WorldWideScience

Sample records for sunshine thunderstorm frequencies

  1. Climate change signal of thunderstorm frequency using high-resolution COSMO-CLM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schefczyk, Lukas; Heinemann, Guenther

    2014-05-01

    It is generally assumed that temperature increase associated with global climate change will lead to increased thunderstorm intensity and associated heavy precipitation events. In the present study it is investigated whether the frequency of thunderstorm occurrences will in- or decrease and how the spatial distribution will change for the A1B scenario. The region of interest is Saar-Lor-Lux region (Saarland, Lorraine, Luxembourg) with a focus on Rhineland-Palatinate. Hourly and daily model data of the COSMO-CLM is used with a horizontal resolution of 4.5km and 1.3km. The simulations were carried out for three different decades: 1991-2000 (C20), 2041-2050 (A1B) and 2091-2100 (A1B). Thunderstorm indices are calculated to detect potential thunderstorms and differences in their frequency of occurrence in the three decades. The indices used are CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy), SLI (Surface Lifted Index), and TSP (Thunderstorm Severity Potential), which combines deep-layer-shear and the maximum vertical velocity. The significance of a potential climate signal was tested with a t-test and a power analysis was performed to quantify the uncertainty of the signal. The investigation of the present and future thunderstorms shows that the regional averaged frequencies will decrease in general, but several regions like the Saarland and especially elevated areas will have a potential increase in thunderstorm occurrences and intensity. Statistically, nearly none of the signals is significant and the power analysis yields low power to detect changes of severe thunderstorms but high power for classes with no to light thunderstorms. Therefore it can be concluded that the frequency of severe thunderstorm is not likely to increase.

  2. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THUNDERSTORM FREQUENCY VARIATION AND THEIR POSSIBLE RELATION WITH THE ADJUSTMENT OF CROP DISTRIBUTION IN THE LEIZHOU PENINSULA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; NIU Sheng-jie

    2009-01-01

    In order to research possible influences of the adjustment of plant distribution on the development frequency of thunderstorms over the Leizhou Peninsula,mathematic statistic methods, including correlation analyses,11 kinds of fitting models and all-variable regression methods,were used for analyses and research. The results show that the average trend of the number of annual thunderstorm days is descending obviously,and there are thunderstorms in all seasons,in which warm post-midday thunderstorms have taken up the most part,and high frequency is found from May to September,and the starting and ending dates of thunderstorms have a great annual discrepancy. The vegetation structure has been improved along with the reduction of rice fields and the area increment of sugarcane and fruits planting,which results in the decrease of the number of thunderstorm days; the change in the characteristics of winter spare fields,which is caused by the planting of vegetables,limits the formation of thunderstorms in early winter and late spring. Meanwhile,the area adjustment of peanut planting has little influence on the variation of thunderstorm days. The adjustment of principal crop distribution,such as rice, sugarcane,fruits and vegetables,may have obvious influence on the formation of thunderstorms,and sugarcane has the largest effect,followed in turn by rice,vegetables and fruits,and the adjustment of crop distribution has little influence on the starting and ending dates of thunderstorms.

  3. Very-Low-Frequency Subionospheric Remote Sensing of Thunderstorm-driven Acoustic and Gravity Waves in the D-region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, R. A.; Snively, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    We present observations of thunderstorm-driven perturbations to the D-region ionosphere measured by VLF subionospheric remote sensing (VLF-SRS). VLF-SRS is sensitive to electron density and collision frequency disturbances in a narrow altitude range near 85 km along the great-circle-path (GCP) between a VLF transmitter and a receiver some thousands of km away. These disturbances are measured as amplitude and/or phase perturbations to the continuous VLF transmitter signal. On March 20, 2001, a prominent event was observed by VLF receivers in Colorado monitoring the VLF transmitter in Puerto Rico, exhibiting unusually strong amplitude perturbations of up to 0.6 dB, with periods of 1-3 minutes, but no detectable phase perturbations. As these periods are well below the minimum Brunt-Vaisala period of about 5 minutes, we hypothesize that they may be associated with thunderstorm-generated acoustic waves (AWs). The GCPs from this transmitter to the receivers passed through two thunderstorms at the time of the AW event, one near the southern tip of Florida and the other over the Florida panhandle. The apparent AW event lasted for about one hour and was observed on four near-parallel GCPs separated by a few tens of km at the thunderstorm location. This data shows that VLF-SRS may provide a new, high-time-resolution (better than 1 Hz) monitoring system for acoustic and gravity waves in the upper atmosphere. To investigate the hypothesized AW source for this event, we use a two-step simulation process. A nonlinear, compressible, atmospheric dynamics model is used to simulate acoustic wave propagation from a defined source near the ground to 200 km altitude. Case studies are constructed to investigate different source configurations and perturbations to ionospheric density profiles. The modified electron and neutral density are then input to a finite-difference electromagnetic code that simulates the VLF transmitter signal propagation to the receiver over a distance of ~5000

  4. Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; van den Berg, Ad; Ebert, Ute

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms Cosmic rays are protons and heavier nuclei that constantly bombard the Earth's atmosphere with energies spanning a vast range from 109 to 1021 eV. At typical altitudes up to 10-20 km they initiate large particle cascades, called extensive air showers, that contain millions to billions of secondary particles depending on their initial energy. These particles include electrons, positrons, hadrons and muons, and are concentrated in a compact particle front that propagates at relativistic speed. In addition, the shower leaves behind a trail of lower energy electrons from ionization of air molecules. Under thunderstorm conditions these electrons contribute to the electrical and ionization processes in the cloud. When the local electric field is strong enough the secondary electrons can create relativistic electron run-away avalanches [1] or even non-relativistic avalanches. Cosmic rays could even trigger lightning inception. Conversely, strong electric fields also influence the development of the air shower [2]. Extensive air showers emit a short (tens of nanoseconds) radio pulse due to deflection of the shower particles in the Earth's magnetic field [3]. Antenna arrays, such as AERA, LOFAR and LOPES detect these pulses in a frequency window of roughly 10-100 MHz. These systems are also sensitive to the radiation from discharges associated to thunderstorms, and provide a means to study the interaction of cosmic ray air showers and the electrical processes in thunderstorms [4]. In this presentation we discuss the involved radiation mechanisms and present analyses of thunderstorm data from air shower arrays [1] A. Gurevich et al., Phys. Lett. A 165, 463 (1992) [2] S. Buitink et al., Astropart. Phys. 33, 1 (2010) [3] H. Falcke et al., Nature 435, 313 (2005) [4] S. Buitink et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 467, 385 (2007)

  5. Cape Kennedy Thunderstorms Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cape Kennedy Thunderstorms Data contains an account of all thunderstorms reported in weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida between...

  6. Thunderstorm risk monitoring service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, P.; Arbogast, E.; Bouzom, M.; Reynaud, J.; Autones, F.; Guillou, Y.; Bernard-Bouissières, I.; Sénési, S.

    2009-09-01

    The SIGnificant weather Object Oriented Nowcasting System (SIGOONS) is based on a scheme combining forecaster's expertise and observation data advanced automated processing ; it is an object oriented system for detection and forecasting significant phenomena at a few hours range. Downstream, SIGOONS feed warnings automated generation. Today, SIGOONS manages thunderstorms only. SIGOONS development follows two streams: o Operating a "fully automated” SIGOONS to produce thunderstorm risk warnings, in order to demonstrate the capability of warnings service for Météo-France customers at the short nowcasting range. At this stage of automation, warnings are limited to a range of one hour. o Ensure interaction feasibility and efficiency to match forecaster's expertise on thunderstorms forecasting, for improving warnings timeliness, intensity and location. The 2009 SIGOONS schedule was populated by the marketing of the thunderstorms warnings service named "Thunderstorm risk monitoring service” and by experiments with the seven regional forecasting services in real-time to assess adding expert value to warnings. Beyond, the goals are to operate thunderstorms expertise routinely using SIGOONS, to improve automation in thunderstorms description using new radar data (3D, doppler, polarization data) and mesoscale numerical weather prediction data, to introduce a probabilistic description of warnings location and intensity, and to manage another phenomena, namely the strong wind events.

  7. Summertime Thunderstorms Prediction in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapo, Palina; Sokolovskaya, Yaroslava; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Barodka, Siarhei

    2015-04-01

    Mesoscale modeling with the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) system makes it possible to predict thunderstorm formation events by direct numerical simulation. In the present study, we analyze the feasibility and quality of thunderstorm prediction on the territory of Belarus for the summer period of 2014 based on analysis of several characteristic parameters in WRF modeling results that can serve as indicators of thunderstorms formation. These parameters include vertical velocity distribution, convective available potential energy (CAPE), K-index, SWEAT-index, Thompson index, lifted condensation level (LCL), and others, all of them being indicators of favorable atmospheric conditions for thunderstorms development. We perform mesoscale simulations of several cases of thunderstorm development in Belarus with WRF-ARW modeling system using 3 km grid spacing, WSM6 microphysics parameterization and explicit convection (no convective parameterization). Typical modeling duration makes 48 hours, which is equivalent to next-day thunderstorm prediction in operational use. We focus our attention to most prominent cases of intense thunderstorms in Minsk. For validation purposes, we use radar and satellite data in addition to surface observations. In summertime, the territory of Belarus is quite often under the influence of atmospheric fronts and stationary anticyclones. In this study, we subdivide thunderstorm cases under consideration into 2 categories: thunderstorms related to free convection and those related to forced convection processes. Our aim is to study the differences in thunderstorm indicator parameters between these two categories of thunderstorms in order to elaborate a set of parameters that can be used for operational thunderstorm forecasting. For that purpose, we analyze characteristic features of thunderstorms development on cold atmospheric fronts as well as thunderstorms formation in stable air masses. Modeling results demonstrate good predictive skill

  8. Positron clouds within thunderstorms

    CERN Document Server

    Dwyer, Joseph R; Hazelton, Bryna J; Grefenstette, Brian W; Kelley, Nicole A; Lowell, Alexander W; Schaal, Meagan M; Rassoul, Hamid K

    2015-01-01

    We report the observation of two isolated clouds of positrons inside an active thunderstorm. These observations were made by the Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE), an array of six gamma-ray detectors, which flew on a Gulfstream V jet aircraft through the top of an active thunderstorm in August 2009. ADELE recorded two 511 keV gamma-ray count rate enhancements, 35 seconds apart, each lasting approximately 0.2 seconds. The enhancements, which were about a factor of 12 above background, were both accompanied by electrical activity as measured by a flat-plate antenna on the underside of the aircraft. The energy spectra were consistent with a source mostly composed of positron annihilation gamma rays, with a prominent 511 keV line clearly visible in the data. Model fits to the data suggest that the aircraft was briefly immersed in clouds of positrons, more than a kilometer across. It is not clear how the positron clouds were created within the thunderstorm, but it is possible they were ca...

  9. Spatial and temporal variations of thunderstorm activities over Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnadara, Upul

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation of frequencies of thunderstorms over Sri Lanka using thunder day data is presented. A thunder day is simply a calendar day in which thunder is heard at least once at a given location. Two sets of data were collected and analyzed: annual totals for 10 climatological stations for a period of 50 years and monthly totals for 20 climatological stations for a period of 20 years. The average annual thunder days over Sri Lanka was found to be 76. Among the climatological stations considered, a high number of annual thunder days was recorded in Ratnapura (150 days/year), followed by Colombo (108 days/year) and Bandarawela (106 days/year). It appears that there are no widespread long-term increasing or decreasing trends in thunderstorm frequencies. However, Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka which has over two million people shows an increasing trend of 0.8 thunder days per year. Although there is a high variability between stations reporting the number of thunder days, the overall pattern within a year is clear. Thunderstorm frequencies are high during two periods: March-May and September-November, which coincide with the first inter-monsoon and second inter-monsoon periods. Compared to the dry zone, the wet zone, especially the southwestern region, has high thunderstorm activity. There is a clear spatial difference in thunderstorm activities during the southwest and northeast monsoon seasons. During both these seasons, enhanced thunderstorm activities are reported on the leeward side of the mountain range. A slight reduction in the thunderstorm activities was found in the high elevation areas of the hill country compared to the surrounding areas. A lightning ground flash density map derived using annual thunder days is also presented.

  10. Let Us Love the Sunshine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周寅婕

    2002-01-01

    If there is no sunshine, plants could not grow. If there is no sunshine, animals could not live. If there is no sunshine, we, the human beings could not develop or even survive. After years of adverse publicity(反面的宣伟), now researches suggest that sunshine does bathe us in favourable light.

  11. Thunderstorms, Andean Mountains Ridgeline, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    In this scenic view of thunderstorms skirting the eastern ridgeline of the Andeas Mountains in northern Argentina (approximate coordinates 28.0S, 57.0W), the confluence of the Rio Salado and Rio Saladillo where they merge with the Rio Parana can be seen in sunglint. Thunderstorms along the eastern Andes are typical at this time of year (Southern Hemisphere summer) with anvils moving to the east from the core of the storm.

  12. Global thunderstorm activity research survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroniti, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    The published literature on the subject of the monitoring of global thunderstorm activity by instrumented satellites was reviewed. A survey of the properties of selected physical parameters of the thunderstorm is presented. The concepts used by satellites to identify and to measure terrestrial lightning pulses are described. The experimental data acquired by satellites are discussed. The scientific achievements of the satellites are evaluated against the needs of scientists and the potential requirements of user agencies. The performances of the satellites are rated according to their scientific and operational achievements.

  13. Modelling Discharge Inception in Thunderstorms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjes, Casper; Dubinova, Anna; Ebert, Ute; Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; Trinh, Gia Thi Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    The electric fields in thunderstorms can exceed the breakdown value locally near hydrometeors. But are fields high enough and the regions large enough to initiate a streamer discharge? And where would a sufficient density of free electrons come from to start the discharge in the humid air that rapid

  14. A Radar-Based Climatology of Thunderstorm Days across New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Phillip D.

    1984-07-01

    Archived radar reports, derived from the National Weather Service radar network, were used to estimate the average annual frequencies of thunderstorm days across New York State for the period 1978-81. The archival records consist of manually-digitized radar (MDR) data, available on magnetic tapes and arranged as hourly, digitally-encoded radar reflectivity values within a high-resolution grid of reporting blocks, each 45 × 45 km. Analyses of these data made use of an experimentally-derived relationship between radar reflectivities and the presence and intensities of thunderstorms. The radar-based thunderstorm day climatology generally agreed to within 15% of conventional, surface-based thunderstorm day statistics reported for the same period by National Weather Service (NWS) offices located within range of two or more network radars in the State. Poorest agreement between annual totals was found at selected NWS offices in the Greater New York City Metropolitan Area and northward into the lower Hudson River Valley, in far western New York and over far northern New York. Where redundant, near-continuous network radar coverage was available, a northwest-to-southeast increase of thunderstorm days, approaching an annual maximum of 45 in downstate New York was revealed. This gradient in thunderstorm day activity is significantly different from that depicted on isokeraunic maps derived from conventional thunder observing protocol. Because the MDR data are archived on a high-resolution grid of reporting blocks, local thunderstorm maxima on a scale of tens of kilometers may be resolved. Analyses further revealed that 5-25% of all thunderstorm days contained sufficiently vigorous storms to be characterized as `intense'. The greatest frequency of intense thunderstorm days, approaching 8 annually, was located in the highly-populated region of the State along the New York-New Jersey borders, northwest of the Greater New York City Metropolitan Area.

  15. The atmospheric electric global circuit. [thunderstorm activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemir, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The hypothesis that world thunderstorm activity represents the generator for the atmospheric electric current flow in the earth atmosphere between ground and the ionosphere is based on a close correlation between the magnitude and the diurnal variation of the supply current (thunderstorm generator current) and the load current (fair weather air-earth current density integrated over the earth surface). The advantages of using lightning survey satellites to furnish a base for accepting or rejecting the thunderstorm generator hypothesis are discussed.

  16. Synoptic patterns associated with thunderstorms in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolendowicz, Leszek [Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Physical Geography and Environmental Planning

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of this study is an analysis of the impact of synoptic patterns over the landmass of Europe with specific reference to the frequency of the occurrence of thunderstorms in Poland during the period 1971-2008. The subjective analysis of synoptic maps has led to the identification of seven types of synoptic situations for thunderstormy days over the area of Poland. There are four types with characteristic frontal storms: Type 1, a front moving from the western sector connected with a low pressure area situated to the north of Poland; Type 2, similar to Type 1 but with a warm and humid mass of tropical air moving ahead of the front itself; Type 3, a front moving from the North initiated by a high pressure area occurring over Scandinavia; Type 4, with a low pressure centre and accompanying combination of atmospheric fronts over Poland. Two of the identified types of synoptic situations are characterised by days with internal air mass thunderstorms: Type 5, without an atmospheric front and without a high pressure system over Poland; Type 6, with an atmospheric high over the area of Poland. There is also an intermediate type, Type 7, with storms occurring behind the warm atmospheric front moving towards Poland from the South. For the above identified types of synoptic situations an averaged image of the atmospheric pressure field over the area of Europe for both sea level and the height of the 500 hPa geopotential, and any anomalies, was presented by using data concerning the pressure field originating from reanalyses. Applying the correlation research, probability and regression the influence of the above identified seven types on the occurrence of stormy days was defined. Types 2, 4, and 7 bring the most serious likelihood of the occurrence of stormy days. More than 60 of analysed days are related to the activity of cyclonal systems these being Types 1, 2, 3 and 4. Type 2 synoptic situation is identified as the most conducive to the occurrence of days with

  17. Global scale ionospheric irregularities associated with thunderstorm activity

    CERN Document Server

    Pulinets, S A

    2002-01-01

    The potential difference near 280 kV exists between ground and ionosphere. This potential difference is generated by thunderstorm discharges all over the world, and return current closes the circuit in the areas of fair weather (so-called fair weather current). The model calculations and experimental measurements clearly demonstrate non-uniform latitude-longitude distribution of electric field within the atmosphere. The recent calculations show that the strong large scale vertical atmospheric electric field can penetrate into the ionosphere and create large scale irregularities of the electron concentration. To check this the global distributions of thunderstorm activity obtained with the satellite monitoring for different seasons were compared with the global distributions of ionosphere critical frequency (which is equivalent to peak electron concentration) obtained with the help of satellite topside sounding. The similarity of the obtained global distributions clearly demonstrates the effects of thunderstor...

  18. Positrons observed to originate from thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2011-05-01

    Thunderstorms are the result of warm, moist air moving rapidly upward, then cooling and condensing. Electrification occurs within thunderstorms (as noted by Benjamin Franklin), produced primarily by frictional processes among ice particles. This leads to lightning discharges; the types, intensities, and rates of these discharges vary greatly among thunderstorms. Even though scientists have been studying lightning since Franklin's time, new phenomena associated with thunderstorms are still being discovered. In particular, a recent finding by Briggs et al. [2011], based on observations by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) instrument on NASA's satellite-based Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), shows that positrons are also generated by thunderstorms. Positrons are the antimatter form of electrons—they have the same mass and charge as an electron but are of positive rather than negative charge; hence the name positron. Observations of positrons from thunderstorms may lead to a new tool for understanding the electrification and high-energy processes occurring within thunderstorms. New theories, along with new observational techniques, are rapidly evolving in this field.

  19. FCC and the Sunshine Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth

    The Sunshine Act, designed to encourage open meetings to increase public understanding of the governmental decision-making process, went into effect in March 1977. A total of 50 agencies, including the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), are subject to the provisions of the Sunshine Act. The act lists 10 exemptions, any of which can result in…

  20. Nowcasting sunshine number using logistic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Marek; Badescu, Viorel; Paulescu, Marius

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we present a formalized approach to statistical modeling of the sunshine number, binary indicator of whether the Sun is covered by clouds introduced previously by Badescu (Theor Appl Climatol 72:127-136, 2002). Our statistical approach is based on Markov chain and logistic regression and yields fully specified probability models that are relatively easily identified (and their unknown parameters estimated) from a set of empirical data (observed sunshine number and sunshine stability number series). We discuss general structure of the model and its advantages, demonstrate its performance on real data and compare its results to classical ARIMA approach as to a competitor. Since the model parameters have clear interpretation, we also illustrate how, e.g., their inter-seasonal stability can be tested. We conclude with an outlook to future developments oriented to construction of models allowing for practically desirable smooth transition between data observed with different frequencies and with a short discussion of technical problems that such a goal brings.

  1. Diurnal distribution of sunshine probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydinli, S.

    1982-01-01

    The diurnal distribution of the sunshine probability is essential for the predetermination of average irradiances and illuminances by solar radiation on sloping surfaces. The most meteorological stations have only monthly average values of the sunshine duration available. It is, therefore, necessary to compute the diurnal distribution of sunshine probability starting from the average monthly values. It is shown how the symmetric component of the distribution of the sunshine probability which is a consequence of a ''sidescene effect'' of the clouds can be calculated. The asymmetric components of the sunshine probability depending on the location and the seasons and their influence on the predetermination of the global radiation are investigated and discussed.

  2. The physics of a thunderstorm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, John [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2PE (United Kingdom); Mason, Nigel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-01

    The salient facts concerning the dynamical, physical and electrical properties of a thunderstorm, and of the detailed structure and associated electric field-changes of lightning flashes, are marshalled to deduce the criteria for a satisfactory quantitative theory of charge generation and separation leading to the growth of electric fields strong enough to initiate and to sustain lightning activity. A quantitative theory is presented of how charges are generated and separated when supercooled cloud droplets make grazing contact with the undersides of hail pellets (graupel) polarized initially by the Earth's fine-weather electric field. The rebounding droplets acquire a positive charge and are carried by the convective updraught towards the top of the cloud, while the hail pellets carrying a net negative charge fall towards cloud base. This creates a vertical dipole field which increases the polarizing charges on the hail pellets and so accelerates the rates of charge generation and separation, and so reinforces the vertical electrical field, which grows exponentially until insulation of the air breaks down and triggers a lightning flash. It is demonstrated that a thunderstorm cell, 2 km in diameter, producing small hail falling at 30 mm h{sup -1} can produce vertical electric fields of {approx}5000 V cm{sup -1} in about 10 min involving the separation of {approx}50 C of charge, enough to initiate a lightning flash which, on average, neutralizes about 20 C. As long as the hail persists, it continues to generate and separate sufficient charge to produce a succession of lightning flashes at about 30 s intervals. More frequent discharges at say 10 s intervals would require high rates of hail production in larger cells but are more likely to be produced by large multi-cellular storms sustained by strong convective currents for perhaps several hours.

  3. Ionospheric effects of thunderstorms and lightning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, Erin H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-03

    Tropospheric thunderstorms have been reported to disturb the lower ionosphere (~65-90 km) by convective atmospheric gravity waves and by electromagnetic field changes produced by lightning discharges. However, due to the low electron density in the lower ionosphere, active probing of its electron distribution is difficult, and the various perturbative effects are poorly understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that by using remotely-detected ?me waveforms of lightning radio signals it is possible to probe the lower ionosphere and its fluctuations in a spatially and temporally-resolved manner. Here we report evidence of gravity wave effects on the lower ionosphere originating from the thunderstorm. We also report variations in the nighttime ionosphere atop a small thunderstorm and associate the variations with the storm’s electrical activity. Finally, we present a data analysis technique to map ionospheric acoustic waves near thunderstorms.

  4. Crickets in Sunshine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmert, Hermann

    1985-12-01

    1. A method is described which makes the registration of body temperatures possible without disturbing the animals. Thus it is possible to observe and quantify the effect of basking on the development of a population. 2. In crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) the time of development is drastically reduced by the possibility to bask in sunshine at self-determined intervals. The old rule of temperature-sums is demonstrated to be invalid in this case; the changing body temperature acts as a signal to unknown processes which speed up the development of the animal.

  5. Observation and analysis of electrical structure change and diversity in thunderstorms on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Guangshu; Wang, Yanhui; Wu, Bin; Li, Jing

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive observation on thunderstorms was conducted in the Qinghai area by using a very high frequency three-dimensional lightning mapping system and Doppler radar. The spatio-temporal evolution of the charge structure of the isolated thunderstorm was analyzed according to the developing process of thunderstorm, and the reasons for the change in charge structure diversity were studied. During the initial developing and mature stages of the thunderstorm, the charge structure was a steady negative dipole polarity, i.e., the negative charge region was above the positive charge region. Furthermore, the total number of flashes was lower during these two stages. During the thunderstorm's dissipation stage, the charge structure was varied and complicated, with a positive dipole, negative dipole, and a tripole charge structure changing and coexisting during this stage. This charge structure diversity was primarily caused by the collision and merging of two local thunderstorm cells, leading to a charge rearrangement and distribution and the formation of a new charge structure. The frequency of the negative cloud-to-ground and intracloud flashes increased sharply in the dissipation stage, reaching a maximum value. The increase in frequency of negative cloud-to-ground was mainly caused by the lower positive charge weakening during the dissipation stage. In addition, the relationship between charging regions and temperature layers was analyzed by combining sounding temperature data with the theory of a non-inductive charging mechanism.

  6. Electric field soundings through thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Thomas C.; Rust, W. D.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve balloon soundings of the electric field in thunderstorms are reported. The maximum magnitude of E in the storms averaged 96 +/-28 kV/m, with the largest being 146 kV/m. The maximum was usually observed between vertically adjacent regions of opposite charge. Using a 1D approximation to Gauss' law, four to ten charge regions in the storms are inferred. The magnitude of the density in the charge regions varied between 0.2 and 13 nC/cu m. The vertical extent of the charge regions ranged from 130 to 2100 m. None of the present 12 storms had charge distributions that fit the long-accepted model of Simpson et al. (1937, 1941) of a lower positive charge, a main negative charge, and an upper positive charge. In addition to regions similar to the Simpson model, the present storms had screening layers at the upper and lower cloud boundaries and extra charge regions, usually in the lower part of the cloud.

  7. In situ measurements of contributions to the global electrical circuit by a thunderstorm in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.N.; Holzworth, R.H.; McCarthy, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    The global electrical circuit, which maintains a potential of about 280??kV between the earth and the ionosphere, is thought to be driven mainly by thunderstorms and lightning. However, very few in situ measurements of electrical current above thunderstorms have been successfully obtained. In this paper, we present dc to very low frequency electric fields and atmospheric conductivity measured in the stratosphere (30-35??km altitude) above an active thunderstorm in southeastern Brazil. From these measurements, we estimate the mean quasi-static conduction current during the storm period to be 2.5 ?? 1.25??A. Additionally, we examine the transient conduction currents following a large positive cloud-to-ground (+ CG) lightning flash and typical - CG flashes. We find that the majority of the total current is attributed to the quasi-static thundercloud charge, rather than lightning, which supports the classical Wilson model for the global electrical circuit.

  8. Solar terrestrial relationships related to thunderstorms and BUV dark current and ozone data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Solar terrestrial interactions as they affect Nimbus 4 BUV dark current and possibly affect thunderstorm occurrence are investigated. A solar wind index is calculated for 1970 to 1971. Dark current enhancements appear to be associated in some way with solar proton events and the solar wind index, but additional investigations by GSFC are required before conclusions can be drawn. Superposed epoch analysis of an index of North American thunderstorm occurrence reveals a discernible increase in the index magnitude on days 1 and 2 following solar proton events. There appears to be little or no 27 day recurrence tendency in thunderstorm occurrence frequency and no association with vorticity area index on a day to day basis.

  9. Japan's Sunshine Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    A report summary of the results obtained on geothermal energies in the Sunshine Project during the fiscal year 1991 are presented. The report items include the following: studies on technologies to explore great-depth geothermal energy resources and technologies to evaluate nationwide geothermal energy resources; studies on geothermal well drilling technologies; studies on developing geothermally usable materials; studies on technologies to extract fracture heat from high-temperature rocks; studies on technologies to utilize completely geothermally hot water; comprehensive surveys on nationwide geothermal energy resources; analyses and evaluations on methods to explore fracture type reservoir beds; development of binary cycle power generation plants (developments of 10-MW class plants); down hole pumps; technologies to increase minable resources; technologies to prevent water leakage from geothermal wells; and systems to detect shaft-bottom information during geothermal well drilling); development of elementary technologies for hot rock power generation; analyses and evaluations on systems to extract heat from hot rocks; and analyses and evaluations on data associated with developing technologies to increase minable resources.

  10. Search for possible relationship between volcanic ash particles and thunderstorm lightning activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várai, A.; Vincze, M.; Lichtenberger, J.; Jánosi, I. M.

    2011-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions that eject columns of ash from the crater often generate lightning discharges strong enough to be remotely located by very low frequency radio waves. A fraction of volcanic ash particles can stay and disperse long enough to have an effect on weather phenomena days later such as thunderstorms and lightnings. In this work we report on lightning activity analysis over Europe following two recent series of volcanic eruptions in order to identify possible correlations between ash release and subsequent thunderstorm flash frequency. Our attempts gave negative results which can be related to the fact that we have limited information on local atmospheric variables of high enough resolution, however lightning frequency is apparently determined by very local circumstances.

  11. Runaway breakdown and electrical discharges in thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milikh, Gennady; Roussel-Dupré, Robert

    2010-12-01

    This review considers the precise role played by runaway breakdown (RB) in the initiation and development of lightning discharges. RB remains a fundamental research topic under intense investigation. The question of how lightning is initiated and subsequently evolves in the thunderstorm environment rests in part on a fundamental understanding of RB and cosmic rays and the potential coupling to thermal runaway (as a seed to RB) and conventional breakdown (as a source of thermal runaways). In this paper, we describe the basic mechanism of RB and the conditions required to initiate an observable avalanche. Feedback processes that fundamentally enhance RB are discussed, as are both conventional breakdown and thermal runaway. Observations that provide clear evidence for the presence of energetic particles in thunderstorms/lightning include γ-ray and X-ray flux intensifications over thunderstorms, γ-ray and X-ray bursts in conjunction with stepped leaders, terrestrial γ-ray flashes, and neutron production by lightning. Intense radio impulses termed narrow bipolar pulses (or NBPs) provide indirect evidence for RB particularly when measured in association with cosmic ray showers. Our present understanding of these phenomena and their enduring enigmatic character are touched upon briefly.

  12. 78 FR 67144 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... 2. National Origin Discrimination in Today's Workplace. Note: In accordance with the Sunshine Act... information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication...

  13. Schumann Resonance spectra decomposition method and studies of the locations of the African thunderstorm centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrda, Michal; Kulak, Andrzej; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Ostrowski, Michal; Kubisz, Jerzy; Michalec, Adam; Nieckarz, Zenon

    2014-05-01

    The idea, that the global atmospheric electric circuit is driven by global lightning activity was introduced at the beginning of the last century. Today, the different observational methods are used from satellites to the radio observations performed in the extremely low frequency (ELF) range to evaluate local as well as global lightning activity, its spatial and temporal variability and influence on our planet and Earth's climate. The ground-based thunderstorms observations, particularly ELF, also allow the measurements of the dipole moment of discharges. Global lightning activity excites the Earth-ionosphere cavity and the produced electromagnetic radiation is responsible for generating the Schumann resonance (SR). The interaction of the standing and travelling waves leads to asymmetric shape of the observational SR power spectra picks, which was noticed by Kułak et al. (2006). They proposed a spectral decomposition method, what allows to separate the resonant field from the travelling wave contribution, which can be dominant at small distances from the sources. In such approach, one can apply the inverse problem solution for determining a distance of the dominant signal source. The distances to the thunderstorm centres are calculated using the numerical as well as the analytical models for the electromagnetic waves propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. The ELF electromagnetic waves, recorded by Hylaty ELF station, located in South-East of Poland are used to derive the distances to the most powerful thunderstorm centres located in Africa and hence to obtain 1-D thunderstorm lightning activity maps. The observational data taken in January and August 2011 were binned in 10 minute intervals and SR power spectra were derived. Then a curve describing seven asymmetric SR maxima was fitted to the spectrum for each time interval. We use chi-squared test to compare the resulted decomposed power spectra with curves obtained within the considered numerical and

  14. 75 FR 44852 - Community Reinvestment Act Sunshine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Community Reinvestment Act Sunshine AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Community Reinvestment Act Sunshine. OMB Number: 1550-0105. Form Number: N/A... agreements that are in fulfillment of the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 to be disclosed to the...

  15. 78 FR 64556 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice is hereby given, pursuant to the provisions of the Government in the Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, that the Securities and Exchange Commission will hold a Closed Meeting...

  16. 78 FR 74196 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice is hereby given, pursuant to the provisions of the Government in the Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, that the Securities and Exchange Commission will hold a Closed Meeting...

  17. 78 FR 72133 - Sunshine Act Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting. Notice is hereby given, pursuant to the provisions of the Government in the Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, that the Securities and Exchange Commission will hold a Closed Meeting...

  18. 78 FR 63528 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice is hereby given, pursuant to the provisions of the Government in the Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, that the Securities and Exchange Commission will hold an Open Meeting on... sale of securities through crowdfunding pursuant to Section 4(a)(6) of the Securities Act of 1933,...

  19. Remote detection and diagnosis of thunderstorm turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John K.; Sharman, Robert; Craig, Jason; Blackburn, Gary

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes how operational radar, satellite and lightning data may be used in conjunction with numerical weather model data to provide remote detection and diagnosis of atmospheric turbulence in and around thunderstorms. In-cloud turbulence is measured with the NEXRAD Turbulence Detection Algorithm (NTDA) using extensively qualitycontrolled, ground-based Doppler radar data. A real-time demonstration of the NTDA includes generation of a 3-D turbulence mosaic covering the CONUS east of the Rocky Mountains, a web-based display, and experimental uplinks of turbulence maps to en-route commercial aircraft. Near-cloud turbulence is inferred from thunderstorm morphology, intensity, growth rate and environment data provided by (1) satellite radiance measurements, rates of change, winds, and other derived features, (2) lightning strike measurements, (3) radar reflectivity measurements and (4) weather model data. These are combined via a machine learning technique trained using a database of in situ turbulence measurements from commercial aircraft to create a predictive model. This new capability is being developed under FAA and NASA funding to enhance current U.S. and international turbulence decision support systems, allowing rapid-update, highresolution, comprehensive assessments of atmospheric turbulence hazards for use by pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers. It will also contribute to the comprehensive 4-D weather information database for NextGen.

  20. A review of severe thunderstorms in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John T.; Allen, Edwina R.

    2016-09-01

    Severe thunderstorms are a common occurrence in Australia and have been documented since the first European settlement in 1788. These events are characterized by large damaging hail in excess of 2 cm, convective wind gusts greater than 90 km h- 1 and tornadoes, and contribute a quarter of all natural hazard-related losses in the country. This impact has lead to a growing body of research and insight into these events. In this article, the state of knowledge regarding their incidence, distribution, and the resulting hail, tornado, convective wind, and lightning risk will be reviewed. Applying this assessment of knowledge, the implications for forecasting, the warning process, and how these events may respond to climate change and variability will also be discussed. Based on this review, ongoing work in the field is outlined, and several potential avenues for future research and exploration are suggested. Most notably, the need for improved observational or proxy climatologies, the forecasting guidelines for tornadoes, and the need for a greater understanding of how severe thunderstorms respond to climate variability are highlighted.

  1. Instability indices and forecasting thunderstorms: the case of 30 April 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tajbakhsh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, one meteorological case study for two Iranian airports are presented. Attempts have been made to study the predefined threshold amounts of some instability indices such as vertical velocity and relative humidity. Two important output variables from a numerical weather prediction model have been used to survey thunderstorms. The climatological state of thunder days in Iran has been determined to aid in choosing the airports for the case studies. The synoptic pattern, atmospheric thermodynamics and output from a numerical weather prediction model have been studied to evaluate the occurrence of storms and to verify the threshold instability indices that are based on Gordon and Albert (2000 and Miller (1972.

    Using data from the Statistics and Data Center of the Iran Meteorological Organization, 195 synoptic stations were used to study the climatological pattern of thunderstorm days in Iran during a 15-yr period (1991–2005. Synoptic weather maps and thermodynamic diagrams have been drawn using data from synoptic stations and radiosonde data. A 15-km resolution version of the WRF numerical model has been implemented for the Middle East region with the assistance of global data from University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR.

    The Tabriz airport weather station has been selected for further study due to its high frequency of thunderstorms (more than 35 thunderstorm days per year and the existence of an upper air station. Despite the fact that storms occur less often at the Tehran weather station, the station has been chosen as the second case study site due to its large amount of air traffic. Using these two case studies (Tehran at 00:00 UTC, 31 April 2009 and Tabriz at 12:00 UTC, 31 April 2009, the results of this research show that the threshold amounts of 30 °C for KI, −2 °C for LI and −3 °C for SI suggests the occurrence and non-occurrence of thunderstorms at the Tehran and Tabriz stations

  2. Composites of Heavy Rain Producing Elevated Thunderstorms in the Central United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel P. McCoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite analyses of the atmosphere over the central United States during elevated thunderstorms producing heavy rainfall are presented. Composites were created for five National Weather Service County Warning Areas (CWAs in the region. Events studied occurred during the warm season (April–September during 1979–2012. These CWAs encompass the region determined previously to experience the greatest frequency of elevated thunderstorms in the United States. Composited events produced rainfall of >50 mm 24 hr−1 within the selected CWA. Composites were generated for the 0–3 hr period prior to the heaviest rainfall, 6–9 hours prior to it, and 12–15 hours prior to it. This paper focuses on the Pleasant Hill, Missouri (EAX composites, as all CWA results were similar; also these analyses focus on the period 0–3 hours prior to event occurrence. These findings corroborate the findings of previous authors. What is offered here that is unique is (1 a measure of the interquartile range within the composite mean fields, allowing for discrimination between variable fields that provided a strong reliable signal, from those that may appear strong but possess large variability, and (2 composite soundings of two subclasses of elevated thunderstorms. Also, a null case (one that fits the composite but failed to produce significant rainfall is also examined for comparison.

  3. Lightning Jump Algorithm and Relation to Thunderstorm Cell Tracking, GLM Proxy and Other Meteorological Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Bateman, Monte

    2012-01-01

    The lightning jump algorithm has a robust history in correlating upward trends in lightning to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The algorithm uses the correlation between the physical principles that govern an updraft's ability to produce microphysical and kinematic conditions conducive for electrification and its role in the development of severe weather conditions. Recent work has demonstrated that the lightning jump algorithm concept holds significant promise in the operational realm, aiding in the identification of thunderstorms that have potential to produce severe or hazardous weather. However, a large amount of work still needs to be completed in spite of these positive results. The total lightning jump algorithm is not a stand-alone concept that can be used independent of other meteorological measurements, parameters, and techniques. For example, the algorithm is highly dependent upon thunderstorm tracking to build lightning histories on convective cells. Current tracking methods show that thunderstorm cell tracking is most reliable and cell histories are most accurate when radar information is incorporated with lightning data. In the absence of radar data, the cell tracking is a bit less reliable but the value added by the lightning information is much greater. For optimal application, the algorithm should be integrated with other measurements that assess storm scale properties (e.g., satellite, radar). Therefore, the recent focus of this research effort has been assessing the lightning jump's relation to thunderstorm tracking, meteorological parameters, and its potential uses in operational meteorology. Furthermore, the algorithm must be tailored for the optically-based GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), as what has been observed using Very High Frequency Lightning Mapping Array (VHF LMA) measurements will not exactly translate to what will be observed by GLM due to resolution and other instrument differences. Herein, we present some of

  4. 76 FR 16016 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    .... ] Briefing on Small Modular Reactors (Public Meeting) (Contact: Stephanie Coffin, 301-415-6877) This meeting... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission,...

  5. 76 FR 14107 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    .... Briefing on Small Modular Reactors (Public Meeting). (Contact: Stephanie Coffin, 301-415-6877). This... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  6. 76 FR 61346 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Administration (NNSA) actions to address Plutonium Facility seismic vulnerabilities that lead to severe... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD Sunshine Act Notice AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Notice of...

  7. Beijing Sunshine Eternity Technology Co. Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Founded on December 5, 2000,Beijing Sunshine Eternity Technology Co. Ltd. specializes in the research,production, trade and maintenance of telecommunication products. The main products cover information technology,

  8. Satellite-Based Sunshine Duration for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Ahrens

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different methods were applied to derive daily and monthly sunshine duration based on high-resolution satellite products provided by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring using data from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager. The satellite products were either hourly cloud type or hourly surface incoming direct radiation. The satellite sunshine duration estimates were not found to be significantly different using the native 15-minute temporal resolution of SEVIRI. The satellite-based sunshine duration products give additional spatial information over the European continent compared with equivalent in situ-based products. An evaluation of the satellite sunshine duration by product intercomparison and against station measurements was carried out to determine their accuracy. The satellite data were found to be within ±1 h/day compared to high-quality Baseline Surface Radiation Network or surface synoptic observations (SYNOP station measurements. The satellite-based products differ more over the oceans than over land, mainly because of the treatment of fractional clouds in the cloud type-based sunshine duration product. This paper presents the methods used to derive the satellite sunshine duration products and the performance of the different retrievals. The main benefits and disadvantages compared to station-based products are also discussed.

  9. Warts, malnutrition, and sunshine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Topete, Rocío; Villa, Antonio; Leyva Santiago, Jaime; Scholtes, Christian; Archer-Dubon, Carla; Ysunza, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Viral warts are common in poor rural settings but their relationship to malnutrition has not been studied. We sought to determine the prevalence of warts in children of two communities in Oaxaca, Mexico, and compared it with their nutritional status. Children from Santa Catarina Yahuio and Santiago Laxopa of the state of Oaxaca were examined. Localization, number, and type of verruca were noted. Date of birth, height, and weight were obtained to determine nutritional status. A total of 213 children (116 girls and 97 boys), 107 in Yahuio and 106 in Laxopa, were studied. Mean age was 10.24 years. Thirty children (14.1%) had warts and 80% (24/30) of these lived in Yahuio (p = 0.0002). Almost half were teenagers. Most lesions were on sun-exposed areas. First degree malnutrition was found in 24.5%; second degree in 23.6% and third degree in 14.2%. A higher frequency of warts than previously reported was found. Malnutrition was prevalent in both groups but did not correlate positively with verruca. Verruca were more frequent in females, adolescents, sun-exposed areas, and higher altitude. We believe that the higher altitude of Yahuio facilitates greater exposure to ultraviolet light-induced immune suppression.

  10. Climatic Characteristics of the Thunderstorm Days in Heze City in Recent 51 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Suo-ling; MENG; Rui-juan; SUN; Qiu-sheng; HOU; Wen-jie

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to study climatic characteristics of the thunderstorm days in Heze in recent 51 years. [Method] Using observation data of the thunderstorm days in Heze from 1961 to 2011, interannual and monthly change characteristics of the thunderstorm days, change trends of the first and final dates, interannual stage distribution were analyzed. [Result] Annual average thunderstorm days in Heze was 25 d. As decade increase, thunderstorm days decreased at 1.9 d/10 a. Thunderstorm days concentrated from April to September, and occurred most often in July. The minimum days from first date to final date was 86 d, and the most days was 264 d. Average first date of the thunderstorm was on April 16, and final date was on September 16. Climatic characteristics of the thunderstorm had significant stage. [Conclusion] The research provided scientific basis for prediction, assessment, prevention and reduction of the thunderstorm disaster in Heze.

  11. Investigations into the triggered lightning response of the F106B thunderstorm research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.; Mckenna, Paul M.; Parker, Steven L.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted into the lightning characteristics of the NASA F106B thunderstorm research aircraft. The investigation includes analysis of measured data from the aircraft in the time and frequency domains. Linear and nonlinear computer modelling has also been performed. In addition, new computer tools have been developed, including a new enhanced nonlinear air breakdown model, and a subgrid model useful for analyzing fine details of the aircraft's geometry. Comparison of measured and calculated electromagnetic responses of the aircraft to a triggered lightning environment are presented.

  12. Lightning flash multiplicity in eastern Mediterranean thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Y.; Shalev, S.; Erlich, Z.; Agrachov, A.; Katz, E.; Saaroni, H.; Price, C.; Ziv, B.

    2014-02-01

    Cloud-to-ground lightning flashes usually consist of one or several strokes coming in very short temporal succession and close spatial proximity. A commonly used method for converting stroke data into flashes is using the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) thresholds of maximum temporal separation of 0.5 s and maximum lateral distance of 10 km radius between successive strokes. In the present study, we tested a location-based algorithm with several spatial and temporal ranges, and analyzed stroke data obtained by the Israel Lightning Location System (ILLS) during one year (1.8.2009-31.7.2010). We computed the multiplicity, the percentage of single stroke flashes and the geographical distribution of average multiplicity values for thunderstorms in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Results show that for the NLDN thresholds, the percentage of single stroke flashes in Israel was 37% and the average multiplicity was 1.7. We reanalyzed the data with a spatial range that equals twice the ILLS location error and shorter times. For the new thresholds of maximum distance of 2.5 km and maximum allowed temporal separation of 0.2 s we find that the mean multiplicity of negative CGs is lowered to 1.4 and find a percentage of 58% of single stroke flashes. A unique severe storm from 30 October 2009 is analyzed and compared with the annual average of 2009/2010, showing that large deviations from the mean values can occur in specific events.

  13. Thunderstorms over a tropical Indian station, Minicoy: Role of vertical wind shear

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H S Chaudhari; G K Sawaisarje; M R Ranalkar; P N Sen

    2010-10-01

    In this study,an attempt has been made to bring out the observational aspects of vertical wind shear in thunderstorms over Minicoy.Case studies of thunderstorm events have been examined to find out the effect of vertical wind shear and instability on strength and longevity of thunderstorms.Role of vertical wind shear in thunderstorms and its mechanism has been explored in this study.Results reveal that for prolonged thunderstorms high and low instability along with moderate to high vertical wind shear (moderate:0.003S−1 ≤ vertical wind shear ≤ 0.005S−1 and high: < 0.005S−1) play a significant role in longevity and strength of thunderstorms.The mechanism of vertical wind shear in thunderstorms was investigated in a few cases of thunderstorm events where the duration of thunderstorm was covered by the radiosonde/rawin ascent observation taken at Minicoy. Empirical model has been developed to classify thunderstorm type and to determine the strength and longevity of thunderstorms.Model validation has been carried out for selected cases.Model could classify thunderstorm type for most of the cases of thunderstorm events over island and coastal stations.

  14. Heavy Thunderstorm Synoptic Climatology and Forcing Mechanisms in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulam, Ayman S.

    2010-05-01

    Meteorologists are required to provide accurate and comprehensive weather information for planning and operational aviation, agricultural, water projects and also for the public. In general, weather phenomena such as thunderstorms over the area between the tropics and the middle latitudes are not fully understood, particularly in the Middle East area, for many reasons such as: 1) the complexity of the nature of the climate due to the wide-ranging diversity in the topography and landscape in the area; 2) the lack of meteorological data in the area; and 3) the lack of studies on local weather situations. In arid regions such as Saudi Arabia, the spatial and temporal variation of thunderstorms and associated rainfall are essential in determining their effects on social and economic conditions. Thunderstorms form rapidly, due to the fact that the significant heating of the air from the surface and the ensuing rainfall usually occurs within a short period of time. Thus, understanding thunderstorms and rainfall distribution in time and space would be useful for hydrologists, meteorologists and for environmental studies. Research all over the world has shown, however, that consideration of local factors like Low Level Jets (LLJ), moisture flux, sea breezes, and the Red Sea Convergence Zone (RSCZ) would be valuable in thunderstorm prediction. The combined effects of enhanced low-level moisture convergence and layer destabilization due to upslope flow over mountainous terrain has been shown to be responsible for thunderstorm development in otherwise non-favourable conditions. However, there might be other synoptic features associated with heavy thunderstorms or cause them, but these features have not been investigated in any research in Saudi Arabia. Thus, relating the local weather and synoptic situations with those over the middle latitudes will provide a valuable background for the forecasters to issue the medium-range forecasts which are important for many projects

  15. Thunderstorm incidence in southeastern Brazil estimated from different data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pinto Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparative analysis of the thunderstorm incidence in southeastern Brazil obtained from thunderstorm days observed at two different epochs (from 1910 to 1951 and from 1971 to 1984 and from lightning data provided by the Brazilian lightning location system RINDAT (from 1999 to 2006 and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellite (from 1998 to 2010. The results are interpreted in terms of the main synoptic patterns associated with thunderstorm activity in this region, indicating that the prevailing synoptic pattern associated with thunderstorm activity is the occurrence of frontal systems and their modulation by the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ and topography. Evidence of urban effects is also found. The results are also discussed in the context of practical applications involving their use in the Brazilian lightning protection standards, suggesting that the present version of the Brazilian standards should be revised incorporating RINDAT and LIS data. Finally, the results are important to improve our knowledge about the limitations of the different techniques used to record the thunderstorm activity and support future climatic studies.

  16. Climatic Characteristics of Thunderstorm Gale in Langfang of Hebei Province%河北廊坊雷暴大风的气候特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贺玲; 张绍恢; 杨艳

    2014-01-01

    Based on the observational data of 9 meteorological stations in Langfang of Heibei Province during 1970-2012,the temporal and spatial characteristics,change trends and cycle of thunderstorm gale were analyzed by using trend analysis,moving t test,wavelet analysis and maximum entropy spectrum.Results showed that thunderstorm gale in Langfang mostly occurred at one station,while the whole regional thunderstorm gale appeared only once.Thus,the thunderstorm gales had strong local feature.The regional characteristic of thunderstorm gale was obvious,and thunderstorm gale days in We’nan and Dacheng as well as Langfang city were more,while they were least in the north of Langfang.The daily,monthly and annual variation of thunderstorm gale days were significant.The thunder-storm and gale mostly happened from afternoon to midnight,and the occurring time of gale was later than that of thunderstorm general-ly.The frequencies of thunderstorms lasting about 1 hour and gales lasting 10 minutes were the most.The thunderstorm gale weathers occur from March to October,especially in summer,and the occurring frequency is 73.3%.In the past 43 years,the days of thunder-storm gale decreased significantly,and the decreasing trends at stations in the middle of Langfang were the most significant.The muta-tion of thunderstorm gale days occurred in 1994,and the significant period was 3.23 years.%利用1970~2012年廊坊地区9个气象站地面雷暴大风观测资料,采用趋势分析、滑动t检验、小波分析和最大熵谱分析等统计方法,系统分析了该地区雷暴大风天气的时空特征及变化趋势和变化周期。结果表明:廊坊地区的雷暴大风局地性强,43 a间只出现了一次全区性的雷暴大风天气过程,雷暴大风多以单站出现为主。雷暴大风的地域性特征明显,中部的廊坊市及南部的文安、大城站较易出现,而北部发生概率较低。雷暴大风的日、月及年变化特征明显。雷暴

  17. sunshine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine which of the Triandis variables (perceived consequences, affect, social factors) are associated with this ... studies on rickets in Ethiopia (2-5) showed that ... sun', and 'skin getting darker'. ... indicated that fear of the 'evil eye' or a 'bad.

  18. High-altitude electrical discharges associated with thunderstorms and lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningyu; McHarg, Matthew G.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans C.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce electrical discharge phenomena known as transient luminous events above thunderstorms to the lightning protection community. Transient luminous events include the upward electrical discharges from thunderstorms known as starters, jets, and gigantic jets, and electrical discharges initiated in the lower ionosphere such as sprites, halos, and elves. We give an overview of these phenomena with a focus on starters, jets, gigantic jets, and sprites, because similar to ordinary lightning, streamers and leaders are basic components of these four types of transient luminous events. We present a few recent observations to illustrate their main properties and briefly review the theories. The research in transient luminous events has not only advanced our understanding of the effects of thunderstorms and lightning in the middle and upper atmosphere, but also improved our knowledge of basic electrical discharge processes critical for sparks and lightning.

  19. Relationship between lightning activity and vertical airflow characteristics in thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxi; Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Liping

    2017-07-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data, wind field data derived from dual-Doppler radars, and radar reflectivity data are combined to investigate the relationships between CG lightning and the parameters associated with vertical airflow. A new method for the identification of thunderstorm cells based on the aggregation of flashes is developed. It is found that approximately 79.1% of CG flashes are located in the region featuring weak vertical velocity at the 0 °C level, ranging from - 5 to 5 m s- 1, with the majority in the weak updraft region, especially for negative CG lightning and the CG lightning in the initial stage of thunderstorms. The CG lightning rate is correlated with the volume of updraft for vertical velocities within certain limits. The sum of absolute precipitation ice mass flux in the region from 7 to 11 km is more significantly correlated with the CG flash rate, with correlation coefficients of 0.73, 0.71, and 0.74 for the initial, mature, and dissipating stages of thunderstorms, respectively. On average, the updraft in the thunderstorm at the stage when the last CG flash occurs accounts for a much smaller ratio to the whole volume of the thunderstorm than that corresponding to the first CG flash. The maximum updraft and maximum height of the 10 and 20 m s- 1 updraft speeds are close for the first and last CG flashes, indicating the dependence of the lightning on strength of updraft. It is deduced that layered large-range charges may be more conducive to the generation of CG flashes than charge pockets in the thunderstorm.

  20. Gamma-rays Associated with Nearby Thunderstorms at Ground Level

    CERN Document Server

    Ringuette, Rebecca; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P

    2014-01-01

    The TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA) is an array of NaI scintillators located at rooftop level on the campus of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. From July 2010 through March 2014, TETRA has detected 28 millisecond-duration bursts of gamma-rays at energies 50 keV - 2 MeV associated with nearby (< 8 km) thunderstorms. The ability to observe ground-level Terrestrial Gamma Flashes from close to the source allows a unique analysis of the storm cells producing these events. The results of the initial analysis will be presented.

  1. Anomalous electric field changes and high flash rate beneath a thunderstorm in northeast India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Pawar; P Murugavel; V Gopalakrishnan

    2010-10-01

    In spite of many experimental and theoretical studies the relationships between storm dynamics, severe weather,and lightning activity have been least understood.Measurements of electric field made under a severe thunderstorm at a northeastern Indian station,Guwahati,India are reported. Lightning flash rate increases drastically to about 84 flashes per minute (fpm)during the active stage which lasted for about 7 minutes,from about 15 flashes per minute during the initial phase of thunderstorm.Sudden increase in lightning flash rate (‘lightning jump ’)of about 65 fpm/min is also observed in the beginning of the active stage.The dissipating stage is marked by slow and steady decrease in lightning frequency.Despite very high flash rate during the active stage, no severe weather conditions are observed at the ground.It is proposed that the short duration of the active stage might be the reason for the non-observance of severe weather conditions at the ground.Analysis of Skew-t graph at Guwahati suggests that vertical distribution of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE)also may play some role in non-occurrence of severe weather at ground in spite of large lightning flash rate and lightning jump observed in this thunderstorm.Further,all electric field changes after a lightning discharge indicates the presence of strong Lower Positive Charge Centers (LPCC)in the active and dissipation stages. This suggests that LPCC plays an important role in initiation of lightning discharges in these stages.

  2. 75 FR 13296 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... BOARD MEETING Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATE: March 29, 2010; 9:00 a.m.-1 :30 p.m. PLACE: 901 N... Minutes of the December 14, 2009, Meeting of the Board of Directors Resolution Honoring Gary Bryner... Advisory Council Membership and Attendance at Meetings Status of Upcoming Meetings Status of...

  3. 78 FR 70598 - Sunshine Act Meetings Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings Notice DATES: Weeks of November 25, December 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, 2013. PLACE... November 25, 2013 There are no meetings scheduled for the week of November 25, 2013. Week of December 2, 2013--Tentative There are no meetings scheduled for the week of December 2, 2013. Week of December...

  4. 76 FR 15991 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... BOARD MEETING Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATE: March 28, 2011, 9 a.m.-1:30 p.m. PLACE: 901 N. Stuart... of the Minutes of the December 13, 2010, Meeting of the Board of Directors President's Report...EAm rica Website Demonstration Next Meetings PORTIONS TO BE OPEN TO THE PUBLIC: Approval of...

  5. 75 FR 74071 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... BOARD MEETING Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATE: December 13, 2010, 9 a.m.-2 p.m. PLACE: 901 N. Stuart... March 29, 2010, Meeting of the Board of Directors. Advisory Council Report and Recommendations. Role of... Approval of the Minutes of the March 29, 2010, Meeting of the Board of Directors. Advisory Council...

  6. 78 FR 25309 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... SAFETY BOARD Sunshine Act Meeting TIME AND DATE: 9:30 a.m., Tuesday, May 14, 2013. PLACE: NTSB Conference.... MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: 8482 Safety Report--Reaching Zero: Actions to Eliminate Alcohol- Impaired Driving 8417A Marine Accident Report--Allision of the Cargo Vessel M/V Delta Mariner with Eggner's Ferry...

  7. 78 FR 66893 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Sunshine Act Notice AGENCY: United States Commission on Civil Rights. ACTION: Notice of Business Meeting..., Washington, DC 20425. Meeting Agenda I. Approval of Agenda II. Office of General Counsel Ethics Training: Expiration of Appointments and Applicable Ethics Rules III. Program Planning Review and Vote on the Proposed...

  8. 76 FR 10410 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... March 28, 2011--Tentative Tuesday, March 29, 2011 9 a.m. Briefing on Small Modular Reactors (Public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks of...

  9. 76 FR 11290 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Tuesday, March 29, 2011 9 a.m. Briefing on Small Modular Reactors (Public Meeting) (Contact: Stephanie... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  10. 76 FR 12768 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... . Week of March 28, 2011--Tentative Tuesday, March 29, 2011 9 a.m. Briefing on Small Modular Reactors... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Weeks...

  11. 76 FR 17460 - SUNSHINE FEDERAL REGISTER NOTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Tuesday, March 29, 2011 9 a.m. Briefing on Small Modular Reactors (Public Meeting); (Contact: Stephanie... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SUNSHINE FEDERAL REGISTER NOTICE AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  12. 75 FR 65674 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... on international activities. 3. Review of active cases. 4. Report on recent activities of the Joint... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATE: Wednesday, November 3, 2010, at 11 a.m. PLACE: Commission hearing...

  13. 77 FR 32637 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... capital requirements for savings and loan holding companies. 2. Final interagency rulemaking: Market risk... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Sunshine Act Meeting Notice AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Time and Date: 3:30 p...

  14. 77 FR 10529 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD Sunshine Act Meeting TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m. (Eastern Time) February 27, 2012. PLACE: 2nd.... Legislative Report 3. Review of Audit Recommendations 4. Audit Reports 5. Department of Labor Audit...

  15. 78 FR 33134 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Investment Company Act that govern the operation of money market funds and related amendments to Form PF... Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, that the Securities and Exchange Commission will hold an Open Meeting on Wednesday, June 5, 2013 at 10:00 a.m., in the Auditorium, Room L-002. The subject matter of the Open...

  16. 76 FR 71968 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. DATES: Date & Time: Wednesday, November 16, 2011... disclosure of which would be likely to have a considerable adverse effect on the implementation of a...

  17. 77 FR 8258 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. DATE AND TIME: Monday, February 13, 2012... likely to have a considerable adverse effect on the implementation of a proposed Commission...

  18. 75 FR 1608 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... the Government in the Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, 5 U.S.C. 552b. Agency Holding the Meeting... exchanges, derivatives transaction execution facilities and electronic trading facilities. Contact Person...

  19. 75 FR 38492 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATE: Wednesday, June 30, 2010, 2 p.m.-3 p.m. PLACE: Hearing Room... the Public. ] MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: 1. Accreditation for Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies for Testing for Children's Products: Carpets and Rugs. 2. Accreditation for Third Party...

  20. 78 FR 5212 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... Udall Foundation audit; and (10) Possible action on the Organizational Development Consultants Report... Interior's Inspector General regarding the Udall Foundation audit. ] CONTACT PERSON FOR MORE INFORMATION... L. UDALL FOUNDATION Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATE: 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Thursday,...

  1. 78 FR 29697 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Interior's Inspector General regarding the Udall Foundation audit. PORTIONS OPEN TO THE PUBLIC: All agenda... Inspector General regarding the Udall Foundation audit. CONTACT PERSON FOR MORE INFORMATION: Philip J... K. UDALL AND STEWART L. UDALL FOUNDATION Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATE: 12:00 p.m. to 5:00...

  2. 77 FR 54910 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ...) before or after the meeting. If any person wishes auxiliary aids (such as a sign language interpreter) or... UNITED STATES Sunshine Act Meeting ACTION: Notice of Open Special Meeting of the Sub-Saharan Africa... Room 326, 811 Vermont Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20571. SUMMARY: The Sub-Saharan Africa Advisory...

  3. 78 FR 62588 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting TIME AND DATE: Tuesday, October 22, 2013, 10 a.m.-12 p.m. PLACE: Hearing Room 420, Bethesda Towers, 4330 East-West Highway, Bethesda, Maryland. STATUS: Commission Meeting--Open...

  4. 78 FR 64555 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice DATES: Weeks of October 28, November 4, 11, 18, 25, December 2, 2013. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. STATUS: Public...

  5. 78 FR 66768 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: United States International Trade Commission. TIME AND DATE: November 7, 2013 at 11:00 a.m. PLACE: Room 101, 500 E Street SW., Washington,...

  6. 78 FR 74129 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Federal Maritime Commission. DATES: December 10, 2013. PLACE: 800 N. Capitol Street NW., First Floor Hearing Room, Washington, DC. STATUS: The meeting will be held in Closed...

  7. 78 FR 64498 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. DATE AND TIME: Thursday, October 31, 2013 at 10:00 a.m. PLACE: 999 E Street NW., Washington, DC (Ninth Floor). STATUS: This meeting will be open...

  8. 78 FR 77736 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings DATE: Weeks of December 23, 30, 2013, January 6, 13, 20, 27, 2014. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. STATUS: Public and Closed. Week...

  9. 78 FR 77450 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT--78 FR 75568 (December 12, 2013). DATE AND TIME: Tuesday, December 17, 2013 at the conclusion...

  10. 78 FR 72096 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATE: December 9, 2013, 9:00 a.m.-1:00 p.m. PLACE: Baker & McKenzie, 815 Connecticut Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20006. STATUS: Open session. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: Approval of...

  11. 78 FR 74162 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: United States International Trade Commission TIME AND DATE: December 12, 2013 at 11:00 a.m. PLACE: Room 101, 500 E Street SW., Washington,...

  12. 78 FR 64535 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: United States International Trade Commission. TIME AND DATE: November 1, 2013 at 11:00 a.m. PLACE: Room 101, 500 E Street SW., Washington,...

  13. 78 FR 71611 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. DATE & TIME: Tuesday, December 3, 2013 at 10:00 a.m. PLACE: 999 E Street NW., Washington, DC. STATUS: This meeting will be closed to the public....

  14. 78 FR 72086 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. DATE & TIME: Thursday, December 5, 2013 at 10:00 a.m. PLACE: 999 E Street NW., Washington, DC (Ninth Floor). STATUS: This meeting will be open to...

  15. 78 FR 63493 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: United States International Trade Commission. TIME AND DATE: October 29, 2013 at 11:00 a.m. PLACE: Room 101, 500 E Street SW., Washington,...

  16. 78 FR 64541 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Sunshine Act Meeting TIME AND DATE: 9:30 a.m., Tuesday, November 5, 2013 PLACE: NTSB Conference Center, 429 L'Enfant Plaza SW., Washington, DC 20594. STATUS: The one item is open to the...

  17. 78 FR 74188 - Sunshine Act Meetings Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings Notice DATE: Weeks of December 9, 16, 23, 30, 2013, January 6, 13, 2014. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. STATUS: Public...

  18. 75 FR 39053 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... initiation, conduct, or disposition * * * of particular representation or unfair labor practice proceedings... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD Sunshine Act Meetings Time and Dates: All meetings are held at 2:30 p.m. Wednesday, July 7...

  19. 75 FR 75703 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... arbitration, or the initiation, conduct, or disposition * * * of particular representation or unfair labor... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD Sunshine Act Meetings Time and Dates All meetings are held at 2:30 p.m. Wednesday, December 1...

  20. 77 FR 60146 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... initiation, conduct, or disposition * * * of particular representation or unfair labor practice proceedings... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATES: All meetings are held at 2:30 p.m. Tuesday, October 2...

  1. 76 FR 75881 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: Federal Maritime Commission. TIME AND DATE: December 8... Proposal of the Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China for Adjustment of the Amount for... the Liner Shipping Conference Exemption from Competition Laws-Discussion of Bureau of Trade...

  2. 75 FR 31760 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... INVESTIGATION BOARD Sunshine Act Meeting In connection with its investigation into the natural gas explosion that occurred at the Kleen Energy power plant in Middletown, Connecticut, the United States Chemical... fueled power plant under construction in Middletown, Connecticut, experienced a catastrophic natural...

  3. 75 FR 39205 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Sunshine Act Notice AGENCY: United States Commission on Civil Rights. ACTION: Notice of meeting. DATE AND.... Program Planning Approval of Recommendations for Briefing Report on Encouraging Minority Students...

  4. 77 FR 51073 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... solicitation and general advertising in securities offerings conducted pursuant to Rule 506 of Regulation D... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, that the Securities and Exchange Commission will hold an Open Meeting...

  5. 78 FR 41132 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... against general solicitation and general advertising in certain securities offerings conducted pursuant to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, that the Securities and Exchange Commission will hold an Open Meeting...

  6. 76 FR 20050 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meetings Notice DATE AND TIME: The Legal Services Corporation Board of Directors and its... Committee 5. Development Committee Saturday, April 16, 2011 1. Governance & Performance Review 9 a.m...

  7. 75 FR 50782 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice Time and Date: The Legal Services Corporation Board of Directors' Governance... Services Corporation, 3333 K Street, NW., Washington, DC 20007. Status of Meeting: Open. Public Observation...

  8. 75 FR 48729 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice TIME AND DATE: The Legal Services Corporation Board of Directors' Operations...: Legal Services Corporation, 3333 K Street, NW., Washington, DC 20007. STATUS OF MEETING: Open, except...

  9. 75 FR 78675 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Sunshine Act Notice AGENCY: United States Commission on Civil Rights. ACTION: Notice of Meeting... Discrimination in Liberal Arts College Admissions. Eminent Domain Project. NBPP. V. State Advisory Committee Issues: Update on status of North Dakota, Illinois and Minnesota SACs. Update on Vermont SAC. VI...

  10. 77 FR 10784 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... CORPORATION Finance, Budget & Program Committee of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act Meeting DATES: Time..., Washington, DC 20005. Status: Open. CONTACT PERSON FOR MORE INFORMATION: Erica Hall, Assistant Corporate... Report IV. NFMC Interest Income Budget V. Lease Update VI. Corporate Scorecard & Dashboard VII. NFMC...

  11. 76 FR 72220 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Instructor, The Elizabeth M. Boggs Center on Developmental Disabilities, University of Medicine & Dentistry... DISABILITY Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATES: The Members of the National Council on Disability (NCD) will... Supports (CLASS) Program; effective communication strategies for people with disabilities before,...

  12. 78 FR 26667 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... encouraging unsolicited ratings of asset-backed securities. The third panel will focus on other potential... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, that the Securities and Exchange Commission will hold a credit ratings...

  13. 76 FR 44057 - Sunshine Act Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ...-propose rules related to shelf-eligibility for asset-backed securities and request additional comment on... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, that the Securities and Exchange Commission will hold an Open Meeting on...

  14. 76 FR 17174 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... risk retention by securitizers of asset-backed securities. Item 2: The Commission will consider whether... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, that the Securities and Exchange Commission will hold an Open Meeting on...

  15. 75 FR 8416 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice is hereby given, pursuant to the provisions of the Government in the... statement regarding its continued support for a single-set of high-quality globally accepted accounting standards and its ongoing consideration of incorporating International Financial Reporting Standards...

  16. 75 FR 39576 - Sunshine Act; Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION Sunshine Act; Board Meeting Time and Date: July 12, 2010; 2 p.m.-3:30 p.m. ] Place: 901 N. Stuart Street, Tenth Floor, Arlington, Virginia 22203. Status: Closed session as provided in 22 CFR 1004.4(f)....

  17. 77 FR 71611 - Sunshine Act; Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Sunshine Act; Board Meeting TIME AND DATE: December 10, 2012. 9:00 a.m.-12:45 p.m. PLACE: Woodrow Wilson... September 24, 2012, Meeting of the Board of Directors Presentation of Resolution Honoring Service of Kay Arnold Carrying Out the IAF's Strategic Plan Management Report Setting Next Board Meetings PORTIONS TO...

  18. Influence of spring snowpack melting on thunderstorm activity in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, R.; Callado, A.; Terradelles, E.; Téllez, B.

    2009-09-01

    Catalan Pyrenees, the eastern half of the Pyrenees range, is a very popular area for tourism, hiking and climbing. This sector of the range is 200 km long and, on average, 80 km wide. Its highest peaks reach 3000 m ASL and there are many summits above 2500 m ASL. Two of the main climatic characteristics of the region are the very frequent summer convective storms and the late autumn, winter and spring snow-cover. Both characteristics have normally been studied from different points of view, and weather forecasts in late spring have not normally considered the plausible relationship between them. The snowpack melting from April to June, especially rapid in May, leads to important changes on the surface energy balance since the evolution from snow-covered ground to bare soil or canopy, significantly alters the surface albedo and the turbulent, latent and sensible, heat fluxes. These modifications have a noticeable influence in developing or inhibiting thermally-induced mesoscale circulations such as upslope winds, valley breezes or plane-mountain breezes, and could condition the triggering of convection, showers and storm activity. In order to gain insight into the relationship between the spring snowpack melting and the location of thunderstorm activity, a comparison between seasonal snow-cover and thunderstorm frequency evolution (using lightning network data) for a period of 5 years has been carried out, showing a progressive transition from a non-convective to a convective precipitation regime in areas where the snowpack has melted recently Furthermore, a meso-beta scale non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction model at a 2.5-km horizontal resolution is used to study the sensitivity of snowpack extension on the thunderstorms development over the complex orography of the Catalan Pyrenees. A spring case with thunderstorm activity restricted to snow-free areas has been selected and accurately simulated. A number of sensitivity runs with different initial snow

  19. Thunderstorm Research International Program (TRIP 77) report to management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiani, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    A post analysis of the previous day's weather, followed by the day's forecast and an outlook on weather conditions for the following day is given. The normal NOAA weather charts were used, complemented by the latest GOES satellite pictures, the latest rawinsonde sounding, and the computer-derived thunderstorm probability forecasts associated with the sounding.

  20. Extreme weather caused by concurrent cyclone, front and thunderstorm occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Andrew J.; Catto, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Phenomena such as cyclones, fronts and thunderstorms can cause extreme weather in various regions throughout the world. Although these phenomena have been examined in numerous studies, they have not all been systematically examined in combination with each other, including in relation to extreme precipitation and extreme winds throughout the world. Consequently, the combined influence of these phenomena represents a substantial gap in the current understanding of the causes of extreme weather events. Here we present a systematic analysis of cyclones, fronts and thunderstorms in combination with each other, as represented by seven different types of storm combinations. Our results highlight the storm combinations that most frequently cause extreme weather in various regions of the world. The highest risk of extreme precipitation and extreme wind speeds is found to be associated with a triple storm type characterized by concurrent cyclone, front and thunderstorm occurrences. Our findings reveal new insight on the relationships between cyclones, fronts and thunderstorms and clearly demonstrate the importance of concurrent phenomena in causing extreme weather.

  1. High-energy radiation from thunderstorms and lightning with LOFT

    CERN Document Server

    Marisaldi, M; Brandt, S; Briggs, M S; Budtz-Jørgensen, C; Campana, R; Carlson, B E; Celestin, S; Connaughton, V; Cummer, S A; Dwyer, J R; Fishman, G J; Fullekrug, M; Fuschino, F; Gjesteland, T; Neubert, T; Østgaard, N; Tavani, M

    2015-01-01

    This is a White Paper in support of the mission concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT), proposed as a medium-sized ESA mission. We discuss the potential of LOFT for the study of high-energy radiation from thunderstorms and lightning. For a summary, we refer to the paper.

  2. The Occurrence of Bioactive Micromonosporae in Aquatic Habitats of the Sunshine Coast in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ipek Kurtböke

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Screening strategies based on the ecological knowledge of antibiotic producing microorganisms and their roles in the natural environment are being increasingly employed in the search for novel antibiotic agents. Micromonosporae are common inhabitants of aquatic habitats and have proved to be a continuing source of novel bioactive compounds including antibacterial and antitumor agents. The ecological distribution and frequency of bioactive micromonosporae in Sunshine Coast region aquatic habitats were studied through a range of selective isolation procedures designed to negatively select against the isolation of unwanted microbial taxa commonly associated with marine environments. It was revealed that bioactive compound producing species of micromonosporae were present in the aquatic habitats of the Sunshine Coast region in Australia.

  3. Positive Charge Region in Lower Part of Thunderstorm and Preliminary Breakdown Process of Negative Cloud-to-Ground Lightning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yijun; MENG Qing; LU Weitao; MA Ming; ZHENG Dong; Pau R. Krehbiel

    2009-01-01

    A new lightning locating technology, called Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), has been developed. The system takes advantage of GPS technology to measure the times of arrival (TOA) of lightning impulsive very high frequency (VHF) radiation events at each remote location. The spatiotemporal development processes of lightning are described in three-dimension by measurement of the system with high time resolution (50 ns) and space precision (50-100 m). The charge structures in thunderstorm and their relationship with lightning discharge processes are revealed. The temporal and spatial characteristics of preliminary breakdown process involved in negative cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning discharges are analyzed based on the data of lightning VHF radiation events. The effect of positive charge region in lower part of thunderstorm on the occurrence of negative CG lightning discharge is discussed. The results indicate that the preliminary breakdown process with longer duration in negative CG lightning discharges is an intracloud discharge process. It occurs between negative and positive charge regions located in middle and lower parts of thunderstorm respectively.It initiates from the negative charge region and propagates downward. After propagating into the positive charge region, the lightning channel develops horizontally. The characteristics of the preliminary breakdown process are consistent with that of intracloud lightning discharges. The stepped leaders are initiated by the K type breakdown which occurs in the last stage of the preliminary breakdown process and develops downward through the positive charge region. The existence of positive charge region in lower part of thunderstorm results in the occurrence of preliminary breakdown process with longer duration before the return stroke of negative CG lightning discharges.

  4. A Numerical Simulation of the 12 July 1996 STERAO Thunderstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. J.; Helsdon, J. H.; Farley, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    We utilize our three-dimensional Storm Electrification Model with an explicit lightning scheme and chemistry to simulate the 12 July 1996 thunderstorm that occurred in northeastern Colorado during the Stratospheric-Tropospheric Experiment: Radiation, Aerosols and Ozone (STERAO) Deep Convection Field Project. The NO production is based on the energy dissipation of the lightning discharge with a pressure dependence included. The chemistry module has nine species, including NO, NO2, O3, and CH4, but does not include non-methane hydrocarbons. There are eighteen reactions among the nine species, three of which are photolytic. We focus on the production of NOx (NO + NO2) by lightning within the model and compare our results to airborne measurements obtained during the thunderstorm.

  5. Amplified radio emission from cosmic ray air showers in thunderstorms

    CERN Document Server

    Buitink, S; Asch, T; Badea, F; Bähren, L; Bekk, K; Bercuci, A; Bertaina, M; Biermann, P L; Blumer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Bruggemann, M; Buchholz, P; Butcher, H; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Daumiller, K; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Falcke, H; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K H; Kolotaev, Y; Krömer, O; Kuijpers, J; Lafebre, S; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Meurer, C; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Navarra, G; Nehls, S; Nigl, A; Obenland, R; Oehlschläger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Over, S; Petcu, M; Petrovic, J; Pierog, T; Plewnia, S; Rebel, H; Risse, A; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Sima, O; Singh, K; Stumpert, M; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Van Buren, J; Walkowiak, W; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zensus, J A; Zimmermann, D; Buitink, Stijn

    2007-01-01

    Cosmic ray air showers produce radio emission, consisting in large part of geosynchrotron emission. Since the radiation mechanism is based on particle acceleration, the atmospheric electric field can play an important role. Especially inside thunderclouds large electric fields can be present. We examine the contribution of an electric field to the emission mechanism theoretically and experimentally. Two mechanisms of amplification of radio emission are considered: the acceleration radiation of the shower particles and the radiation from the current that is produced by ionization electrons moving in the electric field. We selected and evaluated LOPES data recorded during thunderstorms, periods of heavy cloudiness and periods of cloudless weather. We find that during thunderstorms the radio emission can be strongly enhanced. No amplified pulses were found during periods of cloudless sky or heavy cloudiness, suggesting that the electric field effect for radio air shower measurements can be safely ignored during ...

  6. Beaming Properties of Energetic Electrons and Photons Inside Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Eric; Briggs, Michael

    2017-01-01

    It has been well established that thunderstorm environments allow relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) to develop under the influence of strong electric fields. This process can be seeded by external sources, such as cosmic-ray secondary electrons. The resulting bremsstrahlung x-rays and gamma rays that are emitted, propagate through the atmosphere and into space where they are detected by orbiting spacecraft, e.g. NASA Fermi. These high energy radiation blasts are known as Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs). Using a Monte Carlo particle simulation, we show beaming characteristics of these electrons and photons such as the angular distribution, energy spectra, and the radial distribution from the thunderstorm source to the observation point of orbiting spacecraft. These features are related to the thunderstorm electric field, Earth's geomagnetic field, and the potential inside the thundercloud region. Observations of TGFs made by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) will also be discussed, as well as a future multipoint CubeSat mission targeted to measure the beaming geometry of the gamma rays. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number 1524533.

  7. Comparison of sunshine duration measurements from Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder and CSD1 sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Grzegorz; Zając, Ireneusz

    2017-07-01

    Paper presents comparative analysis of sunshine duration measurement results obtained using Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder (CS) and electronic sensor (CSD1). The comparison is based on data from 2009 to 2010 collected at seven weather stations (Leszno, Wrocław-Strachowice, Legnica, Opole, Zielona Góra, Jelenia Góra, Kłodzko) operated by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management—National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) in south-western Poland. Results obtained in Opole and Legnica stations are erroneous. In case of other stations, the relationship between daily total sunshine duration as measured by CS and CSD1 was strong. Coefficients of determination were 0.96-0.97. Mean differences in daily totals of sunshine duration were ±0.3 h. Differences of mean monthly and annual totals were both positive and negative with no pattern of occurrences. Implementation of permanent corrections is not possible. The highest consistency between both measurement devices was found during winter months.

  8. Comparison of sunshine duration measurements from Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder and CSD1 sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Grzegorz; Zając, Ireneusz

    2016-03-01

    Paper presents comparative analysis of sunshine duration measurement results obtained using Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder (CS) and electronic sensor (CSD1). The comparison is based on data from 2009 to 2010 collected at seven weather stations (Leszno, Wrocław-Strachowice, Legnica, Opole, Zielona Góra, Jelenia Góra, Kłodzko) operated by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management—National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) in south-western Poland. Results obtained in Opole and Legnica stations are erroneous. In case of other stations, the relationship between daily total sunshine duration as measured by CS and CSD1 was strong. Coefficients of determination were 0.96-0.97. Mean differences in daily totals of sunshine duration were ±0.3 h. Differences of mean monthly and annual totals were both positive and negative with no pattern of occurrences. Implementation of permanent corrections is not possible. The highest consistency between both measurement devices was found during winter months.

  9. Stochastic modeling of sunshine number data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabec, Marek, E-mail: mbrabec@cs.cas.cz [Department of Nonlinear Modeling, Institute of Computer Science, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Pod Vodarenskou vezi 2, 182 07 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Paulescu, Marius [Physics Department, West University of Timisoara, V. Parvan 4, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Badescu, Viorel [Candida Oancea Institute, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Spl. Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    In this paper, we will present a unified statistical modeling framework for estimation and forecasting sunshine number (SSN) data. Sunshine number has been proposed earlier to describe sunshine time series in qualitative terms (Theor Appl Climatol 72 (2002) 127-136) and since then, it was shown to be useful not only for theoretical purposes but also for practical considerations, e.g. those related to the development of photovoltaic energy production. Statistical modeling and prediction of SSN as a binary time series has been challenging problem, however. Our statistical model for SSN time series is based on an underlying stochastic process formulation of Markov chain type. We will show how its transition probabilities can be efficiently estimated within logistic regression framework. In fact, our logistic Markovian model can be relatively easily fitted via maximum likelihood approach. This is optimal in many respects and it also enables us to use formalized statistical inference theory to obtain not only the point estimates of transition probabilities and their functions of interest, but also related uncertainties, as well as to test of various hypotheses of practical interest, etc. It is straightforward to deal with non-homogeneous transition probabilities in this framework. Very importantly from both physical and practical points of view, logistic Markov model class allows us to test hypotheses about how SSN dependents on various external covariates (e.g. elevation angle, solar time, etc.) and about details of the dynamic model (order and functional shape of the Markov kernel, etc.). Therefore, using generalized additive model approach (GAM), we can fit and compare models of various complexity which insist on keeping physical interpretation of the statistical model and its parts. After introducing the Markovian model and general approach for identification of its parameters, we will illustrate its use and performance on high resolution SSN data from the Solar

  10. Avalanche-to-streamer transition near hydrometeors in thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjes, Casper; Dubinova, Anna; Ebert, Ute; Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; Trinh, Gia

    2016-04-01

    In the early phase of lightning initiation, streamers must form near water droplets and or ice crystals, collectively called hydrometeors, as it is generally believed that the electric fields in a thunderstorm are below classical breakdown [1]. The hydrometeors, due to their dielectric property, electrically polarize and will enhance the thunderstorm electric field in localized areas just outside the surface, potentially above breakdown. Available electrons, from for example a cosmic ray event, are drawn towards the positive side of the polarized hydrometeor. Some electrons reach the localized area above breakdown, while oxygen molecules have absorbed others. In the area above breakdown electrons begin to multiply in number, creating electron avalanches towards the surface, leaving positive ions behind. This results in a charge separation, which potentially can initiate a positive streamer. The final outcome however strongly depends on several parameters, such as the strength of the thunderstorm electric field, the size and shape of the hydrometeor and the initial amount of electrons. In our letter [1] we introduced a dimensionless quantity M that we call the Meek number, based on the historical and well-used Reather-Meek criterion [2], as a measure of how likely it is to create an avalanche-to-streamer transition near a hydrometeor. Results from simulations showed that streamers can start in a field of only 15% of breakdown from large elongated shaped hydrometeors. Now we extended and generalized our method to arbitrary shaped hydrometeors and we take into account that potentially several electrons can reach the area above breakdown. Due to these effects we can predict smaller hydrometeors to be able to start streamers. We will present the latest results. [1] Dubinova, A., Rutjes, C., Ebert, U., Buitink, S., Scholten, O., & Trinh, G. T. N. (2015). Prediction of lightning inception by large ice particles and extensive air showers. Physical review letters, 115

  11. Sensitivity of land surface and Cumulus schemes for Thunderstorm prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Mohanty, U. C.; Kumar, Krishan

    2016-06-01

    The cloud processes play an important role in all forms of precipitation. Its proper representation is one of the challenging tasks in mesoscale numerical simulation. Studies have revealed that mesoscale feature require proper initialization which may likely to improve the convective system rainfall forecasts. Understanding the precipitation process, model initial condition accuracy and resolved/sub grid-scale precipitation processes representation, are the important areas which needed to improve in order to represent the mesoscale features properly. Various attempts have been done in order to improve the model performance through grid resolution, physical parameterizations, etc. But it is the physical parameterizations which provide a convective atmosphere for the development and intensification of convective events. Further, physical parameterizations consist of cumulus convection, surface fluxes of heat, moisture, momentum, and vertical mixing in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). How PBL and Cumulus schemes capture the evolution of thunderstorm have been analysed by taking thunderstorm cases occurred over Kolkata, India in the year 2011. PBL and cumulus schemes were customized for WSM-6 microphysics because WSM series has been widely used in operational forecast. Results have shown that KF (PBL scheme) and WSM-6 (Cumulus Scheme) have reproduced the evolution of surface variable such as CAPE, temperature and rainfall very much like observation. Further, KF and WSM-6 scheme also provided the increased moisture availability in the lower atmosphere which was taken to higher level by strong vertical velocities providing a platform to initiate a thunderstorm much better. Overestimation of rain in WSM-6 occurs primarily because of occurrence of melting and freezing process within a deeper layer in WSM-6 scheme. These Schemes have reproduced the spatial pattern and peak rainfall coverage closer to TRMM observation. It is the the combination of WSM-6, and KF schemes

  12. Sensitivity of land surface and Cumulus schemes for Thunderstorm prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cloud processes play an important role in all forms of precipitation. Its proper representation is one of the challenging tasks in mesoscale numerical simulation. Studies have revealed that mesoscale feature require proper initialization which may likely to improve the convective system rainfall forecasts. Understanding the precipitation process, model initial condition accuracy and resolved/sub grid-scale precipitation processes representation, are the important areas which needed to improve in order to represent the mesoscale features properly. Various attempts have been done in order to improve the model performance through grid resolution, physical parameterizations, etc. But it is the physical parameterizations which provide a convective atmosphere for the development and intensification of convective events. Further, physical parameterizations consist of cumulus convection, surface fluxes of heat, moisture, momentum, and vertical mixing in the planetary boundary layer (PBL. How PBL and Cumulus schemes capture the evolution of thunderstorm have been analysed by taking thunderstorm cases occurred over Kolkata, India in the year 2011. PBL and cumulus schemes were customized for WSM-6 microphysics because WSM series has been widely used in operational forecast. Results have shown that KF (PBL scheme and WSM-6 (Cumulus Scheme have reproduced the evolution of surface variable such as CAPE, temperature and rainfall very much like observation. Further, KF and WSM-6 scheme also provided the increased moisture availability in the lower atmosphere which was taken to higher level by strong vertical velocities providing a platform to initiate a thunderstorm much better. Overestimation of rain in WSM-6 occurs primarily because of occurrence of melting and freezing process within a deeper layer in WSM-6 scheme. These Schemes have reproduced the spatial pattern and peak rainfall coverage closer to TRMM observation. It is the the combination of WSM-6

  13. Charge structures and cloud-to-ground lightning discharges characteristics in two supercell thunderstorms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yijun; MENG Qing; LU Weitao; Paul Krehbiel; LIU Xinsheng; ZhOU Xiuji

    2006-01-01

    The charge structures and temporal and spatial characteristics of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning discharges in two supercell thunderstorms have been analyzed based on the data of three-dimen- sional VHF radiation sources with high time and space resolution produced by lightning discharges. The results indicate that the charge structures in main part (convective region) of the thunderstorms were inverted tripole while a number of positive CG lightning discharges were occurring in the two thunderstorms. The positive CG lightning discharges occurred in main part of the thunderstorms and originated from the positive charge region located at the middle part of the thunderstorms. While a number of negative CG lightning discharges were occurring, the negative CG lightning discharges occurred in the anvil of the thunderstorm. The charge structure is inverted dipole in the region due to the slant of charge structure in main region toward anvil region. The negative charge region located at the upper part of anvil produced a lot of negative CG lightning discharges. No or less CG lighting was produced directly by the charge region located at the lower part of the thunderstorm. The charge region in lower part of the thunderstorm plays an important role for the occurrence of CG lightning from charge region above it.

  14. Possible role of aerosols in the charge structure of isolated thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, S. D.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Murugavel, P.; Veremey, N. E.; Sinkevich, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The electric field and Maxwell current density measured below 32 small isolated thunderstorms over Pune (India) have been analyzed here. These data clearly show the presence of 10 out of 32 thunderstorms with inverted polarity charge structure. Values of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) on thunderstorm days taken from MODIS show that all the thunderstorms with inverted polarity occurred on days with significantly higher AOD compared to normal polarity thunderstorms. The peak flash rate did not show significant difference between normal polarity thunderstorms and inverted polarity thunderstorms. The dew point depression (DPD) during pre-monsoon thunderstorms shows good correlation with inverted polarity charge structure. Observations suggest that aerosol concentration plays an important role in the formation of inverted polarity charge structure in these thunderclouds. In presence of high aerosol concentration with adequate ice nuclei non-inductive charging mechanism can produce strong and wide spread positive charge region in the lower portion of cloud. However, observed good correlation of DPD with inverted polarity charge structure in the pre-monsoon period suggest that the effect of high cloud base height on inverted polarity charge structure as suggested by Williams et al. (2005) cannot be ruled out.

  15. Progress of research to identify rotating thunderstorms using satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of detecting potentially tornadic thunderstorm cells from geosynchronous satelite imagery is determined. During the life of the contract, we examined eight tornado outbreak cases which had a total of 124 individual thunderstorm cells, 37 of which were tornadic.These 37 cells produced a total of 119 tornadoes. The outflow characteristics of all the cells were measured. Through the use of a 2-D flow field model, we were able to simulate the downstream developmemt of an anvil cloud plume which was emitted by the storm updraft at or near the tropopause. We used two parameters to characterize the anvil plume behavior: its speed of downstream propagation (U max) and the clockwise deviation of the centerline of the anvil plume from the storm relative ambient wind at the anvil plume outflow level (MDA). U max was the maximum U-component of the anvil wind parameter required to successfully maintain an envelope of translating particles at the tip of the expanding anvil cloud. MDA was the measured deviation angle acquired from McIDAS, between the storm relative ambient wind direction and the storm relative anvil plume outflow direction; tha latter being manipulated by controlling a tangential wind component to force the envelope of particles to maintain their position of surrounding the expanding outflow cloud.

  16. First observations of Gigantic Jets from Monsoon Thunderstorms over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh; Maurya, Ajeet; Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten; Cummer, Steven; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Bór, József; Siingh, Devendraa; Cohen, Morris; Kumar, Sushil

    2016-04-01

    Gigantic Jets are electric discharges from thunderstorm cloud tops to the bottom of the ionosphere at ~80 km altitude. After their first discovery in 2001, relatively few observations have been reported. Most of these are from satellites at large distances and a few tens from the ground at higher spatial resolution. Here we report the first Gigantic Jets observed in India from two thunderstorm systems that developed over the land surface from monsoon activity, each storm producing two Gigantic Jets. The jets were recorded by a video camera system at standard video rate (20 ms exposure) at a few hundred km distance. ELF measurements suggest that the jets are of the usual negative polarity and that they develop in less than 40 ms, which is faster than most jets reported in the past. The jets originate from the leading edge of a slowly drifting convective cloud complex close to the highest regions of the clouds and carry ~25 Coulomb of charge to the ionosphere. One jet has a markedly horizontal displacement that we suggest is caused by a combination of close-range cloud electric fields at inception, and longer-range cloud fields at larger distances during full development. The Gigantic Jets are amongst the few that have been observed over land.

  17. Early warnings of hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Bedka, Kristopher; Semazzi, Fredrick H. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Willems, Patrick; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-07-01

    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we complement ongoing early warning efforts based on numerical weather prediction, by presenting a new satellite data-driven storm prediction system, the prototype Lake Victoria Intense storm Early Warning System (VIEWS). VIEWS derives predictability from the correlation between afternoon land storm activity and nighttime storm intensity on Lake Victoria, and relies on logistic regression techniques to forecast extreme thunderstorms from satellite observations. Evaluation of the statistical model reveals that predictive power is high and independent of the type of input dataset. We then optimise the configuration and show that false alarms also contain valuable information. Our results suggest that regression-based models that are motivated through process understanding have the potential to reduce the vulnerability of local fishing communities around Lake Victoria. The experimental prediction system is publicly available under the MIT licence at http://github.com/wthiery/VIEWS.

  18. Characteristics of Lightning Discharges and Electric Structure of Thunderstorm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qie Xiushu; Zhang Yijun; Zhang Qilin

    2006-01-01

    Progresses in the research on physical processes of lightning discharge and electric structure of thunderstorm in the last decade in China have been reviewed. By using the self-developed lightning detecting and locating techniques with high temporal and spatial resolution, the characteristics and parameters of lightning discharge in some representative areas in China have been obtained. Observations on lightning activity were conducted for the first time in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in 2002-2005, and the special characteristics of the thunderstorm and lightning activity in the plateau were revealed. The lightning spectra in the band of visible light were recorded, and the spectral lines were identified in detail with introduction of modern theories of atomic structure. The techniques on artificially altitude triggered lightning and related measurements under a harsh electromagnetic environment have been well developed. Evidences of bi-directional leader propagation were observed by means of optics and VHF radiation during the triggered lightning discharges. Some lightning protection devices have been tested using the artificial lightning triggering techniques. In addition, the correlation between lightning activities and weather and climate was preliminarily studied.

  19. Rapid vertical trace gas transport by an isolated midlatitude thunderstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauf, Thomas; Schulte, Peter; Alheit, Reiner; Schlager, Hans

    1995-11-01

    During the cloud dynamics and chemistry field experiment CLEOPATRA in the summer of 1992 in southern Germany, the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) (German Aerospace Research Establishment) research aircraft Falcon traversed four times the anvil of a severe, isolated thunderstorm. The first two traverses were at 8 km altitude and close to the anvil cloud base, while the second two traverses were at 10 km. During the 8-km traverse, measured ozone mixing ratios dropped by 13 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) from the ambient cloud free environment to the anvil cloud, while water vapor increased by 0.3 g kg-1. At the 10-km traverses, ozone dropped by 25 ppbv, while water vapor increased by 0.18 g kg-1. Three-dimensional numerical thunderstorm simulations were performed to understand the cause of these changes. The simulations included the transport of two chemical inert tracers. Ozone was assumed to be one of them. The initial ozone profile was composed from an ozone routine sounding and the in situ Falcon measurements prior to the thunderstorm development. The second tracer is typical for a surface released pollutant with a nonzero, constant value in the boundary layer but zero above it. The redistribution of both tracers by the storm is calculated and compared with the observations. For the anvil penetration at 10 km, the calculated difference in ozone mixing ratios is 21 ppbv, while for water vapor an increase of 0.25 g kg-1 was found, in good agreement with the observations. To validate the model results, the radar reflectivity was calculated from simulated fields of cloud water, rain, graupel, hail, and snow and ice crystals and compared with observed values. With respect to maximum reflectivity values and spatial scales, again, excellent agreement was achieved. It is concluded that the rapid transport from the boundary layer directly into the anvil level is the most likely cause of the observed ozone decrease and water vapor increase

  20. Little Miss Sunshine et le road movie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Paupe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Little Miss Sunshine est un road movie bien particulier : s’il relève assurément de ce genre, puisqu’il est essentiellement consacré au périple entrepris par ses protagonistes afin d’emmener, envers et contre tout, la petite Olive au concours de beauté qui l’attend en Californie, le film de Jonathan Dayton et Valerie Faris retient surtout l’attention par son humour satirique. Un rapide tour d’horizon de sa réception critique confirme qu’il a été rangé simultanément dans deux catégories généri...

  1. Downbursts and microbursts - An aviation hazard. [downdrafts beneath thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T. T.

    1980-01-01

    Downburst and microburst phenomena occurring since 1975 are studied, based on meteorological analyses of aircraft accidents, aerial surveys of wind effects left behind downbursts, and studies of sub-mesoscale wind systems. It is concluded that microbursts beneath small, air mass thunderstorms are unpredictable in terms of weather forecast. Most aircraft incidents, however, were found to have occurred in the summer months, June through August. An intense microburst could produce 150 mph horizontal winds as well as 60 fps downflows at the tree-top level. The largest contributing factor to aircraft difficulties seemed to be a combination of the headwind decrease and the downflow. Anemometers and/or pressure sensors placed near runways were found effective for detecting gust fronts, but not for detecting downbursts. It is recommended that new detection systems placed on the ground or airborne, be developed, and that pilots be trained for simulated landing and go-around through microbursts.

  2. CloudSat Image of Tropical Thunderstorms Over Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 CloudSat image of a horizontal cross-section of tropical clouds and thunderstorms over east Africa. The red colors are indicative of highly reflective particles such as water (rain) or ice crystals, which the blue indicates thinner clouds (such as cirrus). The flat green/blue lines across the bottom represent the ground signal. The vertical scale on the CloudS at Cloud Profiling Radar image is approximately 30 kilometers (19 miles). The brown line below the image indicates the relative elevation of the land surface. The inset image shows the CloudSat track relative to a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) visible image taken at nearly the same time.

  3. The Effects of Orographic Geometry on Supercell Thunderstorms

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Galen M

    2016-01-01

    The effect of elongated bell-shaped mountain orientation on supercell thunderstorms is numerically investigated using the Bryan Cloud Model 1 (CM1). The orography is varied by three mountain heights and is varied in four different positions, effectively producing 12 different terrain configurations. It is found that the different orientations produce variations in the supercell life cycle with shorter cycles for higher inflow rates. Furthermore, these cycles are associated with the storm reaching its minimum intensity just after a peak rain period. Moreover, the effect of stronger inflow was seen before direct storm-terrain interactions started. The higher inflow also played a significant role in increasing rainfall rate and areal extent, to the point that further convection, associated with the cold pool, was triggered adding to rainfall amount. Using a stricter form of the National Weather Service Tornado Detection Algorithm to investigate the tornadic nature of simulated supercells; it is found that terrai...

  4. Microphysical effects of Saharan dusts on an orogenic thunderstorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hashino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the microphysical sensitivity of an orogenic thunderstorm during Genoa 1992 flood event to the concentration and solubility of nucleating aerosols. Idealized 2-D simulations with a new microphysical scheme and a cloud resolving model showed the solubility of CCN can be as important as their concentration. High solubility cases of CCN led to less accumulation of precipitation on the ground and more fraction of the accumulation produced by heavy precipitation than lower solubility cases. The response of vertical motion to the solubility was different for cases with and without dust layer. The preliminary results show that the ice nucleation processes affected by solubility and dust layer may be detected by remote sensing technology.

  5. Transient Thunderstorm Downbursts and Their Effects on Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieu H. Nguyen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC Standard 61400-1 for the design of wind turbines does not explicitly address site-specific conditions associated with anomalous atmospheric events or conditions. Examples of off-standard atmospheric conditions include thunderstorm downbursts, hurricanes, tornadoes, low-level jets, etc. The simulation of thunderstorm downbursts and associated loads on a utility-scale wind turbine is the focus of this study. Since the problem has not received sufficient attention, especially in terms of design, we thus focus in this paper on practical aspects. A wind field model that incorporates component non-turbulent and turbulent parts is described and employed in inflow simulations. The non-turbulent part is based on an available analytical model with some modifications, while the turbulent part is simulated as a stochastic process using standard turbulence power spectral density functions and coherence functions whose defining parameters are related to the downburst characteristics such as the storm translation velocity. Available information on recorded downbursts is used to define two storm scenarios that are studied. Rotor loads are generated using stochastic simulation of the aeroelastic response of a model of a utility-scale 5-MW turbine. An illustrative single storm simulation and the associated turbine response are used to discuss load characteristics and to highlight storm-related and environmental parameters of interest. Extensive simulations for two downbursts are then conducted while varying the storm’s location and track relative to the turbine. Results suggest that wind turbine yaw and pitch control systems clearly influence overall system response. Results also highlight the important effects of both the turbulence as well as the downburst mean wind profiles on turbine extreme loads.

  6. Structure of Thunderstorm Gust Fronts with Topographic Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Surface meteorological observations, associated with gust fronts produced by thunderstorm outflows over Tehran, an area surrounded by mountains, have been analyzed. Distinctive features are sudden drop in air temperature, up to 10℃, sharp increase in wind speed, up to 30 m s-1, with wind shift, to northwesterly, ressure jump, up to 4 hPa, humidity increase, up to 40%, and rain after some 20 min. Gust fronts which often occur in spring time, have a typical thickness of about 1.5 km and produce vertical wind shear of the order of 10-2s-1. Although these features seem to be common for most of the events, their intensities differ from one event to another, indicating that the gust fronts may occur in different sizes and shapes. Apart from a dominant effect on the formation of the original thunderstorms, topography appears to break up the frontal structure of the gust fronts. The internal Rossby radius of deformation for these flows is small enough (~ 100 km) for rotational effects to be minor.A laboratory model of the gust front (gravity current) also shows that it initially has a distinctive head with a turbulent wake, and can be broken up by topography. It is shown that when the environment is stratified, turbulence due to lobes and clefts instabilities near the nose of the current is suppressed. When the ground is rough, these instabilities are highly amplified and the internal Froude number of the flow is reduced. The bottom slope in the presence of rough topography leads to the break up of the current head and produces a broad and highly non-uniform head, recognized in the density signals.

  7. Profuse activity of blue electrical discharges at the tops of thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten; Mogensen, Andreas; Yair, Yoav; Stendel, Martin; Singh, Rajesh; Siingh, Devendraa

    2017-01-01

    Thunderstorm clouds may reach the lower stratosphere, affecting the exchange of greenhouse gases between the troposphere and stratosphere. This region of the atmosphere is difficult to access experimentally, and our knowledge of the processes taking place here is incomplete. We recently recorded color video footage of thunderstorms over the Bay of Bengal from the International Space Station. The observations show a multitude of blue, kilometer-scale, discharges at the cloud top layer at 18 km altitude and a pulsating blue discharge propagating into the stratosphere reaching 40 km altitude. The emissions are related to the so-called blue jets, blue starters, and possibly pixies. The observations are the first of their kind and give a new perspective on the electrical activity at the top of tropical thunderstorms; further, they underscore that thunderstorm discharges directly perturb the chemistry of the stratosphere with possible implications for the Earth's radiation balance.

  8. Thunderstorm nowcasting by means of lightning and radar data: algorithms and applications in northern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bonelli; P. Marcacci

    2008-01-01

    Thunderstorms and their ground effects, such as flash floods, hail, lightning, strong winds, and tornadoes, are responsible for most weather damages in northern Italy, especially in the warm season from May to September. A nowcasting and warning system focused on severe thunderstorm events would be useful to reduce risks for people involved in outside activities and for electric, telecommunication, and sensitive industrial business. C-band radar and Lighting Location Systems provide useful, f...

  9. Analysis of Thunderstorm (Act Ⅲ)——A Translation by Wang Zuoliang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康丛凌

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Introduction Thunderstorm written by Cao Yu in 1934 is a masterpiece in the history of Chinese literature. This drama depicts the love and hate between eight people, reflecting a tragic scene of the decline of a rich family in the feudal society. As a splendid treasure of Chinese literature,Thunderstorm was translated into English in 1958 by Wang Zuoliang and A. C. Barnes whose translation is regarded as a great work in the perspective of translating practice.

  10. Global thunderstorm activity estimation based on number of transients in ELF-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondraskova, Adriena; Sevcik, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Schumann resonances (SR) are resonant electromagnetic oscillations in extremely low frequency band (ELF, 3 Hz - 3 kHz), which arise in the Earth-ionosphere cavity due to lightning activity in planetary range. The time records in the ELF-band consist of background signals and ELF transients/Q-bursts superimposed on the background exceeding it by a factor of 5 - 10. The former are produced by the common worldwide thunderstorm activity (100 - 150 events per second), the latter origin from individual intense distant lightning discharges (100 - 120 powerful strokes per hour). A Q-burst is produced by a combination of direct and antipodal pulses and the decisive factor for its shape follows from the source-to-observer distance. Diurnal/seasonal variations of global thunderstorm activity can be deduced from spectral amplitudes of SR modes. Here we focus on diurnal/seasonal variations of the number of ELF-transients assuming that it is another way of lightning activity estimation. To search for transients, our own code was applied to the SR vertical electric component measured in October 2004 - October 2008 at the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory of FMPI CU, Slovakia. Criteria for the identification of the burst are chosen on the basis of the transient amplitudes and their morphological features. Monthly mean daily variations in number of transients showed that African focus dominates at 14 - 16 h UT and it is more active in comparison with Asian source, which dominates at 5 - 8 h UT in dependence on winter or summer month. American source had surprisingly slight response. Meteorological observations in South America aiming to determine lightning hotspots on the Earth indicate that flash rate in this region is greatest during nocturnal 0 h - 3 h local standard time. This fact may be interpreted that Asian and South American sources contribute together in the same UT. Cumulative spectral amplitude of the first three SR modes compared with number of ELF-transients in

  11. A possible explanation for the dominant effect of South American thunderstorms on the Carnegie curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartalev, M. D.; Rycroft, M. J.; Fuellekrug, M.; Papitashvili, V. O.; Keremidarska, V. I.

    2006-02-01

    The Carnegie curve shows the variation of the vertical electric field near the Earth's surface with Universal Time. The largest of the three maxima in this variation occurs at the time of maximum thunderstorm activity over the Americas, although this is weaker than that over Africa. This paradoxical effect may be explained by the fact that South American thunderstorms are close to the magnetic dip equator, whereas most African thunderstorms occur over the Congo at a higher (Southern) dip latitude. Kartalev et al. [2004. A quantitative model of the effect of global thunderstorms on the global distribution of ionospheric electrostatic potential. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 66, 1233 1240.] modeled the global distribution of ionospheric electrostatic potential where the equatorial (within 11 magnetic latitude of the equator) lower ionosphere accumulates all upward thunderstorm currents into one line—the dip equator. Currents flow on a spherical shell of the magnetic coordinates model, and so change the distribution of the ionospheric potential on a global scale. That global distribution of ionospheric potential determines the vertical electric field near the Earth's surface everywhere. Thus, the Carnegie curve reflects preferentially the longitudinal distribution of thunderstorms within 11 of the magnetic dip equator.

  12. NOWCASTING OF IN-FLIGHT hazard thunderstorm, supporting aircrew and ATM decision making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillou, Y.; Senesi, S.; Tafferner, A.; Forster, C.

    2009-09-01

    The Integrated Project FLYSAFE allows to define and experiment Weather Information Management Systems (WIMS). These systems provide met data on several weather hazards: icing, clear air turbulence and thunderstorms. The thunderstorm system, called CB WIMS (Cb for Cumulonimbus), has been developed with involvement of partners from Météo-France, German Aerospace Center (DLR), ONERA, UK-Met Office and the University of Hannover. In order to reduce the complexity of a real thunderstorm to a practical model which can be used onboard aircraft for informing pilot of hazard area, it is been represented as bottom and top hazard volumes. The bottom volumes are defined from ground RADAR network and has two levels of hazard severity. The top volume is defined on satellite data and includes only one level of hazard severity. In this presentation, we will focus on test flights operated during summer campaign in August 2008, and more precisely on flights operated by the research plane of Météo-France (ATR42). Through different case studies, we will point out the important contribution of CB WIMS to complete the pilot view of thunderstorm hazards which is available from the single board RADAR. Indeed, in addition to an overview of thunderstorm hazard, the CB WIMS provide relevant information on thunderstorm evolution too. The bottom volume can also indicate hazard area in lower layers not necessary detected by onboard radar but which can result in a moderate turbulence for the plane.

  13. Urban effects and summer thunderstorms in a tropical cyclone affected situation over Guangzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG; WeiGuang; YAN; JingHua; HU; HaiBo

    2007-01-01

    With data mainly from Guangzhou mesonet Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), Guangzhou Doppler Radar and satellite TBB data, characteristics and evolution of the urban heat island (UHI) over Guangzhou City were analyzed in a tropical cyclone affected situation for early August 2005. In particular, two thunderstorms occurring during this period respectively at the night of 4 August and in the afternoon of 7 August were investigated to study the relationships between the development of thunderstorms and the UHI. Results showed that two thunderstorms were associated with the UHI effects. UHI induced local air convergence and initiated the thunderstorm convections. Both cases showed a general agreement in time and space for the locations of maximum UHI, convergence, convection, and precipitation. Convection was found to be more favorable to developing in time periods and locations with stronger intensity of UHI. Analysis also showed that, due to the urban effects, both thunderstorms got strengthened when moving over Guangzhou City, with maximum radar echoes observed right over the urban area and precipitation located within the city. All these features reveal that two thunderstorms were urban-induced storms.

  14. Allergen aerosol from pollen-nucleated precipitation: A novel thunderstorm asthma trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Paul John

    2017-03-01

    Thunderstorm asthma is the term used to describe epidemics of asthma exacerbation associated with thunderstorms. Most published reports of thunderstorm asthma have come from the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia, although several studies have been published on the phenomenon in the USA and Europe (particularly Greece and Italy). Such reports usually consider changes in hospital admissions or emergency department attendances for asthma. For example, Celenza et al. (1996) studied an asthma epidemic in London in June 1994 where 40 patients presented to the accident and emergency department of St Mary's Hospital in the 24 hours after a thunderstorm compared to an average of just over 2 asthma presentations per day over the several weeks before and after this event. More recent examples include the 20 patients who presented to an emergency department in Puglia, Italy, for sudden and severe asthmatic symptoms immediately after a thunderstorm in May 2010, where the average daily emergency department presentations for asthma several weeks before and after this event was only 2 to 3 (Losappio et al., 2011); and the 36 emergency department presentations for acute asthma to the Austin Hospital in Melbourne, Australia, on 25 November 2010 immediately after a thunderstorm (with the number of such presentations on days prior to and following the epidemic ranging from 0 to 10) (Howden et al., 2011).

  15. Ionospheric acoustic and gravity wave activity above low-latitude thunderstorms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, Erin Hoffmann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-30

    In this report, we study the correlation between thunderstorm activity and ionospheric gravity and acoustic waves in the low-latitude ionosphere. We use ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements from the Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) and lightning measurements from the World- Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). We find that ionospheric acoustic waves show a strong diurnal pattern in summer, peaking in the pre-midnight time period. However, the peak magnitude does not correspond to thunderstorm area, and the peak time is significantly after the peak in thunderstorm activity. Wintertime acoustic wave activity has no discernable pattern in these data. The coverage area of ionospheric gravity waves in the summer was found to increase with increasing thunderstorm activity. Wintertime gravity wave activity has an observable diurnal pattern unrelated to thunderstorm activity. These findings show that while thunderstorms are not the only, or dominant source of ionospheric perturbations at low-latitudes, they do have an observable effect on gravity wave activity and could be influential in acoustic wave activity.

  16. Analysis of energetic radiation associated with thunderstorms in the Ebro delta region in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabró, Ferran; Montanyà, Joan; Pineda, Nicolau; Argemí, Oriol; Velde, Oscar A.; Romero, David; Soula, Serge

    2016-08-01

    The analysis of high-energy background radiation (0.1-2 MeV) enhancements during eight winter thunderstorms and five summer storms in the Ebro delta region in the northeast of Spain is presented. For the first time, high-energy radiation counts, precipitation, radar reflectivity, and very high frequency lightning detections to infer charge regions altitude have been analyzed in order to find out what produces the measured background radiation increments associated with storms. The good agreement between radar reflectivity and precipitation with increases in background radiation counts coupled with the spectrum analysis comparing rain/no rain periods suggests that radon-ion daughters play a major role in the radiation increments reported. No evidence has been found supporting that measured background radiation enhancements can be produced by storm electric fields. Finally, a single case of a high-energy radiation increase was prior to a cloud-to-ground lightning stroke, which reinforces the theory that a lower positive charge layer's existence is important for the production of Terrestrial Ground Enhancements.

  17. Global solar radiation estimation using sunshine duration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almorox, J.; Hontoria, C. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. de Edafologia

    2004-06-01

    Several equations were employed to estimate global solar radiation from sunshine hours for 16 meteorological stations in Spain, using only the relative duration of sunshine. These equations included the original Angstrom-Prescott linear regression and modified functions (quadratic, third degree, logarithmic and exponential functions). Estimated values were compared with measured values in terms of the coefficient of determination, standard error of the estimate and mean absolute error. All the models fitted the data adequately and can be used to estimate global solar radiation from sunshine hours. This study finds that the third degree models performed better than the other models, but the linear model is preferred due to its greater simplicity and wider application. It is also found that seasonal partitioning does not significantly improve the estimation of global radiation. (author)

  18. Cloud-resolving chemistry simulation of a Hector thunderstorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Cummings

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud chemistry simulations were performed for a Hector thunderstorm observed on 16 November 2005 during the SCOUT-O3/ACTIVE campaigns based in Darwin, Australia, with the primary objective of estimating the average NO production per lightning flash in this unique storm type which occurred in a tropical island environment. The 3-D WRF-Aqueous Chemistry (WRF-AqChem model is used for these calculations and contains the WRF nonhydrostatic cloud-resolving model with online gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry and a lightning-NOx (LNOx production algorithm. The model was initialized by inducing convection with an idealized morning sounding and sensible heat source, and initial condition chemical profiles from merged aircraft observations in undisturbed air. Many features of the idealized model storm, such as storm size and peak radar reflectivity, were similar to the observed storm. Tracer species, such as CO, used to evaluate convective transport in the simulated storm found vertical motion from the boundary layer to the anvil region was well represented in the model, with a small overestimate of enhanced CO at anvil altitudes. The lightning detection network (LINET provided lightning flash data for the model and a lightning placement scheme injected the resulting NO into the simulated cloud. A lightning NO production scenario of 500 moles flash−1 for both CG and IC flashes yielded anvil NOx mixing ratios that compared well with aircraft observations and were also similar to those deduced for several convective modeling analyses in the midlatitudes and subtropics. However, these NO production values were larger than most estimates for tropical thunderstorms and given several uncertainties, LNOx production may have been as large as 600 moles flash−1. Approximately 85% of the simulated LNOx mass was located above 7 km in the later stages of the storm, which was greater than amounts found for subtropical and midlatitude convection. Modeled upper

  19. Global solar radiation estimation from relative sunshine hours in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Aziz, J.; A-Nagi, A.; Zumailan, A.A.R. (Aden Univ. (Yemen, Republic of))

    1993-01-01

    The existing measurements of global solar radiation and sunshine duration for Yemen are examined. The errors of estimating global solar radiation from sunshine hour measurements using Angstrom's relation are evaluated. As a simple predictor for global solar radiation, an average Angstrom relation in the form H-bar/H[sub o] = 0.3518 + 0.3162 n/N for all stations is evaluated. Other Angstrom correlation relations are also proposed by classifying the stations under study into four groups. The estimated results are compared and seem to be satisfactory in the latter case. (Author)

  20. Relativistic electron avalanches as a thunderstorm discharge competing with lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicole A; Smith, David M; Dwyer, Joseph R; Splitt, Michael; Lazarus, Steven; Martinez-McKinney, Forest; Hazelton, Bryna; Grefenstette, Brian; Lowell, Alexander; Rassoul, Hamid K

    2015-08-12

    Gamma-ray 'glows' are long duration (seconds to tens of minutes) X-ray and gamma-ray emission coming from thunderclouds. Measurements suggest the presence of relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREA), the same process underlying terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. Here we demonstrate that glows are relatively a common phenomena near the tops of thunderstorms, when compared with events such as terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. Examining the strongest glow measured by the airborne detector for energetic emissions, we show that this glow is measured near the end of a downward RREA, consistent with occurring between the upper positive charge layer and the negative screening layer above it. The glow discharges the upper positive layer by ≥9.6 mA, strong enough to be an important charging mechanism of the storm. For this glow, the gamma-ray flux observed is close to the value at which relativistic feedback processes become important, with an avalanche multiplication factor of 4,500.

  1. Thunderstorm Observations by Air-Shower Radio Antenna Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Apel, W D; Bähren, L; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Biermann, P L; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Buchholz, P; Buitink, S; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Doll, P; Ender, M; Engel, R; Falcke, H; Finger, M; Fuhrmann, D; Gemmeke, H; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Huber, D; Huege, T; Isar, P G; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Krömer, O; Kuijpers, J; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Melissas, M; Morello, C; Nehls, S; Oehlschläger, J; Palmieri, N; Pierog, T; Rautenberg, J; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schröder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Wommer, M; Zabierowski, J; Zensus, J A; 10.1016/j.asr.2011.06.003

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic, charged particles present in extensive air showers lead to a coherent emission of radio pulses which are measured to identify the shower initiating high-energy cosmic rays. Especially during thunderstorms, there are additional strong electric fields in the atmosphere, which can lead to further multiplication and acceleration of the charged particles and thus have influence on the form and strength of the radio emission. For a reliable energy reconstruction of the primary cosmic ray by means of the measured radio signal it is very important to understand how electric fields affect the radio emission. In addition, lightning strikes are a prominent source of broadband radio emissions that are visible over very long distances. This, on the one hand, causes difficulties in the detection of the much lower signal of the air shower. On the other hand the recorded signals can be used to study features of the lightning development. The detection of cosmic rays via the radio emission and the influence of s...

  2. Initial Electric Field Changes of Lightning Flashes in Two Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T. C.; Stolzenburg, M.; Karunarathne, S.; Chapman, R.

    2015-12-01

    In a study of lightning initiation, Marshall et al. [2014, JGR Atmospheres] found that an initial electric field change (IEC) occurred before the initial breakdown (IB) pulses in 18 cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes and in 18 intracloud (IC) flashes. Because the IECs were small in amplitude and slowly developing (i.e., primarily electrostatic events), they were only detected by sensors within the reversal distance of each flash. In this presentation we report on a search for IECs in two small Florida thunderstorms that occurred close to several E-change sensors. One storm had 57 flashes; the other had only 13 flashes. The key result is that 69 of the 70 flashes began with detectable IECs. For the one flash without a detectable IEC, the closest sensor was at the reversal distance, presumably masking the IEC. Three of the flashes analyzed seemed to begin twice, in the sense that they had two sets of IB pulses; each beginning was preceded by an IEC.

  3. High energy radiation from aircraft-triggered lightning and thunderstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochkin, Pavlo; van Deursen, Alexander P. J.; de Boer, Alte I.; Bardet, Michiel; Boissin, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    In-flight Lightning Strike Damage Assessment System (ILDAS http://ildas.nlr.nl/) was developed in an EU FP6 project to provide information on threat that lightning poses to aircraft. The system contains one E-field and eight H-field sensors distributed over the fuselage. It has recently been extended to include two LaBr3 scintillation detectors. The scintillation detectors are sensitive to x-ray photons above 30 keV. The entire system is installed on an A-350 aircraft. When triggered by lightning and digitizes data synchronously with 10 ns intervals. Twelve continuously monitoring photon energy channels were implemented for X-ray detectors operating at slower rate (15 ms, pulse counting). In spring of 2014 and 2015 the aircraft flew through thunderstorm cells recording the data from the sensors. Total of 93 lightning strikes to the aircraft are recorded. Eighteen of them are also detected by WWLLN network. One strike consists of six individual strokes within 200 ms that were all synchronously identified by WWLLN. The WWLLN inter-stroke distance is much larger than the aircraft movement. Three of these strokes generated X-ray bursts. One exceptionally bright X-ray pulse of more than 8 MeV has been detected in association with another strike; it probably saturated the detector's photomultiplier. Neither long gamma-ray glow, nor positron annihilation have been detected during the campaign. An explanation is sought in the typical altitude profile of these test flights.

  4. Extensive air showers, lightning, and thunderstorm ground enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Kozliner, L.

    2016-09-01

    For lightning research, we monitor particle fluxes from thunderclouds, the so-called thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs) initiated by runaway electrons, and extensive air showers (EASs) originating from high-energy protons or fully stripped nuclei that enter the Earth's atmosphere. We also monitor the near-surface electric field and atmospheric discharges using a network of electric field mills. The Aragats "electron accelerator" produced several TGEs and lightning events in the spring of 2015. Using 1-s time series, we investigated the relationship between lightning and particle fluxes. Lightning flashes often terminated the particle flux; in particular, during some TGEs, lightning events would terminate the particle flux thrice after successive recovery. It was postulated that a lightning terminates a particle flux mostly in the beginning of a TGE or in its decay phase; however, we observed two events (19 October 2013 and 20 April 2015) when the huge particle flux was terminated just at the peak of its development. We discuss the possibility of a huge EAS facilitating lightning leader to find its path to the ground.

  5. A numerical study of aerosol effects on electrification of thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y. B.; Shi, Z.; Chen, Z. L.; Peng, L.; Yang, Y.; Guo, X. F.; Chen, H. R.

    2017-02-01

    Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effect of aerosol on microphysical and electrification in thunderstorm clouds. A two-dimensional (2-D) cumulus model with electrification scheme including non-inductive and inductive charge separation is used. The concentration of aerosol particles with distribution fitted by superimposing three log-normal distributions rises from 50 to 10,000 cm-3. The results show that the response of charge separation rate to the increase of aerosol concentration is nonmonotonic. When aerosol concentration is changed from 50 to 1000 cm-3, a stronger formation of cloud droplet, graupel and ice crystal results in increasing charge separation via non-inductive and inductive mechanism. However, in the range of 1000-3000 cm-3, vapor competition arises in the decrease of ice crystal mixing ratio and the reduction of ice crystals size leads to a slightly decrease in non-inductive charge rate, while inductive charging rate has no significant change in magnitude. Above aerosol concentration of 3000 cm-3, the magnitude of charging rate which keeps steady is insensitive to the increase in aerosol concentration. The results also suggest that non-inductive charge separation between ice crystal and graupel contributes to the main upper positive charge region and the middle negative charge region. Inductive graupel-cloud droplet charge separation, on the other hand, is found to play an important role in the development of lower charge region.

  6. The challenge of predicting flash floods from thunderstorm rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hosin; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Gao, Xiaogang; Imam, Bisher; Hsu, Kuo-Lin; Bastidas, Luis; Li, Jailun; Mahani, Shayesteh

    2002-07-15

    A major characteristic of the hydrometeorology of semi-arid regions is the occurrence of intense thunderstorms that develop very rapidly and cause severe flooding. In summer, monsoon air mass is often of subtropical origin and is characterized by convective instability. The existing observational network has major deficiencies for those regions in providing information that is important to run-off generation. Further, because of the complex interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere, mesoscale atmospheric models are currently able to reproduce only general features of the initiation and development of convective systems. In our research, several interrelated components including the use of satellite data to monitor precipitation, data assimilation of a mesoscale regional atmospheric model, modification of the land component of the mesoscale model to better represent the semi-arid region surface processes that control run-off generation, and the use of ensemble forecasting techniques to improve forecasts of precipitation and run-off potential are investigated. This presentation discusses our ongoing research in this area; preliminary results including an investigation related to the unprecedented flash floods that occurred across the Las Vegas valley (Nevada, USA) in July of 1999 are discussed.

  7. The diagnosis of severe thunderstorms with high-resolution WRF model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A J Litta; U C Mohanty; Sumam Mary Idicula

    2012-04-01

    Thunderstorm, resulting from vigorous convective activity, is one of the most spectacular weather phenomena in the atmosphere. A common feature of the weather during the pre-monsoon season over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and northeast India is the outburst of severe local convective storms, commonly known as ‘Nor’westers’(as they move from northwest to southeast). The severe thunderstorms associated with thunder, squall lines, lightning and hail cause extensive losses in agricultural, damage to structure and also loss of life. In this paper, sensitivity experiments have been conducted with the Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM) to test the impact of three microphysical schemes in capturing the severe thunderstorm event occurred over Kolkata on 15 May 2009. The results show that the WRF-NMM model with Ferrier microphysical scheme appears to reproduce the cloud and precipitation processes more realistically than other schemes. Also, we have made an attempt to diagnose four severe thunderstorms that occurred during pre-monsoon seasons of 2006, 2007 and 2008 through the simulated radar reflectivity fields from NMM model with Ferrier microphysics scheme and validated the model results with Kolkata Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) observations. Composite radar reflectivity simulated by WRF-NMM model clearly shows the severe thunderstorm movement as observed by DWR imageries, but failed to capture the intensity as in observations. The results of these analyses demonstrated the capability of high resolution WRF-NMM model in the simulation of severe thunderstorm events and determined that the 3 km model improve upon current abilities when it comes to simulating severe thunderstorms over east Indian region.

  8. Prediction of severe thunderstorms over Sriharikota Island by using the WRF-ARW operational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa Rao, G.; Rajasekhar, M.; Pushpa Saroja, R.; Sreeshna, T.; Rajeevan, M.; Ramakrishna, S. S. V. S.

    2016-05-01

    Operational short range prediction of Meso-scale thunderstorms for Sriharikota(13.7°N ,80.18°E) has been performed using two nested domains 27 & 9Km configuration of Weather Research & Forecasting-Advanced Research Weather Model (WRF- ARW V3.4).Thunderstorm is a Mesoscale system with spatial scale of few kilometers to a couple of 100 kilometers and time scale of less than an one hour to several hours, which produces heavy rain, lightning, thunder, surface wind squalls and down-bursts. Numerical study of Thunderstorms at Sriharikota and its neighborhood have been discussed with its antecedent thermodynamic stability indices and Parameters that are usually favorable for the development of convective instability based on WRF ARW model predictions. Instability is a prerequisite for the occurrence of severe weather, the greater the instability, the greater will be the potential of thunderstorm. In the present study, K Index, Total totals Index (TTI), Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), Convective Inhibition Energy (CINE), Lifted Index (LI), Precipitable Water (PW), etc. are the instability indices used for the short range prediction of thunderstorms. In this study we have made an attempt to estimate the skill of WRF ARW predictability and diagnosed three thunderstorms that occurred during the late evening to late night of 31st July, 20th September and 2nd October of 2015 over Sriharikota Island which are validated with Local Electric Field Mill (EFM), rainfall observations and Chennai Doppler Weather Radar products. The model predicted thermodynamic indices (CAPE, CINE, K Index, LI, TTI and PW) over Sriharikota which act as good indicators for severe thunderstorm activity.

  9. Cb-LIKE - Thunderstorm forecasts up to six hours with fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Martin; Tafferner, Arnold

    2016-04-01

    Thunderstorms with their accompanying effects like heavy rain, hail, or downdrafts cause delays and flight cancellations and therefore high additional cost for airlines and airport operators. A reliable thunderstorm forecast up to several hours could provide more time for decision makers in air traffic for an appropriate reaction on possible storm cells and initiation of adequate counteractions. To provide the required forecasts Cb-LIKE (Cumulonimbus-LIKElihood) has been developed at the DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) Institute of Atmospheric Physics. The new algorithm is an automated system which designates areas with possible thunderstorm development by using model data of the COSMO-DE weather model, which is driven by the German Meteorological Service (DWD). A newly developed "Best-Member- Selection" method allows the automatic selection of that particular model run of a time-lagged COSMO- DE model ensemble, which matches best the current thunderstorm situation. Thereby the application of the best available data basis for the calculation of the thunderstorm forecasts by Cb-LIKE is ensured. Altogether there are four different modes for the selection of the best member. Four atmospheric parameters (CAPE, vertical wind velocity, radar reflectivity and cloud top temperature) of the model output are used within the algorithm. A newly developed fuzzy logic system enables the subsequent combination of the model parameters and the calculation of a thunderstorm indicator within a value range of 12 up to 88 for each grid point of the model domain for the following six hours in one hour intervals. The higher the indicator value the more the model parameters imply the development of thunderstorms. The quality of the Cb-LIKE thunderstorm forecasts was evaluated by a substantial verification using a neighborhood verification approach and multi-event contingency tables. The verification was performed for the whole summer period of 2012. On the basis of a

  10. 76 FR 57068 - Board Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Board Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATE: September 26, 2011, 9 a.m.-1:30 p.m. PLACE: 901 N...: Approval of the Minutes of the June 6, 2011, Meeting of the Board of Directors Strategic Planning President and Management Report Communications Strategy Advisory Council Next Meetings PORTIONS TO BE OPEN...

  11. 75 FR 47312 - Board Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION Board Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings Time and Date: August 9, 2010, 8:30 a.m.-5:30 p.m.. Place: 101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20001. Status: Closed session as provided in 22 CFR 1004.4(f). Matters...

  12. 77 FR 15382 - Notice of Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... BOARD MEETING Notice of Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATE: March 26, 2012, 9 a.m.-1:30 p.m. PLACE: 901... the Minutes of the December 12, 2011, Meeting of the Board of Directors Management Report IAF Fellows Mid-Year Conference Grantee Perception Report Next Meetings Executive Session PORTIONS TO BE OPEN...

  13. 75 FR 34487 - Sunshine Act Meetings (by Conference Call)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL COUNCIL ON DISABILITY Sunshine Act Meetings (by Conference Call) DATE AND TIMES: June 25, 2010, 1 p.m.-3 p.m. PLACE: NCD, 1331 F Street, NW., Suite 850, Washington, DC 20004. STATUS: Open to the public. MATTERS TO...

  14. 76 FR 28243 - Sunshine Act; Notice of Agency Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION Sunshine Act; Notice of Agency Meeting TIME AND DATE: 10 a.m., Thursday, May 19, 2011. PLACE... and Regulations, Accuracy of Advertising and Notice of Insured Status. 2. Final Rule--Part 745 of...

  15. Insolation-sunshine relation with site elevation and latitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, I.A. (Univ. of Balochistan, Quetta (Pakistan))

    1994-07-01

    Data from six meteorological stations dispersed widely over Pakistan have been used to produce a correlation between the monthly means of easily measured sunshine duration and the less frequently recorded global solar radiation, taking into account the site elevation above sea level and the latitude. The relation is shown to be valuable for other regions too.

  16. 77 FR 65416 - Notice of Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... regarding the Udall Foundation audit; and (7) Personnel matters. PORTIONS OPEN TO THE PUBLIC: All agenda... from the U.S. Department of the Interior's Inspector General regarding the Udall Foundation audit and... L. UDALL FOUNDATION Notice of Sunshine Act Meetings TIME AND DATE: 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.,...

  17. 76 FR 51064 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice The National Science Board (NSB) Committee on Audit... 614), the National Science Foundation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1862n-5), and the Government in...

  18. 76 FR 29727 - Sunshine Act Meeting-Change of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ...; May 27, 2011.\\1\\ \\1\\ These meetings were announced previously at 76 FR 24463. June 3, 2011; June 10, 2011; June 17, 2011; June 24, 2011.\\2\\ \\2\\ These meetings were announced previously at 76 FR 28425... COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting--Change of Time The following notice of a time change for scheduled...

  19. 78 FR 72131 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Board of Governors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Sunshine Act Meeting; Board of Governors DATES AND TIMES: December 10, 2013, at 11:00 a.m. PLACE: Washington, DC, via Teleconference. STATUS: Closed. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: Tuesday, December 10, 2013 at 11:00 a.m. 1....

  20. 76 FR 24541 - Board of Governors; Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Board of Governors; Sunshine Act Meeting DATE AND TIMES: Tuesday, May 10, 2011, at 8 a.m. and 2 p.m. PLACE: Washington, DC, at U.S. Postal Service Headquarters, 475 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., in the Benjamin Franklin...

  1. 77 FR 32151 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Board of Governors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Sunshine Act Meeting; Board of Governors DATES AND TIMES: Thursday, June 14, 2012, at 10 a.m. PLACE: Washington, DC, at U.S. Postal Service Headquarters, 475 L'Enfant Plaza SW., in the Benjamin Franklin Room....

  2. 77 FR 13159 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice: Board of Governors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Sunshine Act Meeting Notice: Board of Governors Dates and Times: Wednesday, March 21, 2012, at 10 a.m. Place: Washington, DC, at U.S. Postal Service Headquarters, 475 L'Enfant Plaza SW., in the Benjamin Franklin...

  3. 77 FR 52074 - Board of Governors; Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Board of Governors; Sunshine Act Meeting DATES AND TIMES: Thursday, September 13, 2012, at 10:00 a.m. PLACE: Washington, DC, at U.S. Postal Service Headquarters, 475 L'Enfant Plaza SW., in the Benjamin Franklin...

  4. 77 FR 32496 - Government in the Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... limiting spending on travel and conferences. The BBG will recognize the anniversaries of Agency language... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS Government in the Sunshine Act Meeting Notice DATE AND TIME: Thursday, June 7, 2012, 10:00...

  5. 78 FR 15745 - Sunshine Act Meetings: March 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... BOARD Sunshine Act Meetings: March 2013 TIME AND DATES: All meetings are held at 2:00 p.m. Thursday, March 7; Wednesday, March 13; Thursday, March 14; Wednesday, March 20; Thursday, March 21; Wednesday, March 27; Thursday, March 28. PLACE: Board Agenda Room, No. 11820, 1099 14th St. NW., Washington,...

  6. 77 FR 14047 - Sunshine Act Meetings Notice; March 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... BOARD Sunshine Act Meetings Notice; March 2012 TIME AND DATES: All meetings are held at 2:30 p.m. Wednesday, March 7; Thursday, March 8; Tuesday, March 13; Wednesday, March 14; Thursday, March 15; Tuesday, March 20; Wednesday, March 21; Thursday, March 22; Tuesday, March 27; Wednesday, March 28;...

  7. 76 FR 67484 - Sunshine Act Meetings: November 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... arbitration, or the initiation, conduct, or disposition * * * of particular representation or unfair labor... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD Sunshine Act Meetings: November 2011 TIME AND DATES: All meetings are held at 2:30 p.m. Tuesday...

  8. 77 FR 45381 - Sunshine Act Meetings: August 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... initiation, conduct, or disposition * * * of particular representation or unfair labor practice proceedings... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD Sunshine Act Meetings: August 2012 TIME AND DATES: All meetings are held at 2:30 p.m. Wednesday...

  9. 77 FR 39270 - Sunshine Act Meetings: July 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... arbitration, or the initiation, conduct, or disposition * * * of particular representation or unfair labor... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD Sunshine Act Meetings: July 2012 TIME AND DATES: All meetings are held at 2:30 p.m. Tuesday, July...

  10. 77 FR 4584 - Sunshine Act Meetings: February 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... initiation, conduct, or disposition * * * of particular representation or unfair labor practice proceedings... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD Sunshine Act Meetings: February 2012 Time and Dates: All meetings are held at 2:30 p.m. Wednesday...

  11. 77 FR 2571 - Sunshine Act Meetings: January 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... initiation, conduct, or disposition * * * of particular representation or unfair labor practice proceedings... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD Sunshine Act Meetings: January 2012 TIME AND DATES: All meetings are held at 2:30 p.m. Tuesday...

  12. 76 FR 75566 - Sunshine Act Meetings: December 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... arbitration, or the initiation, conduct, or disposition * * * of particular representation or unfair labor... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD Sunshine Act Meetings: December 2011 TIME AND DATES: All meetings are held at 2:30 p.m. Thursday...

  13. 76 FR 55421 - Sunshine Act Meetings: September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... initiation, conduct, or disposition * * * of particular representation or unfair labor practice proceedings... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD Sunshine Act Meetings: September 2011 Time and Dates: All meetings are held at 2:30 p.m. Tuesday...

  14. 75 FR 68008 - Sunshine Act Meetings: November 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Doc No: 2010-28052] NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD Sunshine Act Meetings: November 2010 Time and Dates... proceeding or an arbitration, or the initiation, conduct, or disposition * * * of particular representation or unfair labor practice proceedings under section 8, 9, or 10 of the [National Labor Relations] Act...

  15. 78 FR 26089 - Sunshine Act Meetings: May 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... initiation, conduct, or disposition * * * of particular representation or unfair labor practice proceedings... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD Sunshine Act Meetings: May 2013 TIME AND DATES: All meetings are held at 2:00 p.m. Wednesday, May...

  16. Early detection of severe thunderstorms in the Alpine region: the dynamical approach of COALITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisi, L.; Giunta, I.; Ambrosetti, P.; Clementi, L.

    2010-09-01

    The basic physical mechanisms governing thunderstorms are fairly well understood and these rely on the analysis of temperature and humidity profiles at upper and lower layers. Furthermore, the topography, particularly important in the Alpine region, specifically drives the conditions at boundary layer, where convection elements can be initiated, focused, oriented, reactivated or inhibited. The accurate observation of specific features, e.g. retrieved by remote sensing methods, and appearing at different phases of the thunderstorm lifecycle (pre-convective, convective, deep, mature stage), can lead to significant improvements of the forecast-skills. The challenge is how to build up a methodology for integrating physical and heuristic information into one appropriate, consistent Nowcasting model for complex terrains. The here presented heuristic model (Context and Scale Oriented Thunderstorm Satellite Predictors Development - COALITION) collects and assimilates the information from different data sources and applications (e.g. Meteosat Second Generation, MetOp/IASI, Weather Radar, Numerical Weather Prediction, Topography) into a simplified model, where thunderstorm predictors (e.g. instability indices, moisture convergence) are merged with evolving thunderstorm properties. The storm evolution results then as solution of particular motion equations, governed by couplings between convective signatures (objects) and environments (pseudo potential fields). The improved time-linkage between different features and phases, will be basis for the early prediction of the storm.

  17. Thunderstorm-Associated Asthma or Shortness of Breath Epidemic: A Canadian Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AE Dennis Wardman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Thunderstorm-associated asthma epidemics have been documented in the literature, but no Canadian experience has been reported. On July 31, 2000, a thunderstorm-associated epidemic of asthma or shortness of breath occurred in Calgary, Alberta. The Calgary Health Region investigated the event using diagnostic data from emergency departments, an urgent care medical clinic and patient interviews, in addition to bioaerosol counts, pollutant data and weather data reflecting atmospheric conditions at that time. On July 31, 2000 and August 1, 2000, 157 people sought care for asthma symptoms. The expected number of people to seek care for such symptoms in a 48 h period in Calgary is 17. Individuals with a personal or family history of asthma, allergies or hay fever who were not taking regular medication for these conditions and who were outdoors before the storm appeared to have been preferentially affected. A stagnant air mass the day before the thunderstorm may have resulted in declining bioaerosol concentrations, and the possible accumulation of spore and pollen reservoirs within mould and plant structures. The elevated bioaerosol concentrations observed on the day of the thunderstorm may be attributed to the sudden onset of high winds during the thunderstorm, which triggered a sudden release of spores and pollens into the atmosphere, which was probably responsible for the epidemic. Several pollutant levels slightly increased on the day of the storm and possibly also played a role in symptom development. It is unclear whether an atmospheric pressure drop contributed to the release of spores and pollens.

  18. Seasonal forecasting of lightning and thunderstorm activity in tropical and temperate regions of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Andrew J

    2016-02-11

    Thunderstorms are convective systems characterised by the occurrence of lightning. Lightning and thunderstorm activity has been increasingly studied in recent years in relation to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and various other large-scale modes of atmospheric and oceanic variability. Large-scale modes of variability can sometimes be predictable several months in advance, suggesting potential for seasonal forecasting of lightning and thunderstorm activity in various regions throughout the world. To investigate this possibility, seasonal lightning activity in the world's tropical and temperate regions is examined here in relation to numerous different large-scale modes of variability. Of the seven modes of variability examined, ENSO has the strongest relationship with lightning activity during each individual season, with relatively little relationship for the other modes of variability. A measure of ENSO variability (the NINO3.4 index) is significantly correlated to local lightning activity at 53% of locations for one or more seasons throughout the year. Variations in atmospheric parameters commonly associated with thunderstorm activity are found to provide a plausible physical explanation for the variations in lightning activity associated with ENSO. It is demonstrated that there is potential for accurately predicting lightning and thunderstorm activity several months in advance in various regions throughout the world.

  19. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VHF radiation source produced by lightning in supercell thunderstorms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yijun; MENG Qing; P. R. Krehbiel; LIU Xinsheng; ZHOU Xiuji

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional temporal and spatial characteristics of VHF radiation events produced by lightning discharges in three supercell thunderstorms have been analyzed based on the data measured by the lightning mapping array system with high time and space resolution. The results indicate that lightning hole (lighting free region) with about 5-6 km in diameter or lighting ring (annular lighting free region) is associated with the strong updraft in thunderstorm. The lasting time of lightning holes is either short or long, being about 20 min in a tornado-producing thunderstorm. The lightning holes appear before the occurrence of tornado. The lightning hole is the most obvious during the occurrence of tornado and some self-existent lighting radiation events appear at a height of 15-16 km. The lightning channels of inter-cloud (IC) lightning discharge exhibit clockwise rotary structures and do not have clear bilevel structures in the vicinity of the tornado. The lightning holes are corresponding to the strong updraft region. The temporal and spatial distribution of lightning radiation events reveals the structure of strong updraft in supercell thunderstorms.Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning discharges dominate in these thunderstorms and the peak of positive CG lightning flash rate appears, with the maximum of 6 per minute, after or before the occurrence of tornado.

  20. Is a little sunshine all we need? On the impact of sunshine regulation on profits, productivity and prices in the Dutch drinking water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, K.; Saal, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the conduct of publicly owned monopolistic utilities regulated by a voluntary sunshine regulatory model (i.e. publication of the performances of utilities). In particular, we examine the behaviour of Dutch drinking water utilities before and after the introduction of the sunshine

  1. Is a little sunshine all we need? On the impact of sunshine regulation on profits, productivity and prices in the Dutch drinking water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. de Witte; D.S. Saal

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the conduct of publicly owned monopolistic utilities regulated by a voluntary sunshine regulatory model (i.e. publication of the performances of utilities). In particular, we examine the behaviour of Dutch drinking water utilities before and after the introduction of the sunshine

  2. Initial electric field changes of lightning flashes in two thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ryan; Marshall, Thomas; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Stolzenburg, Maribeth

    2017-04-01

    The beginning of all 75 lightning flashes in two small thunderstorms was investigated using an array of electric field change (E-change) meters and an array of VHF sensors with the goal of determining if an initial E-change (IEC) preceded the initial breakdown (IB) pulses in each flash. IECs were found at the beginning of all 62 flashes in Storm 1 and all 13 flashes in Storm 2. Hence, it is concluded that an IEC is a fundamental part of most or all lightning initiations and that an IEC is needed prior to the first IB pulse in a flash. IEC durations averaged 0.23 ms for cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes (range 0.08-0.54 ms) and averaged 2.7 ms for normal intracloud (IC) flashes (range 0.04-9.8 ms). IEC point dipole moments averaged 26 C m for CG flashes (range 4-86 C m) and averaged -140 C m for normal IC flashes (range -8 to -650 C m). IEC current moments averaged 120 kA m for CG flashes (range 41-410 kA m) and averaged -91 kA m for normal IC flashes (range -2 to -630 kA m). E-change data support the suggestion that weak narrow bipolar event type events initiate some lightning flashes, but 41 of the 75 flashes had no detectable initiating pulse > 0.04 V m-1 range normalized to 100 km. Two flashes had two IECs; the second IEC of each flash initiated a new lightning channel that propagated in a new direction and at a higher altitude than the original development after the first IEC.

  3. Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

  4. Risk of field cultivation of pickling cucumber caused by unfavorable sunshine duration conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy, accessible to plants during sunshine from the sunrise to the sunset is of key importance in productivity of agrocenoses. The aim of the work was to determine risk of pickling cucumber cultivation caused by an unfavorable course of sunshine duration in Poland on the basis of a 40-year research period 1966-2005. The research into the subject was undertaken due to frequent occurrence of sunshine deficiency in Poland and its high temporal and spatial variability. Effect of solar con...

  5. Brightening up: the effect of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act on existing regulation of pharmaceutical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlach, Igor; Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    With the passage of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act as part of the federal health care reform law, pharmaceutical manufacturers are now required to disclose a wide range of payments made by manufacturers to physicians. We review current state regulation of pharmaceutical marketing and consider how the federal sunshine provision will affect existing marketing regulation. We analyze the legal and practical implications of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act.

  6. Recovery curves of the lightning discharges occurring in the dissipation stage of thunderstorms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Pawar; A K Kamra

    2013-04-01

    Measurements of atmospheric electric field made below two thunderstorms show that all lightning discharges occurring in the dissipating stage of a thunderstorm occur at almost the same value of the predischarge electric field at the ground surface. The observation is explained on the basis of the shielding of the electric fields generated by the positive charge in the downdrafts by the negative charge in the screening layers formed around them in the subcloud layer. Our observations suggest that in the dissipating stage of the thunderstorm, the charge generating mechanisms in cloud have ceased to operate and the charge being transported from the upper to lower regions of cloud by downdrafts is the only in-cloud process affecting the surface electric field and/or enhancing the electric field stress in and below the cloud base to cause yet another lightning discharge.

  7. Variation of the low level winds during the passage of a thunderstorm gust front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R. W.; Anthes, R. A.; Panofsky, H. A.

    1973-01-01

    Three time histories of wind profiles in thunderstorm gust fronts at Cape Kennedy and three at Oklahoma City are analyzed. Wind profiles at maximum wind strength below 100 m follow logarithmic laws, so that winds above the surface layer can be estimated from surface winds once the roughness length is known. A statistical analysis of 81 cases of surface winds during thunderstorms at Tampa revealed no predictor with skill to predict the time of maximum gust. Some 34% of the variance of the strength of the gust is accounted for by a stability index and surface wind prior to the gust; the regression equations for these variables are given. The coherence between microscale wind speed variations at the different levels has the same proportions as in non-thunderstorm cases.

  8. Extreme rainfall and debris flows from an orographic thunderstorm in the Eastern Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Marra, Francesco; Penna, Daniele; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.

    2013-04-01

    The upper Adige river basin, in Northern Italy, occupy a distinctive hydrometeorological niche, characterised by high frequency of orographic thunderstorms. Relatively small-extent flash floods and debris flows are triggered by these storm events. The hydrometeorological and hydrological controls of these events are examined through analyses of a storm system occurred on August 1, 2005 on the Rio Gola river basin (6.59 km2, Eastern Italian Alps, Adige river basin). The intense orographic convective system produced locally extreme rainfall peaks in 1.5 hours. The storm concentrated on small, rocky and steeply sloping basin where concentrated overland flow feeds ephemeral channels incised in slope deposits. Despite the short duration of the event the storm triggered an unusually large debris flow, with a volume of about 100,000 m3, producing significant geomorphological impacts and abrupt changes in the extent of incision and channel widening. Hydrometeorological analyses of the storm are based on radar reflectivity observations, raingauge and streamgauge data. The orographic organization of the precipitation system is examined by means of the hypsometric rainfall moments. Detailed geomorphological field surveys, rainfall estimates from radar observations, and the application of a distributed hydrological model in comparison with observed discharge, served as the basis to evaluate erosion processes and quantify the water runoff production at the initiation debris flow area. The hydrological analysis is used to evaluate the consistency among the different observations and to identify the critical factors controlling the debris flow triggering. The hydrological analysis shows that the critical factor is storm concentration on rocky and steeply surfaces and formation of concentrated surface flow at the bottom of channels filled by coarse loose debris.

  9. Analysis on the Variation Characteristics of Sunshine Hours in Puyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze the variation characteristics of sunshine hours in Puyang City in recent 51 years.[Method] Based on the monthly sunshine hours in five meteorological stations of Puyang City during 1960-2010,the annual,seasonal and monthly variation trends of sunshine hours,mutation time node were analyzed by using the climate trend coefficient,climate tendency rate,sliding average method,SNR and so on.The objective fact and rule of sunshine variation in Puyang in recent 51 years we...

  10. Variation Characteristics of Sunshine Hours and Its Reason Analysis over Loess Plateau of Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study variation characteristics of sunshine hours over Loess Plateau of Shaanxi during 1961-2010.[Method] By using the climate tendency rate,climate trend coefficient and linear correlation,the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of sunshine hours in Loess Plateau of Shaanxi in recent 50 years were analyzed.Moreover,the main reason for inducing variation of sunshine hours in the zone was discussed.[Result] In recent 50 years,the variation of annual sunshine hours...

  11. Analysis on an Easterly Wave Thunderstorm and Gale Weather during the Latter Flood Season of 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze an easterly wave thunderstorm and gale weather during the latter flood season of 2010.[Method] Based on conventional observation data,data of automatic station,NCEP 1°×1° reanalysis data,Doppler radar reflectivity and radial velocity data,the easterly wave thunderstorm and gale weather process which happened during 4-5 August,2010 was analyzed.The circulation situation,wind field and dynamic & thermal structures of easterly wave,echo characteristics of Doppler radar...

  12. Cloud-resolving simulations of mercury scavenging and deposition in thunderstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. S. Nair

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines dynamical and microphysical features of convective clouds that affect mercury (Hg wet scavenging and concentrations in rainfall. Using idealized numerical model simulations in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, we diagnose vertical transport and scavenging of soluble Hg species in thunderstorms under typical environmental conditions found in the Northeast and Southeast United States (US. Three important environmental characteristics that impact thunderstorm morphology were studied: convective available potential energy (CAPE, vertical shear (0���6 km of horizontal wind (SHEAR and precipitable water (PW.

    We find that in a strong convective storm in the Southeast US that about 40% of mercury in the boundary layer (0–2 km can be scavenged and deposited to the surface. Removal efficiencies are 35% or less in the free troposphere and decline with altitude. Nevertheless, if we assume that soluble Hg species are initially uniformly mixed vertically, then about 60% deposited mercury deposited by the thunderstorm originates in the free troposphere.

    For a given CAPE, storm morphology and Hg deposition respond to SHEAR and PW. Experiments show that the response of mercury concentration in rainfall to SHEAR depends on the amount of PW. For low PW, increasing SHEAR decreases mercury concentrations in high-rain amounts (>13 mm. However, at higher PW values, increasing SHEAR decreases mercury concentrations for all rainfall amounts. These experiments suggest that variations in environmental characteristics relevant to thunderstorm formation and evolution can also contribute to geographical difference in wet deposition of mercury.

    An ensemble of thunderstorm simulations was also conducted for different combinations of CAPE, SHEAR and PW values derived from radiosonde observations at five sites in the Northeast United States (US and at three sites in the Southeast US. Using identical initial

  13. Cloud-resolving chemistry simulation of a Hector thunderstorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Cummings

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud chemistry simulations are performed for a Hector storm observed on 16 November 2005 during the SCOUT-O3/ACTIVE campaigns based in Darwin, Australia, with the primary objective of estimating the average production of NO per lightning flash during the storm which occurred in a tropical environment. The 3-D WRF-AqChem model (Barth et al., 2007a containing the WRF nonhydrostatic cloud-resolving model, online gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry, and a lightning-NOx production algorithm is used for these calculations. An idealized early morning sounding of temperature, water vapor, and winds is used to initialize the model. Surface heating of the Tiwi Islands is simulated in the model to induce convection. Aircraft observations from air undisturbed by the storm are used to construct composite initial condition chemical profiles. The idealized model storm has many characteristics similar to the observed storm. Convective transport in the idealized simulated storm is evaluated using tracer species, such as CO and O3. The convective transport of CO from the boundary layer to the anvil region was well represented in the model, with a small overestimate of the increase of CO at anvil altitudes. Lightning flashes observed by the LIghtning detection NETwork (LINET are input to the model and a lightning placement scheme is used to inject the resulting NO into the simulated cloud. We find that a lightning NO production scenario of 500 moles per flash for both CG and IC flashes yields anvil NOx mixing ratios that match aircraft observations well for this storm. These values of NO production nearly match the mean values for CG and IC flashes obtained from similar modeling analyses conducted for several midlatitude and subtropical convective events and are larger than most other estimates for tropical thunderstorms. Approximately 85% of the lightning NOx mass was located at altitudes greater than 7 km in the later

  14. A Warm Reading of Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Leacock(1869-1944) is one of the founding parents of Canadian letters and literature. In the early 20th centu-ry, his reputation as a humorist and a political economist was not limited by the boundaries of Canada but spread around the world. As one of his works, Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town has attracted world-wide admiration. It is a series of vignettes dra-matizing the comedy of day-to-day life in Mariposa. It is bathed in the warm sunshine for all of us to laugh at as one of us re-members the little towns we might have known or come from. As a matter of fact, Leacock employs several techniques in his writing for humorous effect. This paper elaborates on the auther and the work, and makes an analysis on the character-Smith.

  15. Comparative estimate of the effectiveness of different algorithms for the radar classification of thunderstorms and showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linev, A. G.; Oprishko, V. S.; Popova, N. D.; Salman, Y. M.

    1975-01-01

    Several schemes for discriminating severe weather phenomena with the aid of different algorithms are examined. The schemes were tested on the same sample. A comparative estimate of the effectiveness of the different algorithms for classifying thunderstorms and showers is carried out.

  16. Thunderstorm nowcasting by means of lightning and radar data: algorithms and applications in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, P.; Marcacci, P.

    2008-10-01

    Thunderstorms and their ground effects, such as flash floods, hail, lightning, strong winds, and tornadoes, are responsible for most weather damages in northern Italy, especially in the warm season from May to September. A nowcasting and warning system focused on severe thunderstorm events would be useful to reduce risks for people involved in outside activities and for electric, telecommunication, and sensitive industrial business. C-band radar and Lighting Location Systems provide useful, fast and high resolution data for the detection of convective systems and for following their dynamics. The whole of northern Italy is covered by radar with a resolution of 1 km and by a lightning network with a mean accuracy of 0.5 km on the single point of impact. The authors present an algorithm developed for tracking high intensity storm cells by means of radar and lightning data. Application to northern Italy reveals that tracking thunderstorm cells can be used as an alert system that may help prevent damages from extreme weather, as well as allowing for studying the correlation among lightning, rainfall and tornado occurrence. Assessing the algorithm skill is also discussed, and a forecast verification method is described and applied for the duration of a thunderstorm season.

  17. Thunderstorm nowcasting by means of lightning and radar data: algorithms and applications in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bonelli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Thunderstorms and their ground effects, such as flash floods, hail, lightning, strong winds, and tornadoes, are responsible for most weather damages in northern Italy, especially in the warm season from May to September. A nowcasting and warning system focused on severe thunderstorm events would be useful to reduce risks for people involved in outside activities and for electric, telecommunication, and sensitive industrial business. C-band radar and Lighting Location Systems provide useful, fast and high resolution data for the detection of convective systems and for following their dynamics. The whole of northern Italy is covered by radar with a resolution of 1 km and by a lightning network with a mean accuracy of 0.5 km on the single point of impact. The authors present an algorithm developed for tracking high intensity storm cells by means of radar and lightning data. Application to northern Italy reveals that tracking thunderstorm cells can be used as an alert system that may help prevent damages from extreme weather, as well as allowing for studying the correlation among lightning, rainfall and tornado occurrence. Assessing the algorithm skill is also discussed, and a forecast verification method is described and applied for the duration of a thunderstorm season.

  18. Profuse activity of blue electrical discharges at the tops of thunderstorms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten; Mogensen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    a color video footage of thunderstorms over the Bay of Bengal from the International Space Station. The observations show a multitude of blue, km-scale, discharges at the cloud top layer at ~18 km altitude and a pulsating blue discharge propagating into the stratosphere reaching ~40 km altitude...

  19. Possible development mechanisms of pre-monsoon thunderstorms over northeast and east India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sunanda; Vishwanathan, Gokul; Mrudula, G.

    2016-05-01

    Thunderstorms are mesoscale convective systems of towering cumulonimbus clouds of high vertical and horizontal extent lasting from a few minutes to several hours. Pre-monsoon thundershowers over the past 10 years have been analyzed to understand the organization, horizontal and vertical development and dissipation of such severe events. Kalbaisakhi's/ Norwester's over north east and East India is given preference in this study, while some of the other extreme events are also analyzed due to their severity. The meteorological parameters like horizontal and vertical wind, precipitable water etc., and derived variables such as Severe Weather Threat (SWEAT) Index, Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), and Convective Inhibition Energy (CINE) of the identified cases are analyzed using observations from NCEP and IMD. Satellite observations from IMD and TRMM are also used to analyze the development and moisture flow of such systems. The analysis shows that some of the parameters display a clear signature of developing thunderstorms. It is also seen that cloud parameters such as convective precipitation rate and convective cloud cover from NCEP FNL didn't show much variation during the development of storms, which may be attributed to the limitation of spatial and temporal resolution. The parameters which showed indications of a developing thunderstorm were studied in detail in order to understand the possible mechanisms behind the development and organization of thunderstorm cells.

  20. Far from thunderstorm UV transient events in the atmosphere measured by Vernov satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozenko, Violetta; Klimov, Pavel; Khrenov, Boris; Gali, Garipov; Margarita, Kaznacheeva; Mikhail, Panasyuk; Sergei, Svertilov; Robert, Holzworth

    2016-04-01

    The steady self-contained classification of events such as sprites, elves, blue jets emerged for the period of transient luminous events (TLE) observation. In accordance with TLE origin theories the presence of the thunderstorm region where the lightnings with the large peak current generating in is necessary. However, some far-from-thunderstorm region events were also detected and revealed to us another TLE generating mechanisms. For the discovering of the TLE nature the Universitetsky-Tatiana-2 and Vernov satellites were equipped with ultraviolet (240-400 nm) and red-infrared ( >610 nm) detectors. In both detector it was carried out regardless the lightnings with the guidance by the flashes in the UV wavelength where lightning's emitting is quite faint. The lowered threshold on the Vernov satellite allowed to select the great amount of TLE with the numerous far-from-thunderstorm region events examples. such events were not conjuncted with lightning activity measured by global lightning location network (WWLLN) on the large area of approximately 107 km2 for 30 minutes before and after the time of registration. The characteristic features of this type of event are: the absence of significant signal in the red-infrared detector's channel; a relatively small number of photons (less than 5 ṡ 1021). A large number of without lightning flash were detected at high latitudes over the ocean (30°S - 60°S). Lightning activity in the magnetic conjugate point also was analyzed. The relationship of far-from-thunderstorm region events with the specific lightning discharges didn't confirmed. Far-from-thunderstorm events - a new type of transient phenomena in the upper atmosphere is not associated with the thunderstorm activity. The mechanism of such discharges is not clear, though it was accumulated a sufficient amount of experimental facts of the existence of such flashes. According to the data of Vernov satellite the temporal profile, duration, location with earth

  1. Air Pollution Contributes in Sunshine Dimming in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The research team led by Professor Yang Yonghui of Center for Agricultural Resources Research, In- stitute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, CAS, have revealed the magnitude and physical mechanism of the effect of air pollution on sunshine hours in 38 big cities across China. These results have recently been published in Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres (VOL. 117, D00V14, doi. 10. 1029/ 2011JD016753). It was funded by international collaborative proiect from MOST and NSFC.

  2. Analysis of stability parameters in relation to precipitation associated with pre-monsoon thunderstorms over Kolkata, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H P Nayak; M Mandal

    2014-06-01

    The upper air RS/RW (Radio Sonde/Radio Wind) observations at Kolkata (22.65N, 88.45E) during premonsoon season March–May, 2005–2012 is used to compute some important dynamic/thermodynamic parameters and are analysed in relation to the precipitation associated with the thunderstorms over Kolkata, India. For this purpose, the pre-monsoon thunderstorms are classified as light precipitation (LP), moderate precipitation (MP) and heavy precipitation (HP) thunderstorms based on the magnitude of associated precipitation. Richardson number in non-uniformly saturated (i*) and saturated atmosphere (i); vertical shear of horizontal wind in 0–3, 0–6 and 3–7 km atmospheric layers; energy-helicity index (EHI) and vorticity generation parameter (VGP) are considered for the analysis. The instability measured in terms of Richardson number in non-uniformly saturated atmosphere (i*) well indicate the occurrence of thunderstorms about 2 hours in advance. Moderate vertical wind shear in lower troposphere (0–3 km) and weak shear in middle troposphere (3–7 km) leads to heavy precipitation thunderstorms. The wind shear in 3–7 km atmospheric layers, EHI and VGP are good predictors of precipitation associated with thunderstorm. Lower tropospheric wind shear and Richardson number is a poor discriminator of the three classified thunderstorms.

  3. The direct radiative effect of wildfire smoke on a severe thunderstorm event in the Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, V.; Männik, A.

    2015-03-01

    On August 8, 2010, a severe derecho type thunderstorm in the Baltic Sea region coincided with smoke from wildfires in Russia. Remarkable smoke aerosol concentrations, with a maximum aerosol optical depth of more than 2 at 550 nm, were observed near the thunderstorm. The impact of the wildfire smoke on the thunderstorm through direct radiative effects was investigated using the Hirlam Aladin Research for Mesoscale Operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Euromed (HARMONIE) model. HARMONIE was successfully able to resolve the dynamics of the thunderstorm, and simulations that considered the influence of the smoke-related aerosols were compared to simulation without aerosols. As simulated by the HARMONIE model, the smoke reduced the shortwave radiation flux at the surface by as much as 300 W/m2 and decreased the near-surface temperature by as much as 3 °C in the vicinity of the thunderstorm and respectively 100 W/m2 and 1 °C in the thunderstorm region. Atmospheric instability decreased through the direct radiative effect of aerosols, and several dynamic features of the simulated thunderstorm appeared slightly weaker.

  4. 78 FR 72123 - Sunshine Act Cancellation Notice-OPIC December 4, 2013 Public Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Sunshine Act Cancellation Notice--OPIC December 4, 2013 Public Hearing OPIC's Sunshine Act notice of its Public Hearing in Conjunction with each Board meeting was published in the Federal...

  5. Relationships between cloud-to-ground flashes and hydrometeors in a thunderstorm in Fujian province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tinglong; Zhao, Guo; Wei, Changxiong; Gao, Yi; Yu, Hai; Zhou, Fangcong

    2017-02-01

    A local severe thunderstorm, occurring near the coastal region in Fujian province, China, was chosen to study the relationships between hydrometeors and cloud-to-ground (CG) flash activities. This thunderstorm case study was carried out by using vehicle-mounted X-band dual-polarization radar on August 28, 2009. On the basis of polarimetric parameters, the hydrometeors were identified by fuzzy logic hydrometeor classification (FLHC). The results show that the thunderstorm grew into a squall line with a maximum flash rate of 85 fl/5 min in mature stage. Negative CG constituted approximately 97.3% of total CG flashes. More than 90% of the CG flashes occurred in the convective regions, and less than 10% occurred in the stratiform region. The strong echo volume in convective region had a positive linear correlation with the CG flashes rate. Seven types of hydrometeors, namely, rain (RN), aggregates (AG), low-density graupel (LDG), high-density graupel (HDG), vertically aligned ice crystals (VI), drizzle-light rain (DR), and ice crystals (IC), have been classified; the first five of the hydrometeors are predominant in the thunderstorm. RN is located mainly in regions warmer than 0 °C; the HDG is located in the middle and lower regions colder than 0 °C; and LDG and VI mainly appear in the upper portion of the thunderstorm. The ice hydrometeors seemly had a close relation with CG flashes because the total CG flash rates had a strong positive correlation with the grid number of AG, LDG, HDG, and VI in the convective region. However, the sufficient ice hydrometeors did not produce frequent CG flashes in the stratiform region. It suggests that the dynamic structure is also very important for triggering lightning flashes.

  6. 78 FR 42518 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Agency Business Matters. A-2 AD02-7-000 Customer Matters, Reliability, Security and Market Operations... Communication Protocols for Public Utilities. E-5 RM13-11-000......... Frequency Response and Frequency Bias... Sellers of Energy and/or Capacity at Wholesale into Electric Energy and/ or Capacity Markets in the...

  7. Experimental Research on Atmospheric Electric Field and Extensive Air Shower Particle Increasing During Thunderstorms with ARGO-YBJ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bin; ZHANG Ying; JIA Huan-Yu

    2008-01-01

    From April lst to August 14th, 2006, thunderstorms had been recorded at Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Observatory by ARGO-YBJ experiment. This paper analyzed the correlation between atmospheric electric field (AEF) and "scaler mode" counting rate during thunderstorm. Counting rates of multiplicities n = 1,2 were found to have a large increase ( from 1.02% to 9.03% ), while there was few or no changes in those of multiplicities n =3 and n≥4 during the thunderstorms. The counts of different multiplicities had different feedbacks on the violent change of AEF, which showed that their energy and most components were distinguishing.

  8. Gridded sunshine duration climate data record for Germany based on combined satellite and in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walawender, Jakub; Kothe, Steffen; Trentmann, Jörg; Pfeifroth, Uwe; Cremer, Roswitha

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to create a 1 km2 gridded daily sunshine duration data record for Germany covering the period from 1983 to 2015 (33 years) based on satellite estimates of direct normalised surface solar radiation and in situ sunshine duration observations using a geostatistical approach. The CM SAF SARAH direct normalized irradiance (DNI) satellite climate data record and in situ observations of sunshine duration from 121 weather stations operated by DWD are used as input datasets. The selected period of 33 years is associated with the availability of satellite data. The number of ground stations is limited to 121 as there are only time series with less than 10% of missing observations over the selected period included to keep the long-term consistency of the output sunshine duration data record. In the first step, DNI data record is used to derive sunshine hours by applying WMO threshold of 120 W/m2 (SDU = DNI ≥ 120 W/m2) and weighting of sunny slots to correct the sunshine length between two instantaneous image data due to cloud movement. In the second step, linear regression between SDU and in situ sunshine duration is calculated to adjust the satellite product to the ground observations and the output regression coefficients are applied to create a regression grid. In the last step regression residuals are interpolated with ordinary kriging and added to the regression grid. A comprehensive accuracy assessment of the gridded sunshine duration data record is performed by calculating prediction errors (cross-validation routine). "R" is used for data processing. A short analysis of the spatial distribution and temporal variability of sunshine duration over Germany based on the created dataset will be presented. The gridded sunshine duration data are useful for applications in various climate-related studies, agriculture and solar energy potential calculations.

  9. 利用信号场作深圳宝安机场的雷暴分类研究%A Study on Classification of Thunderstorm by Using the Signal Field at Shenzhen Baoan Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余岸雄; 黄嘉佑; 张焱; 白莹莹

    2012-01-01

    利用深圳宝安机场2001~2010年雷暴观测资料和NCEP/NCAR再分析资料,运用统计方法研究近10年来雷暴发生的气候特征.利用主成分分析方法提取宝安机场夏季雷暴日500hPa高度信号场共同特征,并根据主成分分析前3个模态归纳出3种易出现雷暴的天气类型:台风型,高空槽、切变线型和副热带高压型;其中近10年来副热带高压型在夏季出现的频次最高.从年际变化来看,高空槽、切变型和台风型都是呈减少趋势,而副热带高压型无明显变化趋势.%Based on the thunderstorm observation data and NCEP / NCAR reanalysis data in Shenzhen Baoan Airport for the period of 2001 to 2010; the climatic change characteristics analysis of the thunderstorms are studied by means of mathematical statistic. The common features of 500hPa-signal field of summer thunderstorms can be extracted by using the principal component analysis method. According to the first three vibration modes, the weather systems to benefit thunderstorms could be classified to three synoptic patterns (typhoon, upper trough and shear line, subtropical high). In the recent 10 years, the subtropical high pattern is the highest frequencies in summer. From the inter-annual change of view, the upper trough and shear line pattern and the typhoon pattern are on a declining trend, while the subtropical high pattern had no obvious change trend.

  10. Cloud-resolving simulations of mercury scavenging and deposition in thunderstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. S. Nair

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines dynamical and microphysical features of convective clouds that affect mercury (Hg wet scavenging and concentrations in rainfall. Using idealized numerical model simulations in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, we diagnose vertical transport and scavenging of soluble Hg species – gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM and particle-bound mercury (HgP, collectively Hg(II – in thunderstorms under typical environmental conditions found in the Northeast and Southeast United States (US. Mercury scavenging efficiencies from various initial altitudes are diagnosed for a case study of a typical strong convective storm in the Southeast US. Assuming that soluble mercury concentrations are initially vertically uniform, the model results suggest that 60% of mercury deposited to the surface in rainwater originates from above the boundary layer (> 2 km. The free troposphere could supply a larger fraction of mercury wet deposition if GOM and HgP concentrations increase with altitude. We use radiosonde observations in the Northeast and Southeast to characterize three important environmental characteristics that influence thunderstorm morphology: convective available potential energy (CAPE, vertical shear (0–6 km of horizontal wind (SHEAR and precipitable water (PW. The Southeast US generally has lower SHEAR and higher CAPE and PW. We then use RAMS to test how PW and SHEAR impact mercury scavenging and deposition, while keeping the initial Hg(II concentrations fixed in all experiments. We found that the mercury concentration in rainfall is sensitive to SHEAR with the nature of sensitivity differing depending upon the PW. Since CAPE and PW cannot be perturbed independently, we test their combined influence using an ensemble of thunderstorm simulations initialized with environmental conditions for the Northeast and Southeast US. These simulations, which begin with identical Hg(II concentrations, predict higher mercury concentrations in

  11. Analysis and Forecast of a Tornadic Thunderstorm Using Multiple Doppler Radar Data, 3DVAR, and ARPS Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Natenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional variational (3DVAR assimilation technique developed for a convective-scale NWP model—advanced regional prediction system (ARPS—is used to analyze the 8 May 2003, Moore/Midwest City, Oklahoma tornadic supercell thunderstorm. Previous studies on this case used only one or two radars that are very close to this storm. However, three other radars observed the upper-level part of the storm. Because these three radars are located far away from the targeted storm, they were overlooked by previous studies. High-frequency intermittent 3DVAR analyses are performed using the data from five radars that together provide a more complete picture of this storm. The analyses capture a well-defined mesocyclone in the midlevels and the wind circulation associated with a hook-shaped echo. The analyses produced through this technique are used as initial conditions for a 40-minute storm-scale forecast. The impact of multiple radars on a short-term NWP forecast is most evident when compared to forecasts using data from only one and two radars. The use of all radars provides the best forecast in which a strong low-level mesocyclone develops and tracks in close proximity to the actual tornado damage path.

  12. 75 FR 1090 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... whether to publish a concept release on equity market structure. The concept release would invite public comment on a wide range of issues, including the performance of equity market structure in recent years, high frequency trading, and undisplayed, or ``dark,'' liquidity. [[Page 1091

  13. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields in Thunderstorms through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Schellart, P; Buitink, S; Corstanje, A; Enriquez, J E; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J R; Nelles, A; Rachen, J P; Rossetto, L; Scholten, O; ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Ebert, U; Koehn, C; Rutjes, C; Alexov, A; Anderson, J M; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; de Vos, M; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Fallows, R A; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Holties, H A; Juette, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Mann, G; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Moldon, J; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D J; Serylak, M; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; van Weeren, R J; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Zarka, P

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers that took place during thunderstorms. The intensity and polarization patterns of these air showers are radically different from those measured during fair-weather conditions. With the use of a simple two-layer model for the atmospheric electric field, these patterns can be well reproduced by state-of-the-art simulation codes. This in turn provides a novel way to study atmospheric electric fields.

  14. Direct effects of lightning on an aircraft during intentional penetrations of thunderstorms. [T-28 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, D. J.; Prodan, J.

    1980-01-01

    An armored T-28 aircraft was struck by lightning on two different days while participating in the 1979 severe environmental storm and mesoscale experiment in Oklahoma. The T-28, which is specially armored and instrumented, was making intentional penetrations of thunderstorms and was struck twice on 30 May and once on 5 June. Various degrees of damage, mainly in the form of large burn spots and holes, resulted to the aircraft.

  15. Gamma ray and fair weather electric field measurements during thunderstorms: indications for TGEs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Yuval; Yair, Yoav; Steinitz, Gideon; Price, Colin; Pustil'nik, Lev; Yaniv, Roy; Hamiel, Yariv; Katz, Evgeni

    2016-04-01

    We report coincidences of ground-level gamma-ray enhancements with strong electric fields typical of lightning discharges, measured at a mountainous site in northern Israel. High-energy emissions detected on the Earth's surface during thunderstorms supposedly initiate Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs) of fluxes of electrons, neutrons and gamma rays that can last tens of minutes. Such enhancements are thought to be related to Extensive Cloud Showers (ECSs) initiated between the main negative charge center and the lower positive charge pocket in mature thunderstorms (Chilingarian et al., 2015). The Cosmic Ray and Space Weather Center located at Mt. Hermon hosts a gamma ray detector alongside a continuous multi-parametric array consisting of a Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) geodetic receiver (for measuring Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC)), vertical atmospheric electric field (Ez) and current (Jz) and a neutron super monitor (for cosmic ray measurements). The diurnal variations in fair-weather conditions exhibit a clear 24-hour periodicity, related to the diurnal variation of atmospheric parameters. During several severe thunderstorms that occurred over Israel and near the Mt. Hermon station in October and November 2015, we recorded several instantaneous enhancements in the counts of Gamma rays, which lasted ten of minutes, and that coincided with peaks in the vertical electric field and current. Lightning data obtained from the Israeli Lightning Detection Network (ILDN) show that these peaks match the occurrences of close-by CG lightning discharges. This talk will present correlations between the properties of parent flashes and the observed peaks, and discuss possible mechanisms.

  16. Establishment of a Kind of Three-dimensional Thunderstorm Cloud Electrification-Discharge Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the establishment of a kind of three-dimensional thunderstorm cloud electrification-discharge mode.[Method] Based on a kind of three-dimensional strong convective cloud mode,several parameterization schemes of electrification-discharge mechanism which were mature and had experimental basis were coupled into the strong convective cloud mode.The three-dimensional strong convective mode could simulate electrification-discharge process,and the three-dimensional thundersto...

  17. Electrical soundings in the decay stage of a thunderstorm in the Pingliang region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tinglong; Zhao, Zhongkuo; Zhao, Yang; Wei, Changxiong; Yu, Hai; Zhou, Fangcong

    2015-10-01

    An electric field sounding system, based on corona discharge, was designed to measure the vertical component of the electric fields in a thunderstorm. The decay stage of a thunderstorm that occurred during the night of August 20, 2012, in the Pingliang region, China (35.57°N, 106.59°E, 1620 m above sea level (asl)), was investigated by two balloon-borne electrical soundings. The results of the first sounding showed that the thunderstorm had a tripole charge structure: a lower positive charge region located at temperatures of 3 to 15 °C (2.0-4.0 km asl); a middle negative charge region located at temperatures of - 3 to 3 °C (4.5-5.3 km asl); and an upper positive charge region at temperatures of - 10 to - 3 °C (5.3-6.3 km asl). In addition, there was a negative screen layer at the bottom of the thunderstorm with a depth of about 400 m. The charge density of the middle negative charge region was larger than that of the lower and upper positive charge regions. Influenced by the downdraft of precipitation, each charge region moved down to a lower altitude region. The results of the second sounding showed that the lower positive charge center totally disappeared and only the middle negative charge region (3.7-4.2 km asl) and upper positive charge region (4.2-4.7 km asl) remained. We conclude that the downdraft with precipitation caused the dissipation of the lower positive charge region. Compared with the first sounding result, we found that the charge density increased and the depth decreased for both of the charge regions.

  18. Balloon Measurements of Electric Fields in Thunderstorms: A Modern Version of Benjamin Franklin's Kite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T. C.; Stolzenburg, M.

    2006-12-01

    One of Benjamin Franklin's most famous experiments was the kite experiment, which showed that thunderstorms are electrically charged. It is not as commonly noted that the kite experiment was also one of the the first attempts to make an in situ measurement of any storm parameter. Franklin realized the importance of making measurements close to and within storms, and this realization has been shared by later atomspheric scientists. In this presentation we focus on a modern version of Franklin's kite--instrumented balloons--used for in situ measurements of electric field and other storm parameters. In particular, most of our knowledge of the charge structure inside thunderstorms is based on balloon soundings of electric field. Balloon measurements of storm electricity began with the work of Simpson and colleagues in the 1930's and 1940's. The next major instrumentation advances were made by Winn and colleagues in the 1970's and 1980's. Today's instruments are digital versions of the Winn design. We review the main instrument techniques that have allowed balloons to be the worthy successors to kites. We also discuss some of the key advances in our understanding of thunderstorm electrification made with in situ balloon-borne instruments.

  19. Observation of successive TGFs produced by the same thunderstorm systems throughout their lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursi, Alessandro; Marisaldi, Martino; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Dietrich, Stefano; Casella, Daniele; Sanò, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Since their discovery in early 1990s, Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) exhibited a clear correlation with thunderstorm activity. The elusive nature of these events and the strong absorption of gamma-rays in the lowest layers of the atmosphere dramatically limits our observation of this phenomenon: the few missions currently detecting TGFs are probably revealing just the tip of the iceberg of a much wider population. Theoretical models, radar measurements and cross-correlations with radio waves emitted by lightning strokes suggest every storm could, in principle, produce a large number of gamma flashes throughout its entire lifetime: however, observation of more TGFs from the same thunderstorm system, even after several hours, is difficult to perform, because successive passes on the same latitude region by high-inclination orbit satellites are shifted westward by ~25°. In this perspective, the AGILE mission has a privileged role, thanks to its unique quasi equatorial (2.5° inclination) orbit, that allows for the follow-up of the same geographic region on the equator at each orbital passage. In more than 8 years activity, we identify tens of cases of more TGFs coming from the same thunderstorm system, either during the same passage, or in the successive passages. We take advantage of data acquired by meteorological satellites to characterize the meteorological scenario associated to these events.

  20. On the possibility of phosphenes being generated by the energetic radiation from lightning flashes and thunderstorms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooray, Vernon, E-mail: Vernon.Cooray@angstrom.uu.se [Division for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Cooray, Gerald [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Dwyer, Joseph [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States)

    2011-10-03

    After the first report of this phenomenon by Apollo 11 astronauts, experiments conducted in space and on the ground confirmed the creation of phosphenes by the interaction of energetic radiation with the human visual system. The aim of this Letter is to show that the energetic radiation generated in the form of X-rays, gamma rays, electrons and neutrons by thunderstorms and lightning is strong enough for the creation of phosphenes in humans. It is also pointed out that some of the visual observations reported during thunderstorms might be attributable to phosphenes excited by this energetic radiation. -- Highlights: → Radiation in space consists of X-rays, γ-rays, protons, neutrons and electrons. → Studies of NASA confirm creation of phosphene in humans by such energetic radiation. → Energetic radiation also exists in the vicinity of thunderstorms and lightning. → It is shown that this radiation is strong enough to generate phosphene in humans. → Some of these visual experiences could be misinterpreted as ball lightning.

  1. Particle Acceleration Inside Thunderstorms and the Variation in Source Spectra of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Eric; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Briggs, Michael S.; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2016-03-01

    One of the unresolved questions in the atmospheric sciences is the origin of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs). These flashes are short but intense gamma ray bursts emanating from Earth's atmosphere. This phenomenon has been observed by gamma ray detectors on orbiting satellites, e.g. NASA Fermi, intended to study astrophysical phenomena such as Gamma-ray Bursts. TGFs are thought to originate inside thunderstorms where electrons can be accelerated and emit radiation in the multi MeV range due to bremsstrahlung interactions with air molecules. These so called ``runaway electrons'' are seeded from cosmic ray air showers hitting the Earth's atmosphere from (extra) galactic sources. In this work, we present a Monte Carlo model that simulates particle physics inside a thunderstorm region. The subsequent transport of high energy gamma rays through the Earth's atmosphere and up to satellite orbit is also included. We show that by varying both the potential difference and the ambient electric field inside the thundercloud, different electron and photon energy distributions are produced. This effect may be detectable by orbiting spacecraft, and therefore serves as a method to remote sense the electric fields that exist inside thunderstorms.

  2. Brief introduction to Beijing Sunshine Eternity Technology Co.Ltd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Beijing Sunshine Eternity Technology Co.Ltd is an enterprise specializ- ing in import and export,as well as processing of high-quality sheepskins. Combining traditional Chinese and international leading technologies,we have developed a series of sheared sheepskin products,including cushions,automo- bile seat backs,baby sacks,fur & leather indoor shoes and shoe lining leathers and bed blankets of all sizes.Our products are popular in the United Kingdom, Belgium,Italy,Russia,Germany,India and Japan,as well as on the domestic

  3. THUNDERSTORMS-RISK FACTORS IN AVIATION. CASE STUDY: AREA OF RESPONSABILITY OF THE BUCHAREST-OTOPENI AERODROME ON 30.06.2009

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Thunderstorms are always dangerous weather phenomena for flight safety and, irrespective of their nature, they have a negative impact on all aviation activities. Thunderstorm clouds can generate severe and rapid changes of various meteorological elements (visibility, cloudiness and cloud lower base, wind), sometimes to such a great extent that landing may become impossible. Thunderstorms are serious weather hazards in aviation and may produce great damage and even casualties. One such unfortu...

  4. A comparison of long-term parallel measurements of sunshine duration obtained with a Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder and two automated sunshine sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, D. J.; Pötzi, W.; Freislich, H.; Strutzmann, H.; Veronig, A. M.; Foelsche, U.; Rieder, H. E.

    2017-06-01

    In recent decades, automated sensors for sunshine duration (SD) measurements have been introduced in meteorological networks, thereby replacing traditional instruments, most prominently the Campbell-Stokes (CS) sunshine recorder. Parallel records of automated and traditional SD recording systems are rare. Nevertheless, such records are important to understand the differences/similarities in SD totals obtained with different instruments and how changes in monitoring device type affect the homogeneity of SD records. This study investigates the differences/similarities in parallel SD records obtained with a CS and two automated SD sensors between 2007 and 2016 at the Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Austria. Comparing individual records of daily SD totals, we find differences of both positive and negative sign, with smallest differences between the automated sensors. The larger differences between CS-derived SD totals and those from automated sensors can be attributed (largely) to the higher sensitivity threshold of the CS instrument. Correspondingly, the closest agreement among all sensors is found during summer, the time of year when sensitivity thresholds are least critical. Furthermore, we investigate the performance of various models to create the so-called sensor-type-equivalent (STE) SD records. Our analysis shows that regression models including all available data on daily (or monthly) time scale perform better than simple three- (or four-) point regression models. Despite general good performance, none of the considered regression models (of linear or quadratic form) emerges as the "optimal" model. Although STEs prove useful for relating SD records of individual sensors on daily/monthly time scales, this does not ensure that STE (or joint) records can be used for trend analysis.

  5. Automated thunderstorm tracking: utilization of three-dimensional lightning- and radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new hybrid method for automated thunderstorm observation by tracking and monitoring of electrically charged cells (ec-TRAM. The developed algorithm combines information about intense ground precipitation derived from low-level radar-reflectivity scans with three-dimensionally resolved lightning data, which are provided by the European VLF/LF lightning detection network LINET. Based on the already existing automated radar tracker rad-TRAM (Kober and Tafferner, 2009, the new method li-TRAM identifies and tracks electrically active regions in thunderclouds using lightning data only. The algorithm ec-TRAM uses the output of the two autonomously operating routines rad-TRAM and li-TRAM in order to assess, track, and monitor a more comprehensive picture of thunderstorms. The main motivation of this work is to assess the benefit of three-dimensionally resolved total lightning information (TL for thunderstorm tracking and nowcasting. The focus is laid on the temporal development whereby TL is characterized by an effective in-cloud (IC and cloud-to-ground (CG event-discrimination. It is found that the algorithms li-TRAM and ec-TRAM are both feasible methods for thunderstorm nowcasting. The tracking performance of li-TRAM turns out to be comparable to that of rad-TRAM, a result that strongly encourages utilization of lightning data as independent data source for thunderstorm tracking. It is found that lightning data allow an accurate and close monitoring of storm regions with intense internal dynamics as soon as convection induces electrical activity. A case study shows that the current short-term storm dynamics are clearly reflected in the amount of strokes, change of stroke rates and IC/CG ratio. The hybrid method ec-TRAM outperforms rad-TRAM and li-TRAM regarding reliability and continuous assessment of storm tracks especially in more complexly developing storms, where the use of discharge information contributes to more detailed

  6. Automated thunderstorm tracking: utilization of three-dimensional lightning and radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Meyer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new hybrid method for automated thunderstorm observation by tracking and monitoring of electrically charged cells (ec-TRAM. The developed algorithm combines information about intense ground precipitation derived from low-level radar-reflectivity scans with three-dimensionally resolved lightning data, which are provided by the European VLF/LF lightning detection network LINET. Based on the already existing automated radar tracker rad-TRAM (Kober and Tafferner, 2009, the new method li-TRAM identifies and tracks electrically active regions in thunderclouds using lightning data only. The algorithm ec-TRAM uses the output of the two autonomously operating routines rad-TRAM and li-TRAM in order to assess, track, and monitor a more comprehensive picture of thunderstorms. The main motivation of this work is to assess the benefit of three-dimensionally resolved total lightning (TL information for thunderstorm tracking and monitoring. The focus is laid on the temporal development whereby TL is characterized by an effective in-cloud (IC and cloud-to-ground (CG event discrimination. It is found that the algorithms li-TRAM and ec-TRAM are both feasible methods for thunderstorm monitoring with potential for nowcasting. The tracking performance of li-TRAM turns out to be comparable to that of rad-TRAM, a result that strongly encourages utilization of lightning data as independent data source for thunderstorm tracking. It is found that lightning data allow an accurate and close monitoring of storm regions with intense internal dynamics as soon as convection induces electrical activity. A case study shows that the current short-term storm dynamics are clearly reflected in the amount of strokes, change of stroke rates and IC/CG ratio. The hybrid method ec-TRAM outperforms rad-TRAM and li-TRAM regarding reliability and continuous assessment of storm tracks especially in more complexly developing storms, where the use of discharge information

  7. Sensitivity of WRF cloud microphysics to simulations of a severe thunderstorm event over Southeast India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeevan, M.; Kesarkar, A.; Rao, T.N.; Radhakrishna, B. [National Atmospheric Research Lab., Gadanki (India); Thampi, S.B. [India Meteorological Dept., Chennai (India). Doppler Weather Radar Div.; Rajasekhar, M. [ISRO, Sriharikota (India). SHAR Center

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the features associated with a severe thunderstorm observed over Gadanki (13.5 N,79.2 E), over southeast India, on 21 May 2008 and examined its sensitivity to four different microphysical (MP) schemes (Thompson, Lin, WSM6 and Morrison). We have used the WRF model with three nested domains with the innermost domain of 2 km grid spacing with explicit convection. The model was integrated for 36 h with the GFS initial conditions of 00:00 UTC, 21 May 2008. For validating simulated features of the thunderstorm, we have considered the vertical wind measurements made by the Indian MST radar installed at Gadanki, reflectivity profiles by the Doppler Weather Radar at Chennai, and automatic weather station data at Gadanki. There are major differences in the simulations of the thunderstorm among the MP schemes, in spite of using the same initial and boundary conditions and model configuration. First of all, all the four schemes simulated severe convection over Gadanki almost an hour before the observed storm. The DWR data suggested passage of two convective cores over Gadanki on 21 May, which was simulated by the model in all the four MP schemes. Comparatively, the Thompson scheme simulated the observed features of the updraft/downdraft cores reasonably well. However, all the four schemes underestimated strength and vertical extend of the updraft cores. The MP schemes also showed problems in simulating the downdrafts associated with the storm. While the Thompson scheme simulated surface rainfall distribution closer to observations, the other three schemes overestimated observed rainfall. However, all the four MP schemes simulated the surface wind variations associated with the thunderstorm reasonably well. The model simulated reflectivity profiles were consistent with the observed reflectivity profile, showing two convective cores. These features are consistent with the simulated

  8. 76 FR 55387 - Farm Credit Administration Board; Sunshine Act; Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION Farm Credit Administration Board; Sunshine Act; Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration... the regular meeting of the Farm Credit Administration Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The regular...

  9. 77 FR 61751 - Farm Credit Administration Board; Sunshine Act; Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Mac Investment Management Bookletter--Providing Credit to Farmers and Ranchers Operating in Local... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION Farm Credit Administration Board; Sunshine Act; Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit...

  10. 78 FR 71708 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meeting; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  11. 78 FR 77773 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  12. Tuberculosis incidence correlates with sunshine: an ecological 28-year time series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin C K W Koh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birmingham is the largest UK city after London, and central Birmingham has an annual tuberculosis incidence of 80 per 100,000. We examined seasonality and sunlight as drivers of tuberculosis incidence. Hours of sunshine are seasonal, sunshine exposure is necessary for the production of vitamin D by the body and vitamin D plays a role in the host response to tuberculosis. METHODS: We performed an ecological study that examined tuberculosis incidence in Birmingham from Dec 1981 to Nov 2009, using publicly-available data from statutory tuberculosis notifications, and related this to the seasons and hours of sunshine (UK Meteorological Office data using unmeasured component models. RESULTS: There were 9,739 tuberculosis cases over the study period. There was strong evidence for seasonality, with notifications being 24.1% higher in summer than winter (p<0.001. Winter dips in sunshine correlated with peaks in tuberculosis incidence six months later (4.7% increase in incidence for each 100 hours decrease in sunshine, p<0.001. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: A potential mechanism for these associations includes decreased vitamin D levels with consequent impaired host defence arising from reduced sunshine exposure in winter. This is the longest time series of any published study and our use of statutory notifications means this data is essentially complete. We cannot, however, exclude the possibility that another factor closely correlated with the seasons, other than sunshine, is responsible. Furthermore, exposure to sunlight depends not only on total hours of sunshine but also on multiple individual factors. Our results should therefore be considered hypothesis-generating. Confirmation of a potential causal relationship between winter vitamin D deficiency and summer peaks in tuberculosis incidence would require a randomized-controlled trial of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on future tuberculosis incidence.

  13. Use of RegCM gridded dataset for thunderstorm favorable conditions analysis over Poland—climatological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walawender, Ewelina; Kielar, Rafał; Ustrnul, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyzes equivalent data for a low density meteorological station network (spatially discontinuous data) and poor temporal homogeneity of thunderstorm observational data. Due to that, a Regional Climate Model (RegCM) dataset was tested. The Most Unstable Convective Available Potential Energy index value (MUCAPE) above the 200 J kg-1 threshold was selected as a predictor describing favorable conditions for the occurrence of thunderstorms. The quality of the dataset was examined through a comparison between model results and soundings from several aerological stations in Central Europe. Good, statistically significant (0.05 significance level) results were obtained through correlation analysis; the value of Pearson's correlation coefficient was above 0.8 in every single case. Then, using methods associated with gridded climatology, data series for 44 weather stations were derived and an analysis of correlation between RegCM modeled data and in situ thunderstorm observations was conducted with coefficients in the range of 0.75-0.90. The possibility of employing the dataset in thunderstorm climatology analysis was checked via a few examples by mapping monthly, seasonal, and annual means. Moreover, long-term variability and trend analysis along with modeled MUCAPE data were tested. As a result, the RegCM modeled MUCAPE gridded dataset was proposed as an easily available, suitable, and valuable predictor for thunderstorm climatology analysis and mapping. Finally, some limitations are discussed and recommendations for further improvements are given.

  14. Exceptional sequence of severe thunderstorms and related flash floods in May and June 2016 in Germany - Part 1: Meteorological background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David; Kunz, Michael; Ehmele, Florian; Mohr, Susanna; Mühr, Bernhard; Kron, Andreas; Daniell, James

    2016-12-01

    During a 15-day episode from 26 May to 9 June 2016, Germany was affected by an exceptionally large number of severe thunderstorms. Heavy rainfall, related flash floods and creek flooding, hail, and tornadoes caused substantial losses running into billions of euros (EUR). This paper analyzes the key features of the severe thunderstorm episode using extreme value statistics, an aggregated precipitation severity index, and two different objective weather-type classification schemes. It is shown that the thunderstorm episode was caused by the interaction of high moisture content, low thermal stability, weak wind speed, and large-scale lifting by surface lows, persisting over almost 2 weeks due to atmospheric blocking.For the long-term assessment of the recent thunderstorm episode, we draw comparisons to a 55-year period (1960-2014) regarding clusters of convective days with variable length (2-15 days) based on precipitation severity, convection-favoring weather patterns, and compound events with low stability and weak flow. It is found that clusters with more than 8 consecutive convective days are very rare. For example, a 10-day cluster with convective weather patterns prevailing during the recent thunderstorm episode has a probability of less than 1 %.

  15. Dancing red sprites and the lightning activity in their parent thunderstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bór, József; Zelkó, Zoltán; Hegedüs, Tibor; Jäger, Zoltán; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Popek, Martin; Betz, Hans-Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Red sprites are brief optical emissions initiated in the mesosphere by intense tropospheric lightning discharges. A group of red sprites, in which the elements appear in rapid succession with some lateral offset from one another is referred to as a dancing sprite event. The occurrence of such events implies that significant and sequential charge removal extending to large regions of the thunderstorm can take place in the underlying cloud system. In this work, we examine the relation of the locations and observation times of appearing sprite elements to the temporal and spatial distribution of the lightning activity in a specific sprite-active thunderstorm. The selected mesoscale convective system (MCS) composed of several extremely active thundercloud cells crossed Central Europe from South-West to North-East through Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Poland on the night of 6 August, 2013. This MCS has triggered over one hundred sprites including several dancing sprite events. Video recordings of sprites captured from Sopron, Hungary (16.6°E, 47.7°N) and Nydek, Czech Republic (18.8°E, 49.7°N) were used to identify dancing sprite events and to determine the exact locations of the appearing sprite elements by a triangulation technique used originally to analyze meteor observations. Lightning activity in the MCS can be reviewed using the database of LINET lightning detection network which fully covers the region of interest (ROI). The poster demonstrates how cases of sequential charge removal in the thunderstorm can be followed by combining the available information on the occurrence time, location, polarity, and type (CG/IC) of detected lightning strokes in the ROI on one hand and the occurrence time and location of elements in dancing sprite events on the other hand.

  16. Simulation of the impact of thunderstorm activity on atmospheric gas composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyshlyaev, S. P.; Mareev, E. A.; Galin, V. Ya.

    2010-08-01

    A chemistry-climate model of the lower and middle atmosphere has been used to estimate the sensitivity of the atmospheric gas composition to the rate of thunderstorm production of nitrogen oxides at upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric altitudes. The impact that nitrogen oxides produced by lightning have on the atmospheric gas composition is treated as a subgrid-scale process and included in the model parametrically. The natural uncertainty in the global production rate of nitrogen oxides in lightning flashes was specified within limits from 2 to 20 Tg N/year. Results of the model experiments have shown that, due to the variability of thunderstorm-produced nitrogen oxides, their concentration in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere can vary by a factor of 2 or 3, which, given the influence of nitrogen oxides on ozone and other gases, creates the potential for a strong perturbation of the atmospheric gas composition and thermal regime. Model calculations have shown the strong sensitivity of ozone and the OH hydroxyl to the amount of lightning nitrogen oxides at different atmospheric altitudes. These calculations demonstrate the importance of nitrogen oxides of thunderstorm origin for the balance of atmospheric odd ozone and gases linked to it, such as ozone and hydroxyl radicals. Our results demonstrate that one important task is to raise the accuracy of estimates of the rate of nitrogen oxide production by lightning discharges and to use physical parametrizations that take into account the local lightning effects and feedbacks arising in this case rather than climatological data in models of the gas composition and general circulation of the atmosphere.

  17. Ionospheric Alfvén resonator excitation due to nearby thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkov, V. V.; Hayakawa, M.; Schekotov, A. Y.; Fedorov, E. N.; Molchanov, O. A.

    2006-01-01

    A theory of midlatitude Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator (IAR) excitation due to random cloud-to-ground lightning discharges is developed. Electromagnetic wave radiated from the lightning discharges penetrates into the ionosphere, thereby exciting the shear Alfvén and magnetosonic waves in the F region of ionosphere. The IAR arises due to wave reflection from the Alfvén velocity gradients in the topside ionosphere. Typically, the ionospheric resonance cavity accumulates the shear Alfvén wave energy with periods from 1 s to a few tenths of seconds. To proceed analytically, a suitably idealized plane-stratified model of the medium was used that ignores the magnetic field line curvature and dip angle but includes plasma conductivity variations with altitude. The thunderstorm centers distributed around a ground-recording station is assumed to be statistically independent sources of the lightning activity, which is a stochastic Poisson process. The lightning onset time and the current moment is supposed to be a random value, while the shape and duration of return strokes are deterministic. Model calculations of the IAR spectrum due to nearby thunderstorm activity were applied to interpret ULF observation made at Karimshino station (52.94°N, 158.25°E) in Kamchatka peninsula. It is shown that the sharp impulses which are in one-to-one correspondence with the appearance of the spectral resonance structure (SRS) in dynamic spectrograms can be the result from nearby lightning discharges followed by impulse IAR excitation. The correlation functions and power spectra of the IAR due to random lightning discharge process is studied both analytically and numerically. We found that the nearby thunderstorms in the range of 1000-2000 km make a main contribution to the SRS signature of the midlatitude IAR, whereas the remote/tropic thunderstorm activity is of minor importance. It is not inconceivable that there may exist other permanent mechanisms of the midlatitude IAR excitation

  18. The influence of artificial-thunderstorm cell polarity on discharge initiation by model hydrometeor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temnikov, A. G.; Chernenskii, L. L.; Orlov, A. V.; Lysov, N. Yu.; Belova, O. S.; Kalugina, I. E.; Gerastenok, T. K.; Zhuravkova, D. S.

    2017-02-01

    The initiation of discharge by model hydrometeors between an artificial-thunderstorm cell (aerosol cloud) of negative or positive polarity and ground has been experimentally studied. It is established for the first time that the conditions of cloud-ground spark discharge initiation by hydrometeors, as well as the characteristics of discharge significantly depend on the polarity of charged cloud. The effect of hydrometeor arrays can be manifested by the cloud-ground lightning initiated in a thundercloud and used for developing scientific principles of artificial lightning discharge.

  19. A sea breeze induced thunderstorm over an inland station over Indian South Peninsula - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, Jyoti; Kesarkar, Amit P.; Karipot, Anandakumar; Bala Subrahamanyam, D.; Rajasekhar, M.; Sathiyamoorthy, V.; Kishtawal, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The dynamic interaction of sea breeze with the prevailing synoptic flows can give rise to meteorological conditions conducive for the occurrence to the thunderstorms over coastal and adjoining regions. Here, we present a rare case study of the genesis of the thunderstorm that occurred on 4th May 2011 at 1500Z over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), one of the tropical inland stations (100 km) near to the east coast of the Indian peninsula. The objective of present work is to understand the underlying physical mechanism of initiation of such convection over this region. A set of meteorological observations obtained from microwave radiometer profiler, eddy covariance flux tower system, and Doppler weather radar, are used for investigating the convection genesis characteristics. In conjunction with observations, to bridge the gap of lack of high resolutional spatial observations, the high-resolution (2 km) model analysis is developed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and four-dimensional data assimilation technique. The analysis of thermodynamical and dynamical indices carried out from the model analysis as well as observations. Results obtained from this study indicated the presence of a wind discontinuity line and a warm air advection from the north Indian region towards Gadanki caused this area hot dry and convectively active. The sea breeze front propagated over hot and dry area few hours before the genesis of the thunderstorm. The moisture flux convergence increased with the inland propagation of sea breeze front. We found that the inland penetration of sea-breeze front caused advection of moist and cold air over warm and dry region; reduction in dew point depression causing bulging of dry line and lowering of lifting condensation level; development of shear in wind direction and speed; increase in low level convergence and vertical velocity, upward transport of moist air and finally increase in helicity of the environment. The wind shear instability

  20. Long-term variability of the thunderstorm and hail potential in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Susanna; Kunz, Michael; Speidel, Johannes; Piper, David

    2016-04-01

    Severe thunderstorms and associated hazardous weather events such as hail frequently cause considerable damage to buildings, crops, and automobiles, resulting in large monetary costs in many parts of Europe and the world. To relate single extreme hail events to the historic context and to estimate their return periods and possible trends related to climate change, long-term statistics of hail events are required. Due to the local-scale nature of hail and a lack of suitable observation systems, however, hailstorms are not captured reliably and comprehensively for a long period of time. In view of this fact, different proxies (indirect climate data) obtained from sounding stations and regional climate models can be used to infer the probability and intensity of thunderstorms or hailstorms. In contrast to direct observational data, such proxies are available homogeneously over a long time period. The aim of the study is to investigate the potential for severe thunderstorms and their changes over past decades. Statistical analyses of sounding data show that the convective potential over the past 20 - 30 years has significantly increased over large parts of Central Europe, making severe thunderstorms more likely. A similar picture results from analyses of weather types that are most likely associated with damaging hailstorms. These weather patterns have increased, even if only slightly but nevertheless statistically significantly, in the time period from 1971 to 2000. To improve the diagnostics of hail events in regional climate models, a logistic hail model has been developed by means of a multivariate analysis method. The model is based on a combination of appropriate hail-relevant meteorological parameters. The output of the model is a new index that estimates the potential of the atmosphere for hailstorm development, referred to as potential hail index (PHI). Applied to a high-resolved reanalysis run for Europe driven by NCEP/NCAR1, long-term changes of the PHI for

  1. Analysis of Summer Thunderstorms in Central Alabama Using the NASA Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Robert; Case, Jonathan; Molthan, Andrew; Jedloved, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Forecasters have difficulty predicting "random" afternoon thunderstorms during the summer months. Differences in soil characteristics could be a contributing factor for storms. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) may assist forecasters in predicting summer convection by identifying boundaries in land characteristics. This project identified case dates during the summer of 2009 by analyzing synoptic weather maps, radar, and satellite data to look for weak atmospheric forcing and disorganized convective development. Boundaries in land characteristics that may have lead to convective initiation in central Alabama were then identified using LIS.

  2. Response of thunderstorm activity in data of neutron monitoring at Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, Valentina; Kryukov, Sergey; Lutsenko, Vadim

    2015-04-01

    We present results of the study of data of the monitoring of high-energy and thermal neutrons at Tien Shan at different stages of thunderstorm activity. The data of the neutron monitoring were used taking into account the barometric effect. The intensity of the neutron component of cosmic rays is recorded in seven energy ranges. The electric field has values of ~ 100 V/m under fair weather conditions. Standard deviation of minute values of the neutron monitor data at the high altitude station does not exceed 0.5-0.6 %. Found that the standard deviation of the data during thunderstorms always exceeds these values. We selected events during the passage of thunderstorm clouds over the high altitude station without lightning discharges or with a small number of them. It was found that the particle rate of the neutron monitor changes in antiphase with the electric field changes. Atmospheric electric field of positive polarity decreases the count rate of the neutron monitor, and negative polarity - increases. Change of the count rate occurs at values of electric field ≥ 10-15 kV/m and reaches 2 %. The neutron monitor at the high-altitude station has the ability to measure the energy of recorded particles through determination of their multiplicity. We experimentally established that the sensitivity of the detected particles to change in Ez increases with decreasing their energy. The upper energy threshold of sensitivity of neutrons to change electric field is ~10 GeV. The physical mechanism of effect is based on lead nucleus capture of soft negative muons with the subsequent generation of neutrons. It is known that 7% of the neutron monitor count rate caused by negative muons. Absence of this effect in thermal neutrons data confirms the conclusion since the main difference of the thermal neutrons detector from the neutron monitor is the absence of the lead. In the active phase of a thunderstorm in the formed thundercloud the picture of distribution of charges is

  3. Sensitivity of PBL and Cumulus schemes for Thunderstorm prediction over an Indian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Charan Mohanty, Uma; Kumar, Krishan

    2015-04-01

    The cloud processes play an important role in all forms of precipitation. Its proper representation is one of the challenging tasks in mesoscale numerical simulation. Studies have revealed that mesoscale feature require proper initialization which may likely to improve the convective system rainfall forecasts. Understanding the precipitation process, model initial condition accuracy and resolved/sub grid-scale precipitation processes representation, are the important areas which needed to improve in order to represent the mesoscale features properly. Various attempts have been done in order to improve the model performance through grid resolution, physical parameterizations, etc. But it is the physical parameterizations which provide a convective atmosphere for the development and intensification of convective events. Further, physical parameterizations consist of cumulus convection, surface fluxes of heat, moisture, momentum, and vertical mixing in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). How PBL and Cumulus schemes capture the evolution of thunderstorm have been analysed by taking thunderstorm cases occurred over Kolkata, India in the year 2011. PBL and cumulus schemes were customized for WSM-6 microphysics because WSM series has been widely used in operational forecast. Results have shown that KF (PBL scheme) and WSM-6 (Cumulus Scheme) have reproduced the evolution of surface variable such as CAPE, temperature and rainfall very much like observation. Further, KF and WSM-6 scheme also provided the increased moisture availability in the lower atmosphere which was taken to higher level by strong vertical velocities providing a platform to initiate a thunderstorm much better. Overestimation of rain in WSM-6 occurs primarily because of occurrence of melting and freezing process within a deeper layer in WSM-6 scheme. These Schemes have reproduced the spatial pattern and peak rainfall coverage closer to TRMM observation. It is the the combination of WSM-6, and KF schemes

  4. Distribution of possible sunshine durations over rugged terrains of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yan; QIU Xinfa; MIAO Qilong; LIU Changming

    2003-01-01

    Based on the digital elevation model (DEM), a new model for calculating possible sunshine duration (PSD) is completely described. Using this model, monthly PSD with resolution of 1 km×1 km for the rugged topography of China is calculated. Results suggest that terrain has robust effect on PSD, particularly in winter when a lower sun elevation angle exists. Besides, the proposed model taking the DEM data as the input has an ability to process mass of data and is applicable to satellite image processing platforms or Geographic Information System (GIS). The PSD (in hours) is provided in the same way as other kinds of spatial information and can be employed as basic geographic data for relevant studies as well.

  5. Sunshine, Sea, and Season of Birth: MS Incidence in Wales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd D Balbuena

    Full Text Available Maternal sun exposure in gestation and throughout the lifetime is necessary for vitamin D synthesis, and living near the sea is a population level index of seafood consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence rate of multiple sclerosis (MS in Wales and examine its association with sun exposure, coastal living, and latitude. The study used a database of MS hospital visits and admissions in Wales between 2002 and 2013. For the 1,909 lower layer super output areas (LSOAs in Wales, coastal status, population, longitude/latitude, and average sunshine hours per day were obtained. Age-specific and age-standardised MS incidence were calculated and modelled using Poisson regression. The distribution of births by month was compared between MS cases and the combined England and Wales population. There were 3,557 new MS cases between 2002 and 2013, with an average annual incidence of 8.14 (95% CI: 7.69-8.59 among males and 12.97 (95% CI: 12.44-13.50 among females per 100,000 population. The female-to-male ratio was 1.86:1. For both sexes combined, the average annual incidence rate was 9.10 (95% CI: 8.80-9.40. All figures are age-standardized to the 1976 European standard population. Compared to the combined England and Wales population, more people with MS were born in April, observed-to-expected ratio: 1.21 (95% CI: 1.08-1.36. MS incidence varied directly with latitude and inversely with sunshine hours. Proximity to the coast was associated with lower MS incidence only in easterly areas. This study shows that MS incidence rate in Wales is comparable to the rate in Scotland and is associated with environmental factors that probably represent levels of vitamin D.

  6. High-Energy Radiation from Thunderstorms with ADELE: TGFs, Steps, and Glows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David M.; Kelley, Nicole; Martinez-McKinney, Forest; Zhang, Zi Yan; Hazelton, Bryna; Grefenstette, Brian; Splitt, Michael; Lazarus, Steven; Ulrich, William; Levine, Steven; Dwyer, Joseph; Schaal, Meagan; Saleh, Ziad; Cramer, Eric; Rassoul, Hamid; Cummer, Steven; Lu, Gaopeng; Shao, Xuan-Min; Ho, Cheng; Blakeslee, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The biggest challenge in the study of high-energy processes in thunderstorms is getting a detector to the vicinity of the electrically active regions of a storm. The Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) has been used to detect gamma rays from aircraft above storms and from a storm-chasing van on the ground. In August 2009, ADELE flew above Florida storms in a Gulfstream V jet, detecting the first terrestrial gamma-ray flash (TGF) seen from a plane and continuous glows of high-energy emission above thunderclouds. The presence of these glows suggests that a gradual process of relativistic runaway and feedback may help limit the total amount of charging in thunderstorms, in contrast to the traditional view that only lightning discharges compete with the charging process. The upper limits on TGF emission from intracloud and cloud-to-ground lightning from the ADELE flights demonstrated conclusively that a TGF of the sort seen from space is not associated with most lightning and not necessary to trigger it. In August 2010, observations from a van detected stepped-leader x-ray emission from at least four lightning strikes in ten days of operations. This mode of operation is therefore promising for future observations of the stepping process, although a more varied suite of instrumentation, in particular a flash-distance detector, would be useful. We will report on these results and on future possibilities for ADELE campaigns.

  7. Characteristics of Preliminary Breakdown Pulses in Positive Ground Flashes during Summer Thunderstorms in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalina Johari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the characteristics of the preliminary breakdown pulses (PBP in 51 positive ground flashes recorded during 2014 summer thunderstorms in Sweden. Electric field measurements were conducted remotely using a broadband antenna system (up to 100 MHz for a recording length of 1 s with 200 ms trigger time. In the analysis, PBP trains were observed in 86% of the cases. Based on the number of trains preceding the first return stroke, the PBP were classified into single and multiple train PBP. Characteristics of the first PBP train were determined and based on the initial polarity of the pulses, three types of PBP were identified. Characteristics of the subsequent PBP trains in the multiple train PBP were also analyzed and they were compared with the first PBP train. Based on the conceptual charge cloud configuration, we found that the inverted dipole is consistent with our observation. We also found that PBP in positive ground flashes during summer thunderstorms in Sweden are weak since the average ratios of the PBP peak to the first return stroke peak lie only between 0.21 and 0.26. Possible reasons for no detection of PBP and the different types of PBP observed were also discussed.

  8. Alpine debris flows triggered by a 28 July 1999 thunderstorm in the central Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, Jonathan W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2007-02-01

    On 28 July 1999, about 480 alpine debris flows were triggered by an afternoon thunderstorm along the Continental Divide in Clear Creek and Summit counties in the central Front Range of Colorado. The thunderstorm produced about 43 mm of rain in 4 h, 35 mm of which fell in the first 2 h. Several debris flows triggered by the storm impacted Interstate Highway 70, U.S. Highway 6, and the Arapahoe Basin ski area. We mapped the debris flows from color aerial photography and inspected many of them in the field. Three processes initiated debris flows. The first process initiated 11% of the debris flows and involved the mobilization of shallow landslides in thick, often well vegetated, colluvium. The second process, which was responsible for 79% of the flows, was the transport of material eroded from steep unvegetated hillslopes via a system of coalescing rills. The third, which has been termed the "firehose effect," initiated 10% of the debris flows and occurred where overland flow became concentrated in steep bedrock channels and scoured debris from talus deposits and the heads of debris fans. These three processes initiated high on steep hillsides (> 30°) in catchments with small contributing areas (material along their paths.

  9. Is a little sunshine all we need? On the impact of sunshine regulation on profits, productivity and prices in the Dutch drinking water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, K.; Saal, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the performance of Dutch drinking water utilities before and after the introduction of sunshine regulation, which involves publication of the performance of utilities but no formal price regulation. By decomposing profit change into its economic drivers, our results suggest that,

  10. Comparison of Thunderstorm Simulations from WRF-NMM and WRF-ARW Models over East Indian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Litta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thunderstorms are typical mesoscale systems dominated by intense convection. Mesoscale models are essential for the accurate prediction of such high-impact weather events. In the present study, an attempt has been made to compare the simulated results of three thunderstorm events using NMM and ARW model core of WRF system and validated the model results with observations. Both models performed well in capturing stability indices which are indicators of severe convective activity. Comparison of model-simulated radar reflectivity imageries with observations revealed that NMM model has simulated well the propagation of the squall line, while the squall line movement was slow in ARW. From the model-simulated spatial plots of cloud top temperature, we can see that NMM model has better captured the genesis, intensification, and propagation of thunder squall than ARW model. The statistical analysis of rainfall indicates the better performance of NMM than ARW. Comparison of model-simulated thunderstorm affected parameters with that of the observed showed that NMM has performed better than ARW in capturing the sharp rise in humidity and drop in temperature. This suggests that NMM model has the potential to provide unique and valuable information for severe thunderstorm forecasters over east Indian region.

  11. parameterrization of microphysical and dynamical processes of rainfall in thunderstorm cloud model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available   In this research parameterization of the precipitation process in Ogura & Takahashi (O-T thunderstorm model was improved in microphysical processes, specially in the autoconversion process to form raindrops, in the glaciation process and in the terminal velocities of rain and hail. The rainfall intensity became much heavier with Kesslers parameterization, the second peak of the rainfall intensity disappeared with Biggs freezing probability, and the rainfall intensity became much heavier and sharper with Lin et als terminal velocities of rain and hail than in the O-T original model. Finally, the derived rainfall pattern based on the improved model has much similarities to the observation data. This paper expresses the basic research for studying the physical treatment in clouds. The modified O-T model has different applications in analyzing radar observation data, estimate the potential of soil erosion, parameteriztion of shower in mesoscale numerical weather prediction and eta.

  12. High-Altitude Aircraft-Based Electric-Field Measurements Above Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, M. G.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Stewart, M. F.; Blair, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a new set of eight electric field mills that were flown on a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. During the Third Convection And Moisture EXperiment (CAMEX-3; Fall, 1998), measurements of electric field, storm dynamics, and ice microphysics were made over several hurricanes. Concurrently, the TExas-FLorida UNderflights (TEFLUN) program was being conducted to make the same measurements over Gulf Coast thunderstorms. Sample measurements are shown: typical flight altitude is 20km. Our new mills have an internal 16-bit A/D, with a resolution of 0.25V/m per bit at high gain, with a noise level less than the least significant bit. A second, lower gain channel gives us the ability to measure fields as high as 150 kV/m.

  13. Analysis of thunderstorm and lightning activity associated with sprites observed during the EuroSprite campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soula, S.; van der Velde, O.; Montanyà, J.

    2009-01-01

    During the summers of 2003 to 2006 sprites were observed over thunderstorms in France by cameras on mountain tops in Southern France. The observations were part of a larger coordinated effort, the EuroSprite campaigns, with data collected simultaneously from other sources including the French radar...... network for precipitation structure, Meteosat with images of cloud top temperature and the Météorage network for detection of cloud-to-ground (CG) flash activity. In this paper two storms are analyzed, each producing 27 sprite events. Both storms were identified as Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS......) with a trailing stratiform configuration (ST) and reaching a maximum cloud area of ~ 120,000 km2. Most of the sprites were produced while the stratiform area was clearly developed and during periods of substantial increase of rainfall in regions with radar reflectivity between 30 and 40 dBZ. The sprite...

  14. Numerical Study on a Severe Downburst-Producing Thunderstorm on 23 August 2001 in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A thunderstorm that produced severe wind, heavy rain and hail on 23 August 2001 in Beijing was studied by a three-dimensional cloud model including hail-bin microphysics. This model can provide important information for hail size at the surface, which is not available in hail parameterization cloud models. The results shows that the cloud model, using hail-bin microphysics, could reasonably reflect the storm's characteristics such as life cycle, rainfall distribution and the diameter of the hailstones and also can reproduce developing processes of downbursts, where they can then be compared with the observed features of the storm. The downburst formation mechanism was investigated based on the cloud microphysics of the simulated storm and it was found that the downburst was primarily produced by hail-loading and enhanced by cooling processes that were due to hail melting and rain evaporation. The loading and melting of hail played crucial roles in the formation of downbursts within the storm.

  15. TETRA Observation of Gamma Rays at Ground Level Associated with Nearby Thunderstorms

    CERN Document Server

    Ringuette, Rebecca; Cherry, Michael L; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGFs) -- very short, intense bursts of electrons, positrons, and energetic photons originating from terrestrial thunderstorms -- have been detected with satellite instruments. TETRA, an array of NaI(Tl) scintillators at Louisiana State University, has now been used to detect similar bursts of 50 keV to over 2 MeV gamma rays at ground level. After 2.6 years of observation, twenty-four events with durations 0.02- 4.2 msec have been detected associated with nearby lightning, three of them coincident events observed by detectors separated by ~1000 m. Nine of the events occurred within 6 msec and 3 miles of negative polarity cloud-to-ground lightning strokes with measured currents in excess of 20 kA. The events reported here constitute the first catalog of TGFs observed at ground level in close proximity to the acceleration site.

  16. Signatures of thunderstorms in the variations of the secondary cosmic rays registered in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Castillo, J.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect of thunderstorms (TS) in the intensity variations of the electromagnetic and muon components of the Cosmic Rays during the year 2004, a year of minimum solar activity. We analyzed the variations in the counting rates of the upper and lower scintillators of the muon telescope installed in Mexico City at times of reported TS and compared those with variations during quiet times. The data were filtered to eliminate long trends, then a wavelet spectrum was calculated, searching for the temporal evolution of diverse periods of high significance; recurrent periodicities and total power distributions were obtained. The results show variations of short period whose main periodicities are arranged in a distribution where the most important are the shortest periodicities. These may be associated to the electric fields of the TS. Significant long period variations were found too, these could be due to other processes linked to rainstorms. No systematic effect on the power of variations due to TS was found.

  17. Determinants of geographic patterns of diseases: interaction of lactose/lactase status and sunshine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Geographic patterns of diseases depend on multilayered causes. However, the division of the world's population into two phenotypes regarding lactose digestion and sunshine exposure to fixed areas of the globe are two relatively slow changing variables. It is hypothesized that it is a vectorial interaction between these two variables that provide a backbone to risk modification of many diseases. Lactase non persistence status tends to follow sunshine exposure particularly in Europe but Lactase persistence status is also been shown to be related to pastoral life styles in spotty regions of Africa, Middle East and China. Current emphasis of research favours the modifying role of vitamin D and sunshine. Nevertheless it was demonstrated that national digester/nondigester status has mathematical relationships to geographic distribution of some diseases. These relationships are also similar to that described for the effects of latitude through sunshine and vitamin D. This observation raises a question as to how each one affects disease outcome. In this paper lactose/lactase interactions are first reviewed for eight exemplary diseases. Based on population findings and corroborative meta-analyses gleaned from the literature 6 types of interactions may be classified. Then in a preliminary fashion lactose digester and maldigester status are related to relative annual sunshine exposure. Further the relative national annual sunshine exposure is evaluated to outcomes of the same exemplary diseases. The patterns related to sunshine reflect that obtained with national lactase status proportions and also corroborate a literature review. However, correlations are weak to moderate and only ovarian cancer reached conventional statistical significance. Because these comparisons are based on modest number of national data firm conclusions cannot be made. However, it is argued that evolutionary pressures exerted by regional sunshine exposure may have had influence on a number of relevant

  18. Debris Flows and Record Floods from Extreme Mesoscale Convective Thunderstorms over the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Shoemaker, Craig; Webb, Robert H.; Schaffner, Mike; Griffiths, Peter G.; Pytlak, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Ample geologic evidence indicates early Holocene and Pleistocene debris flows from the south side of the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson, Arizona, but few records document historical events. On July 31, 2006, an unusual set of atmospheric conditions aligned to produce record floods and an unprecedented number of debris flows in the Santa Catalinas. During the week prior to the event, an upper-level area of low pressure centered near Albuquerque, New Mexico generated widespread heavy rainfall in southern Arizona. After midnight on July 31, a strong complex of thunderstorms developed over central Arizona in a deformation zone that formed on the back side of the upper-level low. High atmospheric moisture (2.00' of precipitable water) coupled with cooling aloft spawned a mesoscale thunderstorm complex that moved southeast into the Tucson basin. A 15-20 knot low-level southwesterly wind developed with a significant upslope component over the south face of the Santa Catalina Mountains advecting moist and unstable air into the merging storms. National Weather Service radar indicated that a swath of 3-6' of rainfall occurred over the lower and middle elevations of the southern Santa Catalina Mountains. This intense rain falling on saturated soil triggered over 250 hillslope failures and debris flows throughout the mountain range. Sabino Canyon, a heavily used recreation area administered by the U.S. Forest Service, was the epicenter of mass wasting, where at least 18 debris flows removed structures, destroyed the roadway in multiple locations, and closed public access for months. The debris flows were followed by streamflow floods which eclipsed the record discharge in the 75-year gaging record of Sabino Creek. In five canyons adjacent to Sabino Canyon, debris flows approached or excited the mountain front, compromising floow conveyance structures and flooding some homes.

  19. Static Electric Fields and Lightning Over Land and Ocean in Florida Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. G.; Cummins, K. L.; Simpson, A. A.; Hinckley, A.

    2017-01-01

    Natural cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning and the charge structure of the associated clouds behave differently over land and ocean. Existing literature has raised questions over the years on the behavior of thunderstorms and lightning over oceans, and there are still open scientific questions. We expand on the observational datasets by obtaining identical electric field observations over coastal land, near-shore, and deep ocean regions during both clear air and thunderstorm periods. Oceanic observations were obtained using two 3-meter NOAA buoys that were instrumented with Campbell Scientific electric field mills to measure the static electric fields. These data were compared to selected electric field records from the existing on-shore electric field mill suite of 31 sensors at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). CG lightning occurrence times, locations and peak current values for both on-shore and ocean were provided by the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network. The buoy instruments were first evaluated on-shore at the Florida coast, to calibrate field enhancements and to confirm proper behavior of the system in elevated-field environments. The buoys were then moored 20NM and 120NM off the coast of KSC in February (20NM) and August (120NM) 2014. Statistically larger CG peak currents were reported over the deep ocean for first strokes and for subsequent strokes with new contacts points. Storm-related static fields were significantly larger at both oceanic sites, likely due to decreased screening by nearby space charge. Time-evolution of the static field during storm development and propagation indicated weak or missing lower positive charge regions in most storms that initiated over the deep ocean, supporting one mechanism for the observed high peak currents in negative first strokes over the deep ocean. This project also demonstrated the practicality of off-shore electric field measurements for safety-related decision making at KSC.

  20. Satellite-based technique for nowcasting of thunderstorms over Indian region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suman Goyal; Ashish Kumar; M Mohapatra; L S Rathore; S K Dube; Rahul Saxena; R K Giri

    2017-08-01

    India experiences severe thunderstorms during the months, March–June. But these systems are not predicted well, mainly due to the absence of mesoscale observational network over Indian region and the expert system. As these are short lived systems, the nowcast is attempted worldwide based on satellite and radar observations. Due to inadequate radar network, satellite plays the dominant role for nowcast of these thunderstorms. In this study, a nowcast based algorithm ForTracc developed by Vila et al. (Weather Forecast 23:233–245, 2008) has been examined over the Indian region using Infrared Channel (10.8 μm) of INSAT-3D for prediction of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS). In this technique, the current location and intensity in terms of Cloud Top Brightness Temperature (CTBT) of the MCS are extrapolated. The purpose of this study is to validate this satellite-based nowcasting technique for Convective Cloud Clusters that helps in optimum utilization of satellite data and improve the nowcasting. The model could predict reasonably the minimum CTBT of the convective cell with average absolute error (AAE) of <7 K for different lead periods (30–180 min). However, it was underestimated for all the lead periods of forecasts. The AAE in the forecasts of size of the cluster varies from about 3×104 km2 for 30-min forecast to 7×104 km2 for 120-min forecast. The mean absolute error in prediction of size is above 31–38% of actual size for different lead periods of forecasts from 30 to 180 min. There is over estimation in prediction of size for 30 and 60 min forecasts (17% and 2.6% of actual size of the cluster, respectively) and underestimation in 90 to 180-min forecasts (–2.4% to –28%). The direct position error (DPE) based on the location of minimum CTBT ranges from 70 to 144 km for 30–180-min forecast respectively.

  1. Artificially triggered lightning and its characteristic discharge parameters in two severe thunderstorms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The lightning-induced-damages in the mid-latitude regions are usually caused during severe thunder-storms. But the discharge parameters of natural lightning are difficult to be measured. Five lightning flashes have been artificially triggered with the rocket-wire technique during the passage of two severe thunderstorms. The discharge current and close electric field of return stroke in artificially triggered lightning have been obtained in microsecond time resolution by using current measuring systems and electric field change sensors. The results show that the five triggered lightning flashes include 1 to 10 return strokes, and the average return stroke current is 11.9 kA with a maximum of 21.0 kA and a mini-mum of 6.6 kA, similar to the subsequent return strokes in natural lightning. The half peak width of the current waveform is 39 μs, which is much larger than the usual result. The peak current of stroke Ip (kA) and the neutralized charge Q(C) has a relationship of Ip = 18.5Q0.65. The radiation field of return stroke is 5.9 kV·m-1 and 0.39 kV·m-1 at 60 m and 550 m, respectively. The radiation field decreases as r -1.119 with increase of horizontal distance r from the discharge channel. Based on the well-accepted transmission line model, the speed of return stroke is estimated to be about 1.4×108 m·s-1, with a variation range of (1.1―1.6)×108 m·s-1. Because of the similarities of the triggered lightning and natural lightning, the results in this article can be used in the protection design of natural lightning.

  2. Pequena Miss Sunshine: para além de uma subjetividade exterior Little Miss Sunshine: beyond external subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Bueno Fischer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute as relações entre cultura do sucesso e sexualidade, com foco na infância - tema caro às diferentes mídias, como a televisão e o cinema. Faz-se uma análise do filme Pequena Miss Sunshine, a partir de autores como Foucault, Alain Badiou, Ismail Xavier e Jurandir Costa, com ênfase nos conceitos de modos de subjetivação, imagem fílmica e subjetividade exterior. O objetivo é pensar questões de gênero e sexualidade na cultura do espetáculo, a partir de uma narrativa cinematográfica em que tais valores são questionados. A ênfase é dada à análise do olhar e do corpo infantil, na figura da personagem Olive, de modo a pensar a gestualidade própria da criança, em seu silêncio, enigma e mistério, mais do que mera revelação de sentidos. O texto aponta que tal exercício pode sugerir outros modos de pensar as relações entre mídia, infância e questões de gênero e sexualidade.This article explores the relations between the culture of success and sexuality, with a focus on childhood as an important issue for the different kinds of media, such as television and the cinema. An analysis of the movie Little Miss Sunshine is developed, with the use of theoretical references from Foucault, Alain Badiou, Jurandir Costa and Ismail Xavier, about the concepts of audiovisual images, ways of subjectivation and external subjectivity. The aim of the study is to reflect on gender and sexuality issues in a spectacle culture, from a movie narrative in which such values are questioned. There is an analysis of children's bodies and their way of seeing the world, as expressed by the character Olive, with gestures, silence and mystery, rather than a revelation of senses. Such practices may suggest other ways of considering the relations between media, childhood and gender and sexuality issues.

  3. Long-term summer sunshine/moisture stress reconstruction from tree-ring widths from Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Poljanšek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first summer sunshine reconstruction from tree-ring data for the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. Summer sunshine is tightly connected with moisture stress in trees, because the moisture stress and therefore the width of annual tree-rings is under the influence of the direct and interactive effects of sunshine duration (temperature, precipitation, cloud cover and evapotranspiration. The reconstruction is based on a calibrated z-scored mean chronology, calculated from tree-ring width measurements from 7 representative black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold sites in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH. A combined regression and scaling approach was used for the reconstruction of the summer sunshine. We found a significant negative correlation (r = −0.54, p < 0.0001 with mean June–July sunshine hours from Osijek meteorological station (Croatia. The developed model was used for reconstruction of summer sunshine for the time period 1660–2010. We identified extreme summer events and compared them to available documentary historical sources of drought, volcanic eruptions and other reconstructions from the broader region. All extreme summers with low sunshine hours (1712, 1810, 1815, 1843, 1899 and 1966 are connected with volcanic eruptions.

  4. 78 FR 70964 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Audit Committee of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... Litigation & Management Internal Operations Review V. Internal Audit Reports with Management's Response VI. Internal Audit Status Reports VII. MHA/NFMC/EHLP Compliance VIII. Annual Audit Update & Other External... CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Audit Committee of the Board of Directors TIME & DATE: 3:30 p.m.,...

  5. Generation of hourly solar radiation for inclined surfaces using monthly mean sunshine duration in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mefti, A.; Bouroubi, M.Y. [Centre of Development of Renewable Energy, Lab. of Energy Resources, Algiers (Algeria); Adane, A. [Univ. of Science and Technology of Algiers (U.S.T.H.B.), Lab. of Image Processing and Radiation, Algiers (Algeria)

    2003-11-01

    Hourly global solar radiation flux incident on an inclined surface is evaluated in any site of Algeria using monthly mean daily sunshine duration measurements. The methodology used consists of successive transformations of solar data, respectively, based on the exponential probability distribution of daily sunshine duration, Angstrom equation, beta probability distribution of hourly global solar radiation flux, polynomial correlations of hourly direct and diffuse radiation with global solar radiation and the Klucher model. Monthly mean values of daily sunshine duration data recorded in 54 meteorological stations of Algeria and hourly solar radiation data collected in Algiers, Bechar and Tamanrasset are available for this study. Knowing the monthly mean daily sunshine duration measurements, the hourly global solar radiation data are then obtained on a tilted surface for the locations of Algiers, Tamanrasset and Bechar. The monthly mean hourly global solar radiation data estimated for Algiers are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental ones. Associated with the principal component analysis, the above method has been extended to all the other meteorological stations, and monthly mean values of hourly global solar radiation flux incident on an inclined surface have been simulated for every site of Algeria. This yields an important database useful for solar energy applications. (Author)

  6. 76 FR 55710 - Sunshine Act Meeting of LSC Board of Directors Finance Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Sunshine Act Meeting of LSC Board of Directors Finance Committee TIME AND DATE: The Legal Services Corporation (``LSC'' or ``Corporation'') Board of Directors (``Board'') Finance Committee will meet...: Finance Committee Agenda Open Session 1. Approval of agenda. 2. Consider and act on LSC Management's...

  7. 75 FR 56580 - Sunshine Act Meeting of LSC Board of Directors and Its Finance Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Sunshine Act Meeting of LSC Board of Directors and Its Finance Committee TIME AND DATE: The Legal Services Corporation (``LSC'' or ``Corporation'') Board of Directors (``Board'') and its Finance Committee will meet consecutively on September 21, 2010, with the Finance Committee convening at 10 a.m., Eastern Time, and...

  8. 76 FR 67764 - Finance, Budget & Program Committee Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Finance, Budget & Program Committee Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Time & Date: 10 a.m., Thursday, November 3, 2011. Place: 1325 G Street, NW., Suite 800, Boardroom, Washington, DC 20005....

  9. 76 FR 55125 - Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act TIME AND DATE: 2 p.m., Wednesday, September 7, 2011 PLACE: 1325 G Street, NW., Suite 800, Boardroom, Washington,...

  10. 77 FR 56238 - Finance, Budget & Program. Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Finance, Budget & Program. Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act TIME & DATE: 3 p.m., Thursday, September 20, 2012. PLACE: 1325 G Street NW., Suite 800, Boardroom, Washington,...

  11. 76 FR 55124 - Audit Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... CORPORATION Audit Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act TIME AND DATE: 11:00 a.m...; ehall@nw.org . AGENDA: I. CALL TO ORDER II. Executive Session with Internal Audit Director III. Internal Audit Report with Management's Response IV. FY `11 and `12 Risk Assessments and Internal Audit Plans...

  12. 78 FR 54925 - Audit Committee Meeting of The Board of Directors; Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... CORPORATION Audit Committee Meeting of The Board of Directors; Sunshine Act Meeting TIME AND DATE: 10:00 a.m... Secretary, (202) 760-4104; ehall@nw.org . AGENDA: I. CALL TO ORDER II. Executive Session With Internal Audit Director III. Title Change of the Internal Audit Director IV. Executive Session With Officers:...

  13. Creation and conservation of energy in Japan. [Sunshine and Moonlight Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoashi, K.

    1980-03-15

    Japan needs to increase alternatve energy supply by the year 2000. For the development of new energy sources, the Sunshine Project was initiated; it covers solar, geothermal, and coal liquefaction. For conservation of energy, the Moonlight Project was also begun. Some data on the schedules and budgets are given. 4 tables. (DLC)

  14. Egg saprolegniasis in a commercial sunshine bass hatchery: Control regime developed using copper sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  15. 77 FR 24741 - Sunshine Act Meeting; National Museum and Library Services Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Sunshine Act Meeting; National Museum and Library Services Board AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), NFAH. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: This notice sets forth the agenda of the forthcoming meeting of the National Museum and Library Services Board....

  16. 78 FR 8193 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Audit Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... External Auditors IV. Executive Session: Audit Committee V. Executive Session with Internal Audit Director VI. Executive Session with Officers VII. Acceptance of the FY2012 Audited Financial Statements VIII... CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Audit Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors TIME & DATE: 2:00...

  17. The Relationship Between Temperature & Sunshine and Spring-Sown Wheat Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Guang-cai; LI Meng; WU Dong-bing; SUN Qun; QIANG Xiao-lin; CHEN He-qin; DONG Mei; KOU Hao; WANG Jian-lin; HOU Li-bai

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the relationship between temperature&sunshine and spring-sown wheat qua lity,a spring-sown experiment with 3 wheat varieties was conducted in Rikaze,Lasa,Linzhi,Beijing and Shenyang from 1998 to 2001.The results indicated that significant difference on some quality characteristics of experimental wheat varieties were observed from different locations and different years.The results also showed:protein content was positively correlated with wet gluten content,falling number,the average day temperature and sunshine hours from heading to maturation;and negatively correlated with the growing days and the average diurnal temperature difference from sowing to maturation;wet gluten content was positively correlated with the average day temperature and sunshine hours during the same period.Sedimentation value and falling number were positively correlated with the average sunshine hours from sowing to maturation.The basic way of wheat production in Tibet was as follows:mainly developing medium gluten wheat varieties,suitably planting weak gluten wheat varieties,introducing some inland excellent varieties.

  18. 78 FR 19708 - Farm Credit Administration Board; Sunshine Act; Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION Farm Credit Administration Board; Sunshine Act; Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration... the Farm Credit Administration Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The regular meeting of the Board will be...

  19. 76 FR 6473 - Sunshine Act; FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting Tuesday, February 8, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... COMMISSION Sunshine Act; FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting Tuesday, February 8, 2011 February 1, 2011. The... Competition Title: Reform of the FCC Form 477 Data Program (WC Docket No. 11-10); Development of Nationwide... impossible to fill. Send an e-mail to: fcc504@fcc.gov or call the Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau...

  20. 78 FR 51192 - World War I Centennial Commission; Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting; Sunshine Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION World War I Centennial Commission; Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings Time and Date: Open: 9:30 a.m.-5:30 p.m. (Central Time) on Friday, September 13, 2013. Place: The...

  1. A Multi-view Interpretation of Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jie

    2015-01-01

    Stephen Leacock's masterpiece Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town is considered as one of the most enduring classics of Canadian humorous literature.This paper discusses the novel from the viewpoints of character analysis,Mariposa understanding and humor explanation to help the readers gain a better knowledge.

  2. 78 FR 8193 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors TIME & DATE: 2:00 p.m., Wednesday, February 13, 2013. PLACE: 1325 G Street NW., Suite 800, Boardroom...

  3. 77 FR 24538 - Sunshine Act; Audit Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Audit Director IV. Executive Session with Officers: Pending Litigation V. Internal Audit Report with Management's Response VI. Amendment to the FY 2012 Internal Audit Plan VII. FY'13 Risk Assessment & DRAFT... CORPORATION Sunshine Act; Audit Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors TIME AND DATE: 2 p.m.,...

  4. 78 FR 24438 - Board of Directors Audit Committee; Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Communication VII. FY 2014 Risk Assessment & Draft Internal Audit Plan VIII. Internal Audit Status Reports IX... CORPORATION Board of Directors Audit Committee; Sunshine Act Meeting TIME and DATE: 2:00 p.m., Tuesday, April... . AGENDA: I. CALL TO ORDER II. Executive Session with Internal Audit Director III. Mid Year Discussion...

  5. 77 FR 56238 - Audit Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Charter VI. Internal Audit Response with Management's Response VII. FY 2013 Risk Assessment & Internal... CORPORATION Audit Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act TIME & DATE: 1 p.m., Friday....org . AGENDA: I. Call to Order II. Executive Session with Internal Audit Director III....

  6. 76 FR 72220 - Board of Directors Audit Committee Meeting; Sunshine Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Related to Pending Litigation IV. Internal Audit Report with Management's Response V. FY '12 Risk Assessment and Internal Audit Plan VI. FY '12 EHLP Risk Assessment and Internal Audit Plan VII. Five Year... CORPORATION Board of Directors Audit Committee Meeting; Sunshine Act TIME AND DATE: 1 p.m., Tuesday,...

  7. 75 FR 47316 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice (Subject Matter Revised From Earlier Notice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice (Subject Matter Revised From Earlier Notice) The... National Science Board business and other matters specified, as follows: Date and Time: August 12, 2010, at 3 p.m. EDT. Subject Matter: Review and Discussion of Current Mid-Scale Research Funding Support...

  8. 78 FR 67344 - Sunshine Act Meeting; New Time and Date of Proceeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Federal Register due to the shutdown. The Board has now decided on a new time and date for the proceeding... SAFETY BOARD Sunshine Act Meeting; New Time and Date of Proceeding AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting and Hearing; New Time and Date. SUMMARY: The Defense...

  9. 77 FR 24492 - Employee Thrift Advisory Council Meeting; Notice of Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD Employee Thrift Advisory Council Meeting; Notice of Sunshine Act Meeting TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m. (Eastern Time) April 30, 2012. PLACE: 10th Floor Training Room, 77 K Street NE., Washington,...

  10. 75 FR 33307 - Employee Thrift Advisory Council Meeting; Sunshine Act; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD Employee Thrift Advisory Council Meeting; Sunshine Act; Notice of Meeting Time and Date: 10 a.m. (Eastern Time), June 24, 2010. Place: 4th Floor, Conference Room, 1250 H Street,...

  11. 76 FR 20351 - Employee Thrift Advisory Council; Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD Employee Thrift Advisory Council; Sunshine Act Meeting Notice TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m. (Eastern Time) April 18, 2011. PLACE: 2nd Floor Training Room, 1250 H Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005....

  12. 75 FR 11887 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Open Commission Meeting; Tuesday, March 16, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting; Open Commission Meeting; Tuesday, March 16, 2010 Date: March 9, 2010. The Federal Communications Commission will hold an Open Meeting on the subject listed below on Tuesday,...

  13. 75 FR 40754 - Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 45 CFR Part 614 RIN 3145-AA53 Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board AGENCY: National Science Board (NSB), National Science Foundation (NSF). ACTION: Direct final...

  14. The Research of Sunshine Sports to Psychologically Healthy to Shanghai University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-sheng, Kong

    2012-01-01

    This article used self-reporting inventory, self-test questionnaire, and other methods, chose four vocational schools in Shanghai for comparing experimental study of mental health, conducted experiments on experimental group and control group, and analyzed the current mental health of young students in Shanghai. It shows that the sunshine sports…

  15. Current status and future tasks of the Sunshine Project. (Development of new energy technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, T.

    1983-01-01

    Since its inception in 1974, the Sunshine Project has involved advances in new energy technology in many areas. The present report covers the principal areas of activity in 1980, examining the development status of solar energy, goethermal energy, coal liquefaction and gasification, hydrogen energy, wind power, ocean thermal energy conversion, etc. Future trends and tasks of new energy technology development are discussed. (In Japanese)

  16. Exposure to sunshine early in life prevented development of type 1 diabetes in Danish boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Frederiksen, Peder; Heitmann, Berit L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the association between exposure to sunshine during gestation and the risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Danish children. METHODS: The study population included 331,623 individuals born in Denmark from 1983 to 1988; 886 (0.26%) developed T1D by the age of 15 years. Th...

  17. Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds Sunshine Pyranometer (SPN1) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R. Michael [Remote Measurements & Research Company, Seattle, WA (United States); Long, Charles N. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.

    2016-01-10

    From the SPN1 manual, the SPN1 Sunshine Pyranometer is one sensor with three output channels: 1) total (global) solar radiation, 2) diffuse radiation, and 3) sunshine status. The SPN1 measures short-wave radiation between 400nm and 2700nm in W.m-2. The Direct beam component of solar radiation can be calculated from the Total minus the Diffuse component. The Sunshine status output indicates whether the energy in the direct beam exceeds the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standard threshold value of 120 W.m-2, using an algorithm based on the Total radiation, and the ratio of Total to Diffuse radiation. The radiation outputs have a cosine-corrected response. The advantages of the SPN1 are 1) It matches the WMO ‘Good Quality’ pyranometer classification. 2) It requires no shadow band or solar tracker. 3) There are no moving parts. 4) It does not need to be adjusted or repositioned to track the sun—a distinct advantage over shade rings or mechanical trackers. 5) It does not need to be oriented towards north. It will work accurately in any orientation as long as it is mounted horizontally. 6) It does not require knowledge of the latitude or longitude, and can be used at any latitude or longitude. 7) It measures sunshine hours as well as Total and Diffuse radiation. 8) The built-in heater allows use in wet or icy conditions.

  18. Geologic map of the Sunshine 7.5' quadrangle, Taos County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ren A.; Turner, Kenzie J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Lee, John P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    The Sunshine 7.5' quadrangle is located in the south-central part of the San Luis Basin of northern New Mexico, in the Rio Grande del Norte National Monument, and contains deposits that record volcanic, tectonic, and associated alluvial and colluvial processes over the past four million years. Sunshine Valley, named for the small locale of Sunshine, is incised by a series of northeast-trending drainages cut into Tertiary and Quaternary alluvial deposits forming an extensive alluvial apron between the east flank of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and the Rio Grande. These deposits predominantly overlie gently eastward-dipping lava flows of Pliocene Servilleta Basalt erupted from centers west of the map area. Servilleta Basalt lava flows terminate to the south against the elevated topography of three volcanic centers of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. From west to east these are Cerro de la Olla, Cerro Chiflo, and Guadalupe Mountain that are exposed in the southern part of the map area. Remnants of Miocene volcanic rocks are exposed near the southwestern edge of the map area and record evidence of an eroded volcanic terrain underlying deposits of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. These deposits are likely fault bounded to the east, roughly coincident with north to northwest trending, down-to-east faults in the southwestern quarter of the map area. The down-to-east normal faults reflect the basinward migration of the western margin of the Sunshine Valley sub-basin of the southern San Luis Basin.

  19. 76 FR 55138 - Sunshine Notice; Board of Directors Meeting; September 22, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... (202) 336-8438. Connie M. Downs, Corporate Secretary, Overseas Private Investment Corporation. BILLING... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Sunshine Notice; Board of Directors Meeting; September 22, 2011 TIME AND DATE: Thursday, September...

  20. A Multi-view Interpretation of Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Jie

    2015-01-01

    Stephen Leacock’s masterpiece Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town is considered as one of the most enduring classics of Canadian humorous literature.This paper discusses the novel from the viewpoints of character analysis,Mariposa understanding and humor explanation to help the readers gain a better knowledge.

  1. 75 FR 32816 - Sunshine Act Meeting of the Board of Directors Finance Committee Amended Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting of the Board of Directors Finance Committee Amended Notice Changes to the Meeting Date... (202) 295-1500 or FR_NOTICE_QUESTIONS@lsc.gov . Dated: June 4, 2010. Patricia D. Batie, Corporate...

  2. 78 FR 65716 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors TIME.... Corporate Scorecard Report D. HUD Counseling Rule E. Grants Report VIII. Adjournment Jeffrey T. Bryson...

  3. 78 FR 24438 - Board of Directors Finance, Budget & Program Committee: Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... CORPORATION Board of Directors Finance, Budget & Program Committee: Sunshine Act Meeting TIME AND DATE: 1:00 p.... STATUS: Open. CONTACT PERSON FOR MORE INFORMATION: Erica Hall, Assistant Corporate Secretary (202) 220... NC Grants V. FY 2014 Budget VI. Financial Report VII. DC Move Update VIII. FY 13 Corporate Milestone...

  4. 77 FR 22755 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice of Meeting of the Broadcasting Board of Governors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice of Meeting of the Broadcasting Board of Governors DATE AND TIME: Friday, April 20, 2012, 10 a.m. PLACE: Office of Cuba Broadcasting, 4201 NW. 77th Ave., Miami, FL...

  5. 78 FR 68100 - Sunshine Act Meeting of the National Museums and Library Services Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Institute of Museum and Library Services Sunshine Act Meeting of the National Museums and Library Services Board AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), NFAH. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Museum and Library Services Board, which advises the Director...

  6. Thunderstorm activity in early Earth: same estimations from point of view a role of electric discharges in formation of prebiotic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serozhkin, Yu.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The structure and the physical parameters of an early Earth atmosphere [1], most likely, played a determining role in formation of conditions for origin of life. The estimation of thunderstorm activity in atmosphere of the early Earth is important for understanding of the real role of electrical discharges during formation of biochemical compounds. The terrestrial lightning a long time are considered as one of components determining a physical state and chemical structure of an atmosphere. Liebig in 1827 has considered a capability of nitrogen fixation at discharges of lightning [2]. Recent investigations (Lamarque et al. 1996) have achieved that production rate of NOx due to lightning at 3·106 ton/year [3]. The efficiency of electric discharges as energy source for synthesis of low molecular weight organic compounds is explained by the several factors. To them concern effect of optical radiation, high temperature, shock waves and that is especially important, pulse character of these effects. The impulse impact is essentially reduced the probability of destruction of the formed compounds. However, for some reasons is not clear the real role of electric discharges in synthesis of biochemical compounds. The discharges used in experiments on synthesis of organic substances, do not remind the discharges observable in a nature. One more aspect of a problem about a role of electric discharges in forming pre-biotic conditions on the Earth is connected with the thunderstorm activity in a modern atmosphere. This activity is connected with the presence in an atmosphere of ice crystals and existing gradient of temperature. To tell something about a degree of thunderstorm activity during the early Earth, i.e. that period, when formed pre-biotic conditions were is very difficult. Astrobiological potential of various discharges First of all the diversity of electric discharges in terrestrial atmosphere (usual lightning, lightning at eruption of volcanoes

  7. Electrical measurements in the atmosphere and the Ionosphere over an active thunderstorm. II - Direct current electric fields and conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzworth, R. H.; Kelley, M. C.; Siefring, C. L.; Hale, L. C.; Mitchell, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    On August 9, 1981, a series of three rockets was launched over an air mass thunderstorm off the eastern seaboard of Virginia while simultaneous stratospheric and ground-based electric field measurements were made. The conductivity was substantially lower at most altitudes than the conductivity profiles used by theoretical models. Direct current electric fields over 80 mV/m were measured as far away as 96 km from the storm in the stratosphere at 23 km altitude. No dc electric fields above 75 km altitude could be identified with the thunderstorm, in agreement with theory. However, vertical current densities over 120 pA/sq m were seen well above the classical 'electrosphere' (at 50 or 60 km). Frequent dc shifts in the electric field following lightning transients were seen by both balloon and rocket payloads. These dc shifts are clearly identifiable with either cloud-to-ground (increases) or intercloud (decreases) lightning flashes.

  8. 75 FR 63204 - Sunshine Act Meeting of the Board of Directors and Its Committees; Amended Notice; Changes to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... term ``meeting'' and, therefore, the requirements of the Sunshine Act do not apply to such portion of... Governance & Performance Review Committee. 16. Consider and act on Resolution 2010-XXX Authorizing the Board..., Corporate Secretary. BILLING CODE 7050-01-P...

  9. Observations of Sprites and Elves Associated With Winter Thunderstorms in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganot, M.; Yair, Y.; Price, C.; Ziv, B.; Sherez, Y.; Greenberg, E.; Devir, A.; Yaniv, R.; Bor, J.; Satori, G.

    2006-12-01

    The results of the 2005-6 winter sprite campaign in Israel are reported. We conducted optical ground-based observations aiming to detect transient luminous events (TLEs) above winter thunderstorms in Israel and in the area over the Mediterranean Sea between Israel, Cyprus and Lebanon. We alternated between two observation sites: the Tel-Aviv University campus in central Tel-Aviv (32.5N, 34.5E) and the Wise astronomical observatory in the Negev desert, near Mitzpe-Ramon (30N, 34.5E). We used 2 WATEC cameras, mounted on a pan-and- tilt unit with GPS time-base and event-detection software (UFO-Capture). The system was remote-controlled via the Internet and targets were chosen in real-time based on lightning locations derived from a BOLTEK lightning detection system stationed in Tel-Aviv. Detailed weather forecasts and careful analysis of lightning probability allowed us to choose between the two observation sites. The optical campaign was accompanied by ELF and VLF electromagnetic measurements from the existing TAU array in southern Israel. During five separate winter storms (December 2005 through March 2006) we detected 31 events: 27 sprites (4 halo sprites) and 4 elves. Detection ranges varied from 250 to 450km. Sprites were found to occur almost exclusively over the sea, in the height range 44-105km. Most sprites were columnar, and the number of elements varied from 1 to 9 with lengths varying from 10 to 48km. The average duration of sprites was ~43ms. All TLEs were accompanied by distinct positive ELF transients, which were clearly identified by our ELF station in Mizpe-Ramon and by the ELF station near Sopron, Hungary (range ~2500km). Calculated charge moment values were 800-1870 C·km, with some events exceeding 2500 C·km. We employed different lightning location systems (Israel Electrical Company LPATS and TOGA, ZEUS global networks) to determine the ground location of the parent lightning and succeeded in geo-locating 7 events. Based on weather radar and

  10. Alpine debris flows triggered by a 28 July 1999 thunderstorm in the central Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    On 28 July 1999, about 480 alpine debris flows were triggered by an afternoon thunderstorm along the Continental Divide in Clear Creek and Summit counties in the central Front Range of Colorado. The thunderstorm produced about 43??mm of rain in 4??h, 35??mm of which fell in the first 2??h. Several debris flows triggered by the storm impacted Interstate Highway 70, U.S. Highway 6, and the Arapahoe Basin ski area. We mapped the debris flows from color aerial photography and inspected many of them in the field. Three processes initiated debris flows. The first process initiated 11% of the debris flows and involved the mobilization of shallow landslides in thick, often well vegetated, colluvium. The second process, which was responsible for 79% of the flows, was the transport of material eroded from steep unvegetated hillslopes via a system of coalescing rills. The third, which has been termed the "firehose effect," initiated 10% of the debris flows and occurred where overland flow became concentrated in steep bedrock channels and scoured debris from talus deposits and the heads of debris fans. These three processes initiated high on steep hillsides (> 30??) in catchments with small contributing areas (flow process. Based on field observations and examination of soils mapping of the northern part of the study area, we identified a relation between the degree of soil development and the process type that generated debris flows. In general, areas with greater soil development were less likely to generate runoff and therefore less likely to generate debris flows by the firehose effect or by rilling. The character of the surficial cover and the spatially variable hydrologic response to intense rainfall, rather than a threshold of contributing area and topographic slope, appears to control the initiation process in the high alpine of the Front Range. Because debris flows initiated by rilling and the firehose effect tend to increase in volume as they travel downslope, these

  11. Detailed flow, hydrometeor and lightning characteristics of an isolated thunderstorm during COPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schmidt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The three-hour life-cycle of the isolated thunderstorm on 15 July 2007 during the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS is documented in detail, with a special emphasis on the rapid development and mature phases. Remote sensing techniques as 5-min rapid scans from geostationary satellites, combined velocity retrievals from up to four Doppler-radars, the polarimetric determination of hydrometeors and spatio-temporal occurrences of lightning strokes are employed to arrive at a synoptic quantification of the physical parameters of this, during the COPS period, rare event.

    Inner cloud flow fields are available from radar multiple Doppler analyses, gridded on a 500 m-mesh, at four consecutive times separated by 15 min-intervals (14:35, 14:50, 15:05, 15:20; all times are in UTC. They contain horizontal winds of around 15 m s−1 and updrafts exceeding 5 m s−1, the latter collocated with lightning strokes. Reflectivity and polarimetric data indicate the existence of hail at the 2 km level around 14:40. Furthermore, polarimetric and Doppler radar variables indicate intense hydrometeor variability and cloud dynamics corresponding to an enhanced variance of the retrieved 3-D wind fields. Profiles of flow and hydrometeor statistics over the entire cloud volume provide reference data for high-resolution, episode-type numerical weather prediction runs in research mode.

    The study embarks from two multi-channel time-lapse movie-loops from geostationary satellite imagery (as Supplement, which provide an intuitive distinction of six phases making up the entire life-cycle of the thunderstorm. It concludes with a triple image-loop, juxtaposing a close-up of the cloud motion as seen by Meteosat, simulated brightness temperature (as a proxy for clouds seen by the infrared satellite channel, and a perspective view on the model generated system of cloud cells. By employing the motion-geared human

  12. LEONA: Transient Luminous Event and Thunderstorm High Energy Emission Collaborative Network in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sao Sabbas, F. T.

    2012-12-01

    This project has the goal of establishing the Collaborative Network LEONA, to study the electrodynamical coupling of the atmospheric layers signaled by Transient Luminous Events - TLEs and high energy emissions from thunderstorms. We will develop and install a remotely controlled network of cameras to perform TLE observations in different locations in South America and one neutron detector in southern Brazil. The camera network will allow building a continuous data set of the phenomena studied in this continent. The first two trial units of the camera network are already installed, in Brazil and Peru, and two more will be installed until December 2012, in Argentina and Brazil. We expect to determine the TLE geographic distribution, occurrence rate, morphology, and possible coupling with other geophysical phenomena in South America, such as the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly - SAMA. We also expect to study thunderstorm neutron emissions in a region of intense electrical activity, measuring neutron fluxes with high time resolution simultaneously with TLEs and lightning for the first time in South America. Using an intensified high-speed camera for TLE observation during 2 campaigns we expect to be able to determine the duration and spatial- temporal development of the TLEs observed, to study the structure and initiation of sprites and to measure the velocity of development of sprite structures and the sprite delay. The camera was acquired via the FAPESP project DEELUMINOS (2005-2010), which also nucleated our research group Atmospheric Electrodynamical Coupling - ACATMOS. LEONA will nucleate this research in other institutions in Brazil and other countries in South America, providing continuity for this important research in our region. The camera network will be an unique tool to perform consistent long term TLE observation, and in fact is the only way to accumulate a data set for a climatological study of South America, since satellite instrumentation turns off in

  13. Why does Rhinopithecus bieti prefer the highest elevation range in winter? A test of the sunshine hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Chang Quan

    Full Text Available Environmental factors that affect spatiotemporal distribution patterns of animals usually include resource availability, temperature, and the risk of predation. However, they do not explain the counterintuitive preference of high elevation range in winter by the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti. We asked whether variation of sunshine along with elevations is the key driving force. To test this hypothesis, we conducted field surveys to demonstrate that there was a statistically significant pattern of high elevation use during winter. We then asked whether this pattern can be explained by certain environmental factors, namely temperature, sunshine duration and solar radiation. Finally, we concluded with a possible ecological mechanism for this pattern. In this study, we employed GIS technology to quantify solar radiation and sunshine duration across the monkey's range. Our results showed that: 1 R. bieti used the high altitude range between 4100-4400 m in winter although the yearly home range spanned from 3500-4500 m; 2 both solar radiation and sunshine duration increased with elevation while temperature decreased with elevation; 3 within the winter range, the use of range was significantly correlated with solar radiation and sunshine duration; 4 monkeys moved to the areas with high solar radiation and duration following a snowfall, where the snow melts faster and food is exposed earlier. We concluded that sunshine was the main factor that influences selection of high elevation habitat for R. bieti in winter. Since some other endotherms in the area exhibit similar winter distributional patterns, we developed a sunshine hypothesis to explain this phenomenon. In addition, our work also represented a new method of integrating GIS models into traditional field ecology research to study spatiotemporal distribution pattern of wildlife. We suggest that further theoretical and empirical studies are necessary for better understanding

  14. Space-Borne Observations of Intense Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) Above Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2010-01-01

    Intense millisecond flashes of MeV photons are being observed with space-borne detectors. These terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) were discovered with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in the early 1990s. They are now being observed with several other instruments, including the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) detectors on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Although Fermi-GBM was designed and optimized for the observation of cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), it has unprecedented capabilities for TGF observations. The TGFs usually have extremely hard continuous spectra, typical of highly-Comptonized bremsstrahlung radiation. These spectral are harder than those of GRBs, with photons extending to over 40 MeV. The most likely origin of these high-energy photons is bremsstrahlung radiation produced by a relativistic runaway avalanche electron beam. Such a beam is expected to be produced in an extended, intense electric field in or above thunderstorm regions. The altitude of origin and beaming characteristics of the radiation are quite uncertain. These TGFs may produce an appreciable radiation dose to passengers and crew in nearby aircraft. They have generated considerable observational and theoretical interest in recent years. Instruments are being designed specifically for TGF observations from new spacecraft as well as from airborne platforms.

  15. Prevention of destructive tropical and extratropical storms, hurricanes, tornadoes, dangerous thunderstorms, and catastrophic floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Krasilnikov

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical cyclones and storms, hurricanes, powerful thunderclouds, which generate tornadoes, destructive extratropical cyclones, which result in catastrophic floods, are the powerful cloud systems that contain huge amount of water. According to the hypothesis argued in this paper, an electric field coupled with powerful clouds and electric forces play a cardinal role in supporting this huge mass of water at a high altitude in the troposphere and in the instability of powerful clouds sometimes during rather a long time duration. Based on this hypothesis, a highly effective method of volume electric charge neutralization of powerful clouds is proposed. It results in the decrease in an electric field, a sudden increase in precipitation, and subsequent degradation of powerful clouds. This method, based on the natural phenomenon, ensures the prevention of the intensification of tropical and extratropical cyclones and their transition to the storm and hurricane (typhoon stages, which makes it possible to avoid catastrophic floods. It also ensures the suppression of severe thunderclouds, which, in turn, eliminates the development of dangerous thunderstorms and the possibility of the emergence and intensification of tornadoes.

  16. Effects of the Inductive Charging on the Electrification and Lightning Discharges in Thunderstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional cloud model with electrification and lightning processes is used to investigate the role of inductive charge separation in thunderstorm clouds. For the same dynamic and microphysical evolution, four cases that the same non-inductive charging parameterization is combined with different inductive charging process are compared. Non-inductive charge separation alone is found to be sufficient to produce a dipolar charge structure. Intracloud (IC and positive cloud-to-ground (+CG flashes are initiated between a main negative charge region and an upper positive charge region. The inductive charging process between graupel and cloud droplets exhibits a normal tripole charge structure, consisting of a lower positive charge region under the main negative charge region. In the simulated tripole structure, negative cloud-to-ground (-CG flashes are initiated between the main negative and lower positive charge regions. In addition, inductive charge separation between the graupel and ice crystal is found to be capable of producing strong charge separation in a dipole charge structure. Tests with inductive graupel-ice crystals process produce more flashes than that in the other cases.

  17. Long-duration gamma-ray emissions from 2007 and 2008 winter thunderstorms

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuchiya, H; Yamada, S; Yuasa, T; Nakazawa, K; Kitaguchi, T; Kawaharada, M; Kokubun, M; Kato, H; Okano, M; Makishima, K

    2011-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Observation of Winter THunderclouds (GROWTH) experiment, consisting of two radiation-detection subsystems, has been operating since 2006 on the premises of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant located at the coastal area of Japan Sea. By 2010 February, GROWTH detected 7 long-duration $\\gamma$-rays emissions associated with winter thunderstorms. Of them, two events, obtained on 2007 December 13 and 2008 December 25, are reported.On both occasions, all inorganic scintillators (NaI, CsI, and BGO) of the two subsystems detected significant gamma-ray signals lasting for >1 minute. Neither of these two events were associated with any lightning. In both cases, the gamma-ray energy spectra extend to 10 MeV, suggesting that the detected gamma-rays are produced by relativistic electrons via bremsstrahlung. Assuming that the initial photon spectrum at the source is expressed by a power-law function,the observed photons can be interpreted as being radiated from a source located at a distance of 290-560 m ...

  18. An operational approach to the nowcasting of an intense thunderstorm over Liguria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gallino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period between late spring and early summer as well as in autumn, the Mediterranean is often affected by rapid development of intense convective systems. In some cases the operational NWP models are able to provide good indication of occurrence of such severe weather events (potential instability conditions but often location and intensity of convective precipitation are poorly forecasted. The approach of "PV-thinking" revealed itself as a good tool to identify favorable conditions for triggering such systems, partially filling this lack of information and supporting meteorologists in the very short range weather forecast. Moreover, the advanced use of data provided by SEVIRI channels onboard MSG satellite, makes possible an effective application of the PV approach, improving forecast skill also in areas where local effects are not well described by the models and/or by the data assimilation. The aim of this work is to show how the application of the MSG tools together with the PV philosophy helps in the diagnosis and nowcasting of intense thunderstorms triggered by tropopause, with particular attention to a case of intense convection over northwestern Italy during spring 2005.

  19. The formation process and cloud physical characteristics for a typical downburst-producing thunderstorm in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xueliang; FU Danhong

    2003-01-01

    The formation process and characteristics of cloud physical structure of a severe thunderstorm accompanied with strong wind on 23 August, 2001 in Beijing was studied using PSU/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5)coupling with a severe storm model with hail-bin microphysics. The results show that the specific topography and distribution features of cold/warm current in the Beijing region played prominent roles in forming, developing and maintaining the severe storm. Due to solar radiation heating and topographic lifting, the convective cells were easily formed when the westerly airflow passed over high mountainous regions in Beijing. The warm and wet air entered the cloud from its frontage and enhanced the convection, and formed a large amount of graupel/hail particles at the middle and upper portion of the clouds. The precipitation was primarily formed due to melting of graupel/hail particles. The strong downdraft was mainly produced by negative buoyancy due to loading,melting of graupel/hail particles as well as evaporative cooling of rain water. The divergent airflow induced by the strong downdraft led to the disastrous burst winds at the surface and also forced lifting of warm and wet airflow in the moving direction of the storm and formed new clouds that further promoted and maintained the storm development.

  20. Impact of updraft on neutralized charge rate by lightning in thunderstorms: A simulation case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Yijun; Zheng, Dong

    2015-12-01

    The rate of neutralized charge by lightning (RNCL) is an important parameter indicating the intensity of lightning activity. The total charging rate (CR), the CR of one kind of polarity (e.g., negative) charge (CROP), and the outflow rate of charge on precipitation (ORCP) are proposed as key factors impacting RNCL, based on the principle of conservation of one kind of polarity charge in a thunderstorm. In this paper, the impacts of updraft on CR and CROP are analyzed by using a 3D cloud resolution model for a strong storm that occurred in Beijing on 6 september 2008. The results show that updraft both promotes and inhibits RNCL at the same time. (1) Updraft always has a positive influence on CR. The correlation coefficient between the updraft volume and CR can reach 0.96. Strengthening of the updraft facilitates strengthening of RNCL through this positive influence. (2) Strengthening of the updraft also promotes reinforcement of CROP. The correlation coefficient between the updraft volume and CROP is high (about 0.9), but this promotion restrains the strengthening of RNCL because the strengthening of CROP will, most of the time, inhibit the increasing of RNCL. (3) Additionally, increasing of ORCP depresses the strengthening of RNCL. In terms of magnitude, the peak of ORCP is equal to the peak of CR. Because precipitation mainly appears after the lightning activity finishes, the depression effect of ORCP on RNCL can be ignored during the active lightning period.

  1. Intense Gamma-Ray Flashes Above Thunderstorms on the Earth and Other Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2010-01-01

    Intense millisecond flashes of MeV photons have been observed with space-borne detectors in Earth orbit. They are expected to be present on other planets that exhibit lightning. The terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) were discovered with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in the early 1990s. They are now being observed with several other instruments, including the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) detectors on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Although Fermi- GBM was designed and optimized for the observation of cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), it has unprecedented capabilities for TGF observations. The TGFs usually have extremely hard continuous spectra, typical of highly- Comptonized bremsstrahlung radiation. These spectral are harder than those of GRBs, with photons extending to over 40 MeV. The most likely origin of these high-energy photons is bremsstrahlung radiation produced by a relativistic "runaway avalanche" electron beam. Such a beam is expected to be produced in an extended, intense electric field in or above thunderstorm regions. The altitude of origin and beaming characteristics of the radiation are quite uncertain. They have generated considerable observational and theoretical interest in recent years. This talk will give an overview of the all of the space-borne observations of TGFs that have been made thus far. Instruments are being designed specifically for TGF observations from new spacecraft as well as from airborne platforms

  2. A reconstruction of 1 August 1674 thunderstorms over the Low Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schrier, Gerard; Groenland, Rob

    2017-02-01

    On 1 August 1674 an active cold front moved over the Low Countries. The accompanying thunderstorms along the squall line were abnormally active, leading to large-scale damage in Europe, from northern France to the northern parts of Holland where damages were particularly severe. Using reported and pictured observations of damages and modern meteorological concepts, the reconstruction of the storm points to an exceptionally severe squall line. The orientation and the velocity of the squall line are reconstructed and shows a developed bow-echo structure. An estimate of the strength of the strongest wind gusts is ≈ 55-90 m s-1 and is based on an assessment of the damages caused by this event. A rough estimate of the return time of this event, based on observed hail size, is between 1000 and 10 000 years. This storm is compared to a more recent storm which was similar in dynamics but much less devastating. Special attention is given to the city of Utrecht which was hit hardest, and where the impact of this storm is still recognizable in the cityscape.

  3. The reunified process of the korean península after the Sunshine Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Edgar Sánchez Gallegos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Korean peninsula is located as a strategic point. In the North it has border with the Republic of China, and the Russian Federation. The west sea separates Korea from Japan. That is the Korean importance to the powerful countries such as the United States and the countries mentioned before. The reunification topic is crucial when we are talking about Korea, and that is the reason of this essay. I t explores the reunification through Korean history until the results of the Sunshine Policy. The Sunshine Policy goals let us know that the Korean conflict has top be solved by the Korean citizens without other countries' intervention. By the way, I focus in the role of the private sector to get contact with North Korea perhaps, that is not important, however it can be useful to open the door to rejoin families from both sides, who share the same culture, language and history.

  4. The Influence of the Electric Field on Thunderstorm Microphysical Development Simulated with an Explicit Microphysics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, V. T.; Andronache, C.; Sherwood, S.

    2005-05-01

    Electric fields influence the microphysics of aerosol-cloud interactions. Hence, nucleation of ice is sensitive to the charge on nuclei. Furthermore, there is an increase in the collision efficiency when charged aerosol particles collide with droplets ('electroscavenging'), and rates of contact ice nucleation are enhanced by the charge on aerosol particles (Tinsley et al. 2000, Tripathi and Harrison, 2002). In addition, electric fields (EF) affect the collisional growth rate of hydrometeors and their fall velocity. The aim here is to assess how the collection efficiency for the coagulation of hydrometeors may be modified by a typical EF in a thunderstorm. Particular focus is given to effects on the generation of anvil ice particles. This is done by imposing a realistic EF in the control simulation with an Explicit Microphysics Model (EMM) of the storm, observed on 18th July 2002 near Florida during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE), as described by Phillips et al. (2005). An additional aim is to analyze how updraft speed (w) and environmental CCN concentration may affect the charge separation process. The warm rain process is intensified and there is a 30-40% reduction in the anvil ice concentration when an evolving height-dependent EF, typical of continental electrified thunderstorms, is prescribed and applied to the collection efficiencies for coagulation processes in the model. The electric dependence of the collision efficiency for drop-drop collisions is the cause. There is a 150% increase in the broad peak of average mixing ratio of rain near the freezing level (see Figure 1). This boosts the mixing ratio of precipitation-sized ice in the lower half of the mixed phase region, changing the number of charging collisions and depleting the supercooled cloudwater. Primarily because of the high sensitivity of the Hallett-Mossop (H-M) process of ice particle multiplication with respect to

  5. The Anthropogenic/Lightning Effects Around Houston: The Houston Environmental Aerosol Thunderstorm (HEAT) Project - 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orville, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    A major field program will occur in summer 2005 to determine the sources and causes for the enhanced cloud-to-ground lightning over Houston, Texas. This program will be in association with simultaneous experiments supported by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), formally the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). Recent studies covering the period 1989-2002 document a 60 percent increase of cloud-to-ground lightning in the Houston area as compared to surrounding background values, which is second in flash density only to the Tampa Bay, Florida area. We suggest that the elevated flash densities could result from several factors, including 1) the convergence due to the urban heat island effect and complex sea breeze (thermal hypothesis), and 2) the increasing levels of air pollution from anthropogenic sources producing numerous small cloud droplets and thereby suppressing mean droplet size (aerosol hypothesis). The latter effect would enable more cloud water to reach the mixed phase region where it is involved in the formation of precipitation and the separation of electric charge, leading to an enhancement of lightning. The primary goals of HEAT are to examine the effects of (1) pollution, (2) the urban heat island, and (3) the complex coastline on storms and lightning characteristics in the Houston area. The transport of air pollutants by Houston thunderstorms will be investigated. In particular, the relative amounts of lightning-produced and convectively transported NOx into the upper troposphere will be determined, and a comparison of the different NOx sources in the urban area of Houston will be developed. The HEAT project is based on the observation that there is an enhancement in cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning. Total lightning (intracloud (IC) and CG) will be measured using a lightning mapping system (LDAR II) to observe if there is an enhancement in intracloud lightning as well.

  6. Initial electrification to the first lightning flash in New Mexico thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Marshall, Thomas C.; Krehbiel, Paul R.

    2015-11-01

    The initial electrification of three New Mexico thunderstorms is examined using in situ and remote measurements. The earliest deflection of electric field (E) measured at the surface was 5-8.6 min before the first flash and coincident with the development of substantial radar reflectivity (40 dBZ) above -5°C. Rapid growth of surface E (>5 V/m/s) started 2.4-3.1 min before the first flash, when 40 dBZ reflectivities reached above the -15°C level. In two cases with clear surface E records, radar reflectivity indicators (40 dBZ echo through -10°C and echo top through -15°C) would yield longer warning times before the first flash than the E record. The first flash in each storm initiated at altitudes between 7.4 and 8.8 km; hence, the temperatures where the largest (negative) E for normal intracloud lightning initiation had developed during the initial electrification were -10°C to -20°C. Negative and positive charge regions associated with the first flash in each cell were centered at -8°C to -16°C (6.9-8.0 km) and -20°C to -24°C (9.0-9.2 km), respectively. In two cases, balloon data indicate the only substantial charge regions present before the first flash were those involved in the flash. Another case shows an initial period of opposite polarity E deflection at the surface coincident with substantial low-level positive charge within the cloud, although this charge was not involved in the first 8 min (first 17 flashes) of lightning activity. The findings support the notion that the initial electrification resulted from charging via the noninductive ice-ice collisional mechanism.

  7. Thunderstorm and stratocumulus: how does their contrasting morphology affect their interactions with aerosols?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that aerosols affect clouds and that the effect of aerosols on clouds is critical for understanding human-induced climate change. Most climate model studies have focused on the effect of aerosols on warm stratiform clouds (e.g., stratocumulus clouds for the prediction of climate change. However, systems like the Asian and Indian Monsoon, storm tracks, and the intertropical convergence zone, play important roles in the global hydrological cycle and in the circulation of energy and are driven by thunderstorm-type convective clouds. Here, we show that the different morphologies of these two cloud types lead to different aerosol-cloud interactions. Increasing aerosols are known to suppress the conversion of droplets to rain (i.e., so-called autoconversion. This increases droplets as a source of evaporative cooling, leading to an increased intensity of downdrafts. The acceleration of the intensity of downdrafts is larger in convective clouds due to their larger cloud depths (providing longer paths for downdrafts to follow to the surface than in stratiform clouds. More accelerated downdrafts intensify the gust front, leading to significantly increased updrafts, condensation and thus the collection of cloud liquid by precipitation, which offsets the suppressed autoconversion. This leads to an enhancement of precipitation with increased aerosols in convective clouds. However, the downdrafts are less accelerated in stratiform clouds due to their smaller cloud depths, and they are not able to induce changes in updrafts as large as those in convective clouds. Thus, the offset is not as effective, and this allows the suppression of precipitation with increased aerosols. Thus aerosols affect these cloud systems differently. The dependence of the effect of aerosols on clouds on the morphology of clouds should be taken into account for a more complete assessment of climate change.

  8. Corona discharges from a windmill and its lightning protection tower in winter thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Daohong; Rison, William; Thomas, Ronald J.; Edens, Harald E.; Takagi, Nobuyuki; Krehbiel, Paul R.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents lightning mapping array (LMA) observations of corona discharges from a windmill and its lightning protection tower in winter thunderstorms in Japan. Corona discharges from the windmill, called windmill coronas, and those from the tower, called tower coronas, are distinctly different. Windmill coronas occur with periodic bursts, generally radiate larger power, and possibly develop to higher altitudes than tower coronas do. A strong negative electric field is necessary for the frequent production of tower coronas but is not apparently related with windmill coronas. These differences are due to the periodic rotation of the windmill and the moving blades which can escape space charges produced by corona discharges and sustain a large local electric field. The production period of windmill coronas is related with the rotation period of the windmill. Surprisingly, for one rotation of the windmill, only two out of the three blades produce detectable discharges and source powers of discharges from these two blades are different. The reason for this phenomenon is still unclear. For tower coronas, the source rate can get very high only when there is a strong negative electric field, and the source power can get very high only when the source rate is very low. The relationship between corona discharges and lightning flashes is investigated. There is no direct evidence that corona discharges can increase the chance of upward leader initiation, but nearby lightning flashes can increase the source rate of corona discharges right after the flashes. The peak of the source height distribution of corona discharges is about 100 m higher than the top of the windmill and the top of the tower. Possible reasons for this result are discussed.

  9. Duration and extent of large electric fields in a thunderstorm anvil cloud after the last lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Marshall, Thomas C.; Krehbiel, Paul R.

    2010-10-01

    A series of balloon electric field (E) soundings and time-correlated radar scans through the balloon locations are used to examine the evolution of charge and reflectivity inside a dissipating thunderstorm anvil. The soundings cover a 75 min period during and after the final lightning flash in distant convection. The first sounding measured large E magnitudes (maximum 65 kV m-1) and significant charge densities of both polarities (maximum +2.5 nC m-3) within and screening the anvil. Little change in the maximum E values occurred in the 30 min between the first and third soundings, although altitudes and densities of some charge regions decreased with time (maximum +0.6 nC m-3). Screening charge regions were observed in close coincidence with 12 dbZ radar reflectivity contours, and interior positive charge was found in the reflectivity maxima of both anvil decks. The fourth sounding ascended through visible but optically less dense cloud, and no enhanced E values were detected. Overall, the data indicate the interior positive charge region of the main anvil contained about 150 C and covered at least 250 km2 nearly 30 min after the last lightning flash. Potentially hazardous E values of 30-35 kV m-1 were measured at 9.9-10.2 km altitude, a common jet aircraft cruising altitude, more than 20 km away from and 32 min after the final lightning flash. About 50 min after the last flash, the main positive charge region contained an estimated 50 C, and potentially hazardous E values associated with the anvil extended over at least 220 km2.

  10. Sunshine and global solar radiation estimation at different sites in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Metwally, Mossad

    2005-09-01

    A simple non-linear method is proposed for estimating relative sunshine duration based on monthly mean daily maximum and minimum air temperatures and cloud cover fraction at six sites in Egypt, where long-term period (9 15 years) data were recorded. This method gives low errors (mean bias error is about -0.4% and root mean square is about 2.3% for pooled data), so it can be used in case of unavailability of sunshine duration data. Also, a non-linear equation has been proposed at the same sites to estimate monthly mean daily global radiation based on observed and estimated values of relative sunshine duration. This method was compared with linear Ångström Prescott and double linear of Garg Garg equation. These methods were tested seasonally and at different sky conditions (clear, partially cloudy and overcast skies). Also they have been tested against 32 stations dataset, at worldwide sites. The results show that the bias error for the proposed method is low, average values to mean bias error and root mean square error are around 0.1% and 6%, respectively, while they are around 3% and 7% to the other methods at pooled data. Generally, the proposed method preformed better than the others.

  11. Estimation of available global solar radiation using sunshine duration over South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amrita; Park, Jin-ki; Park, Jong-hwa

    2015-11-01

    Besides designing a solar energy system, accurate insolation data is also a key component for many biological and atmospheric studies. But solar radiation stations are not widely available due to financial and technical limitations; this insufficient number affects the spatial resolution whenever an attempt is made to construct a solar radiation map. There are several models in literature for estimating incoming solar radiation using sunshine fraction. Seventeen of such models among which 6 are linear and 11 non-linear, have been chosen for studying and estimating solar radiation on a horizontal surface over South Korea. The better performance of a non-linear model signifies the fact that the relationship between sunshine duration and clearness index does not follow a straight line. With such a model solar radiation over 79 stations measuring sunshine duration is computed and used as input for spatial interpolation. Finally monthly solar radiation maps are constructed using the Ordinary Kriging method. The cross validation results show good agreement between observed and predicted data.

  12. Map showing alpine debris flows triggered by a July 28, 1999 thunderstorm in the central Front Range of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, Jonathan W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    This 1:24,000-scale map shows an inventory of debris flows that were triggered above timberline by a thunderstorm in the central Front Range of Colorado. We have classified the debris flows into two categories based on the style of initiation processes in the debris-flow source areas: 1) soil slip, and 2) non-soil slip erosive processes. This map and associated digital data are part of a larger study of the debris-flow event, results of which we plan to present in a forthcoming paper.

  13. Range estimation techniques in single-station thunderstorm warning sensors based upon gated, wideband, magnetic direction finder technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifer, Alburt E.; Hiscox, William L.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Neumann, William T.

    1991-01-01

    Gated, wideband, magnetic direction finders (DFs) were originally designed to measure the bearing of cloud-to-ground lightning relative to the sensor. A recent addition to this device uses proprietary waveform discrimination logic to select return stroke signatures and certain range dependent features in the waveform to provide an estimate of range of flashes within 50 kms. The enhanced ranging techniques are discussed which were designed and developed for use in single station thunderstorm warning sensor. Included are the results of on-going evaluations being conducted under a variety of meteorological and geographic conditions.

  14. Lightning to the upper atmosphere: A vertical light pulse from the top of a thunderstorm as seen by a payload bay TV camera of the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, William L.; Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.; Blakeslee, Richard; Vonnegut, Bernard; Brook, Marx; Mckune, John

    1991-01-01

    An examination and preliminary analysis of video images of thunderstorms as seen by a payload bay TV camera of the Space Shuttle provided examples of lightning in the stratosphere above thunderstorms. These images were obtained on several recent Shuttle flights while conducting the Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE). MLE was an experiment to obtain night time images from space of large storm complexes with lightning. These images are used to provide data for the design of specialized instrumentation which will provide quantitative measurements of global lightning. Eight video sequences were selected because they illustrate near vertical discharges in the stratosphere above thunderstorms. Although there are previous reports in the literature, these are the first images from the viewpoint of an orbiting spacecraft. The written material is primarily a companion to a video presentation.

  15. A lover's cock and other gay poems gay sunshine press, san francisco, 1980. A lover's cock and other gay poems gay sunshine press, san francisco, 1980.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Dilamar Araújo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The union of the two French symbolist poets Arthur Rimbaud and Paul Verlaine revolutionizes the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries with its homoerotic poems. But only now they are having their works printed by Gay Sunshine Press. The collection of erotic poems - A Lover's Cock - reveals to the reader the sexual liberation which happened a century ahead of its time. Rimbaud and Verlaine's is a bold, strong and direct style for a period when to be gay was infamous and unacceptable. In fact, they were ostracized by the Parisian society because of their rude behaviour. The union of the two French symbolist poets Arthur Rimbaud and Paul Verlaine revolutionizes the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries with its homoerotic poems. But only now they are having their works printed by Gay Sunshine Press. The collection of erotic poems - A Lover's Cock - reveals to the reader the sexual liberation which happened a century ahead of its time. Rimbaud and Verlaine's is a bold, strong and direct style for a period when to be gay was infamous and unacceptable. In fact, they were ostracized by the Parisian society because of their rude behaviour.

  16. Automated information-analytical system for thunderstorm monitoring and early warning alarms using modern physical sensors and information technologies with elements of artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldyreff, Anton S.; Bespalov, Dmitry A.; Adzhiev, Anatoly Kh.

    2017-05-01

    Methods of artificial intelligence are a good solution for weather phenomena forecasting. They allow to process a large amount of diverse data. Recirculation Neural Networks is implemented in the paper for the system of thunderstorm events prediction. Large amounts of experimental data from lightning sensors and electric field mills networks are received and analyzed. The average recognition accuracy of sensor signals is calculated. It is shown that Recirculation Neural Networks is a promising solution in the forecasting of thunderstorms and weather phenomena, characterized by the high efficiency of the recognition elements of the sensor signals, allows to compress images and highlight their characteristic features for subsequent recognition.

  17. a Time-Resolved Photographic Study of Lightning in the Thunderstorm Research International Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idone, Vincent Peter

    Time-resolved recordings of 118 strokes in both natural and artificially triggered lightning flashes obtained during participation in the Thunderstorm Research International Program (TRIP) have allowed the measurement of leader and return stroke propagation speeds, providing the largest single body of such data to date. The mean two-dimensional return stroke propagation speed found for 63 natural lightning strokes is 11 x 10('7) m/s. The distribution of measured propagation speeds peaks strongly at (TURN)9 x 10('7) m/s and extends from 2.9 to 24 x 10('7) m/s. Propagation speed reductions in upper channel segments are observed in both first and subsequent strokes. Those results are compared with the earlier work of Schonland and McEachron; substantial disparities are found and examined. The return stroke propagation speeds of the triggered lightning strokes are evaluated in three dimensions via stereo photography of the lightning. A mean of 11 x 10('7) m/s is found for 55 strokes, with a range of 6.4 to 16 x 10('7) m/s. Return stroke propagation speed reductions during propagation along the channel are also observed for these triggered lightning strokes. Propagation speeds are determined for 21 natural and 32 triggered lightning dart leaders, with means of 11 x 10('6) m/s and 18 x 10('6) m/s, respectively. Dart leader propagation speed increases near ground are reported for the first time. Variations in the propagation speed and luminous characteristics of four natural lightning dart-stepped leaders, two triggered lightning dart-stepped leaders, and three natural lightning stepped leaders are examined. The analysis reveals a positive correlation between the dart length and the dart leader propagation speed, this being observed in both natural and triggered lightning. Also, a correlation is found between the dart leader and return stroke propagation speed for the triggered lightning data; no such correlation is found for natural lightning. For one stroke of the

  18. Measurements of reactive nitrogen produced by tropical thunderstorms during BIBLE-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Kita, K.; Takegawa, N.; Nishi, N.; Kashihara, T.; Kawakami, S.; Kudoh, S.; Blake, D.; Shirai, T.; Liley, B.; Ko, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Kawasaki, Z.; Ogawa, T.

    2007-09-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment phase C (BIBLE-C) aircraft mission was carried out near Darwin, Australia (12°S, 131°E) in December 2000. This was the first aircraft experiment designed to estimate lightning NO production rates in the tropics, where production is considered to be most intense. During the two flights (flights 10 and 13 made on December 9 and 11-12, respectively) enhancements of NOx (NO + NO2) up to 1000 and 1600 parts per trillion by volume (pptv, 10-s data) were observed at altitudes between 11.5 and 14 km. The Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) cloud (brightness temperature) data and ground-based lightning measurements by the Global Positioning and Tracking System (GPATS) indicate that there were intensive lightning events over the coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria, which took place upstream from our measurement area 10 to 14 h prior to the measurements. For these two flights, air in which NOx exceeded 100 pptv extended over 620 × 140 and 400 × 170 km2 (wind direction × perpendicular direction), respectively, suggesting a significant impact of lightning NO production on NOx levels in the tropics. We estimate the amount of NOx observed between 11.5 and 14 km produced by the thunderstorms to be 3.3 and 1.8 × 1029 NO molecules for flights 10 and 13, respectively. By using the GPATS lightning flash count data, column NO production rates are estimated to be 1.9-4.4 and 21-49 × 1025 NO molecules per single flash for these two flight data sets. In these estimations, it is assumed that the column NO production between 0 and 16 km is greater than the observed values between 11.5 and 14 km by a factor of 3.2, which is derived using results reported by Pickering et al. (1998). There are however large uncertainties in the GPATS lightning data in this study and care must be made when the production rates are referred. Uncertainties in these estimates are discussed. The impact on the ozone production rate is also described.

  19. Two consecutive thunderstorm associated epidemics of asthma in the city of Melbourne. The possible role of rye grass pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, R; Gigliotti, P; Treloar, A; Holmes, P; Suphioglu, C; Singh, M B; Knox, B

    1992-06-15

    To document the clinical impact and identify the meteorological and environmental circumstances surrounding two epidemics of asthma exacerbations associated with thunderstorms in the city of Melbourne and to find a possible aetiology for these events. Collection of meteorological and environmental data from the Victorian Bureau of Meteorology and the Environment Protection Authority; collection of clinical data from metropolitan emergency departments and the Victorian Ambulance Service; and study of a cohort of affected patients with asthma and a control group of asthmatics who were not affected by the storms. Tertiary institution. Twelve storm-affected patients with asthma and 16 asthmatics not affected by the storms. Administration of a questionnaire, medical interview, pulmonary function tests and skin prick tests with common allergens. Both epidemics caused a major increase in the number of hospital attendances and admissions because of asthma exacerbation (five to ten fold rise). These events could not be related to atmospheric pollution or specific meteorological features of the storms. Patients affected by the second storm were significantly more likely to suffer from hay fever (P less than 0.05), rye grass pollen allergy (P less than 0.05) and allergy to rainfall released rye grass starch granules (P less than 0.025). Late spring thunderstorms in the city of Melbourne can trigger epidemics of asthma attacks. The seasonal nature of the phenomenon and the pattern of allergic responses found in affected patients suggest a possible aetiological role for rye grass pollen.

  20. THUNDERSTORMS-RISK FACTORS IN AVIATION. CASE STUDY: AREA OF RESPONSABILITY OF THE BUCHAREST-OTOPENI AERODROME ON 30.06.2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. ŞCHIOPU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thunderstorms are always dangerous weather phenomena for flight safety and, irrespective of their nature, they have a negative impact on all aviation activities. Thunderstorm clouds can generate severe and rapid changes of various meteorological elements (visibility, cloudiness and cloud lower base, wind, sometimes to such a great extent that landing may become impossible. Thunderstorms are serious weather hazards in aviation and may produce great damage and even casualties. One such unfortunate aviation event took place in the vicinity of the Bucharest-Otopeni Aerodrome, on 30.06.2009, when a military aircraft, which was operating a training flight in the responsibility area of the Bucharest - Otopeni military aerodrome, was struck by lightning at local hour 18:20. The present study actually makes an inventory of the extremely hazardous flying conditions, by thoroughly analyzing the relevant weather reports and data, as well as visual and synoptic messages from that very day. All these materials showed that the airdrome of destination was under the influence of an anti-cyclonic ridge, which accounted for the very poor meteorological conditions. On such severe weather, although the crew members tried to avoid the Cumulonimbus clouds in which a severe thunderstorm was developing, the flight was put in danger since the aircraft was struck by lightning, which simply blurred out the radar system and, therefore, landmarks orientation became almost impossible, thus creating false perceptions to the pilots trying hard to stabilize the plane.

  1. New model simulations of the global atmospheric electric circuit driven by thunderstorms and electrified shower clouds: The roles of lightning and sprites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rycroft, Michael J.; Odzimek, Anna; Arnold, Neil F.

    2007-01-01

    Several processes acting below, in and above thunderstorms and in electrified shower clouds drive upward currents which close through the global atmospheric electric circuit, These are all simulated in a novel way using the software package PSpice. A moderate negative cloud-to-ground lightning di...

  2. The ensemble forecasting technique of the thunderstorm and its application%雷暴云的集合预报技术及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳; 智协飞; 陈钰文; 商兆堂; 白卡娃

    2012-01-01

    A thunderstorm ensemble forecasting approach is perti~rmed by the ensemble analysis of the cloud model' s forecast results according to the initial condition aggregation provided by the grid fore-cast results of the mesoscale non-hydrostatic WRF model. The approach is applied to forecast the char-acteristics of thunderstorm around Nanjing one day in advance and is verified by the Doppler radar data of the thunderstorms in summer in Nanjing. Results show that the intensity and distribution of thunder-storms over the research area is reasonably predicted one day in advance. It is particularly good to fore-cast the distribution of the strong thunderstorms by using the ensemble forecasting technique. Moreover, the application of the PDF(probability density function)of thunderstorms' duration into the probability forecasting of the influenced area of thunderstorms improves the radar' s warning and monitoring capac-ity of local thunderstorms.%以中尺度非静力WRF模式的格点预报结果作为云模式的初值集合,经云模式的多初值雷暴预报及预报结果的集合分析,建立了雷暴云的集合预报方法。将该方法应用于南京周边地区未来一天雷暴天气的特征预报,并利用南京夏季9个雷暴天气的多普勒雷达资料(SCIT,storm cell identification and tracking)进行预报效果的检验。结果表明,雷暴云的集合预报对研究区域内未来一天雷暴强度、分布预报效果较好,尤其对强雷暴的分布有较强的预警预测能力。此外,雷暴持续时间概率密度分布的集合预报产品,在雷暴影响范围概率预报上的应用,提高了雷达对雷暴的预警监测能力。

  3. The radio wave as a source of free energy for the synthesis of organic molecules into the droplets of thunderstorm cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Victor

    This paper advances the hypothesis stating that low-molecular-weight organic compounds, precursors of living cell components, may be synthesized from inorganic oxides in the presence of alternating electromagnetic field as an energy source. This synthesis can be implemented in the water droplets hovering in a thunderstorm cloud of the Earth or another planet prebiotic atmosphere. A stroke of lightning is known to excite a broad spectrum of electromagnetic waves. These, in turn, can excite the Langmuir vibrations of protons in water droplets. The molecular mechanism of this process has been described in detail [1, 2]. For the convenience of simulation, we will consider the ideal case, namely, that the Langmuir proton vibrations possess, on average, a spherical symmetry. This idealization does not contradict the physics of the process: since the object is spherically symmetrical, the geometry of stationary vibration processes taking place in this object should also possess a spherical symmetry. We will assume that the form of the Langmuir vibrations is represented by periodic thickening and thinning of protons in the central area of the droplet. We will discuss processes in droplets whose radius Ro=510-5 cm, which corresponds to the average microbe size. The activation energies of most homogeneous chemical reactions fall in the 1-3 eV range; therefore, in the central area with the radius R=Ro/2, the energy of protons is sufficient both for activating the reactions and for the synthesis itself to proceed. The calculations carried out in [1, 2] allow one to estimate the required amplitude E 700 V/m) and frequency 6109 Hz) for an electromagnetic wave able to excite the Langmuir vibrations of protons with an energy of about 3 eV. The time spent for the whole process of synthesis of primary organic matter is much shorter than geological periods; under conditions formulated above, this time is only 1 s. An advantage of this model is the possibility of its real

  4. Lightning return stroke velocities in the thunderstorm research international program (TRIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idone, Vincent P.; Orville, Richard E.

    1982-06-01

    We have used high-speed streaking photographic techniques to time-resolve the luminous components of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. Two-dimensional return stroke velocities have been measured for 63 strokes representing, we believe, the largest set of return stroke velocity measurements obtained to date. All recordings were made during our participation in the Thunderstorm Reseach International Program conducted at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during the summers of 1977 and 1978 and at the Langmuir Laboratory near Socorro, New Mexico, during the summer of 1979. The mean return stroke velocity, near ground (channel length ≤1.3 km), was found to be 11×107 m/s, with a maximum relative error estimate in most cases of 35% or less. The distribution of velocities peaks strongly at approximately 9×107 m/s. Thirty-two of the 63 values (51%) fall within the interval of 8-12 × 107 m/s. The range of observed velocities spans the interval of 2.9-24×107 m/s. Based on the presence of branches in the time-resolved recordings, 17 strokes are considered to be first return strokes, with a mean velocity, near ground, of 9.6×107 m/s. The mean velocity for subsequent strokes is 12×107 m/s. A further breakdown of the results for Florida and New Mexico, respectively, reveals mean first return stroke velocities of 6.6×107 m/s and 15 × 107 m/s as well as mean subsequent stroke velocities of 11×107 m/s and 13 × 107 m/s. Velocity variations for 17 of the best events are presented, with the return stroke velocity observed to decrease with height in every case except one. The velocity reduction can be substantial; velocities in upper channel lengths were often reduced by 25% or more relative to velocities near ground, even for subsequent strokes. The variation of velocity between strokes in multistroke flashes was found to be significant in some cases and minor in others. The results of this study are compared with the earlier major works of Schonland and of Mc

  5. Sistematización para el control de inventarios en Sunshine Bouquet Ltda.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El trabajo contiene el estudio de la empresa Sunshine Bouquet Ltda., donde se busca hacer un análisis de la compañía y detectar falencias en los procesos que se traducen en pérdidas económicas. Se logra evidenciar que el manejo de productos perecederos es una práctica muy estricta, la cual debe ser fiscalizada bajo procesos claros y modernos que permitan a las empresas optimizar sus recursos para lograr la competitividad. Es necesario tener en cuenta que no importa el tamaño de la empresa par...

  6. Is the Sun Shining? A Qualitative Study on the Presence of Sunshine Laws in the College and University Journalism Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemberger, Melony

    2017-01-01

    This case study focusing on journalism curriculum in Tennessee sheds light on the obstacles that journalism schools face in efforts to include more instruction of sunshine laws into courses. Journalists use these laws to gather information to write their stories, either by attending public meetings or by filing open records requests. This study…

  7. 77 FR 68155 - Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NEIGHBORHOOD REINVESTMENT CORPORATION Finance, Budget & Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors; Sunshine Act Meeting Notice TIME and DATE: 9:00 a.m., Tuesday, November 20, 2012. PLACE: 1325 G Street NW., Suite 800,...

  8. 77 FR 66980 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice of a Partially Open Meeting of the Board of Directors of the Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice of a Partially Open Meeting of the Board of Directors of the Export-Import Bank of the United States TIME AND PLACE: Thursday, November 15, 2012 at 9:30 a.m....

  9. 78 FR 64025 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice; Matter Added to the Agenda for Consideration at an Agency Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice; Matter Added to the Agenda for Consideration at an Agency Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: October 21, 2013 (78 FR 62364). TIME AND DATE: 10:00...

  10. 77 FR 24538 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice; Finance, Budget & Program; Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting Notice; Finance, Budget & Program; Committee Meeting of the Board of..., Washington, DC 20005. STATUS: Open. CONTACT PERSON FOR MORE INFORMATION: Erica Hall, Assistant Corporate.... Program Updates IX. Adjournment Erica Hall, Assistant Corporate Secretary. BILLING CODE 7570-02-P ...

  11. 78 FR 53790 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Finance, Budget and Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Finance, Budget and Program Committee Meeting of the Board of Directors TIME... Corporate Secretary (202) 220-2376; ehall@nw.org . AGENDA: I. CALL TO ORDER II. FY2014 Preliminary Budget.... Financial Report IX. FY13 Corporate Scorecard Report Update and FY14 Draft Dashboard & Milestones X. FY 13...

  12. A Capstone Project: Closing the Achievement Gap of English Language Learners at Sunshine Elementary School Using the Gap Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingo-Long, Enyetta

    2013-01-01

    This project was an alternative capstone dissertation conducted by a team of three doctoral students. The project focused on systematic and long-term underachievement of the English Language Learner (ELL) population of a single school, Sunshine Elementary, using the gap analysis model (Clark and Estes, 2008). More specifically, the purpose of the…

  13. 75 FR 63516 - Institute of Museum and Library Services; Sunshine Act Meeting of the National Museum and Library...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Institute of Museum and Library Services; Sunshine Act Meeting of the National Museum and Library Services Board AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), NFAH. ACTION... Museum and Library Services Board. This notice also describes the function of the Board. Notice of...

  14. 75 FR 8139 - Institute of Museum and Library Services; Sunshine Act Meeting of the National Museum and Library...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Institute of Museum and Library Services; Sunshine Act Meeting of the National Museum and Library Services Board AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), NFAH. ACTION... Museum and Library Services Board. This notice also describes the function of the Board. Notice of...

  15. 75 FR 32818 - Institute of Museum and Library Services; Sunshine Act Meeting of the National Museum and Library...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Institute of Museum and Library Services; Sunshine Act Meeting of the National Museum and Library Services Board AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), NFAH. ACTION... Museum and Library Services Board. This notice also describes the function of the Board. Notice of...

  16. Electric Currents and Fields in Middle and Low Atmosphere in Fair-Weather Regions due to Distant Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velinov, Peter; Velinov, Peter; Tonev, Peter

    The electric currents created by the thunderstorms and the electrified shower clouds over the Earth flow into the global atmospheric electric circuit and are responsible for the formation in fair-weather regions of ionosphere-ground current of about 2 pA per square meter, as well as for the related fair-weather electric field of the order of 100 V/m at sea level. The link of the diurnal variations of the fair-weather electric field with the global thunderstorm activity has been widely studied with connection to the Wilson's hypothesis. To confirm this hypothesis directly, also the fair-weather electric field response to a strong single lightning discharge has being examined. Here we study theoretically the variations of the electric currents and fields in fair-weather regions at different altitudes of the lower and middle atmosphere, which are provoked by distant lightning discharges. The electric field variations can play an important role at higher altitudes (in the upper troposphere and above), where they are much larger and possibly influence the physical and chemical processes. For our goals we realize a globalscale model of the electric fields and currents generated by a lightning discharge, which is based on the Maxwell's equations. The fair-weather electric characteristics are studied by our model depending on the lightning parameters, location and distance. We also examine how variations of the conductivity in the strato/mesosphere due to changes of solar and geomagnetic activity affect the characteristics studied. Another question discussed is whether and how the mesospheric electric response to a remote lightning discharge is influenced by the conductivity anisotropy above 70 km and by the geomagnetic field geometry. The variations of the fairweather electric fields due to a distant lightning at tropospheric heights are also studied with respect to their presumable role in the cloud physics.

  17. Nonlinear Structuring and High-energy Electrons: Role in Ionosphere and in Thunderstorm Atmosphere Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    to a multiple gyromagnetic frequency. The developed theory was compared to the results of HAARP experiments. 3. The theory of the high altitude...realized at HAARP during 2008 spring campaign. The ionosphere heating was done under the conditions corresponding to the third gyro resonance. The GPS...signal from the satellite transited over the HAARP in the experiment moment was used as a diagnostic one. The phase shift of the high-frequency radio

  18. An improved technique for global daily sunshine duration estimation using satellite imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Ali SHAMIM; Renji REMESAN; Da-wei HAN; Naeem EJAZ; Ayub ELAHI

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an improved model for global sunshine duration estimation.The methodology incorporates geostationary satellite images by including snow cover information,sun and satellite angles and a trend correction factor for seasons,for the determination of cloud cover index.The effectiveness of the proposed methodology has been tested using Meteosat geostationary satellite images in the visible band with a temporal resolution of 1 h and spatial resolution of 2.5 km×2.5 km,for the Brue Catchment in the southwest of England.Validation results show a significant improvement in the estimation of global sunshine duration by the proposed method as compared to its predecessor (R2 is improved from 0.68 to 0.83,root mean squared error (RMSE) from 2.37 h/d to 1.19 h/d and the mean biased error (MBE) from 0.21 h/d to 0.08 h/d).Further studies are needed to test this method in other parts of the world with different climate and geographical conditions.

  19. A Remote Sensing Model to Estimate Sunshine Duration in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓晨; 邱新法; 曾燕; 高佳琦; 何永健

    2015-01-01

    Sunshine duration (SD) is strongly correlated with solar radiation, and is most widely used to estimate the latter. This study builds a remote sensing model on a 100 m × 100 m spatial resolution to estimate SD for the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. Digital elevation model (DEM) data are employed to refl ect topography, and moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud products (Aqua MYD06−L2 and Terra MOD06−L2) are used to estimate sunshine percentage. Based on the terrain (e.g., slope, aspect, and terrain shadowing degree) and the atmospheric conditions (e.g., air molecules, aerosols, moisture, cloud cover, and cloud types), observation data from weather stations are also incorporated into the model. Verifi cation results indicate that the model simulations match reasonably with the observations, with the average relative error of the total daily SD being 2.21%. Further data analysis reveals that the variation of the estimated SD is consistent with that of the maximum possible SD; its spatial variation is so substantial that the estimated SD diff ers signifi cantly between the south-facing and north-facing slopes, and its seasonal variation is also large throughout the year.

  20. 西天山地区雷暴和闪电特征分析%Characteristics of Thunderstorm and Lightning in Western Tianshan Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿吉古丽·沙依提; 尹仔锋; 卡哈尔·亚森; 塔伊尔·艾则孜; 哈依霞·哈力; 古丽尼沙·麦提库尔班

    2013-01-01

    The Characteristics of Thunderstorm and Lightning in Western Tianshan Areas were analyzed by use of thunderstorm data from 1960 to 2010 and lightning monitor data in 2008. The results showed as follows: The pattern of spatial distribution of thunderstorms in Western Tianshan areas was characterized by rare in the south and north but more in the east and west. The annual mean days of thunderstorm in Western Tianshan area was 17.3 to 85.5 days, and the thunderstorm days decreased at the rate of 2.7 days per decade in the recent 51 years. The monthly variation of thunderstorm average days shows single peak, and reached its peak in June and July. It is found that positive lightning is mainly lightning in Western Tianshan area and its ratio is 66% .The intensity of lightning is mainly concentrated in -130~ +63KA and intensity of negative lightning is greater than intensity of positive lightning.%利用西天山地区14个气象站1960-2010年雷暴资料和新疆雷电监测网2008年观测资料,分析了西天山地区雷暴和闪电变化特征。结果表明:西天山地区年平均雷暴日数分布呈东西多,南北少的形势。该区域年平均雷暴日数在17.3~85.5 d之间,并以2.7 d/10 a的速率减少。西天山地区雷暴日数的年变化呈单峰型,并在6-7月达到最大值。整个区域以正闪为主,正闪占总闪的比例达66%。该区域闪电电流强度在-130~+63 kA之间,负闪强度大于正闪强度。

  1. Mesoscale modeling of the production and the three-dimensional transport of nitrogen oxides in thunderstorms; Mesoskalige Modellierung der Produktion und des dreidimensionalen Transports von Stickoxiden durch Gewitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, T.

    2000-07-01

    Nitrogen oxides, NO{sub x} = NO + NO{sub 2}, play a fundamental role in tropospheric chemistry. Compared to other sources, the contribution of lightning induced NO{sub x} (LNO{sub x}) is known with considerable uncertainties and difficult to determine experimentally. The distribution of nitrogen oxides in an isolated thunderstorm is investigated using a modified version of the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) with cloud-scale resolution. A Lagrangian particle model has been developed to represent the NO{sub x} released by individual flashes. The position of the flash, the flash type, the geometrical properties of the channel, and the amount of emitted NO{sub x} are introduced to the MM5 in a parameterized form. On July 21, 1998, during the European lightning nitrogen oxides project (EULINOX) field campaign, a supercell development was observed in the German alpine foreland. Anvil penetrations by the DLR Falcon aircraft contributed high resolution profiles of NO{sub x}. DLR radar observation covered the complete life cycle of the thunderstorm. The lightning activity was recorded with a lightning positioning and tracking system (LPATS) run by local power suppliers, while radiosonde and aircraft measurements supplied detailed information on the atmospheric stratification ahead of the thunderstorm. This meteorological information was used to initalize a cloud-scale MM5 simulation. The modeled thunderstorm reproduces many observed properties, e.g. cell splitting, propagation speed and direction, anvil and overshooting top height, and WER (weak echo region). The number of simulated cloud-to-ground flashes, as well as the temporal evolution of the lightning activity are comparable to the LPAT observations. The general transport properties of the model thunderstorm are investigated using an inert PBL-tracer, as well as trajectory analysis. The simulated lightning activity leads to the release of approximately 1 000 000 NO{sub x}-particles. The thunderstorm produces 28

  2. An observational study of air and water vapour convergence over the Bernese Alps, Switzerland, during summertime and the development of isolated thunderstorms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Edward [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Physics; Lews Castle College, University of the Highlands and Islands, Stornoway, Scotland (United Kingdom); N' Dri Koffi, Ernest; Maetzler, Christian [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Physics

    2012-12-15

    The daytime summer phenomenon of the mesoscale transport of air and water vapour from the Swiss lowlands into the nearby western Alps, leading to orographic convection, is investigated using a range of independent observations. These observations are: Global Positioning System (GPS) integrated water vapour (IWV) data, the TROWARA microwave radiometer, MeteoSwiss ANETZ surface weather station data, the Payerne radiosonde, synoptic analyses for Switzerland and Europe, EUMETSAT and NOAA visible and infrared satellite images, MeteoSwiss operational precipitation radar, photographs and webcam images including time-lapse cloud animations. The intention was to show, using GPS IWV data, that significant differences in IWV may occur between the Swiss plain and nearby Alps during small single-cell Alpine thunderstorm events, and that these may be attributable to regional airflow convergence. Two particular case studies are presented for closer examination: 20 June 2005 and 13 June 2006. On both days, fine and warm weather was followed by isolated orographic convection over the Alps in the afternoon and evening, producing thunderstorms. The thunderstorms investigated were generally small, local, discrete and short-lived phenomena. They were selected for study because of almost stationary position over orography, rendering easy observation because they remained contained within a particular mountain region before dissipating. The results show that large transfers of air and water vapour occur from the Swiss plain to the mountains on such days, with up to a 50% increase in GPS IWV values at individual Alpine stations, coincident with strong airflow convergence in the same locality. (orig.)

  3. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  4. Japan`s Sunshine Project. 1991 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification; 1991 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gas ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    Out of the research and development on the 1991 Sunshine Project, the results of coal liquefaction/gasification are reported. The basic research of coal liquefaction/gasification is conducted. The research plan for a 150 ton/day scale pilot plant (PP) is worked out for the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology by NEDOL process. Data of PSU (Process Support Units) operation, especially, are studied. Concerning the data obtained through dismantling of the 50 ton/day PP in Australia which uses Australian Victoria coal due to completion of its operation and also obtained from its support research, they are reflected in the design of a demonstration plant, and the results are arranged for study. Research and development on refining technology of coal-derived liquid such as Illinois coal liquid and on application technology of its products are made. For the development of coal-use hydrogen production technology, conducted is the research of a high temperature gasification PP by entrained flow bed process which is the core of the coal gasification technology. Elementary study with a 2 ton/day furnace is made for the development of the entrained flow bed coal gasification combined cycle power generation system. Also conducted are PP construction, adjusting operation and the overall research operation.

  5. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 1996 Annual Summary of Coal Liquefaction and Gasification; 1996 nendo new sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gasuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    In reference to the results of the research and development under the fiscal 1996 New Sunshine Project, a report was summed up on coal liquefaction and coal gasification. As to the R and D of coal liquefaction technology, researches were conducted on liquefaction characteristics and engineering properties by coal kind, catalysts for coal liquefaction, liquefaction reaction of coal and reformation utilization of the liquefied products, liquefaction reaction mechanism and coking mechanism, solubility of coal in solvent and catalytic reaction mechanism, solvent reaction mechanism by hydrogen donor solvent, etc. Concerning the R and D of coal gasification technology, made were the basic study of eco-technology adaptable gasification technology and the study of coal gasification enhancing technology. Further, as to the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, carried out were the study in pilot plants and the support study of pilot plants. Additionally, R and D were done of the basic technology of coal liquefaction such as upgrading technology and environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction technology, and of coal hydrogasification technology. 3 refs., 81 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of solar energy R and D program; 1994 nendo new sunshine keikaku. Seika hokokusho gaiyoshu (taiyo energy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The paper reported the results of fiscal 1994 studies on solar energy in the New Sunshine Project. Relating to the technical development for the practical use of photovoltaic power systems, the development of manufacturing technologies for low-cost substrates and the development of element technology for manufacturing low-cost polycrystalline cells/modules were reported as the development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. As to the research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use, reports were made on the research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules and the technological development for qualitative improvement, etc. In respect to the technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells, reported were the technological development for super-high efficiency single crystalline silicon solar cells and the technological development for crystalline compound solar cells, etc. Concerning the research and development of photovoltaic power systems, reports were on the characterization and control of surface/interface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon thin films and the research on surface passivation for high-efficiency silicon solar cells, etc. In regard to the utilization technology of solar thermal energy, the energy conversion technology using chemical reactions and the development of chemical refrigeration and cold storage systems using solar heat were reported as the research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal systems for industrial use.

  7. Reconstruction of long-term aerosol optical depth series with sunshine duration records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Romero, A.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; González, J. A.; Calbó, J.

    2016-02-01

    We report the suitability of sunshine duration (SD) records as a proxy for the reconstruction of atmospheric aerosol content, for which little information exists, especially prior to the 1980s. Specifically, we have treated cloudless summer days in 16 stations throughout Spain. For almost all sites we find statistically significant relationships between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and daily SD. The correlation coefficient presents a mean value of -0.72, and slope values of the linear regressions are within the range [-0.11, -0.36]. The relationships are used to generate AOD series back to the 1960s (to the 1920s for Madrid). These reconstructed series show an increase in AOD from the mid-1960s to the 1980s, followed by a decrease until the present, in agreement with changes in anthropogenic aerosol emissions and with opposite trends of solar irradiance. The method can be used to reconstruct AOD from the late nineteenth century at many stations worldwide.

  8. The return of the erased: memory and forgetfulness in Eternal sunshine of the spotless mind (2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carel, Havi

    2007-08-01

    Eternal sunshine of the spotless mind is a film about remembering and forgetting loss. This essay reads the film as an examination of mourning and melancholia, which are distinct ways of remembering and forgetting both a love object and its loss. Freud distinguished mourning from its pathological counterpart, melancholia, claiming that there is a normal way to grieve, mourning, and its degeneration into an abnormal pattern, melancholia. The author aims to make two points: firstly, that both processes are characterized by ambivalence and identification and therefore have some commonalities; secondly, that there is a difference between the two processes that is less apparent than the ones discussed by Freud. This is the difference between remembering a good and a bad object. Following Klein the author argues that this is a crucial qualitative difference between mourning and melancholia. She concludes that a central issue in grieving is not forgetting but remembering well.

  9. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1998 Annual summary of hydrogen energy R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Summarized herein are the reports on R and D efforts on hydrogen energy, as part of the FY 1998 New Sunshine Project. For production of hydrogen, characteristics related to transport number were investigated for steam electrolysis at high temperature, in which a sintered ceramic powder was used as the electrolyte and the cell was equipped with platinum electrodes. For utilization of hydrogen, energy conversion techniques were investigated using hydrogen occluding alloys for testing methods for alloy microstructures and hydrogenation characteristics, and preparation of and performance testing methods for the cathodes charged with the aid of hydrogen gas. For analysis/assessment for development of hydrogen-related techniques, the investigated items included water electrolysis with solid polymer electrolytes, hydrogen transport techniques using metal hydrides, hydrogen storing techniques using metal hydrides, hydrogen engines, and techniques for preventing hydrogen embrittlement. Analysis/assessment for development of hydrogen turbines was also investigated as one of the 12 R and D themes reported herein. (NEDO)

  10. Frequency synthesiser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Salvatore; Sebastiano, Fabio; Leenaerts, Dominicus Martinus Wilhelmus; Breems, Lucien Johannes; Nauta, Bram

    2016-01-01

    A low power frequency synthesiser circuit (30) for a radio transceiver, the synthesiser circuit comprising: a digital controlled oscillator configured to generate an output signal having a frequency controlled by an input digital control word (DCW); a feedback loop connected between an output and an

  11. Effect of near-earth thunderstorms electric field on the intensity of ground cosmic ray positrons/electrons in Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. X.; Wang, X. J.; Huang, D. H.; Jia, H. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the correlation between the ground cosmic ray intensity and near-earth thunderstorms electric field at YBJ (located at YangBaJing, Tibet, China, 4300 m a. s. l.). The variations of the secondary cosmic ray intensity are found to be highly dependent on the strength and polarity of the electric field. In negative fields and in positive fields greater than 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons increases with increasing electric field strength. And these values increase more obviously when involving a shower with lower primary energy or a higher zenith angle. While in positive fields ranging from 0 to 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons declines and the amplitude is up to 3.1% for vertical showers. A decrease of intensity occurs in inclined showers within the range of 0-500 V/cm, which is accompanied by smaller amplitudes. In this paper, the intensity changes are analyzed, especially concerning those decreasing phenomena in positive electric fields. Our simulation results could be helpful in understanding the decreases observed in some ground-based experiments (such as the Carpet air shower array and ARGO-YBJ), and also be useful in understanding the acceleration mechanisms of secondary charged particles caused by an atmospheric electric field.

  12. Effect of near-earth thunderstorms electric field on the intensity of ground cosmic ray positrons/electrons in Tibet

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, X X; Huang, D H; Jia, H Y

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the correlation between the ground cosmic ray intensity and near-earth thunderstorms electric field at YBJ (4300 m a.s.l., Tibet, China). The variations of the secondary cosmic ray intensity are found to be highly dependent on the strength and polarity of the electric field. In negative fields and in positive fields greater than 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons increases with increasing electric field strength. And these values increase more obviously when involving a shower with lower primary energy or a higher zenith angle. While in positive fields ranging from 0 to 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons declines and the amplitude is up to 3.1% for vertical showers. A decrease of intensity occurs for inclined showers in positive fields less than 500 V/cm, which is accompanied by smaller amplitudes. In this paper, the intensity changes are discussed, especially concerning the decreases in posi...

  13. Rates of cortisol increase and decrease in channel catfish and sunshine bass exposed to an acute confinement stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kenneth B; Small, Brian C

    2006-05-01

    Channel catfish and sunshine bass were exposed to a low-water stress event and allowed to recover in fresh water or a solution of metomidate (dl-1-(1-phenylethyl)-5-(metoxycarbonyl) imidazole hydrochloride), which inhibits the synthesis of cortisol. Change in time of plasma cortisol was used as an index of cortisol secretion and clearance. Plasma cortisol and glucose increased during the exposure to low-water stress in both fish, but the changes of both plasma components were more dramatic in sunshine bass. Exposure to metomidate during recovery resulted in a short-term increase in plasma glucose but differences between controls and metomidate-exposed fish were relatively minor thereafter. Cortisol began to decrease in catfish immediately after the removal of the stress but continued to increase for 15 min in sunshine bass recovering in fresh water and for 5 min in bass recovering in metomidate. Catfish recovering in fresh water had a cortisol elimination rate of -1.28 ng/mL/min compared with -2.45 ng/mL/min for fish recovering in metomidate (P>0.05) while sunshine bass recovering in fresh water had an elimination rate of -6.96 ng/mL/min compared with -4.50 ng/mL/min for fish recovering in metomidate (P>0.05). These data indicate that the rapid decrease of plasma cortisol after removal of the stressor is due to an almost immediate decrease of secretion, tissue uptake and a rapid renal loss due to the absence of a plasma binding protein.

  14. A study of the contribution of thunderstorms to the Global Electric Circuit using a time dependent numerical model and a fractal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallios, Sotirios A.

    The Global Electric Circuit (GEC) is a circuit that is formed between the Earth's surface, which is a good conductor of electricity, and the ionosphere, a weakly-ionized plasma at ˜80 km altitude. Thunderstorms are believed to be the major charging sources of this circuit. In this dissertation, we present our studies on the contribution of thunderstorms to the Global electric Circuit. We examine the current that is driven to the ionosphere and to the ground before, during and after single negative cloud-to-ground (CG) and intra-cloud (IC) lightning discharges. A numerical model has been developed, that calculates the quasi-electrostatic field before the lightning, due to the slow accumulation of the charge in the thunder-cloud, and after the lightning by taking into account the Maxwellian relaxation of the charges in the conducting atmosphere and accounting for the dissipation stage of the thunderstorm development. From these results, the charges that are transferred to the ionosphere and to the ground are calculated. We demonstrate the significance of considering the pre-lightning and the dissipation stages and accounting for realistic distribution of the conductivity inside of the thundercloud for the accurate calculation of the charge flow to the ionosphere and to the ground. We show that the charge transfer to the ionosphere depends mainly on the altitudes of the charges inside the thundercloud and their spatial separation. The amount of charge that is transferred to the ground, due to currents flowing in the vicinity of the thundercloud during a transient time period following a lightning discharge, is significantly affected by the conductivity distribution in the thundercloud and can be several times smaller than the amount of charge that is transferred to the ionosphere during the same time period. Moreover, we show that the duration of each of the thunderstorm life cycle stages affects the results. Furthermore, we show the influence of the corona currents

  15. Radar Rainfall Estimates for Modeling Flood Response to Orographic Thunderstorms in the Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, N. S.; Smith, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    We examine the hydrometeorology and hydrology of extreme flooding from orographic convective systems in the central Appalachian region. Analyses of flood response are based on rainfall and discharge observations for major flood events along the western margin of the central Appalachians (16-17 May 1996, 18-19 July 1996, 30-31 July 1996, 28-29 June 1998, and 7-8 July 2001). A distributed hydrologic model is used to access flood response in Appalachian basins with diverse physiographic properties. High-resolution (1 km, 5 minutes) rainfall fields derived from WSR-88D radars in Charleston, West Virginia and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania are used for model analyses. Cloud-to-ground lightning and the IFLOWs raingage network provide additional information for hydrometeorological analyses. Flood response is viewed in the context of land surface hydrologic processes and frequency of extreme precipitation events. Orographic convective systems in the Appalachians have produced some of the largest rainfall accumulations in the world for time intervals less than 6 hours and some of the largest unit discharge flood peaks for the U.S. east of the Mississippi River. The 18 July 1942 Smethport, Pennsylvania storm, for example, produced the world record rainfall accumulation of 780 mm in 4.5 hours.

  16. The SunCloud project: An initiative for a development of a worldwide sunshine duration and cloudiness observations dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.

    2010-09-01

    One problem encountered when establishing the causes of global dimming and brightening is the limited number of long-term solar radiation series with accurate and calibrated measurements. For this reason, the analysis is often supported and extended with the use of other climatic variables such as sunshine duration and cloud cover. Specifically, sunshine duration is defined as the amount of time usually expressed in hours that direct solar radiation exceeds a certain threshold (usually taken at 120 W m-2). Consequently, this variable can be considered as an excellent proxy measure of solar radiation at interannual and decadal time scales, with the advantage that measurements of this variable were initiated in the late 19th century in different, worldwide, main meteorological stations. Nevertheless, detailed and up-to-date analysis of sunshine duration behavior on global or hemispheric scales are still missing. Thus, starting on September 2010 in the framework of different research projects, we will engage a worldwide compilation of the longest daily or monthly sunshine duration series from the late 19th century until present. Several quality control checks and homogenization methods will be applied to the generated sunshine dataset. The relationship between the more precise downward solar radiation series from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) and the homogenized sunshine series will be studied in order to reconstruct global and regional solar irradiance at the Earth's surface since the late 19th century. Since clouds are the main cause of interannual and decadal variability of radiation reaching the Earth's surface, as a complement to the long-term sunshine series we will also compile worldwide surface cloudiness observations. With this presentation we seek to encourage the climate community to contribute with their own local datasets to the SunCloud project. The SunCloud Team: M. Wild, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland

  17. Morning Sunshine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As the capital city of the last dynasties in the history of China,Beijing developed a com- plicated fortification system,consisting of city walls,gates,watchtowers and moats.Although most of the defense architecture has been dismantled to make way for modern infrastructure, some old names still stay with the city.Chaoyang District in the northeasteru part of the city proper earns its name from the east gate of the ancient inner city:Chaoyang Gate.

  18. Sunshine Unfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdrege, Craig; And Others

    Hinduism, yoga, transcendental meditation, traditional American Indian philosophies, far-Eastern philosophies (Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and Zen concepts), macrobiotics, and Judeo-Christian teachings are the topics discussed in this student developed book. Designed for use by both elementary and high school students, it was written with two major…

  19. Space-time simulations of photon, lepton, ionization and nucleon trails of TGF ignition in thunderstorm electric field geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The origin of high energy electrons which contribute to the Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche of a TGF are not precisely known, or yet observed, though the most obvious source would seem to be the products of cosmic ray showers, or electron avalanches generated in the high electric field near the tips of lightning leaders. With our new TGF simulation software package LEPTRACK we can now easily create any electric field geometry to be expected in stormclouds, any kind of electron source, and are investigating scenarios of TGF ignition, which may or may not be runaway, and in any direction - not just vertical. Vidoes, lightcurves and spectra, presenting the detailed density structure and time evolution of TGF photon, electron, neucleon and ionization trails were presented for the first time at the AGU Fall Meeting in 2014 - showing the complicated effects of changing electric field strength and air density - and the as yet unrecognized importance of the earth magnetic field in trapping electrons and positrons in the upper atmosphere at the magnetic equator - possibly giving rise to the hard tail seen in some TGF spectra observed by AGILE. We will present here an extension of this work to show the dynamics of TGF ignition scenarios of current interest - upward, downward and randomly directed - both from free electrons and from combinations of lightning leader micro-fields producing electron avalanches, which are then input to the macro-fields expected at or above thunderstorm cloudtops. We will show the spatial shape and time evolution of TGF particle structures, along with their optical and gamma ray spectra emitted, and bring to life their essential physics.

  20. A virtual tornadic thunderstorm enabling students to construct knowledge about storm dynamics through data collection and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Gallus Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A visually realistic tornadic supercell thunderstorm has been constructed in a fully immersive virtual reality environment to allow students to better understand the complex small-scale dynamics present in such a storm through data probing. Less-immersive versions have been created that run on PCs, facilitating broader dissemination. The activity has been tested in introductory meteorology classes over the last four years. An exercise involving the virtual storm was first used by a subset of students from a large introductory meteorology course in spring 2002. Surveys were used at that time to evaluate the impact of this activity as a constructivist learning tool. More recently, data probe capabilities were added to the virtual storm activity enabling students to take measurements of temperature, wind, pressure, relative humidity, and vertical velocity at any point within the 3-D volume of the virtual world, and see the data plotted via a graphical user interface. Similar surveys applied to groups of students in 2003 and 2004 suggest that the addition of data probing improved the understanding of storm-scale features, but the improved understanding may not be statistically significant when evaluated using quizzes reflecting short-term retention. The use of the activity was revised in 2005 to first have students pose scientific questions about these storms and think about a scientific strategy to answer their questions before exploring the storm. Once again, scores on quizzes for students who used the virtual storm activity were slightly better than those of students who were exposed to only a typical lecture, but differences were not statistically significant.

  1. An observational study of air and water vapour convergence over the Bernese Alps, Switzerland, during summertime and the development of isolated thunderstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Graham

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The daytime summer phenomenon of the mesoscale transport of air and water vapour from the Swiss lowlands into the nearby western Alps, leading to orographic convection, is investigated using a range of independent observations. These observations are: Global Positioning System (GPS integrated water vapour (IWV data, the TROWARA microwave radiometer, MeteoSwiss ANETZ surface weather station data, the Payerne radiosonde, synoptic analyses for Switzerland and Europe, EUMETSAT and NOAA visible and infra-red satellite images, MeteoSwiss operational precipitation radar, photographs and webcam images including time-lapse cloud animations. The intention was to show, using GPS IWV data, that significant differences in IWV may occur between the Swiss plain and nearby Alps during small single-cell Alpine thunderstorm events, and that these may be attributable to regional airflow convergence. Two particular case studies are presented for closer examination: 20 June 2005 and 13 June 2006. On both days, fine and warm weather was followed by isolated orographic convection over the Alps in the afternoon and evening, producing thunderstorms. The thunderstorms investigated were generally small, local, discrete and short-lived phenomena. They were selected for study because of almost stationary position over orography, rendering easy observation because they remained contained within a particular mountain region before dissipating. The results show that large transfers of air and water vapour occur from the Swiss plain to the mountains on such days, with up to a 50% increase in GPS IWV values at individual Alpine stations, coincident with strong airflow convergence in the same locality.

  2. 基于大气层结和雷暴演变的闪电和降水关系%Relationship Between Lightning and Precipitation Based on Classification of Atmospheric Stratification and Development of Thunderstorm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷波; 郑栋; 张义军; 姚雯; 张文娟

    2014-01-01

    A total of 28 thunderstorms occurring in and around Beijing area from 2006 to 2008 are picked to in-vestigate the relationship between total lightning (observed by SAFIR3000)and convective precipitation (by radar inversion).These cases are classified according to parameters of the atmospheric stratification where they are generated and the reflectivity of radar.The quantitative results can provide a reference for the applications of lightning data on severe weather warning and precipitation estimation.The lightning forecast can also be improved by assimilating the relationship between the hydrometeors and the lightning activities to the numerical prediction models.The analysis can extend the application field of the lightning data. The results show that the average convective rain yields per flash is 1.92×107 kg·fl-1 on the whole, while the linear correlation coefficient between the total lightning frequency and convective precipitation is 0.584.Total lightning frequency (expressed by F with the time space being 6 min)can be used to calculate the amount of convective precipitation with the equation R=(2.813×108 )+(4.570×10 6 )F .A total of 28 thunderstorms are classified according to the convective available potential energy (E CAP )and lifting index I L of the atmospheric stratification where they are generated.It is explored that strong instability of at-mospheric stratification tends to be associated with smaller precipitation and more pronounced correlation between total lightning and precipitation.Of which,the classification of E CAP no less than 1600 J ·kg-1 has the correlation coefficient of 0.837,the total lightning frequency can be used to calculate the amount of convective precipitation with the equation of R=(1.620×108 )+(5.478 ×10 6 )F .While the classification of I L no less than 4 K has the correlation coefficient of 0.853,the total lightning frequency can be used to calculate the area of the amount of convective precipitation with the equation

  3. Climatic Characteristics of Sunshine Duration in the Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang%新疆天山地区日照时数的气候特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇; 崔彩霞; 李扬

    2011-01-01

    Based on the daily sunshine duration data observed at 23 weather stations in the Tianshan Mountains during the period of 1961-2008,the spatiotemporal distribution and variation features of sunshine duration in the Tianshan Mountains were analyzed using some statistical methods,such as the simple linear regression and Mann-Kendall test.The results are as follows:(1) There was an obvious regional difference in climatic distribution of sunshine duration,and the sunshine duration increased from the west to the east and from the north to the south in the Tianshan Mountains;(2) The regional average sunshine duration was in a decrease trend,especially in winter and summer;(3) There was an obvious decadal variation trend of seasonal sunshine duration except that in spring,and a sharp decrease of seasonal sunshine duration occurred in winter 1987,summer 1978 and autumn 1980;(4) The sharp decrease of sunshine duration in winter and summer was related to the serious air pollution and the increase of cloud cover in recent 20 years.%基于1961-2008年新疆天山地区23站日照时数的逐日资料,使用一元线性方程和M-K检验等统计方法,分析天山地区日照时数的时空变化特征。结果表明:①日照时数的气候分布存在明显的空间差异,呈东多西少,南多北少的分布特征。②区域平均日照时数均呈减少趋势,尤其在冬季和夏季。③四季除春季外日照时数均存在明显的年代际变化特征,并发生了由多到少的气候突变,冬季在1987年,夏季在1978年,秋季在1980年左右。20世纪80年代中后期至今,冬、夏、秋三个季节日照时数减少的趋势显著。④冬季和夏季日照时数的较快减少与近

  4. Trends in aerosol optical depth in northern China retrieved from sunshine duration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Run; Liu, Shaw Chen; Shiu, Chein-Jung; Wang, Jingli; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2016-01-01

    A new method has been developed to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from sunshine duration (SSD). Retrieved AODs from SSD at the six stations in northern China in 2003-2005 agree reasonably well with AODs retrieved from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer observations near the six stations. Values and trends in AOD retrieved from SSD in Beijing and Tianjin in the period 1961-2005 also agree with those retrieved from solar radiation and visibility. These agreements allow the retrieval of credible upper and lower limits for anthropogenic AODs from SSD at the six stations during 1961-2005. The trends in anthropogenic AODs are approximately a factor of 3 to 5 lower than the trends in emissions of gas-phase precursors of aerosols in 1973-2005, implying a significant sublinear relationship between the level of aerosols and emissions of their gas phase precursors. This finding has important implications for formulating a control strategy for PM2.5 or haze pollution in northern China.

  5. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  6. Reconstruction of effective cloud field geometry from series of sunshine number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Viorel; Paulescu, Marius; Brabec, Marek

    2016-07-01

    A new method is proposed for extracting the parameters of effective cloud field models from time series of sunshine number (SSN). Data of SSN number and point cloudiness during 2009 and 2010 at Timisoara (Romania, South Eastern Europe; temperate continental climate) are used to illustrate the method. Two procedures of fitting the estimated point cloudiness to the observed point cloudiness data are proposed and tested. Seven simple effective cloud field models are analyzed. All models underestimate the point cloudiness. The MBE ranges between - 0.06 and - 0.23 while RMSE between 0.15 and 0.38, depending on the month and the duration of the SSN data averaging interval. The best model is based on a field of clouds of semicircle form. This agrees with previous results obtained in the semi-arid climate of Great South Plains in US. The dynamics of the effective cloud field is reconstructed during all months of 2010 at Timisoara. The time series of effective cloud fields are dominated by semicircle clouds but short episodes of semielliptic clouds, ellipsoid clouds, truncated cone clouds and cuboidal clouds are included in the series.

  7. High Penetration Solar PV Deployment Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeker, Rick [Nhu Energy, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Steurer, Mischa [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Faruque, MD Omar [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Langston, James [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Schoder, Karl [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Ravindra, Harsha [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Hariri, Ali [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Moaveni, Houtan [New York Power Authority (NYPA), New York (United States); University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (Unitied States); Click, Dave [ESA Renewables, LLC, Sanford, FL (United States); University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Reedy, Bob [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The report provides results from the Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN) high penetration solar PV deployment project led by Florida State University’s (FSU) Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS). FSU CAPS and industry and university partners have completed a five-year effort aimed at enabling effective integration of high penetration levels of grid-connected solar PV generation. SUNGRIN has made significant contributions in the development of simulation-assisted techniques, tools, insight and understanding associated with solar PV effects on electric power system (EPS) operation and the evaluation of mitigation options for maintaining reliable operation. An important element of the project was the partnership and participation of six major Florida utilities and the Florida Reliability Coordinating Council (FRCC). Utilities provided details and data associated with actual distribution circuits having high-penetration PV to use as case studies. The project also conducted foundational work supporting future investigations of effects at the transmission / bulk power system level. In the final phase of the project, four open-use models with built-in case studies were developed and released, along with synthetic solar PV data sets, and tools and techniques for model reduction and in-depth parametric studies of solar PV impact on distribution circuits. Along with models and data, at least 70 supporting MATLAB functions have been developed and made available, with complete documentation.

  8. Essential oils from Leptospermums of the Sunshine Coast and Northern Rivers Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windsor Sarah Alison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around the turn of this century, the oil yield and chemical composition of Australian Leptospermum species was analysed. Since that time, research has been focused on their use as phytomedicines. The oil yield and composition of essential oils from Australian Leptospermum species directly impacts their commercialisation for medicinal use. Results The essential oils from Leptospermum (L. juniperinum, L. laevigatum, L. liversidgei, L. polygalifolium, L. semibaccatum, L. speciosum, L. trinervium and L. whitei have been examined from specimens in the Sunshine Coast (Queensland and Northern Rivers (New South Wales Regions. Both chemotypes of L. liversidgei were observed. However, only chemotype II of L. semibaccatum and chemotype I of L. trinervium were identified. The only subspecies observed of L. polygalifolium was L. polygalifolium wallum. Conclusions L. liversidgei chemotypes I and II have the potential for phytomedical use as antibacterial or anti-inflammatory agents. Chemotype I has the potential for use as an insect repellent and chemotype II may provide antifungal activity.

  9. Industry ties in otolaryngology: initial insights from the physician payment sunshine act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Vinay K; Samuel, Andre M; Mehra, Saral

    2015-06-01

    To characterize nonresearch payments made by industry to otolaryngologists in order to explore how the potential for conflicts of interests varies among otolaryngologists and compares between otolaryngologists and other surgical specialists. Retrospective cross-sectional database analysis. Open Payments program database recently released by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Surgeons nationwide who were identified as receiving nonresearch payment from industry in accordance with the Physician Payment Sunshine Act. The proportion of otolaryngologists receiving payment, the mean payment per otolaryngologist, and the standard deviation thereof were determined using the Open Payments database and compared to other surgical specialties. Otolaryngologists were further compared by specialization, census region, sponsor, and payment amount. Less than half of otolaryngologists (48.1%) were reported as receiving payments over the study period, the second smallest proportion among surgical specialties. Otolaryngologists received the lowest mean payment per compensated individual ($573) compared to other surgical specialties. Although otolaryngology had the smallest variance in payment among surgical specialties (SD, $2806), the distribution was skewed by top earners; the top 10% of earners accounted for 87% ($2,199,254) of all payment to otolaryngologists. Otolaryngologists in the West census region were less likely to receive payments (38.6%, P industry compared to other surgeons, though variation exists within otolaryngology. Further refinement of the Open Payments database is needed to explore differences between otolaryngologists and leverage payment information as a tool for self-regulation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  10. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 20. 1995 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The paper described a summary of the 1995 study on coal liquefaction and gasification under the New Sunshine Project. As for coal liquefaction, a study was made of liquefaction characteristics and catalysts of various coals. Also studied were liquefaction conditions for quality improvement of liquefaction products, an evaluation method of quality of coal liquid, and a utilization method of coal liquid. In order to prevent carbonization and realize effective liquefaction, a study was conducted for elucidation of the reaction mechanism of high pressure hydrogenation. In a 150t/d pilot plant using hydrogen transfer hydrogenation solvents, the NEDOL method was studied using various catalysts and kinds of coals. This is a step prior to data acquisition for engineering, actual construction of equipment and operation. A 1t/d process supporting unit is a unit to support it. The unit conducts studies on slurry letdown valves and synthetic iron sulfide catalysts, screening of Chinese coals, etc. As to coal gasification, the paper added to the basic research the combined cycle power generation using entrained flow coal gasification for improvement of thermal efficiency and environmental acceptability and the HYCOL method for hydrogen production. 68 refs., 40 figs.

  11. Dark Sunshine: Detecting Dark Matter through Dark Photons from the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Jonathan L; Tanedo, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter may interact with the Standard Model through the kinetic mixing of dark photons, $A'$, with Standard Model photons. Such dark matter will accumulate in the Sun and annihilate into dark photons. The dark photons may then leave the Sun and decay into pairs of charged Standard Model particles that can be detected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. The directionality of this "dark sunshine" is distinct from all astrophysical backgrounds, providing an opportunity for unambiguous dark matter discovery by AMS. We perform a complete analysis of this scenario including Sommerfeld enhancements of dark matter annihilation and the effect of the Sun's magnetic field on the signal, and we define a set of cuts to optimize the signal probability. With the three years of data already collected, AMS may discover dark matter with mass 1 TeV $\\lesssim m_X \\lesssim$ 10 TeV, dark photon masses $m_{A'} \\sim \\mathcal O(100)$ MeV, and kinetic mixing parameters $10^{-11} \\lesssim \\varepsilon \\lesssim 10^{-8}$. The propose...

  12. Japan`s new sunshine project. 1995 annual summary of solar energy R and D program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The paper reported the details of the research results of the New Sunshine Project in fiscal 1995. As for the technical development for the practical use of photovoltaic power systems, the development of manufacturing technologies for low-cost substrates and the low-cost fabrication of multicrystalline solar cells/modules were conducted as the development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. As the research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use, conducted were the research on low-cost fabrication technology for large-area modules and the technological development for qualitative improvement. The paper further made the technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells, the research and development of evaluation system for photovoltaic power generation system, the research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power system, the research and development of system to utilize photovoltaic energy, the demonstrative research of the photovoltaic power system, etc. As to the research and development of photovoltaic power systems, conducted were the characterization and control of surface/interface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon thin films, the research on surface passivation for high-efficiency silicon solar cells, etc. Moreover, with relation to the utilization technology of solar thermal energy, the paper made the research on advanced solar components, the research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal system for industrial and other uses, etc. 302 figs., 58 tabs.

  13. Low mean temperature rather than few sunshine hours are associated with an increased incidence of type 1 diabetes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waernbaum, Ingeborg; Dahlquist, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    The well-known north-south gradient and the seasonal variability in incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes indicate climatological factors to have an effect on the onset. Both sunshine hours and a low temperature may be responsible. In the present study we tried to disentangle these effects that tend to be strongly connected. Exposure data were sunshine hours and mean temperature respectively obtained from eleven meteorological stations in Sweden which were linked to incidence data from geographically matched areas. Incident cases during 1983-2008 were retrieved from the population based Swedish childhood diabetes register. We used generalized additive models to analyze the incidence as a function of mean temperature and hours of sun adjusted for the time trend, age and sex. In our data set the correlation between sun hours and temperature was weak (r = 0.36) implying that it was possible to estimate the effect of these variables in a regression model. We fit a general additive model with a smoothing term for the time trend. In the model with sun hours we found no significant effect on T1 incidence (p = 0.17) whereas the model with temperature as predictor was significant (p = 0.05) when adjusting for the time trend, sex and age. Adding sun hours in the model where mean temperature was already present did not change the effect of temperature. There is an association with incidence of type 1 diabetes in children and low mean temperature independent of a possible effect of sunshine hours after adjustment for age, sex and time trend. The findings may mirror the cold effect on insulin resistance and accords with the hypothesis that overload of an already ongoing beta cell destruction may accelerate disease onset.

  14. Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Clayton; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake

    2010-01-01

    Water is in high demand for farmers regardless of where you go. Unfortunately, farmers in southern Florida have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. There is an interest by the agricultural community about the effect weather has on usable surface water, however, research into viable weather patterns during La Nina and El Nino has yet to be researched. Using rainfall accumulation data from NASA Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite, this project s purpose was to assess the influence of El Nino and La Nina Oscillations on sea breeze thunderstorm patterns, as well as general rainfall patterns during the summer season in South Florida. Through this research we were able to illustrate the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall accumulation for each oscillation in relation to major agricultural areas. The study period for this project is from 1998, when TRMM was first launched, to 2009. Since sea breezes in Florida typically occur in the months of May through October, these months were chosen to be the months of the study. During this time, there were five periods of El Nino and two periods of La Nina, with a neutral period separating each oscillation. In order to eliminate rainfall from systems other than sea breeze thunderstorms, only days that were conducive to the development of a sea breeze front were selected.

  15. 关于住宅日照控制的探讨%Discussion on the Residential Sunshine Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾志荣

    2014-01-01

    本文结合笔者工作经验,探讨在控制住宅建筑日照标准中遇到的一些问题。以下是个人对日照标准执行中的一些问题的探讨,请批评指正。%In this paper, on the working experience, the author discusses some problems encountered in the control of resid- ential buildings insolation standard. The folowing is a disc- ussion on some problems in the implementation of the standard of sunshine of individual, please criticism.

  16. Apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter, protein, lipid, and organic matter using various animal and plant protein sources by sunshine bass Morone chrysops X Morone saxatilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited information is available on the digestibility of nutrients in various practical ingredients used in diets for commercially-important finfish species. This information is especially needed for sunshine bass, Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis, to improve least-cost diet formulations and to allow ...

  17. The effects of menhaden oil, flaxseed oil and a dairy-yeast prebiotic on growth , health , feed conversion , survival , critical maximum temperature, and body composition of sunshine bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted with juvenile "sunshine bass" female Morone chrysops x male M. saxatilis using four diets containing two levels of a dairy-yeast prebiotic (0 or 2%) and either menhaden fish oil or flaxseed oil as a lipid source. The objective was to determine the main and inte...

  18. Evaluation of growth, nutrient retention, health, and resistance to bacterial challenge in sunshine bass fed diets with new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of meals made from new strains of soybeans with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on hybrid striped bass ("Sunshine bass", Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) nutrient availability, growth rates, nutrient retention, gut histology, non-specific immune respo...

  19. 78 FR 75344 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice of a Matter To Be Added to the Agenda for Consideration at an Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice of a Matter To Be Added to the Agenda for Consideration at an Agency... hereby given that the following matter will be added to the ``Discussion Agenda'' for consideration...

  20. Whistler intensities above thunderstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fiser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a study of penetration of the VLF electromagnetic waves induced by lightning to the ionosphere. We compare the fractional hop whistlers recorded by the ICE experiment onboard the DEMETER satellite with lightning detected by the EUCLID detection network. To identify the fractional hop whistlers, we have developed software for automatic detection of the fractional-hop whistlers in the VLF spectrograms. This software provides the detection times of the fractional hop whistlers and the average amplitudes of these whistlers. Matching the lightning and whistler data, we find the pairs of causative lightning and corresponding whistler. Processing data from ~200 DEMETER passes over the European region we obtain a map of mean amplitudes of whistler electric field as a function of latitudinal and longitudinal difference between the location of the causative lightning and satellite magnetic footprint. We find that mean whistler amplitude monotonically decreases with horizontal distance up to ~1000 km from the lightning source. At larger distances, the mean whistler amplitude usually merges into the background noise and the whistlers become undetectable. The maximum of whistler intensities is shifted from the satellite magnetic footprint ~1° owing to the oblique propagation. The average amplitude of whistlers increases with the lightning current. At nighttime (late evening, the average amplitude of whistlers is about three times higher than during the daytime (late morning for the same lightning current.

  1. On the relationship between cardboard burning in a sunshine recorder and the direct solar irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, A.; Calbó, J.; González, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Since the end of XIX century, the Campbell-Stokes recorder (CSR) has been the instrument used to measure the insolation (hours of sunshine during per day). Due to the large number of records that exist worldwide (some of them extending over more than 100 years), valuable climatic information can be extracted from them. There are various articles that relate the insolation with the cloudiness and the global solar irradiation (Angstrom-Prescott type formulas). Theoretically, the insolation is defined as the number of hours that direct solar irradiance (DSI) exceeds 120 W/m2, thus corresponding to the total length of the burning in the bands. The width of the burn has not been well studied, so the aim of this research is to relate this width, first with the DSI and then, with other variables. The research was carried out in Girona (NE Spain) for a period extending since February 2011. A CSR from Thies Clima and a pyrheliometer from Kipp&Zonen were used to measure insolation and the direct solar irradiance. Other meteorological variables were also stored for the study. For each band, we made two independent measurements of the width of the burn every 10 minutes: first, we measured directly the width of the perforated portion of the burn; second, we measured the width of the burn after applying a digital image process that increases the contrast of the burn. The burn in a band has a direct relationship with the DSI. Specifically, correlation coefficients of the perforation width and the burning width with DSI were 0.838 and 0.864 respectively. However, we found that there are times when despite of DSI is as high as 400 W/m2 (i.e. much greater than 120 W/m2), there is no burn in the band. Contrarily, sometimes a burn occurs with almost no DSI. Furthermore, a higher DSI does not always correspond to a wider burn of the band. Because of this, we consider that characteristics of band burns must also depend on other meteorological variables (temperature, humidity...). The

  2. Effect of fasting on body composition and responses to stress in sunshine bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kenneth B; Gaylord, T Gibson

    2011-01-01

    The integrated responses of the hormonal regulation of growth and stress in sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X Morone saxatilis) as regulated by feed deprivation were investigated. Groups of fish were fed 1.5% of the body weight per day or offered no feed for 4weeks. Another group of fish was not fed for 3weeks and feed was offered during the fourth week. Fish in each group were sampled immediately before or after a 15-min low water confinement stressor after each week of the experiment. Liver mass and liver glycogen content were decreased after one week of fasting and remained low until the end of the study. However, both recovered after a week of refeeding. Intraperitoneal fat was significantly lower after two weeks of fasting and did not recover after a week of refeeding. None of these components were affected by confinement stress. Plasma glucose in unstressed fish was generally unaffected by fasting or refeeding; however, plasma glucose increased after confinement stress in fed but not in fasted fish. The cortisol stress response was unaltered by fasting and remained robust. Plasma IGF-I generally decreased in fasted fish but was not significantly lower than fed fish until the fourth week. A week of refeeding did not restore plasma IGF-I concentrations. Plasma IGF-I concentrations were higher in confinement stressed fed fish after two and four weeks but were unchanged in the fourth week. There was no change in the plasma IGF-I concentrations in fasted or refed fish due to the stress. Liver weight and liver glycogen were essentially depleted after 2weeks of fasting. The reduction of liver glycogen greatly reduced the glucose response to stress; however, the cortisol stress response was maintained for at least four weeks of fasting. Intraperitoneal fat was decreased very little after 4weeks of fasting. Plasma IGF-I concentrations were reduced only after 3weeks of fasting.

  3. "Trees Live on Soil and Sunshine!"--Coexistence of Scientific and Alternative Conception of Tree Assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Christine Johanna; Bissinger, Kerstin; Thorn, Simon; Bogner, Franz Xaver

    2016-01-01

    Successful learning is the integration of new knowledge into existing schemes, leading to an integrated and correct scientific conception. By contrast, the co-existence of scientific and alternative conceptions may indicate a fragmented knowledge profile. Every learner is unique and thus carries an individual set of preconceptions before classroom engagement due to prior experiences. Hence, instructors and teachers have to consider the heterogeneous knowledge profiles of their class when teaching. However, determinants of fragmented knowledge profiles are not well understood yet, which may hamper a development of adapted teaching schemes. We used a questionnaire-based approach to assess conceptual knowledge of tree assimilation and wood synthesis surveying 885 students of four educational levels: 6th graders, 10th graders, natural science freshmen and other academic studies freshmen. We analysed the influence of learner's characteristics such as educational level, age and sex on the coexistence of scientific and alternative conceptions. Within all subsamples well-known alternative conceptions regarding tree assimilation and wood synthesis coexisted with correct scientific ones. For example, students describe trees to be living on "soil and sunshine", representing scientific knowledge of photosynthesis mingled with an alternative conception of trees eating like animals. Fragmented knowledge profiles occurred in all subsamples, but our models showed that improved education and age foster knowledge integration. Sex had almost no influence on the existing scientific conceptions and evolution of knowledge integration. Consequently, complex biological issues such as tree assimilation and wood synthesis need specific support e.g. through repeated learning units in class- and seminar-rooms in order to help especially young students to handle and overcome common alternative conceptions and appropriately integrate scientific conceptions into their knowledge profile.

  4. "Trees Live on Soil and Sunshine!"--Coexistence of Scientific and Alternative Conception of Tree Assimilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Johanna Thorn

    Full Text Available Successful learning is the integration of new knowledge into existing schemes, leading to an integrated and correct scientific conception. By contrast, the co-existence of scientific and alternative conceptions may indicate a fragmented knowledge profile. Every learner is unique and thus carries an individual set of preconceptions before classroom engagement due to prior experiences. Hence, instructors and teachers have to consider the heterogeneous knowledge profiles of their class when teaching. However, determinants of fragmented knowledge profiles are not well understood yet, which may hamper a development of adapted teaching schemes. We used a questionnaire-based approach to assess conceptual knowledge of tree assimilation and wood synthesis surveying 885 students of four educational levels: 6th graders, 10th graders, natural science freshmen and other academic studies freshmen. We analysed the influence of learner's characteristics such as educational level, age and sex on the coexistence of scientific and alternative conceptions. Within all subsamples well-known alternative conceptions regarding tree assimilation and wood synthesis coexisted with correct scientific ones. For example, students describe trees to be living on "soil and sunshine", representing scientific knowledge of photosynthesis mingled with an alternative conception of trees eating like animals. Fragmented knowledge profiles occurred in all subsamples, but our models showed that improved education and age foster knowledge integration. Sex had almost no influence on the existing scientific conceptions and evolution of knowledge integration. Consequently, complex biological issues such as tree assimilation and wood synthesis need specific support e.g. through repeated learning units in class- and seminar-rooms in order to help especially young students to handle and overcome common alternative conceptions and appropriately integrate scientific conceptions into their

  5. Wintering birds avoid warm sunshine: predation and the costs of foraging in sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jennie M; Lima, Steven L

    2014-03-01

    Wintering birds can gain significant thermal benefits by foraging in direct sunlight. However, exposure to bright sunlight might make birds easier to detect by predators and may also cause visual glare that can reduce a bird's ability to monitor the environment. Thus, birds likely experience a trade-off between the thermal benefits and predation-related costs of foraging in direct sunlight. To examine this possible thermoregulation-predation trade-off, we monitored the behavior of mixed-species flocks of wintering emberizid sparrows foraging in alternating strips of sunlight and shade. On average, these sparrows routinely preferred to forage in the shade, despite midday air temperatures as much as 30 °C below their thermoneutral zone. This preference for shade was strongest at relatively high temperatures when the thermal benefits of foraging in sunlight were reduced, suggesting a thermoregulation-predation trade-off. Glare could be reduced if birds faced away from the sun while feeding in direct sunlight, but we found that foraging birds tended to face southward (the direction of the sun). We speculate that other factors, such as the likely direction of predator approach, may explain this southerly orientation, particularly if predators use solar glare to their advantage during an attack. This interpretation is supported by the fact that birds had the weakest southerly orientation on cloudy days. Wintering birds may generally avoid foraging in direct sunlight to minimize their risk of predation. However, given the thermal benefits of sunshine, such birds may benefit from foraging in habitats that provide a mosaic of sunlit and shaded microhabitats.

  6. Driving Factors of the Decadal Variations in Sunshine Duration and Surface Solar Radiation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Wild, M.

    2016-12-01

    Solar radiation received at the Earth's surface has not been stable over time but underwent substantial decadal variations, popularly known as global dimming and brightening. Consistently in China, a reversal was noted in sunshine duration (SD), a widely used proxy for surface solar radiation (SSR), from dimming by -0.17 h d-1 decade-1 for the period 1960-1989 to leveling off by -0.01 h d-1 decade-1 for 1990-2013. SD declines covered about 85% of 344 examined sites across China in the dimming phase. By contrast, in the brightening phase, SD increased in about half of China, while continued to decrease in the other half, especially in central and north China. Through trend comparison and grey relational analysis, it was proven that the decadal changes in SD in China were driven by air pollution rather than cloud——the two most likely candidates for explaining global dimming and brightening. The air pollution effect on SD and SSR was then quantified under clear-sky conditions as follows: (1) on pristine days, SD is on average 1.1 h d-1 (12.4%) longer than on polluted days; and (2) on average, when air pollution increases by one level, i.e. the index for air pollution (API) increases by 50, SSR decreases by 6 W m-2. API was shown to be a useful indicator in studying the effects of aerosols on global dimming and brightening. Besides, air pollution has driven wind speed into a non-negligible regulator of SSR. The regulatory effect of wind speed on SSR starts to be important when API exceeds the level of 125. In addition, in the dimming phase without available API monitoring, urbanization can be used as an applicable proxy for anthropogenic pollution level. Urbanization has significantly affected SD trends in China until the brightening phase when pollution regulations became effective.

  7. A longitudinal study of the residents’ perceptions of tourism impacts using data from the sunshine coast Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu Sharma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether there has been a change in residents’ perceptions of living and tourism impacts, on the Sunshine Coast, in 2009 from their perceptions of 2008. In 2009 more respondents reported that lifestyle and general pace of life were the key attractions of living on the Sunshine Coast. The results also demonstrate a significant increase in residents’ perceptions that tourism is likely to have a positive impact on the cultural identity of the community. The study also found that between 2008 and 2009 there was a significant decrease in the residents’ concerns regarding traffic congestion; noise and pollution; crime rates; destruction of the natural environment; and unpleasantly overcrowded beaches, and bush walking paths, parks and outdoor facilities in the community. The research, however, reveals no significant differences in the residents’ perceptions of conservation of natural resources; creation of employment; and the possibility of having more cultural exchange between tourists and residents due to tourism. Overall, these findings are favourable for tourism-related stakeholders in developing future tourism plans for the region in that residents’ appear to be more willing to support tourism development.

  8. Lightning-produced NOx over Brazil during TROCCINOX: Airborne measurements in tropical and subtropical thunderstorms and the importance of mesoscale convective systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schwierz

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available During the TROCCINOX field experiments in February–March 2004 and February 2005, airborne in situ measurements of NO, NOy, CO, and O3 mixing ratios and the J(NO2 photolysis rate were carried out in the anvil outflow of thunderstorms over southern Brazil. Both tropical and subtropical thunderstorms were investigated, depending on the location of the South Atlantic convergence zone. Tropical air masses were discriminated from subtropical ones according to the higher equivalent potential temperature (Θe in the lower and mid troposphere, the higher CO mixing ratio in the mid troposphere, and the lower wind velocity and proper wind direction in the upper troposphere. During thunderstorm anvil penetrations, typically at 20–40 km horizontal scales, NOx mixing ratios were on average enhanced by 0.2–1.6 nmol mol−1. This enhancement was mainly attributed to NOx production by lightning and partly due to upward transport from the NOx-richer boundary layer. In addition, CO mixing ratios were occasionally enhanced, indicating upward transport from the boundary layer. For the first time, the composition of the anvil outflow from a large, long-lived mesoscale convective system (MCS advected from northern Argentina and Uruguay was investigated in more detail. Over a horizontal scale of about 400 km, NOx, CO and O3 mixing ratios were significantly enhanced in these air masses in the range of 0.6–1.1, 110–140 and 60–70 nmol mol−1, respectively. Analyses from trace gas correlations and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model indicate that polluted air masses, probably from the Buenos Aires urban area and from biomass burning regions, were uplifted by the MCS. Ozone was distinctly enhanced in the aged MCS outflow, due to photochemical production and entrainment of O3-rich air masses from the upper troposphere – lower stratosphere region. The aged MCS outflow was transported to the north, ascended and circulated, driven by the Bolivian High over the

  9. Lightning-produced NOx over Brazil during TROCCINOX: airborne measurements in tropical and subtropical thunderstorms and the importance of mesoscale convective systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schwierz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available During the TROCCINOX field experiments in February–March 2004 and February 2005, airborne in situ measurements of NO, NOy, CO, and O3 mixing ratios and the J(NO2 photolysis rate were carried out in the anvil outflow of thunderstorms over southern Brazil. Both tropical and subtropical thunderstorms were investigated, depending on the location of the South Atlantic convergence zone. Tropical air masses were discriminated from subtropical ones according to the higher equivalent potential temperature (Θe in the lower and mid troposphere, the higher CO mixing ratio in the mid troposphere, and the lower wind velocity in the upper troposphere within the Bolivian High (north of the subtropical jet stream. During thunderstorm anvil penetrations, typically at 20–40 km horizontal scales, NOx mixing ratios were distinctly enhanced and the absolute mixing ratios varied between 0.2–1.6 nmol mol−1 on average. This enhancement was mainly attributed to NOx production by lightning and partly due to upward transport from the NOx-richer boundary layer. In addition, CO mixing ratios were occasionally enhanced, indicating upward transport from the boundary layer. For the first time, the composition of the anvil outflow from a large, long-lived mesoscale convective system (MCS advected from northern Argentina and Uruguay was investigated in more detail. Over a horizontal scale of about 400 km, NOx, CO and O3 absolute mixing ratios were significantly enhanced in these air masses in the range of 0.6–1.1, 110–140 and 60–70 nmol mol−1, respectively. Analyses from trace gas correlations and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model indicate that polluted air masses, probably from the Buenos Aires urban area and from biomass burning regions, were uplifted by the MCS. Ozone was distinctly enhanced in the aged MCS outflow, due to photochemical production and entrainment of O3-rich air masses from the upper troposphere – lower stratosphere region. The aged MCS

  10. Use of Dual-Polarization Radar Variables to Assess Low-Level Wind Shear in Severe Thunderstorm Near-storm Environments in the Tennessee Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Christina C.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Kumjian, Matthew; Carey, Lawerence D.; Petersen, Walter A.

    2011-01-01

    The upgrade of the National Weather Service (NWS) network of S ]band dual-polarization radars is currently underway, and the incorporation of polarimetric information into the real ]time forecasting process will enhance the forecaster fs ability to assess thunderstorms and their near ]storm environments. Recent research has suggested that the combination of polarimetric variables differential reflectivity (ZDR) and specific differential phase (KDP) can be useful in the assessment of low level wind shear within a thunderstorm. In an environment with strong low ]level veering of the wind, ZDR values will be largest along the right inflow edge of the thunderstorm near a large gradient in horizontal reflectivity (indicative of large raindrops falling with a relative lack of smaller drops), and take the shape of an arc. Meanwhile, KDP values, which are proportional to liquid water content and indicative of a large number of smaller drops, are maximized deeper into the forward flank precipitation shield than the ZDR arc as the smaller drops are being advected further from the updraft core by the low level winds than the larger raindrops. Using findings from previous work, three severe weather events that occurred in North Alabama were examined in order to assess the utility of these signatures in determining the potential for tornadic activity. The first case is from October 26, 2010, where a large number of storms indicated tornadic potential from a standard reflectivity and velocity analysis but very few storms actually produced tornadoes. The second event is from February 28, 2011, where tornadic storms were present early on in the event, but as the day progressed, the tornado threat transitioned to a high wind threat. The third case is from April 27, 2011, where multiple rounds of tornadic storms ransacked the Tennessee Valley. This event provides a dataset including multiple modes of tornadic development, including QLCS and supercell structures. The overarching goal

  11. NASA thunderstorm overflight program: Atmospheric electricity research. An overview report on the optical lightning detection experiment for spring and summer 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, O. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the NASA Thunderstorm Overflight Program (TOP)/Optical Lightning Experiment (OLDE) being conducted by the Marshall Space Flight Center and university researchers in atmospheric electricity. Discussed in this report are the various instruments flown on the NASA U-2 aircraft, as well as the ground instrumentation used in 1983 to collect optical and electronic signatures from the lightning events. Samples of some of the photographic and electronic signatures are presented. Approximately 4132 electronic data samples of optical pulses were collected and are being analyzed by the NASA and university researchers. A number of research reports are being prepared for future publication. These reports will provide more detailed data analysis and results from the 1983 spring and summer program.

  12. Spatial and Temporal Distribution Characteristic of Sunshine Duration in Dali Mountains%大理州山地日照时间的时空分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明昆; 张成稳; 樊在斗

    2011-01-01

    基于数字高程模型(DEM)模拟计算了大理州山地日照时间的时空分布,结果显示,除了日照百分率外,坡度、坡向和地形之间的相互遮蔽对日照时间的分布有很大的影响。冬季太阳高度角较小,地形遮蔽对日照时间的影响很大,夏季相对较小。遮蔽系数4月最大,12月最小。一年中的任意时刻随着坡度的增加日照时间减少。坡向对日照时间的影响有很强的季节性:春分和秋分时期南坡与北坡日照时间相等且都为最多,夏至北坡最多,冬至南坡最多;春分至秋分期间,北坡日照时间最多,其余时间南坡日照时间最多,全年日照时间南坡最多。105°和255°坡向的坡面地形遮蔽系数常年都为0.82,不随时间变化。%This article simulated calculates the spatial and temporal distribution of mountains' sunshine duration in Dali based on the digital elevation model(DEM).The results show besides the percentage of sunshine,slope,aspect and the masking of terrain have a great effect on the distribution of sunshine duration.The solar altitude is smaller in winter,the masking of terrain has a great impact on sunshine duration,but it's smaller relatively in summer.The ratio of masking in April is maximum and in December is minimum all year around.Any time of year with the increase in slope the sunshine duration is reduced.The aspect has a strong seasonal on the sunshine duration: the northern slope and southern slope are equal to a maximum duration of sunshine in vernal equinox and autumnal equinox,the northern slope is maximum in summer solstice and the southern slope is maximum in winter solstice.During the vernal equinox to the autumnal equinox,sunshine duration in the northern slope is maximum,the southern slope is maximum in the rest of time,but the annual sunshine duration is maximum in the southern slope.The ratio of masking terrain in 105 ° and 255 ° of slope is 0.82 all year round,and the ratio is not

  13. Distribution Characteristics of Sunshine Duration in Qinghai Province%1971年-2007年青海省日照时数的时空分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义花; 汪青春; 王振宇; 李林

    2011-01-01

    Energy is the base of national economy. As China' s economy is growing rapidly, the problem of energy supply and security has emerged. Due to no environmental pollution, and clean and renewable characteristics, solar resources of sustainability and strategic energy will become increasingly important in the future. Qinghai Province is one of regions rich in solar radiation in China, and abounds in gifts of the nature, having a bright future through exploring and popularizing the solar energy resources. Sunshine duration seems to be the most promising indicator/variable to reflect the amount of radiation for a given region. Changes in sunshine duration would affect the growth of plant, animal, and anthropogenic activities. In this paper,annual sunshine duration time series and monthly sunshine duration in Qinghai Province were comprehensively examined using data from 51 meteorological stations during the period 1971-2007. Subsequently, the distribution characteristics of the sunshine duration in Qinghai Province were analyzed. Results show that: 1) the mean annual sunshine duration is 2351.5~3397.7h, with the maximum of 2951.1~3397.7h in the Qaidam basin and the minimum of 2351.5~2842.4h in Guoluo regions. As far as spatial distribution is concerned, the most of sunshine duration occurs in the west and the north of Qinghai Province, and the least takes place in the south and the east; 2)for annual variation, the mean annual sunshine duration is 2761.5h. The period 1971-1987 was found to be generally above the normal, whereas the 1988-2007 time period was essentially low. For seasonal variation, Yushu, Guoluo, Haibei, Hainan, and Qaidam regions showed more sunshine duration than other regions in spring, Qaidam, Haibei, and Haidong regions in summer, Qaidam and Haibei in autunm, and Qaidam, Haibei, and Hainan regions in winter,respectively. In general, the sunshine duration in Qinghai province significantly reduced. The monthly sunshine duration peaked in May

  14. A systematic review of state and manufacturer physician payment disclosure websites: implications for implementation of the Sunshine Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwong, Alison R; Qaragholi, Noor; Carpenter, Daniel; Joffe, Steven; Campbell, Eric G; Soleymani Lehmann, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Under the Physician Payment Sunshine Act (PPSA), payments to physicians from pharmaceutical, biologics, and medical device manufacturers will be disclosed on a national, publicly available website. To inform the development of the federal website, we evaluated 21 existing state and industry disclosure websites. The presentation formats and language used suggest that industry websites are aimed at patient audiences whereas state websites are structured to transmit data to researchers and guide compliance officers. These findings raise questions about the intended audience and aims of the PPSA disclosure database and expected outcomes of the law. Based on our evaluation, we offer recommendations for the national website and discuss implications of this policy for the health care system.

  15. Statistical cloud coverage as determined from sunshine duration: a model applicable in daylighting and solar energy forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kómar, Ladislav; Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2016-12-01

    A radiative/luminous energy budget is difficult to predict on a daily or hourly base if cloud coverage is obtained by subjective methods in discrete time points. A simple theoretical model that overcomes this shortcoming through interrelation of absolute cloud fraction and sunshine duration is presented. The latter is measured routinely at the meteorological stations worldwide. The model is based on statistical probability of clear line of sight, where Poisson spatial cloud distribution is analyzed for three different cloud shapes. A validation of the model using long-term measurements show a good correlation between experimentally determined and theoretically predicted data. The absolute cloud fraction obtained this way are a base for daylighting and solar energy applications including simulations of luminance/radiance sky distributions under different meteorological conditions. A simple calculation tool is developed and demonstrated on global horizontal illuminance (GHI).

  16. Interglobular dentine in first and third molars: relation to hours of sunshine during growth in two archeological populations from England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanhoe, F

    1982-03-01

    Thin ground sections of first molars (M1), third molars (M3), and second premolars (P2) were scanned by light microscopy for relative amounts of interglobular dentine (IGD) in the top half of the crown. Two well-dated cemetery series of English provenance were sampled: the Saint Bride's Church collection (SB) from eighteenth century London, for which the sex, age, and calendar year at death of each individual are known; and the early Anglo-Saxons from Abingdon (A-AS), near Oxford. A lesser number of prehispanic aboriginal Guanche teeth from Tenerife (TG) were also studied. Estimates of insolation in the past were developed indirectly by reference to delta 0(18) mass spectrometer analyses of dated layers of the Greenland ice sheet. In the M1 and M3 of the SB and the A-AS populations, IGD varied as an inverse linear function of average annual hours of bright sunshine below a certain critical level, the insolation deficit threshold being significantly higher and IGD formation faster in the M1 than in the M3. No such dose-response gradient was apparent in the P2 data, presumably because the calcification of this tooth during the fourth year of life coincides with serious pediatric illnesses and weaning of the child onto cereal foods rich in phytate, which together confound and overwhelm the insolation deficit effect. IGD in all three types of teeth of the small TG series was considerably higher than had been predicted on the basis of bright sunshine availability; but the discrepancy is readily explainable in terms of this population's dietary, which relied on barley as the main staple.

  17. Discussion on the Sports Aesthetic Connotation of "Sunshine Sports"%论“阳光体育”的体育美学内涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱云松

    2012-01-01

    By using the methods of documentation,from the perspectives based on aesthetic sports,from the body health beauty,game sports beauty,the spirit of character beauty and the humanistic harmonious beauty of "the sunshine sports",the study discusses the sports aesthetic meanings of "sunshine sports".%运用文献资料法,由体育美学的视角审视阳光体育,从"阳光体育"的身体健康美,"阳光体育"的游戏运动美,"阳光体育"的精神品格美,"阳光体育"的人文和谐美等方面,研究探讨"阳光体育"的体育美学内涵。

  18. Flood characteristics for the Nisqually River and susceptibility of Sunshine Point and Longmire facilities to flooding in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Inundation from 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods at Sunshine Point and Longmire facilities and the Longmire visitors ' center and ranger station generally is not a serious hazard as long as the existing dikes and banks of the Nisqually River and Tahoma Creek remain intact and flood capacities of the channels are maintained. However, average water velocities during floods are high (as much as 23 ft/sec) and the channel, banks, and some dikes are composed of unstable materials. Sunshine Point campground is particularly susceptible to flooding and damage from Tahoma Creek, and to a lesser extent from the Nisqually River, if large amounts of debris or rock material accumulate in the channels and change the flood elevation or courses of either stream. At Longmire flood inundation or damage from the Nisqually River is much less, but flooding is still possible. There, high ridges upstream protect the several park facilities from the river, but accumulations of debris or rock in the channel could cause flooding from overtopping of dikes or riverbanks. Glacial outburst floods are a matter of serious concern at both Sunshine Point campground and Longmire. Glacial outbursts can and have produced very large flood discharges and transported large quantities of debris and rock materials. Although none have been known to transport these materials from Tahoma Glacier as far as Sunshine Point campground, one in 1955 from Nisqually Glacier (estimated at 70,000 cu ft/sec near the glacier) did appreciably increase the magnitude of the water discharge at Longmire. For safety, campers and visitors need to be advised about the potential flood hazards at both facilities. (Author 's abstract)

  19. Frequency noise in frequency swept fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This Letter presents a measurement of the spectral content of frequency shifted pulses generated by a lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper. We found that each pulse is shifted in frequency with very high accuracy. We also discovered that noise originating from light leaking through the acousto...

  20. Frequency noise in frequency swept fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-04-01

    This Letter presents a measurement of the spectral content of frequency shifted pulses generated by a lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper. We found that each pulse is shifted in frequency with very high accuracy. We also discovered that noise originating from light leaking through the acousto- optical modulators and forward propagating Brillouin scattering appear in the spectrum.

  1. 秦岭南北日照时数时空变化及突变特征%Spatial-temporal variations and mutations of sunshine hours in the northern and southern regions of the Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冲; 刘晓磊; 程楠楠; 梁宁霞; 王飞; 刘思杰; 穆兴民

    2013-01-01

    In recent years,along with global warming,increasing population density,quickening urbanization progress,climate elements such as corresponding temperature,sunshine hours have taken distinct changes.Scholars in China have done abundant study on the characteristics of sunshine hour changes and its response to climate changes.Many meaningful conclusions have been drawn.Sunshine hours are the most direct representation of radiation quantum.The change of sunshine hours affects the growth of plant,animal and the anthropogenic activity.The Qinling Mountains is the most important climatic separatrix of north and south of China.In this paper,the series of annual and seasonal sunshine hours in the northern and southern regions of the Qinling and Dabashan Mountains were developed using the sunshine hours data from 47 meteorological stations in the northern and southern regions of the Qin and Dabashan Mountains during the period of 1960-2011.The distribution and temporal and spatial variation characteristics of sunshine hours as well as the meteorological elements which influenced sunshine hours were analyzed using the methods of Spline interpolation method,climate trend rate,Pettitt abrupt change point detection,correlation analysis and others.The results are as follows:(1)Yearly averaged sunshine hours are 1 838.7 h,with the spatial distribution pattern of high value in northeast region and low in southwest.Four seasons'sunshine hours present the same distribution characteristics like the annual sunshine hours,with summer's sunshine hours >spring's > autumn's >winter's,which is in climatology's linear law.(2) According to the percentages of stations with sunshine hours decreasing trend in recent 52 years,whose orders are as follows:Ba-Wu valley's stations>Han River basin's > Qinling Mountains northern region's > Qinling Mountains southern slope's.The decreasing trend in southern region was more obvious than that in northern region of Qinling Mountains.94% and

  2. Lightning frequency over the Italian peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turoldo, F.; Stel, F.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Bernardi, M.; Adamo, C.; Rovelli, C.; Dietrich, S.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this work is to analize the spatial frequency of lightning over Italy and to interpret the observed features in relationship with topography and with the climatic characteristics of the area. The data used to perform this analysis are : i) cloud to ground measurem ents (CG) from 1995 to 2000 given by CESI/SIRF (Sistem a Italiano Rilevamento Fulmini); ii) total flash measurements from 1995 to 2000 obtained trough the OTD system (Optical Transient Detector) given by NASA; iii) topography measurements obtained trough the ETOPO -2 database downloaded from NOAA. Both the yearly number of positive and negative CG lightning decrease with the increasing of topographic height. The number of positive and negative CG lightning decreases with the same derivative even if it seems that only below 1000 m it is possible to reach ratios between positive over negative CG lightning higher than 1. These values are observed only in the North African area present in the ranges of our analysis , that is from longitude 5 to 11 °E and from latitude 36 to 37 °N. Future studies will confirm if this is a real effect or an observational bias. The behavior of total lightning activity (IC and CG) in relationship with CG lightning activity and with topography is studied by means of OTD data. Being OTD data retrieved trough satellites, the analysis is done making us e of the flash rate per squared kilometer and per year instead of the number of lightning. Flash rate is computed using data on a re solution of 0.5°x0.5° and keping into account the changes in the surface due to the changes in latitude and longitude. This work confirms the observation (made even by other authors) that CG lightning frequency decreases as topographic height increases. A similar trend is found in total lightning flash rate, which is essentially due to the contribution of IC lightning. These observations are explained assuming that thunderstorm activity decreases with the increasing of topographic height

  3. TGF Ground Observations from a Winter Thunderstorm in Japan: First Ground Observation of a Multipulse TGF & Evidence of Neutron Production from a TGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, G. S.; Smith, D. M.; Kelley, N. A.; Takahashi, S.; Ishikawa, A.; Kamogawa, M.; Heckman, S.; Cummer, S.

    2016-12-01

    On December 23rd, during a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Postdoctoral Fellowship Program, the instrument GODOT (Gamma Ray Observations During Overhead Thunderstorms) observed two Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) events in Uchinada, Ishikawa prefecture, Japan. During the first event at 1706 UTC, 7 bursts of radiation were observed in 3 scintillator detectors over an 8 ms interval, with each burst 100 μs in duration consisting of 15-250 scintillator counts with some energies exceeding 10 MeV. Approximately 20 ms before this, we observed a smaller burst in the 3 detectors with 20 μs duration and 15 counts up to several MeV corresponding to the strongest VLF signal observed for these bursts by the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) and VLF receivers operated by our collaborators at Tokyo Gakugei University. Nearby LF radio data show that each gamma ray feature corresponds to a distinct radio burst. The second event at 2020 UTC was a single, very bright burst with a decaying tail lasting > 65 ms, showing evidence of a flux of thermal neutrons via the neutron capture line at 2.2 MeV, the capture being presumably on protons in the plastic scintillation material of the detector itself. This flash included an upward positive leader from a lightning protection tower next to the Uchinada wind turbine. We will present observations of both events with constraints on the production of relativistic electrons from Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. The Angular Distribution of Electron and X-ray Emission from Triggered Lightning Leader Steps Using the Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Rassoul, H. K.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Hill, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Energetic radiation is known to be produced by thunderclouds and lightning. To investigate the characteristics of these emissions, ground-based observations are being conducted at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, FL. Measurements of the electric and magnetic fields, optical emissions, and energetic radiation from both natural and rocket-triggered lightning discharges are recorded at the ICLRT. Specifically, the Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA) is used to measure x-ray and gamma-ray emissions. In total, the ICLRT encompasses 36 NaI and two LaBr3 PMTs as part of TERA. Additionally, these measurements were compared with Monte Carlo simulations of runaway electron propagation and their x-ray emission with the goal of understanding the underlying mechanism of runaway electron production and their role in lightning initiation and propagation. In this study, we investigate individual leader steps to determine if electrons at the source (and hence x-rays) are emitted isotropically or with some degree of anisotropy. This study is motivated by the work of Saleh et al. 2009, which compared distributions of a beamed and an isotropic electron source to radial energy distributions using TERA and determined that the average electron source of emission was isotropic. The anisotropy of the runaway electrons is important because it may provide information on the electric fields near the lightning leader tip.

  5. Multi-frequency excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-03-10

    Embodiments of multi-frequency excitation are described. In various embodiments, a natural frequency of a device may be determined. In turn, a first voltage amplitude and first fixed frequency of a first source of excitation can be selected for the device based on the natural frequency. Additionally, a second voltage amplitude of a second source of excitation can be selected for the device, and the first and second sources of excitation can be applied to the device. After applying the first and second sources of excitation, a frequency of the second source of excitation can be swept. Using the methods of multi- frequency excitation described herein, new operating frequencies, operating frequency ranges, resonance frequencies, resonance frequency ranges, and/or resonance responses can be achieved for devices and systems.

  6. Frequency selectivity at very low centre frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Marquardt, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    A significant factor in the decrease of sensitivity to low-frequency sound is the helicotrema shunt effect. In humans, it causes a slope increase of the middle-ear transfer function (METF) from 6 dB/oct to 12 dB/oct below approximately 50 Hz [Marquardt et al., J.Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 3628......-3638 (2007)]. Recent experiments showed that the exact frequency varies from individual to individual. Besides, the helicotrema region in the METF has been found to highly influence frequency selectivity for centre frequencies (CFs) below 80 Hz (Jurado and Moore in prep). By using individual METF...... in the shape of the METFs, thought to be affected by the helicotrema impedance. Preliminary analysis indicates that individual differences in the METFs might underlay the observed individual differences in frequency selectivity. Main effects predicted by the calculations are a pronounced flattening off...

  7. Empirical Models For The Correlation With Sunshine Duration of Metrological Data For Tikrit-TuzKhurmato and Kirkuk-IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayadh M. Abed Al-Dulaimy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of metrological data of maximum, minimum ambient temperature, humidity and sunshine duration for a period of 23 years during the period of 1977-2000, at Tikrit (34. 35°N, 43.37°E, TuzKurmato (34.88°N, 44.64°E, and Kirkuk (35.30°N, 44. 21°E, were used to established an Angstrom type corrélation équations for direct global solar radiation. The diffuse radiation was estimated by using klien and Page Models. This calculation appears to be sufficient to discriminate each station from the others due to it’s local characteristic of the sites. The overall results shown for TuzKurmato, the received radiation on the plane surface is higher than Tikrit and Kirkuk while the diffuse radiation reversely behaved as for Tiktit is the highest. The developed model can be used for estimating global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces. The monthly average total solar radiation was estimated. The value of correlation coefficient (r and value of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, Mean Bias Error (MBE and Mean Percentage Error (MPE were determined for each equation

  8. Relationship between sunshine duration and temperature trends across Europe since the second half of the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besselaar, E. J. M.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Wild, M.; Klein Tank, A. M. G.; Laat, A. T. J.

    2015-10-01

    Global radiation is a fundamental source of energy in the climate system. A significant impact of global radiation on temperature change is expected due to the widespread dimming/brightening phenomenon observed since the second half of the twentieth century. This work describes the analysis of 312 stations with sunshine duration (SD) series, a proxy for global radiation, and temperature series in the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (ECA&D) with data over the period 1961-2010. The relationship between SD and temperature series is analyzed for four temperature variables: maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin), mean temperature (Tmean), and diurnal temperature range (DTR). The analyses are performed on annual and seasonal basis. The results show strong positive correlations between SD and temperatures over Europe, with highest correlation for DTR and Tmax during the summer period. These results confirm the strong relationship between SD and temperature trends over Europe since the second half of the twentieth century. This study supports previous suggestions that dimming (brightening) has partially decreased (increased) temperatures thereby modulating the greenhouse gas induced warming rates over Europe.

  9. Lightning and its association with the frequency of headache in migraineurs: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Geoffrey V; Houle, Timothy; Nicholson, Robert; Peterlin, Albert; Martin, Vincent T

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this article is to determine if lightning is associated with the frequency of headache in migraineurs. Participants fulfilling diagnostic criteria for International Headache Society-defined migraine were recruited from sites located in Ohio ( N  = 23) and Missouri ( N  = 67). They recorded headache activity in a daily diary for three to six months. A generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression determined the odds ratio (OR) of headache on lightning days compared to non-lightning days. Other weather factors associated with thunderstorms were also added as covariates to the GEE model to see how they would attenuate the effect of lightning on headache. The mean age of the study population was 44 and 91% were female. The OR for headache was 1.31 (95% confidence limits (CL); 1.07, 1.66) during lighting days as compared to non-lightning days. The addition of thunderstorm-associated weather variables as covariates were only able to reduce the OR for headache on lightning days to 1.18 (95% CL; 1.02, 1.37). The probability of having a headache on lightning days was also further increased when the average current of lightning strikes for the day was more negative. This study suggests that lightning represents a trigger for headache in migraineurs that cannot be completely explained by other meteorological factors. It is unknown if lightning directly triggers headaches through electromagnetic waves or indirectly through production of bioaerosols (e.g. ozone), induction of fungal spores or other mechanisms. These results should be interpreted cautiously until replicated in a second dataset.

  10. Properties of x-ray emission from natural and rocket triggered lightning as measured by the Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ziad

    The Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA) is an experiment designed to measure energetic radiations (x-rays and gamma-rays) from thunderstorms and lightning. It is located at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) facility at Camp Blanding, FL. The array is integrated with the Multiple Station Experiment (MSE) which provides simultaneous measurement of electric and magnetic fields from nearby lightning. Since 2003, the facility has been operated jointly by University of Florida and Florida Institute of Technology. The array contains eight plastic, two Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3) and 37 Sodium Iodide (NaI) detectors distributed over 25 stations covering the ˜ .5 km2 facility and centered around the rocket launch tower which is used to trigger lightning. A subset of the MSE/TERA network, consisting of 9 stations, is operated as a time of arrival network. From 2005 to 2007, MSE/TERA recorded 9 successful rocket-triggered lightning events and 16 natural flashes, all negative cloud-to-ground. In this dissertation, I present an analysis of the x-ray emission from rocket triggered and natural lightning to study their spatial and temporal variation during the leader formation. The x-rays are emitted in discrete bursts lasting for about 1 musec and observed to occur during the last 10˜100 musec of the dart leader and dart-stepped leader phase of triggered lightning and during the last 1 ms of the stepped leader phase of natural lightning, just prior to the time of the return stroke and ceases afterwards. I propose a model for the x-ray emission from a dart-stepped leader which depicts the seed electrons being accelerated near the leader tip clue to the high electric fields and following the path of the dart-stepped leader. Using detailed 3D Monte Carlo simulations, which fully model the bremsstrahlung production, electron and x-ray propagation, the model shows that the seed electrons are emitted isotropically in the azimuthal angle with

  11. 78 FR 49514 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Open Commission Meeting; Friday, August 9, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... frequency band to provide additional competition in the broadband market, improve efficient delivery of... of 4th Generation (4G) and other wireless services. 3 WIRELINE COMPETITION... TITLE: Rates for... format and alternative media, including large print/ type; digital disk; and audio and video tape....

  12. 75 FR 27779 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Open Commission Meeting; Thursday, May 20, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... the 14th edition of the Mobile Wireless Competition Report, analyzing the state of competition in the... Establishment of Rules and Policies for the Digital Audio Radio Satellite Service in the 2310-2360 MHz Frequency... licensees. 3 WIRELINE TITLE: Schools and COMPETITION. Libraries Universal Service Support Mechanism...

  13. A Numerical Study of Space Charge Formation Beneath Thunderstorm%雷暴云下空间电荷层形成的数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙安平; 言穆弘; 张义军; 郄秀书

    2001-01-01

    With a two-dimensional axissymmetric model and a ground corona discharge model, we have numerically calculated the temporal and spatial distribution of space charge density and analyzed the formation of space charge layer, especially concerning transportation mechanism for all kinds of ions, under the thunderclouds. The results show that ground point discharge is always controlled by electric structure in the low part of the thunderstorm. On the other hand, ground point discharge, in,turn, emprass the development of electric structure inside the thundercloud.%利用一个引入了地面尖端电晕放电物理过程的二维轴对称积云起电模式,讨论了雷暴云下空间电荷层的空间分布和随时间的演化规律。在模式计算上采用了"时步分离法",即在小时步上计算电导及各种反极性离子的复合作用,在大时步上计算平流、对流和湍流扩散项,对于不同的时间步长垂直方向采用不同的格距。通过模拟分析,得到了一些较为合理的结果。最后简单地讨论了本工作在以后需改进的地方。

  14. Hyperfine phononic frequency comb

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesan, Adarsh; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency combs [1-8] have resulted in significant advances in optical frequency metrology and found wide application to precise physical measurements [1-4, 9] and molecular fingerprinting [8]. A direct analogue of frequency combs in the phononic or acoustic domain has not been reported to date. In this letter, we report the first clear experimental evidence for a phononic frequency comb. In contrast to the Kerr nonlinearity [10] in optical frequency comb formation, the phononic frequency comb is generated through the intrinsic coupling of a driven phonon mode with an auto-parametrically excited sub-harmonic mode [16]. Through systematic experiments at different drive frequencies and amplitudes, we portray the well-connected process of phononic frequency comb formation and define attributes to control the features [17-18] associated with comb formation in such a system. Further, the interplay between these nonlinear resonances and the well-known Duffing phenomenon [12-14] is also observed. The present...

  15. 2010年后汛期一次东风波雷雨大风天气分析%Analysis on an Easterly Wave Thunderstorm and Gale Weather in Latter Flood Season of 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何云燕; 林确略; 杨礼林; 刘金裕; 甘桂华

    2012-01-01

    [目的]分析2010年后汛期一次东风波雷雨大风天气.[方法]利用常规观测资料、自动站资料、NCEP 1°×1°再分析资料和多 普勒雷达反射率、径向速度资料,对2010年8月4~5日东风波雷雨大风天气过程进行了分析,研究了雷雨大风发生的环流形势、东风波风场和动力热力结构、多普勒雷达回波特征等.[结果]此次雷雨大风天气发生在深厚东风波槽前的东北风区域.发生时,副高位置偏北(脊线35°N),北支槽的东移迫使副高分裂成东西2环.东环副高西伸、鞍形场环流有利东风波生成发展.随着东风波发展西移,在其槽前影响区域,高空东风分量下传,使低空东北风显著加大,出现雷雨大风天气.雷雨大风发生的区域,中低层气流气旋式辐合,近地层反气旋式辐散,下沉运动明显;并具有中高层趋干冷、低层趋暖湿的热力结构.4日,超级单体风暴处在发展阶段,具有明显中气旋和钩状回波特征(中小尺度特征).5日,广东中西部出现飑线和大风区、逆风区特征.中气旋、钩状回波和飑线、大风区、逆风区多普勒特征对雷雨大风短临预报具有指示意义.[结论]该研究揭示了一些对当地预报此类东风波雷雨大风有意义的信息.%[Objective] The research aimed to analyze an easterly wave thunderstorm and gale weather in latter flood season of 2010. [ Method] Based on conventional observation data, data of automatic station, NCEP 1° x 1° reanalysis data, Doppler radar reflectivity and radial velocity data, the easterly wave thunderstorm and gale weather process which happened during 4-5 August ,2010 was analyzed. The circulation situation, wind field and dynamic & thermal structures of easterly wave, echo characteristics of Doppler radar when thunderstorm and gale happened were studied. [ Result] The thunderstorm and gale weather happened in northeaster zone in front of deep easterly wave trough. When the

  16. Conflicts and Identity Construction in the Drama "Thunderstorm"under the Interpersonal Relationship Management Theory%人际关系管理理论下《雷雨》中的戏剧冲突及身份建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月花

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the drama "Thunderstorm".It analyses interpersonal conflict in the drama and the construction of communication in the communication process using the interpersonal harmony management theory of Spencer -Oatey.%本文以话剧《雷雨》为分析语料,运用 Spencer—Oatey 的人际和谐管理理论来分析戏剧中通过对交际者面子及社交权的威胁来构成的人际冲突,以及交际过程中交际者身份的构建。

  17. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  18. Modeling Frequency Comb Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Feng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequency comb sources have revolutionized metrology and spectroscopy and found applications in many fields. Stable, low-cost, high-quality frequency comb sources are important to these applications. Modeling of the frequency comb sources will help the understanding of the operation mechanism and optimization of the design of such sources. In this paper,we review the theoretical models used and recent progress of the modeling of frequency comb sources.

  19. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  20. Geologic map of the Alligator Ridge area, including the Buck Mountain East and Mooney Basin Summit quadrangles and parts of the Sunshine Well NE and Long Valley Slough quadrangles, White Pine County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Constance J.

    2000-01-01

    Data set describes the geology of Paleozoic through Quaternary units in the Alligator Ridge area, which hosts disseminated gold deposits. These digital files were used to create the 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Buck Mountain East and Mooney Basin Summit Quadrangles and parts of the Sunshine Well NE and Long Valley Slough Quadrangles, White Pine County, east-central Nevada.

  1. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2013-05-28

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  2. 1961-2010年河北省日照变化分析%Analysis on Change of Sunshine Duration in Hebei Province during the Period from 1961 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向亮; 胡波; 谷永利

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the change of annual sunshine duration in Hebei Provinc during the period of 1961 - 2010 was analyzed using EOF, maximum entropy spectrum and Lepage test. The results showed that the difference of spatial distribution of annual sunshine duration was significant in the province. Holistically, annual sunshine duration was decreased from the north to the south of the province, it was in a downtrend in most areas of the province, the downtrend was more obvious in most parts of the central-southern area than that in most parts of the northern area, and the downtrend of annual sunshine duration was extremely significant. The spatial distribution of annual sunshine duration was not only similar, but also varied from the south to the north. Temporally, the decrease of annual, seasonal and monthly sunshine duration was extremely significant except that in few months. Lepage test revealed that there was a sharp change of annual sunshine duration in 1972 and 2001. The analyzed results also showed that the there was a significant change and 4.2-year periodicity of annual sunshine duration in the province. The further analyzed results revealed that the main factors resulting in the reduction of annual sunshine duration was cloud cover and fog, and floating dust was not the main reason causing the reduction of annual sunshine duration.%利用EOF、最大熵谱分析、Lepage突变性检验等方法,分析河北省1961-2010年日照时数的变化情况。结果表明:河北省日照时数空间分布差异较大,整体上表现为由北向南呈递减趋势,各区日照时数普遍呈下降趋势,其中中南大部地区下降趋势较为明显,而北部地区日照时数下降趋势相对较小,年13照时数下降趋势异常显著;空间分布上既有“一致型”,也存在“南中北型”;从时间变化上看,除个别月份外,其他年、季、月日照时数下降趋势均异常显著;Lepage突

  3. 近48年华南日照时数的变化特征%The Change Characteristics of Sunshine Duration during the Past 48 Years in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍红雨; 杜尧东; 潘蔚娟

    2011-01-01

    利用1961 - 2008年华南110个测站年日照时数资料,通过线性趋势分析、Mann-Kendall检验、功率谱分析和计算趋势系数等统计诊断方法,分析了华南年日照时数的时空特征和气候变化.结果表明:近48 a来,华南年平均日照时数整体上呈自南向北减少的分布特点,最高中心位于广西南宁(2 552 h),最低中心在广西金秀(1 172 h).华南平均年日照时数以4.09 h/a的速率明显减少,高于全国平均值,并存在22 a和11 a的显著周期振荡,在1970年代后期发生突变.华南年日照时数长期趋势变化有明显的空间差异,大部分地区呈明显减少的趋势,其中有3个减少中心,分别位于广东深圳(- 12.86 h/a),海南澄迈(- 12.85 h/a)和广西横县(- 11.85 h/a).华南年平均日照时数的分布与总云量分布几乎完全相同,但它们的变化趋势大部分相反.广东大部分地区总云量在明显增加,日照时数在显著减少.%Based on the annual sunshine duration data from 110 observational stations during 1961 -2008 in South China, the climatic changes and the spatial temporal features of sunshine duration were studied by using statistical diagnostic methods, including linear regression analysis, Mann-Kendall test, power spectrum function and the computation of trend coefficients. The results show that the annual mean sunshine duration shows a decreasing trend from South China to North China in the past 48 years. The highest center is located in Nanning of Guangxi (2552 h) and the lowest center in Jingxiu of Guangxi (1172h). The annual sunshine duration has declined at a mean rate of 4. 09 h/a, which is higher than that of China. The changes of annual sunshine duration show significant 22 year and 11 year periods, with an abrupt change in the late 1970's. The trend of sunshine duration in South China has a remarkable regional difference. Decreasing trend of sunshine duration is obvious in most part of South China. There are three

  4. Industry Financial Relationships in Orthopaedic Surgery: Analysis of the Sunshine Act Open Payments Database and Comparison with Other Surgical Subspecialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Chalmers, Peter N; Bach, Bernard R

    2015-08-05

    Industry financial relationships for orthopaedic surgeons in the United States are now publicly reported in the Sunshine Act Open Payments database. We sought to present these data in a more easily understandable format and to describe how industry relationships in orthopaedic surgery compare with other surgical subspecialties. The Open Payments database was searched for all records of industry financial relationships for orthopaedic surgeons. Data analyzed included the value of reported financial relationships per surgeon, the type of financial relationship, and geographic region. Similar analytics were collected for neurological surgery, urology, plastic surgery, and otolaryngology. Data were normalized to the overall number of providers in each subspecialty in the United States from the American Medical Association 2012 data. For 12,320 orthopaedic surgeons, 58,127 industry financial relationships were reported, with a total value of $80.2 million. Royalties or licensing fees, which were received by 1.7% of U.S. orthopaedic surgeons, accounted for 69.5% of the total monetary value of payments to orthopaedic surgeons. Between August and December 2013, 50.1% of U.S. orthopaedic surgeons had a reported financial relationship. Orthopaedics had the second lowest percentage of physicians with industry financial relationships among the five surgical subspecialties studied. The overall value of payments per orthopaedic surgeon was higher than in the other subspecialties, driven by the large value of royalties and licensing. One-half of U.S. orthopaedic surgeons have industry financial relationships reported in the Open Payments database. Orthopaedic surgeons are less likely than most surgical subspecialists to receive industry payments, and the majority of the overall value of orthopaedic financial relationships is driven by a small number of orthopaedic surgeons receiving royalties and licensing for reimbursable innovation within the field. Copyright © 2015 by The

  5. Generalized models for estimation of diffuse solar radiation based on clearness index and sunshine duration in India: Applicability under different climatic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Basharat; Siddiqui, Abid T.

    2017-05-01

    Generalized models for assessment of monthly average diffuse solar radiation over India were established using long-term solar radiation data available for 15 years (1986-2000) obtained from Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), Pune. Regression analysis was employed to correlate the diffuse fraction (K̅d) with clearness index (K̅t) and relative sunshine period (S̅/S̅o) together. Seven new models (with two input variables i.e. global solar radiation and relative sunshine period) were developed using data of the measurement sites. Well-established models from literature were also compared with the proposed models. Statistical tests used to evaluate the accuracy of models were mean bias error, root mean square error, mean percentage error, coefficient of determination, t-statistics and normalized median absolute deviation. Global performance indicator (GPI) was used to rank the models. Further, the empirical models were applied on the five representative locations under diverse climatic zones (i.e. Hot & Dry, Warm & Humid, Temperate, Cold and Composite climates) prescribed by the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) for India. Proposed models were also compared within each climatic zone and best model was recommended. Developed models were found to have good performance on collective data as well as under each climatic zone individually.

  6. The interaction of large scale and mesoscale environment leading to formation of intense thunderstorms over Kolkata. Part I: Doppler radar and satellite observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Mukhopadhyay; M Mahakur; H A K Singh

    2009-10-01

    The weather systems that predominantly affect the eastern and northeastern parts of India during the pre-monsoon summer months (March,April and May)are severe thunderstorms,known as Nor ’westers.The storms derive their names from the fact that they frequently strike cities and towns in the southern part of West Bengal in the afternoon from the north-west direction while traveling far from its place of genesis over the Bihar plateau.The storms are devastating in nature particularly due to strong (gusty)winds,heavy rains and hails associated with it.Although these storms are well known for its power of causing damages,studies on them are relatively few due to their small size and sparse network of observations.To address this important issue,the evolution of two Nor ’westers of 12 March and 22 May 2003 over Kolkata is studied in detail in this paper using hourly Doppler weather radar (DWR)observations and high resolution Meteosat-5 imageries.In addition,supporting meteorological reports are used to find the large scale conditions that influence the moisture convergence and vertical wind shear.The genesis of both the storms is found to be over Bihar –Jharkhand region and beyond the range of the DWR.The satellite observations are found to be useful in identifying the location and initiation of the storms.The movements of the storms are captured by the DWR estimated vertical cross-section of reflectivities.The Doppler estimate shows that the 12 March storm had a vertical extent of about 10 –12 km at the time of maturity and that of 22 May reaching up to 18 km signifying deep convection associated with these events.The genesis, maturity and dissipation are well brought out by the hourly DWR and satellite imageries.The DWR observations suggest that the systems move at a speed of 20 –25 m/s.The DWR estimated precipitation shows a detailed spatial distribution around Kolkata with several localized zones of heavy rain and this is found to be well supported by

  7. Assessing Patterns in the Surface Electric Field Prior to First CG Flashes and After Last CG Flashes in Air-Mass Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. E.; Beasley, W. H.; Hyland, P. T.

    2007-12-01

    In an effort to elicit patterns in the temporal and spatial evolution of the contours of surface electric field relevant to the occurrence of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning, we have analyzed data from the network of 31 electric-field mills jointly operated by the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). To identify cases of interest, we used lightning ground-strike data, maps of in-cloud lightning discharges, rainfall data, and radar data. In particular, we have focused on two critical problems: 1) estimation of when and where the first CG flash in a storm might occur and 2) assessment of the likelihood of CG flashes occurring late in a storm after a long period without a CG flash. Our long-term goal is to understand the evolution of surface contours of electric field for periods of 30 minutes or more before the first flash of any kind and 30 minutes or more before and after the last flash of any kind. For practical reasons, we are reporting here on analysis of data for periods of 30 minutes before the first CG flash and 30 minutes after the last CG flash in each storm of interest. We have analyzed electric-field data from isolated air-mass convective storms that developed over KSC/CCAFS from late May through early September, 2004-2006. To identify thunderstorms that fit the air-mass, or "pop-up" criteria, we started by examining rainfall and CG lightning data, then looked at radar data. Then, for the storms selected, we performed a two-pass Barnes objective analysis on the electric-field data. Each analysis cycle resulted in one contour plot of 20-second averaged data, yielding 90 plots for each 30 minute interval, which we then animated. This resulted in 58 animations of the field contours prior to first CG flashes and 62 animations of the field contours after last CG flashes. Preliminary impressions from examinations of these cases suggest that the electric-field contours before the first flash exhibit a smooth transition

  8. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren

    2010-03-16

    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  9. Waveform frequency notching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Andrews, John

    2017-05-09

    The various technologies presented herein relate to incorporating one or more notches into a radar spectrum, whereby the notches relate to one or more frequencies for which no radar transmission is to occur. An instantaneous frequency is monitored and if the frequency is determined to be of a restricted frequency, then a radar signal can be modified. Modification can include replacing the signal with a signal having a different instantaneous amplitude, a different instantaneous phase, etc. The modification can occur in a WFS prior to a DAC, as well as prior to a sin ROM component and/or a cos ROM component. Further, the notch can be dithered to enable formation of a deep notch. The notch can also undergo signal transitioning to enable formation of a deep notch. The restricted frequencies can be stored in a LUT against which an instantaneous frequency can be compared.

  10. Universal Optical Frequency Comb

    CERN Document Server

    Savchenkov, A A; Liang, W; Ilchenko, V S; Seidel, D; Maleki, L

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that whispering gallery mode resonators can be utilized to generate optical frequency combs based on four wave mixing process at virtually any frequency that lies in the transparency window of the resonator host material. We show theoretically how the morphology of the resonator can be engineered to produce a family of spectrally equidistant modes with anomalous group velocity dispersion appropriate for the comb generation. We present experimental results for a frequency comb centered at 794 nm to support our theoretical findings.

  11. Probability and Relative Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieschner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The concept of probability seems to have been inexplicable since its invention in the seventeenth century. In its use in science, probability is closely related with relative frequency. So the task seems to be interpreting that relation. In this paper, we start with predicted relative frequency and show that its structure is the same as that of probability. I propose to call that the `prediction interpretation' of probability. The consequences of that definition are discussed. The "ladder"-structure of the probability calculus is analyzed. The expectation of the relative frequency is shown to be equal to the predicted relative frequency. Probability is shown to be the most general empirically testable prediction.

  12. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Kosterev, Dmitry; Dai, T.

    2014-12-31

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  13. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etingov, Pavel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kosterev, Dmitry [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dai, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  14. Optimization of frequency quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Tibabishev, V N

    2011-01-01

    We obtain the functional defining the price and quality of sample readings of the generalized velocities. It is shown that the optimal sampling frequency, in the sense of minimizing the functional quality and price depends on the sampling of the upper cutoff frequency of the analog signal of the order of the generalized velocities measured by the generalized coordinates, the frequency properties of the analog input filter and a maximum sampling rate for analog-digital converter (ADC). An example of calculating the frequency quantization for two-tier ADC with an input RC filter.

  15. FET frequency discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, F. D.

    1982-03-01

    The FET Frequency Discriminator is an experimental microwave frequency discriminator developed for use in a specialized set-on VCO frequency memory system. Additional development and evaluation work has been done during this program to more fully determine the applicability of the FET frequency discriminator as a low-cost, expendable receiver front-end for both surveillance and ECM systems. Various methods for adjusting the frequency-to-voltage characteristic of the discriminator as well as the effects of detector characteristics and ambient temperature changes were evaluated. A number of discriminators for use in the 7- to 11-GHz and the 11to 18-GHz bands were fabricated and tested. Interim breadboard and final packaged models were either delivered or installed in developmental frequency systems. The major limitations and deficiencies of the FET frequency discriminator that were reviewed during the program include the effects of temperature, input power level variations, nonlinearity, and component repeatability. Additional effort will be required to advance the developmental status of the FET frequency discriminator to the level necessary for inclusion in low-cost receiver systems, but the basic simplicity of the approach continues to show much promise.

  16. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Peter; Biedermann, Grant; Blain, Matthew G.; Stick, Daniel L.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Olsson, III, Roy H.

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  17. Breakfast frequency among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab

    2016-01-01

    , quality of family communication and family support. Further, analyses suggested that the associations were more pronounced among girls, immigrants and adolescents from other family structure than traditional. The study highlights the importance of the family setting in promoting regular breakfast......OBJECTIVE: To investigate (i) associations between adolescents' frequency of breakfast and family functioning (close relations to parents, quality of family communication and family support) and (ii) if any observed associations between breakfast frequency and family functioning vary...... (n 3054) from a random sample of forty-one schools. RESULTS: Nearly one-quarter of the adolescents had low breakfast frequency. Low breakfast frequency was associated with low family functioning measured by three dimensions. The OR (95 % CI) of low breakfast frequency was 1·81 (1·40, 2...

  18. 阳光环境对木塑地板耐久性能的影响%Impact of Sunshine Environment on Durability of Wood-Plastic Floorings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周吓星; 李大纲; 林巧佳; 陈礼辉

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the impacts of the sunshine environment on color, bending properties and flexural fatigue behaviors of wood-plastic floorings. The fatigue behaviors were simulated by a six-parameter model. Results showed that the wood-plastic floorings turned yellow, and the modulus of rupture (MOR) reduced by 10.09%-20.27% and the modulus of elastic (MOE) reduced by 7.35%-16.38% 2-6 months after the wood-plastic floorings were exposed to the sunshine environment. The strain of the wood-plastic floorings under the sunshine environment after 2 months was 1.17-1.39 times as much as it was at room temperature. The strain decreased after 4 months due to the decrease in temperature, humidity and ultraviolet intensity, and it was even smaller after 6 months than that at the room temperature. The fatigue behaviors of the wood-plastic floorings are similar to those of plastic and other polymer materials, and they have simple thermal rheological properties and accord with the time-temperature-stress equivalence principle.%研究阳光环境对木塑地板材色、抗弯性能和弯曲疲劳性能的影响,并用六元件模型拟合地板的疲劳性能.结果表明:阳光环境中,木塑地板褪色黄变,2~6个月后,抗弯强度下降10.09%~20.27 %,抗弯弹性模量下降7.35 %~16.38 %.2个月后,材料产生的应变为室温时的1.17 ~1.39 倍;由于温湿度、紫外线和光照强度的降低,4个月后,材料产生的应变开始减小;6个月后,材料产生的应变反而比室温时小.木塑地板的疲劳行为与塑料等高分子材料类似,且具有简单热流变材料特性,符合时间-温度-应力等效原理.

  19. Frequency comb swept lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Zhou, Chao; Adler, Desmond C; Fujimoto, James G

    2009-11-09

    We demonstrate a frequency comb (FC) swept laser and a frequency comb Fourier domain mode locked (FC-FDML) laser for applications in optical coherence tomography (OCT). The fiber-based FC swept lasers operate at a sweep rate of 1kHz and 120kHz, respectively over a 135nm tuning range centered at 1310nm with average output powers of 50mW. A 25GHz free spectral range frequency comb filter in the swept lasers causes the lasers to generate a series of well defined frequency steps. The narrow bandwidth (0.015nm) of the frequency comb filter enables a approximately -1.2dB sensitivity roll off over approximately 3mm range, compared to conventional swept source and FDML lasers which have -10dB and -5dB roll offs, respectively. Measurements at very long ranges are possible with minimal sensitivity loss, however reflections from outside the principal measurement range of 0-3mm appear aliased back into the principal range. In addition, the frequency comb output from the lasers are equally spaced in frequency (linear in k-space). The filtered laser output can be used to self-clock the OCT interference signal sampling, enabling direct fast Fourier transformation of the fringe signals, without the need for fringe recalibration procedures. The design and operation principles of FC swept lasers are discussed and designs for short cavity lasers for OCT and interferometric measurement applications are proposed.

  20. Broadband frequency conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin;

    that ensures phase matching over a broad spectral range in the BBO crystal. Since the tuning mechanism relies on all-passive components with extremely short response times the proposed method is well suited for short pulse, broad bandwidth laser sources like mode-locked lasers or super-continuum sources......We demonstrate a method for frequency conversion of broadly tunable or broad bandwidth light in a static, passive setup. Using simple optical components like lenses, mirrors and gratings and a BiBO crystal as the nonlinear material, we are able to frequency double a single-frequency, tunable...

  1. Quantum frequency downconversion experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Takesue, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    We report the first quantum frequency downconversion experiment. Using the difference frequency generation process in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide, we successfully observed the phase-preserved frequency downconversion of a coherent pulse train with an average photon number per pulse of $<$1, from the 0.7-$\\mu$m visible wavelength band to the 1.3-$\\mu$m telecom band. We expect this technology to become an important tool for flexible photonic quantum networking, including the realization of quantum repeater systems over optical fiber using atom-photon entanglement sources for the visible wavelength bands.

  2. Pragmatic circuits frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2006-01-01

    Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain goes through the Laplace transform to get from the time domain to topics that include the s-plane, Bode diagrams, and the sinusoidal steady state. This second of three volumes ends with a-c power, which, although it is just a special case of the sinusoidal steady state, is an important topic with unique techniques and terminology. Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain is focused on the frequency domain. In other words, time will no longer be the independent variable in our analysis. The two other volumes in the Pragmatic Circuits series include titles on DC

  3. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  4. Microwave Radiometer - high frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Microwave Radiometer-High Frequency (MWRHF) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from two channels centered at 90 and 150 GHz. These two...

  5. 近40 a甘南高原日照时数变化趋势及影响因子%Variation Trend Analysis on Sunshine Duration and Its Impact Factors in Gannan Plateau in Recent 40 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建兵; 敖泽建; 陈洋

    2014-01-01

    Gannan Plateau located in the southwest of Gansu Province and in the northeast border region of the Tibetan Plateau,which is an important water conserving and supplying area in the upriver regions of Yellow River.It plays an important role in the mainte-nance of water resource and eco-environmental security of the Yellow River basin.Due to the impact of climate change and the man activities,the ecology and environment of Gannan Plateau had obviously changed.So,this paper carried out the research about the change characteristic of sunshine duration in Gannan Plateau in order to provide the reference for the study of climate change in the Ti-betan Plateau. Based on the meteorological data of sunshine duration at 8 weather stations in Gannan Plateau from 1971 to 2000,the temporal and spatial variations of sunshine duration and its impact factors were studied by using trend analysis,Mann-Kendall test and principal component analysis,etc.The results show that the spatial distribution of annual average sunshine duration in the Gannan Plateau was far from uniformity.The sunshine duration in the western part of the Gannan Plateau was great more than that in the eastern part.The monthly variation of sunshine duration in the Gannan Plateau showed 3 peaks and 3 troughs.The sunshine duration in the 1970s and 1980s was least,increased obviously in the 1990s and the sunshine duration in the western of the Gannan Plateau showed a decreasing tendency in the 2000s,while in the eastern it showed an contrary increasing tendency.Furthermore,the mutation analysis shows that there were 3 types of sunshine duration variety in the Gannan Plateau.The first type was the detected mutation,the sunshine duration was still increasing,such as Zhuoni and Diebu counties,the second was the detected mutation,but the sunshine duration showed a de-creasing trend,such as Xiahe,Maqu and Zhouqu,and the third was no mutation,such as Hezuo,Luqu and Lintan.The variety of sunshine duration was closely

  6. Monthly variations in the atmospheric transmission for cloudless skies as inferred from the correlation of daily global radiation with hours of sunshine for Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, A.

    1986-01-01

    The well known correlation between global radiation and sunshine duration is discussed. The monthly variations of the atmospheric transmission, for cloudless skies for some locations in Spain are discussed. The Spanish solar radiation measurement network is equipped with two types of pyranometers: Kipp and Zonen model CM-5 pyranometers from which hourly values of the global radiation are obtained after evaluating the recorded output, and bimetallic pyranometers of daily rotation. Only the high quality data obtained with Kipp and Zonen pyranometers should be used in scientific study of this nature. However, correlations were also performed for data obtained in locations equipped with SIAP pyranometers because they have been extensively used in research projects where solar radiation data are required, and for making maps of solar radiation.

  7. On the Application of Duet in Huangmei Opera——A Case Study ofThunderstorm%黄梅戏唱腔中"对板"的运用——以黄梅戏《雷雨》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静

    2015-01-01

    本文以黄梅戏《雷雨》的唱腔为研究对象,对对板唱腔音乐进行分析阐述.通过对这种创作手法的分析,感受作曲家的戏曲创作经验、创作思想,从中得到启发并加以借鉴,从而创作出更多适合当前社会需要的戏曲音乐作品.%The paper focuses on the tune of Huangmei OperaThunderstorm. It analyses the duet music applied in Huangmei Opera, helps experience the composer's feeling and thinking, and hopes that more music will be created to meet the demand of the society.

  8. Thunderstorms and Flooding of August 17, 2007, with a Context Provided by a History of Other Large Storm and Flood Events in the Black Hills Area of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bunkers, Matthew J.; Carter, Janet M.; Stamm, John F.; Williamson, Joyce E.

    2010-01-01

    The Black Hills area of western South Dakota has a history of damaging flash floods that have resulted primarily from exceptionally strong rain-producing thunderstorms. The best known example is the catastrophic storm system of June 9-10, 1972, which caused severe flooding in several major drainages near Rapid City and resulted in 238 deaths. More recently, severe thunderstorms caused flash flooding near Piedmont and Hermosa on August 17, 2007. Obtaining a thorough understanding of peak-flow characteristics for low-probability floods will require a comprehensive long-term approach involving (1) documentation of scientific information for extreme events such as these; (2) long-term collection of systematic peak-flow records; and (3) regional assessments of a wide variety of peak-flow information. To that end, the U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the South Dakota Department of Transportation and National Weather Service to produce this report, which provides documentation regarding the August 17, 2007, storm and associated flooding and provides a context through examination of other large storm and flood events in the Black Hills area. The area affected by the August 17, 2007, storms and associated flooding generally was within the area affected by the larger storm of June 9-10, 1972. The maximum observed 2007 precipitation totals of between 10.00 and 10.50 inches occurred within about 2-3 hours in a small area about 5 miles west of Hermosa. The maximum documented precipitation amount in 1972 was 15.0 inches, and precipitation totals of 10.0 inches or more were documented for 34 locations within an area of about 76 square miles. A peak flow of less than 1 cubic foot per second occurred upstream from the 2007 storm extent for streamflow-gaging station 06404000 (Battle Creek near Keystone); whereas, the 1972 peak flow of 26,200 cubic feet per second was large, relative to the drainage area of only 58.6 square miles. Farther downstream along Battle Creek, a 2007

  9. Sunshine Sports Calling for "Smart" Physical Education Teachers%阳光体育呼唤“智慧型”体育教师

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宏焘

    2011-01-01

    “阳光体育”的广泛开展,亿万青少年走出课堂、走向阳光下,形成体育健身的热潮,也增多了体育课内外活动以及学生参与运动的时间,教师对各类体育实践的指挥也更加凸显,同时体育教师各种不同的教学模式也深刻的影响到学生的健身效果.因此,在这样新的环境下教师对自己的教学观、育人观、教学法也要有提高,应以成为“智慧型”体育教师为追求,与阳光体育运动同发展.%"Sunshine sports" is widely carried out, hundreds of millions of young people go out of the classroom into the outside, forming physical fitness boom, and also increases the times of student participating physical activity and sports. And the teacher's command of the various sports practices is more highlighted, and a variety of teaching mode of physical education teachers has a profound impact on the fitness effect of students. Thus, in this new environment, teachers' teaching view, educating view and teaching methods must also be improved, and they should seek to be "smart" physical education teachers and develop themselves with the development of sunshine sports.

  10. Using digital image processing to characterize the Campbell–Stokes sunshine recorder and to derive high-temporal resolution direct solar irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanchez-Romero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Campbell–Stokes sunshine recorder (CSSR has been one of the most commonly used instruments for measuring sunshine duration (SD through the burn length of a given CSSR card. Many authors have used SD to obtain information about cloudiness and solar radiation (by using Ångström–Prescott type formulas. Contrarily, the burn width has not been used systematically. In principle, the burn width increases for increasing direct beam irradiance. The aim of this research is to show the relationship between burn width and direct solar irradiance (DSI, and to prove whether this relationship depends on the type of CSSR and burning card. A semi-automatic method based on image processing of digital scanned images of burnt cards is presented. With this method, the temporal evolution of the burn width with 1 min resolution can be obtained. From this, SD is easily calculated and compared with the traditional (i.e. visual determination. The method tends to slightly overestimate SD but the thresholds that are used in the image processing could be adjusted to obtain an unbiased estimation. Regarding the burn width, results show that there is a high correlation between two different models of CSSRs, as well as a strong relationship between burn widths and DSI at a high-temporal resolution. Thus, for example, hourly DSI may be estimated from the burn width with higher accuracy than based on burn length (for one of the CSSR, relative root mean squared error 24 and 30% respectively; mean bias error −0.6 and −30.0 W m−2 respectively. The method offers a practical way to exploit long-term sets of CSSR cards to create long time series of DSI. Since DSI is affected by atmospheric aerosol content, CSSR records may also become a proxy measurement for turbidity and atmospheric aerosol loading.

  11. 阳光体育塑造大学生人格的研究%The Sunshine Sports' Effect on CoUese Students' Personality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐南强

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the sunshine sports' effect on the personality of college students, by using information law, research method, analysis, logical reasoning analysis. Results: The concept of students'sports and physical exercise, cognitive behavioral situation is not optimistic. Students the proportion of population of "self- centered orientation" and "borderline personality disorder" tendencies. Conclusion : collective sports for the initial socialization of students is obvious, to determine the goal of shaping the students' personality orientation, combined with their individual goals, plans, methods for sustained physical education should focus on in the sunshine sports, which has practical significance on students' health personality.%运用文献法、调查法、元分析等方法,探讨了阳光体育对大学和人格塑造的作用。结果发现,大学生体育观与体育锻炼的认知行为状况不容乐观,大学生以"自我中心倾向"和"边缘型人格障碍"等倾向的人群比例较大。结论:体育集体项目的锻炼对大学生的初始社会化效果明显,在阳光体育应注重确定塑造学生人格的目标定向,结合各自的目标、计划、方式等进行持之以恒的体育教育,对塑造大学生的优良人格具有现实意义。

  12. Florida Agriculture - Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects Upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake; Cooley, Zachary Clayton; Mitchell, Brandie

    2010-01-01

    This project utilizes Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Landsat satellite data to assess the impact of sea breeze precipitation upon areas of agricultural land use in southern Florida. Water is a critical resource to agriculture, and the availability of water for agricultural use in Florida continues to remain a key issue. Recent projections of statewide water use by 2020 estimate that 9.3 billion gallons of water per day will be demanded, and agriculture represents 47% of this demand (Bronson 2003). Farmers have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. Sea breeze thunderstorms are responsible for much of the rainfall delivered to Florida during the wet season (May-October) and have been recognized as an important overall contributor of rainfall in southern Florida (Almeida 2003). TRMM satellite data was used to analyze how sea breeze-induced thunderstorms during El Nino and La Nina affected interannual patterns of precipitation in southern Florida from 1998-2009. TRMM's Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager provide data to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere, precipitation rates and intensity, and the distribution of precipitation. Rainfall accumulation data derived from TRMM and other microwave sensors were used to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of rainfall during each phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Through the use of TRMM and Landsat, slight variations were observed, but it was determined that neither sea breeze nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida were strongly affected by ENSO during the study period. However, more research is needed to characterize the influence of ENSO on summer weather patterns in South Florida. This research will provide the basis for continued observations and study with the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission.

  13. 谈高职“营养自助餐”式阳光体育体系的构建%Vocational "Nutrition Buffet" Type of Sunshine Sports System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永锋

    2011-01-01

    "Nutrition buffet" style sunshine sports liberate the concept of the physical education teachers. And students can neatly use school facilities and free time, and positively and actively participate in physical exercise under the effective assessment and monitoring system, which ensure the harmonious coexistence of interests and physique?and guarantee the effectiveness and long residual action of the sunshine sports.%“营养自助餐”式阳光体育运动解放了体育教师的观念,学生可以灵活利用学校场馆设施和空余时间,在有效的考核与监督制度下积极、主动地参与体育锻炼,保证了兴趣与体质的和谐共存,使阳光体育运动的有效性和长效性得到了保证.

  14. The Research on Efficient Butt joint about Sunshine sports and Perpetual sports in Campus%试论高校阳光体育与终身体育的有效对接

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉

    2013-01-01

      我国推行的阳光体育运动和终身体育教育理念在本质上是互融的,但二者在对接的过程中也出现了各种问题。影响它们有效对接的因素包括:(1)教师因素;(2)学生因素;(3)经费支撑因素;(4)监督因素。要确保我国阳光体育和终身体育的有效对接可以从以下4个个方面抓起:(1)调动体育教师和学生的积极性;(2)扩展阳光体育的活动内容;(3)稳定经费投入,拓宽经费来源渠道;(4)建立系统的监督检查机制。%Sunshine sports and perpetual sports are mutually soluble though there are some questions between them. The influencing factors which hinder theirs butt joint are as follows:1) the factor of teachers; 2) the factor of students; 3) the factor of supervisor. If we plan to achieve the sunshine sports and perpetual sports to butt joint efficiently, we could do from follow points:1) to redeploy the enthusiasm of teachers and students; 2) to amplify the content of the sunshine sports; 3) to build systemic supervision system. Only do like this, we could realize the efficient butt joint between the sunshine sports and perpetual sports.

  15. Term frequency inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) technique and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Term frequency inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) technique and artificial neural ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Electronic mail contents are extracted and Term Frequency Inverse ...

  16. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  17. Analysis of the Role of “Sunshine Sports” in Building a Healthy and Harmonious Society%浅析“阳光体育运动”对构建健康和谐社会的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正武

    2011-01-01

    Through the literature, logical analysis, this paper explained the meaning and the health value of the sunshine sports, the relationship between sunshine sports and building a harmonious society, the role of building a healthy and harmonious society. The role is that sunshine sports can shape people's physical and mental harmony, improve people's ethical standards, promote the building of spiritual civilization and harmonious interpersonal relationships, and promote harmony between people, man and nature, human and society.%本文运用了文献资料法,逻辑分析法,阐述了阳光体育运动的内涵、阳光体育运动的健康价值,阳光体育运动与构建和谐社会的关系,以及阳光体育运动在构建健康和谐社会的作用,即阳光体育运动可塑造人身心和谐、提高人的道德水平,促进精神文明建设、融洽人与人关系,促进入与人和谐、促进人与自然和谐、人与社会的和谐.

  18. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior...... of the two coupled resonators is simulated and the output power from the SRO is described as a function of the diode pumping power supplied to the Nd:YVO4 laser....

  19. Mid-frequency readers

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, Ian Stephen Paul; Anthony, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a new free extensive reading resource for learning the mid-frequency words of English and for reading well known texts with minor vocabulary adaptation. A gap exists between the end of graded readers at around 3,000 word families and the vocabulary size needed to read unsimplified texts at around 8,000 word families. Mid-frequency readers are designed to fill this gap. They consist of texts from Project Gutenberg adapted for learners with a vocabulary size of 4,000 word...

  20. Multiband frequency selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te-Kao

    1998-10-01

    This paper addresses the similarity of microwave/millimeter wave frequency selective surfaces (FSS) to optical filters. Specifically, the design approaches of the 4-band FSSs developed for NASA's CASSINI high gain antenna are described in detail. Representative RF test results are given to demonstrate the validity of these designs. These design approaches are very general and can be applied to multiband optical filters.