analogs of pleiadiene. 58. Thiocyanogenation of permidones. Synthesis of perimidone-6,7-disulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanova, V.N.; Konstantinchenko, A.A.; Pozharskii, A.F.

    1986-05-01

    The thiocyanogenation of 1,3-disubstituted perimidones gives good yields of their 6(7)-monothiocyano and 3,6-dithiocyano derivatives. Alkaline hydrolysis of these derivatives leads to the formation of the corresponding disulfides. The reduction of 1,3-dimethylperimidone-6,7-disulfide is accompanied by the destruction of the disulfide bridge and may be used for the synthesis of 6,7-dialkylmercaptoperimidones.

  20. Tropical urban lichens: observations from Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipman, H.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The known lichen diversity of Singapore, 296 species, is comparable with temperate lowland areas, but the taxa involved are different, even at high taxonomic levels: the commonest orders are Arthoniales and Graphidales instead of Lecanorales. Epiphytic species dominate, while saxicolous and terrestr

  1. Language Shift in a Singapore Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anthea Fraser; Yeok, Siew Pui

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the major language shift in Singapore from the familial use of varieties of Chinese other than Mandarin towards the languages of education, English and Mandarin. An ethnographic study is presented of a Singaporean Chinese family that has moved from Cantonese to English, and the underlying pressures leading to this shift are examined. (19…

  2. Television Ads in Singapore: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sharaf N.; Aw, Annette; Kennan, William

    1999-01-01

    Appraises the information content of Singapore television advertising, and makes a comparison with relevant United States findings. Research reported in this paper is a replication of two empirical studies of the informational content of television advertising in the United States from 1977. (Author/LRW)

  3. Teachers' Experience with Inclusive Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lay See; Chong, Wan Har; Neihart, Maureen F.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' positive attitude is most critically and consistently associated with successful inclusion. However, little is known about teachers' first-hand encounters with inclusive education in Singapore. We present findings from a qualitative study on inclusion based on focus group interviews with 202 teachers from 41 resourced primary schools.…

  4. Education and Intergenerational Mobility in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Irene Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    International research on the effects of educational regimes on intergenerational mobility suggests that Singapore's education system possesses characteristics that tend to decrease intergenerational mobility. These characteristics include ability-based and school-based streaming, privatization of basic and tertiary education, expansion of…

  5. Listening to Estuary English in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deterding, David

    2005-01-01

    In Singapore, many people are not familiar with Estuary English (EE), the variety of English becoming popular in much of southern England. In the current study, when students listened to interviews with EE speakers and were asked to transcribe orthographically what they heard, most of them had severe problems. Features of pronunciation that…

  6. Physical Education and Health in Singapore Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Michael C.; Fry, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    As a school subject, physical education (PE) in Singapore took on its own shape with the introduction of a conceptual games teaching approach in response to the national government's "Thinking Schools, Learning Nation" policy of the late 1990s. With the recent media attention on hosting two main international events (Asian Youth Games and the…

  7. Multilingualism and Social Identity in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the results of a questionnaire designed to determine how multilingual speakers in the Singapore context express their social identities through language; how they relate to their languages; and how they perceive the various English accents to which they are exposed. (34 references) (VWL)

  8. Singapore Students' Misconceptions of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chew-Hung; Pascua, Liberty

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is an important theme in the investigation of human-environment interactions in geographic education. This study explored the nature of students' understanding of concepts and processes related to climate change. Through semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 27 Secondary 3 (Grade 9) students from Singapore. The data…

  9. Distributed Leadership for ICT Reform in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…

  10. Singapore Airlines A380 Takes Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The first A380 aircraft that will be delivered to launch customer Singapore Airlines embarked on its maiden test flight on May 7, 2006. This aircraft will be the world's first A380 to enter commercial service at the end of the year.

  11. Stakeholders' Perceptions of School Counselling in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Poi Kee

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study that set out to understand stakeholders' perception of the school counselling service in Singapore. Using semi-structured interviews, this study explored the perceptions of three main stakeholder groups, namely teachers and counsellors working within the schools and those working in the communities.…

  12. Distributed Leadership for ICT Reform in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…

  13. Education and Intergenerational Mobility in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Irene Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    International research on the effects of educational regimes on intergenerational mobility suggests that Singapore's education system possesses characteristics that tend to decrease intergenerational mobility. These characteristics include ability-based and school-based streaming, privatization of basic and tertiary education, expansion of…

  14. Environmental concerns and diet in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Jeitner, Chris; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-08-01

    Many factors affect how people perceive the world and their environment, and how such perceptions affect lifestyle decisions, yet the relationship between personal perceptions about environmental hazards and diet is rarely examined. In this study, environmental concerns on a local and global scale were examined, along with dietary patterns, to determine if there were associations and age-related differences. The hypothesis that concerns about water pollution might be reflected in choices about seafood consumption was examined. Many aspects of dietary choices varied significantly by age, including (1) younger people ate more "fast food" than others, (2) subjects aged 22-32 yr ate more meals in restaurants than older or younger people, (3) older individuals drank more tea than younger subjects, while younger people drank more soda than older people, and (4) there were few significant differences in total fish and shellfish meals, although young people ate more meals of other types of meat. Individuals who rated their health the best reported significantly fewer seafood meals than others. People who listed pollution as the major environmental problem did not consume seafood less often than others. While pollution was listed as the most important environmental problem globally, people distinguished between air and water pollution only for Singapore. Although Singapore, with its rapidly expanding economy, has reason to be concerned about both water and air pollution, only 14% of those listing pollution as the main Singapore environmental problem mentioned "water pollution." Singapore has been able to take measures to reduce water pollution from internal sources. Respondents considered air pollution a greater problem, perhaps reflecting recent haze disasters from deliberately set forest fires in Indonesia, which are beyond the direct control of Singapore or Singaporeans.

  15. 3-Methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothiophene-2-carboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendiran Nagappan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 3-Methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothiophene-2-carboxylic acid was synthesized chemoselectively from 3-formyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothiophene-2-carboxylic acid, using Et3SiH/I2 as a reducing agent. The title compound was characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and LCMS.

  16. Class II 6.7 GHz Methanol Maser Association with Young Massive Cores Revealed by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibueze, James O.; Csengeri, Timea; Tatematsu, Ken’ichi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Iguchi, Satoru; Alhassan, Jibrin A.; Higuchi, Aya E.; Bontemps, Sylvain; Menten, Karl M.

    2017-02-01

    We explored the implication of the association (or lack of it) of 6.7 GHz class II methanol (CH3OH) masers with massive dense cores (MDCs) detected (within a sample of ATLASGAL selected infrared quiet massive clumps) at 0.9 mm with Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter array. We found 42 out of the 112 cores (37.5%) detected with the Atacama Compact Array (ACA) to be associated with 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers. The lowest mass core with CH3OH maser association is ∼ 12 {M}ȯ . The angular offsets of the ACA cores from the 6.7 GHz CH3OH maser peak positions range from 0.″17 to 4.″79, with a median value of 2.″19. We found a weak correlation between the 0.9 mm continuum (MDCs) peak fluxes and the peak fluxes of their associated methanol multibeam (MMB) 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers. About 90% of the cores associated with 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers have masses of >40 M ⊙. The CH3OH maser containing cores are candidates for embedded high-mass protostellar objects in their earliest evolutionary stages. With our ACA 0.9 continuum data compared with the MMB 6.7 GHz CH3OH maser survey, we have constrained the cores already housing massive protostars based on their association with the radiatively pumped 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers.

  17. China in International Institutions: Challenges and Opportunities for Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    could influence its diplomatic and economic objectives. Chapter 3 explains the two- stage methodology of analysis. Chapter 4 examines the primary...Singapore into a key node in the globalised economy; (2) to develop a creative and entrepreneurial culture for an innovation-driven economy in Singapore...that Singapore was now at an advanced stage of economic development and could not compete solely on the cost of production. As a vision for

  18. Singapore experience: Creation of a world level education system

    OpenAIRE

    Timirkhan Alishev; Albert Gilmutdinov

    2010-01-01

    The Singapore education system was created nearly from the scratch, and in the last 45 years it managed to reach a high level of efficiency and international recognition. Singapore school students routinely show the best results in international knowledge tests. Singapore has left behind developed countries in the quality of the education institution development, its educational infrastructure is compact and well integrated into the overall economic structure. The article summarizes the findi...

  19. Microplastics in Singapore's coastal mangrove ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Nur Hazimah Mohamed; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2014-02-15

    The prevalence of microplastics was studied in seven intertidal mangroves habitats of Singapore. Microplastics were extracted from mangrove sediments via a floatation method, and then counted and categorized according to particle shape and size. Representative microplastics from Berlayar Creek, Sungei Buloh, Pasir Ris and Lim Chu Kang were isolated for polymer identification using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Microplastics were identified in all seven habitats, with the highest concentration found in sediments at Lim Chu Kang in the northwest of Singapore. The majority of microplastics were fibrous and smaller than 20 μm. A total of four polymer types were identified, including polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon and polyvinyl chloride. The relationship between abundance of microplastics and sediment grain size was also investigated, but no relationship was apparent. The presence of microplastics is likely due to the degradation of marine plastic debris accumulating in the mangroves.

  20. PRESS FREEDOM IN SINGAPORE AND MALAYSIA: DEFAMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Kate Chapman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the arguments around restriction on freedom of the press in the Strong States of Singapore and Malaysia. It assesses the presence of constraints on press freedoms in democratic western countries imposed by corporation rather than state and the similar effects that these constraints may have on bias present in publicly accessible news reporting. It argues that independence of the press does not just require protection from legal and executive regulation, but also protection from large media corporations and their political alignments. This report will assess the bias of reporting and news media publication that exists in Malaysia and Singapore due to legislative and regulatory constraints as opposed to bias that exist in the western liberal democratic nations of the United Kingdom (UK and the United States of America (USA due to Media Organisation control.

  1. Singapore Technologies Electronics——Committed to Growth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ About STElectronics Headquartered in Singapore, ST Electronics has almost 40 years of experience providing electronics, communications and ICT (information communications technologies) solutions to governments and commercial enterprises worldwide.

  2. Reframing Singapore : Memory - Identity - Trans-Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Table of contents: 1 Introduction / Syed Muhd Khairudin Aljunied and Derek Heng REFRAMING THE HISTORICAL NARRATIVE 2 From Political Rhetoric to National History: Bi-Culturalism and Hybridisation in the Construction of Singapore’s Historical Narrative / Derek Heng Thiam Soon 3 Gateway and Panopticon: Singapore and Surviving Regime Change in the Nineteenth-Century Malay World / Koh Keng We 4 Beyond the Rhetoric of Communalism: Violence and the Process of Reconciliation in 1950s S...

  3. Occupational rehabilitation in Singapore and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kay-Fei; Tan, Charlie W C; Yeo, Doreen S C; Tan, Heidi S K; Tan, F L; Tan, E W; Szeto, Grace P Y; Cheng, Andy S K

    2011-03-01

    Asia is the new and favored magnet of economic attention and foreign investments after it made an almost uneventful rebound from the depths of financial crisis of 2008/2009. Not many Western observers fully understand the diversity that is Asia other than perhaps its 2 growing economic giants of China and India. Indeed many smaller countries like Singapore and Malaysia in South East Asia along with Australia and Hong Kong (a Special Administrative Region within China) look to symbiotic relationships with these two economic giants. The purpose of this discussion paper is to examine the current issues related to the development and provision of occupational rehabilitation services in Singapore and Malaysia with a forward-looking view of how Asia's different developing societies could potentially benefit from better alignment of occupational rehabilitation practices and sharing of expertise through international collaboration and dialogue platforms. Seven therapists and one physician who are frequently involved in occupational rehabilitation services in their home countries critically reviewed the current issues in Singapore and Malaysia which included analysis of the prevalence and cost of occupational injury; overview of workers' compensation system; current practices, obstacles, and challenges in providing occupational rehabilitation and return to work practices. They also offered opinions about how to improve the occupational rehabilitation programs of their two home countries. Even though Malaysia and Singapore are two different countries, in many ways their current provision of occupational rehabilitation services and the problems they face with are very similar. There is a lot of room for systemic improvements that require government support and action. Most prominently, the training of more healthcare professionals in the assessment and rehabilitation of the injured worker should be encouraged. There could be better liaison between the many stakeholders and

  4. PRESS FREEDOM IN SINGAPORE AND MALAYSIA: DEFAMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Georgia Kate Chapman

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the arguments around restriction on freedom of the press in the Strong States of Singapore and Malaysia. It assesses the presence of constraints on press freedoms in democratic western countries imposed by corporation rather than state and the similar effects that these constraints may have on bias present in publicly accessible news reporting. It argues that independence of the press does not just require protection from legal and executive regulation, but also protecti...

  5. Crystal structures of 2,3,6,7,10,11-oxytriphenylenes. Implications for columnar discotic mesophases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, T.L.; Krebs, Frederik C; Thorup, Niels;

    2000-01-01

    in the aim that a detailed structural knowledge of the discotic premesogens could be used to infer detailed structural knowledge with respect to known liquid crystal mesogens where little detailed structural knowledge is available. It was found that the crystal structures of the discotic premesogens were......The structures of the oxysubstituted triphenylene premesogens, 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexahydroxy-triphenylene (4), 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexamethoxytriphenylene (5), 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaethoxytriphenylene (6), and 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexapropoxytriphenylene (7) were determined, and the structural results were investigated...... very different from the structures expected for discotic columnar behavior. These differences allowed us to shed some light on the structural forces that gives rise to the mesophasic behavior observed in such systems as being not due to stacking of the planar aromatic core as inferred hitherto...

  6. A New 6,7-Seco-Ent-Kaurane Diterpenoid from Isodon eriocalyx Var. laxiflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new 6,7-seco-ent-kaurane diterpenoid, together with two known ones, was isolated from the leaves of Isodon eriocalyx var. laxiflora C. Y. Wu & H. W. Li. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods.

  7. Prevalence of Cataract Surgery and Visual Outcomes in Indian Immigrants in Singapore: The Singapore Indian Eye Study

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Gupta; Yingfeng Zheng; Tay Wan Ting; Ecosse L Lamoureux; Ching-Yu Cheng; Tien-Yin Wong

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of cataract surgery and factors associated with post-surgical visual outcomes in migrant Indians living in Singapore. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a population-based study in 3,400 Indian immigrants residing in Singapore-the Singapore Indian Eye Study (SINDI). All participants underwent comprehensive medical eye examination and a standardized interview. Post-operative visual impairment (VI) was defined as best-corrected or presenting visual ...

  8. The fast-running flies (Diptera, Hybotidae, Tachydromiinae of Singapore and adjacent regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Grootaert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first comprehensive introduction to the flies of the subfamily Tachydromiinae (Hybotidae of Singapore. The monograph summarizes all publications on the Tachydromiinae of Singapore and includes new data resulting from mass-trapping surveys made in Singapore during the last six years. A few samples from Malaysia (Johor province, Pulau Tioman and Langkawi have been also included in this study. In Singapore the Tachydromiinae are the most diverse group of Empidoidea (except Dolichopodidae and currently comprise 85 species belonging to the following nine genera: Platypalpus (1, Tachydromia (1, Chersodromia (6, Pontodromia (1, Drapetis (5, Elaphropeza (60, Crossopalpus (1, Nanodromia (3 and Stilpon (7. All species are diagnosed and illustrated. The following 28 species are described as new for science: Chersodromia bulohensis sp. nov. (Singapore, C. glandula sp. nov. (Singapore, Malaysia, C. malaysiana sp. nov. (Singapore, Malaysia, C. pasir sp. nov. (Malaysia, C. sylvicola sp. nov. (Singapore, C. tiomanensis sp. nov. (Malaysia, Crossopalpus temasek sp. nov. (Singapore, Drapetis bakau sp. nov. (Singapore, Malaysia, D. hutan sp. nov. (Singapore, D. laut sp. nov. (Singapore, Malaysia, D. mandai sp. nov. (Singapore, D. pantai sp. nov. (Singapore, Malaysia, Elaphropeza chanae sp. nov. (Singapore, E. collini sp. nov. (Singapore, E. gohae sp. nov. (Singapore, E. kranjiensis sp. nov. (Singapore, E. lowi sp. nov. (Singapore, E. semakau sp. nov. (Singapore, E. shufenae sp. nov. (Singapore, Nanodromia hutan sp. nov. (Singapore, N. spinulosa sp. nov. (Singapore, Platypalpus singaporensis sp. nov. (Singapore, Pontodromia pantai sp. nov. (Singapore, Stilpon arcuatum sp. nov. (Singapore, S. neesoonensis sp. nov. (Singapore, S. nigripennis sp. nov. (Singapore, S. singaporensis sp. nov. (Singapore, S. weilingae sp. nov. (Singapore. A redescription is given for Crossopalpus exul (Osten-Sacken, 1882 (Taiwan. Males of Elaphropeza feminata Shamshev

  9. Mathematical Modelling for Singapore Primary Classrooms: From a Teacher's Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Cynthia; Magdalene, Thomas Mary; Ng Kit Ee, Dawn; Chan Chun Ming, Eric; Widjaja, Wanty

    2012-01-01

    Limited Singapore research indicated a lack of exposure of modelling tasks at primary levels. Teacher reflection is used as a tool in design research cycles exploring the potentials of modelling tasks in a Singapore primary five classroom. Findings reveal that the teacher identified three potentials of a modelling task on children's…

  10. Distributed Leadership to Support PLCs in Asian Pragmatic Singapore Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairon, Salleh; Goh, Jonathan Wee Pin; Lin, Tzu-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Nation states around the world, including Singapore, are endeavouring to reform their education systems in order to successfully compete in the global economy (Carnoy, 1999). With human capital as Singapore's primary resource, it is unsurprising that the state has placed great emphasis on strengthening the economic-education nexus. This tight…

  11. Singapore's Global Schoolhouse Strategy: Retreat or Recalibration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In 2002 a high-level economic review committee recommended that Singapore position itself as a "global schoolhouse". An ambitious target was set to attract 150,000 international students to Singapore by 2015 and to lift the education sector's contribution to GDP from 1.9% to 5% in the same timeframe. The global schoolhouse was…

  12. English in Singapore: Culture, Capital and Identity in Linguistic Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsagoff, Lubna

    2010-01-01

    Singapore is placed in the Outer Circle of the Kachru's Three Circles Model, and has over the years developed an English which is uniquely Singaporean. This paper argues that in order to understand the ways in which Singapore English is developing its own standards and ways of speaking, a new model needs to be developed that takes culture, capital…

  13. Constructing the Cosmopolitan Subject: Teaching Secondary School Literature in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Angelia Mui Cheng

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the ambitious educational reforms of the Singapore government in response to the challenges of globalization vis-a-vis the specific issues arising from the case of teaching Literature in secondary schools. It shows how the Singapore state is invested in a particular view of globalization and argues how recent scholarly moves…

  14. Children's Rights: Television Programmes Aired in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Sheela; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its…

  15. Bridging East and West Educational Divides in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prem

    2013-01-01

    In Asia, we are witnessing an era where the pendulum of power is swaying towards the East with the rising economic strength of China and India. Singapore is at the "crossroads" between the East and West of these most populous nations on earth. Although Singapore may appear the most Westernised country in Asia, she is nevertheless a multicultural…

  16. University Restructuring in Singapore: Amazing or a Maze?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael H.; Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2008-01-01

    The Singapore government has put forward a comprehensive restructuring program of university education since the 1990s. Public universities in Singapore are going to be developed as world-class universities through a series of university education policies and reforms. This article reviews major developments of university education policies and…

  17. Attitudes towards Literary Tamil and Standard Spoken Tamil in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    2007-01-01

    This is the first empirical study that focused on attitudes towards two varieties of Tamil, Literary Tamil (LT) and Standard Spoken Tamil (SST), with the multilingual state of Singapore as the backdrop. The attitudes of 46 Singapore Tamil teachers towards speakers of LT and SST were investigated using the matched-guise approach along with…

  18. The Curriculum of Climate Change Education: A Case for Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chew-Hung; Pascua, Liberty

    2017-01-01

    The inclusion of the climate change topic in the curriculum of school subjects in Singapore was pivotal, such that it positioned the discourse squarely in the structure of Singapore's education system. In an examination of the intersections and disjoints between state policies on climate change against the programmatic curriculum, results showed…

  19. Powering into the twenty-first century [Singapore Power Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-07-01

    To meet the challenges of the twenty-first century power industry, Singapore Power was incorporated as a commercial entity in October 1995. As the leading energy company in Singapore, SP continues to invest heavily in infrastructure development to improve its service efficiency and reliability, and to maintain its reputation as one of the world`s best power suppliers. (UK)

  20. Value Orientation of Singapore Adolescents Towards Truthfulness, Justice and Compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, SeokHoon; Siang, Low Meow; Wei, Tan Tai

    This study examined the value orientation of Singapore adolescents toward the three fundamental values of truthfulness, justice, and compassion. A random sample of 315 secondary school students from 4 schools in Singapore (135 males and 180 females) completed a questionnaire, and a select sample of 19 students completed interviews about their…

  1. Mathematics Education in Singapore--An Insider's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Berinderjeet

    2014-01-01

    Singapore's Education System has evolved over time and so has Mathematics Education in Singapore. The present day School Mathematics Curricula can best be described as one that caters for the needs of every child in school. It is based on a framework that has mathematical problem solving as its primary focus. The developments from 1946 to 2012…

  2. Choosing Teaching as a Second Career in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia; Goh, Kim Chuan

    2007-01-01

    Background: As the sole teacher provider in Singapore, the National Institute of Education (NIE) prepares all new teachers for the Singapore's Education System. In the last decade, NIE's enrolments for initial teacher preparation programmes have grown significantly. There has been a parallel increase in the number of career changers entering the…

  3. Distributed Leadership to Support PLCs in Asian Pragmatic Singapore Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairon, Salleh; Goh, Jonathan Wee Pin; Lin, Tzu-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Nation states around the world, including Singapore, are endeavouring to reform their education systems in order to successfully compete in the global economy (Carnoy, 1999). With human capital as Singapore's primary resource, it is unsurprising that the state has placed great emphasis on strengthening the economic-education nexus. This tight…

  4. IT Integration and Online Learning in the Singapore Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David; Tan, Seng Chee; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2003-01-01

    Reviews technology integration efforts in Singapore. Discusses examples of online learning in schools under four broad categories: cyber conferencing, e-learning services providers, e-publication, and wireless technology. Describes ways information technology is being used at the National Institute of Education in Singapore, as a tool for…

  5. Let Your Participants Star in Your Singapore Trainings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George

    2013-01-01

    This article explains the why and how of active learning, which is based on cognitive psychology. Also explained is the Singapore Ministry of Education's slogan, "Teach Less, Learn More," a good slogan for promoting active learning. [This article was published in "Singapore Business Review," Apr 1 2013.

  6. Synthesis of N-Aryl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroindoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Sook Han; Kwon, Min Jin; Lee, Chang Kiu [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    N-aryl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroindoles were prepared in moderate to good yields from cyclohexane-1,3-dione in three steps. Indole, unlike pyrrole, undergoes electrophilic substitution at C-3. For example, a Vilsmeier reaction of indole gives 3-formylindole exclusively. On the other hand, the same reaction with pyrrole produces 2-formylpyrrole. If the introduction of a nucleophile at the C-2 of indole is desired, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroindole should be employed as a starting material. An introduction of the substitution and a subsequent dehydrogenation of the tetrahydroindole should be carried out to complete the synthesis of the 2-substituted indole. For such purpose we previously reported the synthesis of 5-substituted 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroindoles from cyclohexanones with suitable substituents at 4-position of the cyclic ketone.

  7. Social Integration of 6-7 Year-Old Children in a Handball Initiation Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sburlan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is observatory and aims at approaching the training process in 6-7-year-old children in handball in terms of socialization and its main objective is the creation of interpersonal relationships between the team players. By using the bibliographic study, sociometric test, analysis and interpretation of the data collected from 20 children (10 girls and 10 boys aged 6-7 years who were enrolled in a training program in which the group formation was intended to be achieved, we managed to validate the hypothesis according to which if we use in a 6-7-year-old group of children exercises for teaching handball, the level of social integration is improved. The conclusion emphasizes that the results to the second test prove the efficiency of the means of a collective nature.

  8. Earthquake probabilities and magnitude distribution (M≥6.7) along the Haiyuan fault, northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉洪流

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have studied the paleoearthquake along the Haiyuan fault and revealed a lot of paleoearthquake events. All available information allows more reliable analysis of earthquake recurrence interval and earthquake rupture patterns along the Haiyuan fault. Based on this paleoseismological information, the recurrence probability and magnitude distribution for M≥6.7 earthquakes in future 100 years along the Haiyuan fault can be obtained through weighted computation by using Poisson and Brownian passage time models and considering different rupture patterns. The result shows that the recurrence probability of MS≥6.7 earthquakes is about 0.035 in future 100 years along the Haiyuan fault.

  9. Advanced Cardiac Life Support: 2016 Singapore Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Chi Keong; Leong, Siew Hon Benjamin; Chua, Siang Jin Terrance; Lim, Swee Han; Heng, Kenneth; Pothiawala, Sohil; Anantharaman, Venkataraman

    2017-07-01

    The main areas of emphasis in the Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines are: early recognition of cardiac arrest and call for help; good-quality chest compressions; early defibrillation when applicable; early administration of drugs; appropriate airway management ensuring normoventilation; and delivery of appropriate post-resuscitation care to enhance survival. Of note, it is important to monitor the quality of the various care procedures. The resuscitation team needs to reduce unnecessary interruptions to chest compressions in order to maintain adequate coronary perfusion pressure during the ACLS drill. In addition, the team needs to continually look out for reversible causes of the cardiac arrest. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  10. An Efficient Approach to 6, 7-Disubstituted-1H-quinoxalin-2-ones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun LI; Qing Ping HU; Xue Gui CUI; Dong Hua WANG

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach to the synthesis of 6, 7-disubstituted-1H-quinoxalin-2-ones is described.The title compounds were regioselectively prepared by starting from substituted phenylamines and chloroacetyl chloride through the efficient sequence ofacylation, nitration, reduction, intramolecular alkylation, and oxidation.

  11. Price of next big thing in physics: $6.7 billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The price of exploring inner space went up Thursday. The machine discusses in a news conference in Beijing, will be 20 miles long and would cost about $6.7 billion and 13'000 person-years of labor to be built. (1,5 page)

  12. A general catalogue of 6.7GHz methanol masers II: statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pestalozzi, M R; Collett, J; Minier, V; Conway, J; Booth, R; Pestalozzi, Michele R.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Methanol masers at 6.7GHz are recognised markers of high-mass star formation regions. The study of their distribution in the Galaxy gives important insights into the star formation activity of the Milky Way. We present a statistical analysis on the General Catalogue of 6.7GHz methanol masers in the Galaxy with the aim of extracting global properties of the masers. Aims: We provide constraints on the luminosity function of 6.7GHz methanol masers and on their total number in the Galaxy. Methods: We model the spatial distribution of the masers in the Milky Way by using their distribution in galactocentric distance which is unambiguous once a rotation curve for the Galaxy is assumed. This is the starting point for determining the luminosity function of the masers. Results: The luminosity function of 6.7GHz methanol masers is modelled as a power-law with sharp cutoffs and having an index lying between -1.5 and -2. We also predict the number of detections of methanol masers assuming different sensitivity l...

  13. Novel Synthesis of 8-Deaza-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroaminopterin Analogues via an Aziridine Intermediate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhili Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the construction of the tetrahydrofolate skeleton is described. Starting from pterin analogues and aromatic amines, 8-deaza-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroaminopterin derivatives and the heterocyclic benzoyl isosteres were synthesized via a novel aziridine intermediate. Following this method, the byproducts of carbon-nitrogen bond hydrogenolysis in traditional synthetic strategy can be completely avoided.

  14. Integrated care for diabetes - The Singapore Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Qian Yeo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is 12.7% in Singapore. Managing people with diabetes in the community may be needed to reduce unnecessary utilisation of expensive specialist resources and to reduce hospital waiting times for patients with complications. Care Practice The Singapore General Hospital (SGH Delivering on Target (DOT Programme was launched in 2005 to right-site clinically stable diabetic patients from the hospital to private DOT GPs. The Chronic Disease Management Office (CDMO was established and a fully customised DOT information technology (IT system was developed. Three initiatives were implemented: (i Subsidised Drug Delivery Programme, (ii Diagnostic Tests Incentive Programme, and (iii Allied Healthcare Incentive Programme. Discussion Right-siting was enabled through patient incentives that eased the burden of out-of-pocket expenditure. Right Siting Officers (RSOs maintained a general oversight of the patient pathway. The integrated system supported shared care follow-up by enabling DOT GPs to share updates on the patients' health status with the referring specialists. Conclusion A coherent process across all healthcare providers similar to the SGH DOT Programme may facilitate efforts to shift the care for people with diabetes to the community and to provide integrated care. Successful integration may require incentives for institutional partners and patients.

  15. MATHEMATICS EDUCATION IN SINGAPORE - AN INSIDER’S PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Berinderjeet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Singapore’s Education System has evolved over time and so has Mathematics Education in Singapore. The present day School Mathematics Curricula can best be described as one that caters for the needs of every child in school. It is based on a framework that has mathematical problem solving as its primary focus. The developments from 1946 to 2012 that have shaped the present School Mathematics Curricula in Singapore are direct consequences of developments in the Education System of Singapore dur...

  16. Electromyographic responses to emotional facial expressions in 6-7year olds: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, P K H; Schutte, I; Kenemans, J L; Matthys, W; Schutter, D J L G

    2012-08-01

    Preliminary studies have demonstrated that school-aged children (average age 9-10years) show mimicry responses to happy and angry facial expressions. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of using facial electromyography (EMG) as a method to study facial mimicry responses in younger children aged 6-7years to emotional facial expressions of other children. Facial EMG activity to the presentation of dynamic emotional faces was recorded from the corrugator, zygomaticus, frontalis and depressor muscle in sixty-one healthy participants aged 6-7years. Results showed that the presentation of angry faces was associated with corrugator activation and zygomaticus relaxation, happy faces with an increase in zygomaticus and a decrease in corrugator activation, fearful faces with frontalis activation, and sad faces with a combination of corrugator and frontalis activation. This study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring facial EMG response to emotional facial expressions in 6-7year old children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Survey on parenting practices among Chinese in Singapore

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poon, W B; Ho, W L C; Yeo, C L

    2007-01-01

    Cultural, religious and personal factors impact greatly on parenting. This survey aims to identify gaps in knowledge and perception about common parenting issues, with respect to mandarin-speaking Chinese in Singapore...

  18. WFAS 2001 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ACUPUNCTURE WAS HELD IN SINGAPORE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Junling

    2001-01-01

    @@ From 7th to 9th of December of 2001, WFAS 2001 International Symposium on Acupuncture was held in Singapore International Convention and Exhibition Center. The theme of the congress is entitled with "International Academic Research, Education and Clinical Therapy on Acupuncture in the New Century". This congress is sponsored by the World Federation of Acupuncture-Moxibustion Societies (WFAS), co-sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Singapore Ministry of Health, and organized by Singapore Chinese Physician's Association/Chinese Acupuncture Research Institution. About 600 officials, acupuncturists, scholars from WHO, Singapore, China, and other more than 20 countries and regions including Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Indonesia,Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Norway, Canada, Mexico, Portugal, Malaysia, etc. attended this conference.

  19. Bipalium engeli n. sp., a terrestrial triclad from Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.

    1968-01-01

    A new species of the genus Bipalium, B. engeli, is described from secondary forest in Singapore. It is allied to B. rauchi von Graff, 1899, from the same area, but differs markedly in its colour pattern.

  20. Photosymbiotic ascidians in Singapore: turbid waters may reduce living space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wei Su

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The photosymbiotic ascidian fauna at Changi Beach, Pulau Semakau, Sentosa and St. John’s Island, Singapore were surveyed. A total of five species, Diplosoma simile, Lissoclinum bistratum, L. punctatum, L. timorense and Trididemnum cyclops, were recorded, with L. timorense and T. cyclops being newly recorded in Singapore. However, no photosymbiotic species were found at Changi Beach probably due to the polluted waters in the region. Coastal development has caused Singapore waters to become turbid, leading to decrease in suitable habitats for photosymbiotic ascidians. Clean waters in Pulau Semakau probably provide a better environment for the growth of photosymbiotic ascidians and this area has a greater variety of these ascidians than the other areas in Singapore. Each of the five species has also been recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Japan and three species (Diplosoma simile, Lissoclinum bistratum and Trididemnum cyclops have also been recorded in Taiwan.

  1. Jianghan PDC Bits Open Good Market in Singapore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tongliang

    1995-01-01

    @@ The PDC bits produced by PDC Division,Jianghan Drill Bit Plant won good reputation,because of its good quality and appearance in 94 South-east Asia Offshore Petroleum Engineering Product Exhibition held by Singapore International Exhibition Center.

  2. Regionalization, economic restructuring and labour migration in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, W T

    1997-01-01

    "This paper documents the impact of economic development on changes in employment and labour migration in Singapore. High export-led growth and the relaxation of immigration policies in the late 1960s enabled employment of substantial numbers of unskilled foreign labour in manufacturing, construction and domestic service sectors....Economic development in the 1990s, characterized by the regionalization drive which relocates relatively resource-intensive operations of Singapore-based companies overseas, has led to increased retrenchments and a moderation of demand for foreign workers. The upgrading of remaining production operations in Singapore is expected to increase demand for workers with higher skill levels. Emigration of highly educated and skilled professionals from Singapore became a national concern in the late 1980s. However, with regionalization, the new challenge in the 1990s has become one of encouraging Singaporeans to temporarily take up overseas positions." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  3. MATHEMATICS EDUCATION IN SINGAPORE - AN INSIDER’S PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berinderjeet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Singapore’s Education System has evolved over time and so has Mathematics Education in Singapore. The present day School Mathematics Curricula can best be described as one that caters for the needs of every child in school. It is based on a framework that has mathematical problem solving as its primary focus. The developments from 1946 to 2012 that have shaped the present School Mathematics Curricula in Singapore are direct consequences of developments in the Education System of Singapore during the same period. The curriculum, teachers, leaners and the learning environment may be said to contribute towards Singapore’s performance in international benchmark studies such as TIMSS and PISA.Keywords: Mathematics Education, Singapore, Differentiated Curriculum, TIMSS, PISA DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.5.1.1444.1-16

  4. Legal and technical difficulties of web archival in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny Antonio Pabón Cadavid

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Web Archiving in the National Library of Singapore is one of the fundamental actions to ensure the preservation of national digital heritage. By the year 2006, the National Library of Singapore (NLS has started a Web Archive initiative called Web Archive Singapore (WAS. This paper analyses the legal and technical issues that act as obstacles for the collection and management of the digital collections established through Web Archiving in Singapore. WAS lacks an adequate copyright framework for its digital records management, including long-term preservation and access. From a technical perspective we analyze the latest international developments and challenges of web archival. In both analysis legal and technical, we emphasizes on users of archives as the main leitmotif when focus on solutions. Our final recommendations and conclusions are underlined by the fact that NLS must encourage research and knowledge creation through the support of digital humanities, implementing technical and legal solutions that foster a Web Archive.

  5. Legal and technical difficulties of web archival in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny Antonio Pabón Cadavid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Web Archiving in the National Library of Singapore is one of the fundamental actions to ensure the preservation of national digital heritage. By the year 2006, the National Library of Singapore (NLS has started a Web Archive initiative called Web Archive Singapore (WAS. This paper analyses the legal and technical issues that act as obstacles for the collection and management of the digital collections established through Web Archiving in Singapore. WAS lacks an adequate copyright framework for its digital records management, including long-term preservation and access. From a technical perspective we analyze the latest international developments and challenges of web archival. In both analysis legal and technical, we emphasizes on users of archives as the main leitmotif when focus on solutions. Our final recommendations and conclusions are underlined by the fact that NLS must encourage research and knowledge creation through the support of digital humanities, implementing technical and legal solutions that foster a Web Archive.

  6. Singapore Technologies Electronics——Committed to Growth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ About ST Electronics Headquartered in Singapore, ST Electronics has almost 40 years of experience providing electronics, communications and ICT (information communications technologies) solutions to governments and commercial enterprises worldwide.

  7. Singapore Technologies Electronics——Committed to Growth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ About ST Electronics Headquartered in Singapore,ST Electronics has almost 40 years of experience providing electronics,communications,ICT(Information Communications Technologies)and IT(Information Technologies)solutions to governments and commercial enterorises worldwide.

  8. Singapore Technologies Electronics——Committed to Growth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ About ST Electronics Headquartered in Singapore,ST Electronics has almost 40 years of experience providing electronics,communications and ICT(information communications technologies)solutions to governments and commercial enterprises worldwide.

  9. Singapore Technologies Electronics——Committed to Growth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ About ST Electronics Headquartered in Singapore,ST Electronics has almost 40 years of experience providing electronics,communications and ICT (information communications technologies) solutions to governments and commercial enterprises worldwide.

  10. Smoking restrictions in private workplaces in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Y H; Voo, Y O; Yong, L S

    1994-06-01

    This survey aims to determine the number and profile of private workplaces in Singapore which have a smoking restriction policy. The response rate was 43%. Of the companies which responded, 59% had some form of smoking restriction. Private companies are more likely to have a smoking restriction policy: (a) where smoking poses inherent fire risks, such as those dealing with inflammable chemicals or gases; (b) where smoking poses inherent detrimental effects to the quality of the products, such as those dealing with precision electronic microcomponents, where a smoke-free and dust-free environment is essential; (c) are larger companies; and (d) have strong management support in initiating and enforcing smoking restriction. Future programmes should give more emphasis to the service industries such as construction, insurance, banking and finance, and smaller companies (with fewer than 100 employees). They should involve the management who play an important role in implementing smoking restriction at their workplace.

  11. Adolescent health in Asia: insights from Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jean-Yin; Rajasegaran, Kumudhini

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of adolescent medicine as a medical subspecialty in Singapore was a welcome in an evolving health care system that is unique in terms of both efficiency, in financing and the results achieved in community health outcomes. The Ministry of Health (MOH) already recognized the need to accommodate the health care concerns related to adolescent psychosocial health risk behaviors and an increased prevalence of young people living with chronic illness. The challenge for the pioneer team of physicians trained in adolescent medicine was to develop and sustain a model of care that integrated (i) core clinical services that include quality measures of care to adolescents; (ii) professional development and capacity building needing an expansive teaching agenda at every level of health education; (iii) strong inter-sectorial collaborations within hospital and community partners; and (iv) robust research and evaluation strategies that keep clinical practice relevant and evidence based.

  12. Core graphic manual: Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brand manual is to ensure the authority, integrity and consistency of core graphic applications for the Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games. The Singapore Youth Olympic Games Organising Committee (SYOGOC) has compiled this brand manual to specify and regulate the application standards of the core graphic. By conforming to the guidelines contained within, SYOGOC seek to create a striking and memorable look for the Games, which will enhance its prestige and impact.

  13. Chinese temples and transnational networks: Hokkien communities in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Hue, G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is intended as an overview of different categories of Chinese temples and other institutions in Singapore and their transnational networks, in particularly on Hokkien communiities in Singapore. It focusing on some preliminary research findings related to this Hokkien communities and their religious networks, examines the Minnan (South Fujian) Protector Gods (Regional or Village temple Main Gods) and the Minnan Taoist Altars, as well as their religious networks connecting Fujian, Ch...

  14. Singapore Airlines Unveils the World's Best Flying Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Recently, Singapore Airlines launched its latest suite of cabin products designed to deliver the most luxurious and stylish travel experiences. The suite of products and services include new Singapore Airlines First, Business and Economy Class seats,the next generation Kris World inflight entertainment system and an enhanced service delivery. These next generation products will set new standards of excellence for premium air travel, and reinforce the Airline's product leadership in the airline industry.

  15. Educational leadership in Singapore: Tight coupling, sustainability, scalability, and succession

    OpenAIRE

    Dimmock, C; Tan, CY

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: While Singapore's outstanding educational achievements are well known worldwide, there is a disproportionate paucity of literature on school leadership practices that contribute to and support pedagogical initiatives that - along with socio-cultural factors - are normally considered responsible for its educational success. The aim of this paper is to explicate system-wide school leadership factors that contribute to Singapore's educational success. Design/methodology/approach: The pa...

  16. Mathematics Education in Singapore – An Insider’s Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Berinderjeet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Singapore’s Education System has evolved over time and so has Mathematics Education in Singapore. The present day School Mathematics Curricula can best be described as one that caters for the needs of every child in school. It is based on a framework that has mathematical problem solving as its primary focus. The developments from 1946 to 2012 that have shaped the present School Mathematics Curricula in Singapore are direct consequences of developments in the Education System of Singapo...

  17. The Willingness to Spend on Healthcare: Evidence from Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia L. Gan; Frederick, James R.

    2010-01-01

    For the past few decades, the household healthcare expenditures have experienced a phenomenal growth in Singapore. This paper seeks to identify the underlying socio-economic factors that contribute towards this phenomenon by employing time series data to examine the household willingness to spend on healthcare from 1970 to 2006. The results from our log-linear regression show that the willingness to spend on healthcare is positively related to the proportion of Singapore's population who are ...

  18. Reading, the Library, and the Elderly: A Singapore Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyt, Brendan; Ann, Ho Swee

    2011-01-01

    Singapore is now one of the fastest aging societies in the world. By 2030 those over 65 years old are expected to number 1.41m strong, 26.8 percent of the country's entire population. Given these numbers, it is not surprising that aging is a key concern in Singapore. This article reports on a qualitative study of 32 individuals over the age of 55…

  19. Macroeconomic Determinants of Direct Investment Abroad of Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Kueh, Jerome Swee-Hui; Puah, Chin Hong; Liew, Venus Khim-Sen

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to discover the determinants of Direct Investment Abroad (DIA) of Singapore. It also measures the impacts of various determinants on the DIA of Singapore. Based on theoretical justification, several potential determinants including aggregate income, interest rate, trade openness and exchange rate are considered in this study. Results obtained reveals that higher aggregate income will contribute to the expansion of abroad investment of Singaporean firms. Meanwhil...

  20. The Growth Potential of Debit Cards in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This paper starts by examining the evolution of the Singapore payments system from a historical perspective by reviewing the institutional evolution, as well as the development and adoption of some of the newest payment instruments. Two major trends in recent Singapore payment history are revealed, i.e. cash and check payments are being displaced by credit and debit card and other electronic mode of payments and usage of debit cards is seeing significant growth. From the literature revie...

  1. Faktor Risiko Asma Pada Murid Sekolah Dasar Usia 6-7 Tahun di Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afdal .

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang : Asma merupakan penyakit kronik yang sering dijumpai pada anak. Dilaporkan bahwa prevalens asma meningkat pada anak maupun dewasa. Usia 6-7 tahun merupakan periode dimana prevalens asma dan angka kunjungan ke rumah sakit karena asma lebih tinggi. Terjadinya asma dianggap sebagai interaksi yang kompleks antara faktor genetik dan faktor lingkungan. Faktor genetik sudah dibuktikan dari penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya, tetapi karakteristik faktor risiko lingkungan pada asma belum jelas. Apabila melihat derajat peningkatan kejadian asma, tidak mungkin hanya faktor genetik yang berperan, tetapi peran faktor lingkungan justru yang lebih besar. Tujuan : Untuk mengetahui prevalens dan faktor risiko asma pada anak SD usia 6-7 tahun di Kota Padang.Metoda : Suatu penelitian cross sectional di 20 SD di Kota Padang pada bulan Juni – November 2009 dengan jumlah sampel 879 orang. Terhadap setiap subjek dilakukan penelitian yaitu pembagian kuisioner ISAAC (international study of asthma and allergies in childhood untuk orang tua. Analisis data dilakukan dengan uji chi-square untuk variabel katagorik dan analisis multivariat dengan regresi logistik. Data dianalisis menggunakan peranti lunak komputer.Hasil : Prevalens asma pada murid SD usia 6-7 tahun di Kota Padang berdasarkan kuisioner ISAAC sebesar 8%. Faktor yang paling dominan berpengaruh terhadap kejadian asma adalah atopi ayah atau ibu, diikuti faktor berat badan lahir dan kebiasaan merokok pada ibu serta pemberian obat parasetamol. Sedangkan pemberian ASI dan kontak dengan unggas merupakan faktor protektif terhadap kejadian asma. Kata kunci: faktor risiko, asma, sekolah dasar Abstract Background: Background Asthma is a common chronic disease in children. It had been reported that the prevalence of asthma in children and adults was increasing. The age of 6-7 years is the period where the prevalence and the number of visits to the hospital because of asthma are higher. The

  2. Soil organic carbon distribution in roadside soils of Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhadip; Scharenbroch, Bryant C; Ow, Lai Fern

    2016-12-01

    Soil is the largest pool of organic carbon in terrestrial systems and plays a key role in carbon cycle. Global population living in urban areas are increasing substantially; however, the effects of urbanization on soil carbon storage and distribution are largely unknown. Here, we characterized the soil organic carbon (SOC) in roadside soils across the city-state of Singapore. We tested three hypotheses that SOC contents (concentration and density) in Singapore would be positively related to aboveground tree biomass, soil microbial biomass and land-use patterns. Overall mean SOC concentrations and densities (0-100 cm) of Singapore's roadside soils were 29 g kg(-1) (4-106 g kg(-1)) and 11 kg m(-2) (1.1-42.5 kg m(-2)) with median values of 26 g kg(-1) and 10 kg m(-2), respectively. There was significantly higher concentration of organic carbon (10.3 g kg(-1)) in the top 0-30 cm soil depth compared to the deeper (30-50 cm, and 50-100 cm) soil depths. Singapore's roadside soils represent 4% of Singapore's land, but store 2.9 million Mg C (estimated range of 0.3-11 million Mg C). This amount of SOC is equivalent to 25% of annual anthropogenic C emissions in Singapore. Soil organic C contents in Singapore's soils were not related to aboveground vegetation or soil microbial biomass, whereas land-use patterns to best explain variance in SOC in Singapore's roadside soils. We found SOC in Singapore's roadside soils to be inversely related to urbanization. We conclude that high SOC in Singapore roadside soils are probably due to management, such as specifications of high quality top-soil, high use of irrigation and fertilization and also due to an optimal climate promoting rapid growth and biological activity.

  3. Structural modifications at the C-4 position strongly affect the glucuronidation of 6,7-dihydroxycoumarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang-Liu; Ge, Guang-Bo; Wang, Ping; Liang, Si-Cheng; He, Yu-Qi; Ning, Jing; Qian, Xing-Kai; Li, Yan; Yang, Ling

    2015-04-01

    Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) and its C-4 derivatives have multiple pharmacologic activities, but the poor metabolic stability of these catechols has severely restricted their application in the clinic. Glucuronidation plays important roles in catechols elimination, although thus far the effects of structural modifications on the metabolic selectivity and the catalytic efficacy of the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes remain unclear. This study was aimed at exploring the structure-glucuronidation relationship of esculetin and its C-4 derivatives, including 4-methyl esculetin, 4-phenyl esculetin, and 4-hydroxymethyl esculetin as well as 4-acetic acid esculetin. It was achieved by identifying the main human UGTs responsible for the different reactions and by careful characterization of the reactions kinetics. These catechols, with the exception of 4-acetic acid esculetin, are selectively metabolized to the corresponding 7-O-glucuronides. UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 are the two major UGTs involved in the 7-O-glucuronidation of 4-methyl esculetin and esculetin. UGT1A6 was the major contributor for 7-O-glucuronidation of 4-hydroxymethyl esculetin, and UGT1A9 played a significant role in the 7-O-glucuronidation of 4-phenyl esculetin. The results of the kinetic analyses revealed that the Km values of the compounds, in both UGT1A9 and human liver microsomes, decreased with increasing hydrophobicity of the C-4 substitutions. The outcome of this was that C-4 hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups on 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin exhibited contrasting effects on UGT affinity. All of these findings provide helpful guidance for further structural modification of 6,7-dihydroxycoumarins with improved metabolic stability.

  4. Upper arm circumference measurement for detecting overweight and obesity in children aged 6-7 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Rosariah Ayu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity is a worldwide problem and is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Nutritional status in children has traditionally been determined by body mass index (BMI scores, but with limitations. Upper arm circumference measurement may be a better predictor of energy, protein, and fat storage, as well as a simpler method for screening overweight and obesity in children. Objective To determine the diagnostic value of upper arm circumference compared to BMI for detecting overweight and obesity in children aged 6-7 years. Methods This diagnostic study with a cross-sectional design was performed from September to October 2015 at 16 primary schools in Palembang, Indonesia. We measured the heights, weights, and upper arm circumferences, and calculated BMIs of 2,258 children. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to find an optimal upper arm circumference cut-off point to detect overweight and obesity. Diagnostic value was calculated by using a 2x2 table analysis. Results The prevalences of overweight and obesity were 5.8% and 11.7%, respectively. The optimal upper arm circumference cut-off points for detecting overweight in children aged 6-7 years was 185 mm (sensitivity 88.1% and specificity 78.3%, and for obesity was 195 mm (sensitivity 90.15% and specificity 86.65%. Upper arm circumference had a strong correlation with BMI. Conclusion Upper arm circumference measurement is an accurate method fordistinguishing between normoweight, overweight, and obesity in children aged 6-7 years.

  5. Ligubenzocycloheptanone A, a Novel Tricyclic Butenolide with a 6/7/5 Skeleton from Ligusticum chuanxiong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Zhang, Xu; Feng, Zi-Ming; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Li, Li; Yang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Ligubenzocycloheptanone A (1), a novel tricyclic butenolide with a 6/7/5-membered ring skeleton, was isolated from the rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong. Its unusual structure was determined using UV, IR, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR data, X-ray diffraction crystallography and by the comparison of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. 1 possessed a benzocycloheptanone core featuring butyrolactone, which is rarely observed in nature. A possible biosynthetic pathway was proposed. Ligubenzocycloheptanone A showed strong radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 2.3 μM.

  6. Readiness Review of BWXT for Fabrication of AGR 5/6/7 Compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Douglas William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sharp, Michelle Tracy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In support of preparations for fabricating compacts for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel qualification irradiation experiments (AGR-5/6/7), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted a readiness review of the BWX Technology (BWXT) procedures, processes, and equipment associated with compact fabrication activities at the BWXT Nuclear Operations Group (BWXT-NOG) facility outside Lynchburg, VirginiaVA. The readiness review used quality assurance requirements taken from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Nuclear Quality Assurance Standard (NQA-1-2008/1a-2009) as a basis to assess readiness to start compact fabrication.

  7. ON 3-CHOOSABILITY OF PLANE GRAPHS WITHOUT 6-,7- AND 9-CYCLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangHaihui; XuBaogang

    2004-01-01

    The choice number of a graph G,denoted by X1(G),is the minimum number k such that if a list of k colors is given to each vertex of G,there is a vertex coloring of G where each vertex receives a color from its own list no matter what the lists are. In this paper,it is showed that X1 (G)≤3 for each plane graph of girth not less than 4 which contains no 6-, 7- and 9-cycles.

  8. Tracing major structures of the inner Galaxy with 6.7-GHz methanol masers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestalozzi M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Through analysis of correlations within the longitude-velocity distribution of 6.7-GHz methanol masers, we identify density enhancements indicative of large-scale regions of enhanced star formation. In the context of the inner structure of our Galaxy these are interpreted as the starting points of the spiral arms and the interaction of the long Galactic bar with the 3–kpc arms. Signatures of a continuous 3–kpc arm structure are seen including a prominent tangent at –22° Galactic longitude.

  9. Readiness Review of BWXT for Fabrication of AGR-5/6/7 TRISO Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Douglas William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sharp, Michelle Tracy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    INL readiness review assessment of BWXT readiness to commence fabrication of low-enriched TRISO coated fuel particles for the AGR-5/6/7 irradiation experiments. BWXT self-identified equipment issues preventing operation. INL identified two findings. The first was that disposition codes had not been assigned and documented on BWXT forms to ensure that off-specification materials could not be used in the fabrication of TRISO particles. The second was that chemical purity specifications were not reliably passed on to chemical suppliers, which resulted in the receipt of one acetylene cylinder with suspect impurity levels.

  10. Synthesis and bioactivities of 6,7,8-trimethoxy-N-aryl-4-aminoquinazoline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Hu, De-Yu; Jin, Lin-Hong; Song, Bao-An; Yang, Song; Liu, Ping-Shen; Bhadury, Pinaki S; Ma, Yao; Luo, Hui; Zhou, Xian

    2007-10-15

    A series of 4-aminoquinazoline derivatives is prepared by the nucleophilic substitution reaction of 6,7,8-trimethoxy-4-chloroquinazoline and aryl amine. The structures of the compounds are confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, and (1)H NMR spectral data. The compounds are also evaluated for their ability to inhibit tumor cells PC3, A431, Bcap-37, and BGC823 by MTT assays. Among them, 6b and 6e are found as potent inhibitors, with IC(50) values ranging from 5.8 to 9.8microM, in vitro assay.

  11. The 6.7-GHz and 25-GHz methanol masers in OMC-1

    CERN Document Server

    Voronkov, M A; Ellingsen, S P; Ostrovskii, A B

    2005-01-01

    The Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) has been used to search for methanol maser emission at 6.7 GHz towards OMC-1. Two features peaking at 7.2 km/s and -1.1 km/s have been detected. The former has at least two components close in both velocity and position. It is located south-east of the Orion Kleinmann-Low (Orion-KL) nebula in the region of outflow traced by the 25-GHz methanol masers and the 95-GHz methanol emission. It is shown by modelling that in contrast to the widespread opinion that simultaneous masing of methanol transitions of different classes is impossible there are conditions for which simultaneous masing of the class II transition at 6.7-GHz and some class I transitions (e.g. the series at 25 GHz) is possible. A relevant example is provided, in which the pumping occurs via the first torsionally excited state and is driven by radiation of the dust intermixed with the gas in the cloud. In this regime the dust temperature is significantly lower (T is about 60 K) than in the case of bright ...

  12. Ammonia and CO Outflow around 6.7 GHz Methanol Masers

    CERN Document Server

    Li, F C; Wu, Y W; Yang, J; Lu, D R; Menten, K M; Henkel, C

    2016-01-01

    Single point observations are presented in NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions using the Effelsberg 100 m telescope for a sample of 100 6.7 GHz methanol masers and mapping observations in the 12CO and 13CO (1-0) transitions using the PMO Delingha 13.7 m telescope for 82 sample sources with detected ammonia. A further 62 sources were selected for either 12CO or 13CO line outflow identification, producing 45 outflow candidates, 29 using 12CO and 16 using 13CO data. Twenty-two of the outflow candidates were newly identified, and 23 had trigonometric parallax distances. Physical properties were derived from ammonia lines and CO outflow parameters calculated. Histograms and statistical correlations for ammonia, CO outflow parameters, and 6.7 GHz methanol maser luminosities are also presented. No significant correlation was found between ammonia and maser luminosity. However, weak correlations were found between outflow properties and maser luminosities, which may indicate that outflows are physically associa...

  13. EVN observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in clusters of massive young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bartkiewicz, Anna; van Langevelde, Huib

    2014-01-01

    Methanol masers at 6.7 GHz are associated with high-mass star-forming regions (HMSFRs) and often have mid-infrared (MIR) counterparts characterized by extended emission at 4.5 $\\mu$m, which likely traces outflows from massive young stellar objects (MYSOs). Our objectives are to determine the milliarcsecond (mas) morphology of the maser emission and to examine if it comes from one or several candidate MIR counterparts in the clusters of MYSOs. The European VLBI Network (EVN) was used to image the 6.7 GHz maser line with ~2.'1 field of view toward 14 maser sites from the Torun catalog. Quasi-simultaneous observations were carried out with the Torun 32 m telescope. We obtained maps with mas angular resolution that showed diversity of methanol emission morphology: a linear distribution (e.g., G37.753-00.189), a ring-like (G40.425+00.700), and a complex one (e.g., G45.467+00.053). The maser emission is usually associated with the strongest MIR counterpart in the clusters; no maser emission was detected from other ...

  14. A general catalogue of 6.7 GHz methanol masers. I: data

    CERN Document Server

    Pestalozzi, M; Booth, R

    2004-01-01

    Methanol masers are often detected in regions of intense star formation. Several studies in the last decade indicate that they may even be the earliest signpost of a high-mass star-forming region. Their powerful emission make them very good candidates for observations using both single--dish telescopes and interferometers, the latter allows detailed structural and dynamical studies of these objects. We have prepared a catalogue of all known 6.7-GHz methanol masers, discovered both by surveys that targeted possible associated objects and unbiased surveys covering a large fraction of galactic longitudes across the Galactic plane (-0.5deg <= b <= 0.5deg for most of the regions). The catalogue contains 519 sources which are listed with their kinematic (galactocentric and heliocentric) distances as well as possibly associated IR objects. We find that 6.7-GHz methanol masers clearly trace the molecular ring of our Galaxy, where most of the OB associations are located. The present list of masers also reports d...

  15. 6.7GHz Methanol Maser Associated Outflows: An evolutionary sequence

    CERN Document Server

    de Villiers, H M; Thompson, M A; Urquhart, J S; Breen, S L; Burton, M G; Ellingsen, S P; Fuller, G A; Pestalozzi, M; Voronkov, M A; Ward-Thompson, D

    2015-01-01

    We present a continuing study of a sample 44 molecular outflows, observed in 13CO lines, closely associated with 6.7GHz methanol masers, hence called Methanol Maser Associated Outflows (MMAOs). We compare MMAO properties with those of outflows from other surveys in the literature. In general, MMAOs follow similar trends, but show a deficit in number at low masses and momenta, with a corresponding higher fraction at the high end of the distributions. A similar trend is seen for the dynamical timescales of MMAOs. We argue that the lack of relatively low mass and young flows in MMAOs is due to the inherent selection-bias in the sample, i.e. its direct association with 6.7GHz methanol masers. This implies that methanol masers must switch on after the onset of outflows (hence accretion), and not before a sufficient abundance of methanol is liberated from icy dust mantles. Consequently the average dynamical age of MMAOs is older than for the general population of molecular outflows. We propose an adjusted evolution...

  16. Doing business in the global village: Japanese professionals on EL needs in Singapore

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoneda, Mitaka

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of English language (EL) education from the perspectives of Japanese and non-Japanese professionals in Singapore, based on their experiences of "doing business" in Singapore...

  17. Summary of External Peer Review and Public Comments and Disposition for 1,3,4,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8,-hexamethylcyclopenta[γ]-2-benzopyran (HHCB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the public and external peer review comments that the EPA’s Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) received for the draft work plan risk assessment for 1,3,4,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta--2-benzopyran

  18. The fast-running flies (Diptera, Hybotidae, Tachydromiinae) of Singapore and adjacent regions

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Grootaert; Shamshev, Igor V.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive introduction to the flies of the subfamily Tachydromiinae (Hybotidae) of Singapore. The monograph summarizes all publications on the Tachydromiinae of Singapore and includes new data resulting from mass-trapping surveys made in Singapore during the last six years. A few samples from Malaysia (Johor province, Pulau Tioman and Langkawi) have been also included in this study. In Singapore the Tachydromiinae are the most diverse group of Empidoidea (except Dolichop...

  19. The tick Ixodes granulatus infests Rattus rattus populating a small island offshore of Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Paperna I.

    2006-01-01

    The ixodid tick Ixodes granulosus Supino 1897 was found infesting Rattus rattus in Semakau island, one of the small offshore islands fringing Singapore to the south. None of the examined R. rattus from the other islands fringing Singapore, or from Singapore island were found infested. Ixodes granulatus occurs, however, on Singapore island on Rattus annandalei, resident of undisturbed forested habitats. We speculate that invading black rats in Semakau replaced autochthonous sylvatic rodent pop...

  20. Disincentives to fertility: the Singapore program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, P

    1974-01-01

    Singapore's first 5-year national family planning program saw a dramatic drop in all fertility rates including a drop in the crude birthrate from 28.6 per thousand in 1966 to 22.1 in 1970. However, the 1970 figure represents a slight increase over the preceding year, and the government, in its new plan begun in 1972, has undertaken several measures to significantly reduce fertility among younger families and "hard-core" risisters. The aim is a crude birthrate of 18/1000 by 1975. In addition to widespread publicity and motivational campaigns, tough new measures were introduced to discourage couples from having more than 2 children. These include: 1) reduction of future income tax relief from 5 to the first 3 children: 2) reduction in paid maternity leave from 3 to 2 confinements; 3) lower priority of allocation of government apartments to families of 3 or more children; and 4) increase in accouchement fees in government hospitals. The measures are largely regressive in nature, affecting lower income families who would feel the economic pinch the most. Some politicians have considered the measures too drastic.

  1. Towards Evidence-Based Initial Teacher Education in Singapore: A Review of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ee-Ling; Hui, Chenri; Taylor, Peter G.; Ng, Pak Tee

    2012-01-01

    Initial teacher education (ITE) in Singapore is shifting towards evidence-based practice. Despite a clear policy orientation, ITE in Singapore has not yet produced the evidence base that it is anticipating. This paper presents an analytical review of previous research into ITE in Singapore and makes comparisons to the larger international context.…

  2. 77 FR 39320 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Singapore Memorandum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... United States and Singapore negotiated the MOI in parallel with the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement... illegal trade in environmentally sensitive goods through bilateral and regional cooperative activities... the FTA. These documents are available at: http://www.state.gov/e/oes/env/trade/singapore/index.htm...

  3. Trends in Income Disparity and Equality Enhancing (?) Education Policies in the Development Stages of Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhaya, P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the trends in income diversity in Singapore at the total and disaggregated level using Labour Force Survey data. The income inequality in Singapore is found to be significantly high. One reason is the selective migration policy of the government of Singapore. The government has made conscious efforts to bring equality in…

  4. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Singapore. 10.570 Section 10.570 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  5. Singapore Math®. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated December 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report on "Singapore Math®" updates the 2009 WWC review of the curriculum to include seven new studies. Despite the additional research, no studies meet WWC design standards and therefore, no conclusions can be made about the effectiveness of "Singapore Math®." [For the 2009 report, "Singapore Math," see…

  6. The Quest for Global Competitiveness: Promotion of Innovation and Entrepreneurial Universities in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2015-01-01

    The economy of Singapore has been continuously reforming since its independence. In the late 1980s, the economy of Singapore depended heavily on the vibrant manufacturing sector formed by foreign direct investment and multinational companies. This article critically reviews the policies and reform measures adopted by the Singapore government in…

  7. Electromyographic Responses to Emotional Facial Expressions in 6-7 Year Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, P. K. H.; Coppes, L.; Kenemans, J. L.; Schutter, D. J. L. G.; Matthys, W.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to explore whether facial mimicry was related to the severity of impairment in social responsiveness. Facial electromyographic activity in response to angry, fearful, sad and happy facial expressions was recorded in twenty 6-7 year old…

  8. Practical Transitions to Operations: Bridging the 6.1 to 6.7 Valley of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandenault, P. B.; Serengulian, P.; Metzler, C. A.; Nicholas, A. C.

    2009-12-01

    The process of transitioning Basic Research Science Programs to Operations (R2O) is critical, yet it has proven to be a difficult, unpredictable and expensive process. An efficient, readily-available, and predictable solution for the Space Weather community is required, but it remains elusive. Due to relatively low financial resources in the field of Space Weather, the solution will entail working together as a community and developing architectures and processes for much more efficient transitions. Many years of experience with R2O in the Department of Defense will be described, including Government to Government transitions, University to Government transitions, with both large and small software programs. Pure modeling programs and operational software for sensors/instruments will be described. Recommendations on how to standardize and streamline the overall process (6.1-6.7) will be presented.

  9. EVN observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers from Medicina survey

    CERN Document Server

    Voronkov, M A; Palagi, F; Tofani, G

    2002-01-01

    We report VLBI observations of methanol masers in the brightest 5(1)-6(0) A+ transition at 6.7 GHz in NGC 281W, 18151-1208 and 19388+2357. Using the fringe rate method absolute positions were obtained for all observed sources. A linear ordered structure with a velocity gradient was revealed in NGC 281W. Under assumption that such structure is an edge-on Keplerian disk around the central object with a mass of 30Msun located at a distance of 3.5 kpc from the Sun, we estimated that methanol masers are situated at the distance about 400 a.u. from the center of the disk. A second epoch of observations was reported for L1206, GL2789 and 20062+3550. The upper limits on the relative motions of maser spots are estimated to be 4.7 km/s and 28 km/s for L1206 and GL2789 respectively.

  10. Gravity variation before the Akto Ms6.7 earthquake, Xinjiang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Hao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between gravity variation and the Akto Ms6.7 earthquake on November 11, 2016, was studied by use of mobile gravity observation data from the China continental structural environmental monitoring network. The result revealed that before the Akto earthquake, a high positive gravity variation was observed in the Pamir tectonic knots region (within a maximum magnitude of approximately +80 microgal, which was consistent with the existing knowledge of gravity abnormality and the locations of strong earthquakes. In view of the recent strong seismic activities in the Pamir tectonic knots region, as well as the strong upward crust movement and compressive strain, it is believed that gravity change in the Pamir tectonic knots region reflects the recent strong seismic activities and crust movement.

  11. Facile Synthesis of 5, 6, 7, 8-Tetrahydropyrimido [4, 5-b]-quinoline Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelhamed Morsy

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available 2–Amino–4-phenyl–5,6,7,8–tetrahydroquinoline–3–carbonitrile (3 was synthesized by treating cyclohexanone (1 with 2–benzylidenemalononitrile (2 in the presence of ammonium acetate. The reactivity of compound 3 towards dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal (DMF-DMA, carbon disulfide, urea, thiourea, formamide, formic acid, acetyl chloride and isothiocyanate were studied. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of some selected derivatives is reported.

  12. Major structures of the inner Galaxy delineated by 6.7-GHz methanol masers

    CERN Document Server

    Green, J A; McClure-Griffiths, N M; Avison, A; Breen, S L; Burton, M G; Ellingsen, S P; Fuller, G A; Gray, M D; Pestalozzi, M; Thompson, M A; Voronkov, M A

    2011-01-01

    We explore the longitude-velocity distribution of 6.7-GHz methanol masers in the context of the inner structure of our Galaxy. We analyse the correlation in velocities within this distribution and identify density enhancements indicating large-scale regions of enhanced star formation. These are interpreted as the starting points of the spiral arms and the interaction of the Galactic bar with the 3-kpc arms. The methanol masers support the presence of a long thin bar with a 45 degree orientation. Signatures of the full 3-kpc arm structure are seen, including a prominent tangent at approximately -22 degrees Galactic longitude. We compare this distribution with existing models of the gas dynamics of our Galaxy. The 3-kpc arm structure appears likely to correspond to the radius of corotation resonance of the bar, with the bar on its inner surface and the starting points of the spiral arms on its outer surface.

  13. Application of molecular methods for identification of strains classified as Salmonella enterica serovar 6, 7/-/- by conventional serotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadfield, M. S.; Christensen, J. P.; Madsen, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    An increased prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee (6, 7: z(29):-) was observed in broiler flocks in Denmark in 1994 and a parallel increase in the prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar 6, 7:-:- was demonstrated, albeit at a lower level. Plasmid profiling and ribotyping revealed...... similar genotypes and it was speculated that serovar 6, 7:-:- could represent a non-motile variant of Salmonella Tennessee. Re-testing of the Salmonella 6, 7:-:- isolates demonstrated the presence of flagella through positive motility. All isolates but one demonstrated motility using both tube tests...... and light microscopy of overnight broth cultures. Molecular characterization indicated that all but two isolates previously classified as Salmonella 6, 7:-:, were isolates of Salmonella Tennessee and Salmonella Infantis, exhibiting reduced motility. Re-serotyping and multiplex polymerase chain reaction...

  14. Mathematics Education in Singapore – An Insider’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berinderjeet Kaur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Singapore’s Education System has evolved over time and so has Mathematics Education in Singapore. The present day School Mathematics Curricula can best be described as one that caters for the needs of every child in school. It is based on a framework that has mathematical problem solving as its primary focus. The developments from 1946 to 2012 that have shaped the present School Mathematics Curricula in Singapore are direct consequences of developments in the Education System of Singapore during the same period. The curriculum, teachers, leaners and the learning environment may be said to contribute towards Singapore’s performance in international benchmark studies such as TIMSS and PISA.

  15. Crisis prevention and management during SARS outbreak, Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, Stella R; Hin-Peng, Lee

    2004-02-01

    We discuss crisis prevention and management during the first 3 months of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Singapore. Four public health issues were considered: prevention measures, self-health evaluation, SARS knowledge, and appraisal of crisis management. We conducted telephone interviews with a representative sample of 1,201 adults, > or = 21 years of age. We found that sex, age, and attitude (anxiety and perception of open communication with authorities) were associated with practicing preventive measures. Analysis of Singapore's outbreak improves our understanding of the social dimensions of infectious disease outbreaks.

  16. Madrasah in Singapore: Tradition and modernity in religious education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Steiner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The educational policies of the Singapore government are driven by the needs of a modern knowledge-based society and economic development, with the state advocating modernity while the Muslim minority, arguably, appeared to be caught in tradition and holding on to “old fashioned” education. However, whether the new attempts at modernizing madrasah education driven by the state will succeed remains to be seen, as earlier  attempts of reformation driven by the Muslim community, or parts thereof, have been rather unsuccessful. This paper analyses the discourse between tradition and modernity of Islamic religious education in Singapore.

  17. The epidemiology of lung cancer in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H P

    1985-07-01

    Lung cancer has reached epidemic proportions in all developed countries and many of the urban centres of the developing world. It is the most frequent cancer site in Singapore, accounting for 23.4% (623 cases) of all cancer deaths and nearly 5% of all causes in 1982. Based on incidence data for 1968-1977, among males, there was an average of about 330 cases diagnosed each year, giving an annual incidence rate of 30.7 per 100,000 and a proportion of 21% against all sites. Among females, there was an average of about 115 cases, with the incidence rate at 11.2 and the proportion 10.3% (ranking third behind breast and cervix). The risks among the Chinese were more than double those of the other ethnic groups. The Hokkien (73.2 per 100,000) and Teochew (67.0) males had one of the highest age-standardized incidence rates in the world. Most of the cases were of the epidermoid carcinoma type. Among the females, the Cantonese (28.5) had about double the risks compared to the other dialect groups, and the rate was among the highest in the world. Adenocarcinomas accounted for almost 50% of the cases. The relevant host and environmental factors associated with lung cancer are discussed. Without doubt, cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor. The ultimate solution to this problem must lie in an effective smoking control programme, besides much-needed improvements in early diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  18. Deep neck abscesses: the Singapore experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yan Qing; Kanagalingam, Jeevendra

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to review our experience with deep neck abscesses, identify key trends, and improve the management of this condition. This is a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with deep neck abscesses in the Department of ENT (Otorhinolaryngology) at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore between 2004 and 2009. Patient demographics, etiology, bacteriology, systemic disease, radiology, treatment, complications, duration of hospitalization, and outcomes were reviewed. 131 patients were included (64.9% male, 35.1% female) with a median age of 51.0 years. 54 (41.2%) patients had diabetes mellitus. The parapharyngeal space (23.7%) was the most commonly involved space. Odontogenic and upper airway infections were the leading causes of deep neck abscesses (28.0% each). Klebsiella pneumoniae (27.1%) was the most commonly cultured organism in this study and among the diabetic patients (50.0%). 108 (82.4%) patients underwent surgical drainage. 42 patients suffered complications. All 19 patients, who had upper airway obstruction, had either a tracheostomy or intubation. Patients with multi-space abscesses, diabetes mellitus, and complications had prolonged hospitalizations. Old age and diabetes are risk factors for developing deep neck abscesses and their sequelae. The empiric choice of antibiotics should recognize that a dental source is likely, and that Klebsiella is most common in diabetics. Surgical drainage and adequate antibiotic coverage remains the cornerstone of treatment of deep neck abscesses. Therapeutic needle aspiration may successfully replace surgical drainage, if the abscesses are small and no complications are imminent. Airway obstruction should be anticipated in multi-space and floor of mouth abscesses.

  19. X-ray Analysis of Defects and Anomalies in AGR-5/6/7 TRISO Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmreich, Grant W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skitt, Darren J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dyer, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schumacher, Austin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Coated particle fuel batches J52O-16-93164, 93165, 93166, 93168, 93169, 93170, and 93172 were produced by Babcock and Wilcox Technologies (BWXT) for possible selection as fuel for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program’s AGR-5/6/7 irradiation test in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), or may be used for other tests. Each batch was coated in a 150-mm-diameter production-scale fluidized-bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace. Tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coatings were deposited on 425-μm-nominal-diameter spherical kernels from BWXT lot J52R-16-69317 containing a mixture of 15.4%-enriched uranium carbide and uranium oxide (UCO), with the exception of Batch 93164, which used similar kernels from BWXT lot J52L-16-69316. The TRISO-coatings consisted of a ~50% dense carbon buffer layer with 100-μmnominal thickness, a dense inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layer with 40-μm-nominal thickness, a silicon carbide (SiC) layer with 35-μm-nominal thickness, and a dense outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer with 40-μm-nominal thickness. Each coated particle batch was sieved to upgrade the particles by removing over-sized and under-sized material, and the upgraded batch was designated by appending the letter A to the end of the batch number (e.g., 93164A). Secondary upgrading by sieving was performed on the upgraded batches to remove specific anomalies identified during analysis for Defective IPyC, and the upgraded batches were designated by appending the letter B to the end of the batch number (e.g., 93165B). Following this secondary upgrading, coated particle composite J52R-16-98005 was produced by BWXT as fuel for the AGR Program’s AGR-5/6/7 irradiation test in the INL ATR. This composite was comprised of coated particle fuel batches J52O-16-93165B, 93168B, 93169B, and 93170B.

  20. Facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with disruptive behavior disorder and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Peter; Munsters, Nicolette; Kenemans, Leon; Schutter, Dennis; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age. Emotional deficits have also been shown in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To examine facial mimicry in younger, 6-7 year old children with DBD and with ADHD. Electromyographic (EMG) activity in response to emotional facial expressions was recorded in 47 children with DBD, 18 children with ADHD and 35 healthy developing children. All groups displayed significant facial mimicry to the emotional expressions of other children. No group differences between children with DBD, children with ADHD and healthy developing children were found. In addition, no differences in facial mimicry were found between the clinical group (i.e., all children with a diagnosis) and the typically developing group in an analysis with ADHD symptoms as a covariate, and no differences were found between the clinical children and the typically developing children with DBD symptoms as a covariate. Facial mimicry in children with DBD and ADHD throughout the first primary school years was unimpaired, in line with studies on empathy using other paradigms.

  1. Facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with disruptive behavior disorder and ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Deschamps

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD. However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age. Emotional deficits have also been shown in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. AIMS: To examine facial mimicry in younger, 6-7 year old children with DBD and with ADHD. METHODS: Electromyographic (EMG activity in response to emotional facial expressions was recorded in 47 children with DBD, 18 children with ADHD and 35 healthy developing children. RESULTS: All groups displayed significant facial mimicry to the emotional expressions of other children. No group differences between children with DBD, children with ADHD and healthy developing children were found. In addition, no differences in facial mimicry were found between the clinical group (i.e., all children with a diagnosis and the typically developing group in an analysis with ADHD symptoms as a covariate, and no differences were found between the clinical children and the typically developing children with DBD symptoms as a covariate. CONCLUSION: Facial mimicry in children with DBD and ADHD throughout the first primary school years was unimpaired, in line with studies on empathy using other paradigms.

  2. 6,7-Dihydroxy-3-phenylcoumarin inhibits thromboplastin induced disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunali, Tugba; Yarat, Aysen; Bulut, Mustafa; Emekli, Nesrin

    2004-07-01

    6,7-Dihydroxy-3-phenylcoumarin (DHPC) was tested to determine whether it had any effect on vitamin K inhibition, by investigating the prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen level and platelet count. The anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects of DHPC were compared with those of warfarin by conducting a 4 h acute trial on thromboplastin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), investigating various haemostatic and antioxidant system parameters and performing a haemogram. Of most significance was that in the 5-d DHPC trial on healthy controls, PT, APTT, fibrinogen, platelet count remained within normal levels. In the 4-h DIC trial, both DHPC (0.025 mg/kg, i.v.) and warfarin (0.25 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly inhibited DIC, by reducing the PT, APTT, and fibrin degradation products and increasing fibrinogen levels and platelet count. In the DIC drug groups, lipid peroxidation significantly increased only in the warfarin group and glutathione significantly increased only in the DHPC group. However leucocyte count was significantly higher in the DHPC than the warfarin group. Further investigation is required for why DHPC is effective on the parameters investigated, at doses one-tenth of those of warfarin.

  3. Genetic redundancy is prevalent within the 6.7 Mb Sinorhizobium meliloti genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    diCenzo, George C; Finan, Turlough M

    2015-08-01

    Biological pathways are frequently identified via a genetic loss-of-function approach. While this approach has proven to be powerful, it is imperfect as illustrated by well-studied pathways continuing to have missing steps. One potential limiting factor is the masking of phenotypes through genetic redundancy. The prevalence of genetic redundancy in bacterial species has received little attention, although isolated examples of functionally redundant gene pairs exist. Here, we made use of a strain of Sinorhizobium meliloti whose genome was reduced by 45 % through the complete removal of a megaplasmid and a chromid (3 Mb of the 6.7 Mb genome was removed) to begin quantifying the level of genetic redundancy within a large bacterial genome. A mutagenesis of the strain with the reduced genome identified a set of transposon insertions precluding growth of this strain on minimal medium. Transfer of these mutations to the wild-type background revealed that 10-15 % of these chromosomal mutations were located within duplicated genes, as they did not prevent growth of cells with the full genome. The functionally redundant genes were involved in a variety of metabolic pathways, including central carbon metabolism, transport, and amino acid biosynthesis. These results indicate that genetic redundancy may be prevalent within large bacterial genomes. Failing to account for redundantly encoded functions in loss-of-function studies will impair our understanding of a broad range of biological processes and limit our ability to use synthetic biology in the construction of designer cell factories.

  4. Formaldehyde and H110a observations towards 6.7 GHz methanol maser sources

    CERN Document Server

    Okoh, Daniel; Zhou, Jian Jun; Tang, Xin Di; Chukwude, Augustine; Urama, Johnson; Okeke, Pius

    2014-01-01

    Intriguing work on observations of 4.83 GHz formaldehyde (H2CO) absorptions and 4.87 GHz H110a radio recombination lines (RRLs) towards 6.7 GHz methanol (CH3OH) maser sources is presented. Methanol masers provide ideal sites to probe the earliest stages of massive star formation, while 4.8 GHz formaldehyde absorptions are accurate probes of physical conditions in dense $(10^{3} - 10^{5} cm^{-3})$ and low temperature molecular clouds towards massive star forming regions. The work is aimed at studying feature similarities between the formaldehyde absorptions and the methanol masers so as to expand knowledge of events and physical conditions in massive star forming regions. A total of 176 methanol maser sources were observed for formaldehyde absorptions, and formaldehyde absorptions were detected 138 of them. 53 of the formaldehyde absorptions were newly detected. We noted a poor correlation between the methanol and formaldehyde intensities, an indication that the signals (though arise from about the same region...

  5. European VLBI Network imaging of 6.7 GHz methanol masers

    CERN Document Server

    Bartkiewicz, Anna; van Langevelde, Huib J

    2016-01-01

    Methanol masers at 6.7 GHz are well known tracers of high-mass star-forming regions. However, their origin is still not clearly understood. We aimed to determine the morphology and velocity structure for a large sample of the maser emission with generally lower peak flux densities than those in previous surveys. Using the European VLBI Network we imaged the remaining sources (17) from a sample of sources that were selected from the unbiased survey using the Torun 32 m dish. Together they form a database of a total of 63 source images with high sensitivity, milliarcsecond angular resolution and very good spectral resolution for detailed studies. We studied in detail the properties of the maser clouds and calculated the mean and median values of the projected size (17.4 au and 5.5 au, respectively) as well as the FWHM of the line (0.373 km s$^{-1}$ and 0.315 km s$^{-1}$ for the mean and median values, respectively), testing whether it was consistent with Gaussian profile. We also found maser clouds with velocit...

  6. Immunomodulatory Effects of Esculetin (6,7-Dihydroxycoumarin) on Murine Lymphocytes and Peritoneal Macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwok-nam Leung; Pui-yin Leung; Lai-ping Kong; Po-ki Leung

    2005-01-01

    Coumarins belong to a diverse group of naturally occurring non-nutrient phytochemicals known as benzo-α-pyrones. In this study, esculetin, a 6,7-dihydroxy derivative of coumarin with pleiotropic biological activities, was found to have no significant cytotoxic effect on normal murine macrophages, but it could increase the in vivo migration of the thioglycollate-elicited macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, esculetin significantly increased the endocytic activity, and augmented the nitric oxide production and iNOS gene expression in LPS-treated macrophages. In addition, in vivo administration of esculetin into mice was shown to increase the mitogenesis of splenic lymphocytes towards Con A and LPS stimulations, and induced the LAK activity of splenic lymphocytes. Collectively, our results indicate that esculetin could exert immunomodulatory effects on murine macrophages and lymphocytes, both in vitro and in vivo, and this might be one of the possible mechanisms by which coumarins can exert their chemopreventive and anti-tumor activities in vivo.

  7. Herpesviruses 6, 7 and 8 in HIV- and non-HIV-associated periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardirossian, A; Contreras, A; Navazesh, M; Nowzari, H; Slots, J

    2000-10-01

    Human herpesviruses, especially cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus type-1, occur with higher frequency in subgingival specimens from periodontitis lesions than from healthy/gingivitis sites. Little or no information is available on the relationship between herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and periodontal disease. This study determined the periodontal occurrence of HHV-6, HHV-7 and HHV-8 in 21 HIV-seropositive and 14 HIV-negative adults affected by periodontitis. Gingival biopsy specimens and paper-point samples of subgingival plaque were collected from sites showing 5 mm or more in probing depth. Nested polymerase chain reaction methodology was employed in herpesvirus identification. In the HIV-seropositive periodontitis group, 90% of gingival biopsies and 62% of subgingival plaque samples revealed at least one of the test viruses. HHV-6 occurred in 71%, HHV-7 in 67% and HHV-8 in 24% of gingival biopsies. In the HIV-negative adult periodontitis group, 43% of gingival biopsies showed at least 1 of the test viruses, with HHV-6 present in 21% and H HV-7 in 29% of gingival biopsies and with no detection of HHV-8. The combined occurrence of the 3 test herpesviruses was significantly higher in HIV-seropositive than in HIV-negative adult periodontitis patients (p = 0.008). The human periodontium might constitute a site of infection or reservoir for HHV-6, -7, -8.

  8. (±-trans-6,7-Dimethoxy-1-oxo-3-(2-thienylisochroman-4-carboxylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akkurt

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H14O6S, was synthesized by the reaction of 6,7-dimethoxyhomophthalic anhydride with thiophene-2-carbaldehyde in the presence of 4-(dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP as a basic catalyst. The thiophene ring of the title molecule is disordered over two sites with occupancies of 0.877 (3 and 0.123 (3. The disorder corresponds to an approximate 180° rotation of the thiophene ring with respect to the C—C bond linking it to the rest of the molecule. The six-membered ring of the 3,4-dihydroisochromanone ring system is not planar [puckering parameters QT = 0.571 (2 Å, θ = 115.2 (2° and ϕ = 99.1 (2°]. The benzene ring of the 3,4-dihydroisochromanone ring system makes dihedral angles of 75.0 (2 and 77.2 (5° with the disordered thiophene rings. Intermolecular O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, as well as C—H...π interactions, lead to the observed supramolecular structure.

  9. Water Mediated Synthesis of N′-Arylmethylene-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh M. Savant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel two-step synthesis of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide has been developed. The library of N′-arylmethylene-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide was generated by coupling of hydrazide to various aromatic and heterocyclic aldehydes in water media at ambient temperature with great flexibility regarding reaction time and yield.

  10. Water Mediated Synthesis of N′-Arylmethylene-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide Library

    OpenAIRE

    Savant, Mahesh M.; Pansuriya, Akshay M.; Bhuva, Chirag V.; Naval Kapuriya; Yogesh T. Naliapara

    2014-01-01

    A novel two-step synthesis of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide has been developed. The library of N′-arylmethylene-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide was generated by coupling of hydrazide to various aromatic and heterocyclic aldehydes in water media at ambient temperature with great flexibility regarding reaction time and yield.

  11. FRAGMENTATION STUDIES OF D6,7-ANHIDROERITROMISIN-A BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROSCOPY (LC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairan Khairan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Semisynthesis of D6,7-Anhydroerythromycin-A was done by biomodification technique by addition of 0.2% INH into a culture fermentation of Saccharopolyspora erythraea ATCC 11635 in medium Hutchinson. The aim of this research is to studies of fragmentation pattern from new matabolite of D6,7-Anhydroerythromycin-A by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS and the ionization of mass spectroscopy is use by ESI (Electrospray Ionization pattern. The FT-IR spectrometric analyzes showed a stretching vibration of C=C conjugated group at wave number 1602.7 cm-1. This C=C conjugated vibration indicated the existence of double bond between C6 and C7 (D6,7, this confirmed that isolate contained D6,7-Anhydroerythromycin-A (the possibility of D6,7 was positive. For complementation, a LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analyzes using ESI-MS (Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectroscopy ionization pattern was conducted to the isolate which resulted Quassimolecular ions [M+H]+ of D7,8- and D6,7-Anhydroerythromycin-A. LC-MS spectrogram of the isolate, which gave two peaks of m/z 732.2460 and m/z 716.2522, confirmed that the m/z 732.2460 possibly was D7,8-Anhydroerythromycin-A, while the m/z 716.2502 and m/z 715.2522 possibly were D6,7-Anhydroerythromycin-A.   Keywords: isoniazid, enoyl reduction, D6,7-Anhidroeritromisin-A, fragmentation, LC-MS.

  12. The Talent Development of a Musically Gifted Adolescent in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pauline S. K.; Chong, Sylvia N. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Using Gagne's Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (DMGT) as a conceptual model, this study investigated the factors that influenced the talent development process of a musically gifted adolescent in Singapore. Five macro themes emerged as key catalysts that impacted the adolescent's talent growth: (1) natural abilities; (2) early musical…

  13. Computer Habits and Behaviours among Young Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…

  14. Changing Conceptualization of the Role of Educational Psychologists in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Phey Ling; Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra; Burgetova, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Psychology is a young discipline in Singapore. Hence, perceptions of the roles and responsibilities of an educational psychologist (EP) are still constantly being negotiated and redefined. This qualitative study examined how role negotiations and redefinitions could be actively facilitated through an experiential and intensive two-day Basic…

  15. Language Planning in Singapore: On Pragmatism, Communitarianism and Personal Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst-Heng, Wendy D.; Wee, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    Singapore's annual Speak Mandarin Campaign has been largely successful in shifting the language patterns of its Chinese citizens from Chinese dialects to Mandarin in all sectors. However, there has been a notable exception: the effort to have Chinese Singaporeans give their children Mandarin names, rather than dialect ones. In this paper, we…

  16. Wireless Laptops in English Classrooms: A SWOT Analysis from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towndrow, Phillip A.; Vaish, Viniti

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents illustrative findings from a one-year pilot study undertaken in the English department of a high school in Singapore that was in the first year of implementing a one-to-one wireless laptop programme. The findings show that learning was often constrained by lecture-style presentations and overt test preparation. Despite…

  17. Reinventing Ourselves: Collaborative Research Initiatives between Singapore & US Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, M.; Rogers, P.S.; H. Wong, I.F.

    2005-01-01

    To show how coordinated activities involving shared assessment instruments and results between two business schools, one in Singapore, the other in the US/Midwest, have helped faculty shift their research and teaching from a focus on language to an emphasis on communicative competence in English for the global workplace.

  18. Bariatric surgery in Singapore from 2005 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Goel

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: There is a flux of newer procedures in Singapore. Adjustable gastric banding, which was the only available procedure being performed in 2004, was gradually being replaced by other procedures such as sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in 2009.

  19. Elite Schools, Postcolonial Chineseness and Hegemonic Masculinities in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Daniel P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The educational reproduction of elite masculinity in postcolonial societies has not been properly studied. This is partly because the postcolonial masculinities of non-western elites are accomplished through the cultivation of naturalized practices signifying the body politic of the nation-state. In Singapore, same-sex elite schools of colonial…

  20. Bilingualism without Diglossia: The Indian Community in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Viniti

    2007-01-01

    This paper tells a tentative story from the preliminary findings of The Sociolinguistic Survey of Singapore, 2006 (SSS 2006). Though the main study reports on language use amongst Chinese, Malay and Indian communities, my focus is only on Indian homes. The paper reports results from five domains: school, family and friends, media, public space and…

  1. Sex (Education) in the City: Singapore's Sexuality Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Warren Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the Singapore Ministry of Education's sexuality education curriculum in relation to two leading approaches to sex education, namely, abstinence-only-until-marriage education (AOUME) and comprehensive sexuality education (CSE). Based on competing cultural, political, and religious beliefs, the arguments between the advocates of…

  2. Educational Leadership in Singapore: Tight Coupling, Sustainability, Scalability, and Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive; Tan, Cheng Yong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: While Singapore's outstanding educational achievements are well known worldwide, there is a disproportionate paucity of literature on school leadership practices that contribute to and support pedagogical initiatives that--along with socio-cultural factors--are normally considered responsible for its educational success. The aim of this…

  3. Instituting Change in Early Childhood Education: Recent Developments in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Chan, Yvonne Yoke Yin

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to improve preschool education, the Singapore government has embraced the need for change by identifying needed policies related to preschool education. These changes require teachers to rethink their approach to learning and teaching. A proposed tool suggested in this paper that may help facilitate curriculum change is the use of…

  4. Language Shift in the Tamil Communities of Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Harold F.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the position of Tamil as the language of an ethnic minority in Malaysia and Singapore, placing the issue of Tamil and language maintenance within the larger sociolinguistic milieu in the two countries and drawing conclusions about the role of language policy and planning in the determination of linguistic outcomes. (SM)

  5. Tongue-Tied in Singapore: A Language Policy for Tamil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Harold F.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the Tamil language situation in Singapore, which lends itself ideally to the study of minority-language maintenance. Examines attempts to maintain Tamil, a highly diglossic language in emigration and concludes that the well-meaning bilingual education system actually produces a situation of subtractive bilingualism. (Author/VWL)

  6. Familial correlation of retinal vascular caliber in Singapore Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.-J. Li (Ling-Jun); J. Liao (Jie); Q. Fan (Qiao); C.Y.-L. Cheung (Carol Yim-Lui); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); C-Y. Cheng (Ching-Yu); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); T.Y. Wong (Tien)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. Our study aimed to explore the heritability of retinal vascular caliber among Singapore Chinese families. Methods. In the Strabismus, Amblyopia, and Refractive Error Study in Singaporean Chinese Preschoolers (STARS) family study conducted from 2008 to 2010, a total of 727 partic

  7. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  8. Computer Habits and Behaviours among Young Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…

  9. The Effect of Accent on Listening Comprehension: A Singapore Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, George K.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted at Nanyang University in Singapore with Chinese-educated students who supposedly received 12 years of instruction in English but who were still deficient in the language. Comprehension of four different English accents were tested, and two tests of measuring aural comprehension were compared. (SW)

  10. Contesting Reform: Bernstein's Pedagogic Device and Madrasah Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the active role played by various pedagogic agents in contesting the state educational reforms for madrasahs in Singapore. Drawing upon Basil Bernstein's pedagogic device, the paper identifies tensions and challenges that arise from the attempts by the state to implement curriculum reforms. The paper contends that the stakes…

  11. A hypothesis for the 2007 dengue outbreak in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, E; Coutinho, F A B; Ma, S; Burattini, M N

    2010-07-01

    A previous mathematical model explaining dengue in Singapore predicted a reasonable outbreak of about 6500 cases for 2006 and a very mild outbreak with about 2000 cases for 2007. However, only 3051 cases were reported in 2006 while more than 7800 were reported in the first 44 weeks of 2007. We hypothesized that the combination of haze with other local sources of particulate matter had a significant impact on mosquito life expectancy, significantly increasing their mortality rate. To test the hypothesis a mathematical model based on the reproduction number of dengue fever and aimed at comparing the impact of several possible alternative control strategies was proposed. This model also aimed at contributing to the understanding of the causes of dengue resurgence in Singapore in the last decade. The model's simulation demonstrated that an increase in mosquito mortality in 2006 and either a reduction in mortality or an increase in the carrying capacity of mosquitoes in 2007 explained the patterned observed in Singapore. Based on the model's simulation we concluded that the fewer than expected number of dengue cases in Singapore in 2006 was caused by an increase in mosquito mortality due to the disproportionate haze affecting the country that year and that particularly favourable environmental conditions in 2007 propitiated mosquitoes with a lower mortality rate, which explains the greater than expected number of dengue cases in 2007. Whether our hypothesis is plausible or not should be debated further.

  12. Successful School Leadership: Case Studies of Four Singapore Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Loke Heng; Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics and practices of principals in four successful Singapore primary schools. Design/Methodology/Approach: Multiple perspective case studies were used which included semi-structured interviews with the principal, teaching and non-teaching staff, students, parents and school board…

  13. Vocational Training in the Development Process. The Singapore Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, G. F.

    The planning and implementation of vocational training in Singapore (training primarily intended for school-leavers) is highly directed toward serving labor force development objectives. This paper explains the vocational training infrastructure (a national system, the conduct of which is vested in the Vocational and Industrial Training Board),…

  14. Students' Perception of Change in the Singapore Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a research that examines students' perception of the change in the Singapore Education System and how that impacts on their satisfaction and outlook. Analysis of the data obtained through a questionnaire and face-to-face interviews shows that the more favourable the perception of change amongst students, the…

  15. Special Education Teacher Preparation in Singapore's Dual Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Global comparisons of teacher education programs should start with an understanding of the school systems that teachers are being prepared for in their local contexts. The purpose of this article is to describe Singapore's dual education system as well as teacher preparation in a country that educates many students with disabilities in a separate…

  16. Organisational Legitimacy of the Singapore Ministry of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheng Yong

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the perceived organisational legitimacy of the Singapore Ministry of Education (MOE) in preparing the population for work in the knowledge-based economy (KBE). It is argued that challenges to MOE's legitimacy are emerging with ramifications that are difficult to ignore. These challenges relate to equipping the population with…

  17. University 2.0: A View from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Daniel; Lee, Chye Seng; Chan, Lay Kock; Lu, Adrian Din How

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights the processes and best practices adopted by Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in Singapore in implementing their mission-critical e-learning services for a population of 28,000 students and 1,100 faculty members. The various phases of this rapid growth in e-learning from the initial genesis in achieving mass buy-in by…

  18. Reviving Polya's "Look Back" in a Singapore School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yew Hoong; Tay, Eng Guan; Toh, Tin Lam; Quek, Khiok Seng; Dindyal, Jaguthsing

    2011-01-01

    This study is based on the stance that Polya's "Look Back," though understudied, remains relevant to Mathematics curricula that place emphasis on problem solving. Although the Singapore Mathematics curriculum adopts the goal of teaching Look Back, research about how it is carried out in actual classroom practice is rare. In our project,…

  19. The Alignment of Small States: Singapore and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    signed agreements on educational cooperation, science and technology, cultural cooperation and the establishment of a Confucius Institute in Singapore...on a broad mix of international relations theory ranging from structural realism to neoliberal institutionalism to the second order effects of... neoliberal institutionalism and domestic political influence. After those examinations, the following section will use the theories presented to develop a

  20. English, Language Shift and Values Shift in Japan and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This is a comparative study of English language education in Japan and Singapore and the role English plays in both countries. English language education in Japan has not been very effective. Although the communicative approach to teaching English was introduced in the 1980s, schools still use the grammar-translation method and most Japanese do…

  1. Elite Schools, Postcolonial Chineseness and Hegemonic Masculinities in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Daniel P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The educational reproduction of elite masculinity in postcolonial societies has not been properly studied. This is partly because the postcolonial masculinities of non-western elites are accomplished through the cultivation of naturalized practices signifying the body politic of the nation-state. In Singapore, same-sex elite schools of colonial…

  2. Use of Facebook: A Case Study of Singapore Students' Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2012-01-01

    Facebook has become one of the most popular social network sites among many students. However, current research on Facebook use has focused mainly on Anglo-American students. Relatively little is known about Facebook use in Singapore. Data were collected from 83 students (ages ranged from 15 to 23). This study uses a naturalistic case study…

  3. Fourth Way in Action? The Evolution of Singapore's Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Hargreaves and Shirley's "The Fourth Way" offers a valuable framework for considering the challenges and dilemmas that confront education change practitioners. In this article, I consider how well their framework fits the evolution and more recent changes in Singapore education. History, context culture and aspirations are seen as…

  4. STR data for the 13 CODIS loci in Singapore Malays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, H C; Sornarajah, R; Lim, S E S; Syn, C K C; Tan-Siew, W F; Chow, S T; Budowle, Bruce

    2005-03-10

    Allele frequencies for the 13 CODIS (Combined DNA Index System, USA) STR loci included in the AmpFISTR Profiler Plus and AmpFISTR Cofiler kits (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) were determined in a sample of 197 unrelated Malays in Singapore.

  5. How to Assemble a Knowledge Economy: Singapore's Transnational Education Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2006-01-01

    This article takes Singapore, an emerging education hub, as a focal point from which to investigate its attempts to become a global city and knowledge-based economy. It outlines how discourses of the knowledge economy are used to rationalise particular policy interventions and the transnational education forms arising from them. It speculates on…

  6. Vocational Education in Singapore: Meritocracy and Hidden Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Terence

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a broad overview of vocational education in Singapore. Looking at vocational education from Independence, it argues that the development of a skilled labour force was not only crucial in the age of globalisation and the dominance of multinational companies, but also an empirical litmus test of the newly elected post-colonial…

  7. Nurturing Bilingual Learners: Challenges and Concerns in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan; Sun, Baoqi

    2016-01-01

    Singapore's bilingual policy legitimises English not only as the language of governmental administration and interethnic communication, but also as the medium of instruction in all schools on all levels and across all subjects except mother tongues (MTs). As a result of these politics of language recognition, a visible shift has occurred in all…

  8. Wireless Laptops in English Classrooms: A SWOT Analysis from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towndrow, Phillip A.; Vaish, Viniti

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents illustrative findings from a one-year pilot study undertaken in the English department of a high school in Singapore that was in the first year of implementing a one-to-one wireless laptop programme. The findings show that learning was often constrained by lecture-style presentations and overt test preparation. Despite…

  9. Sex (Education) in the City: Singapore's Sexuality Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Warren Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the Singapore Ministry of Education's sexuality education curriculum in relation to two leading approaches to sex education, namely, abstinence-only-until-marriage education (AOUME) and comprehensive sexuality education (CSE). Based on competing cultural, political, and religious beliefs, the arguments between the advocates of…

  10. "Our Shared Values" in Singapore: A Confucian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Charlene Tan offers a philosophical analysis of the Singapore state's vision of shared citizenship by examining it from a Confucian perspective. The state's vision, known formally as "Our Shared Values," consists of communitarian values that reflect the official ideology of multiculturalism. This initiative included a White…

  11. Musical Memories: Snapshots of a Chinese Family in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Chee-Hoo

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines music in the home of a Chinese family in Singapore with specific attention to the children (aged five and seven) of the household: an exploration of what constitutes the lived 'musical' memory of a family enmeshed in the technology and media of a globalised world. The study is part of a larger ethnographic study on the musical…

  12. Familial correlation of retinal vascular caliber in Singapore Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.-J. Li (Ling-Jun); J. Liao (Jie); Q. Fan (Qiao); C.Y.-L. Cheung (Carol Yim-Lui); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); C-Y. Cheng (Ching-Yu); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); T.Y. Wong (Tien)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. Our study aimed to explore the heritability of retinal vascular caliber among Singapore Chinese families. Methods. In the Strabismus, Amblyopia, and Refractive Error Study in Singaporean Chinese Preschoolers (STARS) family study conducted from 2008 to 2010, a total of 727

  13. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Singapore,Laos and Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Singapore-China Friendship Association (SCFA), the Lao-Chinese Friendship Association (LCFA) and the Vietnam-China Friendship Association, a CPAFFC Delegation led by its vice president Feng Zuoku paid goodwill visits to the three countries from January 12 to 25.

  14. Supporting Inclusive Education: Negotiating Home-School Partnership in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Meng Ee; Ng, Zi Jia; Poon, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    While there has been growing theoretical and policy interest in the areas of homeschool partnership and inclusive education, relatively little work has linked the two fields. Where there have been studies, these have focused primarily on parent or school perspective. With inclusive education in its nascent stage in Singapore, this study examines…

  15. Lifelong Learning, Income Inequality and Social Mobility in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Millie; Morris, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singapore has been assigned the role of a "model" nation state primarily for two reasons: its rapid rate of economic growth and its outstanding performance on cross-national tests of educational achievement, such as PISA. This has resulted in advocates of reform citing it as illustrating "best practices", especially in the…

  16. Vocational Education in Singapore: Meritocracy and Hidden Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Terence

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a broad overview of vocational education in Singapore. Looking at vocational education from Independence, it argues that the development of a skilled labour force was not only crucial in the age of globalisation and the dominance of multinational companies, but also an empirical litmus test of the newly elected post-colonial…

  17. Use of Facebook: A Case Study of Singapore Students' Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2012-01-01

    Facebook has become one of the most popular social network sites among many students. However, current research on Facebook use has focused mainly on Anglo-American students. Relatively little is known about Facebook use in Singapore. Data were collected from 83 students (ages ranged from 15 to 23). This study uses a naturalistic case study…

  18. "Inculcating" Creativity: Culture as Public Pedagogy in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terence

    2014-01-01

    The Singapore government has long relied on the inherent public pedagogical qualities of culture in the forms of official cultural and media policies and in the unscripted signifiers of cultural conduct, such as in the public's attitude towards the arts. The prime objective is to instrumentalise citizens on how they should become both…

  19. The energy cost of water independence: the case of Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Lenouvel; Michel, Lafforgue; Catherine, Chevauché; Pauline, Rhétoré

    2014-01-01

    Finding alternative resources to secure or increase water availability is a key issue in most urban areas. This makes the research of alternative and local water resources of increasing importance. In the context of political tension with its main water provider (Malaysia), Singapore has been implementing a comprehensive water policy for some decades, which relies on water demand management and local water resource mobilisation in order to reach water self-sufficiency by 2060. The production of water from alternative resources through seawater desalination or water reclamation implies energy consumptive technologies such as reverse osmosis. In the context of increasing energy costs and high primary energy dependency, this water self-sufficiency objective is likely to be an important challenge for Singapore. The aim of this paper is to quantify the long-term impact of Singapore's water policy on the national electricity bill and to investigate the impact of Singapore's projects to reduce its water energy footprint. We estimate that 2.0% of the Singaporean electricity demand is already dedicated to water and wastewater treatment processes. If its water-energy footprint dramatically increases in the coming decades, ambitious research projects may buffer the energy cost of water self-sufficiency.

  20. Suicide Methods in Singapore (2000-2004): Types and Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Boon-Hock; Franzco, Audrey Chia; Ng, Wai-Yee; Tai, Bee-Choo

    2011-01-01

    The choice of suicide methods varies between countries. Common methods used in Singapore between 2000 and 2004 were jumping (72.4%), hanging (16.6%), and poisoning (5.9%). Those who jumped were more likely to be young, single, female, and to have had a major mental illness. By comparison, those who hung themselves were more likely to be older (OR…

  1. VLBI observations of the 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol masers associated with NGC 6334F

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P; Diamond, P J; McCulloch, P M; Amy, S W; Beasley, A J; Ferris, R H; Gough, R G; King, E A; Lovell, J E J; Reynolds, J E; Tzioumis, A K; Troup, E R; Wark, R M; Wieringa, M H

    1996-01-01

    We present milliarcsecond resolution images of the 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser emission associated with the well-known star formation region NGC 6334F. The images agree well with previous lower resolution observations, but detect approximately double the number of spots seen in the earlier work. Comparison of the relative positions of the 6.7 and 12.2 GHz maser spots shows that five of them are coincident to within the positional accuracy of these observations (approximately 4 milli-arcsec). Menten et al. (1992) observed similar positional coincidence for W3(OH) and in each case the flux density of the 6.7 GHz maser spot was greater than that of the 12.2 GHz methanol maser spot. However, for NGC 6334F several of the coincident maser spots have a larger flux density at 12.2 GHz than at 6.7 GHz. We also detected several 12.2 GHz methanol maser spots with no coincident 6.7 GHz emission. This implies that, although the 6.7 GHz methanol masers usually have a greater flux density than their 12.2 GHz counterpart...

  2. Contact lenses in pediatrics study in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lim; Moody, Kurt; Tan, Donald T H; Yew, Khoo Chong; Ming, Por Yong; Long, Quah Boon

    2009-07-01

    Previous studies in the United States have evaluated the benefits of soft contact lenses (CLs) in 8- to 12-year-old children and 13- to 17-year-old teens. This study was undertaken in Singapore and evaluated the safety, efficacy, and physiologic performance of daily disposable soft lenses in a population of children. In this open-label, bilateral, 3-month dispensing study, 59 children (8-11 years) were fit with etafilcon A spherical or toric daily disposable lenses (1-DAY ACUVUE or 1-DAY ACUVUE for ASTIGMATISM, Vistakon, Jacksonville, FL). All subjects were neophytes requiring visual correction in both eyes. The refractive inclusion criteria were plano to -9.00 diopter (D) with astigmatism of < or =2.00DC in both eyes, or hyperopia of +0.50 to +6.00D with astigmatism of 0.75D or less. The subjects underwent follow-up evaluations, which included a questionnaire for parents and subjects, at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. Of the 59 subjects enrolled, 53 (90%) completed the study successfully. Six subjects were discontinued because of lens handling difficulties (four), unacceptable lens fit (one), and an adverse event (one). Adverse events were reported in three subjects, including the discontinuation, and in each case were due to a chalazion. Overall vision quality, overall comfort, and end-of-day comfort were graded significantly better at each of the follow-up visits compared with baseline with spectacles (P< or =0.0001). Both handling and reported symptoms improved during the course of the study. The questionnaire results indicated that most of both parents and subjects preferred CLs to spectacles across a wide variety of aspects including vision, comfort, handling, and appearance. Significantly, more limbal and bulbar hyperemia was noted at follow-up visits than at baseline (P=0.0001); however, no instances of hyperemia greater than grade 2 were noted at any visit. Significantly, more corneal staining was also noted at the 1- and 3-month follow-up visits than at

  3. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-5/6/7 Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Joseph Palmer; David A. Petti; S. Blaine Grover

    2014-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which each consist of at least five separate capsules, are being irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gases also have on-line fission product monitoring the effluent from each capsule to track performance of the fuel during irradiation. The first two experiments (designated AGR-1 and AGR-2), have been completed. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated AGR-3/4, which started its irradiation in December 2011 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2014. The design of the fuel qualification experiment, designated AGR-5/6/7, is well underway and incorporates lessons learned from the three previous experiments. Various design issues will be discussed with particular details related to selection of thermometry.

  4. The atomistic structure of yttria stabilised zirconia at 6.7 mol%: an ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Michael A; Tompsett, David A; d'Avezac, Mayeul; Offer, Gregory J; Brandon, Nigel P; Harrison, Nicholas M

    2016-11-16

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is an important oxide ion conductor used in solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen sensing devices, and for oxygen separation. Doping pure zirconia (ZrO2) with yttria (Y2O3) stabilizes the cubic structure against phonon induced distortions and this facilitates high oxide ion conductivity. The local atomic structure of the dopant is, however, not fully understood. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments have established that, for dopant concentrations below 40 mol% Y2O3, no long range order is established. A variety of local structures have been suggested on the basis of theoretical and computational models of dopant energetics. These studies have been restricted by the difficulty of establishing force field models with predictive accuracy or exploring the large space of dopant configurations with first principles theory. In the current study a comprehensive search for all symmetry independent configurations (2857 candidates) is performed for 6.7 mol% YSZ modelled in a 2 × 2 × 2 periodic supercell using gradient corrected density functional theory. The lowest energy dopant structures are found to have oxygen vacancy pairs preferentially aligned along the 〈210〉 crystallographic direction in contrast to previous results which have suggested that orientation along the 〈111〉 orientation is favourable. Analysis of the defect structures suggests that the Y(3+)-Ovac interatomic separation is an important parameter for determining the relative configurational energies. Current force field models are found to be poor predictors of the lowest energy structures. It is suggested that the energies from a simple point charge model evaluated at unrelaxed geometries is actually a better descriptor of the energy ordering of dopant structures. Using these observations a pragmatic procedure for identifying low energy structures in more complicated material models is suggested. Calculation of the oxygen vacancy migration activation energies within

  5. DNA-Based Analyses of Molds in Singapore Public Buildings Results in a Proposed Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust samples (n=75) were collected from shopping malls, hotels and libraries in Singapore and then analyzed using Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction(MSQPCR) for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most of these molds (23/...

  6. Thiamine Deficiency Complex Workshop final report: November 6-7, 2008, Ann Arbor, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, Dale C.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Riley, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Fry mortality which was first observed in the late 1960s in Great Lakes salmonines and in Baltic Sea salmon in 1974 has now been linked to thiamine deficiency (historically referred to as Early Mortality Syndrome, or EMS and M74, respectively). Over the past 14 years significant strides have been made in our understanding of this perplexing problem. It is now known that thiamine deficiency causes embryonic mortality in these salmonids. Both overt mortality and secondary effects of thiamine deficiency are observed in juvenile and adult animals. Collectively the morbidity and mortality (fry and adult mortality, secondary metabolic and behavior affects in juveniles and adult fish) are referred to as Thiamine Deficiency Complex (TDC). A workshop was held in Ann Arbor, MI on 6-7 November 2008 that brought together 38 federal, state, provincial, tribal and university scientists to share information, present data and discuss the latest observations on thiamine status of aquatic animals with thiamine deficiency and the causative agent, thiaminase. Twenty presentations (13 oral and 7 posters) detailed current knowledge. In Lake Huron, low alewife Alosa pseudoharengus abundance has persisted and egg thiamine concentrations in salmonines continue to increase, along with evidence of natural reproduction in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Lake Michigan Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha appear to have a lower thiamine requirement than other salmonids in the lake. Lake Ontario American eel Anguilla rostrata foraging on alewife have approximately one third the muscle thiamine compared to eels not feeding on alewife, suggesting that eels may be suffering from thiamine deficiency. Secondary effects of low thiamine exist in Great Lakes salmonines and should not be ignored. Thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels is extremely high but a connection to TDC has not been made. Thiaminase in net plankton was found more consistently in lakes Michigan and Ontario than other lakes

  7. Seismotectonics of the 6 February 2012 Mw 6.7 Negros Earthquake, central Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurelio, M. A.; Dianala, J. D. B.; Taguibao, K. J. L.; Pastoriza, L. R.; Reyes, K.; Sarande, R.; Lucero, A.

    2017-07-01

    At 03:49 UTC on the 6th of February 2012, Negros Island in the Visayan region of central Philippines was struck by a magnitude Mw 6.7 earthquake causing deaths of over 50 people and tremendous infrastructure damage leaving hundreds of families homeless. The epicenter was located in the vicinity of the eastern coastal towns of La Libertad and Tayasan of the Province of Negros Oriental. Earthquake-induced surface deformation was mostly in the form of landslides, liquefaction, ground settlement, subsidence and lateral spread. There were no clear indications of a fault surface rupture. The earthquake was triggered by a fault that has not been previously recognized. Earthquake data, including epicentral and hypocentral distributions of main shock and aftershocks, and focal mechanism solutions of the main shock and major aftershocks, indicate a northeast striking, northwest dipping nodal plane with a reverse fault mechanism. Offshore seismic profiles in the Tañon Strait between the islands of Negros and Cebu show a northwest dipping reverse fault consistent in location, geometry and mechanism with the nodal plane calculated from earthquake data. The earthquake generator is here proposed to be named the Negros Oriental Thrust (NOT). Geologic transects established from structural traverses across the earthquake region reveal an east-verging fold-thrust system. In the latitude of Guihulngan, this fold-thrust system is represented by the Razor Back Anticline - Negros Oriental Thrust pair, and by the Pamplona Anticline - Yupisan Thrust pair in the latitude of Dumaguete to the south. Together, these active fold-thrust systems are causing active deformation of the western section of the Visayan Sea Basin under a compressional tectonic regime. This finding contradicts previous tectonic models that interpret the Tañon Strait as a graben, bounded on both sides by normal faults supposedly operating under an extensional regime. The Negros Earthquake and the active fold

  8. Investing in Our Future: The Early Years. First Singapore Conference on Preschool Education: Promoting Quality Care and Education for Preschoolers (Singapore, December 2-3, 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan-Niam, Carolyn, Ed.; Ling, Quah May, Ed.

    Informed by current thinking and supported by data gathered in Singapore, this volume compiles a selection of papers presented at the First Singapore Conference on Preschool Education: Promoting Quality Care and Education for Preschoolers. The papers are: (1) "Introduction: Issues in Quality Provision for Preschool Care and Education" (Carolyn…

  9. Sequencing of 6.7 Mb of the melon genome using a BAC pooling strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Mas Jordi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumis melo (melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among horticulture crops is second only to Solanaceae. Melon has a high intra-specific genetic variation, morphologic diversity and a small genome size (454 Mb, which make it suitable for a great variety of molecular and genetic studies. A number of genetic and genomic resources have already been developed, such as several genetic maps, BAC genomic libraries, a BAC-based physical map and EST collections. Sequence information would be invaluable to complete the picture of the melon genomic landscape, furthering our understanding of this species' evolution from its relatives and providing an important genetic tool. However, to this day there is little sequence data available, only a few melon genes and genomic regions are deposited in public databases. The development of massively parallel sequencing methods allows envisaging new strategies to obtain long fragments of genomic sequence at higher speed and lower cost than previous Sanger-based methods. Results In order to gain insight into the structure of a significant portion of the melon genome we set out to perform massive sequencing of pools of BAC clones. For this, a set of 57 BAC clones from a double haploid line was sequenced in two pools with the 454 system using both shotgun and paired-end approaches. The final assembly consists of an estimated 95% of the actual size of the melon BAC clones, with most likely complete sequences for 50 of the BACs, and a total sequence coverage of 39x. The accuracy of the assembly was assessed by comparing the previously available Sanger sequence of one of the BACs against its 454 sequence, and the polymorphisms found involved only 1.7 differences every 10,000 bp that were localized in 15 homopolymeric regions and two dinucleotide tandem repeats. Overall, the study provides approximately 6.7 Mb or 1.5% of the melon genome. The analysis of this new data has

  10. The genetic organisation of the capsule biosynthesis region of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 6, 7, and 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessing, Stine Graakjær; Ahrens, Peter; Inzana, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the organisation of the genes (cps) involved in biosynthesis the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 6, 7, and 12 and to compare these to the corresponding genes previously described in other A. pleuropneumoniae......C of A.pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 6, 7, and 8 contained a high degree of homology. At the amino acid level Cps6D revealed a high degree of homology to Cps8D, whereas Cps7D contained a high degree of homology to the Cps2D. The deduced gene product of the partially sequenced cps6E gene showed...... no homology to any deduced gene products of any cps genes of A. pleuropneumoniae investigated so far. None of the deduced gene products of the cps genes involved in encapsulation of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 6, 7, and 8 revealed homology to the deduced gene products og the cps genes of serotypes 1, 5A...

  11. Synthesis and structure-active relationship of 1-aryl-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitto, Rosaria; De Luca, Laura; Ferro, Stefania; Agnello, Stefano; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovanbattista; Chimirri, Alba

    2010-12-01

    We have previously disclosed that some 6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline derivatives are able to produce anticonvulsant effects in different animal models of epilepsy. Following these studies this paper describes the synthesis of a small series of new 1-aryl-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines strictly related to previously reported analogues. This novel series of isoquinolines was designed on the basis of well defined structure-active relationship (SAR) information already acquired for this class of anticonvulsant agents. The pharmacological effects of the new synthesized compounds were evaluated against audiogenic seizures in Dilute Brown non-Agouti (DBA/2) mice. The preliminary pharmacological screening led to the identification of a new active molecule the 2-acetyl-1-(4'-methylphenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (6d) that displayed significant anticonvulsant activity. Computational studies helped to rationalize these obtained pharmacological results.

  12. The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    U.S. service providers in Singapore under the FTA, Citibank has been able to expand its operations there (it has 50% of the credit card market...ATM network by 2008.6 Citibank , in particular, has been expanding its presence in Singapore. From four branches in 2004, it now has eleven full...locate ATMs and branches in and around subway stations.8 Citibank has a 50% share of the Singapore credit card market.9 As of mid-2006, Citibank

  13. Malaysia and Singapore's terrorist rehabilitation programs : learning and adapting to terrorist threats

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The central question of this thesis examines how Malaya/Malaysia and Singapore learned and adapted successful terrorist disengagement programs and policies; through their unique and non-military rehabilitation programs. The methodology is a comparative case study analysis of Malaysia and Singapore. In order to understand how the countries of Malaya/Malaysia and Singapore adapted a colonial-era counter-insurgency program to disengage Communist Terrorists into a program that now rehabilitates r...

  14. Singapore Airlines to Fly A380 to Beijing Due to Olympics Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Customers will enjoy exhilarating sporting action,exciting moments when they fly with Singapore Airlincs during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing.To satisfy higher demand on its flights during the of the Olympic Games,Singapore Airlines will fly the Airbus A380 super-jumbo,the world's largest passenger plane,on one of its three daily flights between Singapore and Beijing for one week in early August.

  15. Evaluation of lipid peroxidation inhibition and free radical scavenging abilities of 5,6,7-tfimethoxy dihydroflavonols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Xin Huang; Yu Bing Feng; Wei Yao; Lei Xiang Yang; Feng Wang; Hai Bo Li; Su Zeng; Jing Xu Gong; Ming Hui Hu; Yu Zhao; Xiu Mei Wu; Xiao Kun Li; Jia Qu

    2009-01-01

    Four naturally rare 5,6,7-trimethoxy-2,3-cis-dihydroflavonols (3-6) and two 5,6,7-trimethoxy-2,3-trans-dihydroflavonols (7-8) were designed and synthesized. Their antioxidative properties were evaluated by way of examining their scavenging capacities towards DPPH and O_2~(·-) free radicals,as well as by measuring their inhibitory ability against LPO.Both the 2,3-trans and the 2,3-cis conformers exhibited certain quenching abilities to DPPH and O_2~(·-) radicals,while most of the synthetic dihydroflavonols demonstrated remarkable inhibition to LPO.

  16. Process for manufacturing bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Paul George; Lawton, Richard Graham

    2014-06-03

    A process to manufacture substituted tetracyano-hexaazatricyclics with the substitutions occurring at the 9 and 10 hydrogens. The process begins with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanopyrazine, which is reacted to form the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different process embodiments enable different reaction paths to the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic embodiments include bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene and bis(2-methoxyethoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracen- e.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: General Catalogue of 6.7GHz Methanol Masers (Pestalozzi+, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, M. R.; Minier, V.

    2003-10-01

    The catalogue of the 6.7GHz methanol masers comprises all detected sources since the discovery of this intense radiation. For every source we report name, right ascension and declination in J2000, galactic coordinates, vlsr, velocity range, peak flux, galactocentric and heliocentric distances (near and far), IRAS and MSX associations if any, usual name, detected methanol masers at 12, 44, 85.5, 86.5, 95, 107, 108, 156GHz, reference of the 6.7GHz detection and reobservation. (2 data files).

  18. Optical packaging activities at Institute of Microelectronics (IME), Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Keng-Hwa; Sudharsanam, Krishnamachari; Pamidighantam, Ramana V.; Yeo, Yongkee; Iyer, Mahadevan K.

    2002-08-01

    The development of optoelectronic components for gigabit Ethernet communications is converging towards access networks where the cost of device makes a significant impact on the market acceptance. Device fabrication and packaging cost have to be brought down with novel assembly and packaging methods. Singapore has established a reputation in semiconductor device development and fabrication with excellent process and packaging facilities. Institute of Microelectronics (IME) was founded in 1991 to add value to the Singapore electronics industry. IME is involved in the development of active and passive photonics components using Silicon and polymer materials. We present a brief report on the development activities taking place in the field of optical component packaging at IME in recent years. We present a review of our competence and some of the optical device packaging activities that are being undertaken.

  19. Prevention and control of avian influenza in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Hon Keong; Goh, Cheryl S; Chew, Siang Thai; Lim, Chee Wee; Lin, Yueh Nuo; Chang, Siow Foong; Yap, Him Hoo; Chua, Sin Bin

    2008-06-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus was first detected in 1996 in Guangdong, China. Since 2003, H5N1 outbreaks have been reported in parts of Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. It is currently entrenched among poultry in parts of Asia and poses a major challenge to animal and human health. Singapore is free from HPAI. Given Singapore's need to import food, the Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA) has adopted a pro-active risk management system to prevent the introduction of HPAI. AVA's approach maybe described as a multi-layered control strategy for the prevention and control of HPAI. The strategy includes control measures at source, border control measures, local control measures and emergency preparedness.

  20. Organochlorine compounds in the marine atmosphere of Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurl, Oliver; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in high-volume air samples collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) over the sea surface of Singapore during the summer monsoon period of 2004. A novel and quality assured microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) procedure for PUF was developed as an alternative to conventional Soxhlet extraction for the analysis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). Average concentrations of ΣPCBs, ΣHCHs and ΣDDTs in air samples were 32, 311 and 8 pg m -3, respectively. Overall, a decline in the ocean atmospheric concentration of DDTs was noted relative to data obtained from the early 1990s, but current data are in a similar range for HCH and PCBs. Levels of OCs in the equatorial atmosphere were compared to equivalent data from temperate regions available in the literature. On a global scale, the levels of DDTs and PCBs in the atmosphere of Singapore are low, but moderate for HCHs.

  1. National Information Infrastructure and the realization of Singapore IT2000 initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Marie Cordeiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a small island and without any natural resource, Singapore has much to depend on its human potential and investment in National Information Infrastructure (NII in order to find its place in the ever competitive global world economies. From Singapore's first experience with the setting up and accessing of the Internet in 1991, the Singapore Government has expended so much creative and financial energy into using information technology to spearhead Singapore's success in terms of enticing and encouraging economic growth and achieving national competitiveness on a global scale. In 1991, the Singapore government, together with the National Computer Board (NCB currently known as the Infocomm Development Authority (IDA, launched the IT 2000, with the objective of converting Singapore into an intelligent island. With many NII projects in place and the various government initiative, this study focus on the role of Singapore Government in the development of the national information infrastructure and the realisation of IT2000 vision. This investigative study delves into the role of the Singapore government in helping Singapore forge its path into the new millennium of the information world.

  2. Epidemiological surveillance and control of rubella in Singapore, 1991-2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ang, Li Wei; Chua, Lian Tee; James, Lyn; Goh, Kee Tai

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiological features of rubella in Singapore and the impact of the national immunisation programme in raising the population herd immunity against rubella, with special reference...

  3. Exp erimental research on laser-pro duced Gd target plasma source for 6.7 nm lithography%Gd靶激光等离子体6.7 nm光源的实验研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦银萍; 谢卓; 宋晓林; 田勇; 林景全

    2015-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography at λ = 6.7 nm is a challenging subject for next generation semiconductor lithography beyond 13.5 nm. The availability of strong radiation at the operating wavelength and low-debris of the plasma source are the two most important aspects for the development of laser-produced Gd plasma source at 6.7 nm. In this paper, experimental research on the extreme ultraviolet source based on the laser-produced Gd plasma is performed. Strong radiation near 6.7 nm from the source has been obtained, which is attributed to the n=4–n=4 transitions in Gd ions that overlap to yield an intense unresolved transition array (UTA). Dependence of spectral variation near the strong emission region of Gd plasma on the incident laser power density and detection angles is given. It is found that the intensity of EUV radiation around 6.7 nm is increased with increasing laser power density, and the emission peak around 7.1 nm increases faster than that of emission peak around 6.7 nm after the laser intensity reaching 6.4 × 1011 W/cm2, which is ascribed to the unique spectroscopic behavior of Gd ions. In addition, the energy of the ion debris from laser-produced Gd plasma source as well as the angular distribution of the ion yield off the target normal are measured with Faraday cup. Results show that the ion energy corresponding to the peak position of Gd ion energy distribution is about 2.6 keV at 10◦ off the target normal, and the yield of Gd ions decreases with the increase of the angle from the target normal. Furthermore, the stopping ability of an ambient magnetic field for ion debris from laser Gd plasma source is evaluated, and the result shows that the energetic Gd ion can be effectively mitigated by applying a 0.9 T magnetic field.

  4. Integrating research, clinical practice and translation: the Singapore experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Zhang, Zhuo; Lee, Beng-Hai; Gao, Xinting; Yin, Fengshou; Zhang, Jielin; Htoo, Min Thet

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the experiences of the Singapore ocular imaging team, iMED, in integrating image processing and computer-aided diagnosis research with clinical practice and knowledge, towards the development of ocular image processing technologies for clinical usage with potential impact. In this paper, we outline key areas of research with their corresponding image modalities, as well as providing a systematic introduction of the datasets used for validation.

  5. ART STAGE SINGAPORE THE NEW DESTINATION FOR THE ART WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    ASlA’S NEW INTERNATIONAL TOP CONTEMPORARY ART FAIR Art Stage Singapore supports and protects the interests of Asian galleries by elevating them to a level of international importance in order to help propel them as strong and competitive players in the global market. Therefore,the heart of the fair is made up of the best and most exciting of Asia’s artistic creativity,showcasing Asia’s most important

  6. Moral education in a plural society: A singapore case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, S.

    1980-06-01

    When one looks at the discussion of moral education issues in Singapore today, one cannot fail to be struck by the urgency and earnestness which characterize the debate. In common with many other Asian nations aiming at stability and growth without losing "national character", Singapore too places great faith in the education system. Unlike other countries, however, which are fortunate in having a homogeneous cultural tradition, the complexities of managing moral education in a plural context bedevil Singapore's educators. The very richness of the cultural tradition here imposes the task of selection, and subsequent justification, of the core values to be taught; both the values and the manner of teaching, touching as the latter does upon the school's relationships with the home and, in particular, religious institutions, come under close scrutiny. In addition there is the need to win the benefits of modernization and to implant notions of loyalty and sacrifice while retaining the best virtues of the migrant mentality. The challenges, then, are formidable, but the judgement on current efforts in moral education must be that it is an inadequate response. The authorities seem unable to utilize in full measure the potential of a rich and varied cultural tradition to enrich moral education in the nation's schools. The over-riding concern to ensure political stability, and the need to be sensitive to ethnic sensibilities, have produced a cautious reliance on generalities —when the need, given the youthful nature of the population and the uncertainties of life in the latter half of the twentieth century, is surely for a more forthright acceptance of the challenge. A re-assessment of current moral education ventures is necessary but a useful one will have to await greater clarity in the analysis of Singapore culture and its goals.

  7. Footwear characteristics in people with inflammatory arthritis in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, K.; Lahiri, M.; Cheung, P. P.; Santosa, A.; Rome, K

    2016-01-01

    Background Foot problems are common in people with inflammatory arthritis. Despite suitable footwear having the potential to alleviate pain, improve mobility and maintain independence, previous studies have found many people with inflammatory arthritis wearing poorly fitting and inappropriate footwear. Footwear styles and characteristics have not been reported in a Singapore inflammatory arthritis population. The objective of this study was to identify current footwear styles and characterist...

  8. Real interest rates equalization: The case of Malaysia and Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This study provides some evidences showing high degree of financial integration from both evidences of common shocks and real interest parity in the context of two small and open economies, that is, Malaysia and Singapore. Few key policy implications may be suggested from the findings in this study. First, foreign investors who invest in these two countries may need to look for sources of diversification to protect their wealth against the occurrence of contagion effect due to the strong tr...

  9. Individualized and Depoliticized: A Study of Chinese Blogosphere in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Soon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on new media such as blogs examines users’ motivations and gratifications, and how individuals and organizations use them for political participation. In Singapore, political blogs have attracted much public scrutiny due to the bloggers’ online and offline challenges of official discourse. While previous research has established the political significance of these blogs, extant scholarship is limited to blogs written in the English language. Little is known about blogs maintained by the Chinese community, the largest ethnic group in multi-racial Singapore. This study is a first to examine this community and the space they inhabit online. Through web crawling, we identified 201 Chinese-language blogs and through content analysis, we analyzed if Chinese bloggers contributed to public debates and used their blogs for civic engagement. Their content, motivations for blogging in the language, hyperlinking practices and use of badges indicated that Chinese bloggers in Singapore do not use blogs for political participation and mobilization, but are individualized and a-politicized. We discuss possible reasons and implications in this paper.

  10. Hydrodynamic modeling of Singapore's coastal waters: Nesting and model accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, G. M. Jahid; van Maren, Dirk Sebastiaan; Ooi, Seng Keat

    2016-01-01

    The tidal variation in Singapore's coastal waters is influenced by large-scale, complex tidal dynamics (by interaction of the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea) as well as monsoon-driven low frequency variations, requiring a model with large spatial coverage. Close to the shores, the complex topography, influenced by headlands and small islands, requires a high resolution model to simulate tidal dynamics. This can be achieved through direct nesting or multi-scale nesting, involving multiple model grids. In this paper, we investigate the effect of grid resolution and multi-scale nesting on the tidal dynamics in Singapore's coastal waters, by comparing model results with observations using different statistical techniques. The results reveal that the intermediate-scale model is generally sufficiently accurate (equal to or better than the most refined model), but also that the most refined model is only more accurate when nested in the intermediate scale model (requiring multi-scale nesting). This latter is the result of the complex tidal dynamics around Singapore, where the dominantly diurnal tidal currents are decoupled from the semi-diurnal water level variations. Furthermore, different techniques to quantify model accuracy (harmonic analysis, basic statistics and more complex statistics) are inconsistent in determining which model is more accurate.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of heart disease among adults in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-02-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and it has been well established that it is associated with both mental and physical conditions. This paper describes the prevalence of heart disease with mental disorders and other chronic physical conditions among the Singapore resident population. Data were from the Singapore Mental Health Study which was a representative, cross-sectional epidemiological survey undertaken with 6616 Singapore residents, between December 2009 and December 2010. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 was used to establish the diagnosis of mental disorders, while a chronic medical conditions checklist was used to gather information on 15 physical conditions, including various forms of heart disease. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Euro-Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D). The lifetime prevalence of heart disease was 2.8%. Socio-demographic correlates of heart disease included older age, Indian ethnicity, secondary education (vs. tertiary) and being economically inactive. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and other comorbid physical and mental disorders, the prevalence of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder were significantly higher among those with heart disease, as were diabetes, arthritis, kidney failure and lung disease. These findings highlight important associations between heart disease and various socio-demographic correlates, mental disorders and physical conditions. Given the high prevalence of mood disorders among heart disease patients, timely and appropriate screening and treatment of mental disorders among this group is essential.

  12. The Singapore Mental Health Study: an overview of the methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Heng, Derrick; Kwok, Kian Woon; Lim, Yee Wei; Yap, Mabel; Chong, Siow Ann

    2012-06-01

    The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) is a population-based, cross-sectional, epidemiological study on the Singapore multi-ethnic adult population. This article provides an overview of the research design and methods used which took into consideration the unique characteristics of the country and its multi-ethnic population. A face-to-face household survey of Singapore residents aged 18 years and above was undertaken from 2009 to 2010. The nationally representative probability sample was derived using a disproportionate stratified sampling method. In order to increase precision for subgroup estimations the design was stratified with over-sampling of Malays, Indians and those aged 65 years and above. Respondents were assessed using the English, Chinese (computerized) and Malay (paper and pencil based) version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 3.0 to establish lifetime and 12-month prevalence of mental disorders, the current use of mental health services (both Western and traditional services), the treatment gaps and loss of role functioning.

  13. Outcome of a second patch test reading of TRUE Tests® on D6/7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp Madsen, Jakob; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    positive on D6/7 after a doubtful (?+) reaction on D3/4. Neomycin was the most frequent allergen giving delayed positive reactions (57%), followed by budesonide (42%) and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate (31%). Conclusion. A total of 4.4% of positive TRUE Test® reactions would be missed, and 9.1% might be missed...

  14. Preparation of (±)-5,6,7-Trioxygenated Dihydrofiavonols and Evaluation of their Superoxide Radical Scavenging Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of (±)-5, 6, 7-trioxygenated dihydroflavonols was carried out. All synthetic compounds were passed through superoxide radical scavenging activity in vitro.Compounds 1 e and 1 g exhibited significant bioactivity with the inhibitory rates of 68.1% and 80.9% at 40 μg/mL, respectively.

  15. Oxa-Pictet-Spengler reaction in water.Synthesis of some(±)-1-aryl-6,7-dimethoxyisochromans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aamer; Saeed

    2010-01-01

    An acid catalyzed oxa-Pictet-Spengler reaction‘on water' leading to the synthesis of a variety of l-aryl-6,7-dimethoxyisochro-mans is described.The aqueous chemistry is a much cleaner,efficient,cheaper and simple method for synthesis.The scope of reactions was extended to thia-Pictet-Spengler reaction to afford the some isothiochromans.

  16. The use of law to encourage smaller families in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T W

    1980-01-01

    To pursue its goal of rapid economic development, Singapore provides family planning services and has vigorously encouraged its citizens to limit family size. The government has legislated disincentives for families to have more than 2 children. This discussion reviews the history of these legal measures and their usefulness as a tool to promote social change and development. Singapore has used the law as a means to encourage family planning in order to supplement the overall thrust for economic development in the late 1960s. Freed from obligations to the Malaysian Federation and lacking the support of the British military as of 1969, Lee Kuan Yew led his people's economic development along a Western model. Reduction of population growth is an essential component of that model. Lee stressed family planning by providing clinics, by advertising, by promoting housing and lifestyles conducive to nuclear families, and by gradually adopting a set of laws favoring small families. These laws were introduced in different sectors of the economy at different times and were revised as social conditions changed. Typically, they set a minor monetary or priority penalty for parents of 3 or more children. The laws discourage additional births rather than prohibit them, guiding rather than forcing family planning decisions. To what extent the laws were the cause of decreasing family size in Singapore is uncertain, but they contributed to some extent to the country's phenomenal progress in income and lifestyle. The Abortion Act of 1969 legalized abortion on nonmedical grounds with the Singapore Family Planning and Population Board (SFPPB) approval. The Act was amended twice in 1974 to make abortions available "on demand." The charging of progressive delivery (accouchement) fees in government hospitals for mothers with 2 or more children might be considered as the focal point of the total disincentives system. The fees placed financial pressure directly on those who violated the

  17. 6,7-二氢-5H-环戊烷并[b]吡啶的合成%Synthesis of 6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopentano[b]pyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫平; 赵燕芳; 余德胜

    2001-01-01

    O-Allyl-cyclopentanone oxime intermediate was prepared by the“one pot” method,and the thermolysis of it in oxygen gave 6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopentano[b]pyridine, the total yield was 35%.%以“一勺烩”方法制备中间体O-烯丙基-环戊酮肟,无需分离纯化化合物O-烯丙基羟胺,热解反应以氧气代替空气,制得6,7-二氢-5H-环戊烷并[b]吡啶,反应总收率为35%。

  18. 6,7-二氢-5H-环戊烷并b 吡啶的合成方法的研究%Study on Synthesis Method of 6,7-dihydro-5H-Cyclopentano b Pyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙罡; 陆长纯

    2008-01-01

    以"一步法"方法制备中间体O-烯丙基-环戊酮肟,无需分离纯化化合物O-烯丙基羟胺,热解反应以氧气代替空气,制得6,7-二氢-5H-环戊烷并b 吡啶,反应总收率为48%.

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[d]pyrimidine and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinazoline derivatives as sigma-1 (σ1) receptor antagonists for the treatment of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu; Songyang, Yiyan; Zhang, Lingli; Peng, Yan; Song, Jinchun

    2016-04-15

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of new series of 6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[d]pyrimidine and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinazoline derivatives as selective sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) antagonists are reported. The receptor affinities of new compounds were evaluated in vitro in σ1 and σ2 receptor binding assays. The structure-active relationship study leads us to the most promising compound: 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-(3-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)propoxy)-5,6,7,8-tetra-hydroquinazoline (33). Compound 33 has exerted nanomolar affinity for σ1R (Kiσ1=15.6 nM) and high σ1/σ2 selectivity (Kiσ2 >2000 nM), and identified to be a σ1R antagonist. In animal model, compound 33 exhibited dose dependent anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test. These results suggest that compound 33 could be a potent analgesic for pain treatment.

  20. Complexity of Language Ideologies in Transnational Movement: Korean "Jogi Yuhak" Families' Ambivalent Attitudes towards Local Varieties of English in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, So Hee

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the complex and competing language ideologies that Korean educational migrant families in Singapore hold about the normativity and legitimacy of English language varieties. During their educational migration in Singapore, Korean families show ambivalent attitudes toward the local variety of English in Singapore, Singlish.…

  1. 75 FR 25032 - Biennial Review of the Progress of Cooperation Under the United States-Singapore Memorandum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Biennial Review of the Progress of Cooperation Under the United States-Singapore Memorandum of Intent on Cooperation in Environmental Matters and Suggestions for 2011-2012 U.S.-Singapore Plan of Action for... under the U.S.-Singapore Memorandum of Intent on Cooperation on Environmental Matters and...

  2. Complexity of Language Ideologies in Transnational Movement: Korean "Jogi Yuhak" Families' Ambivalent Attitudes towards Local Varieties of English in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, So Hee

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the complex and competing language ideologies that Korean educational migrant families in Singapore hold about the normativity and legitimacy of English language varieties. During their educational migration in Singapore, Korean families show ambivalent attitudes toward the local variety of English in Singapore, Singlish.…

  3. Doing Business in the Global Village: Japanese Professionals on EL Needs in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Mitaka

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of English language (EL) education from the perspectives of Japanese and non-Japanese professionals in Singapore, based on their experiences of "doing business" in Singapore. As established career business people, the perspectives of Japanese participants offer a retrospective evaluation of their…

  4. Online Learning in Singapore Primary Schools: An Interview with Seng Chee Tan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Elizabeth; Tan, Seng Chee

    2005-01-01

    The Southeast Asian country of Singapore comprises a main island and numerous islets between Malaysia and Indonesia. Inhabited by Chinese, Malays, Indians, Eurasians, and other ethnic populations, Singapore is a vibrant mix of different cultures and religions. It is also reputed to be the most wired island in the world. This characteristic--along…

  5. Why Schools in America Should Not Be Like Schools in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Barbara S. S.

    2014-01-01

    America is not Singapore and Singapore cannot be America. So why are we often comparing ourselves to high-performing countries based on international exams? Despite the educational crisis many U.S. schools are facing, Americans should be cautious not to mimic another country's model within our diverse classrooms. We are largely grounded on…

  6. The MBA in Singapore: A Microcosm of Communication Training for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Priscilla S.; Wong, Irene F. H.

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses communication training provided in MBA and executive MBA programs in Singapore. The authors found that Singapore is a microcosm in terms of (a) requirements for English competency, (b) the variety of communication offerings, and (c) the lack of uniformity in the delivery of communication training. Whereas Singaporean MBA/EMBA…

  7. Singapore's Response to the Global War for Talent: Politics and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses how Singapore engages in the global war for talent. The paper discusses how Singapore demonstrates a Foucauldian perspective of "governmentality" in trying to mould citizens into a way of thinking that is geared suitably to an engagement in a global talent war. It first examines the social, political and economic…

  8. Is Singapore's School Geography Becoming Too Responsive to the Changing Needs of Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chew-Hung

    2014-01-01

    In understanding the divergences and commonalities in the representations of geography across different national settings, the case of Singapore is examined through the notion of politicisation of school curricula to meet the needs of "significant power groups". In particular, the development of school geography in Singapore and its…

  9. Doing Class Analysis in Singapore's Elite Education: Unravelling the Smokescreen of "Meritocratic Talk"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the specificity of the education-class nexus in an elite independent school in Singapore. It seeks to unravel the puzzle that meritocracy is dogmatically believed in Singapore in spite of evidences that point to the contrary. The paper draws on discursive (analysis of media materials) and institutional (analysis of interview…

  10. The Purposes Outdoor Education Does, Could and Should Serve in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the purposes that outdoor education does, could and should serve in Singapore. Gert Biesta's conceptualisation of three functions of education is adapted to frame deliberations on the purposes of outdoor education in Singapore's socio-political and educational milieu. The author suggests that outdoor education in…

  11. A Tale of Two Countries: Comparing Civic Education in the Philippines and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baildon, Mark; Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Paculdar, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a comparative analysis of citizenship education in the Philippines and Singapore. Through an analysis of historical contexts, citizenship education policy and curriculum, it examines "Makabayan" in the Philippines and "National Education" in Singapore. It identifies particular policy and curriculum…

  12. Service Learning Using English Language Teaching in Pre-Service Teacher Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Rozario, Vilma; Low, Ee Ling; Avila, Ava Patricia; Cheung, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    In line with the Ministry of Education's vision of the delivery of twenty-first century competencies amongst all students in Singapore, the National Institute of Education in Singapore employs service learning as a pedagogical tool to develop community outreach and engagement. This paper begins with a review of related literature on service…

  13. "Hottest Brand, Coolest Pedagogy": Approaches to Corporate Branding in Singapore's Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Carl Jon Way

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the corporate branding efforts of Singapore's publicly funded higher education institutions within a context of neoliberal marketization. Adopting a discourse-analytic perspective, it examines the kind of branding approaches employed by Singapore's universities and polytechnics, and how these approaches are realized…

  14. Status of Tamil Language in Singapore: An Analysis of Family Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakara, Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the phenomenon of Language Maintenance and Language Shift through a qualitative study of Tamil language in the family domain in Singapore. The influence of Singapore's bilingual policy and the institutional support offered for maintenance of Tamil language provide the context in which the central research problem of the status…

  15. Why Schools in America Should Not Be Like Schools in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Barbara S. S.

    2014-01-01

    America is not Singapore and Singapore cannot be America. So why are we often comparing ourselves to high-performing countries based on international exams? Despite the educational crisis many U.S. schools are facing, Americans should be cautious not to mimic another country's model within our diverse classrooms. We are largely grounded on the…

  16. Quality Assurance in the Singapore Education System in an Era of Diversity and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how Singapore attempts to balance the need for quality assurance and the need for educational diversity and innovation. The Singapore experience shows that this is a delicate balance. On the one hand, to promote diversity and innovation, the government attempts to decentralise its power to the schools. On the other hand, for…

  17. Challenging and Co-Opting Globalisation: Singapore's Strategies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, S.; Lee, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Since its independence in 1965, Singapore has adopted a developmental state orientation and has placed a strong emphasis on education to meet its socio-economic development needs. In line with its aspirations to be a regional education hub, the Singapore higher education system hosts a number of prestigious institutions and international…

  18. Assessment and the Logic of Instructional Practice in Secondary 3 English and Mathematics Classrooms in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, David; Chan, Melvin; Rahim, Ridzuan; Kwek, Dennis; Aye, Khin Maung; Loo, Siok Chen; Sheng, Yee Zher; Luo, Wenshu

    2013-01-01

    By any measure, Singapore's educational system has generated an extraordinary record of achievement over the past two or three decades. In this article, we report on one key component of a broader three year investigation into why Singapore has done so well, and explore the logic, strength, resilience and limits of the underlying pedagogical model…

  19. Curriculum as Praxis: Ensuring Quality Technical Education in Singapore for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yek, Tiew Ming; Penney, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    Singapore, a small island city-state, has achieved notable economic advancement within 40 years since independence. It is fast becoming a global city and a knowledge society. In education and training, the Singapore system has evolved from its British roots. Macro performance indicators of participation rate, literacy rate and mean years of…

  20. Adult Learners Understanding in Learning Islam Using the Andragogy Approach in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Mohd Amin Bin

    2016-01-01

    This study describes adult learners understanding in learning Islam using the andragogy approach in Singapore comprising multicultural and multi-religious society. Singapore is a secular state where freedom of religion is encrypted in the constitution and Malay/Muslim comprises 13.3% of the population. Adults learn Islam to deepen their…

  1. Relationships between indices of obesity and its co-morbidities in multi-ethnic Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Chew, S.K.; Lin, V.F.; Tan, B.Y.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2001-01-01

    Paper Relationships between indices of obesity and its co-morbidities in multi-ethnic Singapore M Deurenberg-Yap1, S K Chew2, V F P Lin1, B Y Tan2, W A van Staveren3 and P Deurenberg3,4 1Research and Information Management, Health Promotion Board, Singapore 2Department of Epidemiology and Disease Co

  2. Gender differences in the trend of colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore, 1968–2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); C.S. Wong (Chia Siong); K.S. Chia (Kee Seng); X. Sim (Xueling); C.S. Tan (Chuen Seng); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); H.M. Verkooijen (Helena)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground and aims Over the past decades, incidence trends of colorectal cancer are sharply increased in Singapore. In this population-based study we describe changes in colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore and explore the reasons behind these changes through age-period cohort (APC

  3. Gender differences in the trend of colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore, 1968-2002.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, IM de; Wong, C.S.; Chia, K.S.; Sim, X.; Tan, C.S.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Verkooijen, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Over the past decades, incidence trends of colorectal cancer are sharply increased in Singapore. In this population-based study we describe changes in colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore and explore the reasons behind these changes through age-period cohort (APC) modeling.

  4. -New Destinations, Greater Convenience-ANA and Singapore Airlines Expand Strategic Code-Sharing Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ ANA and Singapore Airlines have filed for permission to increase their present code-sharing relationship to cover destinations in Asia,North America and Japan beyond the hub mrports of Singapore Changi Airport and Tokyo Narita Airport,from September 1 this year.

  5. An Assessment of the Use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in Teaching Geography in Singapore Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Lee Yong; Tan, Geok Chin Ivy; Zhu, Xuan; Wettasinghe, Marissa C.

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, geographical information systems (GIS) were introduced to secondary schools in Singapore as a tool for teaching geography at the secondary and junior college levels. However, general observations and feedback from school teachers suggested that only a small number of secondary schools and junior colleges in Singapore were actually using…

  6. Toward an Ecosystem for Innovation in a Newly Industrialized Economy: Singapore and the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Poh-Kam

    2006-01-01

    In the late 1990s the Singapore government embarked on a set of far-reaching strategies intended to develop the city-state into one of the major life science R&D and industrial clusters in Asia. Besides efforts to attract leading overseas life science companies to establish operations in Singapore, the government has developed new life science…

  7. Education and State Formation Reappraised--Chinese School Identity in Postwar Singapore and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2007-01-01

    After World War II the Singapore government, wishing to blend the island's several ethnic communities into a national whole, endeavored to replace Chinese schools, which imparted students with cultural-linguistic traits sharply different from those promoted in other schools. This policy, nevertheless, elicited tough resistance from Singapore's…

  8. Green Buildings in Singapore : Analyzing a Frontrunner’s Sectoral Innovation System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siva, Vidushini; Hoppe, Thomas; Jain, Mansi

    2017-01-01

    The building sector in Singapore consumes up to half of the nation’s total energy. The government has therefore been urging the transformation of the industry by targeting 80% of all buildings to be green-certified by 2030. Thus far, Singapore has done relatively well, and is widely viewed as

  9. Why Schools in America Should Not Be Like Schools in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Barbara S. S.

    2014-01-01

    America is not Singapore and Singapore cannot be America. So why are we often comparing ourselves to high-performing countries based on international exams? Despite the educational crisis many U.S. schools are facing, Americans should be cautious not to mimic another country's model within our diverse classrooms. We are largely grounded on the…

  10. Singapore's Response to the Global War for Talent: Politics and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses how Singapore engages in the global war for talent. The paper discusses how Singapore demonstrates a Foucauldian perspective of "governmentality" in trying to mould citizens into a way of thinking that is geared suitably to an engagement in a global talent war. It first examines the social, political and…

  11. Comparative Study of Teaching Content in Teacher Education Programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…

  12. How Singapore Junior College Science Teachers Address Curriculum Reforms: A Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Patrick; Pyvis, David

    2012-01-01

    Using grounded theory research methodology, a theory was developed to explain how Singapore junior college science teachers implement educational reforms underpinning the key initiatives of the "Thinking Schools, Learning Nation" policy. The theory suggests Singapore junior college science teachers "deal with" implementing curriculum reforms by…

  13. Chikungunya in Singapore: imported cases among travelers visiting friends and relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Poh Lian; Oh, Helen May-Lin; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya infections were detected in Singapore among returning travelers who had visited friends and relatives (VFR) in India and Malaysia. These sporadic imported cases occurred over a year before the 2008 chikungunya outbreaks in Singapore, demonstrating the potential for introducing this emerging viral infection into new areas via VFR travel.

  14. Is Singapore's School Geography Becoming Too Responsive to the Changing Needs of Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chew-Hung

    2014-01-01

    In understanding the divergences and commonalities in the representations of geography across different national settings, the case of Singapore is examined through the notion of politicisation of school curricula to meet the needs of "significant power groups". In particular, the development of school geography in Singapore and its…

  15. Reconciling Discourse about Geography and Teaching Geography: The Case of Singapore Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    This study draws upon a Foucauldian notion of discourse to explore how four pre-service geography teachers in Singapore made decisions about what geography is and how to enact their understandings of geography in their classrooms. This analysis of discursive power is particularly relevant to Singapore because of the high level of state control…

  16. The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Singapore: Strategies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2012-01-01

    Innovation and entrepreneurship are two very important ingredients in the continuous economic growth of Singapore. This article describes and analyses how Singapore attempts to develop innovation and entrepreneurship through initiatives at the national level and at the universities and schools level. In particular, the article examines the recent…

  17. A Standalone but Not Lonely Language: Chinese Linguistic Environment and Education in Singapore Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Huang; Kangdi, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual education policy in Singapore permits the students learn both English as working language and mother tongues, such as Chinese, as L2 anchoring to culture heritage. Starting from historical and sociolinguistic reasons, this paper is intended to provide a panoramic view of Chinese education in Singapore, clarify and compare Chinese…

  18. The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Singapore: Strategies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2012-01-01

    Innovation and entrepreneurship are two very important ingredients in the continuous economic growth of Singapore. This article describes and analyses how Singapore attempts to develop innovation and entrepreneurship through initiatives at the national level and at the universities and schools level. In particular, the article examines the recent…

  19. Rates of Return to Investments in Formal and Technical/Vocational Education in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Explores relationship between education and earnings in Singapore. Uses Labor Force data to obtain estimates of private returns to investment in formal and technical/vocational education. Some results confirm earlier patterns from other countries, whole others make Singapore a world outlier, with very high private returns to schooling in relation…

  20. "Hottest Brand, Coolest Pedagogy": Approaches to Corporate Branding in Singapore's Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Carl Jon Way

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the corporate branding efforts of Singapore's publicly funded higher education institutions within a context of neoliberal marketization. Adopting a discourse-analytic perspective, it examines the kind of branding approaches employed by Singapore's universities and polytechnics, and how these approaches are realized…

  1. Earthquake dynamics. Supershear rupture in a M(w) 6.7 aftershock of the 2013 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zhongwen; Helmberger, Donald V; Kanamori, Hiroo; Shearer, Peter M

    2014-07-11

    Earthquake rupture speeds exceeding the shear-wave velocity have been reported for several shallow strike-slip events. Whether supershear rupture also can occur in deep earthquakes is unclear, because of their enigmatic faulting mechanism. Using empirical Green's functions in both regional and teleseismic waveforms, we observed supershear rupture during the 2013 moment magnitude (M(w)) 6.7 deep earthquake beneath the Sea of Okhotsk, an aftershock of the large deep earthquake (M(w) 8.3). The M(w) 6.7 event ruptured downward along a steeply dipping fault plane at an average speed of 8 kilometers per second, suggesting efficient seismic energy generation. Comparing it to the highly dissipative 1994 M(w) 8.3 Bolivia earthquake, the two events represent end members of deep earthquakes in terms of energy partitioning and imply that there is more than one rupture mechanism for deep earthquakes.

  2. Oclusion prevalence in children from 6-7 years and relationship with the maternal breastfeeding and social class

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Fabiano Bortolo

    2008-01-01

    Resumo: Os objetivos deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência de oclusopatias dentárias em crianças na faixa etária entre 6-7 anos, sua relação com o nível sócio -econômico e tempo de aleitamento materno. A amostra foi composta por 332 escolares de 6-7 anos de idade, distribuídos em 4 escolas sendo 2 públicas e 2 privadas . Foram coletados dados sobre tempo de amamentação, oclusopatias e classes sócio-econômica.Os exames foram realizados por 1 examinador previamente calibrado, seguindo as norma...

  3. (6,7-Dimethoxy-4-methylisoquinolinyl-(4’-methoxyphenyl-methanone, a New Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloid from Beilschmiedia brevipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiwi Pudjiastuti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Beilschmiedia brevipes provided a new benzylisoquinoline alkaloid: (6,7-dimethoxy-4-methylisoquinolinyl-(4’-methoxyphenyl-methanone (1 and O,O-dimethylannocherin A (2, a new natural compound which has been synthesized before. Complete 1H- and 13C-NMR data of both compounds were reported. The structures were established through various spectroscopic methods notably 1D- and 2D-NMR, UV, IR and HRESIMS.

  4. An efficient, microwave-assisted, one-pot synthesis of novel 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinoline-3-carbonitriles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRESH H. SHAH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, microwave-assisted synthesis of novel 2-alkoxy-5,6,7,8--tetrahydroquinoline-3-carbonitriles, which have not hitherto been reported, via reactions of cyclohexanone and arylidene malononitriles in the corresponding alcohols in presence of sodium is described. All the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by the IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectrescopic techniques and by elemental analyses. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  5. The Onsala blind 6.7 GHz survey of the galactic plane new methanol masers in the northern hemisphere

    CERN Document Server

    Pestalozzi, M R; Booth, R S; Conway, J E

    2001-01-01

    We review the state of the Onsala blind survey of the galactic plane, searching for new 6.7 GHz methanol masers. We also describe preliminary results of millimeter follow-up observations of the new detections and high resolution observations using the EVN. We conclude that blind surveys are important to complement targeted searches done until now and give the possibility to detect new classes of objects.

  6. A GLIMPSE-based search for 6.7-GHz Methanol Masers and the lifetime of their spectral features

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P

    2007-01-01

    The University of Tasmania Mt Pleasant 26-m and Ceduna 30-m radio telescopes have been used to search for 6.7-GHz class II methanol masers towards two hundred GLIMPSE sources. The target regions were selected on the basis of their mid-infrared colours as being likely to be young high-mass star formation regions and are either bright at 8.0 micron, or have extreme [3.6]-[4.5] colour. Methanol masers were detected towards 38 sites, nine of these being new detections. The prediction was that approximately 20 new 6.7-GHz methanol masers would be detected within 3.5 arcmin of the target GLIMPSE sources, but this is the case for only six of the new detections. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the predicted and actual number of new detections have been investigated. It was not possible to draw any firm conclusions as to the cause, but it may be because many of the target sources are at an evolutionary phase prior to that associated with 6.7-GHz methanol masers. Through comparison of the spect...

  7. TRAC-PF1 analysis of loss-of-fluid test L6-7/L9-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-PF1) to provide the capability for advanced best-estimate predictions of postulated accidents in pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) and for many thermal-hydraulic experimental facilities. As part of an independent assessment of TRAC-PF1, Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) L6-7/L9-2 is analyzed and compared to the calculated results. Test L6-7 simulated a cooldown transient similar to the Arkansas Nuclear One Unit-2 turbine-trip transient. During the L9-2 phase of the test, the primary-coolant pumps were tripped and natural circulation cooled the core while the plant cooldown continued. The TRAC results matched the test data well during the L6-7 portion of the transient (0.0-324 s). However, during the L9-2 portion the calculated natural-circulation flow rate in the intact loop was much higher than the measured rate.

  8. Epidemiology of burn injuries in Singapore from 1997 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Colin; Chua, Alvin

    2005-01-01

    The Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burn Centre receives more than 93% of burn cases occurring in Singapore. The Centre also received patients from the Southeast Asian region. The collection and analysis of burn epidemiology data in recent years from Singapore would provide insights into new prevention/management strategies in terms of population profile and economic activities. Data pertaining to burn patients admitted to SGH Burn Centre between January 1997 and December 2003 were studied retrospectively in terms of admissions' demographics, extent of burn (TBSA), causes of burns, length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality. A total of 2019 burn patients were admitted with an annual admission of 288. This presented an incidence rate for burn injury (with admission) of 0.07 per 1000 general population. The male to female ratio is 2.2:1 and the mean age of admission is 32.5years. The mean extent of burn was 11.5% and patients with burn size 10% TBSA and less made up the majority of admissions at 70.7% while patients with burn size 30% TBSA and more made up 8.2%. The most common cause of burn injury is scald at 45.6% followed by flame at 35.2%. The overall mean LOS and mortality are 10.8days and 4.61%, respectively. An annual trend of falling mortality rate for admissions with burn size >30% TBSA was observed-60% in year 2000 to 30% in 2003. This is a result of massive early excision and grafting of severe burn patients. 17.6% of patients were children of 12years and below, showing a 11.9% reduction from previous study in the 80s. This is consistent with the city's demographics of falling fertility rate and improved living and social conditions. Occupational burn admissions account for 33.4% of total admissions, a reduction of 11.6% from a study in the early 90s. Occurrence of occupational flame burns decreased by 9.5% due to an improvement in fire prevention and management of the industrial sectors. However, chemical burns increased by 12.6% as the chemical sector

  9. Teacher Professional Development in Singapore: Depicting the Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teacher Professional Development in Singapore: Depicting the Landscape

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article depicts the landscape of teacher professional development (PD in Singapore, one of the world’s top-performing countries in education. We provide an overview of the resources available to the approximately 30,000 teachers within the 350 primary and secondary schools run by the Ministry of Education (MOE. We focus on the three main PD providers: the National Institute of Education, the Academy of Singapore Teachers and six Centers of Excellence, and schools themselves. Guided by the “Teacher Growth Model,” these providers aim at making PD coherent with teachers’ interests, the needs of schools, and the national curriculum. Teachers in Singapore are given the exceptionally high allotment of 100 voluntary hours of PD per year. There are multiple types of activities teachers can engage in, ranging from formal/structured courses and programs to more informal/reform-based initiatives (action research, lesson study. Teachers with different levels of expertise and career paths have access to different PD opportunities. Most PD is subject-specific and provides teachers with opportunities for networked learning, collegial sharing, and collaboration. In fact, all MOE schools have been recently mandated to become Professional Learning Communities (PLC. We conclude that this comprehensive set of PD resources, considered as a whole, presents the features of “high-quality” PD described in the international literature. However, we suggest that more research is needed to examine the extent to which such an ambitious PD model is enhancing teachers’ knowledge and pedagogies, and ultimately students’ learning.

  10. Role of the state in population planning: Singapore and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, R

    1984-01-01

    in 1965. Singapore's leadership has supported family planning actively and consistently since 1966, and the country's socioeconomic development has contributed to its remarkable fertility decline. A 1975 survey of 864 persons in Singapore and a 1981 survey of 584 persons in Pakistan included questions on opinions of the appropriate role of the state in population planning. In Singapore and Pakistan respectively, 31 and 17% felt that the government should have a strict role in controlling family size, 32 and 10% felt that the government should primarily provide advice and pass laws, 18 and 18% felt the government should provide advice only, 17 and 37% felt it should be left to the married couple, and 2 and 18% didn't know. The empirical evidence suggests that the political legitimacy of the state and public policies to promote distributive justice, are both more developed in Singapore than Pakistan, have significant influence on the degree of public acceptance of state intervention in family planning.

  11. Observing the Vertical Dimensions of Singapore's Urban Heat Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, W. T. L.; Ho, D. X. Q.

    2015-12-01

    In numerous cities, measurements of urban warmth in most urban heat island (UHI) studies are generally constrained towards surface or near-surface (Singapore, which is a rapidly urbanizing major tropical metropolis. These profiles were measured from the surface to ~100 m above ground level, a height which includes all of the urban canopy and parts of the urban boundary layer. Initial results indicate significant variations in stability measured over different land uses (e.g. urban park, high-rise residential, commercial); these profiles are also temporally dynamic, depending on the time of day and larger-scale weather conditions.

  12. Singapore's economic internationalization and its effects on work and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, A

    2000-04-01

    There are tensions between Singapore's economic strategy of internationalization and the emphasis on family life. Frequent travelers, unaccompanied expatriates, and their families experience these tensions. The frequent or extended absences of frequent travelers and expatriates make it difficult for them to fulfill their family roles and obligations, and may lead to estrangement from their families. Families who are left behind may face role conflict and role strain, but actually draw closer in their efforts to cope with the absence of their absent members. Researchers, policy-makers, and employers can contribute towards reducing the tensions between internationalization and family togetherness.

  13. Identifying information technology competencies needed in Singapore nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Chia Choon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify Singapore's healthcare industry's minimum information technology (IT) performance standard expectations for nurses' competencies. A needs assessment was conducted with a panel representing nursing education, nursing management and nursing practice. The findings in this study would provide suggestions to improve the current diploma and advanced diploma nursing programs curricula to meet the present workforce demands. The experts agreed that information technology is necessary and there were two main categories of IT skills identified, basic IT skills and work-related IT skills.

  14. Pre- and postnatal drivers of childhood intelligence: evidence from Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Gail; Hedges, Mary; Schilling, Chris; Morton, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to investigate what influences intelligence in early childhood. The Singapore Cohort Study of the Risk Factors of Myopia (SCORM) is used to assess determinants of childhood IQ and changes in IQ. This longitudinal data set, collected in 1999, includes a wealth of demographic, socioeconomic and prenatal characteristics. The richness of the data allows various econometric approaches to be employed, including the use of ordered and multinomial logit analysis. Mother's education is found to be a consistent and key determinant of childhood IQ. Father's education and school quality are found to be key drivers for increasing IQ levels above the average sample movement.

  15. Singapore Synchrotron Light Source - Status, first results, program

    CERN Document Server

    Moser, H O; Kempson, V C; Kong, J R; Li, Z W; Nyunt, T; Qian, H J; Rossmanith, R; Tor, P H; Wilhelmi, O; Yang, P; Zheng, H W; Underhay, I J

    2003-01-01

    The Singapore Synchrotron Light Source is a general-purpose synchrotron radiation facility serving research organisations and industry. Beamlines active or coming up within 2002 include lithography for micro/nanofabrication, phase contrast imaging, surface science, and X-ray diffraction and absorption. An infrared spectro/microscopy beamline is expected to become operational in 2003. Further beamlines are under discussion with user groups. The Microtron Undulator Radiation Facility (MURF) is under development to provide brilliant VUV radiation and to prepare for subsequent development of an EUV and X-ray FEL.

  16. LC-MS/MS法测定大鼠血浆中的6,7-二甲氧基香豆素%Determination of 6,7 -dimethoxycoumarin in Rat Plasma by LC -MS/MS Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 王少敏; 王柯; 季申

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立快速、灵敏的液相色谱-串联质谱方法测定大鼠血浆中6,7-二甲氧基香豆素浓度.方法:40μl血浆样品中药物经含内标的甲醇溶液蛋白沉淀,于12000 rpm离心取上清液稀释后,以乙腈-0.1%甲酸10 mmol/L甲酸铵溶液为流动相,梯度洗脱方式分离.使用电喷雾电离源以多反应监测(MRM)方式进行正离子检测.结果:确定丰度最高的2对离子m/z 207.2→m/z 107.0(6,7-二甲氧基香豆素)和m/z 147.0→m/z 91.0(香豆素),用于定性定量分析.该方法在0.5 ng/ml~2500 ng/ml的浓度范围内线性良好,相关系数r=0.9951.结论:本文首次建立了简便、快速、灵敏、专属的测定大鼠血浆中6,7-二甲氧基香豆素的LC-MS/MS分析方法.%Objective: To develop a liquid chromatography -tandem mass spectrometric( LC -MS/MS) method for determination of 6,7 -dimethoxycoumarin in rat plasma. Methods: An aliquot of 40μl plasma sample was protein precipitated with methanol in which contains 50 ng/ml IS ( coumarin), and then centrifuged at 12000 rpm. The supernatant were diluted, then separated with gradient elution using acetonitrile -0. 1% formic acid 10mM ammonium formate. A tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source was used as detector and operated in the positive ion mode. Results: Qualification and quantification were performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the transition m/z 207.2→m/z 107.0 and m/z 147.0→m/z 91.0 for 6,7 -dimethoxycoumarin and internal standard coumarin, respectively. The linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range from 0.5 ng/ml to 2500 ng/ml, the Correlation coefficient r =0. 9951. Conclusion: This was the first time to built a simple, rapid, sensitive and selective method to detect the 6,7 -dimethoxycoumarin in rat plasma.

  17. A Theoretical investigation of a potential high energy density compound 3,6,7,8-tetranitro-3,6,7,8-tetraaza-tricyclo[3.1.1.1(2,4]octane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The B3LYP/6-31G (d density functional theory (DFT method was used to study molecular geometry, electronic structure, infrared spectrum (IR and thermodynamic properties. Heat of formation (HOF and calculated density were estimated to evaluate detonation properties using Kamlet-Jacobs equations. Thermal stability of 3,6,7,8-tetranitro-3,6,7,8-tetraaza-tricyclo [3.1.1.1(2,4]octane (TTTO was investigated by calculating bond dissociation energy (BDE at the unrestricted B3LYP/6-31G(d level. Results showed the N-NO2 bond is a trigger bond during the thermolysis initiation process. The crystal structure obtained by molecular mechanics (MM methods belongs to P2(1/C space group, with cell parameters a = 8.239 Å, b = 8.079 Å, c = 16.860 Å, Z = 4 and r = 1.922 g cm-3. Both detonation velocity of 9.79 km s-1 and detonation pressure of 44.22 GPa performed similarly to CL-20. According to the quantitative standards of energetics and stability, TTTO essentially satisfies this requirement as a high energy density compound (HEDC.

  18. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes.

  19. Familial correlation of retinal vascular caliber in Singapore Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Jun; Liao, Jiemin; Fan, Qiao; Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui; Ikram, M Kamran; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien-Yin

    2013-08-19

    Our study aimed to explore the heritability of retinal vascular caliber among Singapore Chinese families. In the Strabismus, Amblyopia, and Refractive Error Study in Singaporean Chinese Preschoolers (STARS) family study conducted from 2008 to 2010, a total of 727 participants (304 parent-child pairs, 83 sibling pairs, and 87 spouse pairs) were included in the analysis. According to standardized protocols, retinal photography, blood pressure measurements, anthropometric measurements, and interviews were performed at clinic. Retinal vascular caliber was assessed by a computer-assisted imaging program (IVAN). Familial correlation of retinal vascular caliber among family pairs was calculated by the FCOR procedure with S.A.G.E. computer software program package and heritability was double the value of the familial correlation. Mean age was 8.59 years in 304 children and 39.90 years in 423 parents. Mean CRAE and CRVE were 157.09 and 220.80 μm in children, and 150.29 and 220.70 μm in parents, respectively. In multivariate analysis, familial correlation of CRVE was 0.36 (P familial correlation study showed a strong correlation of retinal venular caliber in Singapore Chinese families among parent-child pairs and sibling pairs, independent of age, sex, blood pressure, and BMI. Our findings provide further evidence on substantial heritability of the microvasculature.

  20. Translating the family medicine vision into educational programmes in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Teck Yee; Cheong, Seng Kwing; Koh, Gerald Ch; Goh, Lee Gan

    2008-05-01

    The core of the Family Medicine (FM) vision is patient-centred care, requiring specific education and vocational training. We traced how FM education started and what have been achieved. FM training began in 1971 with the formation of the College of General Practitioners Singapore. Previously, training consisted of self-directed learning, lunchtime talks and examination preparation courses run by hospital specialists. Formal FM vocational training programmes in the United Kingdom and Australia provided the model for a 3-year programme in 1988. The tripartite relationship between the local university, College of Family Physicians and Ministry of Health, together with a structured training programme, contributed to its success. To date, more than 240 Family Physicians in Singapore have been awarded the Masters in Medicine (FM) degree. The Graduate Diploma in Family Medicine programme (GDFM) was introduced in 2000 for Family Physicians who wished to practice at an enhanced level. This programme has trained 194 doctors since then. Behind the scenes, the following were important developments: counterculture with a difference, tripartite stake-holding, training the trainers and learning from others. For the FM undergraduate programme, our aim is to develop the knowledge base, core values and roles of the Family Physician. Sustaining the value of Family Medicine as a career choice is the enduring vision.

  1. Indoor air quality and the law in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, P

    1999-12-01

    With the greater use of air-conditioned offices in Singapore, achieving good indoor air quality has become an important issue. The laws that impose duties upon designers and contractors with respect to the design and construction of air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) systems are set out in the Building Control Regulations and the Singapore Standard Code of Practice for Mechanical Ventilation and Air-conditioning in Buildings (hereinafter "SS CP 13:1980"). ACMV maintenance is governed by the Environmental Public Health Act, the Building and Common Property (Maintenance and Management) Act, and the Land Titles (Strata) Act, as well as by lease or tenancy agreements. Designers, contractors, developers, building owners and management corporations may also be liable to the workers, occupants and other premises users for indoor air quality (IAQ)-related injuries under the general principles of contract and tort. Recently, the Guidelines for Good Indoor Air Quality in Office Premises was issued by the Ministry of Environment to complement SS CP 13:1980 toward improving the indoor air quality of air-conditioned office premises. Although the Guidelines have no statutory effect, they may be adopted as contractual requirements in construction, lease and maintenance contracts. They may also be used to determine the relevant standard of duty of care required to discharge tortious liability. This paper looks at the existing laws and rules affecting the design, construction and maintenance of air-conditioned offices in light of Part III of the Ministry's Guidelines.

  2. Impact assessment of waste management options in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Reginald B H; Khoo, Hsien H

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes the application of life cycle assessment for evaluating various waste management options in Singapore, a small-island city state. The impact assessment method by SimaPro is carried out for comparing the potential environmental impacts of waste treatment options including landfilling, incineration, recycling, and composting. The inventory data include gases and leachate from landfills, air emissions and energy recovery from incinerators, energy (and emission) savings from recycling, composting gases, and transport pollution. The impact assessment results for climate change, acidification, and ecotoxicity show that the incineration of materials imposes considerable harm to both human health and the environment, especially for the burning of plastics, paper/cardboard, and ferrous metals. The results also show that, although some amount of energy can be derived from the incineration of wastes, these benefits are outweighed by the air pollution (heavy metals and dioxins/furans) that incinerators produce. For Singapore, landfill gases and leachate generate minimal environmental damage because of the nation's policy to landfill only 10% of the total disposed wastes. Land transportation and separation of waste materials also pose minimal environmental damage. However, sea transportation to the landfill could contribute significantly to acidification because of the emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from barges. The composting of horticultural wastes hardly imposes any environmental damage. Out of all the waste strategies, the recycling of wastes offers the best solution for environmental protection and improved human health for the nation. Significant emission savings can be realized through recycling.

  3. Normative data on functional grip strength of elderly in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Jais, Ita Suzana; Chan, Kai Li; Loke, Mun Kitt Austin; Abdul Rahim, Saleem; Tay, Shian Chao

    2017-02-21

    Cross-sectional study for clinical measurement. Most daily tasks require individuals to exert grip strength with torque, which can be challenging for elderly as their strength diminishes with age. We postulate that to assess the functional capacity of an individual, it is important to evaluate the functional grip strength instead of the maximal static grip strength. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to establish normative data for the functional grip strength of elderly aged 60 years and older in the Singapore population. In this study, 233 healthy subjects aged 60 years and older were recruited. Using a custom-made hand strength measurement device, the following measurements were recorded: grip strength at neutral position, grip strength with resistive pronation torque, and grip strength with resistive supination torque. Grip strengths measured for both genders decreased by 13% and 16% for males and females respectively, when pronation torque was exerted, and with supination torque, the strength decreased by 18% and 17% for males and females respectively. Normative data for the elderly population in Singapore had been established. The findings from this study can complement the existing ergonomic hand data in designing better assistive tools to improve the independent living of elderly. NA. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influenza excess mortality from 1950-2000 in tropical Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon J Lee

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tropical regions have been shown to exhibit different influenza seasonal patterns compared to their temperate counterparts. However, there is little information about the burden of annual tropical influenza epidemics across time, and the relationship between tropical influenza epidemics compared with other regions. METHODS: Data on monthly national mortality and population was obtained from 1947 to 2003 in Singapore. To determine excess mortality for each month, we used a moving average analysis for each month from 1950 to 2000. From 1972, influenza viral surveillance data was available. Before 1972, information was obtained from serial annual government reports, peer-reviewed journal articles and press articles. RESULTS: The influenza pandemics of 1957 and 1968 resulted in substantial mortality. In addition, there were 20 other time points with significant excess mortality. Of the 12 periods with significant excess mortality post-1972, only one point (1988 did not correspond to a recorded influenza activity. For the 8 periods with significant excess mortality periods before 1972 excluding the pandemic years, 2 years (1951 and 1953 had newspaper reports of increased pneumonia deaths. Excess mortality could be observed in almost all periods with recorded influenza outbreaks but did not always exceed the 95% confidence limits of the baseline mortality rate. CONCLUSION: Influenza epidemics were the likely cause of most excess mortality periods in post-war tropical Singapore, although not every epidemic resulted in high mortality. It is therefore important to have good influenza surveillance systems in place to detect influenza activity.

  5. Treatment of vaginal stenosis with fasciocutaneous Singapore flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Marisa M; Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Pizarro-Berdichevsky, Javier; Baker, Todd; Vasavada, Sandip P

    2017-03-01

    Vaginal stenosis is an unfortunate complication that can occur after pelvic radiation therapy for gynecologic or colorectal malignancies. Treatment is challenging and can require significant reconstructive surgery. The objective of this video is to present a case of vaginal stenosis after radiation and describe vaginal reconstruction with a fasciocutaneous Singapore flap. We describe the case of a 42-year-old woman with a history of stage 3 colorectal cancer who underwent partial colectomy, chemotherapy, and pelvic radiation. She subsequently developed a rectovaginal fistula requiring repair with a right-sided gracilis flap. When her stenosis recurred, she underwent vaginal reconstruction with a medial thigh flap. The Singapore flap is a pudendal thigh flap centered on the labial crural fold with a base at the perineal body. As the cutaneous innervation is spared, this flap is sensate. This technique is one option for patients with complex vaginal stenosis who have failed conservative management. However, it is imperative the patient perform vaginal dilation postoperatively and maintain close follow-up with her surgeon, as vaginal stenosis can recur. Postradiation vaginal stenosis is a complex condition to treat; however, vaginal reconstruction with a thigh flap can provide excellent cosmetic and functional results.

  6. First underground storage cavern to boost Singapore growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2007-03-15

    This article discussed the planning and development of the Jurong Rock Cavern (JRC), Singapore's first underground rock cavern for the storage of hydrocarbons. The JRC will be constructed beneath the seabed, and will be used to store up to 3 million cubic metres of liquid hydrocarbons such as crude oil, condensates, and diesel oil. The facility will enhance the safety and security of Jurong Island, and will allow lands to be used for higher-value manufacturing operations. Jurong Island is currently home to 3 major oil and gas companies. The JTC Corporation was formed to deliver infrastructure and services to the island. Two logisparks were created to provide integrated logistics and supply chain support for companies located on the island. It is expected that the JRC will bring significant benefits to Jurong Island companies. Space currently used to store hydrocarbons will be used to develop up to 10 specialty chemical manufacturing plants. Phase 1 of the JRC will include the development of a storage capacity of 1.47 million cubic metres, while phase 2 is expected to conclude with the addition of a further 1.3 million cubic metres. Singapore is currently the world's third largest refining centre. It was concluded that there are now approximately 80 companies operating on Jurong Island, and profits from chemical refining activities in 2006 exceeded $74 billion. 3 figs.

  7. a Study of Urban Stormwater Modeling Approach in Singapore Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, S. C.; Liong, S. Y.; Vu, M. T.

    2011-07-01

    Urbanization has the direct effect of increasing the amount of surface runoff to be discharged through man-made drainage systems. Thus, Singapore's rapid urbanization has drawn great attention on flooding issues. In view of this, proper stormwater modeling approach is necessary for the assessment planning, design, and control of the storm and combines sewerage system. Impacts of urbanization on surface runoff and catchment flooding in Singapore are studied in this paper. In this study, the application of SOBEK-urban 1D is introduced on model catchments and a hypothetical catchment model is created for simulation purpose. Stormwater modeling approach using SOBEK-urban offers a comprehensive modeling tool for simple or extensive urban drainage systems consisting of sewers and open channels despite its size and complexity of the network. The findings from the present study show that stormwater modeling is able to identify flood area and the impact of the anticipated sea level on urban drainage network. Consequently, the performance of the urban drainage system can be improved and early prevention approaches can be carried out.

  8. Four Corners Television History: Gallipoli and the Fall of Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Blackburn

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses how the Australian current affairs programme, Four Corners, which follows a style modelled on the BBC programme Panorama, has represented Australian military history in two of its programmes, Gallipoli: The Fatal Shore and No Prisoners on Australian deserters at the fall of Singapore. Chris Masters was the reporter on both programmes. These historical documentaries claim to investigate Australian Anzac mythology. Four Corners is noted for its rigorous pursuit of issues in current affairs. Programmes construct argument that the journalists steadfastly pursue in order to ‘expose the truth’. Rather than neutrally representing both sides of a debate, the programmes tend to take the side that the journalists perceive to be in the public interest. Examining how Four Corners has applied its own style of investigative journalism to the Anzac mythology is explored by outlining whether the programmes follow Ken Burn’s ideas of documentary-makers as ‘tribal story-teller’ crafting stories that uphold national identity or Bill Nichols’ view that documentary is an argument that is representative of reality rather than reflects reality. Examining the history of Gallipoli and the fall of Singapore in the Four Corners programmes tends suggest that the journalists working on the programmes preferred to reaffirm the assumptions of the Anzac legend, but attack or ignore historians and evidence that questions it. The programmes appear to be a mixture of Burns’s and Nichols’ ideas of documentary making.

  9. Outdoor activity and myopia in Singapore teenage children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, M; Tong, L; Gazzard, G; Zhang, X; Chia, A; Young, T L; Rose, K A; Mitchell, P; Saw, S-M

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the relationship of outdoor activities and myopia in Singapore teenage children. Teenage children (1249 participants), examined in the Singapore Cohort study Of Risk factors for Myopia (SCORM), during 2006 were included in analyses. Participants completed questionnaires that quantified total outdoor activity, and underwent an eye examination. The mean total time spent on outdoor activity was 3.24 h/day. The total outdoor activity (h/day) was significantly associated with myopia, odds ratio 0.90 (95% CI 0.84 to 0.96) (p = 0.004), after adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, school type, books read per week, height, parental myopia, parental education and intelligence quotient. In addition, the total time spent outdoors was associated with significantly less myopic refraction (regression coefficient = 0.17; CI 0.10 to 0.25, p<0.001) and shorter axial length (regression coefficient -0.06 (CI -0.1 to -0.03, p<0.001). Total sports was also significantly negatively associated with myopia (p = 0.008) but not indoor sports (p = 0.16). Participants who spent more time outdoors were less likely to be myopic. Thus, outdoor activity may protect against development of myopia in children, supporting recent Australian data. As near work did not predict outdoor activity, this can be viewed as an independent factor and not merely the reciprocal of near work.

  10. Developing Singapore Driving Cycle for passenger cars to estimate fuel consumption and vehicular emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sze-Hwee; Wong, Yiik-Diew; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung

    2014-11-01

    Singapore has pledged to attain 7-11% Business-As-Usual carbon emissions reduction by 2020. Road transport sector is a significant source of carbon emissions, estimated to be the third largest sector in Singapore. A current gap in environmental evaluation for road transport activities in Singapore is the lack of a representative driving cycle for passenger cars (64% of the total population of 974,170 vehicles). This Singapore Driving Cycle (SDC) is hence developed for Singapore roads and traffic conditions. A chase-car (instrumented vehicle) was used to collect on-road data along 12 designed routes, and circulation driving on highly utilized arterial roads (including those in Central Business District (CBD) and both inner and outer ring roads fringing the CBD area). The SDC was thus hence constructed, with consideration of road type proportions, time periods and desired distance, duration and peak-lull proportion. In essence, the SDC is a 2400-s speed-time profile to represent the driving pattern for passenger car in Singapore. Microscopic estimation model (CMEM) shows that, as compared to SDC, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) underestimates most of the vehicular emissions (fuel, CO2, HC and NOx by 5%, 5%, 22% and 47%, respectively) and overestimates CO by 8%. The SDC is thus more suitable than the NEDC that is currently in use in Singapore; the SDC can be used to generate more accurate fuel consumption and emissions ratings for various uses (for example, inventory of vehicular emissions and fuel economy labelling).

  11. Enhancing the earth-science content and inquiry basis of physical geography education in Singapore schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, J.; Chong, E.

    2011-12-01

    Singapore has a long tradition of geography education at the secondary and Junior College levels (ages 12-18). Although most geography teachers teach both human and physical geography, many of them have received more extensive university training in human geography. The Earth Obervatory of Singapore (EOS), a newly established research institute at Nanyang Technological University (NTU), is building an education and outreach program to integrate its research across formal and informal education. We are collaborating with the Singapore Ministry of Education to enhance the earth-science content and inquiry basis of physical geography education in Singapore classrooms. EOS is providing input to national curriculum, textbook materials, and teaching resources, as well as providing inquiry-based field seminars and workshops for inservice teachers. An upcoming 5-year "Our Dynamic Earth" exhibit at the Science Centre Singapore will be a centerpoint of outreach to younger students, their teachers and parents, and to the community at large. On a longer time scale, the upcoming undergraduate program in earth science at NTU, the first of its kind in Singapore, will provide a stream of earth scientists into the geography teaching workforce. Developing ties between EOS and the National Institute of Education will further enhance teacher training. With a highly centralized curriculum, small land area, high-performing student population, and key stakeholders eager to collaborate with EOS, Singapore presents an unusual opportunity to impact classrooms on a national scale.

  12. Curriculum as praxis: Ensuring quality technical education in Singapore for the 21st century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiew Ming Yek

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Singapore, a small island city-state, has achieved notable economic advancement within 40 years since independence. It is fast becoming a global city and a knowledge society. In education and training, the Singapore system has evolved from its British roots. Macro performance indicators of participation rate, literacy rate and mean years of schooling, show that the current education system can be regarded as highly successful. The contributions of general education as well as technical education and training to the overall success of the nation are often cited. Technical education and training, which is globally perceived as having a lower status than "academic" curricula, has largely overcome its "image" problem in Singapore. Singaporeans have seemingly embraced technical education and training as an accessible, attractive mode of education, which therefore enjoys a high participation rate. The success and quality of technical education and training were affirmed when its main provider, the Institute of Technical Education, became the first educational institution in Singapore to win the Singapore Quality Award in October 2005. This paper provides a review of the contemporary education system and curriculum in Singapore with a focus on technical education and training vis-à-vis a vision of education and training in and for postmodern knowledge societies. Suggestions are made on how the technical education and training sector in Singapore can further develop and thrive in the 21st century, while continuing to be accessible and of high quality.

  13. Phagraphene: A Low-Energy Graphene Allotrope Composed of 5-6-7 Carbon Rings with Distorted Dirac Cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhai; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Qiang; Dong, Huafeng; Zhao, Mingwen; Oganov, Artem R

    2015-09-09

    Using systematic evolutionary structure searching we propose a new carbon allotrope, phagraphene [fæ'græfi:n], standing for penta-hexa-hepta-graphene, because the structure is composed of 5-6-7 carbon rings. This two-dimensional (2D) carbon structure is lower in energy than most of the predicted 2D carbon allotropes due to its sp(2)-binding features and density of atomic packing comparable to graphene. More interestingly, the electronic structure of phagraphene has distorted Dirac cones. The direction-dependent cones are further proved to be robust against external strain with tunable Fermi velocities.

  14. [Psychophysiological structure of verbal and nonverbal intellect in 6-7 year old children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukikh, M M; Loginova, E S

    2011-01-01

    Wechsler test revealed the peculiarities of intellectual development of children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is shown that the psychophysiological structure of intelligence in 6-7 year old children without any signs of ADHD is characterized by a high level of development and close interaction between verbal and nonverbal components. Their peers with ADHD demonstrate an insufficient level of development of visual-spatial perception, voluntary activity organization and regulation, and a lower level of interaction between verbal and nonverbal components. Significant differences between verbal and nonverbal integral indices are the evidence of the deficit in voluntary attention and voluntary regulation and in the integrity of operational cognitive structures.

  15. Popular Music in Singapore: Cultural Interactions and the “Inauthenticity” of Singaporean Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Lequn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The popular music industry in Singapore advocates for Western music as being superior to local Singaporean music. Singaporeans are usually skeptical about the quality of Singaporean musicians, because of the “inauthentic” stereotype of Singaporean music. So this paper analyses the culture interaction and Singapore music from some current phenomenon that J-pop, K-pop and other music types become an integral part of music culture in Singapore. At the same time, this paper elaborates Authenticity and its importance in Singaporean music and media industry and its influences.

  16. Synthesis and characterisation of 5-acyl-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine inhibitors of Hedgehog acyltransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lanyon-Hogg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this data article we describe synthetic and characterisation data for four members of the 5-acyl-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine (termed “RU-SKI” class of inhibitors of Hedgehog acyltransferase, including associated NMR spectra for final compounds. RU-SKI compounds were selected for synthesis based on their published high potencies against the enzyme target. RU-SKI 41 (9a, RU-SKI 43 (9b, RU-SKI 101 (9c, and RU-SKI 201 (9d were profiled for activity in the related article “Click chemistry armed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to measure palmitoylation by Hedgehog acyltransferase” (Lanyon-Hogg et al., 2015 [1]. 1H NMR spectral data indicate different amide conformational ratios between the RU-SKI inhibitors, as has been observed in other 5-acyl-6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridines. The synthetic and characterisation data supplied in the current article provide validated access to the class of RU-SKI inhibitors.

  17. Parallaxes of 6.7-GHz Methanol Masers towards the G305.2 High-Mass Star Formation Region

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, V; Reid, M J; Bignall, H E; McCallum, J; Phillips, C J; Reynolds, C; Stevens, J

    2016-01-01

    We have made measurements to determine the parallax and proper motion of the three 6.7-GHz methanol masers G305.200$+$0.019, G305.202$+$0.208 and G305.208$+$0.206. The combined parallax is found to be 0.25$\\pm $0.05 mas, corresponding to a distance of 4.1$^{+1.2}_{-0.7}$ kpc. This places the G305.2 star formation region in the Carina-Sagittarius spiral arm. The inclusion of G305.2 increases the Galactic azimuth range of the sources in this arm by 40$^\\circ $ from Sato et al., allowing us to determine the pitch angle of this spiral with greater confidence to be $\\psi = 19.0 \\pm 2.6^\\circ $. The first VLBI spot maps of the 6.7-GHz methanol masers towards these sources show that they have simple linear and ring-like structures, consistent with emission expected from classII methanol masers in general.

  18. Parallaxes of 6.7-GHz methanol masers towards the G 305.2 high-mass star formation region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, V.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Reid, M. J.; Bignall, H. E.; McCallum, J.; Phillips, C. J.; Reynolds, C.; Stevens, J.

    2017-02-01

    We have made measurements to determine the parallax and proper motion of the three 6.7-GHz methanol masers G 305.200+0.019, G 305.202+0.208 and G 305.208+0.206. The combined parallax is found to be 0.25±0.05 mas, corresponding to a distance of 4.1^{+1.2}_{-0.7} kpc. This places the G 305.2 star formation region in the Carina-Sagittarius spiral arm. The inclusion of G 305.2 increases the Galactic azimuth range of the sources in this arm by 40° from Sato et al., allowing us to determine the pitch angle of this spiral with greater confidence to be ψ = 19.0° ± 2.6°. The first very long baseline interferometry spot maps of the 6.7-GHz methanol masers towards these sources show that they have simple linear and ring-like structures, consistent with emission expected from class II methanol masers in general.

  19. Singapore-India Relations: A Return to History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Hwa Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael Leifer observes Singapore-India relations to be ‘diplomatically distant’. This observation was correct during the Cold War when differing political ideologies made it difficult for these two countries to develop close relations. With the end of the Cold War, bilateral relations improved rapidly, especially on the economic front. Consequently, most literature focuses on the economic interaction between them, at the expense of other significant developments on the political, military as well as social and cultural fronts. In order to better understand Singapore-India relations in the present, a well-rounded approach is necessary. Hence, this article addresses this lacuna in the present scholarship by providing a comprehensive overview that takes into account developments in both the areas of high and low politics. In so doing, this article argues that Singapore-India relations are now no longer ‘diplomatically distant’, but instead mirror the close relations they had during the colonial period, and so represent a ‘return to history’ instead. --- Michael Leifer beschreibt die Beziehungen zwischen Singapur und Indien als "diplomatisch distanziert". Diese Beobachtung war während des Kalten Krieges korrekt, als unterschiedliche politische Ideologien eine enge Zusammenarbeit dieser beiden Länder erschwerten. Mit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges verbesserten sich bilaterale Beziehungen – vor allem im wirtschaftlichen Bereich – rapide. Aus diesem Grund konzentrieren sich die meisten Publikationen auf die wirtschaftliche Interaktion der beiden Länder und vernachlässigen gleichzeitig weitere wichtige Entwicklungen in der politischen, militärischen, sozialen und kulturellen Sphäre. Um die Beziehungen zwischen Singapur und Indien besser zu verstehen, ist ein vielseitigerer Ansatz notwendig. Der vorliegende Artikel versucht diese Lücke gegenwärtiger Forschung zu schließen und einen umfassenden Überblick der Entwicklungen

  20. Migration and Singapore: implications for the Asia Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, L

    1994-01-01

    Regarding immigration and emigration issues, there is a need for greater and more detailed data collection, an emphasis on data on illegal as well as legal migration, an examination of the impact of direct foreign investment on job creation and new labor market entrants, and a strengthening of international conventions for protection of foreign workers. The Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC), Human Resource Development Task Force, is the source for projections of labor demand and supply for 18 PECC countries in 1993 and 1994. These projections indicate labor shortages in 1993 in Canada, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. The greatest labor supplier will be China. Japan and Korea are expected to have economic downturns, which will increase excess labor. The extent of excess labor is estimated to be 8.01 million in 1993 and 12.43 in 1994. The nature of the calculations could potentially exaggerate existing demand. A variety of theories are used to determine the direction and flow of migration, capital, goods and services, and technology. Estimates of migration flows indicate an increase to 100 million migrants in 1992, or 1.8% of world population (35 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 15 million in Asia and the Middle East, and almost 13 million in Western Europe and North America). The value of remittances is estimated at $66 million (US dollars), which is slightly less than the value of oil trade and exceeds the $46 million in foreign aid. It is hypothesized that wider spatial and income inequalities with expanding globalization will increase migration flows. The case of Singapore illustrates how manipulation of the labor market reduces potential problems. Immigration policy historically encouraged migration of skilled and professional workers. In 1990 foreign workers in Singapore constituted 12% of the labor force. Since 1982 a monthly foreign worker levy has been imposed. The levy is increased when needed in order to slow demand. In 1992

  1. The Study on the Writing Anxiety Levels of Primary School 6, 7 and 8th Year Students in Terms of Several Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucgun, Duygu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the writing anxiety levels of primary school 6, 7 and 8th year students in terms of several variables using the "writing anxiety scale" developed by Yaman (2010). The study group is composed of 1407 students enrolled at the 6, 7 and 8th years of 10 primary schools in Sarkisla district of Sivas province. The…

  2. The Singapore-Malaysia water relationship: an analysis of the media perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tortajada, Cecilia; Pobre, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    .... Detailed examination of reports from the print media of Singapore, Malaysia and international sources constitutes the basis for a discussion of the roles the media have played between the two countries...

  3. Transcriptome analysis of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) spleen in response to Singapore grouper iridovirus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Yan, Yang; Cai, Jia; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Cui, Huachun; Wang, Peiran; Qin, Qiwei

    2011-01-01

    .... coioides infected with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Using 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained abundant high-quality ESTs from two spleen-complementary DNA libraries which were constructed from SGIV-infected (V...

  4. 78 FR 38690 - Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission at the Singapore Airshow 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... Singapore, and the long-term business outlook remains positive. According to business consulting firm Frost & Sullivan, the Asia-Pacific aviation industry is experiencing a faster recovery from its undesirable...

  5. Presence of the Japanese Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium Nipponense (De Haan, 1849) (Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, S.S.C.; Khoo, H.W.; Ng, P.K.L.

    1987-01-01

    Characters of adults and larvae are given to differentiate between Macrobrachium nipponense and M. sintangense. The presence of the former in Singapore is stated and explained as an introduction from Japan or China, possibly with ornamental fishes.

  6. The Emergence of Heritage Conservation in Singapore and the Preservation of Monuments Board (1958-76)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kevin Blackburn; Tan Peng Hong Alvin

    2015-01-01

      [...]by placing the power to conserve whole zones in the hands of the very organization that had aggressively pursued demolition and rebuilding-the Urban Redevelopment Authority-conservation in Singapore...

  7. Ecological Planning for Sino-Singapore Ecological Science and Technology Town of Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>1. Background The construction of Sino-Singapore Ecological Science and Technology Town (SSESTT), which is a part of Suzhou Industrial Park, was initiated in 2005 under the circumstance of rapid development

  8. The work-family interface in the United States and Singapore: conflict across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galovan, Adam M; Fackrell, Tamara; Buswell, Lydia; Jones, Blake L; Hill, E Jeffrey; Carroll, Sarah June

    2010-10-01

    This article examines the work-family interface in a cross-cultural comparison between two nationally representative samples from the United States (n = 1,860) and Singapore (n = 1,035) with emphasis on work-family conflict. Family-to-work conflict was negatively related to marital satisfaction in both Singapore and the United States, although the effect was stronger in the United States. Similarly, family-to-work conflict was positively related to job satisfaction in the United States but was negatively related in Singapore. As expected, schedule flexibility was negatively related to depression in the United States, but in Singapore the relationship was positive. These findings suggest that theoretical relationships in the work-family interface developed in the more culturally individualistic West may need to be adapted when studying populations in the more collectivist East.

  9. Photosymbiotic ascidians in Singapore: turbid waters may reduce living space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shih-Wei; Hirose, Euichi; Chen, Serina Lee Siew; Mok, Michael Hin-Kiu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The photosymbiotic ascidian fauna at Changi Beach, Pulau Semakau, Sentosa and St. John’s Island, Singapore were surveyed. A total of five species, Diplosoma simile, Lissoclinum bistratum, Lissoclinum punctatum, Lissoclinum timorense and Trididemnum cyclops, were recorded, with Lissoclinum timorense and Trididemnum cyclops being newly recorded in Singapore. However, no photosymbiotic species were found at Changi Beach probably due to the polluted waters in the region. Coastal development has caused Singapore waters to become turbid, leading to decrease in suitable habitats for photosymbiotic ascidians. Clean waters in Pulau Semakau probably provide a better environment for the growth of photosymbiotic ascidians and this area has a greater variety of these ascidians than the other areas in Singapore. Each of the five species has also been recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Japan) and three species (Diplosoma simile, Lissoclinum bistratum and Trididemnum cyclops) have also been recorded in Taiwan. PMID:23794913

  10. Comparision of Istanbul with Hong Kong and Singapore for Regional Treasury Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Selçuk DİZKIRICI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is examining Istanbul to find out whether or not it has the ability to become an appropriate location to host regional treasury centers. Hence; Simkova’s 11 location criteria are compared across Istanbul additionally Hong Kong and Singapore, being already attractive locations in South East Asia for multinational corporations to set up their regional finance offices, to specify Istanbul’s weaker facilities even if it is not regarded as a rival for Hong Kong and Singapore. The study contributes to the understanding of Simkova’s location criteria assessment before establishing a regional treasury center in any location, as it is applied to some European countries and three Asian countries: Brunei, Hong Kong and Singapore, previously. Lastly, it is concluded that Istanbul is not as superior as Hong Kong and Singapore but it has reasonable conditions to become an attractive location for regional treasury centers.

  11. Discovery and optimization of novel 4-phenoxy-6,7-disubstituted quinolines possessing semicarbazones as c-Met kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Baohui; Mi, Bin; Zhai, Xin; Xu, Ziyi; Zhang, Xiaolong; Tian, Zeru; Gong, Ping

    2013-09-01

    A novel series of N(1)-(3-fluoro-4-(6,7-disubstituted-quinolin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-N(4)-arylidenesemicarbazide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their c-Met kinase inhibition and cytotoxicity against A549, HT-29, MKN-45 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines in vitro. Several potent compounds were further evaluated against three other cancer cell lines (U87MG, NCI-H460 and SMMC7721). Most of compounds tested exhibited moderate to excellent activity. The studies of SARs identified the most promising compound 28 (c-Met IC50=1.4nM) as a c-Met kinase inhibitor. In this study, a promising compound 28 was identified, which displayed 2.1-, 3.3-, 48.4- and 3.6-fold increase against A549, HT-29, U87MG and NCI-H460 cell lines, respectively, compared with that of Foretinib.

  12. Excited states in 168Yb from electron-capture decay of 168Lum (T1/2=6.7 min)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barci, V.; Ardisson, G.; Trubert, D.; Hussonnois, M.

    1999-08-01

    The electron-capture decay of the 168Lum (T1/2=6.7 min, Jπ=3+) isomer was studied with high purity sources, obtained by using a new radiochemical method consisting of fast continous on-line separation of reaction products. A complex spectrum composed of about 200 γ rays was observed. From these, 162 transitions were assigned to a level scheme of 39 excited levels of 168Yb, primarily by γ-γ coincidence spectroscopic measurements. About 60 transitions were placed for the first time and >90% of the decay intensity was clearly identified. The structure of the levels directly fed by the electron-capture decay was reviewed as particle-hole excitations of the core.

  13. Pyrrolo[3',2':6,7]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridines with potent photo-antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Virginia; Giallombardo, Daniele; Cilibrasi, Vincenzo; Parrino, Barbara; Carbone, Anna; Montalbano, Alessandra; Frasson, Ilaria; Salvador, Alessia; Richter, Sara N; Doria, Filippo; Freccero, Mauro; Cascioferro, Stella; Diana, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Barraja, Paola

    2017-03-10

    Pyrrolo[3',2':6,7]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridines were synthesized as a new class of tricyclic system in which the pyridine ring is annelated to a cycloheptapyrrole scaffold, with the aim of obtaining new photosensitizing agents with improved antiproliferative activity and lower undesired toxic effects. A versatile synthetic pathway was approached, which allowed the isolation of derivatives of the title ring system with a good substitution pattern on the pyrrole moiety. Photobiological studies revealed that the majority of the new compounds showed a potent cytotoxic effect upon photoactivation with light of the proper wavelength, especially when decorated with a 2-ethoxycabonyl group and a N-benzyl substituted moiety, with EC50 values reaching the submicromolar level. The mechanism of action was evaluated.

  14. 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-Heptamethoxyflavone reduces interleukin-4 production in the spleen cells of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Mitsunari; Ogawa, Minetaro; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Okuyama, Satoshi; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    In our previous studies, we reported anti-inflammatory functions of 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), which is a polymethoxyflavone rich in various citrus fruits. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory function of HMF in mice. HMF administration (50 mg/kg, i.p., 2 times/week) tended to reduce the production of antigen-specific IgE induced by ovalbumin in combination with aluminum hydroxide gel. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed the reduction of interleukin-4(+)CD4(+) spleen cells and sustained presence of interferon-γ(+)CD4(+) spleen cells in mice administered HMF, whereas the ratio of CD4(+)CD8(-) versus CD4(-)CD8(+) spleen cells was not affected. Interleukin-4 release from CD3/CD28-stimulated spleen cells of mice administered HMF was reduced, whereas interferon-γ release was not affected. These results suggest that HMF has an immunomodulatory function via reduced interleukin-4 expression.

  15. Contribution of forest fires to concentrations of particulate matter in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Reddington, C.; Yoshioka, M.; Arnold, S.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is regularly exposed to substantial levels of transboundary air pollution arising from uncontrolled forest and peat fires from specific regions within Southeast Asia. This air pollution has detrimental impacts on the lives of Singapore residents and on sensitive ecosystems. In June 2013, forest fires resulted in concentrations of particulate matter greatly exceeding levels recommended for human health, causing substantial public concern. We apply two different methods to quantify the impact of forest fires on the concentrations of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5) in Singapore. Firstly, we use a global aerosol model (GLOMAP) in combination with fire emissions from GFED3 to simulate PM2.5 concentrations over the period 1998-2009. We evaluate simulated PM2.5 concentrations against long-term observations from Singapore. To identify the contributions of fires from different source regions to PM2.5 concentrations we run multiple simulations with and without fire emissions from specific regions across Southeast Asia. Secondly, we apply an atmospheric back trajectory model in combination with the GFED3 fire emissions to calculate exposure of air masses arriving in Singapore to fire emissions. Both methods use meteorology from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and are consistent with the large-scale atmospheric flow from the assimilated observations. We find that both methods give consistent results, with forest fires increasing PM2.5 concentrations in Singapore predominately during April to October. Forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan cause the greatest degradation of air quality in Singapore. The contribution of fires to PM2.5 concentrations in Singapore exhibits strong interannual variability. During years with a strong contribution from fires, our simulations show that the prevention of fires in southern Sumatra would reduce regional PM2.5 concentrations around Singapore by more than a factor

  16. Training incidents in armored vehicles in the Singapore Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Ng, Yih-Yng; Ying, Meng-Fai

    2003-02-01

    Training in armored vehicles presents occupational hazards. Since the inception of armored units in the Singapore Armed Forces in 1969, there has been no scientific study of the demographics of the trauma patterns. A review of existing literature also indicated a paucity of data on this subject. This article qualified and quantified the proportion of trauma during peacetime armored vehicle training during a 5-year period. Most of the 100 documented incidences of injuries occurred on the head and body limbs. Many injuries were caused by minor lacerations, abrasions, and crush injuries. Although fractures accounted for 24%, 65% of the total injury count could be classified as "minor." A diurnal pattern of injuries was noted in the study. The injury patterns could be used to analyze morbidity and mortality trends and facilitate subsequent evaluation of efficacy of affirmative action. New challenges facing further research in training injuries were also discussed.

  17. Condom use still unacceptable to many in Singapore regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-21

    At a 3-day meeting sponsored by the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN), Thailand, Malaysia, Viet Nam, the Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore, and Brunei pledged to implement a series of high-profile projects to combat the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Although details of the projects were not revealed, they focus on education, information sharing, and improved surveillance. Voluntary groups, the private sector, community organizations, and government departments will be enlisted in the AIDS prevention effort. Participants noted that earlier concerns that condom promotion would encourage premarital and extramarital sex have proved unfounded. A survey conducted in Thailand indicated that AIDS education programs have increased condom use with prostitutes to 60%. Almost 3000 new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) occur each day in South and Southeast Asia.

  18. GOVERNING HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN SINGAPORE: AN AGENCY FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon-Yin Sam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that governments are changing their relationships with public sector organizations with the aim of improving public sector efficiency and effectiveness. The conceptual understanding of government control and governance approaches in state-owned higher education institutions (HEIs is, however, less well understood. Undoubtedly, question of the extent of autonomy and control of higher education institutions is of significant interest to administrators and policy-makers. This paper reviews the reforms undertaken by the Singapore government in HEIs especially the university sector. The agency framework is applied to assess the internal and external monitoring mechanisms aimed to protect the interest of the public. The paper finds that there is still much state presence and intervention in HEIs’ activities despite the government’s attempt to develop autonomous universities. Strengthening the corporate governance standard of the HEIs will offer a useful means to increase the willingness of the government to give more control to the HEI administrators.

  19. Synthesis and anticancer activities of 4-(4-substituted piperazin)-5,6,7-trialkoxy quinazoline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Huang, Yin-Jiu; Xiang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Pei-Yi; Hu, De-Yu; Xue, Wei; Song, Bao-An; Yang, Song

    2014-05-01

    A series of 4-(4-substituted piperazin)-5,6,7-trialkoxy quinazoline was prepared by conventional heating methods. Among these compounds, the crystal structure of compound 10o (CCDC: 916922) was determined by X-ray crystallography. Bioassay results showed that most target compounds had certain inhibition activities against proliferation of tumor cells, and some compounds even had good broad-spectrum inhibition activities. The ethoxyl series of compounds possessed higher inhibition activities against tumor cells than the methoxyl series of compounds. Bioactivity tests showed that the IC50 values of compound 10s against PC3, MGC803, A375, and A549 cells were 1.8, 2.8, 1.3, and 2.9 μΜ, respectively, which were much higher than those of commercial gefitinib (7.2, 7.6, 7.2, and 9.8 μM, respectively). Conversely, the IC50 values of compound 10s were very low against NH3T3, indicating only weak effect on normal cells as also proven by lactate dehydrogenase and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. Analyses of cell configuration and cell cycle revealed that compound 10s possibly caused cells to remain at G0/G1 phase by inhibiting cell proliferation for 24 h. Compound 10s also inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and P38 with obvious concentration dependence. Thus, these compounds can inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells through the interruption of ERK1/2 and P38signaling pathways.

  20. Simulated ground motion in Santa Clara Valley, California, and vicinity from M≥6.7 scenario earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Stephen C.; Hartzell, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Models of the Santa Clara Valley (SCV) 3D velocity structure and 3D finite-difference software are used to predict ground motions from scenario earthquakes on the San Andreas (SAF), Monte Vista/Shannon, South Hayward, and Calaveras faults. Twenty different scenario ruptures are considered that explore different source models with alternative hypocenters, fault dimensions, and rupture velocities and three different velocity models. Ground motion from the full wave field up to 1 Hz is exhibited as maps of peak horizontal velocity and pseudospectral acceleration at periods of 1, 3, and 5 sec. Basin edge effects and amplification in sedimentary basins of the SCV are observed that exhibit effects from shallow sediments with relatively low shear-wave velocity (330 m/sec). Scenario earthquakes have been simulated for events with the following magnitudes: (1) M 6.8–7.4 Calaveras sources, (2) M 6.7–6.9 South Hayward sources, (3) M 6.7 Monte Vista/Shannon sources, and (4) M 7.1–7.2 Peninsula segment of the SAF sources. Ground motions are strongly influenced by source parameters such as rupture velocity, rise time, maximum depth of rupture, hypocenter, and source directivity. Cenozoic basins also exert a strong influence on ground motion. For example, the Evergreen Basin on the northeastern side of the SCV is especially responsive to 3–5-sec energy from most scenario earthquakes. The Cupertino Basin on the southwestern edge of the SCV tends to be highly excited by many Peninsula and Monte Vista fault scenarios. Sites over the interior of the Evergreen Basin can have long-duration coda that reflect the trapping of seismic energy within this basin. Plausible scenarios produce predominantly 5-sec wave trains with greater than 30 cm/sec sustained ground-motion amplitude with greater than 30 sec duration within the Evergreen Basin.

  1. The queer time of creative urbanism: family, futurity, and global city Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie Oswin

    2012-01-01

    Singapore's rise as a 'global city' has attracted much scholarly attention, especially as its government has recently turned to 'creative city' strategies. In line with critiques made of other global and creative cities around the world, important critiques have been leveled that the city-state’s developmental efforts are bureaucratic, hierarchical, narrowly economistic, and, most importantly, socially polarizing. This paper demonstrates that Singapore’s global/creative city project is al...

  2. Curriculum as praxis: Ensuring quality technical education in Singapore for the 21st century.

    OpenAIRE

    Tiew Ming Yek; Dawn Penney

    2006-01-01

    Singapore, a small island city-state, has achieved notable economic advancement within 40 years since independence. It is fast becoming a global city and a knowledge society. In education and training, the Singapore system has evolved from its British roots. Macro performance indicators of participation rate, literacy rate and mean years of schooling, show that the current education system can be regarded as highly successful. The contributions of general education as well as technical educat...

  3. IMPACTS OF AGEING POPULATION ON MONETARY AND EXCHANGE RATE MANAGEMENT IN SINGAPORE

    OpenAIRE

    PAUL S. L. YIP; Tan, K C

    2008-01-01

    This policy note finds that the ageing of the population in Singapore will cause a reversal of the current net Central Provident Fund (CPF) contribution into a substantial net CPF withdrawal from 2025, with a peak occurring at 2035. The result is qualitatively robust to changes in the underlying assumptions of the projection. The paper then highlights the implications of this change on the exchange rate and monetary management in Singapore. Finally, the paper proposes policy measures that can...

  4. Market Entry strategy of Interbev UK Ltd. Into the markets of Singapore and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    With a constant GDP rise in both Singapore and Malaysia the markets in these countries provide immense potential for foreign businesses. The idea of this report is to formulate an internationalization strategy for Interbev UK Ltd, a international beverage trading company in to the markets of Malaysia and Singapore. Interbev wants to enter the market via export and start dealing with the local distributors as an initial step towards being established in the region. The report ex...

  5. Business ethics and prospects for restorative justice in selected commercial organisations based in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahim, Razwana Begum

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the principles and practices of business ethics in commercial organisations in Singapore. It also addresses the potential of the concept, restorative justice as a feature of ethical practice in commercial organisations. Two research questions guided the study which were i) what are the principles and practices of business ethics in commercial organisations based in Singapore and ii) what is the potential of restorative justice in commercial organisations based in Singapo...

  6. Economic Analysis of Pandemic Influenza Vaccination Strategies in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vernon J.; Tok, Mei Yin; Chow, Vincent T.; Phua, Kai Hong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Tambyah, Paul A.; Chen, Mark I.

    2009-01-01

    Background All influenza pandemic plans advocate pandemic vaccination. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies. This paper compares the economic outcomes of vaccination compared with treatment with antiviral agents alone, in Singapore. Methodology We analyzed the economic outcomes of pandemic vaccination (immediate vaccination and vaccine stockpiling) compared with treatment-only in Singapore using a decision-based model to perform cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. We also explored the annual insurance premium (willingness to pay) depending on the perceived risk of the next pandemic occurring. Principal Findings The treatment-only strategy resulted in 690 deaths, 13,950 hospitalization days, and economic cost of USD$497 million. For immediate vaccination, at vaccine effectiveness of >55%, vaccination was cost-beneficial over treatment-only. Vaccine stockpiling is not cost-effective in most scenarios even with 100% vaccine effectiveness. The annual insurance premium was highest with immediate vaccination, and was lower with increased duration to the next pandemic. The premium was also higher with higher vaccine effectiveness, attack rates, and case-fatality rates. Stockpiling with case-fatality rates of 0.4–0.6% would be cost-beneficial if vaccine effectiveness was >80%; while at case-fatality of >5% stockpiling would be cost-beneficial even if vaccine effectiveness was 20%. High-risk sub-groups warrant higher premiums than low-risk sub-groups. Conclusions The actual pandemic vaccine effectiveness and lead time is unknown. Vaccine strategy should be based on perception of severity. Immediate vaccination is most cost-effective, but requires vaccines to be available when required. Vaccine stockpiling as insurance against worst-case scenarios is also cost-effective. Research and development is therefore critical to develop and stockpile cheap, readily available effective vaccines. PMID:19771173

  7. Sea level trend and variability in the Singapore Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tkalich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea level in the Singapore Strait (SS exhibits response to various scale phenomena, from local to global. Longest tide gauge records in SS are analysed to derive local sea level trend and annual, inter-annual and multi-decadal sea level variability, which then are attributed to regional and global phenomena. Annual data gaps are reconstructed using functions correlating sea level variability with ENSO. At annual scale, sea level anomalies in SS are (quasi-periodic monsoon-driven, of the order of ±20 cm, the highest during northeast monsoon and the lowest during southwest monsoon. Interannual regional sea level drops are associated with El Niño events, while the rises are correlated with La Niña episodes; both variations are in the range of ±5 cm. At multi-decadal scale, annual measured sea levels in SS are varying with global mean sea level, rising at the rate 1.2–1.7 mm yr−1 for 1975–2009, 1.8–2.3 mm yr−1 for 1984–2009 and 1.9–4.6 mm yr−1 for 1993–2009. When SS rates are compared with the global trends (2.0, 2.4 and 2.8 mm yr−1, respectively derived from tide gauge measurements for the same periods, they are smaller in the earlier era and considerably larger in the recent one. Taking into account the first estimate of land subsidence rate, 1–1.5 mm yr−1 in Singapore, the recent trend of absolute sea level rise in SS follows regional tendency.

  8. State carnivals and the subvention of multiculturalism in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Daniel P S

    2011-03-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the specificities of Asian multiculturalism in relation to ethnic pluralism, citizenship and developmental state formation. This article examines these relationships by analysing three carnival events in colonial and postcolonial Singapore that were organized by the state to promote its official multiculturalism. Through its cultural logics of horizontal racial segmentation, cascading symbolic authority from the state to co-opted communal representatives and multi-modal ritual iteration, the 1937 King George VI coronation celebrations proffered an imperial multiculturalism based on mediating plural groups and procedural norms. Adopting the same cultural logics in the 1970s, the newly-independent nation-state revived and transformed Chingay, a creole Chinese religious procession, into an annual parade celebrating the nation as comprising racially plural groups bound together by the modern ethos of progress the developmental state exemplified. In the 2000s, Chingay has been turned into an international spectacle celebrating Singapore as a cosmopolitan global city of hybridizing multiculturalism. But indicative of new racial-class segmentation, the old nation-building pluralism is promoted by Racial Harmony Day carnivals held in suburban public housing neighborhoods. This bifurcated multiculturalism reflects the developmental state's attempts to deal with new citizenship trends as they grind against the old ethnic pluralism. While faced with the same issues globalization brings, this postcolonial multiculturalism is distinctively different from liberal multiculturalism, not least because the subvention of multiculturalism is achieved through the state appropriation of vernacular cultural practices through its carnivals. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  9. Comprehensive characterization of PM2.5 aerosols in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Qian, W.-B.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, M. C.; Fuzzi, S.

    2003-08-01

    A comprehensive characterization of PM2.5 aerosols collected in Singapore from January through December 2000 is presented. The annual average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 27.2 μg/m3. The atmospheric loading of PM2.5 was elevated sporadically from March through May, mainly due to advection of biomass burning (deliberate fires to clear plantation areas) impacted air masses from Sumatra, Indonesia. Satellite images of the area, trajectory calculations, and surface wind direction data are in support of the transport of pyrogenic products from Sumatra toward Singapore. Aerosol samples collected during the dry season were analyzed for water-soluble ions, water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC), elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon, and trace elements using a number of analytical techniques. The major components were sulfate, EC, water-soluble carbonaceous materials, and water-insoluble carbonaceous materials. Aerosol WSOC were characterized based on a combination of chromatographic separations by ion exchange chromatography, functional group investigation by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and total organic carbon determination. The comprehensive chemical characterization of PM2.5 particles revealed that both non-sea-salt sufate (nss-SO42-) and carbonaceous aerosols mainly contributed to the increase in the mass concentration of aerosols during the smoke haze period. Using a mass closure test (a mass balance), we determined whether the physical measurement of gravimetric fine PM concentration of a sample is equal to the summed concentrations of the individually identified chemical constituents (measured or inferred) in the sample. The sum of the determined groups of aerosol components and the gravimetrically determined mass agreed reasonably well. Principal component analysis was performed from the combined data set, and five factors were observed: a soil dust component, a metallurgical industry factor, a factor representing emissions from biomass burning and

  10. Epidemiological characteristics of cholera in Singapore, 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chia Siong; Ang, Li Wei; James, Lyn; Goh, Kee Tai

    2010-07-01

    We carried out an epidemiological review of cholera in Singapore to determine its trends and the factors contributing to its occurrence. Epidemiological data of all notified cases of cholera maintained by the Communicable Diseases Division, Ministry of Health, for the period 1992 to 2007 were collated and analysed. Case-control studies were carried out in outbreaks to determine the source of infection and mode of transmission. Linear patterns in age and ethnic distribution of cholera cases were assessed using chi2 test for trend. There were a total of 210 cholera cases reported between 1992 and 2007. The incidence of cholera declined from 17 cases in 1992 to 7 cases in 2007. About a quarter of the cases were imported from endemic countries in the region. Between 76% and 95% of the reported cases were local residents. Four elderly patients with comorbidities and who sought medical treatment late died, giving a case-fatality rate of 1.9%. Vibrio cholerae 01, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa, accounted for 83.8% of the cases. The vehicles of transmission identified in outbreaks included raw fi sh, undercooked seafood and iced drinks cross-contaminated with raw seafood. With the high standard of environmental hygiene and sanitation, a comprehensive epidemiological surveillance system and licensing and control of food establishments, cholera could not gain a foothold in Singapore despite it being situated in an endemic region. However, health education of the public on the importance of personal and food hygiene is of paramount importance in preventing foodborne outbreaks. Physicians should also maintain a high level of suspicion of cholera in patients presenting with severe gastroenteritis, especially those with a recent travel history to endemic countries.

  11. Economic analysis of pandemic influenza vaccination strategies in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All influenza pandemic plans advocate pandemic vaccination. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies. This paper compares the economic outcomes of vaccination compared with treatment with antiviral agents alone, in Singapore. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed the economic outcomes of pandemic vaccination (immediate vaccination and vaccine stockpiling compared with treatment-only in Singapore using a decision-based model to perform cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. We also explored the annual insurance premium (willingness to pay depending on the perceived risk of the next pandemic occurring. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The treatment-only strategy resulted in 690 deaths, 13,950 hospitalization days, and economic cost of USD$497 million. For immediate vaccination, at vaccine effectiveness of >55%, vaccination was cost-beneficial over treatment-only. Vaccine stockpiling is not cost-effective in most scenarios even with 100% vaccine effectiveness. The annual insurance premium was highest with immediate vaccination, and was lower with increased duration to the next pandemic. The premium was also higher with higher vaccine effectiveness, attack rates, and case-fatality rates. Stockpiling with case-fatality rates of 0.4-0.6% would be cost-beneficial if vaccine effectiveness was >80%; while at case-fatality of >5% stockpiling would be cost-beneficial even if vaccine effectiveness was 20%. High-risk sub-groups warrant higher premiums than low-risk sub-groups. CONCLUSIONS: The actual pandemic vaccine effectiveness and lead time is unknown. Vaccine strategy should be based on perception of severity. Immediate vaccination is most cost-effective, but requires vaccines to be available when required. Vaccine stockpiling as insurance against worst-case scenarios is also cost-effective. Research and development is therefore critical to develop and stockpile cheap, readily available effective vaccines.

  12. Trends in mortality, incidence, hospitalisation, cardiac procedures and outcomes of care for coronary heart disease in Singapore, 1991-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T P; Mak, K H; Phua, K H; Tan, C H

    1999-05-01

    In this study, we used Singapore population-based data from 1991 to 1996 to examine recent trends in mortality, incidence and hospitalisation for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and explored the roles of primary prevention and medical care interventions in explaining these trends. We examined trends in medical interventions, namely coronary angiography (catheterisation), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), length of stay, and payment methods, and explored the roles of technological, healthcare financing and delivery, and regulatory factors in influencing the diffusion and outcomes of these medical interventions. During the period 1991 to 1996, there were parallel declines in resident population rates of mortality, incidence and hospitalisation for AMI. The rates of angiograms, CABG and PTCA among residents also increased greatly, with the greatest increase among elderly aged 60 years and above. The rates of invasive cardiac procedures for AMI were all lower in females than in males. The population case-fatality rate of AMI declined slightly only for persons below 40 years of age. The case-fatality rate was higher in females than in males. The number of hospitalisations and cardiac procedures all rose sharply, and was phenomenal for PTCA (247%). The increase in volume of resource use was starkly greater in private hospitals than in restructured hospitals. The ratios of PTCA to CABG from 1991 to 1996 for private and restructured hospitals showed a greater rate of technology substitution in restructured hospitals than in private hospitals. The average length of stay (LOS, 6.7 days) was fairly constant in restructured hospitals. For private hospitals, LOS declined from 7.6 days in 1991 to 5.6 in 1996. LOS varied little among individual restructured hospitals, but widely among private hospitals. The most common method of payment for AMI hospitalisation was Medisave alone (50%), but for CABG surgery, the

  13. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity and QSAR studies of new 2,3-disubstituted-3,3a,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-2H-indazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minu, Maninder; Thangadurai, Ananda; Wakode, Sharad Ramesh; Agrawal, Shyam Sundar; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian

    2009-06-01

    Antimicrobial activity of synthesized 2,3-disubstituted-3,3a,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-2H-indazole derivatives indicated that 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenylsulfonyl)-3,3a,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-2H-indazole (6) and 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenylsulfonyl)-3,3a,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-2H-indazole (20) were the most active compounds. Further, the results of QSAR studies indicated the importance of topological parameters (2)chi and (2)chi(v) in defining the antimicrobial activity of hexahydroindazoles.

  14. Probing the Evolution of Massive Young Stellar Objects using Weak Class II 6.7GHz Methanol Maser Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Bethany Ann; Cunningham, Nichol

    2017-01-01

    We present results from an investigation of class II 6.7GHz methanol masers towards four Massive Young Stellar Objects (MYSOs). The sources, selected from the Red MSX Source (RMS) Survey (Lumsden et al. 2013), were previously understood to be non-detections for class II methanol maser emission in the methanol multi-beam (MMB) Survey (Caswell et al. 2010.) Class II methanol masers are a well-known sign post of massive star forming regions and may be utilized to probe their relatively poorly understood formation. It is possible that these non-detections are simply weak masers that are potentially associated with a younger evolutionary phase of MYSOs as hypothesized by Olmi et al. (2014). The sources were chosen to sample various stages of evolution, having similar 21 to 8 micron flux ratios and bolometric luminosities as other MYSOs with previous class II methanol maser detections. We observed all 4 MYSOs with ATCA (~2" resolution) at 10 times deeper sensitivity than previously obtained with the MMB survey and have a spectral resolution of 0.087kms^-1 . The raw data is reduced using the program Miriad (Sault, R. J., et al., 1995) and deconvolutioned using the program CASA (McMullin, J. P., et al. 2007.) We determine one of the four observed MYSOs is harboring a weak class II methanol maser. We discuss the possibility of sensitivity limitations on the remaining sources as well as environmental and evolutionary differences between the sources.

  15. Effect of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroneopterin on the bovine endothelial cell injury induced by cumene hydroperoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurobane, T; Kojima, S; Yoshimura, M; Icho, T; Kajiwara, Y; Kubota, K

    1995-07-01

    Neopterin is an 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine derivative and a precursor of biopterin, which is derived from guanosine triphosphate. Previously, we have reported that 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroneopterin (NPH4), a reduced form of neopterin, possesses an antioxidant activity in various systems. In this study, we investigated the activity in more detailed manner and discussed the possible applications of this antioxidant. Analysis by electron spin resonance spectrometry indicated that NPH4 scavenged superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals as well. Moreover, NPH4 protected the rat brain homogenate from autoxidation. Next, we examined the effect of NPH4 on the cell injury induced by cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) in cultured bovine artery endothelial cells. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase, a marker enzyme of cell injury, was elevated by CHP in a dose-dependent manner, and this elevation was dose-dependently suppressed by NPH4. The elevation of lipid peroxide content was also inhibited by NPH4 in the same fashion. These data suggest that NPH4 would be effective against various diseases whose pathogenesis is active oxygen-related.

  16. N,N′-Bis(2-cyclohexylethylnaphtho[2,3-b:6,7-b′]dithiophene Diimides: Effects of Substituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Nakano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Naphtho[2,3-b:6,7-b′]dithiophene-4,5,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (NDTI is a promising electron-deficient building block for n-type organic conductors, and the performance of NDTI-based field-effect transistors (FETs is largely dependent on the substituents that alter the supramolecular organization in the solid state and, in turn, the intermolecular orbital overlap. For this reason, the rational selection of substituent on imide nitrogen atoms and/or thiophene α-positions is the key to developing superior n-type organic semiconductors. We here report new NDTI derivatives having N-(2-cyclohexylethyl groups. Despite their one-dimensional packing structures in the solid state regardless of the presence or absence of chlorine groups at the thiophene α-positions, their FETs show promising performance with electron mobilities higher than 0.1 cm2·V−1·s−1 under ambient conditions. We also discuss how the cyclohexylethyl groups affect the packing structure in comparison with analogous n-octyl derivatives having the same number of carbon atoms.

  17. On the possible origin of troilite-metal nodules in the Katol chondrite (L6-7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dwijesh; Ghosh, S.; Murty, S. V. S.

    2017-01-01

    Microtextural study of a single troilite-metal nodule (TMN) from the Katol L6-7 chondrite, a recent fall (May, 2012) in India suggests that the TMN is primarily an aggregate of submicron-scale intergrowth of troilite and kamacite (mean Ni: 6.18 wt%) juxtaposed with intensely fractured silicates, mainly olivine (Fa: 25 mole%), low-Ca pyroxene (Fs: 21.2 mole%), and a large volume of maskelynite. Evidence of shock textures in the TMN indicates a high degree of shock metamorphism that involves plagioclase-maskelynite and olivine-wadsleyite/ringwoodite transformations and formation of quenched metal-sulfide melt textures due to localized shear-induced frictional melting. It is inferred that the TMN formation is an independent, localized event by a high energy impact and its subsequent incorporation in the ejected chondritic fragment of the parent body. Katol chondrite has been calibrated with a peak shock pressure of S5 ( 45 GPa) after Stöffler et al. (1991), whereas peak shock pressure within the TMN exceeds the shock facies S6 (>45 GPa) following Bennett and McSween (1996) and Stöffler et al. (1991). Overall, the shock-thermal history of the Katol TMN is dissimilar as compared to the host chondrite.

  18. The development of 6.7% efficient copper zinc indium selenide devices from copper zinc indium sulfide nanocrystal inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeser, Brian K.

    As solar cell absorber materials, alloys of CuIn(S,Se)2 and Zn(S,Se) provide an opportunity to reduce the usage of indium along with the ability to tune the band gap. Here we report successful synthesis of alloyed (CuInS2)0.5(ZnS)0.5 nanocrystals by a method that solely uses oleylamine as the liquid medium for synthesis. The reactive sintering of a thin film of these nanocrystals via selenization at 500 °C results in a uniform composition alloy (CuIn(S,Se)2)0.5(Zn(S,Se)) 0.5 layer with micron size grains. Due to the large amount of zinc in the film, the sintered grains exhibit the zinc blende structure instead of the usual chalcopyrite structure of CuIn(S,Se)2 films. The use of the selenide films as a p-type absorber layer has yielded solar cells with total area power conversion efficiencies as high as 6.7% (7.4% based on active area). These preliminary results are encouraging and indicate that with further optimization this class of materials has promise as the absorber layer in solar cells.

  19. The mid-infrared environments of 6.7 GHz Methanol Masers from the Methanol Multi-Beam Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gallaway, M; Lucas, P W; Fuller, G A; Caswell, J L; Green, J A; Voronkov, M A; Breen, S L; Quinn, L; Ellingsen, S P; Avison, A; Ward-Thompson, D; Cox, J

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the mid-infrared environments and association with star formation tracers of 6.7 GHz methanol masers taken from the Methanol Multi-Beam (MMB) Survey. Our ultimate goal is to establish the mass of the host star and its evolutionary stage for each maser site. As a first step, the GLIMPSE survey of the Galactic Plane is utilised to investigate the environment of 776 methanol masers and we find that while the majority of the masers are associated with mid-infrared counterparts, a significant fraction (17%) are not associated with any detectable mid-infrared emission. A number of the maser counterparts are clearly extended with respect to the GLIMPSE point spread function and we implement an adaptive non-circular aperture photometry (ANCAP) technique to determine the fluxes of the maser counterparts. The ANCAP technique doubles the number of masers with flux information at all four wavelengths compared to the number of the corresponding counterparts obtained from the GLIMPSE Point Source Cata...

  20. Seismotectonics of the 2013 Lushan Mw 6.7 earthquake: Inversion tectonics in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Renqi; Xu, Xiwei; He, Dengfa; John, Suppe; Liu, Bo; Wang, Fuyun; Tan, Xibin; Li, Yingqiang

    2017-08-01

    On 20 April 2013, an unexpected Mw 6.7 earthquake occurred in Lushan County at the southern Longmen Shan, the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. A high-resolution seismic reflection profile was combined with near-surface geological data, earthquake relocation and geodetic measurements, and a recent deep artificial seismic reflection profile to identify the active fault and seismotectonics of this earthquake. Three-dimensional imaging of the aftershocks was used to identify two planar faults that together form a y shape (f1 and f2). Seismic interpretations suggest that fault f1 did not break through the overlying Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks and is a typical blind fault. Geodetic measurements suggest that the coseismic deformation is consistent with the geometry and kinematics of shear fault-bend folding. Deep seismic data indicate the syndepositional nature of fault f1 a preexisting normal fault older than the Triassic, which underwent positive inversion tectonics during the Late Cenozoic. A thrust fault f3 converges with f1 at a depth of approximately 12 km with an accumulated slip 3.6 km. This 2013 Lushan earthquake triggered by blind faults is a hidden earthquake. Blind and reactivated faults increase the potential risk and uncertainty related to earthquakes in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau.

  1. Infectious diseases and migrant worker health in Singapore: a receiving country's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarangani, Sapna P; Lim, Poh Lian; Vasoo, Shawn

    2017-07-01

    Approximately 1.4 million migrant workers reside in Singapore, presenting unique infectious disease challenges to both migrants and Singapore. A Pubmed, MEDLINE (Ovid), EBSCO Host (Global Health) and Google Scholar search was performed for both peer, non-peer reviewed articles and reports relevant to migrant health in Singapore, published between 1 January 1989 and 1 September 2016. Additional studies were identified from citations within searched articles. We also reviewed published data and policy documents from the Ministries of Health and Manpower, Singapore. A significant proportion of malaria, enteric fevers, hepatitis A and E and tuberculosis diagnosed in Singapore involve migrant workers. From the 1990-2000 through 2009-11, while malaria and hepatitis A cases have decreased and remain sporadic, enteric fevers and tuberculosis cases have increased, possibly due to greater influx of migrant workers. Hepatitis E numbers remain low but migrant workers account for half of diagnosed cases. In an interplay of immune naivete, work and living conditions, migrants in the construction industry are at higher risk of arboviral infections such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya. Infections such as chikungunya were likely introduced into Singapore by travellers including migrant workers from the Indian subcontinent but autochthonous transmission continued due to the presence of competent mosquito vectors. There is less data regarding sexual health, networks and infections amongst migrant workers, an area which merits further attention. Migrant workers appear to be at higher risk than Singaporeans for specific infectious diseases, probably due to a complex interplay of several factors, including higher disease prevalence in their countries of origin, socio-economic factors, their living conditions in Singapore and financial, language and cultural barriers to healthcare access. Receiving countries need improved surveillance, expansion of preventive measures and decreased

  2. Recruitment constraints in Singapore's fluted giant clam (Tridacna squamosa population--a dispersal model approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Lin Neo

    Full Text Available Recruitment constraints on Singapore's dwindling fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, population were studied by modelling fertilisation, larval transport, and settlement using real-time hydrodynamic forcing combined with knowledge of spawning characteristics, larval development, behaviour, and settlement cues. Larval transport was simulated using a finite-volume advection-diffusion model coupled to a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Three recruitment constraint hypotheses were tested: 1 there is limited connectivity between Singapore's reefs and other reefs in the region, 2 there is limited exchange within Singapore's Southern Islands, and 3 there exist low-density constraints to fertilisation efficacy (component Allee effects. Results showed that connectivity among giant clam populations was primarily determined by residual hydrodynamic flows and spawning time, with greatest chances of successful settlement occurring when spawning and subsequent larval dispersal coincided with the period of lowest residual flow. Simulations suggested poor larval transport from reefs located along the Peninsular Malaysia to Singapore, probably due to strong surface currents between the Andaman Sea and South China Sea combined with a major land barrier disrupting larval movement among reefs. The model, however, predicted offshore coral reefs to the southeast of Singapore (Bintan and Batam may represent a significant source of larvae. Larval exchange within Singapore's Southern Islands varied substantially depending on the locations of source and sink reefs as well as spawning time; but all simulations resulted in low settler densities (2.1-68.6 settled individuals per 10,000 m(2. Poor fertilisation rates predicted by the model indicate that the low density and scattered distribution of the remaining T. squamosa in Singapore are likely to significantly inhibit any natural recovery of local stocks.

  3. Conformational Analysis of Seven Membered Nitrogen Heterocycles Employing Molecular Modeling. Part II: 1-(ONitrophenyl-2-Phenyl-1h-4,5,6,7-Tetrahydro-1,3-Diazepine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica E. Hedrera

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Geometry optimization of 1-(o-nitrophenyl-2-phenyl-1H-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1,3-diazepine is performed by means of molecular modeling. Results are correlated with theoretical and experimental UV spectra.

  4. Joint Effects of Known Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Loci in Genome-Wide Association Study of Singapore Chinese: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanghua; Pereira, Mark A.; Seielstad, Mark; Koh, Woon-Puay; Tai, E. Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; Liu, Jianjun; Hsu, Chris; Wang, Renwei; Odegaard, Andrew O.; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Koratkar, Revati; Yuan, Jian-Min; Gross, Myron D.; Stram, Daniel O.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic factors in type 2 diabetes (T2D), mostly among individuals of European ancestry. We tested whether previously identified T2D-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) replicate and whether SNPs in regions near known T2D SNPs were associated with T2D within the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Methods 2338 cases and 2339 T2D controls from the Singapore Chinese Health Study were genotyped for 507,509 SNPs. Imputation extended the genotyped SNPs to 7,514,461 with high estimated certainty (r2>0.8). Replication of known index SNP associations in T2D was attempted. Risk scores were computed as the sum of index risk alleles. SNPs in regions ±100 kb around each index were tested for associations with T2D in conditional fine-mapping analysis. Results Of 69 index SNPs, 20 were genotyped directly and genotypes at 35 others were well imputed. Among the 55 SNPs with data, disease associations were replicated (at pdiabetes risk in Singapore Chinese involves genetic variants, most disease risk remains unexplained. Further genetic work is ongoing in the Singapore Chinese population to identify unique common variants not already seen in earlier studies. However rapid increases in T2D risk have occurred in recent decades in this population, indicating that dynamic environmental influences and possibly gene by environment interactions complicate the genetic architecture of this disease. PMID:24520337

  5. Are trajectories of self-regulation abilities from ages 2-3 to 6-7 associated with academic achievement in the early school years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, A C P; Chittleborough, C R; Mittinty, M N; Miller-Lewis, L R; Sawyer, M G; Sullivan, T; Lynch, J W

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between two key aspects of self-regulation, 'task attentiveness' and 'emotional regulation' assessed from ages 2-3 to 6-7 years, and academic achievement when children were aged 6-7 years. Participants (n = 3410) were children in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parents rated children's task attentiveness and emotional regulation abilities when children were aged 2-3, 4-5 and 6-7. Academic achievement was assessed using the Academic Rating Scale completed by teachers. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between developmental trajectories (i.e. rate of change per year) of task attentiveness and emotional regulation, and academic achievement at 6-7 years. Improvements in task attentiveness between 2-3 and 6-7 years, adjusted for baseline levels of task attentiveness, child and family confounders, and children's receptive vocabulary and non-verbal reasoning skills at age 6-7 were associated with greater teacher-rated literacy [B = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.04-0.06] and maths achievement (B = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.03-0.06) at 6-7 years. Improvements in emotional regulation, adjusting for baseline levels and covariates, were also associated with better teacher-rated literacy (B = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.01-0.04) but not with maths achievement (B = 0.01, 95% CI = -0.01-0.02) at 6-7 years. For literacy, improvements in task attentiveness had a stronger association with achievement at 6-7 years than improvements in emotional regulation. Our study shows that improved trajectories of task attentiveness from ages 2-3 to 6-7 years are associated with improved literacy and maths achievement during the early school years. Trajectories of improving emotional regulation showed smaller effects on academic outcomes. Results suggest that interventions that improve task attentiveness when children are aged 2-3 to 6-7 years have the potential to improve literacy and maths achievement during

  6. Singapore rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) experience: shall we change our practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Lele; Soe, Tin Aung; Chang, Kenneth Te; Quah, Thuan Chong

    2014-02-01

    Although rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) constitutes nearly 4% of all children diagnosed with cancer in the ethnically diverse small island city of Singapore, it is unknown how children with RMS fare. This study investigated 50 children with RMS from April 1993 to December 2010 from KK Women's and Children's Hospital (KKH) and National University Hospital (NUH). They were treated either as per Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) or Société Internationale Pediatrique D'Oncologie (SIOP) regimens. Median age of diagnosis was 5.1 years (range, 0.1 to 17.3 years) with a median follow-up of 3.3 years (range, 0.4 to 15.6 years). According to IRSG classifi cation, 18 (36%) were staged as low-risk (LR); 19 (38%) were intermediate-risk (IR), 12 (24%) were high-risk (HR) and it was unknown in 1 patient. Twenty-nine (58%) were of embryonal subtype, 17 (34%) were alveolar and subclassification was not available in 4. The primary sites of tumour were: head and neck region (n = 22); genitourinary (n = 19); extremity (n = 10); and abdomen/retroperitoneal (n = 5). At the time of analysis, 80% were alive with no evidence of disease, 9 were dead of disease, and 2 were alive with disease. By disease risk group, the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) for LR group disease was 81.3% (95% CI, 62.0 to 100.0), IR group was 61.4% (95% CI, 32.3 to 90.4) and HR group was 25.0% (95% CI, 0.0 to 49.5) respectively (P HR 0.0% vs 42.9% (P = 0.336) respectively. Of 15 relapses (HR, n = 7), at median of 2 years, 4 of 6 patients treated as per SIOP regimen were dead of disease and 3 of 8 treated as per IRSG were alive. Radiation therapy (RT) can be avoided in LR classification although those in higher risk classification need RT to local and distant metastatic disease. The outcome of children with RMS in Singapore can be further improved by coming together as a cooperative group to provide the best total care. Improved communication, multidisciplinary team collaboration, standardisation of protocols

  7. Seismological, geodetic, macroseismic and historical context of the 2016 Mw 6.7 Tamenglong (Manipur) India earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahalaut, V. K.; Martin, Stacey S.; Srinagesh, D.; Kapil, S. L.; Suresh, G.; Saikia, Saurav; Kumar, Vikas; Dadhich, Harendra; Patel, Aqeel; Prajapati, Sanjay K.; Shukla, H. P.; Gautam, J. L.; Baidya, P. R.; Mandal, Saroj; Jain, Ashish

    2016-10-01

    The 2016 Mw 6.7 Tamenglong earthquake (in the state of Manipur in northeastern India) on 4 January 2016 at 04:35 Indian Standard Time (3 January, 23:05 UTC) was the strongest earthquake to strike Manipur since 1988. Using data from Indian stations, we constrain the hypocentral depth of the mainshock at 59 ± 3.8 km and determine a strike-slip mechanism with a moderate reverse component on a steeply dipping plane. Though coseismic offsets from GPS measurements from four nearby sites were inadequate to provide further constraints on the focal mechanism, they were consistent with the magnitude and hypocentral depth of the earthquake. The epicentre of the mainshock was located 15-km west of the Churachandpur Mao Fault (CMF) but it was unrelated to this structure and was instead a typical intra-slab earthquake within the Indian plate. A strong motion instrument at the Loktak Power Station (LOK), 56-km from the epicentre, recorded a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.027g while a PGA of 0.103g was recorded at Shillong (SHL) at an epicentral distance of 111-km. We also present macroseismic observations from 461 locations in north-eastern India and the adjacent areas for this earthquake. The highest intensities ( 7 EMS) were observed in the Manipur Valley and in the hills to the west while shaking was perceptible as far as Delhi and Jaipur. Lastly, we present a catalogue of 333 felt earthquakes in Manipur from 1588 ± 1 CE to 1955 derived from the royal chronicle of the kings of Manipur known as the Cheitharon Kumpapa, discuss important historical earthquakes in the region, and also estimate intensity magnitudes for the 1852 (MI 6.5 ± 0.8), 1869 (MI 7.1 ± 0.7), 1880 (MI 6.3 ± 0.7) and 2016 (MI 6.8 ± 0.8) earthquakes.

  8. Did the Long Duration, April 18, 2002 (Mw 6.7), Mexico Earthquake Break the Guerrero Gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, K.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Iglesias, A.; Singh, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    The April 18, 2002 (Mw 6.7) earthquake was located about 55 km off the coast of Guerrero, near to the Mesoamerican Trench. The hypocenter location (Pacheco & Singh, 2010) is inside what is known as the Guerrero Gap, a segment of the Mexican subduction zone that has not had a large (M>7) earthquake in at least 100 years (Singh et al 1981). The 2002 earthquake is anomalous in the sense that it produced very small accelerations for its size (Iglesias et al 2003) and it is one of the earthquakes with longest duration relative to its magnitude recorded globally in the last 40 years (Duputel et al, 2013). A small tsunami (less than 10 cm) was detected at nearby sites. Furthermore, it is notable that this event occurred at the end of the 2002 slow slip event, that occurred on the down dip portion of the same segment from jan-april the same year(Kostoglodov 2003). The location and extent of the rupture area of this event, is key to understanding the seismogenic potential of the Guerrero Gap. Often the rupture area of an earthquake is estimated by the extent of the aftershock area. However, locating earthquakes near the trench is difficult, due to their emerging P-waves and as they occur outside of the network of observation. In this study we calculate the duration of the 2002 earthquake by observations of both near- and far-field records. We then relocate the aftershocks to estimate the rupture area, and finally discuss the implications of our results for the seismogenic potential of the zone.

  9. Complete and incomplete fusion dynamics of {sup 6,7}Li + {sup 159}Tb reactions near the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Manjeet Singh [Thapar University, School of Physics and Materials Science, Patiala (India); Indus Degree College, Department of Physics, Kinana, Jind, Haryana (India); Grover, Neha; Sharma, Manoj K. [Thapar University, School of Physics and Materials Science, Patiala (India)

    2017-01-15

    The complete fusion (CF) and incomplete fusion (ICF) cross-sections are estimated for {sup 6,} {sup 7}Li + {sup 159}Tb reactions using the energy-dependent Woods-Saxon potential model (EDWSP model) and dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM). The CF data of the {sup 6}Li + {sup 159}Tb({sup 7}Li + {sup 159}Tb) reaction at above barrier energies is suppressed with reference to expectations of the EDWSP model by 25% (20%) which is smaller than the reported data by ∝ 9% (6%). This suppression is correlated with the projectile breakup effect. The projectiles {sup 6,7}Li are loosely bound systems, which may break up into charged fragments prior to reaching the fusion barrier and subsequently one of the fragment is captured by the target leading to the suppression of fusion data at above barrier energies. The sum of CF and ICF, which is termed as total fusion cross-section (TF), removes the discrepancies between theoretical predictions and the above barrier complete fusion data and hence is adequately explained via the EDWSP model over a wide range of energy spread across the Coulomb barrier. In addition to fusion, the decay mechanism of {sup 6}Li + {sup 159}Tb reaction is studied within the framework of the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM). The breakup of the projectile ({sup 6}Li) in the entrance channel indicates the presence of ICF, which is investigated further using the collective clusterization approach of DCM. The present theoretical analysis suggests that a larger barrier modification is needed to address the fusion data of chosen reactions in the below barrier energy region. (orig.)

  10. Tectonic Setting and Aftershocks of the Mw 6.7 Feburary 14, 2013 Earthquake in Yakutia, Northeast Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappolee, E.; Burk, D. R.; Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.; Shibaev, S. V.; Koz'min, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    The details of the seismotectonics along the boundary between the Eurasian, North American, and Okhotsk plates are poorly understood. Infrequent earthquakes of moderate size (Mw > 4) in this remote region make it difficult to characterize its tectonic activity. On February 14, 2013, an Mw 6.7 earthquake along this boundary in Northern Yakutia, Russia, resulted in a long sequence of aftershocks that provide an opportunity to better understand the region's geology. A temporary deployment of four seismic stations was installed around the main shock to supplement regional station coverage. During the ten day deployment, several thousand aftershocks were recorded. We have located 112 events using both first-arriving Pn and Sn and secondary arriving Pg and Sg phase time picks. The located aftershocks define a SSE striking zone approximately 30 km long and 10 km wide, east of the Illin'-Tas fault and northwest of the Indigirka River. Location depths range from 0 to 20 km. In conjunction with locating aftershocks, a local three-layer best-fit velocity was determined consisting of an upper crust (14 km thick, VPg = 6.06 km/s and VSg = 3.53 km/s), a lower crust (21 km thick, VP* = 6.45 km/s and VS* = 3.65 km/s), and a Moho (35 km deep, VPn = 7.98 km/s and VSn = 4.53 km/s). The mainshock epicenter falls in the northwestern corner of the aftershock zone, however its focal depth is not well established. Aftershock analysis is ongoing and will possibly provide a better understanding of the earthquake rupture zone. Nonetheless, results of this study support active thrusting and mountain building as a mechanism to accommodate compression along the North America-Eurasia boundary.

  11. Relationship between junk foods intake and weight in 6-7 years old children, Shahin Shahr and Meymeh, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Leila; Ghiasvand, Reza; Ashrafi, Maryam; Ashrafzadeh, Elnaz; Askari, Gholamreza; Shiranian, Afshin; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Healthy nutrition is very important considering the weight status especially in children. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between junk foods intake and weight in 6-7-years old children. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Shahin Shahr and Meymeh, Iran, in 2009. Anthropometrics measures were done and 24-hour food recall used for dietary information and analyzed with food processor 2 and then compared with dietary reference intakes 2008 (DRI). 61.1 percent of the subjects were residing in dormitories and 12.7 percent were marred. Prevalence of overweight or obesity and abdominal obesity was 6.9 percent and 46.1 percent respectively. Mean (±SD) systolic blood pressure was 105.2 ± 15.6 mm/Hg and diastolic was 62.2 ± 10.4 mm/Hg. Totally, 3.9 percent of the subjects had hypertension. The analysis of food intake indicate that (B12, folate, magnesium, potassium, calcium) with level below the recommended ones, and (vitamin C, E, pantothenic acid, B1, B3, phosphate, zinc) with up levels the recommended ones, and energy intake, macronutrient, vitamin A, pyridoxine, iron, selenium were in general appropriate. These results indicated appropriate level of macronutrients intake and unbalance mainly existed in micronutrients. It is recommended to increase intake important food groups such as dairy, vegetable, fruit that include good source of micronutrients, and also it is suggested that need for strategies can improve competence in the area of nutrition.

  12. Relationship between junk foods intake and weight in 6-7 years old children, Shahin Shahr and Meymeh, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Leila; Ghiasvand, Reza; Ashrafi, Maryam; Ashrafzadeh, Elnaz; Askari, Gholamreza; Shiranian, Afshin; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Healthy nutrition is very important considering the weight status especially in children. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between junk foods intake and weight in 6-7-years old children. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Shahin Shahr and Meymeh, Iran, in 2009. Anthropometrics measures were done and 24-hour food recall used for dietary information and analyzed with food processor 2 and then compared with dietary reference intakes 2008 (DRI). Findings: 61.1 percent of the subjects were residing in dormitories and 12.7 percent were marred. Prevalence of overweight or obesity and abdominal obesity was 6.9 percent and 46.1 percent respectively. Mean (±SD) systolic blood pressure was 105.2 ± 15.6 mm/Hg and diastolic was 62.2 ± 10.4 mm/Hg. Totally, 3.9 percent of the subjects had hypertension. The analysis of food intake indicate that (B12, folate, magnesium, potassium, calcium) with level below the recommended ones, and (vitamin C, E, pantothenic acid, B1, B3, phosphate, zinc) with up levels the recommended ones, and energy intake, macronutrient, vitamin A, pyridoxine, iron, selenium were in general appropriate. Conclusion: These results indicated appropriate level of macronutrients intake and unbalance mainly existed in micronutrients. It is recommended to increase intake important food groups such as dairy, vegetable, fruit that include good source of micronutrients, and also it is suggested that need for strategies can improve competence in the area of nutrition. PMID:24083252

  13. Development of a Coupled Ocean-Hydrologic Model to Simulate Pollutant Transport in Singapore Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, V. P.

    2015-12-01

    Intensive agricultural, economic and industrial activities in Singapore and Malaysia have made our coastal areas under high risk of water pollution. A coupled ocean-hydrologic model is employed to perform three-dimensional simulations of flow and pollutant transport in Singapore coastal waters. The hydrologic SWAT model is coupled with the coastal ocean SUNTANS model by outputting streamflow and pollutant concentrations from the SWAT model and using them as inputs for the SUNTANS model at common boundary points. The coupled model is calibrated with observed sea surface elevations and velocities, and high correlation coefficients that exceed 0.97 and 0.91 are found for sea surface elevations and velocities, respectively. The pollutants are modeled as Gaussian passive tracers, and are released at five upstream locations in Singapore coastal waters. During the Northeast monsoon, pollutants released in Source 1 (Johor River), Source 2 (Tiram River), Source 3 (Layang River) and Source 4 (Layau River) enter the Singapore Strait after 4 days of release and reach Sentosa Island within 9 days. Meanwhile, pollutants released in Source 5 (Kallang River) reach Sentosa Island after 4 days. During the Southwest monsoon, the dispersion time is roughly doubled, with pollutants from Sources 1 - 4 entering the Singapore Strait only after 12 days of release due to weak currents.

  14. Characterization of extreme flood and drought events in Singapore and investigation of their relationships with ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Babovic, Vladan

    2016-04-01

    Flood and drought are hydrologic extreme events that have significant impact on human and natural systems. Characterization of flood and drought in terms of their start, duration and strength, and investigation of the impact of natural climate variability (i.e., ENSO) and anthropogenic climate change on them can help decision makers to facilitate adaptions to mitigate potential enormous economic costs. To date, numerous studies in this area have been conducted, however, they are primarily focused on extra-tropical regions. Therefore, this study presented a detailed framework to characterize flood and drought events in a tropical urban city-state (i.e., Singapore), based on daily data from 26 precipitation stations. Flood and drought events are extracted from standardized precipitation anomalies from monthly to seasonal time scales. Frequency, duration and magnitude of flood and drought at all the stations are analyzed based on crossing theory. In addition, spatial variation of flood and drought characteristics in Singapore is investigated using ordinary kriging method. Lastly, the impact of ENSO condition on flood and drought characteristics is analyzed using regional regression method. The results show that Singapore can be prone to extreme flood and drought events at both monthly and seasonal time scales. ENSO has significant influence on flood and drought characteristics in Singapore, but mainly during the South West Monsoon season. During the El Niño phase, drought can become more extreme. The results have implications for water management practices in Singapore.

  15. A Multimethod Approach towards Assessing Urban Flood Patterns and Its Associated Vulnerabilities in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston T. L. Chow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated flooding patterns in the urbanised city-state of Singapore through a multimethod approach combining station precipitation data with archival newspaper and governmental records; changes in flash floods frequencies or reported impacts of floods towards Singapore society were documented. We subsequently discussed potential flooding impacts in the context of urban vulnerability, based on future urbanisation and forecasted precipitation projections for Singapore. We find that, despite effective flood management, (i significant increases in reported flash flood frequency occurred in contemporary (post-2000 relative to preceding (1984–1999 periods, (ii these flash floods coincide with more localised, “patchy” storm events, (iii storms in recent years are also more intense and frequent, and (iv floods result in low human casualties but have high economic costs via insurance damage claims. We assess that Singapore presently has low vulnerability to floods vis-à-vis other regional cities largely due to holistic flood management via consistent and successful infrastructural development, widespread flood monitoring, and effective advisory platforms. We conclude, however, that future vulnerabilities may increase from stresses arising from physical exposure to climate change and from demographic sensitivity via rapid population growth. Anticipating these changes is potentially useful in maintaining the high resilience of Singapore towards this hydrometeorological hazard.

  16. Water systems and urban sanitation: a historical comparison of Tokyo and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Yurina; Otaki, Masahiro; Sakura, Osamu

    2007-06-01

    The importance of a water supply and sewage treatment for urban sanitation is recognized in the modern world. Their contributions to public health have not, however, been well demonstrated by historical data, especially in Asian cities. In this research, we focused on the Asian cities of Tokyo and Singapore, which both developed significantly in the 20th century. We analysed their development processes statistically to determine what the key elements for the protection of urban sanitation have been. Although both cities constructed modern water supply systems at almost same time (Tokyo in 1898 and Singapore in 1878), and similarly modern wastewater treatment systems (Tokyo in 1922 and Singapore in 1913), the prevalence of water-borne diseases in Tokyo was more serious than it was in Singapore, in spite of Singapore's high infant mortality rate. The main reason for this was the differences in the systems of night-soil transport. We found that the water supply system in itself was not enough to resolve all urban sanitation problems, and appropriate night-soil removal was also crucial. In addition, historical trends and water consumption vary by city, so the appropriate technology and system are also different according to the unique characteristics and needs of each.

  17. Migrant female domestic workers: debating the economic, social and political impacts in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, B S; Huang, S; Gonzalez, J

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of migrant female domestic workers on the socioeconomic and political context in Singapore. Although Singapore state policy opposes long-term immigration, there is a labor shortage which permits a transient work force of low-skilled foreign workers. In the late 1990s, Singapore had over 100,000 foreign maids, of whom 75% were from the Philippines, 20% were from Indonesia, and the rest were from Sri Lanka. Legislation ensures their short-term migrant status, restricts their numbers, and governs their employment. Migrant workers are also regulated through a stringent allocation system based on household income of employers and the need for caregivers for children. Work permits are conditioned on non-marriage to citizens of Singapore or pregnancy. Terms and conditions of migrant employment are not specified, which permits long hours of work and potential for inhumane treatment. Migrant women fulfill jobs not desired by natives and accept these jobs at lower wages. There is disagreement about the motivation for the maid levy and its need, fairness, and effectiveness in reducing demand for foreign maids. Most public discussion focuses on social values and morality of foreign maids. Politically, tensions arise over the legality of migration, which results from tourist worker migration to Singapore and circumvents Filipino labor controls. Most of the adjustment cases that come to the attention of OWWA are tourist workers. Policies should be gender sensitive.

  18. Inclusion in High - Achieving Singapore: Challenges of Building an Inclusive Society in Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Walker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Building an inclusive society in which all people can participate effectively and live together requires understanding inclusive education and its impact on the social order. As countries of different regions face the vast array of challenges unique to their educational systems, it becomes apparent that inclusive societies are intricately tied to social inclusion policy initiatives and developments in education. Governments are becoming increasingly aware of the need to review their educational systems as they attempt to define what an inclusive society is and how to make inclusion truly effective. Singapore is a unique example of a country that has the resources and the vision, but currently lacks an educational system designed to fully include individuals with special needs. Although Singaporean students consistently score near the top in science, math, and reading achievement on international assessments, many students with special needs still receive their education in schools separated from their mainstream peers. In 2004, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong discussed a new vision of Singapore becoming an inclusive society that embraces all individuals with special learning needs. In this manuscript, the authors provide a brief history of Singapore and its education system and explore how PM Lee’s vision of an inclusive society has shaped practice and policy in Singapore schools in the last decade. Specific ideas and next steps for creating an inclusive Singapore for individuals with disabilities are discussed.

  19. Survey on parenting practices among Chinese in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, W B; Ho, W L C; Yeo, C L

    2007-11-01

    Cultural, religious and personal factors impact greatly on parenting. This survey aims to identify gaps in knowledge and perception about common parenting issues, with respect to mandarin-speaking Chinese in Singapore. There is an emphasis on first-time parents, who the authors feel may be the group which will require additional education and support on these issues. A 37-item written survey was conducted before a public mandarin-language forum. Our response rate was 67 percent. Only 44 percent felt that paediatricians allocated sufficient time to discuss parenting issues. 99 percent of parents believed that breast milk was better than formula milk and that 93 percent intended to breastfeed. However, the vast majority of respondents thought that breastfeeding should be stopped if jaundice developed, and that sunning was effective in preventing jaundice. Moreover, the majority did not recognise the seriousness of jaundice, prolonged or otherwise. Widespread misconceptions existed about milk formulas, with half of the respondents thinking that it was necessary to change to lactose-free formula once a child developed diarrhoea. The majority also thought that certain milk formulas could help improve IQ. We hope that more comprehensive and accessible parental education will be available to aid in raising awareness of parental practices, and to dispel misconceptions regarding neonatal care.

  20. Aetiological factors in oesophageal cancer in Singapore Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, U W; Breslow, N; Hong, J G; Sridharan, M; Shanmugaratnam, K

    1974-03-15

    Analysis of a hospital-based case-control study of esophageal cancer among Singapore Chinese (composed of Cantonese, Hokkien, Teochew, and other dialect groups) revealed the following statistically significant risk factors for both sexes: 1) belonging to either Hokkien or Teochew dialect group; 2) consuming beverages at temperatures stated subjectively to be burning hot before illness; and 3) smoking Chinese cigarettes. Additional risk factors for males were birth in China and consumption of Samsu (Chinese wine). Bread, potato, and banana consumption was reported at significantly lower levels in male esophagus cancer patients than controls. Esophageal cancer was less common in males who attended school for more than 8 years. Multivariate analysis (joint influence of selected variables) confirmed the strong effects of dialect group and beverage temperature for both sexes. For females, Chinese cigarette smoking remained a risk factor; for males, Samsu consumption. Smoking western cigarettes and drinking strong liquors were not significantly related for either sex. These findings suggest that esophageal cancer is more likely to occur among traditional Chinese who maintain dietary patterns which include Samsu and scalding beverages but avoid bland foodstuffs not native to the culture. The greater risk in Teochew and Hokkien may be due in part to beverage temperature, since "burning hot" was cited more frequently in these dialect groups. However, these differences are based on subjective impressions and require further verification.

  1. Revisiting Mobility Limitations of Seniors in Singapore, 1995 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Hock Kang Phd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Singapore’s life expectancy at birth and at age 65 continues to improve. Although this is a positive development, it is necessary to understand how much of this increased life expectancy is spent with and without mobility limitations. This research uses the latest round of the National Survey of Senior Citizens to examine the situation in 2011 and the possible changes that may have occurred since the last survey in 2005. It seeks to add to earlier research in this area in Singapore and uses the prevalence-based Sullivan method to calculate lifetime free of mobility limitations for this population. Pertinent conclusions drawn from this research include evidence pointing to changing prevalence rates among the older adult population and observations that suggest the possibility of a compression of morbidity for this population in 2011 compared with an expansion of morbidity observed in the previous survey conducted in 2005. The research also shows that women continue to be disadvantaged as they age compared with men.

  2. Record and around the world flights through Singapore by women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dille, J R

    1999-10-01

    Women's efforts to fly as military pilots during World War I were unsuccessful. However, their numbers and achievements increased and, in 1929, they formed the Ninety-Nines and held the first Women's Air Derby, where male pilots escorted them and mechanics were available. In May 1930, England's Amy Johnson became the first woman to fly solo from England to Australia. She was flying for the Air Transport Auxiliary in England when she was killed in an aircraft accident in 1941. New Zealander Jean Batten set new records over the same course in May 1934, from England to New Zealand in Oct. 1936 and from Australia to England in Oct. 1937. Routes were typically via Singapore as were round-the-world efforts by Amelia Earhart (1937), Joan Merriam Smith (1964), Sheila Scott (1966), and Ann Pellegreno (1967). Accounts frequently mention severe weather including monsoon storms. Adequacy of flight planning has been questioned for some. Jerrie Mock, the first woman to fly around the world alone, in 1964, was asked by Saigon Radio if she had a man aboard. Further successes and independence for women in aviation have been slow, but steady.

  3. Cluster fusion-fission dynamics in the Singapore stock exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Boon Kin; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the cross-correlations between stocks in the Singapore stock exchange (SGX) evolve over 2008 and 2009 within overlapping one-month time windows. In particular, we examine how these cross-correlations change before, during, and after the Sep-Oct 2008 Lehman Brothers Crisis. To do this, we extend the complete-linkage hierarchical clustering algorithm, to obtain robust clusters of stocks with stronger intracluster correlations, and weaker intercluster correlations. After we identify the robust clusters in all time windows, we visualize how these change in the form of a fusion-fission diagram. Such a diagram depicts graphically how the cluster sizes evolve, the exchange of stocks between clusters, as well as how strongly the clusters mix. From the fusion-fission diagram, we see a giant cluster growing and disintegrating in the SGX, up till the Lehman Brothers Crisis in September 2008 and the market crashes of October 2008. After the Lehman Brothers Crisis, clusters in the SGX remain small for few months before giant clusters emerge once again. In the aftermath of the crisis, we also find strong mixing of component stocks between clusters. As a result, the correlation between initially strongly-correlated pairs of stocks decay exponentially with average life time of about a month. These observations impact strongly how portfolios and trading strategies should be formulated.

  4. Prevention of intellectual and other disabilities: the Singapore experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyen, K R

    1989-01-01

    In Singapore, first level prevention, aimed at reducing the occurrence of disabilities, has included neonatal screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, a programme of universal vaccination, screening for congenital hypothyroidism, and improvements in obstetric and neonatal care. Non-specific measures, such as improved housing, better nutrition and higher standards of education, have also contributed to the reduction in serious illnesses that can potentially cause disabilities. Second level prevention, designed to limit or reverse a disability, has included a developmental screening programme carried out in the primary health care sector. Centralised multi-disciplinary developmental assessment clinics have been established to define better the disabilities and to advise on rehabilitation. An early intervention programme has been started, and special schools are being upgraded. Third level prevention, aimed at preventing a disability from becoming a handicap, has included the setting up of comprehensive rehabilitation programmes, provision of aids and appliances, vocational training, and job opportunities. The integration of the handicapped back into society is currently being promoted.

  5. Urban Water and Riverine Quality: Participatory Science in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgitt, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Singapore is a highly urbanised environment experiencing tropical monsoon hydrological regimes. A heavily engineered fluvial system has been developed over time to provide efficient drainage and reduce the area subject to flood risk. However, recent interest in ecosystem-based approaches to river management and the enhancement of the aesthetic and ecological 'quality' of riverine landscape, coupled with concerns about climate change, has challenged the prevailing engineering view. This is reflected in the Public Utility Board (PUB) ABC Waters Programme, which also seeks to develop community interest in riverine environments and engagement with water-related concerns. As part of a programme developing participatory GIS (PGIS) with school and university students, we have undertaken applications involving participant observation, reporting and analysis of water quality data and habitat quality based on a simplified version of the UK Environment Agency's River Habitat Survey. From an educational perspective, there is evidence that these PGIS initiatives raise environmental awareness and enhance geospatial thinking, particularly in relation to catchment management concepts. The extent to which participant-derived data can contribute to a citizen science of urban water quality and hence deliver some aspects of the community engagement sought after by the authorities, is a topic of debate.

  6. Providing health care for older persons in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Peggy; Chan, Angelique; Straughan, Paulin

    2003-06-01

    Health care social policy in Singapore has passed the burden of care to the individual and the family on the rationale that it would enable the state to contain the costs of long-term care by channelling some of its funds to community services and to providing essential health services to all Singaporeans and not just the older group. While a wide array of services has come into existence, there is a lack of integration between the available resources and needs of the individual/family and what has been availed at the community and state levels. Part of the problem lies in the stringent criteria to which the state allows subsidies to be used; the lack of understanding with regard to the profile of users of services; and the case manager approach in offering services. Mapping health care has proven more difficult than anticipated because ageing is a diverse experience, varying by gender, race, income, religion and intergenerational relationships. A social policy does not apply to a 'universal citizen' and services that exist in the public sphere should not exist as merely commodified services which require a great deal of institutional processing.

  7. Child Sexual Abuse Attributions Among Undergraduate Psychology Students in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Russell; Teng Sze Wei, Stephanie

    2017-08-31

    Experimental vignettes were used to investigate attributions relating to child sexual abuse with a focus on the degree of blame allocated to the family and to society, factors thought to be particularly relevant in a collectivist society. One hundred and sixty-two undergraduates in Singapore evaluated media reports describing a case of child sexual abuse. A 2 x 2 x 2 between-subjects design manipulated victim sex, perpetrator sex, and victim-perpetrator relationship. Participants rated the vignettes on degree of blame and prevention potential and rated the abusiveness of the case. Individualism and collectivism attitudes of the participants were also measured. While the highest blame ratings were attributed to perpetrators, significantly more blame was attributed to the family and to society than to the victim. The demonstration of the present attributions of blame to family and to society is a timely finding given recent recommendations to broaden approaches to child abuse prevention by moving away from a reliance on school based child protection programs, which leave the onus on the child to prevent and report abuse, toward a public health approach, which is particularly inclusive of parent and community education approaches . Allocation of some blame to victims, in spite of their status as children, while not a unique finding in victimology research, emphasizes the challenges still to be faced in encouraging the reporting of child sexual abuse.

  8. Revisiting Mobility Limitations of Seniors in Singapore, 1995 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Hock Kang Phd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Singapore’s life expectancy at birth and at age 65 continues to improve. Although this is a positive development, it is necessary to understand how much of this increased life expectancy is spent with and without mobility limitations. This research uses the latest round of the National Survey of Senior Citizens to examine the situation in 2011 and the possible changes that may have occurred since the last survey in 2005. It seeks to add to earlier research in this area in Singapore and uses the prevalence-based Sullivan method to calculate lifetime free of mobility limitations for this population. Pertinent conclusions drawn from this research include evidence pointing to changing prevalence rates among the older adult population and observations that suggest the possibility of a compression of morbidity for this population in 2011 compared with an expansion of morbidity observed in the previous survey conducted in 2005. The research also shows that women continue to be disadvantaged as they age compared with men.

  9. 76 FR 30499 - To Modify the Rules of Origin for the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement, and for Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... 8682 of May 23, 2011 To Modify the Rules of Origin for the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement..., 2003, the President entered into the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (USSFTA). The USSFTA was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement...

  10. Cross-Cultural Studies of Implicit Theories of Creativity: A Comparative Analysis between the United States and the Main Ethnic Groups in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…

  11. Cross-Cultural Studies of Implicit Theories of Creativity: A Comparative Analysis between the United States and the Main Ethnic Groups in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…

  12. Transformative Pedagogy, Leadership and School Organisation for the Twenty-First-Century Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive; Goh, Jonathan W. P.

    2011-01-01

    Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class "brand", it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly,…

  13. A Professional Learning Community for the New Teacher Professionalism: The Case of a State-Led Initiative in Singapore Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daphnee; Lee, Wing On

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the empirical fit of two PLC models, using Singapore as a case. Insights emerged from documentary analyses and interviews with state-affiliated agents from the Academy of Singapore Teachers. The proposed DuFour--Fullan model, despite policy aspirations, remains largely DuFour-predominant in practice. Aspirations for a…

  14. The Relationship between Civic Attitudes and Voting Intention: An Analysis of Vocational Upper Secondary Schools in England and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Christine; Hoskins, Bryony; Sim, Jasmine Boon-Yee

    2014-01-01

    From 2009 to 2011, a team from the Centre for Learning and Life Chances in Knowledge Economies and Societies carried out a mixed-methods study of young people in England and Singapore. With regard to civic attitudes, the study showed that there was a greater sense of political self-efficacy and collective (school) efficacy in Singapore than in…

  15. Interventions with Young Female Offenders and Teenage Girls at Risk: Alternative Educational Services in a Singapore Girls' Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Choo, Andrew; Lim, Liping

    2009-01-01

    This article presents factors that place girls at risk of delinquency and offending as well as the patterns in juvenile delinquency trends for females in Singapore. The authors also describe Singapore's overall structure of services for young offenders and the current status of alternative education programmes for young women engaged in delinquent…

  16. Disciplinary Boundaries and Climate Change Education: Teachers' Conceptions of Climate Change Education in the Philippines and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Li-Ching; Seow, Tricia

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examines how climate change scientific knowledge is framed and positioned within the Singapore and Philippines school curricula in relation to broader citizenship concepts and ideas. The findings reveal that climate change is taught in very different ways within both education systems. The Singapore case demonstrates the…

  17. Student Teachers' Intentions and Actions on Integrating Technology into Their Classrooms during Student Teaching: A Singapore Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Doris; Wong, Angela F. L.; Gao, Ping

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore student teachers' intentions and actions in technology integration in their classrooms. A postgraduate teacher education cohort of 118 Singapore student teachers participated in the study. The results suggested that student teachers in Singapore showed positive intentions to integrate technology to facilitate…

  18. Transformative Pedagogy, Leadership and School Organisation for the Twenty-First-Century Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive; Goh, Jonathan W. P.

    2011-01-01

    Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class "brand", it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly, over the past…

  19. The Tongue in Between: Some Thoughts on the Teaching of Chinese as a Second Language in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Lay

    2014-01-01

    In Singapore's unique and complex linguistic environment, it is common to have Chinese-language learners from many different backgrounds in the same school classroom, which is why Singapore is nicknamed as a "language laboratory." In this paper, I hope to examine our linguistic environment and response strategies from different angles,…

  20. The Technology of Technology Transfer. The Case of the Japan-Singapore Technical Institute. Discussion Paper No. 93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo e Oliveira, Joao Batista; Pillay, Gerald F.

    The new economic and industrial policies of the 1980s called for a major restructuring of the industrial profile of Singapore. The government decided to set up three new technical institutes to prepare and supply skilled workers to new investors: French-, German-, and Japan-Singapore Technical Institutes with the collaboration of the government…

  1. Sex, Grade-Level and Stream Differences in Learning Environment and Attitudes to Science in Singapore Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Jarina; Fraser, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Learning environment research provides a well-established approach for describing and understanding what goes on in classrooms and has attracted considerable interest in Singapore. This article reports the first study of science classroom environments in Singapore primary schools. Ten scales from the What Is Happening In this Class?,…

  2. Reflections on 12 Years of Research into ICT-in-Education and the Learning Sciences in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David; Huang, Jun Song

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on the landscape of ICT-mediated learning research in Singapore schools over the past 12 years. This ICT (information and communications technology) journey is situated in the context of the Singapore education Masterplans and the inception of substantive research funding in this area of work since 2003. The article questions…

  3. Aviation Medicine: global historical perspectives and the development of Aviation Medicine alongside the growth of Singapore's aviation landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, W H; Low, R; Singh, J

    2011-05-01

    Aviation Medicine traces its roots to high altitude physiology more than 400 years ago. Since then, great strides have been made in this medical specialty, initially catalysed by the need to reduce pilot medical attrition during the World Wars, and more recently, fuelled by the explosive growth in globalised commercial air travel. This paper traces the historical milestones in Aviation Medicine, and maps its development in Singapore since the 1960s. Advancements in military aviation platforms and technology as well as the establishment of Singapore as an international aviation hub have propelled Aviation Medicine in Singapore to the forefront of many domains. These span Aviation Physiology training, selection medical standards, performance maximisation, as well as crew and passenger protection against communicable diseases arising from air travel. The year 2011 marks the centennial milestone of the first manned flight in Singapore, paving the way for further growth of Aviation Medicine as a mature specialty in Singapore.

  4. An analysis of roadway noise at residential estates in close proximity to expressways in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraneel Bhanap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Singapore is a city-state of 5 million people. The entire urban population has expanded from 4.4 million to 5 million in a matter of 5 years. Because of the scarcity of land available, more major roads and expressways are being run close to residential developments, exposing the residents to expressway noise. Recognizing the problems of noise in a high-density urban society such as Singapore, the National Environmental Agency of Singapore (NEA has set prescribed noise limits for residential areas. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the noise level in one such development that is adjacent to an expressway, examine the effect of building height on noise and to compare the results with the NEA standards. The paper concludes with the implications of the results and a discussion on the solution to the problem.

  5. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Screening Strategies in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin Yu; Finkelstein, Eric A; Ng, Mor Jack; Yap, Fabian; Yeo, George S H; Rajadurai, Victor Samuel; Chong, Yap Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Saw, Seang Mei; Kwek, Kenneth Y C; Tan, Kok Hian

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis from the payer's perspective in Singapore of 3 gestational diabetes mellitus screening strategies: universal, targeted, or no screening. A decision tree model assessed the primary outcome: incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Probabilities, costs, and utilities were derived from the literature, the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study, and the KK Women's and Children's Hospital's database. Relative to targeted screening using risk factors, universal screening generates an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $USD10,630/QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses show that disease prevalence rates and intervention effectiveness of glycemic management have the biggest impacts on the ICERs. Based on the model and best available data, universal screening is a cost-effective approach for reducing the complications of gestational diabetes mellitus in Singapore as compared with the targeted screening approach or no screening.

  6. Hepatitis E in Singapore: A Case-Series and Viral Phylodynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Esmeralda Chi-Yuan; Tan, Boon-Huan; Purdy, Michael A; Wong, Pui-San; Ting, Pei-Jun; Chang, Pik-Eu Jason; Oon, Lynette Lin-Ean; Sue, Amanda; Teo, Chong-Gee; Tan, Chee-Kiat

    2017-01-16

    The incidence of hepatitis E in Singapore appears to be increasing. A retrospective case-series study of patients diagnosed with hepatitis E in a tertiary hospital from 2009 to 2013 was conducted. Of 16 cases, eight (50%) were solid-organ transplant recipients (SOTRs), and 14 (88%) were found infected by genotype 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV-3). Bayesian inferences based on HEV subgenomic sequences from seven cases suggest that HEV-3 strains were introduced to Singapore as two principal lineages. Within limitations of the study, it can be inferred that one lineage, in the 3efg clade, emerged about 83 years ago, probably originating from Japan, whereas the other, in the 3abchij clade, emerged about 40 years ago, from the United States. Establishment and subsequent transmissions of strains from these two lineages likely contribute to the current endemicity of hepatitis E in Singapore.

  7. No Room to Swing a Cat? Animal Treatment and Urban Space in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-kit Chan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since Singapore’s independence in 1965, the People’s Action Party government has launched an extensive urban planning program to transform the island into a modern metropolis. This paper discusses human-animal relations and the management of stray cats in postcolonial Singapore. In exploring the perceptions and handling of stray cats in Singapore, I argue that stray cats became an urban “problem” as a result of the government’s public-health regime, urban renewal projects, and attempts to fashion itself and Singapore for international tastes, and that cat activists are the main agents of rebuilding connections between animals and everyday urban life. In particular, I analyze how cat-welfare associations and individual citizens assume functions that the government has been loath to perform unless absolutely necessary.

  8. Molecular characterization of two hantavirus strains from different rattus species in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kek Relus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hantaviruses cause human disease in endemic regions around the world. Outbreaks of hantaviral diseases have been associated with changes in rodent population density and adaptation to human settlements leading to their proliferation in close proximity to human dwellings. In a parallel study initiated to determine the prevalence of pathogens in Singapore's wild rodent population, 1206 rodents were trapped and screened. The findings established a hantavirus seroprevalence of 34%. This paper describes the molecular characterization of hantaviruses from Rattus norvegicus and Rattus tanezumi, the predominant rodents caught in urban Singapore. Methodology Pan-hanta RT-PCR performed on samples of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus tanezumi indicated that 27 (2.24% of the animals were positive. sequence analysis of the S and M segments established that two different hantavirus strains circulate in the rodent population of Singapore. Notably, the hantavirus strains found in Rattus norvegicus clusters with other Asian Seoul virus sequences, while the virus strains found in Rattus tanezumi had the highest sequence similarity to the Serang virus from Rattus tanezumi in Indonesia, followed by Cambodian hantavirus isolates and the Thailand virus isolated from Bandicota indica. Conclusions Sequence analysis of the S and M segments of hantavirus strains found in Rattus norvegicus (Seoul virus strain Singapore and Rattus tanezumi (Serang virus strain Jurong TJK/06 revealed that two genetically different hantavirus strains were found in rodents of Singapore. Evidently, together with Serang, Cambodian and Thailand virus the Jurong virus forms a distinct phylogroup. Interestingly, these highly similar virus strains have been identified in different rodent hosts. Further studies are underway to analyze the public health significance of finding hantavirus strains in Singapore rodents.

  9. Prospective surveillance and molecular characterization of seasonal influenza in a university cohort in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Kaur Virk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Southeast Asia is believed to be a potential locus for the emergence of novel influenza strains, and therefore accurate sentinel surveillance in the region is critical. Limited information exists on sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI in young adults in Singapore in a University campus setting. The objective of the present study was to determine the proportion of ILI caused by influenza A and B viruses in a university cohort in Singapore. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective surveillance study from May through October 2007, at the National University of Singapore (NUS. Basic demographic information and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from students and staff with ILI. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and viral isolation were employed to detect influenza viruses. Sequencing of hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of some representative isolates was also performed. Overall proportions of influenza A and B virus infections were 47/266 (18% and 9/266 (3% respectively. The predominant subtype was A/H3N2 (55% and the rest were A/H1N1 (45%. The overall sensitivity difference for detection of influenza A viruses using RT-PCR and viral isolation was 53%. Phylogenetic analyses of HA and NA gene sequences of Singapore strains showed identities higher than 98% within both the genes. The strains were more similar to strains included in the WHO vaccine recommendation for the following year (2008. Genetic markers of oseltamivir resistance were not detected in any of the sequenced Singapore isolates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HA and NA gene sequences of Singapore strains were similar to vaccine strains for the upcoming influenza season. No drug resistance was found. Sentinel surveillance on university campuses should make use of molecular methods to better detect emerging and re-emerging influenza viral threats.

  10. A numerical study on flow and pollutant transport in Singapore coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Chua, Vivien P

    2016-10-15

    Intensive economic and shipping activities in Singapore Strait have caused Singapore coastal waters to be under high risk of water pollution. A nested three-dimensional unstructured-grid SUNTANS model is applied to Singapore coastal waters to simulate flow and pollutant transport. The small domain (~50m resolution) Singapore coastal model is nested within a large domain (~200m resolution) regional model. The nested model is able to predict water surface elevations and velocities with high R(2) values of 0.96 and 0.91, respectively. Model results delineate the characteristics of circulation pattern in Singapore coastal waters during the Northeast and Southwest monsoons. The pollutants are modeled as passive tracers, and are released at six key sailing locations Points 1-6 in Singapore coastal waters and are named as Passive Tracers 1-6, respectively. Our results show that the rate of dispersion is twice as large for the Northeast monsoon compared to the Southwest monsoon due to differences in large-scale monsoons and small-scale local winds. The volume averaged concentration (VAC) diminishes faster and the local flushing time is shorter during the Northeast monsoon than the Southwest monsoon. Dispersion coefficients K and the VAC decreasing rate are maximum for Tracers 2 and 3 with shortest local flushing time due to the strong surrounding currents and abrupt bathymetry changes near Senang and St. John Islands. Dispersion coefficients K and the VAC decreasing rate are minimum for Tracer 1 due to weak currents induced by the semi-enclosed coastline near Tuas. It is found that both the lateral dispersion coefficient Ky and the compound dispersion coefficient K obey a "4/3-law", which defines a linear correlation between dispersion coefficients and 4/3-power of selected length scale.

  11. A bibliometric study of scientific research conducted on second-generation antipsychotic drugs in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Sim, Kang; Shen, Winston Wu; Huelves, Lorena; Moreno, Raquel; Molina, Juan de Dios; Rubio, Gabriel; Noriega, Concha; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel; Alamo, Cecilio

    2014-01-01

    A bibliometric study was carried out to ascertain the volume and impact of scientific literature published on second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in Singapore from 1997 to 2011. A search of the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases was performed to identify articles originating from Singapore that included the descriptors 'atypic* antipsychotic*', 'second-generation antipsychotic*', 'clozapine', 'risperidone', 'olanzapine', 'ziprasidone', 'quetiapine', 'sertindole', 'aripiprazole', 'paliperidone', 'amisulpride', 'zotepine', 'asenapine', 'iloperidone', 'lurasidone', 'perospirone' and 'blonanserin' in the article titles. Certain bibliometric indicators of production and dispersion (e.g. Price's Law on the increase of scientific literature, and Bradford's Law) were applied, and the participation index of various countries was calculated. The bibliometric data was also correlated with some social and health data from Singapore, such as the total per capita expenditure on health and gross domestic expenditure on research and development. From 1997 to 2011, a total of 51 articles on SGAs in Singapore were published. Our results suggested non-fulfilment of Price's Law (r = 0.0648 after exponential adjustment vs. r = 0.2140 after linear adjustment). The most widely studied drugs were clozapine (21 articles), risperidone (16 articles) and olanzapine (8 articles). Division into Bradford zones yielded a nucleus occupied by the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (6 articles) and the Singapore Medical Journal(4 articles). The analysed material was published in a total of 30 journals, with the majority from six journals. Four of these six journals have an impact factor greater than 2. Publications on SGAs in Singapore are still too few to confirm an exponential growth of scientific literature.

  12. Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grobe, Lars; Wittkopf, Stephen; Pandey, Anupama Rana; Xiaoming, Yang; Seng, Ang Kian; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-02-28

    A setup to monitor the daylighting performance of different glazing types in Singapore is presented. The glazing is installed in the facade of four dedicated testing chambers in BCAA's Zero Energy Building in Singapore. These test rooms are equipped with sensors that both record illuminances on the work plane, and luminances as seen by occupants. The physical and logical design of the monitoring system is presented. Criteria to assess the daylighting performance are introduced, and initial results of the work in progress are presented.

  13. The bottom water exchange between the Singapore Strait and the West Johor Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunfang; Eltahir, Elfatih; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2017-08-01

    As a part of the border between Singapore and Malaysia, the West Johor Strait (WJS) suffered newly from harmful algal blooms. There is no previous study showing the source of the nutrients in the WJS. This paper is investigating the possible water exchange between the water in the WJS and the bottom water in Singapore Strait. This paper adopts a two-level nesting atmosphere-ocean coupled models to downscale the global atmosphere-ocean model into the Singapore coastal water, keeping the large-scale and long-term ocean and climate circulation signals and the advantages of the high-resolution. Based on the high-resolution ocean circulation fields, a Lagrangian particle tracking model is used to trace the Singapore Strait's bottom water movement and the water mixing in the WJS. The results showed that the numerical models well resolved the Singapore coastal water regional circulation. There is a small but significant bottom water (1.25%) transport from the Singapore Strait to the WJS, which occurs from the southwest coastline of Singapore. The bottom water in the Singapore Strait prefers to enter the WJS during the spring tide and the flood period, and stay in Johor Strait for 6.4 days. The spring tide is the first-order factor for the water vertical mixing in the WJS, the wind is also very important for the vertical mixing especially in neap tide condition. An overall very important factor is the light perturbation. With the strongest vertical mixing of nutrients and bottom sediments due to the spring tide, the latter ones may inhibit the light penetration during the spring tide and reduce the algal bloom. The light penetration otherwise is greater during the neap tide, when the winds are the most important factor and hence favor the algal bloom. With the strongest wind in February and the longest permanence time in June and the sufficient nutrient supply in February and June, the most serious algal blooms may happen in February and June in the WJS.

  14. Use of RORB and SWMM models to an urban catchment in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvalingam, S.; Liong, S. Y.; Manoharan, P. C.

    The Runoff Routing Model (RORB) and the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) are evaluated for the purpose of stormwater drainage design and management in an urban catachment in Singapore although the full capability of the SWMM model has not been utilized. Data preparation for testing the models are highlighted and sample runs are carried out for an actual storm event. Limitations and constraints of the parameter estimation are discussed. Comparison of the runoff results are made between RORB and SWMM models. Both the models can be incorporated without much difficulty to simulate urban drainage system in Singapore.

  15. IT'S SO CLEAR: HYFLUX AND THE SUCCESS STORY OF A SINGAPORE FEMALE ENTREPRENEUR

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The present case documents the success story of water treatment specialist Hyflux, a young and growing technology company based in Singapore. Founded by female entrepreneur Olivia Lum in June 1989 on a shoestring budget of S$20,000 (US$1 = about S$1.70), Hyflux gradually and painstakingly built its clientele from scratch over a period of more than a decade. On January 17, 2001, Hyflux was listed on Singapore's SESDAQ, the country's stock market for smaller firms. Within three years after the ...

  16. Genetic characterisation of influenza C viruses detected in Singapore in 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Pei-jun; Seah, Shirley Gek-Kheng; Lim, Elizabeth Ai-Sim; Liaw, Jasper Chin-Wen; Boon-Huan, Tan

    2016-01-01

    In an earlier study on respiratory infections in Singapore military recruits, four influenza C virus (FLUCV) infections were detected out of the 1354 samples collected. All four isolates were detected in 2006, and their whole genome was completely sequenced and analysed. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin esterase fusion (HEF) gene revealed that all four Singapore isolates belonged to the C/Japan-Kanagawa/1/76-related lineage. However, the genes of the four FLUCV isolates had origins from several different lineages, and the genome composition resembles that of the C/Japan-Miyagi/9/96-like strains that had been circulating in Japan between 1996 and 2000.

  17. Genetic data for the 13 CODIS STR loci in Singapore Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syn, C K C; Chuah, S Y; Ang, H C; Lim, S E S; Tan-Siew, W F; Chow, S T; Budowle, Bruce

    2005-09-10

    Allele frequencies for the 13 CODIS STR loci included in the AmpFISTR Profiler Plus and AmpFISTR Cofiler kits (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) were determined in a sample of 209 unrelated Chinese in Singapore. The combined random match probability for the 13 loci is about 6.6 x10(-15) and the overall probability of excluding paternity is 0.9999899. The results demonstrate that the loci are useful for forensic human identification and parentage testing for the Chinese population in Singapore.

  18. Blogging as Popular History Making, Blogs as Public History: The Singapore Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Blogging is a twenty-first century phenomenon that has heralded an age where ordinary people can make their voices heard in the public sphere of the Internet. This article explores blogging as a form of popular history making; the blog as a public history document; and how blogging is transforming the nature of public history and practice of history making in Singapore. An analysis of two Singapore ‘historical’ blogs illustrates how blogging is building a foundation for a more participatory historical society in the island nation. At the same time, the case studies also demonstrate the limitations of blogging and blogs in challenging official versions of history.

  19. Awareness and utilization of peer support programs in Singapore public general hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angelina O M; Kee, Jass P C; Chan, Yiong Huak

    2012-01-01

    To address the effects of acute, chronic and cumulative stress in the healthcare environment in Singapore, the Ministry of Health provided funding to develop a comprehensive crisis response management system (peer support programs/PSPs) that increases mental health awareness, provides emotional support to affected staff during work-related critical incidents and assists hospital management to better understand the emotional needs of the employees. This paper reports the awareness and utilization of PSPs in Singapore public general hospitals about one year after they were set up.

  20. Direct medical cost of type 2 diabetes in singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Shuyu Ng

    Full Text Available Due to the chronic nature of diabetes along with their complications, they have been recognised as a major health issue, which results in significant economic burden. This study aims to estimate the direct medical cost associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Singapore in 2010 and to examine both the relationship between demographic and clinical state variables with the total estimated expenditure. The National Healthcare Group (NHG Chronic Disease Management System (CDMS database was used to identify patients with T2DM in the year 2010. DM-attributable costs estimated included hospitalisations, accident and emergency (A&E room visits, outpatient physician visits, medications, laboratory tests and allied health services. All charges and unit costs were provided by the NHG. A total of 500 patients with DM were identified for the analyses. The mean annual direct medical cost was found to be $2,034, of which 61% was accounted for by inpatient services, 35% by outpatient services, and 4% by A&E services. Independent determinants of total costs were DM treatments such as the use of insulin only (p<0.001 and the combination of both oral medications and insulin (p=0.047 as well as having complications such as cerebrovascular disease (p<0.001, cardiovascular disease (p=0.002, peripheral vascular disease (p=0.001, and nephropathy (p=0.041. In this study, the cost of DM treatments and DM-related complications were found to be strong determinants of costs. This finding suggests an imperative need to address the economic burden associated with diabetes with urgency and to reorganise resources required to improve healthcare costs.

  1. The Daidzein Metabolite, 6,7,4'-Trihydroxyisoflavone, Is a Novel Inhibitor of PKCα in Suppressing Solar UV-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Gyu Lim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soy isoflavone is an attractive source of functional cosmetic materials with anti-wrinkle, whitening and skin hydration effects. After consumption, the majority of soy isoflavones are converted to their metabolites in the human gastrointestinal tract. To understand the physiological impact of soy isoflavone on the human body, it is necessary to evaluate and address the biological function of its metabolites. In this study, we investigated the effect of 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (6,7,4'-THIF, a major metabolite of daidzein, against solar UV (sUV-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in normal human dermal fibroblasts. MMPs play a critical role in the degradation of collagen in skin, thereby accelerating the aging process of skin. The mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MKK3/6/p38 and MKK4/c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK signaling pathways are known to modulate MMP-1 function, and their activation by sUV was significantly reduced by 6,7,4'-THIF pretreatment. Our results also indicated that the enzyme activity of protein kinase C (PKCα, an upstream regulator of MKKs signaling, is suppressed by 6,7,4'-THIF using the in vitro kinase assay. Furthermore, the direct interaction between 6,7,4'-THIF and endogenous PKCα was confirmed using the pull-down assay. Not only sUV-induced MMP-1 expression, but also sUV-induced signaling pathway activation were decreased in PKCα knockdown cells. Overall, we elucidated the inhibitory effect of 6,7,4'-THIF on sUV-induced MMPs and suggest PKCα as its direct molecular target.

  2. A New Approach to Prepare 2-Acetyl-Mono (5,6,7,8)-Nitro-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinolines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    N-Acetyl-p, m or o-nitro-phenylethylamines and (HCHO)n were treated in 60% H2SO4/HOAc, via α-amidoalkylation to give 2-acetyl-mono(5, 6, 7 or 8)-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinolines.Additionally, some interesting phenomena were observed when the comparison between 2-acetyl-5, 6, 7 or 8-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines and 2-alkylsulfonyl-5 , 6 or 7- nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines was made.

  3. Synthesis and muscarinic receptor pharmacology of a series of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisothiazolo[4,5-c]pyridine bioisosteres of arecoline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H; Bräuner-Osborne, H; Ball, R G;

    1999-01-01

    A series of O- and ring-alkylated derivatives of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisothiazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-3-ol was synthesized via treatment of appropriately substituted 4-benzylamino-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carboxamides with hydrogen sulfide and subsequent ring closure by oxidation with bromine. The mus......A series of O- and ring-alkylated derivatives of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisothiazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-3-ol was synthesized via treatment of appropriately substituted 4-benzylamino-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carboxamides with hydrogen sulfide and subsequent ring closure by oxidation with bromine...

  4. Diabetes mellitus and the risk of total knee replacement among Chinese in Singapore, the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ying-Ying; Allen, John Carson; Ang, Li-Wei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2017-01-01

    Association between diabetes mellitus (diabetes) and risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is confounded by high body mass index (BMI), a strong risk factor for both conditions. We evaluated the association between diabetes and incidence of total knee replacement (TKR) due to severe KOA in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 Chinese men and women, aged 45–74 years at recruitment in 1993–1998, and re-interviewed in 1999–2004. Height, weight, lifestyle factors and history of diabetes were obtained through in-person interviews at recruitment and re-interview. Incident cases of TKR were identified via record linkage with nationwide hospital discharge database. Subjects with/without prevalent diabetes had comparable BMI (24.0 kg/m2 versus 23.0 kg/m2). After an average of 14-years, 1,973 subjects had TKR attributable to KOA. Compared to subjects without diabetes, hazard ratio (HR) of TKR for subjects with diabetes was 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.52–0.75] after controlling for BMI and other risk factors. An inverse association was also observed between incident diabetes at re-interview and subsequent risk of TKR (HR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.58–0.94). The inverse diabetes-TKR risk association was similar by gender and across three categories of BMI. Our study does not support diabetes as a risk factor of KOA. PMID:28084472

  5. Overseas Voter Mobilisation in Singapore: Implications from Malaysia’s 13th General Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses voter mobilisation and other election-related activities of Malaysian voters living, studying and working in Singapore in the context of Malaysia’s 13th general election (GE13. According to the World Bank, nearly 400,000 Malaysians reside in the city-state. Thus these figures represent a significant Malaysian voter pool based in Singapore. Efforts to mobilise these voters for general elections or other causes have political implications for both countries, which became apparent following Singapore-based Malaysians’ activities to encourage Malaysians to return home to cast their votes during the 13th general election. Singapore’s strict public assembly laws led to several legal issues related to the voter mobilisation and election campaign activities undertaken by Malaysians in the city-state. These legal issues became a source of friction between the two countries during the elections as government leaders and authorities on both sides of the causeway accused the other of interfering in domestic political matters. Given the growing number of Malaysians in Singapore and the likely repeat of Malaysian voter mobilisation activities in Singapore in the run-up to the fourteenth general election (GE14 in 2018, issues related to the election activities of Malaysian voters in Singapore stand to be another set of factors that will shape the health of bilateral relations between these two countries.

  6. A comparative analysis of human thermal conditions in outdoor urban spaces in the summer season in Singapore and Changsha, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Wong, Nyuk Hien; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the comparative analysis between the findings from two field surveys of human thermal conditions in outdoor urban spaces during the summer season. The first survey was carried out from August 2010 to May 2011 in Singapore and the second survey was carried out from June 2010 to August 2010 in Changsha, China. The physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) was utilized as the thermal index to assess the thermal conditions. Differences were found between the two city respondents in terms of thermal sensation, humidity sensation, and wind speed sensation. No big difference was found between the two city respondents regarding the sun sensation. The two city respondents had similar neutral PET of 28.1 °C for Singapore and 27.9 °C for Changsha, respectively. However, Singapore respondents were more sensitive to PET change than Changsha respondents and the acceptable PET range for Changsha respondents was wider than that for Singapore respondents. Besides, the two city respondents had different thermal expectations with the preferred PET of 25.2 °C and 22.1 °C for Singapore and Changsha, respectively. The results also reveal that Changsha respondents were more tolerant than Singapore respondents under hot conditions. Finally, two regression models were proposed for Singapore and Changsha to predict the human thermal sensation in a given outdoor thermal environment.

  7. Innovations in Higher Education. Singapore at the Competitive Edge. World Bank Technical Paper No. 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, Viswanathan

    This report provides an overview of Singapore's strategy for human resource development and the country's concerted effort to successfully orchestrate the many separate initiatives between 1960s to 1980s into an effective market-driven, three-tiered higher education system emphasizing technology and modernization. The study highlights the…

  8. Teachers' Motivation to Teach National Education in Singapore: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chee Keng John; Liu, Woon Chia

    2008-01-01

    The National Education (NE) programme was set up in Singapore schools in 1997 to inculcate a national identity and values in the younger generation. Teachers in schools are given the important role of developing a shared sense of nationhood among their students. However, no study has yet examined the motivations for teaching NE in schools. The…

  9. Plasma fatty acids, oxylipins, and risk of myocardial infarction: the Singapore Chinese health study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: We aimed to examine the prospective association between plasma fatty acids (FAs), oxylipins and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a Singapore Chinese population. Methods: A nested case-control study with 744 incident AMI cases and 744 matched controls aged 47-83 years was condu...

  10. The Need for Transformational Leadership in Singapore's School-Based Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retna, Kala S.; Ng, Pak Tee

    2009-01-01

    In Singapore, "decentralization" and "school-based reforms" are key words within the current education reform agenda. This article argues that a key success factor in this agenda is transformational leadership in school. With more autonomy given to the school, transformational leadership at the school level will facilitate the…

  11. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Children with Behavioural Difficulties in the Singapore Mainstream School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lay See; Choi, Pui Meng

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) programme delivered by a school psychologist for children with behavioural difficulties in Singapore elementary school classrooms. It examined the impact of a 12-session, psychoeducational group intervention in helping misbehaving pupils to control their…

  12. Attitudes of Pre-Service Mainstream Teachers in Singapore towards People with Disabilities and Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaver, Thana; Lim, Levan

    2014-01-01

    2004 has come to be seen by many in Singapore as a watershed year with the shift in the position of the government towards encouraging greater integration of students with disabilities in mainstream settings. This study investigated the attitudes of 1538 mainstream pre-service teachers towards disability and inclusive education during this period…

  13. Relationships of Out-of-School-Time Mathematics Lessons to Mathematical Literacy in Singapore and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Berinderjeet; Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2013-01-01

    This study, drawing on date from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009, examined the relationships of out-of-school-time mathematics lessons to mathematical literacy in Singapore and Australia. Results of two-level hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) analyses revealed that out-of-school-time enrichment lessons in…

  14. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...) instituted investigation No. 332-515, Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and... conduct an investigation and provide a report on the actual effects of the free trade agreements (FTAs...

  15. An International Study of Career Drivers of Accounting Students in Singapore, Australia and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Yew Ming; Koh, Hian Chye; Pragasam, John

    2008-01-01

    This is a comparative study of the career drivers of accounting students in Singapore, Australia and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The study examines the motivational factors that steer accounting students into choosing accounting as a programme of study in their respective countries. Comparative analyses are performed to…

  16. The Need for Transformational Leadership in Singapore's School-Based Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retna, Kala S.; Ng, Pak Tee

    2009-01-01

    In Singapore, "decentralization" and "school-based reforms" are key words within the current education reform agenda. This article argues that a key success factor in this agenda is transformational leadership in school. With more autonomy given to the school, transformational leadership at the school level will facilitate the…

  17. 76 FR 55347 - Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission at Singapore Air Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ...-growing industries in Singapore, and the long-term outlook remains positive. According to Frost and Sullivan, the business research and consulting firm, the Asia Pacific aviation industry is experiencing a faster recovery than anticipated. In fact, Frost and Sullivan states that the core of aerospace MRO...

  18. Fostering Social Cohesion and Cultural Sustainability: Character and Citizenship Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene; Tan, Chee Soon

    2014-01-01

    This article critically discusses the Singapore state's endeavor to balance social cohesion and cultural sustainability through the Character and Citizenship Education (CCE) curriculum. This article points out that underpinning the CCE syllabus are the state ideologies of communitarianism and multiracialism. It is argued that the ideology of…

  19. Formulating a Research Agenda in School Leadership and Organisational Change for School Improvement in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that it is timely for educational researchers in Asia, and Singapore in particular, to generate cultural- and empirical-knowledge bases in school leadership that will speak to the specific interests of Asian students, educators and practitioners. As economic and social development across Asia gathers momentum, the more advanced…

  20. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised in Singapore Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Hoi Kwan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) in a sample of Singapore secondary students (N = 1,171). Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the AGQ-R in measuring the four achievements goals delineated in the 2 × 2 framework. Measurement invariance across ethnic groups was…