WorldWideScience

Sample records for sunshade geoengineered world

  1. Optimal Sunshade Configurations for Space-Based Geoengineering near the Sun-Earth L1 Point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Pau Sánchez

    Full Text Available Within the context of anthropogenic climate change, but also considering the Earth's natural climate variability, this paper explores the speculative possibility of large-scale active control of the Earth's radiative forcing. In particular, the paper revisits the concept of deploying a large sunshade or occulting disk at a static position near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange equilibrium point. Among the solar radiation management methods that have been proposed thus far, space-based concepts are generally seen as the least timely, albeit also as one of the most efficient. Large occulting structures could potentially offset all of the global mean temperature increase due to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper investigates optimal configurations of orbiting occulting disks that not only offset a global temperature increase, but also mitigate regional differences such as latitudinal and seasonal difference of monthly mean temperature. A globally resolved energy balance model is used to provide insights into the coupling between the motion of the occulting disks and the Earth's climate. This allows us to revise previous studies, but also, for the first time, to search for families of orbits that improve the efficiency of occulting disks at offsetting climate change on both global and regional scales. Although natural orbits exist near the L1 equilibrium point, their period does not match that required for geoengineering purposes, thus forced orbits were designed that require small changes to the disk attitude in order to control its motion. Finally, configurations of two occulting disks are presented which provide the same shading area as previously published studies, but achieve reductions of residual latitudinal and seasonal temperature changes.

  2. Optimal Sunshade Configurations for Space-Based Geoengineering near the Sun-Earth L1 Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Joan-Pau; McInnes, Colin R

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of anthropogenic climate change, but also considering the Earth's natural climate variability, this paper explores the speculative possibility of large-scale active control of the Earth's radiative forcing. In particular, the paper revisits the concept of deploying a large sunshade or occulting disk at a static position near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange equilibrium point. Among the solar radiation management methods that have been proposed thus far, space-based concepts are generally seen as the least timely, albeit also as one of the most efficient. Large occulting structures could potentially offset all of the global mean temperature increase due to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper investigates optimal configurations of orbiting occulting disks that not only offset a global temperature increase, but also mitigate regional differences such as latitudinal and seasonal difference of monthly mean temperature. A globally resolved energy balance model is used to provide insights into the coupling between the motion of the occulting disks and the Earth's climate. This allows us to revise previous studies, but also, for the first time, to search for families of orbits that improve the efficiency of occulting disks at offsetting climate change on both global and regional scales. Although natural orbits exist near the L1 equilibrium point, their period does not match that required for geoengineering purposes, thus forced orbits were designed that require small changes to the disk attitude in order to control its motion. Finally, configurations of two occulting disks are presented which provide the same shading area as previously published studies, but achieve reductions of residual latitudinal and seasonal temperature changes.

  3. Key factors governing uncertainty in the response to sunshade geoengineering from a comparison of the GeoMIP ensemble and a perturbed parameter ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Peter J.; Boucher, Olivier; Kravitz, Ben; Alterskjær, Kari; Cole, Jason N. S.; Ji, Duoying; Jones, Andy; Lunt, Daniel J.; Moore, John C.; Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Robock, Alan; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, Simone; Watanabe, Shingo; Yang, Shuting; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Climate model studies of the consequences of solar geoengineering are central to evaluating whether such approaches may help to reduce the harmful impacts of global warming. In this study we compare the sunshade solar geoengineering response of a perturbed parameter ensemble (PPE) of the Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (HadCM3) with a multimodel ensemble (MME) by analyzing the G1 experiment from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The PPE only perturbed a small number of parameters and shares a common structure with the unperturbed HadCM3 model, and so the additional weight the PPE adds to the robustness of the common climate response features in the MME is minor. However, analysis of the PPE indicates some of the factors that drive the spread within the MME. We isolate the role of global mean temperature biases for both ensembles and find that these biases have little effect on the ensemble spread in the hydrological response but do reduce the spread in surface air temperature response, particularly at high latitudes. We investigate the role of the preindustrial climatology and find that biases here are likely a key source of ensemble spread at the zonal and grid cell level. The role of vegetation, and its response to elevated CO2 concentrations through the CO2 physiological effect and changes in plant productivity, is also investigated and proves to have a substantial effect on the terrestrial hydrological response to solar geoengineering and to be a major source of variation within the GeoMIP ensemble.

  4. Impact of the GeoMIP G1 sunshade geoengineering experiment on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yu; Moore, John C.; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Ji, Duoying; Phipps, Steven J.; Lenton, Andrew; Tilmes, Simone; Watanabe, Shingo; Zhao, Liyun

    2017-03-01

    We analyze the multi-earth system model responses of ocean temperatures and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) under an idealized solar radiation management scenario (G1) from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. All models simulate warming of the northern North Atlantic relative to no geoengineering, despite geoengineering substantially offsetting the increases in mean global ocean temperatures. Increases in the temperature of the North Atlantic Ocean at the surface (∼0.25 K) and at a depth of 500 m (∼0.10 K) are mainly due to a 10 Wm‑2 reduction of total heat flux from ocean to atmosphere. Although the AMOC is slightly reduced under the solar dimming scenario, G1, relative to piControl, it is about 37% stronger than under abrupt4 × CO2 . The reduction of the AMOC under G1 is mainly a response to the heat flux change at the northern North Atlantic rather than to changes in the water flux and the wind stress. The AMOC transfers heat from tropics to high latitudes, helping to warm the high latitudes, and its strength is maintained under solar dimming rather than weakened by greenhouse gas forcing acting alone. Hence the relative reduction in high latitude ocean temperatures provided by solar radiation geoengineering, would tend to be counteracted by the correspondingly active AMOC circulation which furthermore transports warm surface waters towards the Greenland ice sheet, warming Arctic sea ice and permafrost.

  5. Tropical coral reef habitat in a geoengineered, high-CO2 world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couce, E.; Irvine, P. J.; Gregorie, L. J.; Ridgwell, A.; Hendy, E. J.

    2013-05-01

    Continued anthropogenic CO2 emissions are expected to impact tropical coral reefs by further raising sea surface temperatures (SST) and intensifying ocean acidification (OA). Although geoengineering by means of solar radiation management (SRM) may mitigate temperature increases, OA will persist, raising important questions regarding the impact of different stressor combinations. We apply statistical Bioclimatic Envelope Models to project changes in shallow water tropical coral reef habitat as a single niche (without resolving biodiversity or community composition) under various representative concentration pathway and SRM scenarios, until 2070. We predict substantial reductions in habitat suitability centered on the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool under net anthropogenic radiative forcing of ≥3.0 W/m2. The near-term dominant risk to coral reefs is increasing SSTs; below 3 W/m2 reasonably favorable conditions are maintained, even when achieved by SRM with persisting OA. "Optimal" mitigation occurs at 1.5 W/m2 because tropical SSTs overcool in a fully geoengineered (i.e., preindustrial global mean temperature) world.

  6. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robock, Alan [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios, has found that insolation reduction could keep the global average temperature constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform; the tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without geoengineering. If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5–10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The prospect of geoengineering working may reduce the current drive toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and there are concerns about commercial or military control. Because geoengineering cannot safely address climate change, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt are crucial to address anthropogenic global warming.

  7. Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan

    2015-03-01

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol injection scenarios, has found that insolation reduction could keep the global average temperature constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform; the tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without geoengineering. If geoengineering were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5-10 times the rates from gradual global warming. The prospect of geoengineering working may reduce the current drive toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and there are concerns about commercial or military control. Because geoengineering cannot safely address climate change, global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt are crucial to address anthropogenic global warming.

  8. Simulated long-term climate response to idealized solar geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Long; Duan, Lei; Bala, Govindasamy; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-01

    Solar geoengineering has been proposed as a potential means to counteract anthropogenic climate change, yet it is unknown how such climate intervention might affect the Earth's climate on the millennial time scale. Here we use the HadCM3L model to conduct a 1000 year sunshade geoengineering simulation in which solar irradiance is uniformly reduced by 4% to approximately offset global mean warming from an abrupt quadrupling of atmospheric CO2. During the 1000 year period, modeled global climate, including temperature, hydrological cycle, and ocean circulation of the high-CO2 simulation departs substantially from that of the control preindustrial simulation, whereas the climate of the geoengineering simulation remains much closer to that of the preindustrial state with little drift. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that nonlinearities in the climate system would cause substantial drift in the climate system if solar geoengineering was to be deployed on the timescale of a millennium.

  9. Future Directions in Simulating Solar Geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Robock, Alan; Boucher, Olivier

    2014-08-05

    Solar geoengineering is a proposed set of technologies to temporarily alleviate some of the consequences of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) created a framework of geoengineering simulations in climate models that have been performed by modeling centers throughout the world (B. Kravitz et al., The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), Atmospheric Science Letters, 12(2), 162-167, doi:10.1002/asl.316, 2011). These experiments use state-of-the-art climate models to simulate solar geoengineering via uniform solar reduction, creation of stratospheric sulfate aerosol layers, or injecting sea spray into the marine boundary layer. GeoMIP has been quite successful in its mission of revealing robust features and key uncertainties of the modeled effects of solar geoengineering.

  10. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  11. Atlantic hurricane response to geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John; Grinsted, Aslak; Ji, Duoying; Yu, Xiaoyong; Guo, Xiaoran

    2015-04-01

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase - perhaps by a factor of 5 for a 2°C mean global warming. Geoengineering by sulphate aerosol injection preferentially cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 6 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. We find that although temperatures are ameliorated by geoengineering, the numbers of storm surge events as big as that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are only slightly reduced compared with no geoengineering. As higher levels of sulphate aerosol injection produce diminishing returns in terms of cooling, but cause undesirable effects in various regions, it seems that stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is not an effective method of controlling hurricane damage.

  12. Car sunshade-induced craniofacial injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardoli Mojtaba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report the case of a man who sustained a craniofacial injury after spontaneous lateral airbag deployment resulting in his face being struck by a car sunshade. This highlights the potential damage that can be caused by any object placed between a lateral airbag and a car occupant. Case presentation We report the case of a 33-year-old Caucasian man who was the driver in a frontal collision. He had opened the car sunshade and turned it 90° towards the left. As he was driving, he struck a bus, causing the driver's lateral airbag to spontaneously deploy. The airbag pushed the sunshade against his face and injured him. Conclusions Car sunshades can cause significant craniofacial injury. We suggest that sunshade design must be improved to reduce the risk of potential injuries to car occupants. We recommend a new, safer sunshade design.

  13. Geoengineering on exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering can be used to deliberately alter the Earth's radiation budget, by reflecting sunlight to space. SRM has been suggested as a response to Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW), to partly or fully balance radiative forcing from AGW [1]. Approximately 22% of sun-like stars have Earth-like exoplanets[2]. Advanced civilisations may exist on these, and may use geoengineering for positive or negative radiative forcing. Additionally, terraforming projects [e.g. 3], may be used to expand alien habitable territory, or for resource management or military operations on non-home planets. Potential observations of alien geoengineering and terraforming may enable detection of technologically advanced alien civilisations, and may help identify widely-used and stable geoengineering technologies. This knowledge may assist the development of safe and stable geoengineering methods for Earth. The potential risks and benefits of possible alien detection of Earth-bound geoengineering schemes must be considered before deployment of terrestrial geoengineering schemes.

  14. The international politics of geoengineering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    factor in determining whether a technology is able, ultimately, to reduce climate risks. Ideas about global governance of geoengineering rely on heroic assumptions about state rationality and a generally pacific international system. Moreover, if in a climate engineered world weather events become...... something certain states can be made directly responsible for, this may also negatively affect prospects for ‘Plan A’, i.e. an effective global agreement on mitigation....

  15. Mitigating Climate Change with Earth Orbital Sunshades

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    Coverstone, Victoria; Johnson, Les

    2015-01-01

    An array of rotating sunshades based on emerging solar sail technology will be deployed in a novel Earth orbit to provide near-continuous partial shading of the Earth, reducing the heat input to the atmosphere by blocking a small percentage of the incoming sunlight, and mitigating local weather effects of anticipated climate change over the next century. The technology will provide local cooling relief during extreme heat events (and heating relief during extreme cold events) thereby saving human lives, agriculture, livestock, water and energy needs. A synthesis of the solar sail design, the sails' operational modes, and the selected orbit combine to provide local weather modification.

  16. Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilgoe, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Geoengineering is defined as the 'deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth's climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming'. The technological proposals for doing this are highly speculative. Research is at an early stage, but there is a strong consensus that technologies would, if realisable, have profound and surprising ramifications. Geoengineering would seem to be an archetype of technology as social experiment, blurring lines that separate research from deployment and scientific knowledge from technological artefacts. Looking into the experimental systems of geoengineering, we can see the negotiation of what is known and unknown. The paper argues that, in renegotiating such systems, we can approach a new mode of governance-collective experimentation. This has important ramifications not just for how we imagine future geoengineering technologies, but also for how we govern geoengineering experiments currently under discussion.

  17. The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Lenton

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate geoengineering proposals seek to rectify the Earth's current and potential future radiative imbalance, either by reducing the absorption of incoming solar (shortwave radiation, or by removing CO2 from the atmosphere and transferring it to long-lived reservoirs, thus increasing outgoing longwave radiation. A fundamental criterion for evaluating geoengineering options is their climate cooling effectiveness, which we quantify here in terms of radiative forcing potential. We use a simple analytical approach, based on energy balance considerations and pulse response functions for the decay of CO2 perturbations. This aids transparency compared to calculations with complex numerical models, but is not intended to be definitive. It allows us to compare the relative effectiveness of a range of proposals. We consider geoengineering options as additional to large reductions in CO2 emissions. By 2050, some land carbon cycle geoengineering options could be of comparable magnitude to mitigation "wedges", but only stratospheric aerosol injections, albedo enhancement of marine stratocumulus clouds, or sunshades in space have the potential to cool the climate back toward its pre-industrial state. Strong mitigation, combined with global-scale air capture and storage, afforestation, and bio-char production, i.e. enhanced CO2 sinks, might be able to bring CO2 back to its pre-industrial level by 2100, thus removing the need for other geoengineering. Alternatively, strong mitigation stabilising CO2 at 500 ppm, combined with geoengineered increases in the albedo of marine stratiform clouds, grasslands, croplands and human settlements might achieve a patchy cancellation of radiative forcing. Ocean fertilisation options are only worthwhile if sustained on a millennial timescale and phosphorus addition may have greater long-term potential than iron or nitrogen fertilisation. Enhancing ocean

  18. Geoengineering: A humanitarian concern

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suarez, Pablo; van Aalst, Maarten K

    2017-01-01

    .... Geoengineering is a humanitarian concern: the potential for deliberate large‐scale intervention in the Earth's climate system has major implications in terms of impacts on the most vulnerable...

  19. The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Lenton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate geoengineering proposals seek to rectify the Earth's current radiative imbalance, either by reducing the absorption of incoming solar (shortwave radiation, or by removing CO2 from the atmosphere and transferring it to long-lived reservoirs, thus increasing outgoing longwave radiation. A fundamental criterion for evaluating geoengineering options is their climate cooling effectiveness, which we quantify here in terms of radiative forcing potential. We use a simple analytical approach, based on the global energy balance and pulse response functions for the decay of CO2 perturbations. This aids transparency compared to calculations with complex numerical models, but is not intended to be definitive. Already it reveals some significant errors in existing calculations, and it allows us to compare the relative effectiveness of a range of proposals. By 2050, only stratospheric aerosol injections or sunshades in space have the potential to cool the climate back toward its pre-industrial state, but some land carbon cycle geoengineering options are of comparable magnitude to mitigation "wedges". Strong mitigation, i.e. large reductions in CO2 emissions, combined with global-scale air capture and storage, afforestation, and bio-char production, i.e. enhanced CO2 sinks, might be able to bring CO2 back to its pre-industrial level by 2100, thus removing the need for other geoengineering. Alternatively, strong mitigation stabilising CO2 at 500 ppm, combined with geoengineered increases in the albedo of marine stratiform clouds, grasslands, croplands and human settlements might achieve a patchy cancellation of radiative forcing. Ocean fertilisation options are only worthwhile if sustained on a millennial timescale and phosphorus addition probably has greater long-term potential than iron or nitrogen fertilisation. Enhancing ocean upwelling or downwelling have trivial effects on any

  20. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, John C.; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-10-26

    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase by a factor of 2-7 for each degree of increase in mean global temperature. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 8 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those in RCP4.5, but sulphate injection would have to double between 2020 and 2070 to balance RCP 4.5 to nearly 10 Tg SO2 yr-1, with consequent implications for damage to stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent Generalized Extreme Value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges from 1923 and observed temperatures. The numbers of storm surge events as big as the one that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this is only marginally statistically significant. However, when sea level rise differences at 2070 between RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored in to coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5 year events and perhaps halved for 50 year surges.

  1. No fudging on geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andy; Geden, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is preparing a report on keeping global warming below 1.5 °C. How the panel chooses to deal with the option of solar geoengineering will test the integrity of scientific climate policy advice.

  2. The political ecology of geoengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bravo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Several technologies have been developed to mitigate the effects of climate change in recent years, including geoengineering. This is a set of techniques that aim to reduce the amount of sunlight entering the planet, trap atmospheric CO2indeep geological strata or increase the volume of marine phytoplankton to increase sinks, at global scale. Here the conflicts that can arise around these technologies and international governance that has emerged around geoengineering are analysed.

  3. Questioning the Geoengineering Scientific Worldview

    OpenAIRE

    CURVELO DA SILVA CAMPOS ALVES PAULA

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, geoengineering, or the ‘deliberate large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climate system, in order to moderate global warming’, has attracted increasing attention among strategies to limit the impact and consequences of climate change. However, the understanding of the physical science basis of geoengineering is still limited, and there are still major uncertainties concerning the impacts these technologies might have on human and natural systems. The self-assertive ...

  4. The Last Chance to Save the Planet? An Analysis of the Geoengineering Advocacy Discourse in the Public Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshelm, Jonas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering, i.e., the deliberate manipulation of the global climate using grand-scale technologies, poses new challenges in terms of environmental risks and human–nature relationships. Until recently, these technologies were considered science fiction, but they are now being reconsidered by researchers, leading to an emerging public debate. Our aim is to improve our understanding of the public discourse on geoengineering in mass media. We analyze 1500 articles published from 2005 to 2013, constructing four coherent storylines that represent most of the geoengineering advocacy in the public discourse in mass media. We scrutinize inconsistencies in this discourse and argue that geoengineering may be the first example of a grand-scale technology that in some important respects has clear postmodern tendencies: geoengineering advocacy, for example, is not based on objective truth claims of the natural sciences and does not promise a better world.

  5. The Hydrological Impact of Geoengineering in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilmes, S.; Fasullo, John; Lamarque, J.-F.; Marsh, D.; Mills, Mike; Alterskjaer, Kari; Muri, Helene O.; Kristjansson, Jon E.; Boucher, Olivier; Schulz, M.; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Jones, A.; Haywood, J.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John; Bou Karam, Diana; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Rasch, Philip J.; Singh, Balwinder; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Robock, Alan; Yang, Shuting; Watanabe, Shingo

    2013-10-14

    changes in precipitation in both total amount and frequency of extremes, point to a considerable weakening of the hydrological cycle in a geoengineered world.

  6. Geoengineering as an optimization problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Weiss, George A; Caldeira, Ken, E-mail: georgebw@stanford.edu [Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, 260 Panama Street, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    There is increasing evidence that Earth's climate is currently warming, primarily due to emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities, and Earth has been projected to continue warming throughout this century. Scientists have begun to investigate the potential for geoengineering options for reducing surface temperatures and whether such options could possibly contribute to environmental risk reduction. One proposed method involves deliberately increasing aerosol loading in the stratosphere to scatter additional sunlight to space. Previous modeling studies have attempted to predict the climate consequences of hypothetical aerosol additions to the stratosphere. These studies have shown that this method could potentially reduce surface temperatures, but could not recreate a low-CO{sub 2} climate in a high-CO{sub 2} world. In this study, we attempt to determine the latitudinal distribution of stratospheric aerosols that would most closely achieve a low-CO{sub 2} climate despite high CO{sub 2} levels. Using the NCAR CAM3.1 general circulation model, we find that having a stratospheric aerosol loading in polar regions higher than that in tropical regions leads to a temperature distribution that is more similar to the low-CO{sub 2} climate than that yielded by a globally uniform loading. However, such polar weighting of stratospheric sulfate tends to degrade the degree to which the hydrological cycle is restored, and thus does not markedly contribute to improved recovery of a low-CO{sub 2} climate. In the model, the optimal latitudinally varying aerosol distributions diminished the rms zonal mean land temperature change from a doubling of CO{sub 2} by 94% and the rms zonal mean land precipitation minus evaporation change by 74%. It is important to note that this idealized study represents a first attempt at optimizing the engineering of climate using a general circulation model; uncertainties are high and not all processes that are important in reality are

  7. Fractals for Geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleshko, Klaudia; de Jesús Correa López, María; Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez, Victor; Pérez, Olga

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of fractal toolbox to capture the scaling or fractal probability distribution, and simply fractal statistics of main hydrocarbon reservoir attributes, was highlighted by Mandelbrot (1995) and confirmed by several researchers (Zhao et al., 2015). Notwithstanding, after more than twenty years, it's still common the opinion that fractals are not useful for the petroleum engineers and especially for Geoengineering (Corbett, 2012). In spite of this negative background, we have successfully applied the fractal and multifractal techniques to our project entitled "Petroleum Reservoir as a Fractal Reactor" (2013 up to now). The distinguishable feature of Fractal Reservoir is the irregular shapes and rough pore/solid distributions (Siler, 2007), observed across a broad range of scales (from SEM to seismic). At the beginning, we have accomplished the detailed analysis of Nelson and Kibler (2003) Catalog of Porosity and Permeability, created for the core plugs of siliciclastic rocks (around ten thousand data were compared). We enriched this Catalog by more than two thousand data extracted from the last ten years publications on PoroPerm (Corbett, 2012) in carbonates deposits, as well as by our own data from one of the PEMEX, Mexico, oil fields. The strong power law scaling behavior was documented for the major part of these data from the geological deposits of contrasting genesis. Based on these results and taking into account the basic principles and models of the Physics of Fractals, introduced by Per Back and Kan Chen (1989), we have developed new software (Muukíl Kaab), useful to process the multiscale geological and geophysical information and to integrate the static geological and petrophysical reservoir models to dynamic ones. The new type of fractal numerical model with dynamical power law relations among the shapes and sizes of mesh' cells was designed and calibrated in the studied area. The statistically sound power law relations were established

  8. On solar geoengineering and climate uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMartin, Douglas; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Rasch, Philip J.

    2015-09-03

    Uncertainty in the climate system response has been raised as a concern regarding solar geoengineering. Here we show that model projections of regional climate change outcomes may have greater agreement under solar geoengineering than with CO2 alone. We explore the effects of geoengineering on one source of climate system uncertainty by evaluating the inter-model spread across 12 climate models participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison project (GeoMIP). The model spread in regional temperature and precipitation changes is reduced with CO2 and a solar reduction, in comparison to the case with increased CO2 alone. That is, the intermodel spread in predictions of climate change and the model spread in the response to solar geoengineering are not additive but rather partially cancel. Furthermore, differences in efficacy explain most of the differences between models in their temperature response to an increase in CO2 that is offset by a solar reduction. These conclusions are important for clarifying geoengineering risks.

  9. Effects of geoengineering on crop yields

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    Pongratz, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2011-12-01

    The potential of "solar radiation management" (SRM) to reduce future climate change and associated risks has been receiving significant attention in scientific and policy circles. SRM schemes aim to reduce global warming despite increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by diminishing the amount of solar insolation absorbed by the Earth, for example, by injecting scattering aerosols into the atmosphere. Climate models predict that SRM could fully compensate warming at the global mean in a high-CO2 world. While reduction of global warming may offset a part of the predicted negative effects of future climate change on crop yields, SRM schemes are expected to alter regional climate and to have substantial effects on climate variables other than temperature, such as precipitation. It has therefore been warned that, overall, SRM may pose a risk to food security. Assessments of benefits and risks of geoengineering are imperative, yet such assessments are only beginning to emerge; in particular, effects on global food security have not previously been assessed. Here, for the first time, we combine climate model simulations with models of crop yield responses to climate to assess large-scale changes in yields and food production under SRM. In most crop-growing regions, we find that yield losses caused by climate changes are substantially reduced under SRM as compared with a non-geoengineered doubling of atmospheric CO2. Substantial yield losses with SRM are only found for rice in high latitudes, where the limits of low temperatures are no longer alleviated. At the same time, the beneficial effect of CO2-fertilization on plant productivity remains active. Overall therefore, SRM in our models causes global crop yields to increase. We estimate the direct effects of climate and CO2 changes on crop production, and do not quantify effects of market dynamics and management changes. We note, however, that an SRM deployment would be unlikely to maintain the economic status quo, as

  10. Geoengineering: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vallero, Daniel A

    2011-12-17

    Some engineers and scientists recently have suggested that it would be prudent to consider engaging in geoengineering to mitigate global warming. Geoengineering differs from other methods for mitigating global warming because it involves a deliberate effort to affect the climate at a global scale. Although geoengineering is not a new idea, it has taken on added significance as a result of difficulties with implementing other proposals to mitigate climate change. While proponents of geoengineering admit that it can have significant risks for the environment and public health, many maintain that it is worth pursuing, given the failure of other means of mitigating global warming. Some environmental groups have voiced strong opposition to all forms of geoengineering. In this article, we examine arguments for and against geoengineering and discuss some policy options. We argue that specific geoengineering proposals should not be implemented until there is good evidence concerning their safety, efficacy, and feasibility, as well as a plan for oversight. International cooperation and public input should also be sought. Other methods for mitigating global warming should be aggressively pursued while geoengineering is under consideration. The promise of an engineering solution to global warming should not be used as an excuse to abandon or cut back current, climate mitigation efforts.

  11. On solar geoengineering and climate uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.

    2015-09-01

    Uncertain climate system response has been raised as a concern regarding solar geoengineering. We explore the effects of geoengineering on one source of climate system uncertainty by evaluating the intermodel spread across 12 climate models participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison project. The model spread in simulations of climate change and the model spread in the response to solar geoengineering are not additive but rather partially cancel. That is, the model spread in regional temperature and precipitation changes is reduced with CO2 and a solar reduction, in comparison to the case with increased CO2 alone. Furthermore, differences between models in their efficacy (the relative global mean temperature effect of solar versus CO2 radiative forcing) explain most of the regional differences between models in their response to an increased CO2 concentration that is offset by a solar reduction. These conclusions are important for clarifying geoengineering risks regarding uncertainty.

  12. Impacts of Geoengineering and Nuclear War on Chinese Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate is one of the most important factors determining crop yields and world food supplies. To be well prepared for possible futures, it is necessary to study yield changes of major crops under different climate scenarios. Here we consider two situations: stratospheric sulfate geoengineering and nuclear war. Although we certainly do not advocate either scenario, we cannot exclude the possibilities: if global warming is getting worse, we might have to deliberately manipulate global temperature; if nuclear weapons still exist, we might face a nuclear war catastrophe. Since in both scenarios there would be reductions of temperature, precipitation, and insolation, which are three controlling factors on crop growth, it is important to study food supply changes under the two cases. We conducted our simulations for China, because it has the highest population and crop production in the world and it is under the strong influence of the summer monsoon, which would be altered in geoengineering and nuclear war scenarios. To examine the effects of climate changes induced by geoengineering and nuclear war on Chinese agriculture, we use the DSSAT crop model. We first evaluate the model by forcing it with daily weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for all the provinces in China, and compare the results to observations of the yields of major crops in China (middle season rice, winter wheat, and maize). Then we perturbed observed weather data using climate anomalies for geoengineering and nuclear war simulations using NASA GISS ModelE. For stratospheric geoengineering, we consider the injection of 5 Tg SO2 per year into the tropical lower stratosphere. For the nuclear war scenario, we consider the effects of 5 Tg of soot that could be injected into the upper troposphere by a war between India and Pakistan using only 100 Hiroshima-size atomic bombs dropped on cities. We perturbed each year of the 31-year climate record with anomalies from each year of

  13. Exploring early public responses to geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Corner, Adam; Parkhill, Karen; Spence, Alexa; Butler, Catherine; Poortinga, Wouter

    2012-09-13

    Proposals for geoengineering the Earth's climate are prime examples of emerging or 'upstream' technologies, because many aspects of their effectiveness, cost and risks are yet to be researched, and in many cases are highly uncertain. This paper contributes to the emerging debate about the social acceptability of geoengineering technologies by presenting preliminary evidence on public responses to geoengineering from two of the very first UK studies of public perceptions and responses. The discussion draws upon two datasets: qualitative data (from an interview study conducted in 42 households in 2009), and quantitative data (from a subsequent nationwide survey (n=1822) of British public opinion). Unsurprisingly, baseline awareness of geoengineering was extremely low in both cases. The data from the survey indicate that, when briefly explained to people, carbon dioxide removal approaches were preferred to solar radiation management, while significant positive correlations were also found between concern about climate change and support for different geoengineering approaches. We discuss some of the wider considerations that are likely to shape public perceptions of geoengineering as it enters the media and public sphere, and conclude that, aside from technical considerations, public perceptions are likely to prove a key element influencing the debate over questions of the acceptability of geoengineering proposals.

  14. The risks and efficacy of solar geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, David [Harvard University

    2012-12-05

    Solar geoengineering may enable a significant reduction in climate risks by partially offsetting climate change due to increasing greenhouse gases, however this emerging technology entails novel risks and uncertainties along with serious challenges to global governance. I will attempt a rough summary of the physics of solar geoengineering and present recent findings regarding (a) the climate's response to radiative forcing by stratospheric aerosols, (b) methods of producing appropriate aerosol distributions, and (c) risks. In closing I will discuss the trade-off between solar geoengineering, emissions reductions and adaptation in climate policy.

  15. Response of container-grown flowering dogwood cultivars to sun/shade production regime, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering dogwood, Cornus florida, ‘Cherokee Brave™’ and ‘Cherokee Princess’ were grown in #5 nursery containers in an amended 100% bark substrate. Treatments were assigned based on exposure time to a full sun/shade condition during the growing season: 1) plants grown in full sun, 2) plants grown in...

  16. The Many Problems with Geoengineering Using Stratospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan

    2009-05-01

    In response to the global warming problem, there has been a recent renewed call for geoengineering ``solutions'' involving injecting particles into the stratosphere or blocking sunlight with satellites between the Sun and Earth. While volcanic eruptions have been suggested as innocuous examples of stratospheric aerosols cooling the planet, the volcano analog actually argues against geoengineering because of ozone depletion and regional hydrologic and temperature responses. In this talk, I consider the suggestion to create an artificial stratospheric aerosol layer. No systems to conduct geoengineering now exist, but a comparison of different proposed stratospheric injection schemes, airplanes, balloons, artillery, and a space elevator, shows that using airplanes would not be that expensive. We simulated the climate response to both tropical and Arctic stratospheric injection of sulfate aerosol precursors using a comprehensive atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. We simulated the injection of SO2 and the model converts it to sulfate aerosols, transports them and removes them through dry and wet deposition, and calculates the climate response to the radiative forcing from the aerosols. We conducted simulations of future climate with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B business-as-usual scenario both with and without geoengineering, and compare the results. We found that if there were a way to continuously inject SO2 into the lower stratosphere, it would produce global cooling. Acid deposition from the sulfate would not be enough to disturb most ecosystems. Tropical SO2 injection would produce sustained cooling over most of the world, with more cooling over continents. Arctic SO2 injection would not just cool the Arctic. But both tropical and Arctic SO2 injection would disrupt the Asian and African summer monsoons, reducing precipitation to the food supply

  17. Global change - Geoengineering and space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1992-01-01

    Geoengineering options and alternatives are proposed for mitigating the effects of global climate change and depletion of the ozone layer. Geoengineering options were discussed by the National Academy of Science Panel on the Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. Several of the ideas conveyed in their published report are space-based or depend on space systems for implementation. Among the geoengineering options using space that are discussed include the use of space power systems as an alternative to fossil fuels for generating electricity, the use of lunar He-3 to aid in the development of fusion energy, and the establishment of a lunar power system for solar energy conversion and electric power beaming back to earth. Other geoengineering options are discussed. They include the space-based modulation of hurricane forces and two space-based approaches in dealing with ozone layer depletion. The engineering challenges and policy implementation issues are discussed for these geongineering options.

  18. Solar Geoengineering, Uncertainty, and the Price of Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We consider the socially optimal use of solar geoengineering to manage climate change. Solar geoengineering can reduce damages from atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, potentially more cheaply than reducing emissions. If so, optimal policy includes less abatement than recommended by models that ignore solar geoengineering, and the price of carbon is lower. Solar geoengineering reduces temperature but does not reduce atmospheric or ocean carbon concentrations, and that carbon may cause ...

  19. Current situation of geoengineering and its impact on biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Interests in the process of geoengineering have grown and geoengineering is a focus for the Convention on Biological Diversity now. Geoengineering programs and experiments have been carried out tovarying extent globally and are of significance to Chinese interests. This paper originates from a review of a conference discussion and of relevant literatures. It introduces the concept of geoengineering, describes the current status of its development and discusses the potential impacts geoenginee...

  20. Ozone Depletion Caused by Rocket Engine Emissions: A Fundamental Limit on the Scale and Viability of Space-Based Geoengineering Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. N.; Toohey, D.

    2008-12-01

    Emissions from solid and liquid propellant rocket engines reduce global stratospheric ozone levels. Currently ~ one kiloton of payloads are launched into earth orbit annually by the global space industry. Stratospheric ozone depletion from present day launches is a small fraction of the ~ 4% globally averaged ozone loss caused by halogen gases. Thus rocket engine emissions are currently considered a minor, if poorly understood, contributor to ozone depletion. Proposed space-based geoengineering projects designed to mitigate climate change would require order of magnitude increases in the amount of material launched into earth orbit. The increased launches would result in comparable increases in the global ozone depletion caused by rocket emissions. We estimate global ozone loss caused by three space-based geoengineering proposals to mitigate climate change: (1) mirrors, (2) sunshade, and (3) space-based solar power (SSP). The SSP concept does not directly engineer climate, but is touted as a mitigation strategy in that SSP would reduce CO2 emissions. We show that launching the mirrors or sunshade would cause global ozone loss between 2% and 20%. Ozone loss associated with an economically viable SSP system would be at least 0.4% and possibly as large as 3%. It is not clear which, if any, of these levels of ozone loss would be acceptable under the Montreal Protocol. The large uncertainties are mainly caused by a lack of data or validated models regarding liquid propellant rocket engine emissions. Our results offer four main conclusions. (1) The viability of space-based geoengineering schemes could well be undermined by the relatively large ozone depletion that would be caused by the required rocket launches. (2) Analysis of space- based geoengineering schemes should include the difficult tradeoff between the gain of long-term (~ decades) climate control and the loss of short-term (~ years) deep ozone loss. (3) The trade can be properly evaluated only if our

  1. Geoengineering the climate: an overview and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J G

    2012-09-13

    The climate change that we are experiencing now is caused by an increase in greenhouse gases due to human activities, including burning fossil fuels, agriculture and deforestation. There is now widespread belief that a global warming of greater than 2(°)C above pre-industrial levels would be dangerous and should therefore be avoided. However, despite growing concerns over climate change and numerous international attempts to agree on reductions of global CO(2) emissions, these have continued to climb. This has led some commentators to suggest more radical 'geoengineering' alternatives to conventional mitigation by reductions in CO(2) emissions. Geoengineering is deliberate intervention in the climate system to counteract man-made global warming. There are two main classes of geoengineering: direct carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management that aims to cool the planet by reflecting more sunlight back to space. The findings of the review of geoengineering carried out by the UK Royal Society in 2009 are summarized here, including the climate effects, costs, risks and research and governance needs for various approaches. The possible role of geoengineering in a portfolio of responses to climate change is discussed, and various recent initiatives to establish good governance of research activity are reviewed. Key findings include the following.- Geoengineering is not a magic bullet and not an alternative to emissions reductions. - Cutting global greenhouse gas emissions must remain our highest priority. (i) But this is proving to be difficult, and geoengineering may be useful to support it. - Geoengineering is very likely to be technically possible. (i) However, there are major uncertainties and potential risks concerning effectiveness, costs and social and environmental impacts. - Much more research is needed, as well as public engagement and a system of regulation (for both deployment and for possible large-scale field tests). - The acceptability of

  2. A geophysiologist's thoughts on geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, James

    2008-11-13

    The Earth is now recognized as a self-regulating system that includes a reactive biosphere; the system maintains a long-term steady-state climate and surface chemical composition favourable for life. We are perturbing the steady state by changing the land surface from mainly forests to farm land and by adding greenhouse gases and aerosol pollutants to the air. We appear to have exceeded the natural capacity to counter our perturbation and consequently the system is changing to a new and as yet unknown but probably adverse state. I suggest here that we regard the Earth as a physiological system and consider amelioration techniques, geoengineering, as comparable to nineteenth century medicine.

  3. Impacts on Chinese Agriculture of Geoengineering and Smoke from Fires Ignited by Nuclear War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate is one of the most important factors determining crop yields and world food supplies. To be well prepared for possible futures, it is necessary to study yield changes of major crops under different climate scenarios. Here we consider two situations: stratospheric sulfate geoengineering and nuclear war. Although we certainly do not advocate either scenario, we cannot exclude the possibilities: if global warming is getting worse, society might consider deliberately manipulating global temperature; if nuclear weapons still exist, we might face a nuclear war catastrophe. Since in both scenarios there would be reductions of temperature, precipitation, and insolation, which are three controlling factors on crop growth, it is important to study food supply changes under the two cases. We conducted our simulations for China, because it has the highest population and crop production in the world and it is under the strong influence of the summer monsoon, which would be altered in geoengineering and nuclear war scenarios. To examine the effects of climate changes induced by geoengineering and nuclear war on Chinese agriculture, we use the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model. We first evaluated the model by forcing it with daily weather data and management practices for the period 1978-2008 for 24 provinces in China, and compared the results to observations of the yields of major crops in China (middle season rice, winter wheat, and maize). Then we perturbed observed weather data using climate anomalies for geoengineering and nuclear war simulations. For geoengineering, we consider the G2 scenario of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), which prescribes an insolation reduction to balance a 1% per year increase in CO2 concentration (1pctCO2). We used results from ten climate models participating in G2. For the nuclear war scenario, we consider the effects of 5 Tg of soot that could be injected into the upper

  4. Influence of geoengineered climate on the terrestrial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Vaishali; Wuebbles, Donald J; Delucia, Evan H; Foley, Jonathan A

    2003-09-01

    Various geoengineering schemes have been proposed to counteract anthropogenically induced climate change. In a previous study, it was suggested that a 1.8% reduction in solar radiation incident on the Earth's surface could noticeably reduce regional and seasonal climate change from increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). However, the response of the terrestrial biosphere to reduced solar radiation in a CO2-rich climate was not investigated. In this study, we hypothesized that a reduction in incident solar radiation in a Doubled CO2 atmosphere will diminish the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems, potentially accelerating the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. We used a dynamic global ecosystem model, the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), to investigate this hypothesis in an unperturbed climatology. While this simplified modeling framework effectively separated the influence of CO2 and sunlight on the terrestrial biosphere, it did not consider the complex feedbacks within the Earth's climate system. Our analysis indicated that compared to a Doubled CO2 scenario, reduction in incident solar radiation by 1.8% in a double CO2 world will have negligible impact on the NPP of terrestrial ecosystems. There were, however, spatial variations in the response of NPP-engineered solar radiation. While productivity decreased by less than 2% in the tropical and boreal forests as hypothesized, it increased by a similar percentage in the temperate deciduous forests and grasslands. This increase in productivity was attributed to an approximately 1% reduction in evapotranspiration in the Geoengineered scenario relative to the Doubled CO2 scenario. Our initial hypothesis was rejected because of unanticipated effects of engineered solar radiation on the hydrologic cycle. However, any geoengineering approaches that reduce incident solar radiation need to be thoroughly analyzed in view of the implications on ecosystem productivity and the hydrologic cycle.

  5. Stratospheric solar geoengineering without ozone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutsch, F. N.; Keith, D.; Weisenstein, D.; Dykema, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Injecting sulfate aerosol into the stratosphere, a form of solar geoengineering, may reduce some climate risks, but it also entails new risks including ozone loss and heating of the lower tropical stratosphere which in turn increases water vapor concentration causing additional ozone loss and surface warming. Selection of a solid aerosol such as alumina or diamond for geoengineering purposes was found to minimize stratospheric heating for a given shortwave forcing, though ozone depletion via heterogeneous surface activation remains a potential problem. Here we investigate the use of solid aerosols composed of alkaline metal salts whose surfaces would convert halogens, nitric and sulfuric acid into stable salts, reducing the ozone depletion potential of these ubiquitous stratospheric substances and preventing heterogeneous activation on the geoengineering particles. Specifically, injection of calcite (CaCO3) aerosol might reduce net radiative forcing while simultaneously increasing column ozone towards its pre-anthropogenic baseline. A radiative forcing of -1 Wm-2, for example, might be achieved with a simultaneous 3.8% increase in column ozone using 2.1 Tg yr-1 of 275 nm radius calcite aerosol with ten-fold less radiative heating compared to sulfate aerosol. Geoengineering injection of reactive alkali metal salts in combination with another high refractive index material may also enable solar geoengineering with lower risk than with sulfates.

  6. Current situation of geoengineering and its impact on biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senlu Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interests in the process of geoengineering have grown and geoengineering is a focus for the Convention on Biological Diversity now. Geoengineering programs and experiments have been carried out tovarying extent globally and are of significance to Chinese interests. This paper originates from a review of a conference discussion and of relevant literatures. It introduces the concept of geoengineering, describes the current status of its development and discusses the potential impacts geoengineering may have on biodiversity. Arguments about geoengineering in the Convention on Biological Diversity are also discussed. Researches show that geoengineering programs mainly affect biodiversity by changing the local or regional climate and environment. Large scale geoengineering programs may be prohibited in future due to uncertainty over their potential impacts on biodiversity. However, the necessity for energy saving and obligationsto reduce emissions will drive the progress of geoenginering. The future development of geoengineering is also examined. It is concluded that the techniques involved need to be of a high standard, highly efficient, low in cost and environmentally safe. Precautionary measures should be taken in the implementation of geoenginering related activities, and mechanisms for monitoring their effects should be thoroughly explored.

  7. Should we geoengineer larger ice caps?

    CERN Document Server

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The climate of Earth is susceptible to catastrophes that could threaten the longevity of human civilization. Geoengineering to reduce incoming solar radiation has been suggested as a way to mediate the warming effects of contemporary climate change, but a geoengineering program for thousands of years could also be used to enlarge the size of the polar ice caps and create a permanently cooler climate. Such a large ice cap state would make Earth less susceptible to climate threats and could allow human civilization to survive further into the future than otherwise possible. Intentionally extending Earth's glacial coverage will require uninterrupted commitment to this program for millenia but would ultimately reach a cooler equilibrium state where geoengineering is no longer needed. Whether or not this program is ever attempted, this concept illustrates the need to identify preference among potential climate states to ensure the long-term success of civilization.

  8. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John C; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying

    2015-11-10

    Devastating floods due to Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However, the frequency of the most intense storms is likely to increase with rises in sea surface temperatures. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane Main Development Region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may mitigate hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using eight earth system model simulations of climate under the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those temperature increases in the RCP4.5. However, sulfate injection would have to double (to nearly 10 teragrams of SO2 per year) between 2020 and 2070 to balance the RCP4.5, approximately the equivalent of a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 2 y, with consequent implications for stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent generalized extreme value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges and observed temperatures since 1923. The number of storm surge events as big as the one caused by the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this reduction is only marginally statistically significant. Nevertheless, when sea level rise differences in 2070 between the RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored into coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5-y events and about halved for 50-y surges.

  9. Geoengineering as a design problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravitz, Ben; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the climate impacts of solar geoengineering is essential for evaluating its benefits and risks. Most previous simulations have prescribed a particular strategy and evaluated its modeled effects. Here we turn this approach around by first choosing example climate objectives and then designing a strategy to meet those objectives in climate models.

    There are four essential criteria for designing a strategy: (i) an explicit specification of the objectives, (ii) defining what climate forcing agents to modify so the objectives are met, (iii) a method for managing uncertainties, and (iv) independent verification of the strategy in an evaluation model.

    We demonstrate this design perspective through two multi-objective examples. First, changes in Arctic temperature and the position of tropical precipitation due to CO2 increases are offset by adjusting high-latitude insolation in each hemisphere independently. Second, three different latitude-dependent patterns of insolation are modified to offset CO2-induced changes in global mean temperature, interhemispheric temperature asymmetry, and the Equator-to-pole temperature gradient. In both examples, the "design" and "evaluation" models are state-of-the-art fully coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation models.

  10. Geoengineering as a design problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kravitz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the climate impacts of solar geoengineering is essential for evaluating its benefits and risks. Most previous simulations have prescribed a particular strategy and evaluated its modeled effects. Here we turn this approach around by first choosing example climate objectives and then designing a strategy to meet those objectives in climate models. There are four essential criteria for designing a strategy: (i an explicit specification of the objectives, (ii defining what climate forcing agents to modify so the objectives are met, (iii a method for managing uncertainties, and (iv independent verification of the strategy in an evaluation model. We demonstrate this design perspective through two multi-objective examples. First, changes in Arctic temperature and the position of tropical precipitation due to CO2 increases are offset by adjusting high latitude insolation in each hemisphere independently. Second, three different latitude-dependent patterns of insolation are modified to offset CO2-induced changes in global mean temperature, interhemispheric temperature asymmetry, and the equator-to-pole temperature gradient. In both examples, the "design" and "evaluation" models are state-of-the-art fully coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation models.

  11. Geoengineering as a design problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Ben; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the climate impacts of solar geoengineering is essential for evaluating its benefits and risks. Most previous simulations have prescribed a particular strategy and evaluated its modeled effects. Here we turn this approach around by first choosing example climate objectives and then designing a strategy to meet those objectives in climate models. There are four essential criteria for designing a strategy: (i) an explicit specification of the objectives, (ii) defining what climate forcing agents to modify so the objectives are met, (iii) a method for managing uncertainties, and (iv) independent verification of the strategy in an evaluation model. We demonstrate this design perspective through two multi-objective examples. First, changes in Arctic temperature and the position of tropical precipitation due to CO2 increases are offset by adjusting high-latitude insolation in each hemisphere independently. Second, three different latitude-dependent patterns of insolation are modified to offset CO2-induced changes in global mean temperature, interhemispheric temperature asymmetry, and the Equator-to-pole temperature gradient. In both examples, the "design" and "evaluation" models are state-of-the-art fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models.

  12. Geoengineering, Climate Harm, and Business as Usual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankunis, F. J.; Peacock, K.

    2014-12-01

    We define geoengineering (GE) as the intentional use of technology to change the planet's climate. Many people believe GE is different in kind rather than degree from any other organized activity in human history. In fact, humans caused changes in the planet's climate long before the industrial age, and all organisms engineer their environments directly or indirectly. The relevant difference between this cumulative and generally inadvertent activity and GE is the presence of intention. Now that science has revealed the extent to which humans can change the climate, however, even the continuance of Business as Usual (BAU) is, in effect, a form of intentional GE, albeit one that will cause significant climate harm, defined as effects such as sea level rise that will impact human well-being. But as with all forms of engineering, the devil is in the details: what forms of GE should be tried first? Some methods, such as large-scale afforestation, are low risk but have long-term payoffs; others, such as aerosol injection into the stratosphere, could help buy time in a warming crisis but have unknown side-effects and little long-term future. Climate change is a world-wide, inter-generational tragedy of the commons. Rational choice theory, the spatial and temporal extension of the problem, poorly fitted moral frameworks, and political maneuvering are all factors that inhibit solutions to the climate tragedy of the commons. The longer that such factors are allowed to dominate decision-making (or the lack thereof) the more likely it is that humanity will be forced to resort to riskier and more drastic forms of GE. We argue that this fact brings an additional measure of urgency to the search for ways to engineer the climate differently so as to avoid climate harm in the most lasting and least risky way.

  13. Geoengineering:Basic science and ongoing research efforts in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Long; GAO Chao-Chao; ZHAO Li-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Geoengineering (also called climate engineering), which refers to large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system to counteract greenhouse gas-induced warming, has been one of the most rapidly growing areas of climate research as a potential option for tackling global warming. Here, we provide an overview of the scientific background and research progress of proposed geoengineering schemes. Geo-engineering can be broadly divided into two categories:solar geoengineering (also called solar radiation management, or SRM), which aims to reflect more sunlight to space, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which aims to reduce the CO2 content in the atmosphere. First, we review different proposed geoengineering methods involved in the solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal schemes. Then, we discuss the fundamental science underlying the climate response to the carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management schemes. We focus on two basic issues:1) climate response to the reduction in solar irradiance and 2) climate response to the reduction in atmospheric CO2. Next, we introduce an ongoing geoengineering research project in China that is supported by National Key Basic Research Program. This research project, being the first coordinated geoengineering research program in China, will systematically investigate the physical mechanisms, climate impacts, and risk and governance of a few targeted geoengineering schemes. It is expected that this research program will help us gain a deep under-standing of the physical science underlying geoengineering schemes and the impacts of geoengineering on global climate, in particular, on the Asia monsoon region.

  14. Geoengineering: Basic science and ongoing research efforts in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Cao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering (also called climate engineering, which refers to large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system to counteract greenhouse gas-induced warming, has been one of the most rapidly growing areas of climate research as a potential option for tackling global warming. Here, we provide an overview of the scientific background and research progress of proposed geoengineering schemes. Geoengineering can be broadly divided into two categories: solar geoengineering (also called solar radiation management, or SRM, which aims to reflect more sunlight to space, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR, which aims to reduce the CO2 content in the atmosphere. First, we review different proposed geoengineering methods involved in the solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal schemes. Then, we discuss the fundamental science underlying the climate response to the carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management schemes. We focus on two basic issues: 1 climate response to the reduction in solar irradiance and 2 climate response to the reduction in atmospheric CO2. Next, we introduce an ongoing geoengineering research project in China that is supported by National Key Basic Research Program. This research project, being the first coordinated geoengineering research program in China, will systematically investigate the physical mechanisms, climate impacts, and risk and governance of a few targeted geoengineering schemes. It is expected that this research program will help us gain a deep understanding of the physical science underlying geoengineering schemes and the impacts of geoengineering on global climate, in particular, on the Asia monsoon region.

  15. Detecting sulphate aerosol geoengineering with different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Y. T. Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.; Lott, Fraser C.; Highwood, Eleanor J.

    2016-12-01

    Sulphate aerosol injection has been widely discussed as a possible way to engineer future climate. Monitoring it would require detecting its effects amidst internal variability and in the presence of other external forcings. We investigate how the use of different detection methods and filtering techniques affects the detectability of sulphate aerosol geoengineering in annual-mean global-mean near-surface air temperature. This is done by assuming a future scenario that injects 5 Tg yr‑1 of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere and cross-comparing simulations from 5 climate models. 64% of the studied comparisons would require 25 years or more for detection when no filter and the multi-variate method that has been extensively used for attributing climate change are used, while 66% of the same comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection using a trend-based filter. This highlights the high sensitivity of sulphate aerosol geoengineering detectability to the choice of filter. With the same trend-based filter but a non-stationary method, 80% of the comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection. This does not imply sulphate aerosol geoengineering should be deployed, but suggests that both detection methods could be used for monitoring geoengineering in global, annual mean temperature should it be needed.

  16. Stratospheric solar geoengineering without ozone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, David W.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Dykema, John A.; Keutsch, Frank N.

    2016-12-01

    Injecting sulfate aerosol into the stratosphere, the most frequently analyzed proposal for solar geoengineering, may reduce some climate risks, but it would also entail new risks, including ozone loss and heating of the lower tropical stratosphere, which, in turn, would increase water vapor concentration causing additional ozone loss and surface warming. We propose a method for stratospheric aerosol climate modification that uses a solid aerosol composed of alkaline metal salts that will convert hydrogen halides and nitric and sulfuric acids into stable salts to enable stratospheric geoengineering while reducing or reversing ozone depletion. Rather than minimizing reactive effects by reducing surface area using high refractive index materials, this method tailors the chemical reactivity. Specifically, we calculate that injection of calcite (CaCO3) aerosol particles might reduce net radiative forcing while simultaneously increasing column ozone toward its preanthropogenic baseline. A radiative forcing of ‑1 Wṡm‑2, for example, might be achieved with a simultaneous 3.8% increase in column ozone using 2.1 Tgṡy‑1 of 275-nm radius calcite aerosol. Moreover, the radiative heating of the lower stratosphere would be roughly 10-fold less than if that same radiative forcing had been produced using sulfate aerosol. Although solar geoengineering cannot substitute for emissions cuts, it may supplement them by reducing some of the risks of climate change. Further research on this and similar methods could lead to reductions in risks and improved efficacy of solar geoengineering methods.

  17. Reflecting on 50 years of geoengineering research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ken; Bala, Govindasamy

    2017-01-01

    Earth's Future invited "leading experts in the field of geoengineering research to contribute brief reflections (2-5 pages) on the development of the discussion over the past decade and to consider where it may be going in the next 10 years." Responding to this request, we offer the following text in the spirit of reflections that emphasize our personal roles and viewpoints. The primary focus of many of our comments is solar geoengineering and not carbon dioxide removal (CDR). Thus, this text is not intended to comprise a comprehensive review or set of carefully documented analyses. Our primary conclusion is that sustained progress in "geoengineering" research will depend on social and material support for experimental work that can provide the observational basis for improved modeling and analysis, and, potentially, development and deployment of systems that may help protect the environment and improve human well-being. Relevant issues, and potential future trajectories, for CDR technologies may differ dramatically from those for solar geoengineering technologies.

  18. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering impacts on global agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Lawrence, P.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering has been proposed to reduce the impacts of anthropogenic climate change. If it is ever used, it would change agricultural production, and so is one of the future climate scenarios for the third phase of the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison. As an example of those impacts, we use the Community Land Model (CLM-crop 4.5) to simulate how climate changes from the G4 geoengineering scenario from the Geoengineering Modeling Intercomparison Project. The G4 geoengineering scenario specifies, in combination with RCP4.5 forcing, starting in 2020 daily injections of a constant amount of SO2 at a rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year at one point on the Equator into the lower stratosphere. Eight climate modeling groups have completed G4 simulations. We use the crop model to simulate the impacts of climate change (temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation) on the global agriculture system for five crops - rice, maize, soybeans, cotton, and sugarcane. In general, without irrigation, compared with the reference run (RCP4.5), global production of cotton, rice and sugarcane would increase significantly due to the cooling effect. Maize and soybeans show different regional responses. In tropical regions, maize and soybean have a higher yield in G4 compared with RCP4.5, while in the temperate regions they have a lower yield under a geoengineered climate. Impacts on specific countries in terms of different crop production depend on their locations. For example, the United States and Argentina show soybean production reduction of about 15% under G4 compared to RCP4.5, while Brazil increases soybean production by about 10%.

  19. Development of geopolitically relevant ranking criteria for geoengineering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Philip W.

    2016-11-01

    A decade has passed since Paul Crutzen published his editorial essay on the potential for stratospheric geoengineering to cool the climate in the Anthropocene. He synthesized the effects of the 1991 Pinatubo eruption on the planet's radiative budget and used this large-scale event to broaden and deepen the debate on the challenges and opportunities of large-scale geoengineering. Pinatubo had pronounced effects, both in the short and longer term (months to years), on the ocean, land, and the atmosphere. This rich set of data on how a large-scale natural event influences many regional and global facets of the Earth System provides a comprehensive viewpoint to assess the wider ramifications of geoengineering. Here, I use the Pinatubo archives to develop a range of geopolitically relevant ranking criteria for a suite of different geoengineering approaches. The criteria focus on the spatial scales needed for geoengineering and whether large-scale dispersal is a necessary requirement for a technique to deliver significant cooling or carbon dioxide reductions. These categories in turn inform whether geoengineering approaches are amenable to participation (the "democracy of geoengineering") and whether they will lead to transboundary issues that could precipitate geopolitical conflicts. The criteria provide the requisite detail to demarcate different geoengineering approaches in the context of geopolitics. Hence, they offer another tool that can be used in the development of a more holistic approach to the debate on geoengineering.

  20. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    KAUST Repository

    Kravitz, Ben

    2011-01-31

    To evaluate the effects of stratospheric geoengineering with sulphate aerosols, we propose standard forcing scenarios to be applied to multiple climate models to compare their results and determine the robustness of their responses. Thus far, different modeling groups have used different forcing scenarios for both global warming and geoengineering, complicating the comparison of results. We recommend four experiments to explore the extent to which geoengineering might offset climate change projected in some of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 experiments. These experiments focus on stratospheric aerosols, but future experiments under this framework may focus on different means of geoengineering. © 2011 Royal Meteorological Society.

  1. An overview of the Earth system science of solar geoengineering: Overview of the earth system science of solar geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, Peter J. [Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Potsdam Germany; John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), University of Harvard, Cambridge MA USA; Kravitz, Ben [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Lawrence, Mark G. [Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Potsdam Germany; Muri, Helene [Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo Norway

    2016-07-14

    Solar geoengineering has been proposed as a means to cool the planet by increasing the reflection of sunlight back to space, for example by injecting reflective aerosol particles into the middle atmosphere. Such proposals are not able to physically substitute for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions as a response to the risks of climate change, but might eventually be applied as a complementary approach to reduce climate risks. Thus, the Earth system consequences of solar geoengineering are central to understanding its potentials and risks. Here we review the state-of-the-art knowledge about geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosol injection. We examine the common responses found in studies of an idealized form of solar geoengineering, in which the intensity of incoming sunlight is directly reduced in models. The studies reviewed are consistent in suggesting that solar geoengineering would generally reduce the differences in climate in comparison to future scenarios with elevated greenhouse gas concentrations and no solar geoengineering. However, it is clear that a solar geoengineered climate would be novel in some respects, for example a notable reduction in the intensity of the hydrological cycle. We provide an overview of the unique aspects of the response to stratospheric aerosol injection and the uncertainties around its consequences. We also consider the issues raised by the partial control over the climate that solar geoengineering would allow. Finally, this overview also highlights the key research gaps that will need to be resolved in order to effectively guide future decisions on the potential use of solar geoengineering.

  2. Efficient modeling of sun/shade canopy radiation dynamics explicitly accounting for scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bodin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The separation of global radiation (Rg into its direct (Rb and diffuse constituents (Rg is important when modeling plant photosynthesis because a high Rd:Rg ratio has been shown to enhance Gross Primary Production (GPP. To include this effect in vegetation models, the plant canopy must be separated into sunlit and shaded leaves. However, because such models are often too intractable and computationally expensive for theoretical or large scale studies, simpler sun-shade approaches are often preferred. A widely used and computationally efficient sun-shade model was developed by Goudriaan (1977 (GOU. However, compared to more complex models, this model's realism is limited by its lack of explicit treatment of radiation scattering.

    Here we present a new model based on the GOU model, but which in contrast explicitly simulates radiation scattering by sunlit leaves and the absorption of this radiation by the canopy layers above and below (2-stream approach. Compared to the GOU model our model predicts significantly different profiles of scattered radiation that are in better agreement with measured profiles of downwelling diffuse radiation. With respect to these data our model's performance is equal to a more complex and much slower iterative radiation model while maintaining the simplicity and computational efficiency of the GOU model.

  3. Efficient modeling of sun/shade canopy radiation dynamics explicitly accounting for scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bodin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The separation of global radiation (Rg into its direct (Rb and diffuse constituents (Rd is important when modeling plant photosynthesis because a high Rd:Rg ratio has been shown to enhance Gross Primary Production (GPP. To include this effect in vegetation models, the plant canopy must be separated into sunlit and shaded leaves, for example using an explicit 3-dimensional ray tracing model. However, because such models are often too intractable and computationally expensive for theoretical or large scale studies simpler sun-shade approaches are often preferred. A widely used and computationally efficient sun-shade model is a model originally developed by Goudriaan (1977 (GOU, which however does not explicitly account for radiation scattering.

    Here we present a new model based on the GOU model, but which in contrast explicitly simulates radiation scattering by sunlit leaves and the absorption of this radiation by the canopy layers above and below (2-stream approach. Compared to the GOU model our model predicts significantly different profiles of scattered radiation that are in better agreement with measured profiles of downwelling diffuse radiation. With respect to these data our model's performance is equal to a more complex and much slower iterative radiation model while maintaining the simplicity and computational efficiency of the GOU model.

  4. Taming the Climate Emergency: Geoengineering and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Oksanen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we shed some light into two questions with regard to te idea of climate emergency and dangerous climate change: Presuming that the negative effects of climate change can occur abruptly we want to investigate, in particular, whether there is any kind of rational basis to the conclusion that a state of climate emergency would require geoengineering implementations such as solar radiation management (SRM. Related to this, we will pose the question whether there can be exemptions from conventional morality justified by climate emergency for instance to use such largely untested geoengineering methods like SRM. We will take a look at SRM from an ethical point of view and analyze the concept of climate emergency and its policy relevance in order to assess the moral justification for the implementation of SRM.

  5. The runaway greenhouse: implications for future climate change, geoengineering and planetary atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Colin; Watson, Andrew J

    2012-09-13

    The ultimate climate emergency is a 'runaway greenhouse': a hot and water-vapour-rich atmosphere limits the emission of thermal radiation to space, causing runaway warming. Warming ceases only after the surface reaches approximately 1400 K and emits radiation in the near-infrared, where water is not a good greenhouse gas. This would evaporate the entire ocean and exterminate all planetary life. Venus experienced a runaway greenhouse in the past, and we expect that the Earth will in around 2 billion years as solar luminosity increases. But could we bring on such a catastrophe prematurely, by our current climate-altering activities? Here, we review what is known about the runaway greenhouse to answer this question, describing the various limits on outgoing radiation and how climate will evolve between these. The good news is that almost all lines of evidence lead us to believe that is unlikely to be possible, even in principle, to trigger full a runaway greenhouse by addition of non-condensible greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. However, our understanding of the dynamics, thermodynamics, radiative transfer and cloud physics of hot and steamy atmospheres is weak. We cannot therefore completely rule out the possibility that human actions might cause a transition, if not to full runaway, then at least to a much warmer climate state than the present one. High climate sensitivity might provide a warning. If we, or more likely our remote descendants, are threatened with a runaway greenhouse, then geoengineering to reflect sunlight might be life's only hope. Injecting reflective aerosols into the stratosphere would be too short-lived, and even sunshades in space might require excessive maintenance. In the distant future, modifying Earth's orbit might provide a sustainable solution. The runaway greenhouse also remains relevant in planetary sciences and astrobiology: as extrasolar planets smaller and nearer to their stars are detected, some will be in

  6. Atmospheric responses to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Angus; Highwood, Eleanor; Charlton-Perez, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Stratospheric aerosol geoengineering, also called solar radiation management (SRM), involves the injection of aerosol into the stratosphere to increase the planetary albedo. It has been conceieved as a policy option in response to human-induced global warming. It is well-established from modelling studies and observations following volcanic eruptions that stratospheric sulphate aerosols cause global cooling. Some aspects of the climate response, especially those involving large-scale dynamical changes, are more uncertain. This work attempts to identify the physical mechanisms operating in the climate response to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering using idealised model experiments. The radiative forcing produced by the aerosol depends on its type (species) and size. Aerosols absorb terrestrial and solar radiation, which drives stratospheric temperature change. The stratospheric temperature change also depends on aerosol type and size. We calculate the stratospheric temperature change due to geoengineering with sulphate, titania, limestone and soot in a fixed-dynamical-heating radiative model. Sulphate produces tropical heating of up to ~6 K. Titania produces much less heating, whereas soot produces much more. Most aerosols increase the meridional temperature gradient in the lower stratosphere which, by thermal wind balance, would be expected to intensify the zonal winds in the polar vortex. An intermediate-complexity general circulation model is used to investigate the dynamical response to geoengineering aerosols. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are quadrupled. The carbon dioxide forcing is then balanced using stratospheric sulphate aerosol. We assess dynamical changes in the stratosphere, for example, the frequency of stratospheric sudden warmings and the strength of the Brewer-Dobson overturning circulation. We also assess changes in the strength and position of the tropospheric jets. We compare results for sulphate with those for titania.

  7. Geoengineering in the Anthropocene through Regenerative Urbanism

    OpenAIRE

    Giles Thomson; Peter Newman

    2016-01-01

    Human consumption patterns exceed planetary boundaries and stress on the biosphere can be expected to worsen. The recent “Paris Agreement” (COP21) represents a major international attempt to address risk associated with climate change through rapid decarbonisation. The mechanisms for implementation are yet to be determined and, while various large-scale geoengineering projects have been proposed, we argue a better solution may lie in cities. Large-scale green urbanism in cities and their bior...

  8. Geoengineering in the Anthropocene through Regenerative Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles Thomson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human consumption patterns exceed planetary boundaries and stress on the biosphere can be expected to worsen. The recent “Paris Agreement” (COP21 represents a major international attempt to address risk associated with climate change through rapid decarbonisation. The mechanisms for implementation are yet to be determined and, while various large-scale geoengineering projects have been proposed, we argue a better solution may lie in cities. Large-scale green urbanism in cities and their bioregions would offer benefits commensurate to alternative geoengineering proposals, but this integrated approach carries less risk and has additional, multiple, social and economic benefits in addition to a reduction of urban ecological footprint. However, the key to success will require policy writers and city makers to deliver at scale and to high urban sustainability performance benchmarks. To better define urban sustainability performance, we describe three horizons of green urbanism: green design, that seeks to improve upon conventional development; sustainable development, that is the first step toward a net zero impact; and the emerging concept of regenerative urbanism, that enables biosphere repair. Examples of green urbanism exist that utilize technology and design to optimize urban metabolism and deliver net positive sustainability performance. If mainstreamed, regenerative approaches can make urban development a major urban geoengineering force, while simultaneously introducing life-affirming co-benefits to burgeoning cities.

  9. Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; Gerten, Dieter; Caminade, Cyril; Gosling, Simon N.; Hendy, Erica J.; Kassie, Belay T.; Kissling, W. Daniel; Muri, Helene; Oschlies, Andreas; Smith, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the climate response to solar geoengineering—proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo—there has been little published on the impacts of solar geoengineering on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. An understanding of the impacts of different scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment will be crucial for informing decisions on whether and how to deploy it. Here we review the current state of knowledge about impacts of a solar-geoengineered climate and identify the major research gaps. We suggest that a thorough assessment of the climate impacts of a range of scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment is needed and can be built upon existing frameworks. However, solar geoengineering poses a novel challenge for climate impacts research as the manner of deployment could be tailored to pursue different objectives making possible a wide range of climate outcomes. We present a number of ideas for approaches to extend the survey of climate impacts beyond standard scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment to address this challenge. Reducing the impacts of climate change is the fundamental motivator for emissions reductions and for considering whether and how to deploy solar geoengineering. This means that the active engagement of the climate impacts research community will be important for improving the overall understanding of the opportunities, challenges, and risks presented by solar geoengineering.

  10. Climate Model Response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Caldeira, Ken; Boucher, Olivier; Robock, Alan; Rasch, Philip J.; Alterskjaer, Kari; Bou Karam, Diana; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Haywood, J.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Jones, A.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Lunt, Daniel; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Schulz, M.; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, S.; Watanabe, Shingo; Yang, Shuting; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-08-09

    Solar geoengineering—deliberate reduction in the amount of solar radiation retained by the Earth—has been proposed as a means of counteracting some of the climatic effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We present results from Experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, in which 12 climate models have simulated the climate response to an abrupt quadrupling of CO2 from preindustrial concentrations brought into radiative balance via a globally uniform reduction in insolation. Models show this reduction largely offsets global mean surface temperature increases due to quadrupled CO2 concentrations and prevents 97% of the Arctic sea ice loss that would otherwise occur under high CO2 levels but, compared to the preindustrial climate, leaves the tropics cooler (-0.3 K) and the poles warmer (+0.8 K). Annual mean precipitation minus evaporation anomalies for G1 are less than 0.2mmday-1 in magnitude over 92% of the globe, but some tropical regions receive less precipitation, in part due to increased moist static stability and suppression of convection. Global average net primary productivity increases by 120% in G1 over simulated preindustrial levels, primarily from CO2 fertilization, but also in part due to reduced plant heat stress compared to a high CO2 world with no geoengineering. All models show that uniform solar geoengineering in G1 cannot simultaneously return regional and global temperature and hydrologic cycle intensity to preindustrial levels.

  11. Efficacy of geoengineering to limit 21st century sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J C; Jevrejeva, S; Grinsted, A

    2010-09-07

    Geoengineering has been proposed as a feasible way of mitigating anthropogenic climate change, especially increasing global temperatures in the 21st century. The two main geoengineering options are limiting incoming solar radiation, or modifying the carbon cycle. Here we examine the impact of five geoengineering approaches on sea level; SO(2) aerosol injection into the stratosphere, mirrors in space, afforestation, biochar, and bioenergy with carbon sequestration. Sea level responds mainly at centennial time scales to temperature change, and has been largely driven by anthropogenic forcing since 1850. Making use a model of sea-level rise as a function of time-varying climate forcing factors (solar radiation, volcanism, and greenhouse gas emissions) we find that sea-level rise by 2100 will likely be 30 cm higher than 2000 levels despite all but the most aggressive geoengineering under all except the most stringent greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. The least risky and most desirable way of limiting sea-level rise is bioenergy with carbon sequestration. However aerosol injection or a space mirror system reducing insolation at an accelerating rate of 1 W m(-2) per decade from now to 2100 could limit or reduce sea levels. Aerosol injection delivering a constant 4 W m(-2) reduction in radiative forcing (similar to a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 18 months) could delay sea-level rise by 40-80 years. Aerosol injection appears to fail cost-benefit analysis unless it can be maintained continuously, and damage caused by the climate response to the aerosols is less than about 0.6% Global World Product.

  12. New AgMIP Scenarios: Impacts of Volcanic Eruptions, Geoengineering, or Nuclear War on Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.; Xia, L.

    2016-12-01

    Climate is one of the most important factors determining crop yields and world food supplies. To be well prepared for possible futures, it is necessary to study yield changes of major crops in response to different climate forcings. Previous studies mainly focus on the impact from global warming. Here we propose that the AgMIP community also study the impacts of stratospheric aerosols on agriculture. While nature can load the stratosphere with sulfate aerosols for several years from large volcanic eruptions, humans could also put sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere on purpose through geoengineering or soot as a result of the fires from a nuclear war. Stratospheric aerosols would change the temperature, precipitation, total insolation, and fraction of diffuse radiation due to their radiative impacts, and could produce more ultraviolet radiation by ozone destruction. Surface ozone concentration could also change by changed transport from the stratosphere as well as changed tropospheric chemistry. As a demonstration of these effects, using the crop model in the NCAR Community Land Model (CLM-crop), we have studied sulfate injection geoengineering and nuclear war impacts on global agriculture in response to temperature, precipitation and radiation changes, and found significant changes in patterns of global food production. With the new ozone module in CLM-crop, we simulated how surface ozone concentration change under sulfate injection geoengineering would change the agriculture response. Agriculture would benefit from less surface ozone concentration associated with the specific geoengineering scenario comparing with the global warming scenario. Here, we would like to encourage more crop modelers to improve crop models in terms of crop responses to ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and diffuse radiation. We also invite more global crop modeling groups to use the climate forcing we would be happy to provide to gain a better understanding of global agriculture responses

  13. Regional climate responses to geoengineering with tropical and Arctic SO2 injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2008-08-01

    Anthropogenic stratospheric aerosol production, so as to reduce solar insolation and cool Earth, has been suggested as an emergency response to geoengineer the planet in response to global warming. While volcanic eruptions have been suggested as innocuous examples of stratospheric aerosols cooling the planet, the volcano analog actually argues against geoengineering because of ozone depletion and regional hydrologic and temperature responses. To further investigate the climate response, here we simulate the climate response to both tropical and Arctic stratospheric injection of sulfate aerosol precursors using a comprehensive atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. We inject SO2 and the model converts it to sulfate aerosols, transports the aerosols and removes them through dry and wet deposition, and calculates the climate response to the radiative forcing from the aerosols. We conduct simulations of future climate with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B business-as-usual scenario both with and without geoengineering and compare the results. We find that if there were a way to continuously inject SO2 into the lower stratosphere, it would produce global cooling. Tropical SO2 injection would produce sustained cooling over most of the world, with more cooling over continents. Arctic SO2 injection would not just cool the Arctic. Both tropical and Arctic SO2 injection would disrupt the Asian and African summer monsoons, reducing precipitation to the food supply for billions of people. These regional climate anomalies are but one of many reasons that argue against the implementation of this kind of geoengineering.

  14. Energy transfer via sunshades and light deflection elements; Energietransport durch Sonnenschutzsysteme und Lichtlenkelemente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haug, I.

    2001-07-01

    The author investigated energy transfer via sunshades and light deflection elements. The information will be required for the development of external wall elements. The investigations are funded by Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt. [German] Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde der Energietransport durch eine herkoemmliche Waermeschutzverglasung mit innen liegender Jalousie, durch eine neuartige, lichtumlenkende LIF-Verglasung und durch eine lichtstreuende Kapillarverglasung untersucht. - Die Kenntnisse ueber den Energietransport werden benoetigt, um energetische Kennzahlen fuer Fassadenelemente bestimmen zu koennen, die in der Bauphysik und hinsichtlich des aktuellen Gesetzgebungsverfahren eine wesentliche Rolle spielen. - Der Energietransport, der sich aus Strahlungstransport und Waermetransport zusammensetzt, und die zugehoerigen energetischen Kennzahlen wurden fuer die genannten Systeme modelliert und messtechnisch erfasst. Diese Arbeit wurde durch die Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt gefoerdert. (orig.)

  15. Geoengineering to Avoid Overshoot: An Uncertainty Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.

    2009-04-01

    Geoengineering (or climate engineering) using stratospheric sulfur injections (Crutzen, 2006) has been called for research in case of an urgent need for stopping global warming when other mitigation efforts were exhausted. Although there are a number of concerns over this idea (e.g. Robock, 2008), it is still useful to consider geoengineering as a possible method to limit warming caused by overshoot. Overshoot is a feature accompanied by low stabilizations scenarios aiming for a stringent target (Rao et al., 2008) in which total radiative forcing temporarily exceeds the target before reaching there. Scenarios achieving a 50% emission reduction by 2050 produces overshoot. Overshoot could cause sustained warming for decades due to the inertia of the climate system. If stratospheric sulfur injections were to be used as a "last resort" to avoid overshoot, what would be the suitable start-year and injection profile of such an intervention? Wigley (2006) examined climate response to combined mitigation/geoengineering scenarios with the intent to avert overshoot. Wigley's analysis demonstrated a basic potential of such a combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to avoid temperature overshoot - however it considered only simplistic sulfur injection profiles (all started in 2010), just one mitigation scenario, and did not examine the sensitivity of the climate response to any underlying uncertainties. This study builds upon Wigley's premise of the combined mitigation/geoengineering approach and brings associated uncertainty into the analysis. First, this study addresses the question as to how much geoengineering intervention would be needed to avoid overshoot by considering associated uncertainty? Then, would a geoengineering intervention of such a magnitude including uncertainty be permissible in considering all the other side effects? This study begins from the supposition that geoengineering could be employed to cap warming at 2.0°C since preindustrial. A few

  16. Solar geoengineering to limit the rate of temperature change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Douglas G; Caldeira, Ken; Keith, David W

    2014-12-28

    Solar geoengineering has been suggested as a tool that might reduce damage from anthropogenic climate change. Analysis often assumes that geoengineering would be used to maintain a constant global mean temperature. Under this scenario, geoengineering would be required either indefinitely (on societal time scales) or until atmospheric CO2 concentrations were sufficiently reduced. Impacts of climate change, however, are related to the rate of change as well as its magnitude. We thus describe an alternative scenario in which solar geoengineering is used only to constrain the rate of change of global mean temperature; this leads to a finite deployment period for any emissions pathway that stabilizes global mean temperature. The length of deployment and amount of geoengineering required depends on the emissions pathway and allowable rate of change, e.g. in our simulations, reducing the maximum approximately 0.3°C per decade rate of change in an RCP 4.5 pathway to 0.1°C per decade would require geoengineering for 160 years; under RCP 6.0, the required time nearly doubles. We demonstrate that feedback control can limit rates of change in a climate model. Finally, we note that a decision to terminate use of solar geoengineering does not automatically imply rapid temperature increases: feedback could be used to limit rates of change in a gradual phase-out.

  17. 基于太阳辐射模拟的外遮阳优化设计%Design optimization of external sunshade based on solar radiation simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓龙

    2014-01-01

    To solve the problem on external sunshade design under the situation of complex configuration and orientation,solar radiation simula-tion is used to analyze the shelter effect of different types of external sunshade. The facades whose shelter effect is poor with fixed external sun-shade turn to use adjustable external sunshade,making the balance between energy saving rate and economy.%为解决在这种复杂建筑体型和朝向条件下的外遮阳优化,通过夏季太阳辐射量模拟分析了不同遮阳形式的遮阳效果,指出选择固定外遮阳效果不佳的立面采用可调节外遮阳,达到了节能率和经济性兼顾的效果。

  18. The economics (or lack thereof) of aerosol geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, M.; Keller, K.; Tuana, N.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the Earth's climate and impose substantial risks for current and future generations. What are scientifically sound, economically viable, and ethically defendable strategies to manage these climate risks? Ratified international agreements call for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Recent proposals, however, call for the deployment of a different approach: to geoengineer climate by injecting aerosol precursors into the stratosphere. Published economic studies typically suggest that substituting aerosol geoengineering for abatement of carbon dioxide emissions results in large net monetary benefits. However, these studies neglect the risks of aerosol geoengineering due to (i) the potential for future geoengineering failures and (ii) the negative impacts associated with the aerosol forcing. Here we use a simple integrated assessment model of climate change to analyze potential economic impacts of aerosol geoengineering strategies over a wide range of uncertain parameters such as climate sensitivity, the economic damages due to climate change, and the economic damages due to aerosol geoengineering forcing. The simplicity of the model provides the advantages of parsimony and transparency, but it also imposes severe caveats on the interpretation of the results. For example, the analysis is based on a globally aggregated model and is hence silent on the question of intragenerational distribution of costs and benefits. In addition, the analysis neglects the effects of endogenous learning about the climate system. We show that the risks associated with a future geoengineering failure and negative impacts of aerosol forcings can cause geoenginering strategies to fail an economic cost-benefit test. One key to this finding is that a geoengineering failure would lead to dramatic and abrupt climatic changes. The monetary damages due to this failure can

  19. A combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to climate stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigley, T M L

    2006-10-20

    Projected anthropogenic warming and increases in CO2 concentration present a twofold threat, both from climate changes and from CO2 directly through increasing the acidity of the oceans. Future climate change may be reduced through mitigation (reductions in greenhouse gas emissions) or through geoengineering. Most geoengineering approaches, however, do not address the problem of increasing ocean acidity. A combined mitigation/geoengineering strategy could remove this deficiency. Here we consider the deliberate injection of sulfate aerosol precursors into the stratosphere. This action could substantially offset future warming and provide additional time to reduce human dependence on fossil fuels and stabilize CO2 concentrations cost-effectively at an acceptable level.

  20. Comparative thermal performance of static sunshade and brick cavity wall for energy efficient building envelope in composite climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charde Meghana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient building technologies can reduce energy consumption in buildings. In present paper effect of designed static sunshade, brick cavity wall with brick projections and their combined effect on indoor air temperature has been analyzed by constructing three test rooms each of habitable dimensions (3.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m and studying hourly temperatures on typical days for one month in summer and winter each. The three rooms have also been simulated using a software and the results have been compared with the experimental results. Designed static sunshade increased indoor air temperature in winter while proposed brick cavity wall with brick projections lowered it in summer. Combined effect of building elements lowered indoor air temperature in summer and increased it in winter as compared to outdoor air temperature. It is thus useful for energy conservation in buildings in composite climate.

  1. Dynamic climate emulators for solar geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben

    2016-12-01

    Climate emulators trained on existing simulations can be used to project project the climate effects that result from different possible future pathways of anthropogenic forcing, without further relying on general circulation model (GCM) simulations. We extend this idea to include different amounts of solar geoengineering in addition to different pathways of greenhouse gas concentrations, by training emulators from a multi-model ensemble of simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The emulator is trained on the abrupt 4 × CO2 and a compensating solar reduction simulation (G1), and evaluated by comparing predictions against a simulated 1 % per year CO2 increase and a similarly smaller solar reduction (G2). We find reasonable agreement in most models for predicting changes in temperature and precipitation (including regional effects), and annual-mean Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent, with the difference between simulation and prediction typically being smaller than natural variability. This verifies that the linearity assumption used in constructing the emulator is sufficient for these variables over the range of forcing considered. Annual-minimum Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent is less well predicted, indicating a limit to the linearity assumption.

  2. Dynamic climate emulators for solar geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben

    2016-12-22

    Climate emulators trained on existing simulations can be used to project project the climate effects that result from different possible future pathways of anthropogenic forcing, without further relying on general circulation model (GCM) simulations. We extend this idea to include different amounts of solar geoengineering in addition to different pathways of greenhouse gas concentrations, by training emulators from a multi-model ensemble of simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The emulator is trained on the abrupt 4 × CO2 and a compensating solar reduction simulation (G1), and evaluated by comparing predictions against a simulated 1 % per year CO2 increase and a similarly smaller solar reduction (G2). We find reasonable agreement in most models for predicting changes in temperature and precipitation (including regional effects), and annual-mean Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent, with the difference between simulation and prediction typically being smaller than natural variability. This verifies that the linearity assumption used in constructing the emulator is sufficient for these variables over the range of forcing considered. Annual-minimum Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent is less well predicted, indicating a limit to the linearity assumption.

  3. Benefits, risks, and costs of stratospheric geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Marquardt, Allison; Kravitz, Ben; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2009-10-01

    Injecting sulfate aerosol precursors into the stratosphere has been suggested as a means of geoengineering to cool the planet and reduce global warming. The decision to implement such a scheme would require a comparison of its benefits, dangers, and costs to those of other responses to global warming, including doing nothing. Here we evaluate those factors for stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols. Using existing U.S. military fighter and tanker planes, the annual costs of injecting aerosol precursors into the lower stratosphere would be several billion dollars. Using artillery or balloons to loft the gas would be much more expensive. We do not have enough information to evaluate more exotic techniques, such as pumping the gas up through a hose attached to a tower or balloon system. Anthropogenic stratospheric aerosol injection would cool the planet, stop the melting of sea ice and land-based glaciers, slow sea level rise, and increase the terrestrial carbon sink, but produce regional drought, ozone depletion, less sunlight for solar power, and make skies less blue. Furthermore it would hamper Earth-based optical astronomy, do nothing to stop ocean acidification, and present many ethical and moral issues. Further work is needed to quantify many of these factors to allow informed decision-making.

  4. Benefits, risks, and costs of stratospheric geoengineering

    KAUST Repository

    Robock, Alan

    2009-10-02

    Injecting sulfate aerosol precursors into the stratosphere has been suggested as a means of geoengineering to cool the planet and reduce global warming. The decision to implement such a scheme would require a comparison of its benefits, dangers, and costs to those of other responses to global warming, including doing nothing. Here we evaluate those factors for stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols. Using existing U.S. military fighter and tanker planes, the annual costs of injecting aerosol precursors into the lower stratosphere would be several billion dollars. Using artillery or balloons to loft the gas would be much more expensive. We do not have enough information to evaluate more exotic techniques, such as pumping the gas up through a hose attached to a tower or balloon system. Anthropogenic stratospheric aerosol injection would cool the planet, stop the melting of sea ice and land-based glaciers, slow sea level rise, and increase the terrestrial carbon sink, but produce regional drought, ozone depletion, less sunlight for solar power, and make skies less blue. Furthermore it would hamper Earth-based optical astronomy, do nothing to stop ocean acidification, and present many ethical and moral issues. Further work is needed to quantify many of these factors to allow informed decision-making.

  5. Geoengineering, news media and metaphors: Framing the controversial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luokkanen, Matti; Huttunen, Suvi; Hildén, Mikael

    2014-11-01

    We analyze how metaphors are used in presenting and debating novel technologies that could influence the climate and thereby also future climate change policies. We show that metaphors strengthen a policy-related storyline, while metaphors are rarer in purely descriptive accounts. The choice of metaphor frames the technologies. War metaphors are used equally in arguments that are for, against and neutral with respect to the further development of geoengineering, but differences arise in the use of metaphors related to controllability, health and mechanisms. Controllability metaphors are often used in justifying further research and development of good governance practices, whereas health metaphors tend to be used against the very idea of geoengineering by portraying technological interventions in the climate as an emblematic case of an unacceptable development. These findings suggest that metaphors are early indications of restrictions in the interpretative flexibility that influences future governance of geoengineering and geoengineering research.

  6. The hydrological impact of geoengineering in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Tilmes, S.; Fasullo, J.; Lamarque, J.; Marsh, D; Mills, M.; Alterskjær, K.; Muri, H.; Kristjánsson, J.; O. Boucher; Schulz, M; Cole, J.; C. Curry; Jones, A.; J. Haywood; Irvine, P.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrological impact of enhancing Earth's albedo by solar radiation management is investigated using simulations from 12 Earth System models contributing to the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). We contrast an idealized experiment, G1, where the global mean radiative forcing is kept at preindustrial conditions by reducing insolation while the CO2 concentration is quadrupled to a 4×CO2 experiment. The reduction of evapotranspiration over land with instantaneously increa...

  7. Transient climate-carbon simulations of planetary geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, H Damon; Caldeira, Ken

    2007-06-12

    Geoengineering (the intentional modification of Earth's climate) has been proposed as a means of reducing CO2-induced climate warming while greenhouse gas emissions continue. Most proposals involve managing incoming solar radiation such that future greenhouse gas forcing is counteracted by reduced solar forcing. In this study, we assess the transient climate response to geoengineering under a business-as-usual CO2 emissions scenario by using an intermediate-complexity global climate model that includes an interactive carbon cycle. We find that the climate system responds quickly to artificially reduced insolation; hence, there may be little cost to delaying the deployment of geoengineering strategies until such a time as "dangerous" climate change is imminent. Spatial temperature patterns in the geoengineered simulation are comparable with preindustrial temperatures, although this is not true for precipitation. Carbon sinks in the model increase in response to geoengineering. Because geoengineering acts to mask climate warming, there is a direct CO2-driven increase in carbon uptake without an offsetting temperature-driven suppression of carbon sinks. However, this strengthening of carbon sinks, combined with the potential for rapid climate adjustment to changes in solar forcing, leads to serious consequences should geoengineering fail or be stopped abruptly. Such a scenario could lead to very rapid climate change, with warming rates up to 20 times greater than present-day rates. This warming rebound would be larger and more sustained should climate sensitivity prove to be higher than expected. Thus, employing geoengineering schemes with continued carbon emissions could lead to severe risks for the global climate system.

  8. Geoengineering as an alternative to mitigation: specification and dynamic implications

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Geoengineering, i.e. the use of artificial techniques aiming at cooling the planet, is increasingly considered as a realistic alternative to emission mitigation. Several methods are promising for their capacity to quickly halt global warming at a moderate cost. Such cheap technologies might be very beneficial to countries profoundly affected by global warming. In this paper, I propose a dynamic model in which geoengineering is introduced as an alternative to mitigation. Contrary to abatement,...

  9. Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering: TOWARDS A CLIMATE IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR GEOENGINEERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, Peter J. [Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Potsdam Germany; John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge Massachusetts USA; Kravitz, Ben [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Lawrence, Mark G. [Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Potsdam Germany; Gerten, Dieter [Research Domain of Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam Germany; Geography Department, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin Germany; Caminade, Cyril [Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool UK; Gosling, Simon N. [School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham UK; Hendy, Erica J. [School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol UK; Kassie, Belay T. [Department of Agricultural & Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville Florida USA; Kissling, W. Daniel [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam The Netherlands; Muri, Helene [Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo Norway; Oschlies, Andreas [GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel Germany; Smith, Steven J. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park Maryland USA

    2017-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the projected physical climate responses to solar geoengineering — i.e. proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo — there is no clear picture of the subsequent impacts of such a modified climate on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. Here we argue that engaging the climate impacts research community is necessary to evaluate and communicate how solar geoengineering might reduce some risks, exacerbate others, and give rise to novel risks. We review the current state of knowledge on consequences of solar geoengineering and conclude that a thorough assessment of its impacts can proceed by building upon the frameworks developed for assessing impacts of climate change. However, the climate response to solar geoengineering will depend on the form under consideration and the manner in which it is deployed, presenting a novel challenge for the climate impacts research community.

  10. Upper tropospheric ice sensitivity to sulfate geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioni, Daniele; Pitari, Giovanni; Mancini, Eva

    2017-04-01

    In light of the Paris Agreement which aims to keep global warming under 2 °C in the next century and considering the emission scenarios produced by the IPCC for the same time span, it is likely that to remain below that threshold some kind of geoengineering technique will have to be deployed. Amongst the different methods, the injection of sulfur into the stratosphere has received much attention considering its effectiveness and affordability. Aside from the rather well established surface cooling sulfate geoengineering (SG) would produce, the investigation on possible side-effects of this method is still ongoing. For instance, some recent studies have investigated the effect SG would have on upper tropospheric cirrus clouds, expecially on the homogenous freezing mechanisms that produces the ice particles (Kuebbeler et al., 2012). The goal of the present study is to better understand the effect of thermal and dynamical anomalies caused by SG on the formation of ice crystals via homogeneous freezing by comparing a complete SG simulation with a RCP4.5 reference case and with a number of sensitivity studies where atmospheric temperature changes in the upper tropospheric region are specified in a schematic way as a function of the aerosol driven stratospheric warming and mid-lower tropospheric cooling. These changes in the temperature profile tend to increase atmospheric stabilization, thus decreasing updraft and with it the amount of water vapor available for homogeneous freezing in the upper troposphere. However, what still needs to be assessed is the interaction between this dynamical effect and the thermal effects of tropospheric cooling (which would increase ice nucleation rates) and stratospheric warming (which would probably extend to the uppermost troposphere via SG aerosol gravitational settling, thus reducing ice nucleation rates), in order to understand how they combine together. Changes in ice clouds coverage could be important for SG, because cirrus ice

  11. Geoengineering Outlet Glaciers and Ice Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovick, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Mass loss from Greenland and Antarctica is highly sensitive to the presence of warm ocean water that drives melting of ice shelves and marine terminated glaciers. This warm water resides offshore at depth and accesses the grounding line through deep but narrow troughs and fjords. Here, we investigate the possibility of blocking warm water transport through these choke points with an artificial sill. Using a simple width-averaged model of ice stream flow coupled to a buoyant-plume model of submarine melt, we find that grounding line retreat and sea level rise can be delayed or reversed for hundreds of years if warm water is prevented from accessing outlet glaciers and ice-shelf cavities. Glaciers with a floating shelf exhibit a strong response to the presence of the artificial sill regardless of our choice of calving law, while tidewater glaciers require a strong linkage between submarine melt and iceberg calving for the artificial sill to have an effect. As a result of this difference and as a result of differing degrees of overdeepening in the basal topography, Antarctica and Greenland present very different societal cost-benefit analyses. Intervention in Greenland would be low-cost and low-reward: the volume of the artificial sill is comparable to existing large public works projects such as the Dubai Islands or the Suez Canal, but the magnitude of averted sea-level rise is small, the success of the intervention depends on the choice of calving law, and the glaciers return to their non-geoengineered trajectories within one to two centuries. Intervention in Antarctica, on the other hand, would be high-cost and high-reward: the volume of the artificial sill is one to two orders of magnitude greater, but the averted sea level rise is much larger, the intervention is successful regardless of the choice of calving law, and the ice streams remain far from their non-geoengineered trajectories throughout the 1000 year duration of our model runs. In both cases, an

  12. The economics and ethics of aerosol geoengineering strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, Marlos; Keller, Klaus; Tuana, Nancy

    2010-05-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are changing the Earth's climate and impose substantial risks for current and future generations. What are scientifically sound, economically viable, and ethically defendable strategies to manage these climate risks? Ratified international agreements call for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Recent proposals, however, call for a different approach: geoengineering climate by injecting aerosol precursors into the stratosphere. Published economic studies typically neglect the risks of aerosol geoengineering due to (i) a potential failure to sustain the aerosol forcing and (ii) due to potential negative impacts associated with aerosol forcings. Here we use a simple integrated assessment model of climate change to analyze potential economic impacts of aerosol geoengineering strategies over a wide range of uncertain parameters such as climate sensitivity, the economic damages due to climate change, and the economic damages due to aerosol geoengineering forcings. The simplicity of the model provides the advantages of parsimony and transparency, but it also imposes considerable caveats. For example, the analysis is based on a globally aggregated model and is hence silent on intragenerational distribution of costs and benefits. In addition, the analysis neglects the effects of future learning and is based on a simple representation of climate change impacts. We use this integrated assessment model to show three main points. First, substituting aerosol geoengineering for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions can fail the test of economic efficiency. One key to this finding is that a failure to sustain the aerosol forcing can lead to sizeable and abrupt climatic changes. The monetary damages due to such a discontinuous aerosol geoengineering can dominate the cost-benefit analysis because the monetary damages of climate change are expected to increase with

  13. Simulation of how a geo-engineering intervention to restore arctic sea ice might work in practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Piers; Jackson, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    The declining trend in annual minimum Arctic sea ice coverage and years of more pronounced drops like 2007 and 2012 raise the prospect of an Arctic Ocean largely free of sea ice in late summer and the potential for a climate crisis or emergency. In a novel computer simulation, we treated one realisation of a climate model (HadGEM2) as the real world and tried to restore its Arctic sea ice by the rapid deployment of geo-engineering with emission of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere. The objective was to restore the annual minimum Arctic sea ice coverage to levels seen in the late twentieth century using as little geo-engineering as possible. We took intervention decisions as one might do in the real world: by committee, using a limited set of uncertain "observations" from our simulated world and using models and control theory to plan the best intervention strategy for the coming year - so learning as we went and being thrown off course by future volcanoes and technological breakdowns. Uncertainties in real world observations were simulated by applying noise to emerging results from the climate model. Volcanic radiative forcing of twenty-first century climate was included with the timing and magnitude of the simulated eruptions unknown by the "geo-engineers" until after the year of the eruption. Monitoring of Arctic sea ice with the option to intervene with SO2 emissions started from 2018 and continued to 2075. Simulated SO2 emissions were made in January-May each year at a latitude of 79o N and an altitude within the range of contemporary tanker aircraft. The magnitude of emissions was chosen annually using a model predictive control process calibrated using results from CMIP5 models (excluding HadGEM2), using the simplified climate model MAGICC and assimilation of emerging annual results from the HadGEM2 "real world". We found that doubts in the minds of the "geo-engineers" of the radiative effect of their interventions, the side effects of their past interventions

  14. Impact of sulphate geoengineering on rice yield in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Pei; Zhu, Wenquan; Zheng, Zhoutao; Zhang, Donghai; Li, Nan

    2017-04-01

    Sulphate geoengineering is one of the mostly discussed mitigation methods against global warming for its feasibility and inexpensiveness. With SO2 consistently injected into the stratosphere to balance the radiative force caused by anthropogenic emission, sulphate engineering will significantly influence the climate over the planet and moreover, affect agriculture productivity. In our study, BNU-ESM model was used to simulate the impact of sulphate engineering on climate and ORYZA(v3) model was used to simulate the impact of climate change on rice yield/production in China. Firstly, the ORYZA(v3) model was evaluated and calibrated using daily climate data, management data and county-level yield record during 1981-2010 in 19 provinces in China. Then climate anomalies of sulphate geoengineering simulated by BNU-ESM model was used to perturb the observed climate data over 318 stations evenly distribute in China during 1981-2010. In our study, a 30-year climate record of anomalies were extracted from BNU-ESM model to match the observed climate data, which consisted of a 15-year geoengineering record and a 15-year post-geoengineering record. Lastly, the perturbed climate data was used in calibrated-ORYZA(v3) model to simulate the rice yield over the 318 stations, which were later averaged into corresponding provincial yield. The results showed that (1) geoengineering would balance solar radiation for approximate 140 W ṡ m-2 per year (about 0.9 K per year in temperature), which would meet the pre-concerted goal of geoengineering but it would take only about 3 years for temperature to recover after the termination of geoengineering. In spite of this, there would be a declining of vapour pressure for about 0.12 KPa per year during geoengineering period, and it would take about 15 years to recover during post-geoengineering period. The simulation showed that geoengineering would have a little declining impact on average precipitation and would not have much impact on wind

  15. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2015-09-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  16. Geoengineering: re-making climate for profit or humanitarian intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Holly Jean

    2012-01-01

    Climate engineering, or geoengineering, refers to large-scale climate interventions to lower the earth's temperature, either by blocking incoming sunlight or removing carbon dioxide from the biosphere. Regarded as ‘technofixes’ by critics, these strategies have evoked concern that they would extend the shelf life of fossil-fuel driven socio-ecological systems for far longer than they otherwise would, or should, endure. A critical reading views geoengineering as a class project that is designed to keep the climate system stable enough for existing production systems to continue operating. This article first examines these concerns, and then goes on to envision a regime driven by humanitarian agendas and concern for vulnerable populations, implemented through international development and aid institutions. The motivations of those who fund research and implement geoengineering techniques are important, as the rationale for developing geoengineering strategies will determine which techniques are pursued, and hence which ecologies are produced. The logic that shapes the geoengineering research process could potentially influence social ecologies centuries from now.

  17. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering enhances terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr−1 injection of SO2 to balance a Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0 scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model, with the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem. During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m−2 (11 %. The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 2.4 %, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr−1 global gross primary productivity without nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.

  18. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could enhance the terrestrial photosynthesis rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Neely, R. R., III

    2016-02-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. With an 8 Tg yr-1 injection of SO2 to produce a stratospheric aerosol cloud to balance anthropogenic radiative forcing from the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 (RCP6.0) scenario, we conducted climate model simulations with the Community Earth System Model - the Community Atmospheric Model 4 fully coupled to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (CAM4-chem). During the geoengineering period, as compared to RCP6.0, land-averaged downward visible (300-700 nm) diffuse radiation increased 3.2 W m-2 (11 %). The enhanced diffuse radiation combined with the cooling increased plant photosynthesis by 0.07 ± 0.02 µmol C m-2 s-1, which could contribute to an additional 3.8 ± 1.1 Gt C yr-1 global gross primary productivity without explicit nutrient limitation. This increase could potentially increase the land carbon sink. Suppressed plant and soil respiration due to the cooling would reduce natural land carbon emission and therefore further enhance the terrestrial carbon sink during the geoengineering period. This potentially beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about the implementation of geoengineering.

  19. Geoengineering with stratospheric aerosols: What do we not know after a decade of research?: GEOENGINEERING: WHAT DO WE NOT KNOW?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMartin, Douglas G. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca New York USA; Kravitz, Ben [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Long, Jane C. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Retired), Livermore California USA; Rasch, Philip J. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-11-01

    The U.S. Senate Appropriations committee, taking advice from the U.S. National Academy of Sciences1, recently recommended commencing government-funded research into solar geoengineering 2. We argue that any such research program should address key uncertainties strategically. In the future, governments may consider solar geoengineering as part of an overall strategy to respond to climate change. Any well informed future decision on whether and how to deploy solar geoengineering requires balancing the risks introduced by geoengineering against the risks posed by climate change. Strategic research to inform such risk assessment must involve systematic, continual identification of the important sources of uncertainty. Research should reduce those uncertainties where possible and develop strategies to manage irreducible uncertainties. The conduct of research in solar geoengineering should by design increase societal confidence in how well researchers understand the effectiveness and advisability of these techniques, including a possible outcome that these ideas are ineffective and inadvisable. Confidence building requires special efforts in communicating the purpose and meaning of research and regular updates of the state of knowledge.

  20. Geoengineering to Avoid Overshoot: An Analysis of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Cho, Cheolhung; Krey, Volker; Patt, Anthony; Rafaj, Peter; Rao-Skirbekk, Shilpa; Wagner, Fabian

    2010-05-01

    Even if a drastic 50% CO2-equivalent emissions reduction is achieved by year 2050, the chances of exceeding a 2°C warming are still substantial due to the uncertainty in the climate system (Meinshausen et al., 2009). Moreover, a strong mitigation is accompanied by overshoot, in which the global-mean temperature temporarily exceeds the target before arriving there. We are motivated by the question as to how much geoengineering would be considered if it were to be used to avoid overshoot even combined with a strong mitigation? How serious would the side effects be expected? This study focuses on stratospheric sulfur injections among other geoengineering proposals, the idea of which has been put forward by Crutzen (2006) and reviewed by Rasch et al. (2008). There are a number of concerns over geoengineering (e.g. Robock, 2008). But the concept of geoengineering requires further research (AMS, 2009). Studying geoengineering may be instructive to revisit the importance of mainstream mitigation strategies. The motivations above led to the following two closely linked studies: 1) Mitigation and Geoengineering The first study investigates the magnitude and start year of geoengineering intervention with the intent to avoid overshoot. This study explores the sensitivity of geoengineering profile to associated uncertainties in the climate system (climate sensitivity, tropospheric aerosol forcing, and ocean diffusivity) and in mitigation scenarios (target uncertainty (450ppm CO2-eq and 400ppm CO2-eq) and baseline uncertainty (A2, B1, and B2)). This study builds on Wigley's premise that demonstrated a basic potential of such a combined mitigation/geoengineering approach (Wigley, 2006) - however it did not examine the sensitivity of the climate response to any underlying uncertainties. This study uses a set of GGI low mitigation scenarios generated from the MESSAGE model (Riahi et al., 2007). The reduced-complexity climate and carbon cycle model ACC2 (Tanaka, 2008; Tanaka et al

  1. The Wickedness and Complexity of Decision Making in Geoengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhu Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering, the deliberate large-scale manipulation of the planetary environment to counteract anthropogenic climate change, has been more widely considered as an accompanying strategy to conventional climate change mitigation measures to combat global warming. However, this approach is far from achieving agreements from different institutional domains. Geoengineering, intended to be deployed on a planetary scale, would cause fundamental interventions to the human-environment system and create new risks and problems with high uncertainty and uneven distribution around the globe. Apart from the physical effects, conflicting attitudes appear from social, economic, and environmental worldviews in the international community. The intertwined sociotechnical complexity and conflicting attitudes make geoengineering a wicked and complex issue. This article elaborates the wickedness and complexity from a system perspective, primarily for an interdisciplinary, policy-oriented audience.

  2. Additional risk of end-of-the-pipe geoengineering technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Humans are engineers, even the artists who engineer the surface of the globe. Should humans endeavour to engineer the Earth to counter climate change hazards? Striving towards 'global sustainability' will require to adjust the current production and consumption patterns. Contrary to an approach of global sustainability, 'geoengineering' deploys a 'technology fix' for the same purpose. Humans are much inclined to look for technological fixes for problems because well engineered technological methods have created modern societies. Thus, it seems obvious to apply an engineering solution to climate change issues too. In particular, as air pollution causing acid rains has been reduced by cleaner combustion processes or ozone destructing chemical coolants have been replaced by other substances. Common to these approaches was to reduce inputs into global or regional systems by withholding emission, replacing substances or limiting use cases for certain substances. Thus, the selected approach was a technological fix or regulatory measure targeting the 'start of the pipe'. However applying a 'start of the pipe' approach to climate change faces the issue that mankind should reduce inputs were its hurts, namely reducing radically energy that is produced from burning fossil fuels. Capping burning of fossil fuels would be disruptive for the economic structures or the consumption pattern of the developed and developing industrialised societies. Facing that dilemma, affordable geoengineering looks tempting for some. However geoengineering technologies, which counter climate change by other means than carbon capture at combustion, are of a different nature than the technological fixes and negotiated regulatory actions, which so far have been applied to limit threats to regional and global systems. Most of the proposed technologies target other parts of the climate system but the carbon-dioxide input into the atmosphere. Therefore, many geoengineering technologies differ

  3. Solar geoengineering, atmospheric water vapor transport, and land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ken; Cao, Long

    2015-04-01

    This work, using the GeoMIP database supplemented by additional simulations, discusses how solar geoengineering, as projected by the climate models, affects temperature and the hydrological cycle, and how this in turn is related to projected changes in net primary productivity (NPP). Solar geoengineering simulations typically exhibit reduced precipitation. Solar geoengineering reduces precipitation because solar geoengineering reduces evaporation. Evaporation precedes precipitation, and, globally, evaporation equals precipitation. CO2 tends to reduce evaporation through two main mechanisms: (1) CO2 tends to stabilize the atmosphere especially over the ocean, leading to a moister atmospheric boundary layer over the ocean. This moistening of the boundary layer suppresses evaporation. (2) CO2 tends to diminish evapotranspiration, at least in most land-surface models, because higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations allow leaves to close their stomata and avoid water loss. In most high-CO2 simulations, these effects of CO2 which tend to suppress evaporation are masked by the tendency of CO2-warming effect to increase evaporation. In a geoengineering simulation, with the warming effect of CO2 largely offset by the solar geoengineering, the evaporation suppressing characteristics of CO2 are no longer masked and are clearly exhibited. Decreased precipitation in solar geoengineering simulations is a bit like ocean acidification - an effect of high CO2 concentrations that is not offset by solar geoengineering. Locally, precipitation ultimately either evaporates (much of that through the leaves of plants) or runs off through groundwater to streams and rivers. On long time scales, runoff equals precipitation minus evaporation, and thus, water runoff generated at a location is equal to the net atmospheric transport of water to that location. Runoff typically occurs where there is substantial soil moisture, at least seasonally. Locations where there is enough water to maintain

  4. Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Phillip; Turley, Carol

    2012-09-13

    Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the atmosphere. Ocean acidity (H(+) concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100. Laboratory experiments, observations and projections indicate that such ocean acidification may have ecological and biogeochemical impacts that last for many thousands of years. The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO(2); they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques. However, some ocean-based CDR approaches would (if deployed on a climatically significant scale) re-locate acidification from the upper ocean to the seafloor or elsewhere in the ocean interior. If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, ocean acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO(2), although with additional temperature-related effects on CO(2) and CaCO(3) solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration.

  5. Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Phillip; Turley, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Ocean acidity (H+ concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100. Laboratory experiments, observations and projections indicate that such ocean acidification may have ecological and biogeochemical impacts that last for many thousands of years. The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO2; they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques. However, some ocean-based CDR approaches would (if deployed on a climatically significant scale) re-locate acidification from the upper ocean to the seafloor or elsewhere in the ocean interior. If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, ocean acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO2, although with additional temperature-related effects on CO2 and CaCO3 solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration. PMID:22869801

  6. Impact of geoengineered aerosols on the troposphere and stratosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilmes, S.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Gettelman, A.; Rasch, Philip J.

    2009-06-27

    A coupled chemistry climate model, the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model was used to perform a transient climate simulation to quantify the impact of geoengineered aerosols on atmospheric processes. In contrast to previous model studies, the impact on stratospheric chemistry, including heterogeneous chemistry in the polar regions, is considered in this simulation. In the geoengineering simulation, a constant stratospheric distribution of volcanic-sized, liquid sulfate aerosols is imposed in the period 2020–2050, corresponding to an injection of 2 Tg S/a. The aerosol cools the troposphere compared to a baseline simulation. Assuming an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B emission scenario, global warming is delayed by about 40 years in the troposphere with respect to the baseline scenario. Large local changes of precipitation and temperatures may occur as a result of geoengineering. Comparison with simulations carried out with the Community Atmosphere Model indicates the importance of stratospheric processes for estimating the impact of stratospheric aerosols on the Earth’s climate. Changes in stratospheric dynamics and chemistry, especially faster heterogeneous reactions, reduce the recovery of the ozone layer in middle and high latitudes for the Southern Hemisphere. In the geoengineering case, the recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole is delayed by about 30 years on the basis of this model simulation. For the Northern Hemisphere, a onefold to twofold increase of the chemical ozone depletion occurs owing to a simulated stronger polar vortex and colder temperatures compared to the baseline simulation, in agreement with observational estimates.

  7. Geoengineering in lakes: welcome attraction or fatal distraction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackay, E.; Maberly, S.C.; Pan, G.; Reitzel, K.; Lurling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of geoengineering techniques for phosphorus management offers the promise of greater and quicker chemical and ecological recovery. It can be attractive when used with other restoration measures but should not be considered a panacea. The range of materials being proposed for use as well as t

  8. Five solar geoengineering tropes that have outstayed their welcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, Jesse; Parker, Andy; Irvine, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, solar geoengineering (solar radiation management, or SRM) has received increasing consideration as a potential means to reduce risks of anthropogenic climate change. Some ideas regarding SRM that have been proposed have receded after being appropriately scrutinized, while others

  9. The optimal combined design of climate mitigation and geoengineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Combined climate mitigation/geoengineering approach has better economic utility, less emission control rate and temperature increase than mitigation alone. If setting the 50% reduction rate and 2^\\circC temperature increase as constrains, we find there is no a feasible solution for emission control, but combined design is still available.

  10. Geoengineering in lakes: welcome attraction or fatal distraction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackay, E.; Maberly, S.C.; Pan, G.; Reitzel, K.; Lurling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of geoengineering techniques for phosphorus management offers the promise of greater and quicker chemical and ecological recovery. It can be attractive when used with other restoration measures but should not be considered a panacea. The range of materials being proposed for use as well as

  11. Five solar geoengineering tropes that have outstayed their welcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, Jesse; Parker, Andy; Irvine, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, solar geoengineering (solar radiation management, or SRM) has received increasing consideration as a potential means to reduce risks of anthropogenic climate change. Some ideas regarding SRM that have been proposed have receded after being appropriately scrutinized, while others

  12. Revisiting the economics of climate change : The role of geoengineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Cruz, Juan B.; Smulders, Sjak

    Technically simple measures to directly reduce mean global temperatures could be available in the near future. We introduce “geoengineering” into a simple analytical model of climate change. We model the technical and economic characteristics of geoengineering in line with the recent literature from

  13. Radiative and climate impacts of a large volcanic eruption during stratospheric sulfur geoengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laakso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both explosive volcanic eruptions, which emit sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere, and stratospheric geoengineering via sulfur injections can potentially cool the climate by increasing the amount of scattering particles in the atmosphere. Here we employ a global aerosol-climate model and an Earth system model to study the radiative and climate changes occurring after an erupting volcano during solar radiation management (SRM. According to our simulations the radiative impacts of the eruption and SRM are not additive and the radiative effects and climate changes occurring after the eruption depend strongly on whether SRM is continued or suspended after the eruption. In the former case, the peak burden of the additional stratospheric sulfate as well as changes in global mean precipitation are fairly similar regardless of whether the eruption takes place in a SRM or non-SRM world. However, the maximum increase in the global mean radiative forcing caused by the eruption is approximately 21 % lower compared to a case when the eruption occurs in an unperturbed atmosphere. In addition, the recovery of the stratospheric sulfur burden and radiative forcing is significantly faster after the eruption, because the eruption during the SRM leads to a smaller number and larger sulfate particles compared to the eruption in a non-SRM world. On the other hand, if SRM is suspended immediately after the eruption, the peak increase in global forcing caused by the eruption is about 32 % lower compared to a corresponding eruption into a clean background atmosphere. In this simulation, only about one-third of the global ensemble-mean cooling occurs after the eruption, compared to that occurring after an eruption under unperturbed atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, the global cooling signal is seen only for the 12 months after the eruption in the former scenario compared to over 40 months in the latter. In terms of global precipitation rate, we obtain a 36

  14. Radiative and climate impacts of a large volcanic eruption during stratospheric sulfur geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, A.; Kokkola, H.; Partanen, A.-I.; Niemeier, U.; Timmreck, C.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Hakkarainen, H.; Korhonen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Both explosive volcanic eruptions, which emit sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere, and stratospheric geoengineering via sulfur injections can potentially cool the climate by increasing the amount of scattering particles in the atmosphere. Here we employ a global aerosol-climate model and an Earth system model to study the radiative and climate changes occurring after an erupting volcano during solar radiation management (SRM). According to our simulations the radiative impacts of the eruption and SRM are not additive and the radiative effects and climate changes occurring after the eruption depend strongly on whether SRM is continued or suspended after the eruption. In the former case, the peak burden of the additional stratospheric sulfate as well as changes in global mean precipitation are fairly similar regardless of whether the eruption takes place in a SRM or non-SRM world. However, the maximum increase in the global mean radiative forcing caused by the eruption is approximately 21 % lower compared to a case when the eruption occurs in an unperturbed atmosphere. In addition, the recovery of the stratospheric sulfur burden and radiative forcing is significantly faster after the eruption, because the eruption during the SRM leads to a smaller number and larger sulfate particles compared to the eruption in a non-SRM world. On the other hand, if SRM is suspended immediately after the eruption, the peak increase in global forcing caused by the eruption is about 32 % lower compared to a corresponding eruption into a clean background atmosphere. In this simulation, only about one-third of the global ensemble-mean cooling occurs after the eruption, compared to that occurring after an eruption under unperturbed atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, the global cooling signal is seen only for the 12 months after the eruption in the former scenario compared to over 40 months in the latter. In terms of global precipitation rate, we obtain a 36 % smaller decrease in the

  15. Impacts of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering on tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A range of solar radiation management (SRM techniques has been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Here, we examine the potential effects of stratospheric sulfate aerosols and solar insolation reduction on tropospheric ozone and ozone at Earth's surface. Ozone is a key air pollutant, which can produce respiratory diseases and crop damage. Using a version of the Community Earth System Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research that includes comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, we model both stratospheric sulfur injection and solar irradiance reduction schemes, with the aim of achieving equal levels of surface cooling relative to the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 scenario. This allows us to compare the impacts of sulfate aerosols and solar dimming on atmospheric ozone concentrations. Despite nearly identical global mean surface temperatures for the two SRM approaches, solar insolation reduction increases global average surface ozone concentrations, while sulfate injection decreases it. A fundamental difference between the two geoengineering schemes is the importance of heterogeneous reactions in the photochemical ozone balance with larger stratospheric sulfate abundance, resulting in increased ozone depletion in mid- and high latitudes. This reduces the net transport of stratospheric ozone into the troposphere and thus is a key driver of the overall decrease in surface ozone. At the same time, the change in stratospheric ozone alters the tropospheric photochemical environment due to enhanced ultraviolet radiation. A shared factor among both SRM scenarios is decreased chemical ozone loss due to reduced tropospheric humidity. Under insolation reduction, this is the dominant factor giving rise to the global surface ozone increase. Regionally, both surface ozone increases and decreases are found for both scenarios; that is, SRM would affect regions of the world differently in terms of air

  16. Sulphate Geoengineering in the UT/LS: Some Relevant Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, A. F.; Donaldson, D. J.; Hitchman, M. H.; Richard, E. C.; Tervahattu, H.; Vaida, V.; Wilson, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    We consider the potential effects of meteorological dynamics, the physics and chemistry of aerosols and the photodissociation of sulphuric acid upon the posited maintenance of a 'parasol' of geoengineered sulphate aerosol in the lower stratosphere. Specific observational and experimental results include the spread of tungsten-185 from the Hardtack series of nuclear weapon tests in 1958, satellite observations of the spread of volcanic eruptions, tracer and water profiles in the tropical UT/LS, the organic coating of surfactants on aerosols, the observed distributions of aerosols and the overtone driven photodissociation of sulphuric acid in the stratosphere. A few implications for the logistics of any possible future geoengineering injection are considered briefly. The uncertainties arising from the analysis subtract significantly from the predictability of any supposed amelioration of the effects of global warming from continued increases in carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion.

  17. Geoengineering with seagrasses: is credit due where credit is given?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Sophia C.; Macdonald, Robie W.

    2016-11-01

    Blue carbon, the carbon fixed by vegetated coastal ecosystems including seagrasses, is reported to have a large potential to sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide. Planting, expanding or protecting seagrass meadows has, accordingly, been proposed as a form of geoengineering. Seagrasses are reported to account for up to 18% of the carbon burial in the world’s oceans, which is on the same order of magnitude as other proposed geoengineering techniques, including iron fertilization. International protocols have been developed to quantify carbon sequestration in seagrass meadows, with a view to awarding carbon credits under the Verified Carbon Standard. Unfortunately, because these protocols do not adequately account for post-depositional processes in marine sediment, they significantly overestimate carbon capture by seagrass beds and give an incorrect view of its distribution. Specifically, neglecting biomixing and remineralization of carbon in surface sediments biases burial rates high, while using sediment carbon inventory (soil carbon stock) over the top 1 m as a proxy for burial rate incorrectly identifies areas of high carbon burial. Seagrass beds likely provide a limited setting for geoengineering, because they generally comprise slowly-accumulating, fine to medium sand, which captures organic carbon less efficiently than fine-grained sediments or rapidly-accumulating delta deposits. While there is no question that seagrass meadows provide valuable habitat, nor that they are disappearing rapidly, their contribution to the global burial of carbon has not yet been established. The danger of geoengineering with seagrasses before reliable assessment methods have been established is that overestimated carbon offsets could lead to a net increase in emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

  18. Geoengineering: could we or should we make it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen H

    2008-11-13

    Schemes to modify large-scale environment systems or control climate have been proposed for over 50 years to (i) increase temperatures in high latitudes, (ii) increase precipitation, (iii) decrease sea ice, (iv) create irrigation opportunities, or (v) offset potential global warming by injecting iron in the oceans or sea-salt aerosol in the marine boundary layer or spreading dust in the stratosphere to reflect away an amount of solar energy equivalent to the amount of heat trapped by increased greenhouse gases from human activities. These and other proposed geoengineering schemes are briefly reviewed. Recent schemes to intentionally modify climate have been proposed as either cheaper methods to counteract inadvertent climatic modifications than conventional mitigation techniques such as carbon taxes or pollutant emissions regulations or as a counter to rising emissions as governments delay policy action. Whereas proponents argue cost-effectiveness or the need to be prepared if mitigation and adaptation policies are not strong enough or enacted quickly enough to avoid the worst widespread impacts, critics point to the uncertainty that (i) any geoengineering scheme would work as planned or (ii) that the many centuries of international political stability and cooperation needed for the continuous maintenance of such schemes to offset century-long inadvertent effects is socially feasible. Moreover, the potential exists for transboundary conflicts should negative climatic events occur during geoengineering activities.

  19. Tackling regional climate change by leaf albedo bio-geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgwell, Andy; Singarayer, Joy S; Hetherington, Alistair M; Valdes, Paul J

    2009-01-27

    The likelihood that continuing greenhouse-gas emissions will lead to an unmanageable degree of climate change has stimulated the search for planetary-scale technological solutions for reducing global warming ("geoengineering"), typically characterized by the necessity for costly new infrastructures and industries. We suggest that the existing global infrastructure associated with arable agriculture can help, given that crop plants exert an important influence over the climatic energy budget because of differences in their albedo (solar reflectivity) compared to soils and to natural vegetation. Specifically, we propose a "bio-geoengineering" approach to mitigate surface warming, in which crop varieties having specific leaf glossiness and/or canopy morphological traits are specifically chosen to maximize solar reflectivity. We quantify this by modifying the canopy albedo of vegetation in prescribed cropland areas in a global-climate model, and thereby estimate the near-term potential for bio-geoengineering to be a summertime cooling of more than 1 degrees C throughout much of central North America and midlatitude Eurasia, equivalent to seasonally offsetting approximately one-fifth of regional warming due to doubling of atmospheric CO(2). Ultimately, genetic modification of plant leaf waxes or canopy structure could achieve greater temperature reductions, although better characterization of existing intraspecies variability is needed first.

  20. International legal framework for geoengineering: Managing the risks of an emerging technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Haomiao

    2016-01-01

    The present book “International Legal Framework for Geoengineering – Managing the Risks of an Emerging Technology” is about international law and an emerging technology called geoengineering, which refers to the large-scale manipulation of the planetary environment for counteracting anthropogenic gl

  1. International legal framework for geoengineering: Managing the risks of an emerging technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Haomiao

    2016-01-01

    The present book “International Legal Framework for Geoengineering – Managing the Risks of an Emerging Technology” is about international law and an emerging technology called geoengineering, which refers to the large-scale manipulation of the planetary environment for counteracting anthropogenic

  2. A possible field test for marine cloud brightening geoengineering. A possible field test for marine cloud brightening geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadian, A.; Wood, R.; Coe, H.; Latham, J.

    2011-12-01

    A possible field test for marine cloud brightening geoengineering. Abstract: The Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique (Latham et al 2008) hypothesizes that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre seawater particles can enhance the cloud droplet number concentration and increase cloud albedo. Here, we propose a set of field tests to critically assess the efficacy of the MCB geoengineering proposal over a limited area. The tests are de minimus with respect to their climate effects. The tests involve three phases, with increasing logistical complexity, each of which is designed to test one or more important components of the cloud brightening scheme. Each involves the introduction and monitoring of controlled aerosol perturbations from one or more ship-based seeding platforms up to a limited area of 100x100 km2. A suite of observational platforms of increasing number and complexity, including aircraft, ships and satellites, will observe the aerosol plume and in the later experiments the cloud and albedo responses to the aerosol perturbations. These responses must include the necessary cloud physical and chemical processes which determine the efficacy of the cloud brightening scheme. Since these processes are also central to the broader problem of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions, such field tests would have significant benefits for climate science in addition to providing a critical test of the MCB hypothesis. Such field experiments should be designed and conducted in an objective manner within the framework of emerging geoengineering research governance structures. Reference: Latham J. et al.. (2008) Global temperature stabilization via controlled albedo enhancement of low-level maritime clouds. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0137

  3. Potential negative consequences of geoengineering on crop production: A study of Indian groundnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiyi; Dobbie, Steven; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Feng, Kuishuang; Challinor, Andrew J; Chen, Bing; Gao, Yao; Lee, Lindsay; Yin, Yan; Sun, Laixiang; Watson, James; Koehler, Ann-Kristin; Fan, Tingting; Ghosh, Sat

    2016-11-28

    Geoengineering has been proposed to stabilize global temperature, but its impacts on crop production and stability are not fully understood. A few case studies suggest that certain crops are likely to benefit from solar dimming geoengineering, yet we show that geoengineering is projected to have detrimental effects for groundnut. Using an ensemble of crop-climate model simulations, we illustrate that groundnut yields in India undergo a statistically significant decrease of up to 20% as a result of solar dimming geoengineering relative to RCP4.5. It is somewhat reassuring, however, to find that after a sustained period of 50 years of geoengineering crop yields return to the nongeoengineered values within a few years once the intervention is ceased.

  4. An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasch, Philip J.; Tilmes, S.; Turco, Richard P.; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Garcia, Rolando R.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state of understanding about this topic as of early 2008 is reviewed, summarizing the past 30 years of work in the area, highlighting some very recent studies using climate models, and discussing methods used to deliver sulphur species to the stratosphere. The studies reviewed here suggest that sulphate aerosols can counteract the globally averaged temperature increase associated with increasing greenhouse gases, and reduce changes to some other components of the Earth system. There are likely to be remaining regional climate changes after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changes in temperature or precipitation. The aerosols also serve as surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry resulting in increased ozone depletion. The delivery of sulphur species to the stratosphere in a way that will produce particles of the right size is shown to be a complex and potentially very difficult task. Two simple delivery scenarios are explored, but similar exercises will be needed for other suggested delivery mechanisms. While the introduction of the geoengineering source of sulphate aerosol will perturb the sulphur cycle of the stratosphere signicantly, it is a small perturbation to the total (stratosphere and troposphere) sulphur cycle. The geoengineering source would thus be a small contributor to the total global source of ‘acid rain’ that could be compensated for through improved pollution control of anthropogenic tropospheric sources. Some areas of research remain unexplored. Although ozone may be depleted, with a consequent increase to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) energy reaching the surface and a potential impact on health and biological populations, the aerosols will also scatter and attenuate this part of the energy spectrum, and this may compensate the UVB enhancement associated with ozone depletion. The aerosol will also change the ratio of diffuse to direct energy

  5. An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Philip J; Tilmes, Simone; Turco, Richard P; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Stenchikov, Georgiy L; Garcia, Rolando R

    2008-11-13

    We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state of understanding about this topic as of early 2008 is reviewed, summarizing the past 30 years of work in the area, highlighting some very recent studies using climate models, and discussing methods used to deliver sulphur species to the stratosphere. The studies reviewed here suggest that sulphate aerosols can counteract the globally averaged temperature increase associated with increasing greenhouse gases, and reduce changes to some other components of the Earth system. There are likely to be remaining regional climate changes after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changes in temperature or precipitation. The aerosols also serve as surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry resulting in increased ozone depletion. The delivery of sulphur species to the stratosphere in a way that will produce particles of the right size is shown to be a complex and potentially very difficult task. Two simple delivery scenarios are explored, but similar exercises will be needed for other suggested delivery mechanisms. While the introduction of the geoengineering source of sulphate aerosol will perturb the sulphur cycle of the stratosphere signicantly, it is a small perturbation to the total (stratosphere and troposphere) sulphur cycle. The geoengineering source would thus be a small contributor to the total global source of 'acid rain' that could be compensated for through improved pollution control of anthropogenic tropospheric sources. Some areas of research remain unexplored. Although ozone may be depleted, with a consequent increase to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) energy reaching the surface and a potential impact on health and biological populations, the aerosols will also scatter and attenuate this part of the energy spectrum, and this may compensate the UVB enhancement associated with ozone depletion. The aerosol will also change the ratio of diffuse to direct energy

  6. The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Peter; Glienke, Susanne; Lawrence, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has been proposed as a means to partly counteract global warming. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) simulated the climate consequences of a number of SRM techniques, but the effects on vegetation have not yet been thoroughly studied. Here, the vegetation response to the idealized GeoMIP G1 experiment is analyzed, in which a reduction of the solar constant counterbalances the radiative effects of quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations; the results from eight fully coupled earth system models (ESMs) are included. For most models and regions, changes in net primary productivity (NPP) are dominated by the increase in CO2, via the CO2 fertilization effect. As SRM will lower temperatures, in high latitudes this will reverse gains in NPP from the lifting of temperature limitations. In low latitudes this cooling relative to the 4xCO2 simulation decreases plant respiration whilst having little effect on gross primary productivity, increasing NPP. Despite reductions in precipitation in most regions in response to SRM, runoff and NPP increase in many regions including those previously highlighted as potentially being at risk of drought under SRM. This is due to simultaneous reductions in evaporation and increases in water use efficiency by plants due to higher CO2 concentrations. The relative differences between models in the vegetation response are substantially larger than the differences in their climate responses. The largest differences between models are for those with and without a nitrogen-cycle, with a much smaller CO2 fertilization effect for the former. These results suggest that until key vegetation processes are integrated into ESM predictions, the vegetation response to SRM will remain highly uncertain.

  7. Thermal Assessment of Sunlight Impinging on OSIRIS-REx OCAMS PolyCam, OTES, and IMU-Sunshade MLI Blankets in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft was successfully launched into orbit on September 8, 2016. It is traveling to a near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu, study it in detail, and bring back a pristine sample to Earth for scientific analyses. At the Outbound Cruise nominal spacecraft attitude, with Sun on +X, sunlight impinges on the OSIRIS-REx camera suite (OCAMS) PolyCam sunshade multilayer insulation (MLI) with microporous black polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a portion of the PolyCam optics support tube (MLI with germanium black Kapton (GBK)), a portion of the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) sunshade (MLI with GBK), the Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU) sunshade (MLI with GBK), and the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA) sunshade (MLI with GBK). Sunlight is reflected or scattered by the above MLIs to the other components on the forward (+Z) deck. It illuminates the forward deck. A detailed thermal assessment on the solar impingement has been performed for the Proximity Ops at the asteroid, Touch-and-Go (TAG) sample acquisition, and Return Cruise mission phases.The OSIRIS-REx Outbound Cruise flight temperature telemetry and USM_3_DPC_0_CURRENT flight currenttelemetry data have been analyzed. It is evident that at the nominal Outbound Cruise spacecraft Sun-pointing attitude(i.e., Sun on +X), sunlight impinging on the PolyCam, OTES, IMU-sunshade and OLA-sunshade MLIs is reflected orscattered to the forward deck and components on the forward deck. It illuminates the forward deck. The StowCam imageof Day 265 2016 also provided an evidence. The reflected or scattered sunlight cause warming to the forward deck andcomponents on its +Z side. It may also contribute to degradation of thermal coatings over the mission life. It is a factorthat the OVIRS detector operating temperature exceeds the 105K maximum AFT limit. The OVIRS PrincipalInvestigator indicated that it is not optimum

  8. Geoengineering, climate change scepticism and the 'moral hazard' argument: an experimental study of UK public perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Adam; Pidgeon, Nick

    2014-12-28

    Many commentators have expressed concerns that researching and/or developing geoengineering technologies may undermine support for existing climate policies-the so-called moral hazard argument. This argument plays a central role in policy debates about geoengineering. However, there has not yet been a systematic investigation of how members of the public view the moral hazard argument, or whether it impacts on people's beliefs about geoengineering and climate change. In this paper, we describe an online experiment with a representative sample of the UK public, in which participants read one of two arguments (either endorsing or rejecting the idea that geoengineering poses a moral hazard). The argument endorsing the idea of geoengineering as a moral hazard was perceived as more convincing overall. However, people with more sceptical views and those who endorsed 'self-enhancing' values were more likely to agree that the prospect of geoengineering would reduce their motivation to make changes in their own behaviour in response to climate change. The findings suggest that geoengineering is likely to pose a moral hazard for some people more than others, and the implications for engaging the public are discussed.

  9. Microphysical simulations of sulfur burdens from stratospheric sulfur geoengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. English

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent microphysical studies suggest that geoengineering by continuous stratospheric injection of SO2 gas may be limited by the growth of the aerosols. We study the efficacy of SO2, H2SO4 and aerosol injections on aerosol mass and optical depth using a three-dimensional general circulation model with sulfur chemistry and sectional aerosol microphysics (WACCM/CARMA. We find increasing injection rates of SO2 in a narrow band around the equator to have limited efficacy while broadening the injecting zone as well as injecting particles instead of SO2 gas increases the sulfate burden for a given injection rate, in agreement with previous work. We find that injecting H2SO4 gas instead of SO2 does not discernibly alter sulfate size or mass, in contrast with a previous study using a plume model with a microphysical model. However, the physics and chemistry in aircraft plumes, which are smaller than climate model grid cells, need to be more carefully considered. We find equatorial injections increase aerosol optical depth in the Northern Hemisphere more than the Southern Hemisphere, potentially inducing regional climate changes. We also find significant perturbations to tropospheric aerosol for all injections studied, particularly in the upper troposphere and near the poles, where sulfate burden increases by up to 100 times. This enhanced burden could have implications for tropospheric radiative forcing and chemistry. These results highlight the need to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions through means other than geoengineering, and to further study geoengineering before it can be seriously considered as a climate intervention option.

  10. Microphysical simulations of sulfur burdens from stratospheric sulfur geoengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. English

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent microphysical studies suggest that geoengineering by continuous stratospheric injection of SO2 gas may be limited by the growth of the aerosols. We study the efficacy of SO2, H2SO4 and aerosol injections on aerosol mass and optical depth using a three-dimensional general circulation model with sulfur chemistry and sectional aerosol microphysics (WACCM/CARMA. We find increasing injection rates of SO2 in a narrow band around the equator to have limited efficacy while broadening the injecting zone as well as injecting particles instead of SO2 gas increases the sulfate burden for a given injection rate, in agreement with previous work. We find that injecting H2SO4 gas instead of SO2 does not discernibly alter sulfate size or mass, in contrast with a previous study using a plume model with a microphysical model. However, the physics and chemistry in aircraft plumes, which are smaller than climate model grid cells, need to be more carefully considered. We also find significant perturbations to tropospheric aerosol for all injections studied, particularly in the upper troposphere and near the poles, where sulfate burden increases by up to 100 times. This enhanced burden could have implications for tropospheric radiative forcing and chemistry. These results highlight the need to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions rather than attempt to cool the planet through geoengineering, and to further study geoengineering before it can be seriously considered as a climate intervention option.

  11. Impacts of volcanic eruptions and geoengineering on Arctic climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Mira

    Stratospheric aerosols can produce large radiative forcing and climate response, often amplified in the Arctic. Here I study the Arctic response to natural (volcanic eruptions) and potential anthropogenic (geoengineering) stratospheric sulfate aerosols. I use a regional climate model and global climate model output from two modeling intercomparison projects. First, I investigate the relative impacts of changes in radiation and advection on snow extent over Baffin Island with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Model results show it is possible to suddenly lower the snowline by amounts comparable to those seen during the Little Ice Age with an average temperature decrease of --3.9 +/- 1.1 K from present. Further, sea ice expansion following large volcanic eruptions would have significant affects on inland temperatures, especially in the fall. Next, I analyze Last Millennium simulations from the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project 3 to assess whether state-of-the-art global climate models produce sudden changes and persistence of cold conditions after large volcanic eruptions as inferred by geological records and previous climate modeling. North Atlantic sea ice and Baffin Island snow cover showed large-scale expansion in the simulations, but none of the models produced significant centennial-scale effects. Warm Baffin Island summer climates stunt snow expansion in some models completely, and model topography misses the critical elevations that could sustain snow on the island. This has critical consequences for ice and snow formation and persistence in regions such as the Arctic where temperatures are near freezing and small temperature changes affect the state of water. Finally, I analyze output from the Geoengineering Modeling Intercomparison Project to examine whether geoengineering by injection of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere prevents the demise of minimum annual sea ice extent, or slows spring snow cover loss. Despite

  12. Geoengineering with stratospheric aerosols: What do we not know after a decade of research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben; Long, Jane C. S.; Rasch, Philip J.

    2016-11-01

    Any well-informed future decision on whether and how to deploy solar geoengineering requires balancing the impacts (both intended and unintended) of intervening in the climate against the impacts of not doing so. Despite tremendous progress in the last decade, the current state of knowledge remains insufficient to support an assessment of this balance, even for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering (SAG), arguably the best understood (practical) geoengineering method. We articulate key unknowns associated with SAG, including both climate-science and design questions, as an essential step toward developing a future strategic research program that could address outstanding uncertainties.

  13. Sea spray geoengineering can reduce ocean net primary productivity and carbon uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Keller, David; Korhonen, Hannele; Matthews, Damon

    2016-04-01

    Sea spray geoengineering or marine cloud brightening is one of the proposed methods to deliberately increase planetary albedo and thus counteract climate change. Previous studies have shown that it has potential to significantly alter the global energy balance and reduce impacts on temperature and precipitation. However, its effects on ecosystems have received considerably less attention. Our goal is to assess the effects of sea spray geoengineering on marine biological productivity and global carbon cycle. We use the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM) to simulate the effects of prescribed aerosol forcing from previous simulations with the aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ. In our baseline simulation (GEO), forcing from geoengineering was applied over three persistent stratocumulus regions off the coasts of North America, South America, and South Africa. The global mean forcing was -1 W m-2. Other forcings and emissions were set according to the RCP4.5 scenario. The control run (CTRL) was identical to GEO except that no geoengineering was present. As a more extreme case, we simulated a scenario where forcing from geoengineering was applied over all ocean area (GEO-ALL) giving a global mean forcing of -4.9 W m-2. Geoengineering decreased the global total ocean net primary productivity (NPP) during the first decades, but the effect was insignificant by the end of the 21st century. The decrease was caused by decreased temperature of the ocean and climate system in general, not by the decrease in available sunlight as might have been expected. This was demonstrated by two sensitivity simulations where geoengineering was affecting only either temperature or the light available to marine ecosystems. The simulation GEO-ALL behaves in a different way than GEO: ocean NPP was lower than that in CTRL for the first three decades of geoengineering as in GEO, but then NPP increased over the level in CTRL for the remaining of the simulation. In

  14. Solar geoengineering using solid aerosol in the stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Weisenstein

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Solid aerosol particles have long been proposed as an alternative to sulfate aerosols for solar geoengineering. Any solid aerosol introduced into the stratosphere would be subject to coagulation with itself, producing fractal aggregates, and with the natural sulfate aerosol, producing liquid-coated solids. Solid aerosols that are coated with sulfate and/or have formed aggregates may have very different scattering properties and chemical behavior than do uncoated non-aggregated monomers. We use a two-dimensional chemical transport model to capture the dynamics of interacting solid and liquid aerosols in the stratosphere. As an example, we apply the model to the possible use of alumina and diamond particles for solar geoengineering. For 240 nm radius alumina particles, for example, an injection rate of 4 Mt yr−1 produces a global-average radiative forcing of 1.3 W m−2 and minimal self-coagulation of alumina yet almost all alumina outside the tropics is coated with sulfate. For the same radiative forcing, these solid aerosols can produce less ozone loss, less stratospheric heating, and less forward scattering than do sulfate aerosols. Our results suggest that appropriately sized alumina, diamond or similar high-index particles may have less severe technology-specific risks than do sulfate aerosols. These results, particularly the ozone response, are subject to large uncertainties due the limited data on the rate constants of reactions on the dry surfaces.

  15. Solar geoengineering using solid aerosol in the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenstein, D. K.; Keith, D. W.; Dykema, J. A.

    2015-10-01

    Solid aerosol particles have long been proposed as an alternative to sulfate aerosols for solar geoengineering. Any solid aerosol introduced into the stratosphere would be subject to coagulation with itself, producing fractal aggregates, and with the natural sulfate aerosol, producing liquid-coated solids. Solid aerosols that are coated with sulfate and/or have formed aggregates may have very different scattering properties and chemical behavior than uncoated non-aggregated monomers do. We use a two-dimensional (2-D) chemistry-transport-aerosol model to capture the dynamics of interacting solid and liquid aerosols in the stratosphere. As an example, we apply the model to the possible use of alumina and diamond particles for solar geoengineering. For 240 nm radius alumina particles, for example, an injection rate of 4 Tg yr-1 produces a global-average shortwave radiative forcing of -1.2 W m-2 and minimal self-coagulation of alumina although almost all alumina outside the tropics is coated with sulfate. For the same radiative forcing, these solid aerosols can produce less ozone loss, less stratospheric heating, and less forward scattering than sulfate aerosols do. Our results suggest that appropriately sized alumina, diamond or similar high-index particles may have less severe technology-specific risks than sulfate aerosols do. These results, particularly the ozone response, are subject to large uncertainties due to the limited data on the rate constants of reactions on the dry surfaces.

  16. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    KAUST Repository

    Kravitz, Ben

    2009-07-28

    We used a general circulation model of Earth\\'s climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  17. On the Possible Influence of Small Impact on Geoengineering Properties of Subsoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaga, A.; Radaszewski, R.; Wierzbicki, J.

    2016-08-01

    The main aim of the study was to investigate the changes in geoengineering properties of non lithified deposits below the craters in comparison to genetically the similar types of sediments unaffected by impact.

  18. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists 'open up' appraisal of geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E

    2016-04-01

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth's climate system, known collectively as 'geoengineering', have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely 'close down' upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first 'upstream' appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately 'open up' to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic-deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens' and the specialists' deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives.

  19. Effects of Arctic geoengineering on precipitation in the tropical monsoon regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalam, Aditya; Bala, Govindasamy; Modak, Angshuman

    2017-07-01

    Arctic geoengineering wherein sunlight absorption is reduced only in the Arctic has been suggested as a remedial measure to counteract the on-going rapid climate change in the Arctic. Several modeling studies have shown that Arctic geoengineering can minimize Arctic warming but will shift the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) southward, unless offset by comparable geoengineering in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we investigate and quantify the implications of this ITCZ shift due to Arctic geoengineering for the global monsoon regions using the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 coupled to a slab ocean model. A doubling of CO2 from pre-industrial levels leads to a warming of 6 K in the Arctic region and precipitation in the monsoon regions increases by up to 15%. In our Arctic geoengineering simulation which illustrates a plausible latitudinal distribution of the reduction in sunlight, an addition of sulfate aerosols (11 Mt) in the Arctic stratosphere nearly offsets the Arctic warming due to CO2 doubling but this shifts the ITCZ southward by 1.5° relative to the pre-industrial climate. The combined effect from this shift and the residual CO2-induced climate change in the tropics is a decrease/increase in annual mean precipitation in the Northern Hemisphere/Southern Hemisphere monsoon regions by up to -12/+17%. Polar geoengineering where sulfate aerosols are prescribed in both the Arctic (10 Mt) and Antarctic (8 Mt) nearly offsets the ITCZ shift due to Arctic geoengineering, but there is still a residual precipitation increase (up to 7%) in most monsoon regions associated with the residual CO2 induced warming in the tropics. The ITCZ shift due to our Global geoengineering simulation, where aerosols (20 Mt) are prescribed uniformly around the globe, is much smaller and the precipitation changes in most monsoon regions are within ±2% as the residual CO2-induced warming in the tropics is also much less than in Arctic and Polar geoengineering. Further

  20. A risk-based framework for assessing the effectiveness of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus J Ferraro

    Full Text Available Geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection has been proposed as a policy response to warming from human emissions of greenhouse gases, but it may produce unequal regional impacts. We present a simple, intuitive risk-based framework for classifying these impacts according to whether geoengineering increases or decreases the risk of substantial climate change, with further classification by the level of existing risk from climate change from increasing carbon dioxide concentrations. This framework is applied to two climate model simulations of geoengineering counterbalancing the surface warming produced by a quadrupling of carbon dioxide concentrations, with one using a layer of sulphate aerosol in the lower stratosphere, and the other a reduction in total solar irradiance. The solar dimming model simulation shows less regional inequality of impacts compared with the aerosol geoengineering simulation. In the solar dimming simulation, 10% of the Earth's surface area, containing 10% of its population and 11% of its gross domestic product, experiences greater risk of substantial precipitation changes under geoengineering than under enhanced carbon dioxide concentrations. In the aerosol geoengineering simulation the increased risk of substantial precipitation change is experienced by 42% of Earth's surface area, containing 36% of its population and 60% of its gross domestic product.

  1. A risk-based framework for assessing the effectiveness of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Angus J; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J; Highwood, Eleanor J

    2014-01-01

    Geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection has been proposed as a policy response to warming from human emissions of greenhouse gases, but it may produce unequal regional impacts. We present a simple, intuitive risk-based framework for classifying these impacts according to whether geoengineering increases or decreases the risk of substantial climate change, with further classification by the level of existing risk from climate change from increasing carbon dioxide concentrations. This framework is applied to two climate model simulations of geoengineering counterbalancing the surface warming produced by a quadrupling of carbon dioxide concentrations, with one using a layer of sulphate aerosol in the lower stratosphere, and the other a reduction in total solar irradiance. The solar dimming model simulation shows less regional inequality of impacts compared with the aerosol geoengineering simulation. In the solar dimming simulation, 10% of the Earth's surface area, containing 10% of its population and 11% of its gross domestic product, experiences greater risk of substantial precipitation changes under geoengineering than under enhanced carbon dioxide concentrations. In the aerosol geoengineering simulation the increased risk of substantial precipitation change is experienced by 42% of Earth's surface area, containing 36% of its population and 60% of its gross domestic product.

  2. New Results from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.; Kravitz, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) was designed to determine robust climate system model responses to Solar Radiation Management (SRM). While mitigation (reducing greenhouse gases emissions) is the most effective way of reducing future climate change, SRM (the deliberate modification of incoming solar radiation) has been proposed as a means of temporarily alleviating some of the effects of global warming. For society to make informed decisions as to whether SRM should ever be implemented, information is needed on the benefits, risks, and side effects, and GeoMIP seeks to aid in that endeavor. GeoMIP has organized four standardized climate model simulations involving reduction of insolation or increased amounts of stratospheric sulfate aerosols to counteract increasing greenhouse gases. Thirteen comprehensive atmosphere-ocean general circulation models have participated in the project so far. GeoMIP is a 'CMIP Coordinated Experiment' as part of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) and has been endorsed by SPARC (Stratosphere-troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate). GeoMIP has held three international workshops and has produced a number of recent journal articles. GeoMIP has found that if increasing greenhouse gases could be counteracted with insolation reduction, the global average temperature could be kept constant, but global average precipitation would reduce, particularly in summer monsoon regions around the world. Temperature changes would also not be uniform. The tropics would cool, but high latitudes would warm, with continuing, but reduced sea ice and ice sheet melting. Temperature extremes would still increase, but not as much as without SRM. If SRM were halted all at once, there would be rapid temperature and precipitation increases at 5-10 times the rates from gradual global warming. SRM combined with CO2 fertilization would have small impacts on rice production in China, but would increase maize production

  3. Space Geoengineering: James A. Van Allen's Role in Detecting and Disrupting the Magnetosphere, 1958-1962 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    James A. Van Allen’s celebrated discovery of Earth’s radiation belts in 1958 using Explorer 1 and 3 satellites was immediately followed by his agreement to monitor tests of nuclear weapons in space aimed at disrupting the magnetosphere. This is “space geoengineering” on a planetary scale. “Space is radioactive,” noted Van Allen’s colleague Eric Ray, and the military wanted to make it even more radioactive by nuclear detonations that, in time of war might disrupt enemy radio communications from half a world away and damage or destroy enemy intercontinental ballistic missiles. This study of Van Allen’s participation in Project Argus (1958) and Project Starfish (1962) is based on new posthumous accessions to the Van Allen Papers. At the time radio astronomers protested that, “No government has the right to change the environment in any significant way without prior international study and agreement.” Van Allen later regretted his participation in experiments that disrupted the natural magnetosphere. In a larger policy framework, the history of these space interventions and the protests they generated serve as a cautionary tale for today’s geoengineers who are proposing heavy-handed manipulation of the planetary environment as a response to future climate warming. Anyone claiming that geoengineering has not yet been attempted should be reminded of the planetary-scale engineering of these nukes in space. N. Christofilos describing the intended effect of the Argus nuclear explosions on the magnetosphere, which would direct a stream of radioactive particles along magnetic lines of force half a world away.

  4. Patterns of growth, development and herbivory of Palicourea rigida are affected more by sun/shade conditions than by Cerrado phytophysiognomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Fernandes Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant development is influenced by several abiotic factors, which in turn influence morphological traits and life history. We investigated whether leaf area, herbivory, toughness, fluctuating asymmetry, structural complexity and the number of inflorescences of Palicourea rigida are influenced by sun/shade conditions or by Cerrado phytophysiognomy (typical cerrado or rupestrian field. We expected to find greater structural complexity, leaf toughness and more inflorescences in sun plants; shaded plants were expected to exhibit a greater degree of fluctuating asymmetry (an index of plant stress, reduced leaf toughness and greater herbivory. As for phytophysiognomies, we expected to find higher levels of leaf toughness and reduced structural complexity in plants from the rupestrian field. We sampled plants in the sun and shade from both phytophysiognomies. Leaf area, toughness, herbivory and fluctuating asymmetry, were influenced more by sun/shade conditions than phytophysiognomy; leaf toughness was the only variable to show greater values in conditions of sun. Our results indicate that exposure to sunlight is not a requirement for increased plant development, but plants in shade are experiencing stress, as shown by increased fluctuating asymmetry; increased leaf area, which is a strategy to compensate for lower light exposure for plants and higher herbivory, which depicts lower toughness.

  5. Influence of Windows Sunshade on Indoor Thermal Environment%窗口遮阳对室内热环境的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖冰; 徐菁

    2014-01-01

    无论是从减少夏季空调负荷的角度出发,还是从提高人体热舒适的角度考虑,窗口遮阳无疑是最经济实用、简便易行的方式。通过建立数学模型的方法,来分析窗口遮阳对室内热环境的作用,并以西安市某建筑南向窗口为例计算透过各种窗户-遮阳系统的得热量,从中找出提高窗口遮阳效果的有效措施。%Thinking of reducing summer air conditioning load, or improving human thermal comfort, windows sunshade is undoubtedly the most economic and practical way. By establishing a mathematical model, windows sunshades on indoor thermal environment are analyzed. And solar heat gain of different shading forms is calculated. Effective measures to improve shaded effects are found out.

  6. A temporary, moderate and responsive scenario for solar geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, David W.; MacMartin, Douglas G.

    2015-03-01

    The risks and benefits of solar geoengineering, or solar radiation management (SRM), depend on assumptions about its implementation. Claims that SRM will reduce precipitation, increase ocean acidification or deplete stratospheric ozone, or that it must be continued forever once started, are not inherent features of SRM; rather, they are features of common scenarios for its implementation. Most analyses assume, for example, that SRM would be used to stop the increase in global temperature or restore temperature to pre-industrial values. We argue that these are poor scenario choices on which to base policy-relevant judgements about SRM. As a basis for further analysis, we provide a scenario that is temporary in that its end point is zero SRM, is moderate in that it offsets only half of the growth in anthropogenic climate forcing and is responsive in that it recognizes that the amount of SRM will be adjusted in light of new information.

  7. The sensitivity of polar ozone depletion to proposed geoengineering schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Simone; Müller, Rolf; Salawitch, Ross

    2008-05-30

    The large burden of sulfate aerosols injected into the stratosphere by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 cooled Earth and enhanced the destruction of polar ozone in the subsequent few years. The continuous injection of sulfur into the stratosphere has been suggested as a "geoengineering" scheme to counteract global warming. We use an empirical relationship between ozone depletion and chlorine activation to estimate how this approach might influence polar ozone. An injection of sulfur large enough to compensate for surface warming caused by the doubling of atmospheric CO2 would strongly increase the extent of Arctic ozone depletion during the present century for cold winters and would cause a considerable delay, between 30 and 70 years, in the expected recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole.

  8. 'Geoengineering'--taking control of our planet's climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Peter; Ridgwell, Andy

    2009-01-01

    There is international consensus that 'dangerous' climate change must be avoided. Yet without radical changes in energy sources and usage and global economies, changes that so far society has been unable or unwilling to make, it seems highly likely that we will start to experience unacceptably damaging and/or societally disruptive global environmental change later this century. What actions can be taken to safeguard future environmental quality, ecosystems, agriculture, economy, and society? A new science--'geoengineering'--that until recently would have seemed pure science fiction, promises an alternative way of temporarily regaining control of climate. Colossal engineering schemes to shade the sun, make the atmosphere hazier, modify clouds, even throw iron into the ocean, are all being promoted as possible ways out of our dilemma. This article considers the state of this new science, and its implications for society.

  9. Impacts of sea spray geoengineering on ocean biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Keller, David P.; Korhonen, Hannele; Matthews, H. Damon

    2016-07-01

    We used an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to study the effects of Solar Radiation Management (SRM) by sea spray geoengineering on ocean biogeochemistry. SRM slightly decreased global ocean net primary productivity (NPP) relative to the control run. The lower temperatures in the SRM run decreased NPP directly but also indirectly increased NPP in some regions due to changes in nutrient availability resulting from changes in ocean stratification and circulation. Reduced light availability had a minor effect on global total NPP but a major regional effect near the nutrient-rich upwelling region off the coast of Peru, where light availability is the main limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in our model. Unused nutrients from regions with decreased NPP also fueled NPP elsewhere. In the context of RCP4.5 simulation used here, SRM decreased ocean carbon uptake due to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, seawater chemistry, NPP, temperature, and ocean circulation.

  10. Geoengineering potential of artificially enhanced silicate weathering of olivine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Peter; Hartmann, Jens; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A

    2010-11-23

    Geoengineering is a proposed action to manipulate Earth's climate in order to counteract global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We investigate the potential of a specific geoengineering technique, carbon sequestration by artificially enhanced silicate weathering via the dissolution of olivine. This approach would not only operate against rising temperatures but would also oppose ocean acidification, because it influences the global climate via the carbon cycle. If important details of the marine chemistry are taken into consideration, a new mass ratio of CO(2) sequestration per olivine dissolution of about 1 is achieved, 20% smaller than previously assumed. We calculate that this approach has the potential to sequestrate up to 1 Pg of C per year directly, if olivine is distributed as fine powder over land areas of the humid tropics, but this rate is limited by the saturation concentration of silicic acid. In our calculations for the Amazon and Congo river catchments, a maximum annual dissolution of 1.8 and 0.4 Pg of olivine seems possible, corresponding to the sequestration of 0.5 and 0.1 Pg of C per year, but these upper limit sequestration rates come at the environmental cost of pH values in the rivers rising to 8.2. Open water dissolution of fine-grained olivine and an enhancement of the biological pump by the rising riverine input of silicic acid might increase our estimate of the carbon sequestration, but additional research is needed here. We finally calculate with a carbon cycle model the consequences of sequestration rates of 1-5 Pg of C per year for the 21st century by this technique.

  11. Dyson Dots & Geoengineering: The Killer App Ad Astra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R. G.; Hughes, Eric; Roy, Kenneth I.; Fields, David E.

    No study of coping with climate change is complete without considering geoengineering. A "Dyson Dot" is one or more large (area ~700 K km2, >200 megatonne) lightsail(s) in a radiation-levitated non-Keplerian orbit(s) just sunward of the Sun-Earth Lagrange-1 point. The purpose of this syncretic concept is twofold: (I) As a parasol, it would reduce insolation on Earth by at least one-quarter of a percent (-3.4 W m-2), same as what caused 1.5°C drop during the "Little Ice Age" (~1550-1850) and same as the IPCC Third Report's mid-range value for global warming by 2050. The parasol transforms the "solar constant" to a controlled solar variable. (II) Hosting a ~50K km2 photovoltaic power station on its sunny side and relaying beamed power via maser to rectennas on a circumpolar Dymaxion grid, the system could displace over 300 EJ/a (~100 trillion kWh/yr) of fossil-fired power (total global demand for electricity forecast by 2050), while providing USD trillions in revenue from cheap clean energy sales (@1-3¢/kWh) to amortize the scheme. Total system efficiency compares favorably to automobiles; total system power density is comparable to nuclear power. This approach -- self-funding, "pay-as-you-go", minimally intrusive, scalable, complementary with a portfolio of other measures and above all reversible is not precluded by international treaty. Indeed geoengineering may be the best "killer app" to bootstrap orbital industry and humanity ad astra, because the terawattscale product is comparable to the power required for interstellar travel. If Tellurian spacefaring civilization bootstraps its exponential growth with multi-terawatt maser beams from such lightsails, there might eventually be enough of them to have a detectable effect on Sol's apparent luminosity at certain wavelengths, as seen from far away, similar to the eponymous Dyson Sphere, hence the moniker.

  12. Contrasting medium and genre on Wikipedia to open up the dominating definition and classification of geoengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Markusson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering is typically defined as a techno-scientific response to climate change that differs from mitigation and adaptation, and that includes diverse individual technologies, which can be classified as either solar radiation management or carbon dioxide removal. We analyse the representation of geoengineering on Wikipedia as a way of opening up this dominating, if contested, model for further debate. We achieve this by contrasting the dominating model as presented in the encyclopaedic article texts with the patterns of hyper-link associations between the articles. Two datasets were created tracing the geoengineering construct on Wikipedia, shedding light on its boundary with its context, as well as on its internal structure. The analysis shows that the geoengineering category tends to be associated on Wikipedia primarily with atmospheric solar radiation management rather than land-based carbon dioxide removal type technologies. The results support the notion that the dominant model of defining and classifying geoengineering technology has been beneficial for solar radiation management type technologies more than for land-based carbon dioxide removal ones. The article also demonstrates that controversy mapping with Wikipedia data affords analysis that can open up dominating definitions and classifications of technologies, and offer resistance to their frequent naturalising and decontextualising tendencies. This work is in line with recent work on digital sociology, but the article contributes a new methodology and reports on the first empirical application of controversy mapping using Wikipedia data to a technology.

  13. Deliberating Albedo Modification in Finnish Lapland: Integrating Geoengineering Research With Community-Specific Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, H.; Mettiainen, I.; MacMartin, D.; Ricke, K.

    2016-12-01

    Regional social assessments of albedo modification are important for understanding what the social harms and benefits from albedo modification might be in particular contexts. While the Arctic has been posited as a region that could benefit from solar geoengineering, including potential regional albedo modification, few studies have looked at the ideas, concerns, and questions Arctic publics and stakeholders have about geoengineering research. We present the results from public focus groups and in-depth stakeholder interviews conducted in Finnish Lapland. We address questions like: What climate impacts are stakeholders most concerned about, and what climate objectives do varied stakeholders have? How do people see the risks of albedo modification strategies to address those objectives? Why was climate engineering not discussed as an option in Lapland's regional climate strategy? What would Arctic people and industries think if expected economic opportunities due to Arctic sea ice melt failed to materialize, due to geoengineering? The work also explores how in-depth, qualitative methods can help incorporate local perspectives and objectives into the research process. Having local people evaluate potential impacts to their communities, in terms of their own priorities and concerns, generates knowledge about how geoengineering can affect vulnerability and resilience to climate change on community and regional scales. We discuss how lessons learned from this project may apply to regional engagement on geoengineering elsewhere.

  14. 夏热冬冷地区南向窗口水平遮阳板遮阳效果研究%Effect of Horizontal Sunshading Board for South Window in the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小翠

    2015-01-01

    According to the geographical location, sun radiation and meteorological data, the solar radiation and radiation heat are calculated, which received to the south of aluminum alloy double glass windows with or without the horizontal shading devices in summer solstice in Lishui City. The results show that, in Lishui City, the horizontal sunshading board is efficetive and obvious to the direct solar radiation, if the aluminum alloy double glass windows are installed with horizontal sunshade on the south;the horizontal sunshading board will also weaken the sky radiation and reflected radiation to some extent; the horizontal sunshading board has no obvious shielding effect on the environment. Overall, the horizontal sunshading board will reduce the solar heat gain about 15%for south windows in Lishui city.%根据丽水市地理位置、太阳辐射、气象资料等,计算了有无水平遮阳板2种情况下,夏至日丽水市南向铝合金双玻窗口接收到的太阳辐射能和辐射得热量。结果表明:丽水市南向铝合金双玻窗口在设置水平遮阳板后,遮阳板对太阳直射辐射的遮挡效果非常明显;对天空散射辐射也有一定程度的减弱;而对环境反射辐射没有明显的遮挡效果。总体来说水平遮阳板可以使丽水市南向窗口的太阳辐射得热量减少约15%左右。

  15. Optimizing stratospheric sulfur geoengineering by seasonally changing sulfur injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Anton; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Lehtinen, Kari; Korhonen, Hannele

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) by stratospheric sulfur injection has been shown to have potential in counteracting global warming if reducing of greenhouse gases has not been achieved fast enough and if climate warming will continue. Injecting large amounts of sulfate particles to the stratosphere would increase the reflectivity of the atmosphere and less sunlight would reach the surface. However, the effectivity (per injected sulphur mass unit) of this kind of geoengineering would decrease when amount of injected sulfur is increased. When sulfur concentration increases, stratospheric particles would grow to larger sizes which have larger gravitational settling velocity and which do not reflect radiation as efficiently as smaller particles. In many previous studies, sulfur has been assumed to be injected along the equator where yearly mean solar intensity is the highest and from where sulfur is spread equally to both hemispheres. However, the solar intensity will change locally during the year and sulfate has been assumed to be injected and spread to the hemisphere also during winter time, when the solar intensity is low. Thus sulfate injection could be expected to be more effective, if sulfur injection area is changed seasonally. Here we study effects of the different SRM injection scenarios by using two versions of the MPI climate models. First, aerosol spatial and temporal distributions as well as the resulting radiative properties from the SRM are defined by using the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA. After that, the global and regional climate effects from different injection scenarios are predicted by using the Max Planck Institute's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We carried out simulations, where 8 Tg of sulfur is injected as SO2 to the stratosphere at height of 20-22 km in an area ranging over a 20 degree wide latitude band. Results show that changing the sulfur injection area seasonally would lead to similar global mean shortwave

  16. Sulfate geoengineering impact on methane transport and lifetime: results from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioni, Daniele; Pitari, Giovanni; Aquila, Valentina; Tilmes, Simone; Cionni, Irene; Di Genova, Glauco; Mancini, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Sulfate geoengineering (SG), made by sustained injection of SO2 in the tropical lower stratosphere, may impact the CH4 abundance through several photochemical mechanisms affecting tropospheric OH and hence the methane lifetime. (a) The reflection of incoming solar radiation increases the planetary albedo and cools the surface, with a tropospheric H2O decrease. (b) The tropospheric UV budget is upset by the additional aerosol scattering and stratospheric ozone changes: the net effect is meridionally not uniform, with a net decrease in the tropics, thus producing less tropospheric O(1D). (c) The extratropical downwelling motion from the lower stratosphere tends to increase the sulfate aerosol surface area density available for heterogeneous chemical reactions in the mid-to-upper troposphere, thus reducing the amount of NOx and O3 production. (d) The tropical lower stratosphere is warmed by solar and planetary radiation absorption by the aerosols. The heating rate perturbation is highly latitude dependent, producing a stronger meridional component of the Brewer-Dobson circulation. The net effect on tropospheric OH due to the enhanced stratosphere-troposphere exchange may be positive or negative depending on the net result of different superimposed species perturbations (CH4, NOy, O3, SO4) in the extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). In addition, the atmospheric stabilization resulting from the tropospheric cooling and lower stratospheric warming favors an additional decrease of the UTLS extratropical CH4 by lowering the horizontal eddy mixing. Two climate-chemistry coupled models are used to explore the above radiative, chemical and dynamical mechanisms affecting CH4 transport and lifetime (ULAQ-CCM and GEOSCCM). The CH4 lifetime may become significantly longer (by approximately 16 %) with a sustained injection of 8 Tg-SO2 yr-1 starting in the year 2020, which implies an increase of tropospheric CH4 (200 ppbv) and a positive indirect radiative

  17. The impact of geoengineering aerosols on stratospheric temperature and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckendorn, P; Luo, B P; Rozanov, E; Schraner, M; Peter, T [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Weisenstein, D [AER, Lexington, MA (United States); Fueglistaler, S [DAMTP, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Thomason, L W, E-mail: patricia.heckendorn@env.ethz.c [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are warming the global climate at an unprecedented rate. Significant emission reductions will be required soon to avoid a rapid temperature rise. As a potential interim measure to avoid extreme temperature increase, it has been suggested that Earth's albedo be increased by artificially enhancing stratospheric sulfate aerosols. We use a 3D chemistry climate model, fed by aerosol size distributions from a zonal mean aerosol model, to simulate continuous injection of 1-10 Mt/a into the lower tropical stratosphere. In contrast to the case for all previous work, the particles are predicted to grow to larger sizes than are observed after volcanic eruptions. The reason is the continuous supply of sulfuric acid and hence freshly formed small aerosol particles, which enhance the formation of large aerosol particles by coagulation and, to a lesser extent, by condensation. Owing to their large size, these particles have a reduced albedo. Furthermore, their sedimentation results in a non-linear relationship between stratospheric aerosol burden and annual injection, leading to a reduction of the targeted cooling. More importantly, the sedimenting particles heat the tropical cold point tropopause and, hence, the stratospheric entry mixing ratio of H{sub 2}O increases. Therefore, geoengineering by means of sulfate aerosols is predicted to accelerate the hydroxyl catalyzed ozone destruction cycles and cause a significant depletion of the ozone layer even though future halogen concentrations will be significantly reduced.

  18. Microbially mediated carbon mineralization: Geoengineering a carbon-neutral mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; McCutcheon, J.; Harrison, A. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2013-12-01

    Ultramafic and mafic mine tailings are a potentially valuable feedstock for carbon mineralization, affording the mining industry an opportunity to completely offset their carbon emissions. Passive carbon mineralization has previously been documented at the abandoned Clinton Creek asbestos mine, and the active Diavik diamond mine and Mount Keith nickel mine, yet the majority of tailings remain unreacted. Examples of microbe-carbonate interactions at each mine suggest that biological pathways could be harnessed to promote carbon mineralization. In suitable environmental conditions, microbes can mediate geochemical processes to accelerate mineral dissolution, increase the supply of carbon dioxide (CO2), and induce carbonate precipitation, all of which may accelerate carbon mineralization. Tailings mineralogy and the availability of a CO2 point source are key considerations in designing tailings storage facilities (TSF) for optimizing carbon mineralization. We evaluate the efficacy of acceleration strategies including bioleaching, biologically induced carbonate precipitation, and heterotrophic oxidation of waste organics, as well as abiotic strategies including enhancing passive carbonation through modifying tailings management practices and use of CO2 point sources (Fig. 1). With the aim of developing carbon-neutral mines, implementation of carbon mineralization strategies into TSF design will be driven by economic incentives and public pressure for environmental sustainability in the mining industry. Figure 1. Schematic illustrating geoengineered scenarios for carbon mineralization of ultramafic mine tailings. Scenarios A and B are based on non-point and point sources of CO2, respectively.

  19. Governing solar geoengineering research as it leaves the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andy

    2014-12-28

    One of the greatest controversies in geoengineering policy concerns the next stages of solar radiation management research, and when and how it leaves the laboratory. Citing numerous risks and concerns, a range of prominent commentators have called for field experiments to be delayed until there is formalized research governance, such as an international agreement. As a piece of pragmatic policy analysis, this paper explores the practicalities and implications of demands for 'governance before research'. It concludes that 'governance before research' is a desirable goal, but that a delay in experimentation-a moratorium-would probably be an ineffective and counterproductive way to achieve it. Firstly, it is very unlikely that a moratorium could be imposed. Secondly, even if it were practicable it seems that a temporary ban on field experiments would have at best a mixed effect addressing the main risks and concerns, while blocking and stigmatizing safe research and delaying the development of good governance practices from learning by doing. The paper suggests a number of steps to ensure 'governance before research' that can be taken in the absence of an international agreement or national legislation, emphasizing the roles of researchers and research funders in developing and implementing good practices.

  20. Peatland geoengineering: an alternative approach to terrestrial carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Christopher; Fenner, Nathalie; Shirsat, Anil H

    2012-09-13

    Terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems contribute almost equally to the sequestration of ca 50 per cent of anthropogenic CO(2) emissions, and already play a role in minimizing our impact on Earth's climate. On land, the majority of the sequestered carbon enters soil carbon stores. Almost one-third of that soil carbon can be found in peatlands, an area covering just 2-3% of the Earth's landmass. Peatlands are thus well established as powerful agents of carbon capture and storage; the preservation of archaeological artefacts, such as ancient bog bodies, further attest to their exceptional preservative properties. Peatlands have higher carbon storage densities per unit ecosystem area than either the oceans or dry terrestrial systems. However, despite attempts over a number of years at enhancing carbon capture in the oceans or in land-based afforestation schemes, no attempt has yet been made to optimize peatland carbon storage capacity or even to harness peatlands to store externally captured carbon. Recent studies suggest that peatland carbon sequestration is due to the inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds that create an 'enzymic latch' on decomposition. Here, we propose to harness that mechanism in a series of peatland geoengineering strategies whereby molecular, biogeochemical, agronomical and afforestation approaches increase carbon capture and long-term sequestration in peat-forming terrestrial ecosystems.

  1. The Impact of Geoengineering Aerosols on Stratospheric Temperature and Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckendorn, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Fueglistaler, S.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Schraner, M.; Thomason, L. W.; Peter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are warming the global climate at an unprecedented rate. Significant emission reductions will be required soon to avoid a rapid temperature rise. As a potential interim measure to avoid extreme temperature increase, it has been suggested that Earth's albedo be increased by artificially enhancing stratospheric sulfate aerosols. We use a 3D chemistry climate model, fed by aerosol size distributions from a zonal mean aerosol model. to simulate continuous injection of 1-10 Mt/a into the lower tropical stratosphere. In contrast to the case for all previous work, the particles are predicted to grow to larger sizes than are observed after volcanic eruptions. The reason is the continuous supply of sulfuric acid and hence freshly formed small aerosol particles, which enhance the formation of large aerosol particles by coagulation and, to a lesser extent, by condensation. Owing to their large size, these particles have a reduced albedo. Furthermore, their sedimentation results in a non-linear relationship between stratospheric aerosol burden and annual injection, leading to a reduction of the targeted cooling. More importantly, the sedimenting particles heat the tropical cold point tropopause and, hence, the stratospheric entry mixing ratio of H2O increases. Therefore, geoengineering by means of sulfate aerosols is predicted to accelerate the hydroxyl catalyzed ozone destruction cycles and cause a significant depletion of the ozone layer even though future halogen concentrations will he significantly reduced.

  2. A New Approach to Geoengineering: Manna From Heaven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Geo-engineering, although controversial, has become an emerging factor in coping with climate change. Although most are terrestrial-based technologies, I focus on a space-based approach implemented through a solar shield system. I present several new elements that essentially render the high-cost criticism moot. Of special relevance are two seemingly unrelated technologies - the Resource Prospector Mission (RPM) to the Moon in 2018 that shall implement a technology demonstration of simple material resource extraction from lunar regolith, and the emergence of multi-material 3D printing technology that promises unprecedented robotic manufacturing capabilities. My research group has begun theoretical and experimentation work in developing the concept of a 3D printed electric motor system from lunar-type resources. The electric motor underlies every universal mechanical machine. Together with 3D printed electronics, I submit that this would enable self-replicating machines to be realised. A detailed exposition on how this may be achieved will be outlined. Such self-replicating machines could construct the spacecraft required to implement a solar shield and solar power satellites in large numbers from lunar resources with the same underlying technologies at extremely low cost.

  3. Geoengineering, climate change scepticism and the ‘moral hazard’ argument: an experimental study of UK public perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Adam; Pidgeon, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Many commentators have expressed concerns that researching and/or developing geoengineering technologies may undermine support for existing climate policies—the so-called moral hazard argument. This argument plays a central role in policy debates about geoengineering. However, there has not yet been a systematic investigation of how members of the public view the moral hazard argument, or whether it impacts on people's beliefs about geoengineering and climate change. In this paper, we describe an online experiment with a representative sample of the UK public, in which participants read one of two arguments (either endorsing or rejecting the idea that geoengineering poses a moral hazard). The argument endorsing the idea of geoengineering as a moral hazard was perceived as more convincing overall. However, people with more sceptical views and those who endorsed ‘self-enhancing’ values were more likely to agree that the prospect of geoengineering would reduce their motivation to make changes in their own behaviour in response to climate change. The findings suggest that geoengineering is likely to pose a moral hazard for some people more than others, and the implications for engaging the public are discussed. PMID:25404680

  4. Limited effectiveness of solar radiation management geoengineering in preventing sea-level rise from the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Patrick; Keller, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) is an important contributor to present-day sea level rise, and the ice sheet's importance for sea level rise will likely increase with Arctic temperatures. Some scientists have recently suggested that geoengineering, the deliberate management of Earth's climate, could prevent sea level rise from the ice sheets. Previous efforts to assess geoengineering's effects on the GIS and sea level rise have broken important new ground, but neglect key feedbacks and/or are silent on the short-term effects of geoengineering that are perhaps most important for decision-making. Here, we use a simplified, three-dimensional model of the GIS (SICOPOLIS by Ralf Greve) to examine the response of the Greenland Ice Sheet under plausible geoengineering scenarios. We find that i) the GIS generally continues to melt over the first 100 yr after geoengineering initiation; ii) reductions in GIS sea level contributions over these first 100 yr are small; and iii) there is a delay of decades to centuries between the initiation of aggressive geoengineering and any regrowth of the ice sheet, and the rate of this regrowth is slow. However, geoengineering produces appreciable reductions in the rate of sea level rise contributions from the GIS within the first few decades. Our results suggest that past studies have overestimated the effectiveness of geoengineering in preventing mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet and in reversing sea level rise once it has occurred. We comment on the importance of feedbacks in the ice sheet system in assessing geoengineering's effectiveness in reducing sea level rise from the GIS.

  5. Geo-engineering: effective climate protection or megalomania? Methods, legal frameworks, environmental political claims; Geo-Engineering: wirksamer Klimaschutz oder Groessenwahn? Methoden, Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen, Umweltpolitische Forderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzky, Harald; Herrmann, Friederike; Kartschall, Karin; Leujak, Wera; Lipsius, Kai; Maeder, Claudia; Schwermer, Sylvia; Straube, Georg

    2011-04-15

    Today, strategies for climate protection use two main approaches. First, measures should be taken in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions caused by humans. Second, measures should be carried out so that people and the environment can be adapted to unavoidable climatic changes. For some time, proposals are being discussed in order to meet the effect of climatic changes by large-scale intervention in global ecological processes. These measures are grouped under the term geo-engineering.

  6. A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP experiment designed for climate and chemistry models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tilmes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP experiment "G4 specified stratospheric aerosols" (short name: G4SSA is proposed to investigate the impact of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on atmospheric composition, climate, and the environment. In contrast to the earlier G4 GeoMIP experiment, which requires an emission of sulphur dioxide (SO2 into the model, a prescribed aerosol forcing file is provided to the community, to be consistently applied to future model experiments between 2020 and 2100. This stratospheric aerosol distribution, with a total burden of about 2 Tg S has been derived using the ECHAM5-HAM microphysical model, based on a continuous annual tropical emission of 8 Tg SO2 year−1. A ramp-up of geoengineering in 2020 and a ramp-down in 2070 over a period of two years are included in the distribution, while a background aerosol burden should be used for the last 3 decades of the experiment. The performance of this experiment using climate and chemistry models in a multi-model comparison framework will allow us to better understand the significance of the impact of geoengineering and the abrupt termination after 50 years on climate and composition of the atmosphere in a changing environment. The zonal and monthly mean stratospheric aerosol input dataset is available at https://www2.acd.ucar.edu/gcm/geomip-g4-specified-stratospheric-aerosol-data-set.

  7. Crop failure rates in a geoengineered climate: impact of climate change and marine cloud brightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, B.; Challinor, A.; Nicklin, K.

    2015-08-01

    The impact of geoengineering on crops has to date been studied by examining mean yields. We present the first work focusing on the rate of crop failures under a geoengineered climate. We investigate the impact of a future climate and a potential geoengineering scheme on the number of crop failures in two regions, Northeastern China and West Africa. Climate change associated with a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide increases the number of crop failures in Northeastern China while reducing the number of crop failures in West Africa. In both regions marine cloud brightening is likely to reduce the number crop failures, although it is more effective at reducing mild crop failure than severe crop failure. We find that water stress, rather than heat stress, is the main cause of crop failure in current, future and geoengineered climates. This demonstrates the importance of irrigation and breeding for tolerance to water stress as adaptation methods in all futures. Analysis of global rainfall under marine cloud brightening has the potential to significantly reduce the impact of climate change on global wheat and groundnut production.

  8. Geo-engineering, Governance, and Social-Ecological Systems: Critical Issues and Joint Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Galaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The debate about the possibilities to engineer the Earth's climate has changed drastically in the last years. Suggestions of large-scale technological interventions to combat climate change that a decade ago would have been discarded as science fiction are slowly moving into the center of international climate change discussions, research, and politics. In this article, I elaborate three joint key challenges to geo-engineering research from a resilience perspective, with a special emphasis on governance issues. First, I discuss the need to understand geo-engineering proposals from a "planetary boundaries" perspective. Second, I elaborate why the notion of Earth stewardship and geo-engineering are not necessarily in conflict, but instead could be viewed as complementary approaches. Last, I discuss the critical need to explore an institutional setting that is strong enough to weed out geo-engineering proposals that carry considerable ecological risk, but still allow for novelty, fail-safe experimentation, and continuous learning. These issues are critical for our understanding of how to effectively govern global environmental risks, complex systems, and emerging technologies in the Anthropocene.

  9. GEO-ENGINEERING MODELING THROUGH INTERNET INFORMATICS (GEMINI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Lynn Watney; John H. Doveton

    2004-05-13

    GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through Internet Informatics) is a public-domain web application focused on analysis and modeling of petroleum reservoirs and plays (http://www.kgs.ukans.edu/Gemini/index.html). GEMINI creates a virtual project by ''on-the-fly'' assembly and analysis of on-line data either from the Kansas Geological Survey or uploaded from the user. GEMINI's suite of geological and engineering web applications for reservoir analysis include: (1) petrofacies-based core and log modeling using an interactive relational rock catalog and log analysis modules; (2) a well profile module; (3) interactive cross sections to display ''marked'' wireline logs; (4) deterministic gridding and mapping of petrophysical data; (5) calculation and mapping of layer volumetrics; (6) material balance calculations; (7) PVT calculator; (8) DST analyst, (9) automated hydrocarbon association navigator (KHAN) for database mining, and (10) tutorial and help functions. The Kansas Hydrocarbon Association Navigator (KHAN) utilizes petrophysical databases to estimate hydrocarbon pay or other constituent at a play- or field-scale. Databases analyzed and displayed include digital logs, core analysis and photos, DST, and production data. GEMINI accommodates distant collaborations using secure password protection and authorized access. Assembled data, analyses, charts, and maps can readily be moved to other applications. GEMINI's target audience includes small independents and consultants seeking to find, quantitatively characterize, and develop subtle and bypassed pays by leveraging the growing base of digital data resources. Participating companies involved in the testing and evaluation of GEMINI included Anadarko, BP, Conoco-Phillips, Lario, Mull, Murfin, and Pioneer Resources.

  10. Response of land carbon cycle to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Ji, D.

    2016-12-01

    Stabilizing the climate through geoengineering aims to mitigate the climate change induced by increasing atmospheric CO2 and other green house gases. These impacts in climate affect terrestrial ecosystem considerably because terrestrial carbon fluxes are sensitivity to climate change. Here we analyzed the responses of land carbon cycle to GeoMIP G4 experiment from six Earth System Models (ESMs), in which negative radiative forcing is produced by an injection of SO2 into the stratosphere to compensate the global warming in RCP4.5. From the year 2020 to 2090, there was an increase in land carbon uptake with significant discrepancy among models (20 PgC to 260 PgC) for both G4 and RCP4.5 scenario, due to the CO2 fertilization effect. For comparison with RCP4.5, all of the models showed higher land carbon uptakes in G4 scenario (30 Pg C on average), with both increases in vegetation and soil carbon stores. These land carbon increases relative to RCP4.5 are mainly resulted from reduced heterotrophic respiration under cooler temperature, whilst changes in vegetation productivity only account a negligible part of land carbon changes. The models also varied in their sensitivities of carbon fluxes to changes in air temperature and precipitation. Partial correlation analysis shows that interannual sensitivities of NBP to temperature and precipitation increased by 2 folds in the G4 experiment, due to higher sensitivities of NPP and Rh, yet with large differences among ESMs and spatial heterogeneity. This work suggests that stratospheric aerosol engineering would have small and positive impact on land carbon uptake but could increase climate sensitivities of terrestrial carbon fluxes significantly.

  11. 夏热冬暖地区建筑外遮阳节能技术探讨%Research on Sun-shading Design of Buildings in Regions of Being Hot in Summer and Warm in Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜成仁

    2013-01-01

    遮阳是建筑节能的有效途径,夏热冬暖地区具有自身的特点。通过对建筑遮阳的基本形式与特点的介绍,从艺术和技术的角度来分析夏热冬暖地区对遮阳设施的运用及遮阳设施的发展趋势。%Sun-shading is an effective path of a building’s energy-saving. The regions of being hot in summer and warm in winter have self-characteristics. The application of sun-shading facilities and their developing trend in the regions of being hot in summer and warm in winter are analyzed of building sun-shading, as well as according to the art and techniques.

  12. SPICE Work Package 3: Modelling the Effects of Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Simon

    2015-04-01

    This talk presents the results of the SPICE Work Package 3. There is an obvious need for methods to verify the accuracy of geoengineering given no observations of a geoengineering programme. Accordingly, model ability in reproducing the observed dynamical response to volcanic eruptions is discussed using analysis of CMIP5 data and different configurations of the HadGEM2 model. With the HadGEM2-L60 model shown to be substantially better in reproducing the observed dynamical response to volcanic eruptions, simulations of GeoMIP's G4 scenario are performed. Simulated impacts of geoengineering are described, and asymmetries between the immediate onset and immediate cessation ('termination') of geoengineering are analysed. Whilst a rapid large increase in stratospheric sulphate aerosols (such as from volcanic eruptions) can cause substantial damage, most volcanic eruptions in general are not catastrophic. One may therefore suspect that an 'equal but opposite' change in radiative forcing from termination may therefore not be catastrophic, if the climatic response is simulated to be symmetric. HadGEM2 simulations reveal a substantially more rapid change in variables such as near-surface temperature and precipitation following termination than the onset, indicating that termination may be substantially more damaging and even catastrophic. Some suggestions for hemispherically asymmetric geoengineering have been proposed as a way to reduce Northern Hemisphere sea ice, for example, with lesser impacts on the rest of the climate. However, HadGEM2 simulations are performed and observations analysed following volcanic eruptions. Both indicate substantial averse consequences from hemispherically asymmetric loading of stratospheric loading on precipitation in the Sahelian region - a vulnerable region where drought has caused hundreds of thousands of deaths and created millions of refugees in the past.

  13. Developing a test-bed for robust research governance of geoengineering: the contribution of ocean iron biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Philip W.; Bressac, Matthieu

    2016-11-01

    Geoengineering to mitigate climate change has long been proposed, but remains nebulous. Exploration of the feasibility of geoengineering first requires the development of research governance to move beyond the conceptual towards scientifically designed pilot studies. Fortuitously, 12 mesoscale (approx. 1000 km2) iron enrichments, funded to investigate how ocean iron biogeochemistry altered Earth's carbon cycle in the geological past, provide proxies to better understand the benefits and drawbacks of geoengineering. The utility of these iron enrichments in the geoengineering debate is enhanced by the GEOTRACES global survey. Here, we outline how GEOTRACES surveys and process studies can provide invaluable insights into geoengineering. Surveys inform key unknowns including the regional influence and magnitude of modes of iron supply, and stimulate iron biogeochemical modelling. These advances will enable quantification of interannual variability of iron supply to assess whether any future purposeful multi-year iron-fertilization meets the principle of `additionality' (sensu Kyoto protocol). Process studies address issues including upscaling of geoengineering, and how differing iron-enrichment strategies could stimulate wide-ranging biogeochemical outcomes. In summary, the availability of databases on both mesoscale iron-enrichment studies and the GEOTRACES survey, along with modelling, policy initiatives and legislation have positioned the iron-enrichment approach as a robust multifaceted test-bed to assess proposed research into climate intervention. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  14. Geoengineering and seismological aspects of the Niigata-Ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake of 16 July 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.; Brandenberg, S.J.; CoIlins, B.D.; Dickenson, S.; Ashford, S.; Kawamata, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Koumoto, H.; Abrahamson, N.; Cluff, L.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2009-01-01

    The M6.6 Niigata-Ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 occurred off the west coast of Japan with a focal depth of 10 km, immediately west of Kashiwazaki City and Kariwa Village in southern Niigata Prefecture. Peak horizontal ground accelerations of 0.68 g were measured in Kashiwazaki City, as well as at the reactor floor level of the world's largest nuclear reactor, located on the coast at Kariwa Village. Liquefaction of historic and modern river deposits, aeolian dune sand, and manmade fill was widespread in the coastal region nearest the epicenter and caused ground deformations that damaged bridges, embankments, roadways, buildings, ports, railways and utilities. Landslides along the coast of southern Niigata Prefecture and in mountainous regions inland of Kashiwazaki were also widespread affecting transportation infrastructure. Liquefaction and a landslide also damaged the nuclear power plant sites. This paper, along with a companion digital map database available at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gOv/infobank/n/nii07jp/html/n-ii-07-jp.sites.kmz, describes the seismological and geo-engineering aspects of the event. ?? 2009, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  15. Glacier evolution in high-mountain Asia under stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liyun; Yang, Yi; Cheng, Wei; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John C.

    2017-06-01

    Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection may help preserve mountain glaciers by reducing summer temperatures. We examine this hypothesis for the glaciers in high-mountain Asia using a glacier mass balance model driven by climate simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The G3 and G4 schemes specify use of stratospheric sulfate aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario for the 50 years between 2020 and 2069, and for a further 20 years after termination of geoengineering. We estimate and compare glacier volume loss for every glacier in the region using a glacier model based on surface mass balance parameterization under climate projections from three Earth system models under G3, five models under G4, and six models under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The ensemble projections suggest that glacier shrinkage over the period 2010-2069 is equivalent to sea-level rise of 9.0 ± 1.6 mm (G3), 9.8 ± 4.3 mm (G4), 15.5 ± 2.3 mm (RCP4.5), and 18.5 ± 1.7 mm (RCP8.5). Although G3 keeps the average temperature from increasing in the geoengineering period, G3 only slows glacier shrinkage by about 50 % relative to losses from RCP8.5. Approximately 72 % of glaciated area remains at 2069 under G3, as compared with about 30 % for RCP8.5. The widely reported reduction in mean precipitation expected for solar geoengineering is unlikely to be as important as the temperature-driven shift from solid to liquid precipitation for forcing Himalayan glacier change. The termination of geoengineering at 2069 under G3 leads to temperature rise of about 1.3 °C over the period 2070-2089 relative to the period 2050-2069 and corresponding increase in annual mean glacier volume loss rate from 0.17 to 1.1 % yr-1, which is higher than the 0.66 % yr-1 under RCP8.5 during 2070-2089.

  16. Glacier evolution in high-mountain Asia under stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection geoengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection may help preserve mountain glaciers by reducing summer temperatures. We examine this hypothesis for the glaciers in high-mountain Asia using a glacier mass balance model driven by climate simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP. The G3 and G4 schemes specify use of stratospheric sulfate aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 4.5 scenario for the 50 years between 2020 and 2069, and for a further 20 years after termination of geoengineering. We estimate and compare glacier volume loss for every glacier in the region using a glacier model based on surface mass balance parameterization under climate projections from three Earth system models under G3, five models under G4, and six models under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The ensemble projections suggest that glacier shrinkage over the period 2010–2069 is equivalent to sea-level rise of 9.0 ± 1.6 mm (G3, 9.8 ± 4.3 mm (G4, 15.5 ± 2.3 mm (RCP4.5, and 18.5 ± 1.7 mm (RCP8.5. Although G3 keeps the average temperature from increasing in the geoengineering period, G3 only slows glacier shrinkage by about 50 % relative to losses from RCP8.5. Approximately 72 % of glaciated area remains at 2069 under G3, as compared with about 30 % for RCP8.5. The widely reported reduction in mean precipitation expected for solar geoengineering is unlikely to be as important as the temperature-driven shift from solid to liquid precipitation for forcing Himalayan glacier change. The termination of geoengineering at 2069 under G3 leads to temperature rise of about 1.3 °C over the period 2070–2089 relative to the period 2050-2069 and corresponding increase in annual mean glacier volume loss rate from 0.17 to 1.1 % yr−1, which is higher than the 0.66 % yr−1 under RCP8.5 during 2070–2089.

  17. A multi-model assessment of the impact of sea spray geoengineering on cloud droplet number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Pringle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificially increasing the albedo of marine boundary layer clouds by the mechanical emission of sea spray aerosol has been proposed as a geoengineering technique to slow the warming caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases. A previous global model study (Korhonen et al., 2010 found that only modest increases (< 20% and sometimes even decreases in cloud drop number (CDN concentrations would result from emission scenarios calculated using a windspeed dependent geoengineering flux parameterisation. Here we extend that work to examine the conditions under which decreases in CDN can occur, and use three independent global models to quantify maximum achievable CDN changes. We find that decreases in CDN can occur when at least three of the following conditions are met: the injected particle number is < 100 cm−3, the injected diameter is > 250–300 nm, the background aerosol loading is large (≥ 150 cm−3 and the in-cloud updraught velocity is low (< 0.2 m s−1. With lower background loadings and/or increased updraught velocity, significant increases in CDN can be achieved. None of the global models predict a decrease in CDN as a result of geoengineering, although there is considerable diversity in the calculated efficiency of geoengineering, which arises from the diversity in the simulated marine aerosol distributions. All three models show a small dependence of geoengineering efficiency on the injected particle size and the geometric standard deviation of the injected mode. However, the achievability of significant cloud drop enhancements is strongly dependent on the cloud updraught speed. With an updraught speed of 0.1 m s−1 a global mean CDN of 375 cm−3 (previously estimated to cancel the forcing caused by CO2 doubling is achievable in only about 50% of grid boxes which have > 50% cloud cover, irrespective of the amount of aerosol injected. But at stronger updraft speeds (0

  18. ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF GEOENGINEERING: A Review for Developing a Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Lynn M.; Rasch, Philip J.; Mace, Georgina; Jackson, Robert B.; Shepherd, John; Liss, Peter; Leinen, Margaret; Schimel, David; Vaughan, Naomi E.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Boyd, Philip W.; Norby, Richard J.; Caldeira, Ken; Merikanto, Joonas; Artaxo, Paulo; Melillo, Jerry; Morgan, M. Granger

    2012-06-01

    Geoengineering methods are intended to reduce the magnitude of climate change. Climate change in some regions is already having demonstrable effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. Two different types of geoengineering activities have been proposed: carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which includes a range of engineered and biological processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and solar radiation management (SRM, or sunlight reflection methods), whereby a small percentage of sunlight is reflected back into space to offset warming from greenhouse gases. In this review, we evaluate some of the possible impacts of CDR and SRM on the physical climate and their subsequent influence on ecosystems, including the risks and uncertainties associated with new kinds of purposeful perturbations to Earth. Specifically, we find evidence that, if implemented successfully, some CDR methods and continue use of some SRM methods) could alleviate some of the deleterious ecosystem impacts associated with climate changes that might occur in the foreseeable future.

  19. Ecosystem impacts of geoengineering: a review for developing a science plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Lynn M; Rasch, Philip J; Mace, Georgina M; Jackson, Robert B; Shepherd, John; Liss, Peter; Leinen, Margaret; Schimel, David; Vaughan, Naomi E; Janetos, Anthony C; Boyd, Philip W; Norby, Richard J; Caldeira, Ken; Merikanto, Joonas; Artaxo, Paulo; Melillo, Jerry; Morgan, M Granger

    2012-06-01

    Geoengineering methods are intended to reduce climate change, which is already having demonstrable effects on ecosystem structure and functioning in some regions. Two types of geoengineering activities that have been proposed are: carbon dioxide (CO(2)) removal (CDR), which removes CO(2) from the atmosphere, and solar radiation management (SRM, or sunlight reflection methods), which reflects a small percentage of sunlight back into space to offset warming from greenhouse gases (GHGs). Current research suggests that SRM or CDR might diminish the impacts of climate change on ecosystems by reducing changes in temperature and precipitation. However, sudden cessation of SRM would exacerbate the climate effects on ecosystems, and some CDR might interfere with oceanic and terrestrial ecosystem processes. The many risks and uncertainties associated with these new kinds of purposeful perturbations to the Earth system are not well understood and require cautious and comprehensive research.

  20. Geoengineering Responses to Climate Change Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Failure by the international community to make substantive progress in reducing CO2 emissions, coupled with recent evidence of accelerating climate change, has brought increasing urgency to the search for additional remediation approaches.  This book presents a selection of state-of-the-art geoengineering methods for deliberately reducing the effects of anthropogenic climate change, either by actively removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere or by decreasing the amount of sunlight absorbed at the Earth’s surface.  These methods contrast with more conventional mitigation approaches which focus on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide. Geoengineering technologies could become a key tool to be used in conjunction with emissions reduction to limit the magnitude of climate change.  Featuring authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, this book presents a wide range of climate change remediation technologies. Examines th...

  1. A simple, physically-based method for evaluating the economic costs of geo-engineering schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2009-04-01

    The consumption of primary energy (e.g coal, oil, uranium) by the global economy is done in expectation of a return on investment. For geo-engineering schemes, however, the relationship between the primary energy consumption required and the economic return is, at first glance, quite different. The energy costs of a given scheme represent a removal of economically productive available energy to do work in the normal global economy. What are the economic implications of the energy consumption associated with geo-engineering techniques? I will present a simple thermodynamic argument that, in general, real (inflation-adjusted) economic value has a fixed relationship to the rate of global primary energy consumption. This hypothesis will be shown to be supported by 36 years of available energy statistics and a two millennia period of statistics for global economic production. What is found from this analysis is that the value in any given inflation-adjusted 1990 dollar is sustained by a constant 9.7 +/- 0.3 milliwatts of global primary energy consumption. Thus, insofar as geo-engineering is concerned, any scheme that requires some nominal fraction of continuous global primary energy output necessitates a corresponding inflationary loss of real global economic value. For example, if 1% of global energy output is required, at today's consumption rates of 15 TW this corresponds to an inflationary loss of 15 trillion 1990 dollars of real value. The loss will be less, however, if the geo-engineering scheme also enables a demonstrable enhancement to global economic production capacity through climate modification.

  2. How well could existing sensors detect the deployment of a solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering effort?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Alan J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-29

    While the stated reason for asking this question is “to understand better our ability to warn policy makers in the unlikely event of an unanticipated SRM geoengineering deployment or large-scale field experiment”, my colleagues and I felt that motives would be important context because the scale of any meaningful SRM deployment would be so large that covert deployment seems impossible. However, several motives emerged that suggest a less-than-global effort might be important.

  3. Arctic cryosphere response in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project G3 and G4 scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Mira; Robock, Alan; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John C.; Jones, Andy; Kravitz, Ben; Watanabe, Shingo

    2014-02-01

    We analyzed output from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project for the two most "realistic" scenarios, which use the representative concentration pathway of 4.5 Wm-2 by 2100 (RCP4.5) as the control run and inject sulfate aerosol precursors into the stratosphere. The first experiment, G3, is specified to keep RCP4.5 top of atmosphere net radiation at 2020 values by injection of sulfate aerosols, and the second, G4, injects 5 Tg SO2 per year. We ask whether geoengineering by injection of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere from the years 2020 to 2070 is able to prevent the demise of Northern Hemispere minimum annual sea ice extent or slow spring Northern Hemispere snow cover loss. We show that in all available models, despite geoengineering efforts, September sea ice extents still decrease from 2020 to 2070, although not as quickly as in RCP4.5. In two of five models, total September ice loss occurs before 2060. Spring snow extent is increased from 2020 to 2070 compared to RCP4.5 although there is still a negative trend in 3 of 4 models. Because of the climate system lag in responding to the existing radiative forcing, to stop Arctic sea ice and snow from continuing to melt, the imposed forcing would have to be large enough to also counteract the existing radiative imbalance. After the cessation of sulfate aerosol injection in 2070, the climate system rebounds to the warmer RCP4.5 state quickly, and thus, any sea ice or snow retention as a result of geoengineering is lost within a decade.

  4. Systemic effects of geoengineering by terrestrial carbon dioxide removal on carbon related planetary boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Vera; Donges, Jonathan; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The planetary boundaries framework as proposed by Rockström et al. (2009) provides guidelines for ecological boundaries, the transgression of which is likely to result in a shift of Earth system functioning away from the relatively stable Holocene state. As the climate change boundary is already close to be transgressed, several geoengineering (GE) methods are discussed, aiming at a reduction of atmospheric carbon concentrations to control the Earth's energy balance. One of the proposed GE methods is carbon extraction from the atmosphere via biological carbon sequestration. In case mitigation efforts fail to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this form of GE could act as potential measure to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We here study the possible influences of human interactions in the Earth system on carbon related planetary boundaries in the form of geoengineering (terrestrial carbon dioxide removal). We use a conceptual model specifically designed to investigate fundamental carbon feedbacks between land, ocean and atmosphere (Anderies et al., 2013) and modify it to include an additional geoengineering component. With that we analyze the existence and stability of a safe operating space for humanity, which is here conceptualized in three of the 9 proposed dimensions, namely climate change, ocean acidification and land-use. References: J. M. Anderies et al., The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries. Environ. Res. Lett., 8(4):044048 (2013) J. Rockström et al., A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461 (7263), 472-475 (2009)

  5. Radiative and climate impacts of a large volcanic eruption during stratospheric sulfur geoengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laakso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Both explosive volcanic eruptions, which emit sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere, and stratospheric geoengineering via sulfur injections can potentially cool the climate by increasing the amount of scattering particles in the atmosphere. Here we employ a global aerosol-climate model and an earth system model to study the radiative and climate impacts of an erupting volcano during solar radiation management (SRM. According to our simulations, the radiative impacts of an eruption and SRM are not additive: in the simulated case of concurrent eruption and SRM, the peak increase in global forcing is about 40 % lower compared to a corresponding eruption into a clean background atmosphere. In addition, the recovery of the stratospheric sulfate burden and forcing was significantly faster in the concurrent case since the sulfate particles grew larger and thus sedimented faster from the stratosphere. In our simulation where we assumed that SRM would be stopped immediately after a volcano eruption, stopping SRM decreased the overall stratospheric aerosol load. For the same reasons, a volcanic eruption during SRM lead to only about 1/3 of the peak global ensemble-mean cooling compared to an eruption under unperturbed atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, the global cooling signal was seen only for 12 months after the eruption in the former scenario compared to over 40 months in the latter. In terms of the global precipitation rate, we obtain a 36 % smaller decrease in the first year after the eruption and again a clearly faster recovery in the concurrent eruption and SRM scenario. We also found that an explosive eruption could lead to significantly different regional climate responses depending on whether it takes place during geoengineering or into an unperturbed background atmosphere. Our results imply that observations from previous large eruptions, such as Mt Pinatubo in 1991, are not directly applicable when estimating the potential consequences of a

  6. A comparison of temperature and precipitation responses to different Earth radiation management geoengineering schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, J. A.; Jackson, L. S.; Osprey, S. M.; Forster, P. M.

    2015-09-01

    Earth radiation management has been suggested as a way to rapidly counteract global warming in the face of a lack of mitigation efforts, buying time and avoiding potentially catastrophic warming. We compare six different radiation management schemes that use surface, troposphere, and stratosphere interventions in a single climate model in which we projected future climate from 2020 to 2099 based on RCP4.5. We analyze the surface air temperature responses to determine how effective the schemes are at returning temperature to its 1986-2005 climatology and analyze precipitation responses to compare side effects. We find crop albedo enhancement is largely ineffective at returning temperature to its 1986-2005 climatology. Desert albedo enhancement causes excessive cooling in the deserts and severe shifts in tropical precipitation. Ocean albedo enhancement, sea-spray geoengineering, cirrus cloud thinning, and stratospheric SO2 injection have the potential to cool more uniformly, but cirrus cloud thinning may not be able to cool by much more than 1 K globally. We find that of the schemes potentially able to return surface air temperature to 1986-2005 climatology under future greenhouse gas warming, none has significantly less severe precipitation side effects than other schemes. Despite different forcing patterns, ocean albedo enhancement, sea-spray geoengineering, cirrus cloud thinning, and stratospheric SO2 injection all result in large scale tropical precipitation responses caused by Hadley cell changes and land precipitation changes largely driven by thermodynamic changes. Widespread regional scale changes in precipitation over land are significantly different from the 1986-2005 climatology and would likely necessitate significant adaptation despite geoengineering.

  7. Stratospheric geoengineering impacts on El Niño/Southern Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, C. J.; Robock, A.

    2015-10-01

    To examine the impact of proposed stratospheric geoengineering schemes on the amplitude and frequency of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variations we examine climate model simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G1-G4 experiments. Here we compare tropical Pacific behavior under anthropogenic global warming (AGW) using several scenarios: an instantaneous quadrupling of the atmosphere's CO2 concentration, a 1 % annual increase in CO2 concentration, and the representative concentration pathway resulting in 4.5 W m-2 radiative forcing at the end of the 21st century, the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 scenario, with that under G1-G4 and under historical model simulations. Climate models under AGW project relatively uniform warming across the tropical Pacific over the next several decades. We find no statistically significant change in ENSO frequency or amplitude under stratospheric geoengineering as compared with those that would occur under ongoing AGW, although the relative brevity of the G1-G4 simulations may have limited detectability of such changes. We also find that the amplitude and frequency of ENSO events do not vary significantly under either AGW scenarios or G1-G4 from the variability found within historical simulations or observations going back to the mid-19th century. Finally, while warming of the Niño3.4 region in the tropical Pacific is fully offset in G1 and G2 during the 40-year simulations, the region continues to warm significantly in G3 and G4, which both start from a present-day climate.

  8. Editorial - A critical perspective on geo-engineering for eutrophication management in lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lürling, Miquel; Mackay, Eleanor; Reitzel, Kasper; Spears, Bryan M

    2016-06-15

    Eutrophication is the primary worldwide water quality issue. Reducing excessive external nutrient loading is the most straightforward action in mitigating eutrophication, but lakes, ponds and reservoirs often show little, if any, signs of recovery in the years following external load reduction. This is due to internal cycling of phosphorus (P). Geo-engineering, which we can here define as activities intervening with biogeochemical cycles to control eutrophication in inland waters, represents a promising approach, under appropriate conditions, to reduce P release from bed sediments and cyanobacteria accumulation in surface waters, thereby speeding up recovery. In this overview, we draw on evidence from this special issue Geoengineering in Lakes, and on supporting literature to provide a critical perspective on the approach. We demonstrate that many of the strong P sorbents in the literature will not be applicable in the field because of costs and other constraints. Aluminium and lanthanum modified compounds are among the most effective compounds for targeting P. Flocculants and ballast compounds can be used to sink cyanobacteria, in the short term. We emphasize that the first step in managing eutrophication is a system analysis that will reveal the main water and P flows and the biological structure of the waterbody. These site specific traits can be significant confounding factors dictating successful eutrophication management. Geo-engineering techniques, considered collectively, as part of a tool kit, may ensure successful management of eutrophication through a range of target effects. In addition, novel developments in modified zeolites offer simultaneous P and nitrogen control. To facilitate research and reduce the delay from concept to market a multi-national centre of excellence is required.

  9. A multi-model assessment of the efficacy of sea spray geoengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Pringle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificially increasing the albedo of marine clouds by the mechanical emission of sea spray aerosol has been proposed as a geoengineering technique to slow the warming caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases. A previous global model study found that only modest increases and sometimes even decreases in cloud drop number (CDN concentrations would result from plausible emission scenarios. Here we extend that work to examine the conditions under which decreases in CDN can occur, and use three independent global models to quantify maximum achievable CDN changes. We find that decreases in CDN can occur when at least three of the following conditions are met: the injected particle number is <100 cm−3, the injected diameter is >250–300 nm, the background aerosol loading is large (≥150 cm−3 and the in-cloud updraught velocity is low (<0.2 ms−1. With lower background loadings and/or increased updraught velocity, significant increases in CDN can be achieved. None of the global models predict a decrease in CDN as a result of geoengineering, although there is considerable diversity in the calculated efficiency of geoengineering, which arises from the diversity in the simulated background aerosol distributions. All three models show a small dependence of geoengineering efficiency on the injected particle size and the geometric standard deviation of the injected mode. However, the achievability of significant cloud drop enhancements is strongly dependent on the cloud updraught speed. With an updraught speed of 0.1 ms−1 a global mean CDN of 375 cm−3 (previously estimated to cancel the forcing caused by CO2 doubling is achievable in only about 50 % of cloudy grid boxes irrespective of the amount of aerosol injected. But at 0.2 ms−1 a CDN of 375−3 becomes achievable everywhere. Updraught speeds of less than 0.2 ms−1 are common in low

  10. Influence of Mineral Additives on the Technological Properties of Sealing Slurries for Geoengineering Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Gonet

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors influencing the efficiency of sealing and reinforcing the ground and rock mass with geoengineering methods is a proper selection of respective technological parameters in view of existing hydrogeological and geotechnical conditions.Selected mineral additives increase the sealing properties of fresh and set slurries. They also decrease the cost of the slurry, provide a method for utilizing the stored materials (additives, and consequently, lessen the risk of environmental pollution.The results of laboratory tests on the influence of selected mineral additives on technological properties of sealing slurries are presented in the paper.

  11. Geoengineering Research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in Sedimentary Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldon, M.

    2004-12-01

    A process to identify world-class research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the USA has been initiated by NSF. While allowing physicists to study, inter alia, dark matter and dark energy, this laboratory will create unprecedented opportunities for biologists to study deep life, geoscientists to study crustal processes and geoengineers to study the behavior of rock, fluids and underground cavities at depth, on time scales of decades. A substantial portion of the nation's future infrastructure is likely to be sited underground because of energy costs, urban crowding and vulnerability of critical surface facilities. Economic and safe development of subsurface space will require an improved ability to engineer the geologic environment. Because of the prevalence of sedimentary rock in the upper continental crust, much of this subterranean infrastructure will be hosted in sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks are fundamentally anisotropic due to lithology and bedding, and to discontinuities ranging from microcracks to faults. Fractures, faults and bedding planes create structural defects and hydraulic pathways over a wide range of scales. Through experimentation, observation and monitoring in a sedimentary rock DUSEL, in conjunction with high performance computational models and visualization tools, we will explore the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of layered rock. DUSEL will permit long-term experiments on 100 m blocks of rock in situ, accessed via peripheral tunnels. Rock volumes will be loaded to failure and monitored for post-peak behavior. The response of large rock bodies to stress relief-driven, time-dependent strain will be monitored over decades. Large block experiments will be aimed at measurement of fluid flow and particle/colloid transport, in situ mining (incl. mining with microbes), remediation technologies, fracture enhancement for resource extraction and large scale long-term rock mass response to induced

  12. Impacts of light shading and nutrient enrichment geo-engineering approaches on the productivity of a stratified, oligotrophic ocean ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman-Mountford, Nick J; Polimene, Luca; Hirata, Takafumi; Brewin, Robert J W; Aiken, Jim

    2013-12-06

    Geo-engineering proposals to mitigate global warming have focused either on methods of carbon dioxide removal, particularly nutrient fertilization of plant growth, or on cooling the Earth's surface by reducing incoming solar radiation (shading). Marine phytoplankton contribute half the Earth's biological carbon fixation and carbon export in the ocean is modulated by the actions of microbes and grazing communities in recycling nutrients. Both nutrients and light are essential for photosynthesis, so understanding the relative influence of both these geo-engineering approaches on ocean ecosystem production and processes is critical to the evaluation of their effectiveness. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between light and nutrient availability on productivity in a stratified, oligotrophic subtropical ocean ecosystem using a one-dimensional water column model coupled to a multi-plankton ecosystem model, with the goal of elucidating potential impacts of these geo-engineering approaches on ecosystem production. We find that solar shading approaches can redistribute productivity in the water column but do not change total production. Macronutrient enrichment is able to enhance the export of carbon, although heterotrophic recycling reduces the efficiency of carbon export substantially over time. Our results highlight the requirement for a fuller consideration of marine ecosystem interactions and feedbacks, beyond simply the stimulation of surface blooms, in the evaluation of putative geo-engineering approaches.

  13. Climatic impacts of stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate, black carbon and titania injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Jones

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the potential climatic effects of geoengineering by sulfate, black carbon and titania injection against a baseline RCP8.5 scenario. We use the HadGEM2-CCS model to simulate scenarios in which the top-of-the-atmosphere radiative imbalance due to rising greenhouse gas concentrations is offset by sufficient aerosol injection throughout the 2020–2100 period. We find that the global-mean temperature is effectively maintained at historical levels for the entirety of the period for all 3 aerosol-injection scenarios, though there are a wide range of side-effects which are discussed in detail. The most prominent conclusion is that although the BC injection rate necessary to produce an equivalent global mean temperature-response is much lower, the severity of stratospheric temperature changes (> +70 °C and precipitation impacts effectively exclude BC from being a viable option for geoengineering. Additionally, while it has been suggested that titania would be an effective particle because of its high scattering efficiency, it also efficiently absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation producing a significant stratospheric warming (> +20 °C. As injection rates for titania are close to those for sulfate, there appears little benefit of using titania when compared to injection of sulfur dioxide, which has the added benefit of being well modelled through extensive research that has been carried out on naturally occurring explosive volcanic eruptions.

  14. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (GeoMIP6: simulation design and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kravitz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a suite of new climate model experiment designs for the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP. This set of experiments, named GeoMIP6 (to be consistent with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6, builds on the previous GeoMIP project simulations, and has been expanded to address several further important topics, including key uncertainties in extreme events, the use of geoengineering as part of a portfolio of responses to climate change, and the relatively new idea of cirrus cloud thinning to allow more longwave radiation to escape to space. We discuss experiment designs, as well as the rationale for those designs, showing preliminary results from individual models when available. We also introduce a new feature, called the GeoMIP Testbed, which provides a platform for simulations that will be performed with a few models and subsequently assessed to determine whether the proposed experiment designs will be adopted as core (Tier 1 GeoMIP experiments. This is meant to encourage various stakeholders to propose new targeted experiments that address their key open science questions, with the goal of making GeoMIP more relevant to a broader set of communities.

  15. Climatic impacts of stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate, black carbon and titania injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anthony C.; Haywood, James M.; Jones, Andy

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the potential climatic effects of geoengineering by sulfate, black carbon and titania injection against a baseline RCP8.5 scenario. We use the HadGEM2-CCS model to simulate scenarios in which the top-of-the-atmosphere radiative imbalance due to rising greenhouse gas concentrations is offset by sufficient aerosol injection throughout the 2020-2100 period. We find that the global-mean temperature is effectively maintained at historical levels for the entirety of the period for all three aerosol-injection scenarios, though there is a wide range of side-effects which are discussed in detail. The most prominent conclusion is that although the BC injection rate necessary to produce an equivalent global mean temperature response is much lower, the severity of stratospheric temperature changes (> +70 °C) and precipitation impacts effectively exclude BC from being a viable option for geoengineering. Additionally, while it has been suggested that titania would be an effective particle because of its high scattering efficiency, it also efficiently absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation producing a significant stratospheric warming (> +20 °C). As injection rates and climatic impacts for titania are close to those for sulfate, there appears to be little benefit in terms of climatic influence of using titania when compared to the injection of sulfur dioxide, which has the added benefit of being well-modeled through extensive research that has been carried out on naturally occurring explosive volcanic eruptions.

  16. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (GeoMIP6): simulation design and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, B.; Robock, A.; Tilmes, S.; Boucher, O.; English, J. M.; Irvine, P. J.; Jones, A.; Lawrence, M. G.; MacCracken, M.; Muri, H.; Moore, J. C.; Niemeier, U.; Phipps, S. J.; Sillmann, J.; Storelvmo, T.; Wang, H.; Watanabe, S.

    2015-10-01

    We present a suite of new climate model experiment designs for the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). This set of experiments, named GeoMIP6 (to be consistent with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6), builds on the previous GeoMIP project simulations, and has been expanded to address several further important topics, including key uncertainties in extreme events, the use of geoengineering as part of a portfolio of responses to climate change, and the relatively new idea of cirrus cloud thinning to allow more longwave radiation to escape to space. We discuss experiment designs, as well as the rationale for those designs, showing preliminary results from individual models when available. We also introduce a new feature, called the GeoMIP Testbed, which provides a platform for simulations that will be performed with a few models and subsequently assessed to determine whether the proposed experiment designs will be adopted as core (Tier 1) GeoMIP experiments. This is meant to encourage various stakeholders to propose new targeted experiments that address their key open science questions, with the goal of making GeoMIP more relevant to a broader set of communities.

  17. Sensitivity of Stratospheric Geoengineering with Black Carbon to Aerosol Size and Altitude of Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Ben; Robock, Alan; Shindell, Drew T.; Miller, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Simulations of stratospheric geoengineering with black carbon (BC) aerosols using a general circulation model with fixed sea surface temperatures show that the climate effects strongly depend on aerosol size and altitude of injection. 1 Tg BC/a injected into the lower stratosphere would cause little surface cooling for large radii but a large amount of surface cooling for small radii and stratospheric warming of over 60 C. With the exception of small particles, increasing the altitude of injection increases surface cooling and stratospheric warming. Stratospheric warming causes global ozone loss by up to 50% in the small radius case. The Antarctic shows less ozone loss due to reduction of polar stratospheric clouds, but strong circumpolar winds would enhance the Arctic ozone hole. Using diesel fuel to produce the aerosols is likely prohibitively expensive and infeasible. Although studying an absorbing aerosol is a useful counterpart to previous studies involving sulfate aerosols, black carbon geoengineering likely carries too many risks to make it a viable option for deployment.

  18. Sensitivity of simulated climate to latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in SRM geoengineering methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Modak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation management (SRM geoengineering has been proposed as a potential option to counteract climate change. We perform a set of idealized geoengineering simulations to understand the global hydrological implications of varying the latitudinal distribution of solar insolation reduction in SRM methods. We find that for a fixed total mass of sulfate aerosols (12.6 Mt of SO4, relative to a uniform distribution which mitigates changes in global mean temperature, global mean radiative forcing is larger when aerosol concentration is maximum at the poles leading to a warmer global mean climate and consequently an intensified hydrological cycle. Opposite changes are simulated when aerosol concentration is maximized in the tropics. We obtain a range of 1 K in global mean temperature and 3% in precipitation changes by varying the distribution pattern: this range is about 50% of the climate change from a doubling of CO2. Hence, our study demonstrates that a range of global mean climate states, determined by the global mean radiative forcing, are possible for a fixed total amount of aerosols but with differing latitudinal distribution, highlighting the need for a careful evaluation of SRM proposals.

  19. What do people think when they think about solar geoengineering? A review of empirical social science literature, and prospects for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Elizabeth T.; Flegal, Jane A.; Keith, David W.; Mahajan, Aseem; Tingley, Dustin; Wagner, Gernot

    2016-11-01

    Public views and values about solar geoengineering should be incorporated in science-policy decisions, if decision makers want to act in the public interest. In reflecting on the past decade of research, we review around 30 studies investigating public familiarity with, and views about, solar geoengineering. A number of recurring patterns emerge: (1) general unfamiliarity with geoengineering among publics; (2) the importance of artifice versus naturalness; (3) some conditional support for certain kinds of research; and (4) nuanced findings on the "moral hazard" and "reverse moral hazard" hypotheses, with empirical support for each appearing under different circumstances and populations. We argue that in the coming decade, empirical social science research on solar geoengineering will be crucial, and should be integrated with physical scientific research.

  20. Application of Combing the Solar Energy and Noise Reduction in the Outdoor Sun-Shading Louver%太阳能减噪结合板在建筑室外遮阳百叶中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎国鹏; 敖永安; 许志鹏; 郝亚芬; 邱峰

    2014-01-01

    The study is aimed to apply the solar panel combined with the PVC noise reduction hole board into the outdoor sun-shading louver so that it could improve the light environment and sound envi-ronment of the building and reduce the energy consumption. The sun-shading louver composing of the solar panel and PVC noise reduction hole board installed in the existing buildings is tested, compared with the original building, and analyzing its effects of energy efficiency and noise reduction performance. Through comparing the effects of energy efficiency with or without the sun-shading louver set, it found that in Bei-jing area, under the certain structure, every 100 square meters of solar panel can save 1.52 tons of standard coal, while the noise reduction board can reduce 10%~20% noise indoor. The result shows that the certain structure of the outdoor sun-shading louvers can decrease some sunlight from outdoor into indoor in sum-mer and reduce the noise from outdoor while providing the necessary sunshine in winter. The structure is simple and durable, while it can reduce the load of heating and air-conditioning and save energy.%将太阳能光电转换板与PVC减噪孔板结合应用于建筑遮阳百叶中,在改善建筑光环境的同时对建筑声环境与能耗有所改善。在已有建筑中,将太阳能光电转换板与PVC减噪孔板结合构成建筑遮阳百叶的叶片,在保证系统遮阳性能的条件下,与原有建筑对比测试,分析太阳能减噪结合板节能效益和减噪性能。通过对比遮阳板设置前后得到太阳能减噪结合板的节能效益,发现在北京地区在一定的设计结构下,每使用100 m2太阳能光电转换板能节约1.52吨标准煤,减噪板能减少10%~20%的室内噪音。一定结构的太阳能减噪结合板遮阳百叶可减少夏季进入室内的阳光,能保证冬季必要日照的同时减少进入建筑室内的噪音;结构简单,耐用,可减少建筑供暖和空调

  1. Radiative and climate effects of stratospheric sulfur geoengineering using seasonally varying injection areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Anton; Korhonen, Hannele; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Kokkola, Harri

    2017-06-01

    Stratospheric sulfur injections have often been suggested as a cost-effective geoengineering method to prevent or slow down global warming. In geoengineering studies, these injections are commonly targeted to the Equator, where the yearly mean intensity of the solar radiation is the highest and from where the aerosols disperse globally due to the Brewer-Dobson Circulation. However, compensating for greenhouse gas-induced zonal warming by reducing solar radiation would require a relatively larger radiative forcing to the mid- and high latitudes and a lower forcing to the low latitudes than what is achieved by continuous equatorial injections. In this study we employ alternative aerosol injection scenarios to investigate if the resulting radiative forcing can be targeted to be zonally more uniform without decreasing the global the mean radiative forcing of stratospheric sulfur geoengineering. We used a global aerosol-climate model together with an Earth system model to study the radiative and climate effects of stratospheric sulfur injection scenarios with different injection areas. According to our simulations, varying the SO2 injection area seasonally would result in a similar global mean cooling effect as injecting SO2 to the Equator, but with a more uniform zonal distribution of shortwave radiative forcing. Compared to the case of equatorial injections, in the seasonally varying injection scenario where the maximum sulfur production from injected SO2 followed the maximum of solar radiation, the shortwave radiative forcing decreased by 27 % over the Equator (the latitudes between 20° N and 20° S) and increased by 15 % over higher latitudes. Compared to the continuous injections to the Equator, in summer months the radiative forcing was increased by 17 and 14 % and in winter months decreased by 14 and 16 % in Northern and Southern hemispheres, respectively. However, these forcings do not translate into as large changes in temperatures. The changes in forcing

  2. Radiative and climate effects of stratospheric sulfur geoengineering using seasonally varying injection areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laakso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfur injections have often been suggested as a cost-effective geoengineering method to prevent or slow down global warming. In geoengineering studies, these injections are commonly targeted to the Equator, where the yearly mean intensity of the solar radiation is the highest and from where the aerosols disperse globally due to the Brewer–Dobson Circulation. However, compensating for greenhouse gas-induced zonal warming by reducing solar radiation would require a relatively larger radiative forcing to the mid- and high latitudes and a lower forcing to the low latitudes than what is achieved by continuous equatorial injections. In this study we employ alternative aerosol injection scenarios to investigate if the resulting radiative forcing can be targeted to be zonally more uniform without decreasing the global the mean radiative forcing of stratospheric sulfur geoengineering. We used a global aerosol–climate model together with an Earth system model to study the radiative and climate effects of stratospheric sulfur injection scenarios with different injection areas. According to our simulations, varying the SO2 injection area seasonally would result in a similar global mean cooling effect as injecting SO2 to the Equator, but with a more uniform zonal distribution of shortwave radiative forcing. Compared to the case of equatorial injections, in the seasonally varying injection scenario where the maximum sulfur production from injected SO2 followed the maximum of solar radiation, the shortwave radiative forcing decreased by 27 % over the Equator (the latitudes between 20° N and 20° S and increased by 15 % over higher latitudes. Compared to the continuous injections to the Equator, in summer months the radiative forcing was increased by 17 and 14 % and in winter months decreased by 14 and 16 % in Northern and Southern hemispheres, respectively. However, these forcings do not translate into as large changes in

  3. Ozone changes under solar geoengineering: implications for UV exposure and air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Nowack

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of geoengineering have been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Methods which aim to modify the Earth's energy balance by reducing insolation are often subsumed under the term Solar Radiation Management (SRM. Here, we present results of a standard SRM modelling experiment in which the incoming solar irradiance is reduced to offset the global mean warming induced by a quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. For the first time in an atmosphere–ocean coupled climate model, we include atmospheric composition feedbacks such as ozone changes under this scenario. Including the composition changes, we find large reductions in surface UV-B irradiance, with implications for vitamin D production, and increases in surface ozone concentrations, both of which could be important for human health. We highlight that both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone changes should be considered in the assessment of any SRM scheme, due to their important roles in regulating UV exposure and air quality.

  4. Geoengineering and the blockchain: a near-complete solution to greenhouse emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, A.; Coffman, D.

    2016-12-01

    Geoengineering has been proposed to deal partially with the consequences ofanthropogenic global warming. This is composed of two strands - fast acting,incomplete but inexpensive solar radiation management; and carbon dioxide removal,which (if enacted quickly) has the potential to be a complete solution. We propose asystem of smart contracts, executed and made transparent by the blockchain, toprovide an economically and environmentally complete solution to carbon emissions atthe point of combustion. This will integrate CDR futures contracts and SRM carboncredits to ensure that all emissions are fully and transactionally disposed of at themoment of release. Specifically, we suggest use of an SRM 'bridge' contract, tocounter the warming caused between CDR economic activity being undertaken, andthe resultant drawdown of carbon occurring.

  5. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (GeoMIP6: simulation design and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kravitz

    2015-06-01

    simulations, and has been expanded to address several further important topics, including key uncertainties in extreme events, the use of geoengineering as part of a portfolio of responses to climate change, and the relatively new idea of cirrus cloud thinning to allow more longwave radiation to escape to space. We discuss experiment designs, as well as the rationale for those designs, showing preliminary results from individual models when available. We also introduce a new feature, called the GeoMIP Testbed, which provides a platform for simulations that will be performed with a few models and subsequently assessed to determine whether the proposed experiment designs will be adopted as core (Tier 1 GeoMIP experiments. This is meant to encourage various stakeholders to propose new targeted experiments that address their key open science questions, with the goal of making GeoMIP more relevant to a broader set of communities.

  6. Modifications of the Quasi-biennial Oscillation by a Geoengineering Perturbation of the Stratospheric Aerosol Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, V.; Garfinkel, C. I.; Newman, P. A.; Oman, L. D.; Waugh, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of geoengineering via stratospheric sulfate aerosol on the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Chemistry Climate Model. We performed four 30-year simulations with a continuous injection of sulfur dioxide on the equator at 0 degree longitude. The four simulations differ by the amount of sulfur dioxide injected (5Tg per year and 2.5 Tg per year) and the altitude of the injection (16km-25km and 22km-25km). We find that such an injection dramatically alters the quasi-biennial oscillation, prolonging the phase of easterly shear with respect to the control simulation. In the case of maximum perturbation, i.e. highest stratospheric aerosol burden, the lower tropical stratosphere is locked into a permanent westerly QBO phase. This locked QBO westerly phase is caused by the increased aerosol heating and associated warming in the tropical lower stratosphere.

  7. Ozone changes under solar geoengineering: implications for UV exposure and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, P. J.; Abraham, N. L.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Various forms of geoengineering have been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Methods which aim to modify the Earth's energy balance by reducing insolation are often subsumed under the term Solar Radiation Management (SRM). Here, we present results of a standard SRM modelling experiment in which the incoming solar irradiance is reduced to offset the global mean warming induced by a quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. For the first time in an atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, we include atmospheric composition feedbacks such as ozone changes under this scenario. Including the composition changes, we find large reductions in surface UV-B irradiance, with implications for vitamin D production, and increases in surface ozone concentrations, both of which could be important for human health. We highlight that both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone changes should be considered in the assessment of any SRM scheme, due to their important roles in regulating UV exposure and air quality.

  8. The Hydrological Sensitivity to Global Warming and Solar Geoengineering Derived from Thermodynamic Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleidon, Alex; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Renner, Maik

    2015-01-16

    We derive analytic expressions of the transient response of the hydrological cycle to surface warming from an extremely simple energy balance model in which turbulent heat fluxes are constrained by the thermodynamic limit of maximum power. For a given magnitude of steady-state temperature change, this approach predicts the transient response as well as the steady-state change in surface energy partitioning and the hydrologic cycle. We show that the transient behavior of the simple model as well as the steady state hydrological sensitivities to greenhouse warming and solar geoengineering are comparable to results from simulations using highly complex models. Many of the global-scale hydrological cycle changes can be understood from a surface energy balance perspective, and our thermodynamically-constrained approach provides a physically robust way of estimating global hydrological changes in response to altered radiative forcing.

  9. The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the GeoMIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, Susanne; Irvine, Peter J.; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2015-10-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has been proposed as a mean to partly counteract global warming. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) has simulated the climate consequences of a number of SRM techniques. Thus far, the effects on vegetation have not yet been thoroughly analyzed. Here the vegetation response to the idealized GeoMIP G1 experiment from eight fully coupled Earth system models (ESMs) is analyzed, in which a reduction of the solar constant counterbalances the radiative effects of quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations (abrupt4 × CO2). For most models and regions, changes in net primary productivity (NPP) are dominated by the increase in CO2, via the CO2 fertilization effect. As SRM will reduce temperatures relative to abrupt4 × CO2, in high latitudes this will offset increases in NPP. In low latitudes, this cooling relative to the abrupt4 × CO2 simulation decreases plant respiration while having little effect on gross primary productivity, thus increasing NPP. In Central America and the Mediterranean, generally dry regions which are expected to experience increased water stress with global warming, NPP is highest in the G1 experiment for all models due to the easing of water limitations from increased water use efficiency at high-CO2 concentrations and the reduced evaporative demand in a geoengineered climate. The largest differences in the vegetation response are between models with and without a nitrogen cycle, with a much smaller CO2 fertilization effect for the former. These results suggest that until key vegetation processes are integrated into ESM predictions, the vegetation response to SRM will remain highly uncertain.

  10. Lifting options for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering: advantages of tethered balloon systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Peter; Burgoyne, Chris; Hunt, Hugh; Causier, Matt

    2012-09-13

    The Royal Society report 'Geoengineering the Climate' identified solar radiation management using albedo-enhancing aerosols injected into the stratosphere as the most affordable and effective option for geoengineering, but did not consider in any detail the options for delivery. This paper provides outline engineering analyses of the options, both for batch-delivery processes, following up on previous work for artillery shells, missiles, aircraft and free-flying balloons, as well as a more lengthy analysis of continuous-delivery systems that require a pipe connected to the ground and supported at a height of 20 km, either by a tower or by a tethered balloon. Towers are shown not to be practical, but a tethered balloon delivery system, with high-pressure pumping, appears to have much lower operating and capital costs than all other delivery options. Instead of transporting sulphuric acid mist precursors, such a system could also be used to transport slurries of high refractive index particles such as coated titanium dioxide. The use of such particles would allow useful experiments on opacity, coagulation and atmospheric chemistry at modest rates so as not to perturb regional or global climatic conditions, thus reducing scale-up risks. Criteria for particle choice are discussed, including the need to minimize or prevent ozone destruction. The paper estimates the time scales and relatively modest costs required if a tethered balloon system were to be introduced in a measured way with testing and development work proceeding over three decades, rather than in an emergency. The manufacture of a tether capable of sustaining the high tensions and internal pressures needed, as well as strong winds, is a significant challenge, as is the development of the necessary pumping and dispersion technologies. The greatest challenge may be the manufacture and launch of very large balloons, but means have been identified to significantly reduce the size of such balloons or aerostats.

  11. ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF GEOENGINEERING: A Review for Developing a Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Lynn M [University of California, San Diego; Jackson, Robert B [Duke University; Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Geoengineering methods are intended to reduce the magnitude of climate change, which is already having demonstrable effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. Two different types of activities have been proposed: solar radiation management (SRM), or sunlight reflection methods, which involves reflecting a small percentage of solar light back into space to offset the warming due to greenhouse gases, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which includes a range of engineered and biological processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. This report evaluates some of the possible impacts of CDR and SRM on the physical climate and their subsequent influence on ecosystems, which include the risks and uncertainties associated with new kinds of purposeful perturbations to the Earth. Therefore, the question considered in this review is whether CDR and SRM methods would exacerbate or alleviate the deleterious impacts on ecosystems associated with climate changes that might occur in the foreseeable future.Geoengineering methods are intended to reduce the magnitude of climate change, which is already having demonstrable effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. Two different types of activities have been proposed: solar radiation management (SRM), or sunlight reflection methods, which involves reflecting a small percentage of solar light back into space to offset the warming due to greenhouse gases, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which includes a range of engineered and biological processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. This report evaluates some of the possible impacts of CDR and SRM on the physical climate and their subsequent influence on ecosystems, which include the risks and uncertainties associated with new kinds of purposeful perturbations to the Earth. Therefore, the question considered in this review is whether CDR and SRM methods would exacerbate or alleviate the deleterious impacts on ecosystems associated with climate

  12. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Shang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM is widely applied in design and construction of underground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones. With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of engineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Comprehensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those predicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  13. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjun Shang; Kun Li; Wantong He; Chunbo Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM) is widely applied in design and construction of under-ground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs) associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones). With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of en-gineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Compre-hensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those pre-dicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  14. On the possible use of geoengineering to moderate specific climate change impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCracken, Michael C [Climate Institute, Washington, DC 20006 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    With significant reductions in emissions likely to require decades and the impacts of projected climate change likely to become more and more severe, proposals for taking deliberate action to counterbalance global warming have been proposed as an important complement to reducing emissions. While a number of geoengineering approaches have been proposed, each introduces uncertainties, complications and unintended consequences that have only begun to be explored. For limiting and reversing global climate change over periods of years to decades, solar radiation management, particularly injection of sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere, has emerged as the leading approach, with mesospheric reflectors and satellite deflectors also receiving attention. For a number of reasons, tropospheric approaches to solar radiation management present greater challenges if the objective is to reduce the increase in global average temperature. However, such approaches have a number of advantages if the objective is to alleviate specific consequences of climate change expected to cause significant impacts for the environment and society. Among the most damaging aspects of the climate that might be countered are: the warming of low-latitude oceans that observations suggest contribute to more intense tropical cyclones and coral bleaching; the amplified warming of high latitudes and the associated melting of ice that has been accelerating sea level rise and altering mid-latitude weather; and the projected reduction in the loading and cooling influence of sulfate aerosols, which has the potential to augment warming sufficient to trigger methane and carbon feedbacks. For each of these impacts, suitable scientific, technological, socioeconomic, and governance research has the potential to lead to tropospheric geoengineering approaches that, with a well-funded research program, could begin playing a moderating role for some aspects of climate change within a decade.

  15. Sea-spray geoengineering in the HadGEM2-ES earth-system model: radiative impact and climate response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jones

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The radiative impact and climate effects of geoengineering using sea-spray aerosols have been investigated in the HadGEM2-ES Earth system model using a fully prognostic treatment of the sea-spray aerosols and also including their direct radiative effect. Two different emission patterns were considered, one to maximise the direct effect in clear skies, the other to maximise the indirect effects of the sea-spray on low clouds; in both cases the emissions were limited to 10% of the ocean area. While the direct effect was found to be significant, the indirect effects on clouds were much more effective in reducing global mean temperature as well as having less of an impact on global mean precipitation per unit temperature reduction. The impact on the distribution of precipitation was found to be similar in character, but less in degree, to that simulated by a previous study using a much simpler treatment of this geoengineering process.

  16. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists ‘open up’ appraisal of geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth’s climate system, known collectively as ‘geoengineering’, have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely ‘close down’ upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first ‘upstream’ appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately ‘open up’ to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic–deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens’ and the specialists’ deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives. PMID:25224904

  17. Identifying the changes of geo-engineering properties of dunites due to weathering utilizing electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ündül, Ömer; Tuğrul, Atiye; Özyalın, Şenol; Halil Zarif, İ.

    2015-04-01

    Weathering phenomena have an important role in many construction facilities with varying depths and grades. Due to the anisotropic and heterogeneous nature of weathering profiles of some rocks, uncertainities exist in determining the geo-engineering properties. Geo-electrical studies have been utilized to overcome such uncertainities for various subsurface conditions including the determination of boundaries between weathered and unweathered parts of different rock types. In this study, the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) results were correlated with conventional methods in determining the effects of weathering on the geo-engineering properties of dunites. During the research, weathering grades were determined by field studies including discontinuity spacings, aperture and properties of fill materials. The detailed petrographical studies, determination of petrophysical properties (e.g. water absorption and effective porosity) and mechanical properties (e.g. unconfined compressive strength (UCS)) constitute the laboratory studies. ERT studies were carried out in a row of sixty electrodes with electrode spacings of 0.5 m utilizing a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. According to the comparison of the inversion model sections with the weathering profiles obtained by field and laboratory studies it is concluded that the use of ERT with a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration supplies comparable data for wider subsurface areas from the view of weathering and its effect on geo-engineering properties of dunites. In addition, ERT techniques are very useful where conventional techniques are inadequate in determining the full weathering profile.

  18. The Impact of Abrupt Suspension of Solar Radiation Management (Termination Effect) in Experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Andrew; Haywood, J.; Alterskjaer, Kari; Boucher, Olivier; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Kristjansson, Jon E.; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Robock, Alan; Schmidt, Hauke; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, S.; Watanabe, Shingo; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-09-11

    We have examined changes in climate which result from the sudden termination of geoengineering after 50 years of offsetting a 1% per annum increase in CO2 concentra- tions as simulated by 11 different climate models in experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. The models agree on a rapid rate of global-mean warming following termination, accompanied by increases in global-mean precipitation rate and in plant net primary productivity, and decreases in sea-ice cover. While there is a considerable degree of consensus for the geographical distribution of warming, there is much less of an agreement regarding the patterns of change in the other quantities.

  19. Evidence of Coal-Fly-Ash Toxic Chemical Geoengineering in the Troposphere: Consequences for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marvin Herndon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The widespread, intentional and increasingly frequent chemical emplacement in the troposphere has gone unidentified and unremarked in the scientific literature for years. The author presents evidence that toxic coal combustion fly ash is the most likely aerosolized particulate sprayed by tanker-jets for geoengineering, weather-modification and climate-modification purposes and describes some of the multifold consequences on public health. Two methods are employed: (1 Comparison of 8 elements analyzed in rainwater, leached from aerosolized particulates, with corresponding elements leached into water from coal fly ash in published laboratory experiments, and (2 Comparison of 14 elements analyzed in dust collected outdoors on a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA filter with corresponding elements analyzed in un-leached coal fly ash material. The results show: (1 the assemblage of elements in rainwater and in the corresponding experimental leachate are essentially identical. At a 99% confidence interval, they have identical means (T-test and identical variances (F-test; and (2 the assemblage of elements in the HEPA dust and in the corresponding average un-leached coal fly ash are likewise essentially identical. The consequences on public health are profound, including exposure to a variety of toxic heavy metals, radioactive elements, and neurologically-implicated chemically mobile aluminum released by body moisture in situ after inhalation or through transdermal induction.

  20. Solar geoengineering could substantially reduce climate risks—A research hypothesis for the next decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, David W.; Irvine, Peter J.

    2016-11-01

    We offer a hypothesis that if solar geoengineering (SG) were deployed to offset half of the increase in global-mean temperature from the date of deployment using a technology and deployment method chosen to approximate a reduction in the solar constant then, over the 21st century, it would (a) substantially reduce the global aggregate risks of climate change, (b) without making any country worse off, and (c) with the aggregate risks from side-effects being small in comparison to the reduction in climate risks. We do not set out to demonstrate this hypothesis; rather we propose it with the goal of stimulating a strategic engagement of the SG research community with policy-relevant questions. We elaborate seven sub-hypotheses on the effects of our scenario for key risks of climate change that could be assessed in future modeling work. As an example, we provide a defence of one of our sub-hypotheses, that our scenario of SG would reduce the risk of drought in dry regions, but also identify issues that may undermine this sub-hypothesis and how future work could resolve this question. SG cannot substitute for emissions mitigation but it may be a useful supplement. It is our hope that scientific and technical research over the next decade focuses more closely on well-articulated variants of the key policy-relevant question: could SG be designed and deployed in such a way that it could substantially and equitably reduce climate risks?

  1. Evidence of Coal-Fly-Ash Toxic Chemical Geoengineering in the Troposphere: Consequences for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2015-08-11

    The widespread, intentional and increasingly frequent chemical emplacement in the troposphere has gone unidentified and unremarked in the scientific literature for years. The author presents evidence that toxic coal combustion fly ash is the most likely aerosolized particulate sprayed by tanker-jets for geoengineering, weather-modification and climate-modification purposes and describes some of the multifold consequences on public health. Two methods are employed: (1) Comparison of 8 elements analyzed in rainwater, leached from aerosolized particulates, with corresponding elements leached into water from coal fly ash in published laboratory experiments, and (2) Comparison of 14 elements analyzed in dust collected outdoors on a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter with corresponding elements analyzed in un-leached coal fly ash material. The results show: (1) the assemblage of elements in rainwater and in the corresponding experimental leachate are essentially identical. At a 99% confidence interval, they have identical means (T-test) and identical variances (F-test); and (2) the assemblage of elements in the HEPA dust and in the corresponding average un-leached coal fly ash are likewise essentially identical. The consequences on public health are profound, including exposure to a variety of toxic heavy metals, radioactive elements, and neurologically-implicated chemically mobile aluminum released by body moisture in situ after inhalation or through transdermal induction.

  2. Stratospheric ozone changes under solar geoengineering: implications for UV exposure and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Peer Johannes; Abraham, Nathan Luke; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John Adrian

    2016-03-01

    Various forms of geoengineering have been proposed to counter anthropogenic climate change. Methods which aim to modify the Earth's energy balance by reducing insolation are often subsumed under the term solar radiation management (SRM). Here, we present results of a standard SRM modelling experiment in which the incoming solar irradiance is reduced to offset the global mean warming induced by a quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. For the first time in an atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, we include atmospheric composition feedbacks for this experiment. While the SRM scheme considered here could offset greenhouse gas induced global mean surface warming, it leads to important changes in atmospheric composition. We find large stratospheric ozone increases that induce significant reductions in surface UV-B irradiance, which would have implications for vitamin D production. In addition, the higher stratospheric ozone levels lead to decreased ozone photolysis in the troposphere. In combination with lower atmospheric specific humidity under SRM, this results in overall surface ozone concentration increases in the idealized G1 experiment. Both UV-B and surface ozone changes are important for human health. We therefore highlight that both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone changes must be considered in the assessment of any SRM scheme, due to their important roles in regulating UV exposure and air quality.

  3. Geomechanical Evaluation of Derinkuyu Antique Underground City and its Implications in Geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydan, Ömer; Ulusay, Reşat

    2013-07-01

    Derinkuyu Underground City, located in the Cappadocia Region of Turkey, is an important structure not only for its antique and archaeological characteristics, but also as a structure in terms of the long-term stability of underground rock structures excavated by mankind. The authors carried out some observational, experimental and theoretical rock mechanics studies in the region from 1996 in the context of a research project supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan for the assessment of the long-term behaviour of Derinkuyu Underground City, and these studies are still continuing. In addition to the monitoring of the environmental conditions such as temperature, moisture and air pressure, they also installed acoustic emission (AE) and electrical potential (EP) measurement systems to monitor the behaviour and response of the surrounding rock at the fifth and seventh floors of the underground city. In this article, the geology, seismicity and state of stress of the Cappadocia Region, climatic conditions in the underground city and its vicinity, short- and long-term behaviours of the surrounding rock, its index and mechanical properties, and effects of water content and freezing-thawing processes were investigated. The stability of Derinkuyu Underground City was also evaluated using theoretical and numerical methods, and the results were presented. Furthermore, its implications in modern geoengineering are also discussed.

  4. The use of marine geophysical methods in Geo-Engineering investigations of Dams/ Barrages - a case study of Kosi Barrage

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Naidu, P.D.

    Geophysical Methods in Geo-Engineering Investigations of Dams/ Barrages - A Case Study of Kosi Barrage INTRODUCTION KH. Vora* P. Divakar Naidu* Dams and barrages are such civil engineering structures where foundation is submerged. The impounded water column... AND POWER ..--------------------------;:=:::;:=======::::::;1 OCTOBER 1990 CLI ... c: c: 0 0 B N .~ .... 00- c: U CLI 0 CLI ~ ... ~ .... :0 c: CLI U L. III CLI u .... .:- Cl c: 0 CLI 0 ... 0 ...J W a.. u: fEI~·~ • OCTOBER 1990 GEOPHYSICAL METHODS IN GEe-ENGINEERING...

  5. Geoengineering and the ‘security hazard’: the international politics of a ‘Plan B’ for tackling climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Geoengineering – the deliberate manipulation of the climate (more accurately labeled ‘climate engineering’) – is rising rapidly up the policy agenda. A leading discourse frames it as a ‘plan B’ that should be prepared in case political obstacles continue to thwart effective mitigation. Diverse....... It argues that dividing climate policies into two distinct ‘plan A’ and ‘plan B’ has at least three other performative effects: it prioritizes certain fast-working methods such as stratospheric aerosol injection; it assumes this would be politically feasible; and it obscures potential difficulties...

  6. Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engidasew, Tesfaye Asresahagne; Barbieri, Giulio

    2014-11-01

    The geology of the central part of Ethiopia exhibits a variety of rock types that can potentially be developed for construction stone production, of which the most wide spread and important one is the Termaber basalt. Even though some preliminary work is done on these rocks towards construction material application, it remains largely that this resource is untouched and needs further scientific characterization for the use in large scale industrial application. Basaltic rocks have been widely used in many parts of the world as concrete aggregate and dimension stone for various civil structures. The present research study was carried out for Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia (around Debre Birhan). The main objective of the present research study was to assess the general suitability of the Termaber basalt to be used as coarse aggregate for concrete mix and/or to utilize it as cut stone at industrial level. Only choice made with full knowledge of the basic characteristics of the material, of its performance and durability against the foreseen solicitations will ensure the necessary quality of the stone work and thereby a possibility to reach its intended service life. In order to meet out the objective of the present study, data from both field and laboratory were collected and analyzed. The field data included geological investigations based on different methods and sample collection while the laboratory work included, uniaxial compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic elasticity modulus, bulk density, water absorption, specific gravity, open porosity, aggregate impact value, petrographic examination and XRF, aggregate crushing value, Los Angeles abrasion value, sodium sulfate soundness, X-ray diffraction and alkali silica reactivity tests. The field and laboratory data were compiled and compared together to reveal the engineering performance of the rock mass in

  7. The sociological perspective in coastal management and geoengineering approach: effects of hydraulic structures on the resilience of fishing communities (NW Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Fernando; Pires, Ana; Chamine, Helder

    2014-05-01

    The coast plays an important role in global transportation and is the most popular tourist destination around the world. During the years coastal scientists "walking on the shore", have tried to understand the shoreline in relation to the processes that shape it, and its interrelationships with the contiguous superficial marine and terrestrial hinterland environments. Those factors encourage the need for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), because of its possible use in identifying coastal management issues to take into account in policy strategies, measures and planning. Therefore this research presents an integrated strategy and a holistic approach to researching and studying coastal areas involving a wide number of sciences including sociology. Because of the numerous types of hazards in coastal areas the only possible response involves a holistic, integrated and long term approach. Combining marine sociological research, resilience and flexibility of a particular coastal community with other scientific fields will help to understand and manage marine social problems. This study also shows an integrative and "eclectic" methodology and adapts it to coastal management. Hence a new integrated coastal geoengineering approach for maritime environments was proposed, which is the core foundation of this approach. Also it was important to incorporate in a broader sense coastal geosciences and geoengineering GIS mapping to this final equation resulting in conceptual models. In Portugal there are several areas buffeted by sea invasions, coastal erosion and severe storms. The Portuguese coastal zone is one of Europe's most vulnerable regarding coastal erosion. The case study presented herein is an example of one of the most vulnerable sites in Portugal in terms of coastal erosion and sea invasions and how the meeting of local fishing community and coastal projects are extremely important. The coastal stretch between Figueira da Foz and Espinho (Centre and NW

  8. 地球工程的研究进展简介与展望%A Brief Review and Outlook of Geoengineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛源

    2016-01-01

    Geoengineering means human activities that change the earth’s environments in plans and large scale to response to climate change and its inlfuence. This article reviews the background and the main research areas of geoengineering, involve scientific theories, plans of projects, risk assessment and the mechanism of ethical and international governance, and so on. Then we analyze the possibilities of geoengineering in the future based on the international actions, and ifnally propose some suggestions about China’s roles in the ifeld of geoengineering research.%地球工程是指为了应对气候变化及影响,人们采用的有计划、大规模改变地球环境的行动。梳理了地球工程的背景、定义和当前地球工程研究涉及的主要领域,从地球工程的机理、工程方案、风险评估以及气候伦理、国际治理等方面综述了地球工程的研究进展。对地球工程在国际应对气候变化行动的大背景下的前景进行了分析,指出中国应在地球工程研究领域中承担起应有角色。

  9. Quantifying the temperature-independent effect of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on global-mean precipitation in a multi-model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Angus J.; Griffiths, Hannah G.

    2016-03-01

    The reduction in global-mean precipitation when stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is used to counterbalance global warming from increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations has been mainly attributed to the temperature-independent effect of CO2 on atmospheric radiative cooling. We demonstrate here that stratospheric sulphate aerosol itself also acts to reduce global-mean precipitation independent of its effects on temperature. The temperature-independent effect of stratospheric aerosol geoenginering on global-mean precipitation is calculated by removing temperature-dependent effects from climate model simulations of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). When sulphate aerosol is injected into the stratosphere at a rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year the aerosol reduces global-mean precipitation by approximately 0.2 %, though multiple ensemble members are required to separate this effect from internal variability. For comparison, the precipitation reduction from the temperature-independent effect of increasing CO2 concentrations under the RCP4.5 scenario of the future is approximately 0.5 %. The temperature-independent effect of stratospheric sulphate aerosol arises from the aerosol’s effect on tropospheric radiative cooling. Radiative transfer calculations show this is mainly due to increasing downward emission of infrared radiation by the aerosol, but there is also a contribution from the stratospheric warming the aerosol causes. Our results suggest climate model simulations of solar dimming can capture the main features of the global-mean precipitation response to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering.

  10. Assessing estimates of radiative forcing for solar geoengineering starts with accurate aerosol radiative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, J. A.; Keith, D.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2016-12-01

    of stratospheric radiative forcing by geoengineering, and examine parallels and differences with the case of radiative forcing by volcanic aerosols.

  11. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  12. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  13. Modelling effects of geoengineering options in response to climate change and global warming: implications for coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, M J C

    2009-12-01

    Climate change will have serious effects on the planet and on its ecosystems. Currently, mitigation efforts are proving ineffectual in reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Coral reefs are the most sensitive ecosystems on the planet to climate change, and here we review modelling a number of geoengineering options, and their potential influence on coral reefs. There are two categories of geoengineering, shortwave solar radiation management and longwave carbon dioxide removal. The first set of techniques only reduce some, but not all, effects of climate change, while possibly creating other problems. They also do not affect CO2 levels and therefore fail to address the wider effects of rising CO2, including ocean acidification, important for coral reefs. Solar radiation is important to coral growth and survival, and solar radiation management is not in general appropriate for this ecosystem. Longwave carbon dioxide removal techniques address the root cause of climate change, rising CO2 concentrations, they have relatively low uncertainties and risks. They are worthy of further research and potential implementation, particularly carbon capture and storage, biochar, and afforestation methods, alongside increased mitigation of atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  14. Sea-spray geoengineering in the HadGEM2-ES Earth-system model: radiative impact and climate response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jones

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The radiative impact and climate effects of geoengineering using sea-spray aerosols have been investigated in the HadGEM2-ES Earth system model using a fully prognostic treatment of the sea-spray aerosols and also including their direct raditive effect. Two different emission patterns were considered, one to maximise the direct effect in clear skies, the other to maximise the indirect effects of the sea-spray on low clouds; in both cases the emissions were limited to 10% of the ocean area. While the direct effect was found to be significant, the indirect effects on clouds were much more effective in reducing global mean temperature. Moreover, the impact on global mean precipitation per unit temperature reduction was found to be greatest when the emission pattern for maximising the direct effect was used, suggesting that targeting the direct effect of sea-spray is not a good strategy. The impact on the distribution of precipitation was found to be similar in character, but less in degree, than that simulated by a previous study using a much simpler treatment of this geoengineering process.

  15. The Determination of Feasible Control Variables for Geoengineering and Weather Modification Based on the Theory of Sensitivity in Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Soldatenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical cybernetics allows for exploring weather and climate modification (geoengineering as an optimal control problem in which the Earth’s climate system is considered as a control system and the role of controller is given to human operators. In mathematical models used in climate studies control actions that manipulate the weather and climate can be expressed via variations in model parameters that act as controls. In this paper, we propose the “instability-sensitivity” approach that allows for determining feasible control variables in geoengineering. The method is based on the sensitivity analysis of mathematical models that describe various types of natural instability phenomena. The applicability of this technique is illustrated by a model of atmospheric baroclinic instability since this physical mechanism plays a significant role in the general circulation of the atmosphere and, consequently, in climate formation. The growth rate of baroclinic unstable waves is taken as an indicator of control manipulations. The information obtained via calculated sensitivity coefficients is very beneficial for assessing the physical feasibility of methods of control of the large-scale atmospheric dynamics and for designing optimal control systems for climatic processes. It also provides insight into potential future changes in baroclinic waves, as a result of a changing climate.

  16. Geoengineering by stratospheric SO2 injection: results from the Met Office HadGEM2 climate model and comparison with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kravitz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the response of the Met Office Hadley Centre's HadGEM2-AO climate model to simulated geoengineering by continuous injection of SO2 into the lower stratosphere, and compare the results with those from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. Despite the differences between the models, we find a broadly similar geographic distribution of the response to geoengineering in both models in terms of near-surface air temperature and mean June–August precipitation. The simulations also suggest that significant changes in regional climate would be experienced even if geoengineering was successful in maintaining global-mean temperature near current values, and both models indicate rapid warming if geoengineering is not sustained.

  17. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast ...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  18. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  19. Stratospheric Ozone Response in Experiments G3 and G4 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitari, Giovanni; Aquila, Valentina; Kravitz, Ben; Watanabe, Shingo; Tilmes, Simone; Mancini, Eva; DeLuca, Natalia; DiGenova, Glauco

    2013-01-01

    Geoengineering with stratospheric sulfate aerosols has been proposed as a means of temporarily cooling the planet, alleviating some of the side effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, one of the known side effects of stratospheric injections of sulfate aerosols is a decrease in stratospheric ozone. Here we show results from two general circulation models and two coupled chemistry climate models that have simulated stratospheric sulfate aerosol geoengineering as part of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). Changes in photolysis rates and upwelling of ozone-poor air in the tropics reduce stratospheric ozone, suppression of the NOx cycle increases stratospheric ozone, and an increase in available surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry modulates reductions in ozone. On average, the models show a factor 20-40 increase of the sulfate aerosol surface area density (SAD) at 50 hPa in the tropics with respect to unperturbed background conditions and a factor 3-10 increase at mid-high latitudes. The net effect for a tropical injection rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year is a decrease in globally averaged ozone by 1.1-2.1 DU in the years 2040-2050 for three models which include heterogeneous chemistry on the sulfate aerosol surfaces. GISS-E2-R, a fully coupled general circulation model, performed simulations with no heterogeneous chemistry and a smaller aerosol size; it showed a decrease in ozone by 9.7 DU. After the year 2050, suppression of the NOx cycle becomes more important than destruction of ozone by ClOx, causing an increase in total stratospheric ozone. Contribution of ozone changes in this experiment to radiative forcing is 0.23 W m-2 in GISS-E2-R and less than 0.1 W m-2 in the other three models. Polar ozone depletion, due to enhanced formation of both sulfate aerosol SAD and polar stratospheric clouds, results in an average 5 percent increase in calculated surface UV-B.

  20. Research on International Governance of Geoengineering%气候变化背景下地球工程研究的国际管制探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凯; 王刚

    2012-01-01

    在应对气候变化日益紧迫、国际社会减排协议难以落实的情况下,通过人为干预影响气候的地球工程技术引起了一些科学家的关注。目前地球工程技术的研究还处于初始阶段。由于地球工程技术本身的复杂性和不确定性,地球工程方案影响的全球性和非均衡性,以及地球工程可能引发的道德风险困境等原因,有必要加强对地球工程研究的管制。在当前情况下,达成统一的地球工程研究管制机制尚不成熟,但有必要形成地球工程研究的国际规范。减少二氧化碳排放是国际社会应对气候变化问题的首选,地球工程研究不应该成为延迟减排的借口。%With the urgency of responding to climate change and the difficulties of reaching agreements on e- mission reduction, deliberate intervention of climate change which is known as geoengineering attract some scien- tists' attention. The research of geoengmeering is at the initial phase, and because of the complexity and uncer- tainty of geoengineering technology, the global and uneven impact of geoengineering, plus the possible moral haz- ard by the implication of geoengineering strategies, it is imperative to strengthen the governance of geoengineenng research. Under the present situation, a comprehensive and global regulation is not possible, but some norms gov- erning geoengineering are badly needed. Emission reduction should be the first choice in responding to climate change, and geoengineering research should not be used as an excuse for delayed action on emission reduction.

  1. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  2. World law

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Harold J.; Robert W. Woodruff; James Barr Ames

    1999-01-01

    In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the ...

  3. Worlds Fantastic, Worlds Familiar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.

    2017-02-01

    Introduction; 1. Mercury: the hottest little place; 2. Venus: an even hotter place; 3. Mars: the abode of life?; 4. Asteroids and comets: sweat the small stuff; 5. Galileo's treasures: worlds of fire and ice; 6. Enceladus: an active iceball in space; 7. Titan: an Earth in deep freeze?; 8. Iapetus and its friends: the weirdest 'planets' in the Solar System; 9. Pluto: the first view of the 'third zone'; 10. Earths above: the search for exoplanets and life in the universe; Epilogue; Glossary; Acknowledgements; Index.

  4. Current situation of geoengineering and its impact on biodiversity%地球工程开展现状及其对生物多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    银森录; 李俊生; 吴晓莆; 李果; 徐靖

    2013-01-01

    与气候相关的地球工程(Climate-Related Geoengineering,简称地球工程)是为了减缓气候变化及其影响的目的,采取一系列大规模的人工技术和方法对地球环境或气候系统进行干预.地球工程的研究和开展受到越来越多的关注,已经成为《生物多样性公约》讨论的焦点之一.地球工程项目在全球进行了不同程度的实验和推广,与我国的利益密切相关.本文通过参与相关会议讨论以及对会议材料和相关文献的整理,梳理了地球工程的定义和内涵、介绍了不同类型地球工程的开展现状,分析了地球工程对生物多样性的潜在影响,并阐述了《生物多样性公约》对地球工程的争论.研究表明:地球工程主要通过改变区域或局地的气候和环境间接影响生物多样性,由于目前对地球工程的影响缺乏足够了解,对生物多样性有潜在影响的大规模地球工程将被禁止,但节能减排工作的义务使地球工程仍然具有应用前景.笔者对未来地球工程发展提出了自己的意见,认为地球工程技术的研究应兼顾高效、低廉和环境安全的标准,开展地球工程活动应采取预先防范措施,并探讨建立监管机制的可能性.%Interests in the process of geoengineering have grown and geoengineering is a focus for the Convention on Biological Diversity now.Geoengineering programs and experiments have been carried out to varying extent globally and are of significance to Chinese interests.This paper originates from a review of a conference discussion and of relevant literatures.It introduces the concept of geoengineering,describes the current status of its development and discusses the potential impacts geoengineering may have on biodiversity.Arguments about geoengineering in the Convention on Biological Diversity are also discussed.Researches show that geoengineering programs mainly affect biodiversity by changing the local or regional climate and

  5. Dynamics of the Coupled Human-climate System Resulting from Closed-loop Control of Solar Geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMartin, Douglas; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Keith, David; Jarvis, Andrew

    2014-07-08

    If solar radiation management (SRM) were ever implemented, feedback of the observed climate state might be used to adjust the radiative forcing of SRM, in order to compensate for uncertainty in either the forcing or the climate response; this would also compensate for unexpected changes in the system, e.g. a nonlinear change in climate sensitivity. This feedback creates an emergent coupled human-climate system, with entirely new dynamics. In addition to the intended response to greenhouse-gas induced changes, the use of feedback would also result in a geoengineering response to natural climate variability. We use a simple box-diffusion dynamic model to understand how changing feedback-control parameters and time delay affect the behavior of this coupled natural-human system, and verify these predictions using the HadCM3L general circulation model. In particular, some amplification of natural variability is unavoidable; any time delay (e.g., to average out natural variability, or due to decision-making) exacerbates this amplification, with oscillatory behavior possible if there is a desire for rapid correction (high feedback gain), but a delayed response needed for decision making. Conversely, the need for feedback to compensate for uncertainty, combined with a desire to avoid excessive amplification, results in a limit on how rapidly SRM could respond to uncertain changes.

  6. Dynamics of the coupled human-climate system resulting from closed-loop control of solar geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben; Keith, David W.; Jarvis, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    If solar radiation management (SRM) were ever implemented, feedback of the observed climate state might be used to adjust the radiative forcing of SRM in order to compensate for uncertainty in either the forcing or the climate response. Feedback might also compensate for unexpected changes in the system, e.g. a nonlinear change in climate sensitivity. However, in addition to the intended response to greenhouse-gas induced changes, the use of feedback would also result in a geoengineering response to natural climate variability. We use a box-diffusion dynamic model of the climate system to understand how changing the properties of the feedback control affect the emergent dynamics of this coupled human-climate system, and evaluate these predictions using the HadCM3L general circulation model. In particular, some amplification of natural variability is unavoidable; any time delay (e.g., to average out natural variability, or due to decision-making) exacerbates this amplification, with oscillatory behavior possible if there is a desire for rapid correction (high feedback gain). This is a challenge for policy as a delayed response is needed for decision making. Conversely, the need for feedback to compensate for uncertainty, combined with a desire to avoid excessive amplification of natural variability, results in a limit on how rapidly SRM could respond to changes in the observed state of the climate system.

  7. Key Issues Related to Geo-engineering as Approaches to Climate Change Mitigation%“地球工程”作为减缓气候变化手段的几个关键问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘家华

    2012-01-01

    scientific experiment or research, will raise doubt on the legal basis, if people take action, because its effect will go beyond national boundaries, beyond the contemporary generation, and also beyond the human society. Researches on and implementation of artificial intervention in solar radiation needs an international governance framework. To prevent other countries from taking individual action needs to have a "mutual constraint" governance framework - to use "self-constraint" to trade for "self-constraint" consented by other countries. As for scientific uncertainty of climate change and solar radiation management, at present, it is not appropriate for geo-engineering to be implemented, and in the short term, will not be put on the agenda. The complexity of the effect of solar radiation management technology and the urgency of the risk of climate change require us to intensify scientific research so as to provide the basis for scientific policy-making. As an emerging economy, China is the first biggest country of CO2 emission in the world and has huge disparity in its regional spatial climate conditions. From the perspective of cost reduction and spatial disparity in climate effect, to cany on scientific research on geo-engineering is of positive significance in science, policy and international climate diplomacy. However, related scientific research needs an international system framework. Since the framework convention on climate change and its negotiations have not yet been involved, relevant researches need to be carried out in systematic science, technology, economy, law and national security, and scientific recognition be raised to provide a policy-making basis for international negotiations and policy options.%减缓气候变化可以在大的地理尺度上以工程技术手段来实施.地球工程包括所有能源生产和消费以外的、不涉及工业生产过程管理的,在较大的地球尺度或规模上,去除大气中的CO2或直接控制太阳辐

  8. An intensified hydrological cycle in the simulation of geoengineering by cirrus cloud thinning using ice crystal fall speed changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. S.; Crook, J. A.; Forster, P. M.

    2016-06-01

    Proposals to geoengineer Earth's climate by cirrus cloud thinning (CCT) potentially offer advantages over solar radiation management schemes: amplified cooling of the Arctic and smaller perturbations to global mean precipitation in particular. Using an idealized climate model implementation of CCT in which ice particle fall speeds were increased 2×, 4×, and 8× we examine the relationships between effective radiative forcing (ERF) at the top of atmosphere, near-surface temperature, and the response of the hydrological cycle. ERF was nonlinear with fall speed change and driven by the trade-off between opposing positive shortwave and negative longwave radiative forcings. ERF was -2.0 Wm-2 for both 4× and 8× fall speeds. Global mean temperature decreased linearly with ERF, while Arctic temperature reductions were amplified compared with the global mean change. The change in global mean precipitation involved a rapid adjustment (~ 1%/Wm2), which was linear with the change in the net atmospheric energy balance, and a feedback response (~2%/°C). Global mean precipitation and evaporation increased strongly in the first year of CCT. Intensification of the hydrological cycle was promoted by intensification of the vertical overturning circulation of the atmosphere, changes in boundary layer climate favorable for evaporation, and increased energy available at the surface for evaporation (from increased net shortwave radiation and reduced subsurface storage of heat). Such intensification of the hydrological cycle is a significant side effect to the cooling of climate by CCT. Any accompanying negative cirrus cloud feedback response would implicitly increase the costs and complexity of CCT deployment.

  9. Urban speleology applied to groundwater and geo-engineering studies: underground topographic surveying of the ancient Arca D’Água galleries catchworks (Porto, NW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontes G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Porto settlement (Northwest Portugal, Iberian Peninsula was originally built in the twelfth century and has been developed on granitic hill slopes of the Douro riverside, being one of the oldest cities in Europe. In the urban area of Porto, the second most important city of the Portuguese mainland, there is a population of about 216,000 inhabitants. This study highlights the importance of urban speleological mapping applied to groundwater and geo-engineering studies. All the water that flows from the so-called Paranhos or Arca D’Água springs is captured by catchwork galleries and their utilization date back around 1120 AD. Paranhos spring galleries catchworks (c. 3,3 km extension and a -21m below ground level was one of the main water supplies to Porto City for more than six centuries and, nowadays, these waters are still appropriate for irrigation uses. Topographic, geological, geophysical and hydrogeological data were collected and interpreted, allowing the definition of a hydrogeotechnical zoning. All these features were mapped and overlaid using GIS mapping techniques. This multidisciplinary approach offers a good potential for reliable urban speleological and geo-engineering studies of Arca D’Água site.

  10. Is extensive terrestrial carbon dioxide removal a 'green' form of geoengineering? A global modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Vera; Gerten, Dieter; Lucht, Wolfgang; Boysen, Lena R.

    2016-02-01

    Biological carbon sequestration through implementation of biomass plantations is currently being discussed as an option for climate engineering (CE) should mitigation efforts fail to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. As it is a plant-based CE option that extracts CO2 from the atmosphere, it might be considered a 'green' CE method that moves the biosphere closer to its natural, i.e. pre-Neolithic, state. Here, we test this hypothesis by comparing the biogeochemical (water- and carbon-related) changes induced by biomass plantations compared to those induced by historical human land cover and land use change. Results indicate that large-scale biomass plantations would produce a biogeochemical shift in the terrestrial biosphere which is, in absolute terms, even larger than that already produced by historical land use change. However, the nature of change would differ between a world dominated by biomass plantations and the current world inheriting the effects of historical land use, highlighting that large-scale tCDR would represent an additional distinct and massive human intervention into the biosphere. Contrasting the limited possibilities of tCDR to reduce the pressure on the planetary boundary for climate change with the potential negative implications on the status of other planetary boundaries highlights that tCDR via biomass plantations should not be considered a 'green' CE method but a full scale engineering intervention.

  11. Superhabitable Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host star...

  12. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  13. Virtual Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, František

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis is focused on highlighting the development of virtual worlds. The paper summarizes the evolution of virtual reality. Current virtual worlds are compared in fundamental aspects, such as sociology, economics and education. Social sphere describes the interaction in virtual reality and its specialities. Economical sphere is focused on comparison of real and virtual economies, including their economic indicators. Educational sphere describes the sciences, which are best usea...

  14. Geological-Technical and Geo-engineering Aspects of Dimensional Stone Underground Quarrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Mauro; Lovera, Enrico

    Underground exploitation of dimensional stones is not a novelty, being long since practised, as proved by a number of historical documents and by a certain number of ancient quarrying voids throughout the world. Anyway, so far, open cast quarrying has been the most adopted practice for the excavation of dimensional stones. One primary reason that led to this situation is of course connected to the lower production costs of an open cast exploitation compared to an underground one. This cheapness has been supported by geological and technical motives: on the one hand, the relative availability of surface deposits and, on the other, the development of technologies, which often can be used only outdoor. But, nowadays, general costs of quarrying activities should be re-evaluated because new, and often proper, restrictions have been strongly rising during recent years. As a consequence of both environmental and technical restrictions, pressure will more and more arise to reduce open cast quarrying and to promote underground exploitations. The trend is already well marked for weak rocks - for instance in the extractive basin of Carrara, where about one hundred quarries are active, 30 per cent is working underground, but also in Spain, Portugal and Greece the number of underground marble quarries is increasing - but not yet for hard rock quarrying, where only few quarries are working underground all around the world. One reason has to be found in cutting technologies traditionally used. In weak rocks, diamond wire saw and chain cutter are usable, with few adaptations, in underground spaces, while drilling and blasting, the traditional exploitation method for hard stone, is not easily usable in a confined space, where often only one free face is available. Many technicians and researchers agree that two technologies will probably open the door to underground quarrying in hard rocks: diamond wire and water jet. The first one is already available; the second should still be

  15. Silting up and development of anoxic conditions enhanced by high abundance of the geoengineer species Ophiothrix fragilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, A.; Méar, Y.; Poizot, E.; Dauvin, J. C.; Beryouni, K.

    2016-04-01

    In the English Channel, the brittle-star Ophiothrix fragilis is a common epifaunal species typically found on pebbles in habitats with strong tidal currents. This species forms dense aggregations on the seafloor, supporting populations that can reach up to 7500 ind m-2 in the eastern part of the Baie de Seine, offshore from Antifer harbour. Here, O. fragilis occurs in an area with unexpected amounts of fine-grained sediment. Some of these mud deposits are made up of unusually compact black muds, an indication of the development of anoxic conditions in surficial sediments. To highlight a potential link between silting up and dense O. fragilis populations, and identify the interactions between environmental conditions and the population dynamics of this species, we analyse the data from three surveys corresponding to exceptional situations: (1) just after a Seine flood; (2) just after a storm and (3) after a period of ten months without any flood or storm. Four parameters are taken into account: number of brittle stars per 0.25 m2, Fine Fraction percentage, Total Organic Carbon and Total Sulphur. The main environmental forcings appear to be Seine river inflow, regional circulation dependent on tidal currents and the occurrence of storms. O. fragilis is able to geoengineer its environment in various ways and at different rates. Silting up is enhanced by increasing abundance of O. fragilis and takes place at a very fast rate. As a result, floods and storms reflecting instantaneous events give rise to a steady-state situation established between the abundance of this species and the fine fraction percentage. Anoxic conditions are dependent on the degradation of organic matter and require more time to be established. After many months in the absence of any disturbing events, anoxic conditions are developed in non-compacted muddy sediments (stability situation) and represent the normal surficial situation when the sediment becomes compacted (compact black muds). The

  16. World Englishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心; 周丽

    2014-01-01

    In the current days, the search for information and the need for global communication have already promoted English from being the language of people in different countries as the international language. This essay will give some arguments about the inevitability of variety of world Englishes and its characteristics, and then explain that what Standard English is and examples about the standards in English.

  17. Sophie's World

    OpenAIRE

    Nadja Dobnik

    1999-01-01

    ln this contribution, the author of­ fers a description of the book Zofia's World, by the Norwegian professor of philosophy, Jostein Gaarder, a work which is treated in literary theory mainly as an interesting post-modernist novel, since it would appear to be a presentation of the history of philosophy in the popular form of a novel. The author of this paper, however, sees far more in the book, which is indeed an exceptional philosophy textbook for independent study. It is, really, a correspo...

  18. Geoengineering Glacial Fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovick, M.; Sergienko, O. V.

    2016-12-01

    Mass loss from Greenland and Antarctica is highly sensitive to the presence of warm ocean water that drives melting of ice shelves and marine terminated glaciers. This warm water resides offshore at depth and accesses the ice-shelf cavities and glacier fjords through deep but narrow troughs carved across the continental shelf. Here, we investigate the possibility of blocking warm water transport through these choke points with an artificial sill. Using a simple width-averaged model of ice stream flow coupled to a melt-driven plume flow, we find that grounding line retreat and sea level rise can be delayed (or potentially reversed depending on glacier geometries) for hundreds of years if warm water is prevented from accessing outlet glaciers and ice-shelf cavities. In our simulations, glaciers with a floating tongue exhibit a strong response to the presence of the artificial sill; while the response of glaciers without a floating tongue depends on the choice of calving law. We conclude by comparing the scale of the artificial sills with the scale of other large public works projects.

  19. Shanghai Highlight: World Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ The proposals regarding the Shanghai Expo attracted the World Expo committee great concern. During the two sessions, the Shanghai World Expo organizer promised that they will play more active role in holding the expo. Though the world is suffering the global crisis, the organizer be-lieved that this is a rare opportunity and as the World Expo 2010 to be held in Shanghai could help China overcome economic dif-ficulties and lift the world out of the crisis shadow.

  20. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach world religions…

  1. Recognized by the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China Danxia gets added to world heritage list as a natural site On August 1,2010,UNESCO’s World Heritage Committee inscribed China Danxia as a natural site in the world heritage list at its 34th session held from July 25 to August 3 this year in Brasilia,capital of Brazil.

  2. Cloudships in our future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Cloudships that seed clouds with salt to make them more reflective are just one of the geoengineering ideas discussed in Oliver Morton's new book, The Planet Remade: How Geoengineering Could Change the World.

  3. Clean fuel technology for world energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunjay, Sunjay

    2010-09-15

    Clean fuel technology is the integral part of geoengineering and green engineering with a view to global warming mitigation. Optimal utilization of natural resources coal and integration of coal & associated fuels with hydrocarbon exploration and development activities is pertinent task before geoscientist with evergreen energy vision with a view to energy security & sustainable development. Value added technologies Coal gasification,underground coal gasification & surface coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option of being converted into liquid fuels.

  4. New World View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    This chapter reports the wide range of ideas in a pair of major scientific conference meetings held inside the most popular virtual world, World of Warcraft (WoW), May 9 and May 10, 2008, plus the challenges of organizing these online events. More than a hundred scholars and scientists contributed to each session, the first covering research on World of Warcraft, and the second examining how virtual worlds fit into the larger world of human experience. A third session, held on May 11, was the starting point for the concluding chapter of this volume. This chapter describes how WoW and other virtual worlds can be used as laboratories for studying human behavior, using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and the affordances of virtual worlds can be used to support scientific communication (Bainbridge 2007, in press).

  5. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach…

  6. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach…

  7. My World Indoors: My Health My World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Barbara; Dresden, Judith; Denk, James; Moreno, Nancy

    This curriculum guide for students in grades K-4 is part of the My Health My World series which explores environmental health issues. Focusing on indoor environmental health, it includes (1) an activities guide for teachers which focuses on physical science, life science, and the environment and health, presenting activity based lessons that…

  8. World Health Statistics 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The World Health Organization (WHO) collects and summarizes a wide range of quantitative data from a variety of health domains through country offices, regional offices and headquarter departments.

  9. Fermentation. Third World Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  10. Fermentation. Third World Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  11. Educating for World Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Louise M.; Miel, Alice

    This booklet presents a variety of perspectives on educating for world cooperation. Section 1 discusses major world problems and calls for the reorientation of education as a potential solution. Section 2 deals with the design of such a reorientation and offers three approaches to teaching and curriculum development--knowing, being, and doing. In…

  12. On Observing World English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdang, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the current state of World English. Subjects addressed include standard accents and dialects, prejudicial attitudes toward nonstandard "local" usages, the use of English as the language of diplomacy, American influences on the language, and the fracturing of English in non-English-speaking countries around the world. (17 references) (JL)

  13. Education and World Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    The impact on educational analysis of mainstream international relations (IR) theories is yet to realize its full potential. The problem of education in relation to the construction of world order is considered in relation to core developments in IR theory since the Second World War. In particular, the global architecture of education is seen as a…

  14. World Music Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Access to world music resources such as videos and sound recordings have increased with the advent of YouTube and the efforts of music educators working closely with ethnomusicologists to provide more detailed visual and audio information about various musical practices. This column discusses some world music resources available for music…

  15. Virtual World Security Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Charles Patterson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtual property theft is a serious problem that exists in virtual worlds. Legitimate users of these worlds invest considerable amounts of time, effort and real-world money into obtaining virtual property, but unfortunately, are becoming victims of theft in high numbers. It is reported that there are over 1 billion registered users of virtual worlds containing virtual property items worth an estimated US$50 billion dollars. The problem of virtual property theft is complex, involving many legal, social and technological issues. The software used to access virtual worlds is of great importance as they form the primary interface to these worlds and as such the primary interface to conduct virtual property theft. The security vulnerabilities of virtual world applications have not, to date, been examined. This study aims to use the process of software inspection to discover security vulnerabilities that may exist within virtual world software – vulnerabilities that enable virtual property theft to occur. Analyzing three well know virtual world applications World of Warcraft, Guild Wars and Entropia Universe, this research utilized security analysis tools and scenario testing with focus on authentication, trading, intruder detection and virtual property recovery. It was discovered that all three examples were susceptible to keylogging, mail and direct trade methods were the most likely method for transferring stolen items, intrusion detection is of critical concern to all VWEs tested, stolen items were unable to be recovered in all cases and lastly occurrences of theft were undetectable in all cases. The results gained in this study present the key problem areas which need to be addressed to improve security and reduce the occurrence of virtual property theft.

  16. World energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    As energy is the main "fuel" for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC) has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER) 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  17. World energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As energy is the main “fuel” for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  18. World gravity standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uotila, U. A.

    1978-01-01

    In order to use gravity anomalies in geodetic computations and geophysical interpretations, the observed gravity values from which anomalies are derived should be referred to one consistent world wide system. The International Gravity Standardization Net 1971 was adapted by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics at Moscow in 1971, the network was result of extensive cooperation by many organizations and individuals around the world. The network contains more than 1800 stations around the world. The data used in the adjustment included more than 25,000 gravimetry, pendulum and absolute measurements.

  19. Constructing public worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovchelovitch, Sandra; Priego-Hernandez, Jacqueline; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2013-01-01

    and their social world. Drawings by children from two age groups (seven- and 10-year-olds) and two socio-economic milieus (affluent and deprived), in four cultures (Germany, Mexico, Brazil and Romania), supported by observations and interviews, were used to investigate children’s representations of their public...... world and their position within it. Findings show that public spheres characterised by collectivism, poverty and/or marginalisation: a) accelerate decentration bringing the public world and its complexity to the foreground of children’s depictions, and b) show a strong link between self and the public...

  20. Curing The World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The WHO approves China’s vaccine regulation system The World Health Organization (WHO) said China had complied with international standards for the regulation of vaccines after it completed the assessment procedures at the end of 2010.

  1. World Magnetic Model 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Magnetic Model is the standard model used by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.K. Ministry of Defence, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  2. Brazil World Cup Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANSUR, R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.

  3. The world's biggest experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gregson, Liz

    2008-01-01

    According to CERN, our understanding of the Universe is about the change. Meet the Imperial alumni and staff who are involved in CERN's Large Hadron Collider, the world's biggest experiment. (3 pages)

  4. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  5. World Glacier Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Glacier Inventory (WGI) contains information for over 130,000 glaciers. Inventory parameters include geographic location, area, length, orientation,...

  6. World Government: Utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahram Ayvazyan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the possibility of having a world government, which world has been facing overarching changes since the end of Cold war, where bipolar world order has evolved into multipolar system through unipolarity. Analysis method in this paper have the sistematics: discussion of human nature and philosophical dimensions vis-à-vis individual, society and government, as well as society of societies; then briefly analyse globalization, the impact of individuals on interdependency of the current international arena and examine the individualism as the ongoing ideology “by individuals and for individuals.”; and then take the conclusion that the world government is not a utopia

  7. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  8. Monitoring the world's agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachs, J.; Remans, R.; Smukler, S.; Winowiecki, L.; Andelman, S.J.; Cassman, K.G.; Castle, D.; DeFries, R.; Denning, G.; Fanzo, J.; Jackson, L.E.; Leemans, R.; Lehman, J.; Milder, J.S.; Naeem, S.; Nziguheba, G.; Palm, C.A.; Pingali, P.L.; Reganold, J.P.; Richter, D.D.; Scherr, S.J.; Sircely, J.; Sullivan, C.; Tomich, T.P.; Sanchez, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    To feed the world without further damaging the planet, Jeffrey Sachs and 24 food-system experts call for a global data collection and dissemination network to track the myriad impacts of different farming practices.

  9. Monitoring the world's agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Jeffrey; Remans, Roseline; Smukler, Sean; Winowiecki, Leigh; Andelman, Sandy J; Cassman, Kenneth G; Castle, David; DeFries, Ruth; Denning, Glenn; Fanzo, Jessica; Jackson, Louise E; Leemans, Rik; Lehmann, Johannes; Milder, Jeffrey C; Naeem, Shahid; Nziguheba, Generose; Palm, Cheryl A; Pingali, Prabhu L; Reganold, John P; Richter, Daniel D; Scherr, Sara J; Sircely, Jason; Sullivan, Clare; Tomich, Thomas P; Sanchez, Pedro A

    2010-07-29

    To feed the world without further damaging the planet, Jeffrey Sachs and 24 foodsystem experts call for a global data collection and dissemination network to track the myriad impacts of different farming practices.

  10. Brazil World Cup Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    MANSUR, R.

    2012-01-01

    Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.

  11. IS THE WORLD FLAT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Încalţărău

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization became more and more prominent during the last decades. There is no way to argue that globalization led to more interconnected economies, facilitating the communication and the collaboration around the world. But where is this going? Doesglobalization mean uniformity or diversity? As the world begins to resemble more, the people are trying to distinguish between them more, which can exacerbate nationalistic feeling. Friedman argues that globalization made the world smaller and flatter, allowing all countries to take chance of the available opportunities equally. But is this really true? Although politic and cultural factors can stand in front of a really flat world, what is the key for Chinese and Indian success and which are theirs perspectives?

  12. World Magnetic Model 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Magnetic Model is the standard model used by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.K. Ministry of Defence, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  13. Fitness World - Fremtidig overlevelse

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Kasper; Klink, Nikolaj; Nielsen, Mie; Carlson, Andre; Boy, Mikkel; Hansen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Our project is a case study with Fitness World as a baseline. Our project will enhance Fitness Worlds penetration on their current position on the market. Our empiricism includes both qualitative and quantitative methodical approaches by the use of an expert interview and a questionnaire survey. These methods contribute and generate general knowledge about the fitness culture in Denmark and the customers in the fitness industry. We have stated a possible strategic opportunity for Fitness Worl...

  14. Hosting the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Hangzhou and surrounding communities open their doors to leisure and tourism The 2006 World Leisure Expo opens its doors in the scenic city of Hangzhou, in east China’s Zhejiang Province, from April 22 to October 22. The Expo, which was co-sponsored by the World Leisure Organization (WLO), National Tourism Administration and the Zhejiang Provincial Government, highlights the many recreational facets of Hangzhou.

  15. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  16. Inside-My-World

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Fessler; Claudia Tassotti

    2012-01-01

    Inside-My-World ist die erste Offline-Plattform, auf der man Freundinnen und Freunde kennenlernen, sich im Chat oder in Foren unterhalten, spannende Games spielen oder ganz einfach das eigene Profil gestalten und auf die Pinnwand seiner Freundinnen und Freunde schreiben kann.Diese Plattform hat den Vorteil, dass zum Einstieg keine Computer und keine Internetverbindung notwendig sind, da sie in jedem Raum, z.B. in einem Klassenzimmer, entstehen kann. Denn Inside-My-World ist ein Soziales Netzw...

  17. Brane World Cosmological Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Casali, A G; Wang, B; Casali, Adenauer G.; Abdalla, Elcio; Wang, Bin

    2004-01-01

    We consider a brane world and its gravitational linear perturbations. We present a general solution of the perturbations in the bulk and find the complete perturbed junction conditions for generic brane dynamics. We also prove that (spin 2) gravitational waves in the great majority of cases can only arise in connection with a non-vanishing anisotropic stress. This has far reaching consequences for inflation in the brane world. Moreover, contrary to the case of the radion, perturbations are stable.

  18. When Virtual Worlds Expand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    The future of a virtual world depends on whether it can grow in subjective size, cultural content, and numbers of human participants. In one form of growth, exemplified by Second Life, the scope of a world increases gradually as new sponsors pay for new territory and inhabitants create content. A very different form of growth is sudden expansion, as when World of Warcraft (WoW) added entire new continents in its Burning Crusade and Lich King expansions (Lummis and Kern 2006, 2008; Corneliussen and Rettberg 2008; Sims et al. 2008). Well-established gamelike worlds have often undergone many expansions. Both the pioneer science fiction game Anarchy Online, which was launched in 2001, and Star Wars Galaxies dating from 2003, have had three, and EVE Online also from 2003 has had nine, although smaller ones. This chapter reports research on WoW's 2008 Lich King expansion, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, in order to develop theoretical ideas of the implications of expansion for virtual worlds.

  19. The Africana world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    diaspora in order for the unity and renaissance dreamed of to become a reality. The chapters in Africana World: From Fragmentation to Unity and Renaissance address colonial and postcolonial African realities with a view to present a holistic and transcontinental appraisal of questions, issues...... and challenges that confront the continent. Contributors are drawn from different parts of the world - Africa, Europe and the Americas - and it is this eclectic range of scholarly views that lends a rich historicity to the meaning of Africanity. The book contains multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary...... engagements with Africa's rich cultural heritage, its lingering contemporary challenges, its multifaceted systems of knowledge and its future in the exciting context of the twenty-first century. Africana World: From Fragmentation to Unity and Renaissance is put together in order to help develop the study...

  20. Surfing the quantum world

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Frank S

    2017-01-01

    The ideas and phenomena of the quantum world are strikingly unlike those encountered in our visual world. Surfing the Quantum World shows why and how this is so. It does this via a historical review and a gentle introduction to the fundamental principles of quantum theory, whose core concepts and symbolic representations are used to explain not only "ordinary" microscopic phenomena like the properties of the hydrogen atom and the structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements, but also a variety of mind-bending phenomena. Readers will learn that particles such as electrons and photons can behave like waves, allowing them to be in two places simultaneously, why white dwarf and neutron stars are gigantic quantum objects, how the maximum height of mountains has a quantum basis, and why quantum objects can tunnel through seemingly impenetrable barriers. Included among the various interpretational issues addressed is whether Schrodinger's cat is ever both dead and alive.

  1. The Africana world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    diaspora in order for the unity and renaissance dreamed of to become a reality. The chapters in Africana World: From Fragmentation to Unity and Renaissance address colonial and postcolonial African realities with a view to present a holistic and transcontinental appraisal of questions, issues...... engagements with Africa's rich cultural heritage, its lingering contemporary challenges, its multifaceted systems of knowledge and its future in the exciting context of the twenty-first century. Africana World: From Fragmentation to Unity and Renaissance is put together in order to help develop the study...... and challenges that confront the continent. Contributors are drawn from different parts of the world - Africa, Europe and the Americas - and it is this eclectic range of scholarly views that lends a rich historicity to the meaning of Africanity. The book contains multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary...

  2. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  3. The "Ghostly" Quantum Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Dugic, M

    2011-01-01

    The quantum Universe can be decomposed into subsystems in different ways. We consider the global linear-canonical-transformations-based decompositions (structures) of the Universe. These structures bear the same physical time and the common the fundamental physical law--the Schrodinger law. The Universe quantum state is unique in every instant of time yet bearing the different forms for the different structures of the Universe. This simple corollary of the universally valid quantum mechanics points out that the intelligent agents in a structure may (globally) affect the other structures--the other "worlds". Locally considered non-spontaneous, such effects may seem "ghostly" within the alternative worlds. This picture of the one and the unique quantum Universe is competitive with both the Everett MWI as well as with the Bohmian pilot-wave interpretation, not yet being inconsistent with the "state collapse" interpretation of quantum mechanics. The "ghostly worlds" interpretation here we introduce may prove irre...

  4. Designing Virtual Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürsimsek, Remzi Ates

    2014-01-01

    The online social platforms known as virtual worlds present their users various affordances for avatar based co-presence, social interaction and provide tools for collaborative content creation, including objects, textures and animations. The users of these worlds navigate their avatars as personal...... mediators in 3D virtual space to collaborate and co-design the digital content. These co-designers are also the residents of these worlds, as they socialize by building inworld friendships. This article presents a social semiotic analysis of the three-dimensional virtual places and artifacts in the virtual...... the audio-visual characteristics of designing in multi-user virtual environments generate experiential, interpersonal and textual meaning potentials....

  5. The world's biggest gamble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockström, Johan; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim; Hoskins, Brian; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Schlosser, Peter; Brasseur, Guy Pierre; Gaffney, Owen; Nobre, Carlos; Meinshausen, Malte; Rogelj, Joeri; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    The scale of the decarbonisation challenge to meet the Paris Agreement is underplayed in the public arena. It will require precipitous emissions reductions within 40 years and a new carbon sink on the scale of the ocean sink. Even then, the world is extremely likely to overshoot. A catastrophic failure of policy, for example, waiting another decade for transformative policy and full commitments to fossil-free economies, will have irreversible and deleterious repercussions for humanity's remaining time on Earth. Only a global zero carbon roadmap will put the world on a course to phase-out greenhouse gas emissions and create the essential carbon sinks for Earth-system stability, without which, world prosperity is not possible.

  6. The Emerging World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER COLLECOTT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is common ground amongst almost all commentators that the world has changed radically over the past 25 years – the 25 years since the fall of the Berlin Wall heralded the ending of the Cold War, the reunification of a tragically divided Europe, and the acceleration of the process of globalisation which has its only comparable period in the decades leading up to the First World War in 1914. When analyzing the Emerging World Order it is important to cover more than Brazil economy or any other individual BRICs or other Emerging Powers. Instead, our analysis will provide a global view about the economic and political global power structures which are evolving and forming before our eyes, and then to talk about the challenges these emerging realities pose for us in Europe, and in the West in general.

  7. World Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, A.; Van der Linde, C.; Nicola, S.

    2009-03-15

    In the section World Energy Future of this magazine two articles, two interviews and one column are presented. The article 'A green example to the world' refers briefly to the second World Future Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi, which was held from 18-21 January, 2009. The second article, 'Green Utopia in the desert' attention is paid to the Abu Dhabi government-driven Masdar Initiative. The two interviews concern an interview with BP Alternative Energy ceo Vivienne Cox, and an interview with the founder and CEO of New Energy Finance Michael Liebreich. The column ('An efficient response') focuses on the impact of the economic crisis on energy policy.

  8. The new world disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Nicolas; Maguire, John; Barney, Jonathan

    2003-08-01

    On January 1, 1995, representatives from 76 countries signed the World Trade Organization charter, which for years had been part of a temporary trade agreement. The WTO's emergence as a fully empowered supranational body seemed to reflect the triumph of what the first President Bush had described as the "new world order." That order was based on two assumptions: that a healthy economy and a sound financial system make for political stability, and that countries in business together do not fight each other. The number one priority of U.S. foreign policy was thus to encourage the former Communist countries of Europe and the developing nations in Latin America, Asia, and Africa to adopt business-friendly policies. Private capital would flow from the developed world into these countries, creating economic growth. It sounded too good to be true, and so it proved. The new world order of Bush père and his successor, Bill Clinton, has been replaced by the new world disorder of Bush fils. Under the second Bush's administration, the economic and political rationale-behind the Washington consensus of the 1990s has unraveled, forcing a radical change in our perceptions of which countries are safe for business. Negotiating this new environment will require companies to more rigorously evaluate political events and more carefully assess the links between political, economic, and financial risk factors. They'll need to be more selective about which markets to enter, and they'll need to think differently about how to position themselves in those markets. The geopolitical events of the past year, the Bush administration's global war on terror, as well as ongoing convulsions in traditional political and economic relationships must be understood and managed by corporate leaders worldwide. With careful analysis, business leaders can increase their companies' visibility and better respond to the uncertainties of the new world disorder.

  9. The world of Edgerank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Hjalmar Alexander Bang; Birkbak, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    marketing blogs about how to handle the algorithm in practice. Based on these events, we construct an ‘internalistic’ account of the rhetoric of Edgerank, opening for an exploration of its moral grammar and the world or dwelling place it assumes and enacts. We find that the world of Edgerank is ordered...... do so by examining three specific situations where the operations of Edgerank have been critiqued and defended: First, Facebook’s own response to the critique that social media produce echo chambers. Second, Facebook’s presentation of the main variables in the Edgerank algorithm. Third, social media...

  10. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...

  11. World championship in negotiation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinski, Remigiusz; Kesting, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has seen the emergence of several new negotiation competitions around the world.We think the two major drivers of this development are a general trend toward the increasing internationalization of higher education and a recognition of the specific benefits of competitions for nego......The last decade has seen the emergence of several new negotiation competitions around the world.We think the two major drivers of this development are a general trend toward the increasing internationalization of higher education and a recognition of the specific benefits of competitions...

  12. Inside-My-World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Fessler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inside-My-World ist die erste Offline-Plattform, auf der man Freundinnen und Freunde kennenlernen, sich im Chat oder in Foren unterhalten, spannende Games spielen oder ganz einfach das eigene Profil gestalten und auf die Pinnwand seiner Freundinnen und Freunde schreiben kann.Diese Plattform hat den Vorteil, dass zum Einstieg keine Computer und keine Internetverbindung notwendig sind, da sie in jedem Raum, z.B. in einem Klassenzimmer, entstehen kann. Denn Inside-My-World ist ein Soziales Netzwerk in Form eines Rollenspiels für Gruppen, z.B. SchülerInnen, LehrerInnen oder Eltern.

  13. [Towards an urban world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    It has been estimated that by the year 2006, the proportion of the world's population residing in cities will for the 1st time exceed 50%. The entire urban population will be living on 1% of the earth's surface. Rapid growth of cities is largely limited to developing countries, where about 9/10 of urban growth is expected to occur in coming decades. Urban growth in developing countries is due to high fertility as well as inmigration of poor peasants seeking a better life. The current growth rate of Third World cities is 3.6% annually, which signifies doubling of the population in 20 years. Paris required over a century to grow from 547,000 to 3 million, but Lagos grew from 700,000 to 5.6 million in 20 years and Cairo grew by 6.5 million in 34 years. Immoderate population growth places a great strain on cities attempting to provide basic services. Only a few authoritarian governments have succeeded in limiting immigration to their metropolitan areas. Rapidly growing cities have become symbols not only of poverty and social deterioration, but of ecological destruction, contamination, and lack of health. Air pollution, waste management, and the water supply are 3 of the most serious problems of hygiene and sanitation in the world's cities. Air pollution is caused by various factors including car exhausts and coal burning. According to World Health Organization data, less than 60% of Third World housing has access to an adequate sanitary system. 90% of sewage is not treated before elimination. And millions of persons with no potable water supply are obliged to consume contaminated water or to use their scarce resources to buy water. Many cities lose up to 60% of their scarce water supplies through leaking pipes. If these pipes were repaired, and the loss amounted to the 12% typical of the US and Great Britain, this single measure would double the volume of potable water available. The lack of social balance is at the root of urban problems in the Third World. 600

  14. Engaged World-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Maria Louise Bønnelykke; Rubow, Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on fieldwork in Kiribati and the Cook Islands, this chapter shows how atoll islands and tropical lagoons, considered highly vulnerable to present and future sea level rise, are extraordinary malleable socio-natural worlds. Revolving around sacred islands submerged by sea water, ancient fish...... traps, whales, coastal protection devices, and scientific findings of sand sedimentation processes and sea level rise, we demonstrate how the island worlds are constantly made and remade by social and natural forces, and somewhat surprisingly, how the rising sea is conspicuously absent at many island...

  15. The World of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ Pilafs, risottos, soups, snacks, paellas,stuffing, vinegars, wines and desserts-rice is used all over the world in myriad ways as food and drink.Although rice is one of the world's most ancient foods and it is impossible to know exactly where and when cultivation of this marvelous grain began, China is popularly acknowledged as the homeland of rice. Chinese people have many legends about rice. Some describe a benevolent goddess in silk robes whose gown accidentally picked up stray rice grains, which she dropped from the heavens to humans below. It's also said that Shennong, the Divine Farmer in Chinese myth, sowed the first rice on earth.

  16. Suicide in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeter Värnik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past 20 years the WHO has considerably improved world mortality data. There are still shortcomings but more countries now report data and world-wide estimates are regularly made. Methods: Data about mortality have been retrieved from the WHO world database. Worldwide injury mortality estimates for 2008 as well as trends of the suicide rate from 1950 to 2009 were analysed. Results: Suicides in the world amount to 782 thousand in 2008 according to the WHO estimate, which is 1.4% of total mortality and 15% of injury mortality. The suicide rate for the world as a whole is estimated at 11.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. The male–female rate ratio of suicide is estimated to be highest in the European Region (4.0 and the lowest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (1.1. Among males the highest suicide rate in the 15–29 age group is in the SE Asian region, in the 45–59 age group in European males and for ages above 60 in the Western Pacific region. Females from SE Asia have a remarkably high suicide rate among 15–29-year-olds and from age 45 in the Western Pacific region. The leading country is currently Lithuania, with a suicide rate of 34.1 per 100,000 inhabitants. Also among males the suicide rate is the highest in Lithuania at 61.2. Among females South Korea with 22.1 is at the top of world suicide rates. Conclusions: During the past six decades, according to the WHO Japan, Hungary, and Lithuania have topped the list of world countries by suicide rate, but if the current trends continue South Korea will overtake all others in a few years. The heart of the problem of suicide mortality has shifted from Western Europe to Eastern Europe and now seems to be shifting to Asia. China and India are the biggest contributors to the absolute number of suicides in the world.

  17. Real-World Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents IISME, a U.S. program that can give educators a real-world experience and that can deepen their subject-matter knowledge. It also presents the experiences of some teachers who are into this program. IISME's summer-fellowship program started out with 40 teachers and 12 companies. The group's growth picked up in 2001, when it…

  18. To Impress The World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2010-01-01

    @@ An Exhibition of Fine Works of Seal Engraving Art was held in the Cultural Center of the World Expo in Shanghai in mid-August. The exhibition was organized by the Chinese Academy of Seal Engraving of the Chinese Academy of Arts.

  19. Entertaining the whole world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheok, Adrian David; Nijholt, Anton; Romão, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Entertainment media are entertainment products and services that rely on digital technology. Mostly the digital entertainment industry is focused on the developed world such as USA, Europe, and Japan. However, due to the decreasing cost of computer and programming technologies, developing countries

  20. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased rapidly in

  1. French in Culinary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international restaurants apply the French menu and cooking. This article presents an overview about the French element in culinary world; starts from its history, kitchen organization, French menu spelling, and French cooking vocabulary. The discussion proceeds library research to compile the data. Later, the art of culinary is interesting to be learned because it contains the classical history of world civilization, in this case French civilization. The issue of cooking trend nouvelle cuisine was a masterpiece of one of the greatest chef in his time, Escoffier. French culinary is widely well-known in all over the world because of innovation, creativity, and proud. Those are spirits that we must learn.

  2. Brane world scenarios

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dileep P Jatkar

    2003-02-01

    We review proposals of brane world models which attempt to combine gauge theories with gravity at TeV scale by confining the gauge theory to a three-brane embedded in higher dimensional bulk. Gravity, however, propagates in the directions transverse to the brane as well.

  3. Withdrawn Amidst the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Mette Birkedal; Nørgaard, Lars Cyril; Nagelsmit, Eelco

    2017-01-01

    The pious Élisabeth d'Orléans, Mme de Guise, had a vivid correspondence with Armand-Jean de Rancé, abbot of the Cistercian abbey of La Trappe in Normandy. Rancé was considered a champion of unconditional isolation from the world by his contemporaries, but in fact he recommended quite diverse forms...... in remarkable detail how the Duchess should balance her obligations to God and human beings by being a model of withdrawal. To this end she must constantly, in action and demeanour, display to the world her withdrawal from the world. Rancé's spiritual advice to Mme de Guise throws new light on the devotional...... horizon of Gaston d'Orléans's daughter and the pastoral practice of the abbot of La Trappe. Above all, it shows the intricacies and modulations of the withdrawal from the world prescribed to late seventeenth-century aristocratic dévots and, especially, dévotes....

  4. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly, the disserta......The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly......, the dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...... circulated beyond Japan. Using Sōseki’s theory as an example, and by comparing it to other theories, the dissertation argues that comparative literature needs to include not only more non-Western literature but also more non-Western literary theories in the ongoing debate of world literature. Close...

  5. World beyond Pluto

    CERN Document Server

    Marlowe, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    What happens when a hardened criminal on the run for his life gets mixed up with an all-girl symphony traveling between lesser-populated planets in a futile attempt to bring culture to their rowdy inhabitants? Well, to put it mildly, hijinks ensue. Read Stephen Marlowe's thoroughly entertaining World Beyond Pluto to find out the rest.

  6. World Security and Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA very neat illustration of the skilful use of small, manageable, world models to consider pressing policy questions of great current relevance. Ron Smith, The Economic Journal" Jan Tinbergen, in this book as in his earlier work, has the courage to address central issues. Dietrich

  7. Dancing With the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Ballet, the dance created for court performances in Renaissance Europe that reached into the world of high art in early 17th century France, has long been loved by Chinese. As early as the 1920s, andinto the 1950s and 1960s when the country was alienated from the

  8. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  9. Exploring New Geometric Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirode, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    When students work with a non-Euclidean distance formula, geometric objects such as circles and segment bisectors can look very different from their Euclidean counterparts. Students and even teachers can experience the thrill of creative discovery when investigating these differences among geometric worlds. In this article, the author describes a…

  10. French in Culinary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international restaurants apply the French menu and cooking. This article presents an overview about the French element in culinary world; starts from its history, kitchen organization, French menu spelling, and French cooking vocabulary. The discussion proceeds library research to compile the data. Later, the art of culinary is interesting to be learned because it contains the classical history of world civilization, in this case French civilization. The issue of cooking trend “nouvelle cuisine” was a masterpiece of one of the greatest chef in his time, Escoffier. French culinary is widely well-known in all over the world because of innovation, creativity, and proud. Those are spirits that we must learn.   

  11. Mapping a Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltman, Joseph P.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the importance of maps for instruction in both history and geography. Suggests that maps have gotten recent attention because of the rapid political changes occurring in Europe and the quincentenary of Columbus' voyage. Discusses different map projections and the importance of media and satellite display of real pictures of the world.…

  12. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased rapidly in

  13. World Collection of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHAKIMJON Saydaliyev; ALISHER Amanturdiev; MALOXAT Halikova

    2008-01-01

    @@ Achievements of selection and other theoretical researches on cotton not only in our country,but also world-wide depend on the presence of genetic resources.Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Selection and Seed Growing of Cotton is a leading center of science on breeding and production of cotton across Central Asia.

  14. Searching for world domination

    CERN Multimedia

    Quillen, E

    2004-01-01

    "Optimists might believe Microsoft suffered a setback last week that will impede its progress toward world domination, but I suspect the company has already found a way to prevail. At issue before the European Union was Microsoft's bundling of its Windows Media Player with its operating system" (1 page)

  15. World Database of Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT The World Database of Happiness is an ongoing register of research on subjective appreciation of life. Its purpose is to make the wealth of scattered findings accessible, and to create a basis for further meta-analytic studies. The database involves four sections:
    1.

  16. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes ...

  17. World Heart Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    For World Heart Day, learn more about what heart-healthy steps you can take in the workplace.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  18. World Security and Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA very neat illustration of the skilful use of small, manageable, world models to consider pressing policy questions of great current relevance. Ron Smith, The Economic Journal" Jan Tinbergen, in this book as in his earlier work, has the courage to address central issues. Dietrich Fisher

  19. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  20. World Database of Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT The World Database of Happiness is an ongoing register of research on subjective appreciation of life. Its purpose is to make the wealth of scattered findings accessible, and to create a basis for further meta-analytic studies. The database involves four sections:
    1. Bib

  1. World Database of Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT The World Database of Happiness is an ongoing register of research on subjective appreciation of life. Its purpose is to make the wealth of scattered findings accessible, and to create a basis for further meta-analytic studies. The database involves four sections:
    1. Bib

  2. Worlds of Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Ruth R.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes the lives and pursuits of four U.S. artists: Winslow Homer, John Frederick Peto, George Bellows, and Joan Mitchell. Explains the concepts apparent in the four works of art and shows how the artists created these works through expressing their perceptions of the world around them. Lists questions for further exploration. (CMK)

  3. An interdependent world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2009-01-01

    The financial crisis that first struck the United States is unfolding into a worldwide economic recession.When the U.S.coughs,the world catches a cold,now a once-in-acentury cold.This is unexpected to most people,including most economists.It is often said that everything in the

  4. The World Science Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmino, J.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) New York City in the late 20th century rose to be a planetary capital for the sciences, not just astronomy. This growth was mainly in the academic sector but a parallel growth occurred in the public and home field. With the millennium crossing, scientists in New York agitated for a celebration of the City as a place for a thriving science culture. In 2008 they began World Science Festival. 2011 is the fourth running, on June 1-5, following the AAVSO/AAS meetings. World Science Festival was founded by Dr. Brian Greene, Columbia University, and is operated through the World Science Foundation. The Festival is "saturation science" all over Manhattan in a series of lectures, shows, exhibits, performances. It is staged in "science" venues like colleges and musea, but also in off-science spaces like theaters and galleries. It is a blend from hard science, with lectures like those by us astronomers, to science-themed works of art, dance, music. Events are fitted for the public, either for free or a modest fee. While almost all events are on Manhattan, effort has been made to geographically disperse them, even to the outer boroughs. The grand finale of World Science Festival is a street fair in Washington Square. Science centers in booths, tents, and pavilions highlight their work. In past years this fair drew 100,000 to 150,000 visitors. The entire Festival attracts about a quarter-million attendees. NYSkies is a proud participant at the Washington Square fair. It interprets the "Earth to the Universe" display, debuting during IYA-2009. Attendance at "Earth..." on just the day of the fair plausibly is half of all visitors in America. The presentation shows the scale and scope of World Science Festival, its relation to the City, and how our astronomers work with it.

  5. Economics: An Emerging Small World?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Goyal (Sanjeev); M.J. van der Leij (Marco); J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the small world hypothesis. The first part of the paper presents empirical evidence on the evolution of a particular world: the world of journal publishing economists during the period 1970-2000. We find that in the 1970's the world of economics was a collection of is

  6. Learning Experience with Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Virtual worlds create a new opportunity to enrich the educational experience through media-rich immersive learning. Virtual worlds have gained notoriety in games such as World of Warcraft (WoW), which has become the most successful online game ever, and in "general purpose" worlds, such as Second Life (SL), whose participation levels (more than 10…

  7. Virtual World Astrosociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2010-01-01

    This essay introduces the opportunity for theory development and even empirical research on some aspects of astrosociology through today's online virtual worlds. The examples covered present life on other planets or in space itself, in a manner that can be experienced by the user and where the user's reactions may simulate to some degree future human behavior in real extraterrestrial environments: Tabula Rasa, Anarchy Online, Entropia Universe, EVE Online, StarCraft and World of Warcraft. Ethnographic exploration of these computerized environments raises many questions about the social science both of space exploration and of direct contact with extraterrestrials. The views expressed in this essay do not necessarily represent the views of the National Science Foundation or the United States.

  8. World energy outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The World Energy Outlook 2006 sets out the IEA's latest projections of world energy supply and demand to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The publication is in three parts. Part A: The reference scenario has chapters entitled: Key assumptions; Global Energy Trends; Oil market outlook; Gas market outlook; Coal market outlook; and Power sector outlook. Part B: The alternative policy scenario contains chapters on: Mapping a new energy future; Assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies; Deepening the analysis results by sector; and Getting to and going beyond the alternative policy scenario. Part C: Focus on key topics contains: The impact of higher energy prices; Current trends in oil and gas investment; Prospects for nuclear power; The outlook for biofuels; Energy for coking in developing countries; and Focus on Brazil. 224 figs., 84 tabs., 5 annexes.

  9. World Class Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Ole Emil; Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet.......Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet....

  10. World energy insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The 21st World Energy Congress offers a unique opportunity for all stake-holders of the energy sector to meet and exchange visions, strategies and practices, during four days of very intensive and interesting sessions, round-tables and exhibitions. More than 3,000 energy leaders gather from around the world from both developed and developing countries, from all types of energy, from public and private companies and government organisations, in order to think together about how to bring about a sustainable and acceptable energy future. The truth is that nobody has the choice any longer. All energy leaders have to take decisions every day, and they need to have a clear analysis of what is at stake, what the risks are, and what the solutions can be.

  11. Militarism and world health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, C W

    1992-04-01

    Militarism is a rapidly growing factor in that complex network of social, political and economic causes of ill health among the world's poor. This complex of causes is driving a spiral of class inequality, political instability, and military repression in many less developed nations. These nations share a uniform security doctrine, which has major health impacts. Here five impacts are noted: diversion of resources, suppression of dissent, military classism, environment damage, and crime and terrorism. The demand stimulated by the recent Persian Gulf War for expensive, high-technology weapons may deepen Third World debt and fuel the cycle of poverty, ill health, social unrest, and military oppression. International health workers need to take account of the causes and effects of militarism in their studies of health problems. Their work could be aided by organizations that promote disarmament and environment preservation.

  12. World Class Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Ole Emil; Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet.......Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet....

  13. Brave nuclear world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pockley, P

    1999-05-01

    Two announcements have confirmed that the current Australian government intends to realize the unfulfilled dream of the Menzies era for Australia to become a `nuclear nation` by approving a new `research reactor` and a new uranium mine. Meanwhile, the government is working hard to overturn UNESCO`s recommendation to stop the development of the Jabiluka uranium mine. And, an international proposal to store in Australia stockpiles of high level waste from the world`s power stations and decommissioned nuclear weapons has finally come into the open with the revelation that Pangea Resources Australia Pty Ltd has presented a summary proposal to the government. Though rejected, the plan remains active. Central to the rush to capitalise on Australia`s uranium resources is Environment Minister, Senator Robert Hill, whose formal approvals for the reactor and the mine have been legally essential

  14. World Development Report 2004

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Too often, services fail poor people in access, in quality, and in affordability. But the fact that there are striking examples where basic services such as water, sanitation, health, education, and electricity do work for poor people means that governments and citizens can do a better job of providing them. Learning from success and understanding the sources of failure, this year’s World Development Report, argues that services can be improved by putting poor people at the center of service ...

  15. Modeling the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese models still have a long way to go A Chinese debutante garnered most of the limelight at the annual Victoria’s Secret Fashion Show in New York in November last year. He Sui, a newcomer to the modeling world, was the focus of many photographers as the dark haired beauty walked down the runway in a mermaid inspired ensemble.He was followed by another Chinese

  16. The world of particles

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, Brian

    1991-01-01

    What is our Universe made of? Where does it come from? Why does it behave as it does? We do not have all the answers to these questions but in recent years we have uncovered a lot of information about the Universe which surrounds us. This search has revealed that, beyond the evidence of our eyes, there is a seething world of tiny particles and messengers which pass between them...

  17. World Presidents Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Members of the World Presidents' Organization take a try at 'piloting' a mock-up of the space shuttle cockpit during a Jan. 26 visit to StenniSphere, the museum and visitor center at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. WPO members from several states spent the day touring Stennis facilities and learning about the work of the nation's premier rocket engine testing site.

  18. WORLD MERCHANDISE TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei MĂRGULESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly based on the most recent statistical data of the World Trade Organization and some aspects related to the evolution of world merchandise trade, in terms of volume and value, in 2015. The volume of world merchandise trade continued to grow slowly in 2015 while the dollar value of it declined sharply as exports fell 14 per cent to US$ 16 trillion, down from US$ 19 trillion in the previous year. It presents also the contribution of the volume change and of the change in unit values (which account for fluctuations in prices and exchange rates to the value trade growth (in current dollar terms. The discrepancy between trade growth in 2015 in terms of volume and value was mostly attributable to swings in commodity prices and exchange rates The course of economic globalization is also shortly looked on based on some data and considerations of Credit Suisse analysts. Three different scenarios were taken into account in this respect. First one in which globalization continues in the form we know it over the past thirty years, second one in which a multipolar world is a better representation of the state of affairs and third, a scenario in which globalization ends due to the rise of anti-globalization political movements. The second scenario seems to provide a better reflection of reality today, despite the fact that a certain slowdown is observable when taking into account the diminishing growth rate of physical trade, the slower penetration of foreign assets of the developed market companies and signs of reshoring of some business back home. Globalization remains intact in terms of consumption and marketing patterns, while companies seem more reluctant to invest abroad.

  19. People in the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方岩

    2004-01-01

    “When in Rome, do as the Romans do.”is a famous saying about customs. But what exactly do the Romans and other people do that is so different? Where do women wear tings in their noses to show they are married, for example? Where do people greet each other with a bow rather than a handshake? Here are some other ways people behave and beautify themselves around the world.

  20. World Development Report 2015

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Every policy relies on explicit or implicit assumptions about how people make choices. Those assumptions typically rest on an idealized model of how people think, rather than an understanding of how everyday thinking actually works. This year’s World Development Report argues that a more realistic account of decision-making and behavior will make development policy more effective. The Report emphasizes what it calls 'the three marks of everyday thinking.' In everyday thinking, people use...

  1. World Presidents Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Members of the World Presidents' Organization enjoy a buffet luncheon during a Jan. 26 visit to NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. WPO members from several states toured Stennis facilities during a daylong visit that included a river ride with Special Boat Team 22, the U.S. Navy's elite boat warriors group that trains at Stennis. Visiting president also had an opportunity to learn about the ongoing work of the nation's premier rocket engine testing site.

  2. Diamantina: World Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Alencar Machado Albuquerque

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on preservation of cultural values in Brazil has been characterized as a current trend, and local communities play an important role in this process. The country’s preservationist policy has emerged with the Institute of National Historical and Artistic Heritage that aims at identifying and preserving the historical, cultural and artistic heritage. In the Brazilian scene the city of Diamantina/MG stands out for its remarkable cultural heritage, considered by UNESCO a World Cultural Heritage.

  3. Trust and virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles; Thorseth, May

    2011-01-01

    We collect diverse philosophical analyses of the issues and problems clustering around trust online with specific attention to establishing trust in virtual environments. The book moves forward important discussions of how virtual worlds and virtuality are to be defined and understood; the role o...... by virtuality, such as virtual child pornography. The introduction further develops a philosophical anthropology, rooted in Kantian ethics, phenomenology, virtue ethics, and feminist perspectives, that grounds a specific approach to ethical issues in virtual environments....

  4. World Natural Gas Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based on a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.

  5. View on world market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, J. [Vestas Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Reasons contributing to a potential growth in wind power are cited. Increased demand is expected to arise due to increased energy needs and environmental concerns. Barriers, primarily political, to the development of wind energy are assessed. Development is predicted to occur first in countries with a demand for new capacity and political decisions to protect the environment.

  6. The world's children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, R

    1997-01-01

    World leaders from 159 countries agreed at the 1990 World Summit for Children to specific goals which would reduce levels of child and maternal mortality, and give every child access to basic education, clean water, and proper sanitation by 2000. Major progress has since been achieved in most countries, with more than 80% of the world's children now immunized against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. Moreover, the deaths of over 1 million children annually are being averted through the increased use of oral rehydration therapy against diarrheal dehydration, poliomyelitis and guinea worm have almost been eradicated, the consumption of iodized salt is protecting approximately 12 million infants annually from iodine deficiency, and access to safe drinking water is on the rise. Scientific developments in pediatrics, the strengthening of national health services, and the use of cost-effective primary health care approaches such as immunization, oral rehydration therapy, the promotion of breast feeding, and growth monitoring have helped reduce the national rate of infant mortality (IMR) in Turkey to 42 per 1000 live births compared to the urban IMR in Turkey during the 1940s of 300-350/1000. Developments in public health, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), education and child development, and child protection and the CRC are discussed.

  7. General Environment Of World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mohammed Viquaruddin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt regarding the general social/economical/ecological/political and more environments of world certainly with multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary approach. It is discussed that the problems of fore further can besolved through facts/reasoning/science/environment/social sciences etc. As beinga student of political science even peace science a try that can come into existenceor can be practiced only through many dimensions. The philosophy is developedto resist with whatever means we have in hand and are willing to fight for a betterscenario which would be something out of our reach! But can achieve through apositive and plural system not certainly perfect but different in its approach.Achievement to the threats and problems to the liberal vision are pervasive and thesystem is in much greater problematic that is commonly supposed. Protecting/Preserving/ Commanding it in the coming century and beyond will be easier saidthan done! We do not foresee the renaissance of any type we should be sure aboutthat alternative World Multidimensional System (WMS could reasonably competewith the present multidimensional system on theoretical or practical grounds. It isnot enough that this system display substantial practical advantages and genuinetheoretical coherence. No one can deny that world get profit from present system.

  8. Intersecting Brane Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Aldazabal, G; Ibáñez, L E; Rabadan, Raul; Uranga, Angel M

    2001-01-01

    It is known that chiral fermions naturally appear at certain intersections of branes at angles. Motivated by this fact, we propose a string scenario in which different standard model gauge interactions propagate on different (intersecting) brane worlds, partially wrapped in the extra dimensions. Quarks and leptons live at brane intersections, and are thus located at different positions in the extra dimensions. Replication of families follows naturally from the fact that the branes generically intersect at several points. Gauge and Yukawa couplings can be computed in terms of the compactification radii. Hierarchical Yukawa couplings appear naturally, since amplitudes involving three different intersections are proportional to exp(-A_{ijk}), where A_{ijk} is the area of a string world-sheet extending among the intersections. The models are non-supersymmetric but the string scale may be lowered down to 1-10 TeV. The proton is however stable due to a set of discrete symmetries arising from world-sheet selection r...

  9. World Standards Day and Its Contribution to the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The World Standards Day began in 1970.From 1986,ISO President started to deliver a speech to the world onthe World Standards Day.From 1988,IEC President and ISO President jointly delivered the speech for the World Standards Day.From 1993,the ITU SecretaryGeneral also joined them for the speech on World Standards Day.The 3 most influential international standardization organizations have jointly promoted the World Standards Day,and the theme of every year's speech clearly suggests the development course and trend of standardization.

  10. The World Heritage Centr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman G. Abdel Tawab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New Gourna Village, which is located inside one of the World Heritage Sites in Egypt, has never been recognized as an element contributing to the site’s Outstanding Universal Value. The recognition of the village as a contributing element is reliant on the successful assessment of its authenticity and integrity. Responding to the dramatically declining integrity of the village, the World Heritage Centre has carried out an architectural study to guide the potential conservation works in the property. The study has recommended that a group of objectives and two approaches to the conservation of the village should be adopted. One of these two approaches has been concerned with the conservation of the village according to the architect’s original intentions and principles. The previous approach can be called the principles-based approach. The main aim of this study was to examine the agreement of the World Heritage Centre’s objectives and their proposed principles-based approach to the conservation of the village with the aim to improve its chance in meeting the conditions of authenticity and integrity. The study approached the previous aim by assessing, by means of a proposed methodology; the level of significance, authenticity and integrity of the property. Based on the previous assessment, a list of conservation interventions was proposed to improve the property’s chance in meeting the conditions of authenticity and integrity. Finally, the World Heritage Centre’s recommended approaches and objectives were examined against the previous proposed conservation interventions. The findings indicated the possibility to adopt the principles-based approach to the conservation of New Gourna Village, as well as the other World Heritage Centre’s objectives, without limiting the property’s chance in meeting the conditions of authenticity and integrity. The study recommends to carry out further studies that are concerned with the identification

  11. World Energy Outlook 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The 2008 report provides invaluable analysis to help policy makers around the world assess and address the challenges posed by worsening oil supply prospects, higher energy prices and rising emissions of greenhouse gases. In the WEO-2008 Reference Scenario, which assumes no new government policies, world primary energy demand grows by 1.6% per year on average between 2006 and 2030 - an increase of 45%. This is slower than projected last year, mainly due to the impact of the economic slowdown, prospects for higher energy prices and some new policy initiatives. Demand for oil rises from 85 million barrels per day now to 106 mb/d in 2030 - 10 mb/d less than projected last year. Demand for coal rises more than any other fuel in absolute terms, accounting for over a third of the increase in energy use. Modern renewables grow most rapidly, overtaking gas to become the second-largest source of electricity soon after 2010. China and India account for over half of incremental energy demand to 2030 while the Middle East emerges as a major new demand centre. The share of the world's energy consumed in cities grows from two-thirds to almost three-quarters in 2030. Almost all of the increase in fossil-energy production occurs in non-OECD countries. These trends call for energy-supply investment of $26.3 trillion to 2030, or over 1 trillion US dollars/year. Yet the credit squeeze could delay spending, potentially setting up a supply-crunch that could choke economic recovery. In addition to providing a comprehensive update of long-term energy projections to 2030, WEO-2008 takes a detailed look at the prospects for oil and gas production. Oil will remain the world's main source of energy for many years to come, even under the most optimistic of assumptions about the development of alternative technology. But the sources of oil, the cost of producing it and the prices that consumers will have to pay for it are extremely uncertain. It is far from certain that companies

  12. World Bioenergy 2012. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The conference of 2012 had contributions on the following themes: A: World Pellets 2012, B: Market outlook, C: Energy systems, D: Transportation, E: World biorefinery 2012, F: Sustainable bioenergy day. 52 contributions in A - D. A: World Pellets 2012 is an integrated part of World Bioenergy 2012. A three day 'conference in the conference' covering all aspects of pellets: raw material potentials, innovative pellets production systems, torrefaction, new combustion technologies, trade and market development, health and safety aspects, etc. B) Market outlook: Policy and targets for renewable energy to find an alternative to fossil energy are being put in place, increasing the demand for sustainable modern bioenergy. Global trade and improved logistics open up to the markets. To facilitate international trade in bioenergy commodities, new trading places and indexes are needed, as well as generally accepted standards. Supply and demand must meet to guarantee stable prices. In this session you learn all about current market development, including drivers like incentives and policies. C) Energy Systems: Modern bioenergy is a young industry. Therefore, technical development is rapid, with many new innovations. This session focuses on technical development in the whole bioenergy chain, from harvesting of forest residues to combustion technologies and co-firing. Optimal use of biomass through district heating or cooling - small scale and large scale - and CHP technology for electricity production. D) Transportation: Sustainable transports are one of the key challenges of tomorrow. Can we transport biomass as well as other products sustainably and at what costs? Which are the future fuels for transports and when will biofuels be viewed as profitable? Biofuels for transport are under rapid development with new methods, producers and feedstock entering the markets. The future biofuels will be produced in biorefineries, to increase profitability and optimize feed

  13. Antiretrovirals for developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, M W

    1998-01-24

    The most recent UNAIDS figures indicate that approximately 30 million people are infected with HIV worldwide, 5.8 million of whom were newly infected during 1997. At the 10th International Conference on AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Africa, the President and Secretary of Health of France called upon developed countries to establish a Therapeutic Assistance Fund to make antiretrovirals available to people with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. While the annual per capita health budget in most African countries is less than US$10, triple antiretroviral therapy against AIDS in the developed world costs $12,000-14,000 per patient per year. Calculations based upon a lower per patient cost of $7000, and treating all 1.4 million African AIDS cases, would cost US$10 billion per year for drugs alone, more than 30 times the amount currently spent annually by international donors for AIDS programs in the entire developing world. Basic infrastructural requirements would have to be met were antiretrovirals made widely available, ranging from HIV screening and counseling to the provision of clean water with which to consume the required 20-30 tablets per day. High program costs will challenge long-term sustainability. Universal access to care and treatment for HIV infection and AIDS is not a reality in the developed world, let alone feasible in developing countries. Given the competing health care priorities in developing countries, the high costs of antiretroviral agents, poor infrastructure, and inability to sustain such a program, the French initiative is ill-advised and foolish public health practice.

  14. World Ocean Circulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R. Allyn

    1992-01-01

    The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

  15. Naturally Connecting the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ During China International Trade Fair for Home Textiles and Accessories held in Shanghai 2010(on Aug.25th the second day of the fair),Cotton Council International(CCI)hosted an exchange meeting targeted the COTTON USATM home textile licenses,taking"Naturally Connecting the World-Opportunities for Sourcing and Collaboration with Cotton-Made Home Textiles"as the theme of the meeting.CCI's representative institution in China invited the domestic famous home textile brands,enterprises and their customers to participate in the exchange which aims to introduce the current development trend of the global cotton textile industry through CCI,the powerful platform of communication.

  16. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  17. Dancing With the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG WANDI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ballet, the dance created for court performances in Renaissance Europe that reached into the world of high art in early 17th century France, has long been loved by Chinese. As early as the 1920s, and into the 1950s and 1960s when the country was alienated from the West and its people were mired in poverty, some urban Chinese parents sent their daughters to ballet class after school, believing that this Western genre of art was the epitome of beauty and an educa-tional requirement for young ladies who held great expectations.

  18. World Technology Usage Lags

    OpenAIRE

    Diego A. Comin; Bart Hobijn; Emilie Rovito

    2006-01-01

    We present evidence on the differences in the intensity with which ten major technologies are used in 185 countries across the world. We do so by calculating how many years ago these technologies were used in the U.S. at the same intensity as they are used in the countries in our sample. We denote these time lags as technology usage lags and compare them with lags in real GDP per capita. We find that (i) technology usage lags are large, often comparable to lags in real GDP per capita, (ii) us...

  19. Black Brane World Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, S H

    2001-01-01

    We consider a brane world residing in the interior region inside the horizon of extreme black branes. In this picture, the size of the horizon can be interpreted as the compactification size. The large mass hierarchy is simply translated into the large horizon size, which is provided by the magnitude of charges carried by the black branes. Hence, the macroscopic compactification size is a quantity calculable from the microscopic theory which has only one physical scale, and its stabilization is guaranteed from the charge conservation.

  20. Magic and Magical Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børch, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The article argues that where as Harry POtter lacks the " sense of the numinous" found in Tolkien and Pratchett, it has a special magic that plays upon the fantastic potential of language. Everyday language is full of metaphors, personifications, and strata of archaic beliefs; it has diversified...... discourse types (the use of Latin; technical terminology; class characteristics); and carries a great deal of associative cultural goods. Rowling is an expert in exploiting this - truly maical - aspect of human experience and thus shows how, merely in virtue of words, we all move in a magical world....

  1. World helicopter market study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, B.; Pearson, R. W.; Greenwood, S. W.; Kaplan, L.

    1978-01-01

    The extent of the threat to the US helicopter industry posed by a determined effort by foreign manufacturers, European companies in particular, to supply their own domestic markets and also to penetrate export markets, including the USA is assessed. Available data on US and world markets for civil and military uses are collated and presented in both graphic and tabular form showing the past history of production and markets and, where forecasts are available, anticipated future trends. The data are discussed on an item-by-item basis and inferences are drawn in as much depth as appears justified.

  2. World Cup television

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In the last year of the first decade of the 21st century, in the verge of breaking into the era of digital television, it is important to know what kind of television model is available in Portugal. The analysis of the news coverage of the FIFA 2010 World Cup will certainly help in finding the answers. In this article, we present a study that centers its focus on news formats related to this great media event, broadcasted in both generalist as well as cable news networks between the 11th of J...

  3. The World of Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Amédée; Glaisher, James

    2010-10-01

    1. Beliefs and superstitions relative to comets; 2. Cometary astronomy up to the time of Newton; 3. The motions and orbits of comets; 4. Periodical comets; 5. Periodical comets; 6. The world of comets and cometary systems; 7. Physical and chemical constitution of comets; 8. Physical transformations of comets; 9. Mass and density of comets; 10. The light of comets; 11. Theory of cometary phenomena; 12. Comets and shooting stars; 13. Comets and the earth; 14. Physical influences of comets; 15. Some questions about comets; Tables.

  4. World Governments Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    HEALTH was once a matter only doctors were concerned about. But in recent years, women’s health issues have been a part of the women’s movement. A woman’s right to health and health care is now the concern of society. In the 1990s, it is becoming apparent that quality of life is of foremost importance. At the World Summit for Children held in September 1990 in New York, government leaders from over 140 countries gathered for the first time to

  5. Belief in a Just World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kilinc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Belief in a just world hypothesis is defined as the belief that the world is a just place where people generally get what they deserve. It states that individuals have a need to believe that they live in a just world; they believe in a world where people get what they deserve and where people deserve what they get. Individuals believe that who work hard or who perform good acts obtain rewards for their actions, while the sinners and the laggards receive punishments instead. Similarly, individuals want to believe that positive outcomes, whether money, success, or happiness, are obtained only by good people and, conversely, that negative outcomes only happen to bad persons. Justice beliefs have been hypothesized as adaptive for dealing with day-to-day stres. Just world beliefs protect individuals from the daily negative psychological consequences of living in what is realistically an unjust world. In addition, just world beliefs are thought to enhance feelings of security to the extent that if the individual satisfies the conditions for being "good," he or she is protected from injustice. The belief in a just world, like other positive illusions, should contribute to the maintenance of one's mental health. Belief in a just world's is discussed in two ways: personal belief in a just world's answers the question “how much justly is the world to me?”, whereas the belief in a just world's in general answers the question “how much justly is the world?”

  6. World Area Forecast System (WAFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Area Forecast System (WAFS) is a worldwide system by which world area forecast centers provide aeronautical meteorological en-route forecasts in uniform...

  7. Approaching the nano world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmer, Andreas; Jacobs, Heiko; Knapp, Helmut F.

    1996-12-01

    At the interface of micro and macro world, vision plays a fundamental role in localizing targets and positioning micro- or nanorobots relative to them. Traditionally, far- field optics are used to achieve this task. However, in most practical applications optical diffraction limits resolution to the micrometer-range although image processing may provide us relative accuracies on the order of several nanometers in a few special cases. At ambient pressure, capillary condensation of water vapor severely hampers reproducible and reversible manipulations of micrometer- sized or smaller objects since the resulting adhesive forces between tool and object easily exceed the object's weight. The size of objects also dictates the useful dimensions of sensors and actuators and generally necessitates integration of several sensing and/or actuation functions into a single device. To overcome above mentioned difficulties in accessing the micro and nano world, sensing and actuating principles derived from scanning probe microscopies such as atomic force or optical near-field provide us with the necessary extension of the capabilities offered by traditional far-field systems. A fluid environment also prevents those hard-to-control effects of capillary forces.

  8. World Biofuels Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very

  9. Becoming Citizens of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Vivien

    2007-01-01

    The globalization of economies, the digitization of work, pressing health and security issues, and changing demographics have dramatically changed our world. Unlike previous generations, U.S. high school graduates will routinely buy from the world, sell to the world, work for international companies, manage employees from other cultures and…

  10. Diving into Real World Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, Matt; Rodden, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how educators can engage students in real world learning using their academic knowledge and technical skills. They describe how school districts have discovered that the world of robotics can help students use technical skills to solve simulated problems found in the real world, while understanding the…

  11. New Wonders of the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    New Seven Wonders of the World is a contemporary attempt to create analternative to historical lists of the Seven Wonders of the World.The result of a worldwide popularity poll was organized by the private,non-profit New Open World Corporation(NOWC).Its final list was announced on

  12. World Energy Outlook 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The 2008 report provides invaluable analysis to help policy makers around the world assess and address the challenges posed by worsening oil supply prospects, higher energy prices and rising emissions of greenhouse gases. In the WEO-2008 Reference Scenario, which assumes no new government policies, world primary energy demand grows by 1.6% per year on average between 2006 and 2030 - an increase of 45%. This is slower than projected last year, mainly due to the impact of the economic slowdown, prospects for higher energy prices and some new policy initiatives. Demand for oil rises from 85 million barrels per day now to 106 mb/d in 2030 - 10 mb/d less than projected last year. Demand for coal rises more than any other fuel in absolute terms, accounting for over a third of the increase in energy use. Modern renewables grow most rapidly, overtaking gas to become the second-largest source of electricity soon after 2010. China and India account for over half of incremental energy demand to 2030 while the Middle East emerges as a major new demand centre. The share of the world's energy consumed in cities grows from two-thirds to almost three-quarters in 2030. Almost all of the increase in fossil-energy production occurs in non-OECD countries. These trends call for energy-supply investment of $26.3 trillion to 2030, or over 1 trillion US dollars/year. Yet the credit squeeze could delay spending, potentially setting up a supply-crunch that could choke economic recovery. In addition to providing a comprehensive update of long-term energy projections to 2030, WEO-2008 takes a detailed look at the prospects for oil and gas production. Oil will remain the world's main source of energy for many years to come, even under the most optimistic of assumptions about the development of alternative technology. But the sources of oil, the cost of producing it and the prices that consumers will have to pay for it are extremely uncertain. It is far from certain that companies

  13. Confronting world hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, B

    1983-01-01

    In 1980, per capita food supplies were less than adequate in 53 developing countries. More than half of these were the predominantly rural, low income countries of South Asia, China, and Sub-Saharan Africa. Finding the proper balance between satisfying immediate human needs and building political and economic systems in which individuals can in the future acquire the means to satisfy their own requirements is the central issue facing those in the fight against world hunger. At the international level, developed countries have responded to world hunger by raising the minimum level of food aid provided when supplies are scarce and by creating a financing facility for cereal imports. The food and agriculture sector is receiving a highe priority than before in the allocation of international development assistance, and more attention is being given to the effects of both general food subsidies and targeted nutrition programs on future agricultural output. At the national level, over 40 developing countries have requested assistance from the World Food Council for the preparation of food sector strategies. Although such measures are important, they do not directly address local problems and individual needs. For example, dietary intake tends to be lower in urban than in rural households in Latin America at the same level of income. These urban groups require health and nutrition interventions that simultaneously address their immediate need for food, clean water, and health care and their more longterm need for employment. Longterm economic development that provides adequate income to all segments of the population is the best means to combat hunger, and income security also reduces incentives for large family size. The contribution of the international community should remain the transfer of resources and the provision of technical assistance. At the individual level, the need for targeted food distribution programs continues. Greater benefit can be obtained from

  14. A Creepy World

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Using the mechanics of creep in material sciences as a metaphor, we present a general framework to understand the evolution of financial, economic and social systems and to construct scenarios for the future. In a nutshell, highly non-linear out-of-equilibrium systems subjected to exogenous perturbations tend to exhibit a long phase of slow apparent stable evolution, which are nothing but slow maturations towards instabilities, failures and changes of regimes. With examples from history where a small event had a cataclysmic consequence, we propose a novel view of the current state of the world via the logical scenarios that derive, avoiding the traps of an illusionary stability and simple linear extrapolation. The endogenous scenarios are "muddling along", "managing through" and "blood red abyss". The exogenous scenarios are "painful adjustment" and "golden east".

  15. Real-world outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    analyses during one specific meeting. An important element of the latter is to assess whether the discussion of our results gives rise to respondents’ reflection, resistance, acceptance, rejection, or indifference, and whether this leads to changes in respondents’ views on culture and organizational......When working with discourse-based research in professional settings, one question invariably arises: How do we, as researchers, ensure that our findings are taken up by the professionals with whom analyses are carried out, leading to change in their social practices? The answer is that quite often...... of research findings may take place to ensure the creation of real-world outcomes for practitioners. The discussion will be centered around the interview study of the discursive constructions of culture in a Danish cross-border company and the possible implications of this for organizational collaboration...

  16. WORLD OF INNOVATION

    CERN Document Server

    Nikodem, Jan; Innovative Technologies in Management and Science

    2015-01-01

    This carefully edited book presents recent research in Innovative Technologies in Management and Science, representing a widely spread interdisciplinary research area with many applications in various disciplines including engineering, medicine, technology, or environment, among others. It consists of eleven invited and scholarly edited chapters written by respectable researchers and experts in the fields that integrate ideas and novel concepts in Intelligent Systems and Informatics. Most of the chapters were selected from the initial contributions to the World of Innovation Conference held on April 3, 2012 in Wroclaw, Poland. The contributions are focusing on research and development of the latest IT technologies, in the field of Cloud Computing, IT modeling, as well as optimization problems. The chapters presented can be grouped into three categories: Innovation supported by Clouds Technology, Innovation proposals in management area, and Theoretical refinement for innovative solutions.  

  17. The World Stress Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Knowledge of the stress field in the Earth's crust is a key issue for the understanding of geodynamic processes,seismic hazard assessment, and stability of underground openings such as waste disposals, tunnels, mines or wells, and reservoir management. The World Stress Map project is a collaborative project of academia,industry and governmental organizations that aims to understand the states and sources of tectonic stresses in the Earth's crust. We present the Worm Stress Map at 1:46,000,000 scale as a result of more than two decades of international collaboration. The map reveals that the first-order pattern of stress is of plate-wide scale, indicating that plate boundary forces are the major control of the stress orientations and the tectonic regime.

  18. World nuclear outlook 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  19. World energy outlook 2014

    CERN Document Server

    International Energy Agency. Paris

    2014-01-01

    The global energy landscape is evolving at a rapid pace, reshaping long-held expectations for our energy future. The 2014 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO) will incorporate all the latest data and developments to produce a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of medium- and longer-term energy trends. It will complement a full set of energy projections – which extend from today through, for the first time, the year 2040 – with strategic insights into their meaning for energy security, the economy and the environment. Oil, natural gas, coal, renewables and energy efficiency will be covered, along with updates on trends in energy-related CO2 emissions, fossil-fuel and renewable energy subsidies, and universal access to modern energy services.

  20. Landscape as World Picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Jacob

    Age, among the powers-that-be. The topic of Volume II is the breakthrough of the modern landscape image and its new perspectival vistas, transient time and cultivated - or completely deserted - terrains. This post-medieval paradigm shift is construed as the mature stage in the evolution of self......-consciousness, with an urban individual contemplating nature at an aesthetic distance. Apart from being structurally equivalent with the new Copernican cosmos and the colonial expansion of Western culture, the new territorial landscape image is shown to develop in close interaction with the early modern work ethic...... from Palaeolithic cave paintings through to 19th-century modernity. A structuralist comparison between this pattern and three additional fields of analysis - self-consciousness, socially-determined perception of nature, and world picture - reveals a fascinating insight into culture's macrohistorical...

  1. Landscape as World Picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Jacob

    -consciousness, with an urban individual contemplating nature at an aesthetic distance. Apart from being structurally equivalent with the new Copernican cosmos and the colonial expansion of Western culture, the new territorial landscape image is shown to develop in close interaction with the early modern work ethic......This book presents a new and comprehensive theory concerning the manner in which landscapes in Western pictorial art may be interpreted in relation to the cultures that created them. Its point of departure is a hitherto unexplored developmental pattern that characterises landscape representation...... from Palaeolithic cave paintings through to 19th-century modernity. A structuralist comparison between this pattern and three additional fields of analysis - self-consciousness, socially-determined perception of nature, and world picture - reveals a fascinating insight into culture's macrohistorical...

  2. World nuclear outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  3. Jupiter's Water Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    When the twin Voyager spacecraft cruised past Jupiter in 1979, they did more than rewrite the textbooks on the giant planet. Their cameras also unveiled the astounding diversity of the four planet-size moons of ice and stone known as the Galilean satellites. The Voyagers revealed the cratered countenance of Callisto, the valleys and ridges of Ganymede, the cracked face of Europa, and the spewing volcanoes of Io. But it would take a spacecraft named for Italian scientist Galileo, who discovered the moons in 1610, to reveal the true complexity of these worlds and to begin to divulge their interior secrets. Incredibly, the Galileo data strongly suggest that Jupiter's three large icy moons (all but rocky Io) hide interior oceans.

  4. World Energy Outlook 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-09

    The world appears to be emerging from the worst economic crisis in decades. Many countries have made pledges under the Copenhagen Accord to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions. Commitments have also been made by the G-20 and APEC to phase out inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies. Are we, at last, on the path to a secure, reliable and environmentally sustainable energy system? Updated projections of energy demand, production, trade and investment, fuel by fuel and region by region to 2035 are provided in the 2010 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO). It includes, for the first time, a new scenario that anticipates future actions by governments to meet the commitments they have made to tackle climate change and growing energy insecurity. WEO-2010 shows: what more must be done and spent to achieve the goal of the Copenhagen Accord to limit the global temperature increase to 2 deg. C and how these actions would impact on oil markets; how emerging economies -- led by China and India -- will increasingly shape the global energy landscape; what role renewables can play in a clean and secure energy future; what removing fossil-fuel subsidies would mean for energy markets, climate change and state budgets; the trends in Caspian energy markets and the implications for global energy supply; the prospects for unconventional oil; and how to give the entire global population access to modern energy services. With extensive data, projections and analysis, this publication provides invaluable insights into how the energy system could evolve over the next quarter of a century. The book is essential reading for anyone with a stake in the energy sector.

  5. Other Worlds, Other Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbury, Susan; Gould, R. R.

    2011-05-01

    The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics is developing a two-to-three week NSF-funded program for middle and high school students using telescope-based investigations of real world cutting edge scientific questions. The goal is to reveal and enhance students' understanding of core concepts in the physical sciences as well as to develop their proficiency in the practice of scientific inquiry. Specifically, students and teachers are joining scientists in the search for habitable worlds by exploring transiting exoplanets. Using robotic telescopes, image processing software and simulations, students take images and then measure the brightness of their target star to create a portrait of a transiting planet including how large it is; the tilt of its orbit; how far it is from its star and what its environment might be like. Once classes collect and analyze their own data, they can begin to compare, combine, and communicate their findings with others in the community. Interactive models help students predict what they might expect to find and interpret what they do find. During the past two years, the Center for Astrophysics has tested the concept in fifty middle-and high-school classrooms, enrichment classes and after school science clubs in 13 states across the United States. To date, astronomy, earth science, and physics students have successfully detected Jupiter-sized planets transiting stars such as TRES-3, HATP-10, and HATP-12. Preliminary results indicate that learning of core concept did occur. Gains in content were most significant in middle school students as this project delivered new information to them while it served primarily as a review of concepts and application of skills for advanced placement classes. A significant change also occurred in students’ self reported knowledge of exoplanets. There was also an increase in students’ awareness of exoplanets and attitudes about science after participating in this project.

  6. Ocean worlds exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2017-02-01

    Ocean worlds is the label given to objects in the solar system that host stable, globe-girdling bodies of liquid water-"oceans". Of these, the Earth is the only one to support its oceans on the surface, making it a model for habitable planets around other stars but not for habitable worlds elsewhere in the solar system. Elsewhere in the solar system, three objects-Jupiter's moon Europa, and Saturn's moons Enceladus and Titan-have subsurface oceans whose existence has been detected or inferred by two independent spacecraft techniques. A host of other bodies in the outer solar system are inferred by a single type of observation or by theoretical modeling to have subsurface oceans. This paper focusses on the three best-documented water oceans beyond Earth: those within Europa, Titan and Enceladus. Of these, Europa's is closest to the surface (less than 10 km and possibly less than 1 km in places), and hence potentially best suited for eventual direct exploration. Enceladus' ocean is deeper-5-40 km below its surface-but fractures beneath the south pole of this moon allow ice and gas from the ocean to escape to space where it has been sampled by mass spectrometers aboard the Cassini Saturn Orbiter. Titan's ocean is the deepest-perhaps 50-100 km-and no evidence for plumes or ice volcanism exist on the surface. In terms of the search for evidence of life within these oceans, the plume of ice and gas emanating from Enceladus makes this the moon of choice for a fast-track program to search for life. If plumes exist on Europa-yet to be confirmed-or places can be located where ocean water is extruded onto the surface, then the search for life on this lunar-sized body can also be accomplished quickly by the standards of outer solar system exploration.

  7. Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While...... it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare...

  8. Learning from the World and Learning for the World: An Essay on World Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    This essay draws on the author's personal experiences as a head of school on three continents, over 20 years, as well as on some of his recent writings and talks. From Martin Luther King Jr's idea of a world house is derived the concept of a "world school". This project charts a way for national schools to develop world-minded graduates. It is…

  9. IMMANUEL WALLERSTEIN'S WORLD SYSTEM THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Sorinel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available World-systems analysis is not a theory, but an approach to social analysis and social change developed, among others by the Immanuel Wallerstein. Professor Wallerstein writes in three domains of world-systems analysis: the historical development of the modern world-system; the contemporary crisis of the capitalist world-economy; the structures of knowledge. The American anlyst rejects the notion of a "Third World", claiming there is only one world connected by a complex network of economic exchange relationship. Our world system is characterized by mechanisms which bring about a redistribution of resources from the periphery to the core. His analytical approach has made a significant impact and established an institutional base devoted to the general approach.

  10. Regular Small-World Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Zhi-Yun; MAO Bao-Hua; HAO Hai-Ming; GAO Jian-Zhi; YANG Jie-Jiao

    2009-01-01

    According to the deficiencies in Watts and Strogatz's small-world network model, we present a new regular model to establish the small-world network. Besides the property of the small-world, this model has other properties such as accuracy in controlling the average shortest path length L, and the average clustering coefficient C, also regular network topology as well as enhanced network robustness. This method improves the construction of the small-world network essentially, so that the regular small-world network closely resembles the actual network. We also present studies on the relationships among the quantities of a variety of edges, L and C in regular small-world network in detail. This research lays the foundation for the establishment of the regular small-world network and acts as a good guidance for further research of this model and its applications.

  11. 75 FR 49525 - World Color (USA), LLC Formerly Known as Quebecor World World Color Covington Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration World Color (USA), LLC Formerly Known as Quebecor World World Color... to workers of World Color (USA), LLC, formerly known as Quebecor World, World Color Covington... IH Services were employed on-site at the Covington, Tennessee, location of World Color (USA),...

  12. World news; Actualite international

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-06-01

    The 21. of April 2005, was held in Paris the 6. international petroleum meeting whose main theme was: the supply and demand. The participants of this summit have in majority argued for a greater opening of the productive countries to the international investments which are indispensable to face with a world demand of oil in full expansion. Total has announced the approval by the British authorities of the development of the gas and condensates deposit of north Forvie, located at about 440 km at the nord-east of Aberdeen. Technip and Kerr-McGee Oil and Gas Corp., have received the prestigious price of the Offshore Technology Conference 2005. The Norway and the United Kingdom have signed a cooperation treaty for stimulating the development of petroleum and natural gas deposits in North sea. The petroleum groups Royal Dutch Shell and ExxonMobil think to sale their shares in three fields in the North sea. Total and Lubrifin, one of the main manufacturers and distributors of lubricants and greases on the Romanian market, have just finalize an agreement for the establishment of a common firm: Total Lubrifin. The IEA has published a study for the governments to rapidly reduce the petroleum consumption in transports in the case of crisis or breakdown of the supply. In order to avoid an accident risk which could have disastrous environmental consequences, by the important transit in the Bosphore pass, a plan (dating from 1995) provides that the petroleum of the Caspian sea transiting by the Russian harbour of Novorossiisk, on North sea, be conveyed by sea way to the Bulgarian harbour of Bourgas, to be transported by pipeline on 320 km to the Alexandroupolis harbour. Vladimir Poutine has received last April to the Kremlin John Browne, general director of the British firm BP, came ask for its investment in Russia in the common firm: TNK-BP. The Algerian petroleum firm Sonatrach is in the 12. world place among the hundred first petroleum firms in the world. Shell Ivory Coast

  13. A world in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westing, A H

    1981-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to define the scope of global population growth within the uncompromising everyday realities of technology, economies, and politics and to demonstrate the intimate between the human population problem and the increasing problem of Nature's destruction. It is hoped that the human species will come to its sense in time to create an adequate standard of living of all of its members in peace and environmental balance. The number of people the world can support is considered in terms of 1) the provision for a standard of living adequate for everyone's health and wellbeing, 2) consideration for wildlife and nature, and 3) reliance on existing levels of technology and politics. Standards of living are suggested for the affluent and the austere. The focus on the discussion is on standards of living, global carrying capacity, the imperatives of population control and respect for nature, humans versus wildlife, and the need for a universal declaration of respect for nature. Carrying capacity is determined by total land area, cultivated land area, forest land area, cereals (grain), and wood. Use per capita of each of the 5 essentials is determined for the affluent or austere standard of living. An affluent standard means that world population would be limited to 2 billion, which is 50% of the current population. An austere standard of living means a limit of 3 billion, or 33% less than the existing population. The unfortunate reality is that today's total population of 4.5 billion is increasing at an annual rate of 1.9% and is not expected to level off until it has increased 3 times. This population growth occurs at the expense of wildlife. Of the total terrestrial animal biomass, humans constitute 4% and domestic livestock 15%, which, in 40 years, will reach a combined 40% and lead to more species extinction. One species of bird or mammal will become extinct for each increase of 220 million people, which happens every 3 years. The solution is

  14. WORLD HEALTH DAY THEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Saxena

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available 1970     - Early Detection of Cancer Saves Life.1971     - A Full Life Despite Diabetes.1972     - Your Heart is Your Health.1973     - Health Begins at Home.1974     - Better Food for a Healthier World.1975     - Small Pox - Point of no Return.1976     - Foresight Prevents Blindness.1977     - Immunise and Protect Your Child.1978     - Down With High Blood Pressure.1979     - A Health Child-A Sure Future.1980     - Smoking or Health - The Choice is Yours.1981     - Health for all for by the Year 2000.1982     - Add Years to Life.1983     - Health for all by 2000 - The Count Down has Begun1984     - Children’s Health: Tomorrows Wealth.1985     - Health Youth : Our best Resource.1986     - Health Living - Everyone a Winner.1987     - Immunisation - A Chance for Every Child.1988     - Health For All - All for Health.1989-Let’s Talk Health.1990    - Our Planet - Ourhealth; Think Globally, Act Locally.1991    - Should Disaster Strike - Be Prepared.1992    - Health Beat - The Rhythm of Life.1993    - Handle Life with Care - Prevent Violence and Negligence.1994    - Our Health for a Healthy Life.1995    - Target - 2000 - A World Without Polio.1996    - Healthy Cities for Better Life.1997    - Emerging Infectious Diseases.1998    - Safe Motherhood.1999    - Active Ageing Makes the Difference.2000     - Be a Life Saver, Be a Blood Doner; Blood Saves Life.2001     - Stop Exclusion, Dare to Care.2002     - Move for Health.- Shape the Future of Life, Healthy Environments for Children

  15. A WORLD BEYOND HUMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an initial project to investigate the relationship between magic and traditional medicine as practiced by shamans in Southern rural Asia, the focus of attention gradually shifted to an awareness of the negotiation traditional medicine people or shamans exert between the human community and the larger community of beings. This attentiveness to a more-than-human world does not occur at a supernatural domain above nature or inside her personal self but is the result of the shaman’s special ability to project her consciousness horizontally to other forms of sensibility with which human existence is interwoven. The ecological function of the shaman is to maintain a constant balance between what is taken and what is given from the human community to the larger community. The spirits of indigenous cultures are not defined in opposition to materiality but are essentially those modes of intelligence or awareness that do not possess a human form. By exploring different landscapes, and the sensibility living in them, a new sensitivity is awoken that allows for communication with those intelligences. However, the drowning of these other voices in Western culture, which reduces otherness to an object, creates an uneasiness that is hardly perceived except as an inability to interact with anything more-than-human and its dire consequences in the form of “civilization’s” destructive behavior.

  16. Brane-World Multigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Papazoglou, A

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, we discuss the idea of multigravity, namely the possibility that a significant component of gravity that we feel at intermediate distances (1 mm < r < 10^26 cm) is due to massive but ultralight gravitons. We demonstrate how this phenomenon can be realized in brane-world models in a spacetime with more than four dimensions and discuss how modifications of gravity at cosmological scales emerge as a consequence. Firstly, we consider five dimensional multigravity models with flat branes. We see how the existence of freely moving negative tension branes gives rise to ultralight graviton Kaluza-Klein states. Secondly, we study the moduli corresponding to the position of the branes and the size of the extra dimension, the radions and the dilaton respectively. We show that the radions corresponding to negative tension branes have wrong sign kinetic term. We also derive a stabilization condition for the dilaton in a brane model with general bulk scalar field dynamics. Thirdly, we show how we can ...

  17. World Energy Outlook 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Industry and government decision-makers and others with a stake in the energy sector all benefit from the contents of World Energy Outlook (WEO) 2012. It presents authoritative projections of energy trends through to 2035 and insights into what they mean for energy security, environmental sustainability and economic development. Oil, coal, natural gas, renewables and nuclear power are all covered, together with an update on climate change issues. Global energy demand, production, trade, investment and carbon dioxide emissions are broken down by region or country, by fuel and by sector. Special strategic analyses cover: What unlocking the purely economic potential for energy efficiency could do, country by country and sector by sector, for energy markets, the economy and the environment; The Iraqi energy sector, examining both its importance in satisfying the country’s own needs and its crucial role in meeting global oil and gas demand; The water-energy nexus, as water resources become increasingly stressed and access more contentious; Measures of progress towards providing universal access to modern energy services. There are many uncertainties, but many decisions cannot wait. The insights of this publication are invaluable to those who must shape our energy future.

  18. World Energy Outlook 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In a world where big differences in regional energy prices impact competitiveness, who are the potential winners and losers? Huge volumes of oil are needed to meet growing demand and offset declines in existing fields. Where will it all come from? What could trigger a rapid convergence in natural gas prices between Asia, Europe and North America, and how would it affect energy markets? Is the growth in renewable energy self-sustaining and is it sufficient to put us on track to meet global climate goals? How much progress is being made in phasing out fossil-fuel subsidies and expanding access to modern energy services to the world’s poor? The answers to these and many other questions are found in WEO-2013, which covers the prospects for all energy sources, regions and sectors to 2035. Oil is analysed in-depth: resources, production, demand, refining and international trade. Energy efficiency – a major factor in the global energy balance – is treated in much the same way as conventional fuels: Its prospects and contribution are presented in a dedicated chapter. And the report examines the outlook for Brazil's energy sector in detail and the implications for the global energy landscape.

  19. New Worlds Airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harness, Anthony; Cash, Webster; Shipley, Ann; Glassman, Tiffany; Warwick, Steve

    2013-09-01

    We review the progress on the New Worlds Airship project, which has the eventual goal of suborbitally mapping the Alpha Centauri planetary system into the Habitable Zone. This project consists of a telescope viewing a star that is occulted by a starshade suspended from an airship. The starshade suppresses the starlight such that fainter planetary objects near the star are revealed. A visual sensor is used to determine the position of the starshade and keep the telescope within the starshade's shadow. In the first attempt to demonstrate starshades through astronomical observations, we have built a precision line of sight position indicator and flew it on a Zeppelin in October (2012). Since the airship provider went out of business we have been redesigning the project to use Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing rockets instead. These Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles will serve as a starshade platform and test bed for further development of the visual sensor. We have completed ground tests of starshades on dry lakebeds and have shown excellent contrast. We are now attempting to use starshades on hilltops to occult stars and perform high contrast imaging of outer planetary systems such as the debris disk around Fomalhaut.

  20. Impossible Worlds and Logical Omniscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Jens Christian Krarup

    2013-01-01

    the use of impossible worlds where the truths of logic can be false. As we shall see, if we admit impossible worlds where “anything goes” in modal space, it is easy to model extremely non-ideal agents that are incapable of performing even the most elementary logical deductions. A much harder...... falsehoods, they are nevertheless able to rule out blatantly impossible worlds that verify obvious logical falsehoods. To model moderately ideal agents, I argue, the job is to construct a modal space that contains only possible and non-trivially impossible worlds where it is not the case that “anything goes......In this paper, I investigate whether we can use a world-involving framework to model the epistemic states of non-ideal agents. The standard possible-world framework falters in this respect because of a commitment to logical omniscience. A familiar attempt to overcome this problem centers around...

  1. Security in the Third World

    OpenAIRE

    Özgediz, Gülden

    2004-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of International Relations, Bilkent Univ., 2004. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2004. Includes bibliographical references leaves 134-144. This thesis traces the development of thinking about security in the Third World from its Cold War past to its post-Cold War present. For this purpose, it examines three main approaches (traditional. Third World and critical) to the study of security in the Third World. It begins with a critical overview o...

  2. World Expo and Exhibition Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2010-01-01

    @@ February 8 witnessed the construction of 2010 World Expo's China Pavilion completed after two years' work. The pavilion, in the shape of an oriental crown,showcases the spirit of traditional Chinese culture. It is significant since all other nation's pavilion constructed only for temporary exhibition, but China's Pavilion will be lasting architecture as the symbol of world civilization. Another similar famous case is Eiffel Tower which was built as the entrance of the world expo held in. 1889.

  3. Corporate Training in Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nebolsky

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents virtual training worlds that are relatively low-cost distributed collaborative learning environments suitable for corporate training. A virtual training world allows a facilitator, experts and trainees communicating and acting in the virtual environment for practicing skills during collaborative problem solving. Using these environments is beneficial to both trainees and corporations. Two system prototypes – the sales training and the leadership training virtual worlds – are described. The leadership training course design is discussed in details.

  4. The future dynamic world model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    Defense and security forces exploit sensor data by means of a model of the world. They use a world model to geolocate sensor data, fuse it with other data, navigate platforms, recognize features and feature changes, etc. However, their need for situational awareness today exceeds the capabilities of their current world model for defense operations, despite the great advances of sensing technology in recent decades. I review emerging technologies that may enable a great improvement in the spatial and spectral coverage, the timeliness, and the functional insight of their world model.

  5. Food and My World: My Health My World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Barbara; Dresden, Judith; Denk, James; Moreno, Nancy

    This curriculum guide for students in grades K-4 is part of the My Health My World Series. It explores environmental issues, focusing on food and the environment. The unit includes (1) an activities guide for teachers entitled, "Food and My World," which presents activity-based lessons that entice students to discover concepts in…

  6. Creating a Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Gardner, Charles O.; Gillespie, Nathan; Aggen, Steven A.; Prescott, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Context Peer-group deviance is strongly associated with externalizing behaviors. We have limited knowledge of the sources of individual differences in peer-group deviance. Objective To clarify genetic and environmental contributions to peer-group deviance in twins from mid-childhood through early adulthood. Design Retrospective assessments using a life-history calendar. Analysis by biometric growth curves. Setting General community. Participants Members of male-male pairs from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry personally interviewed in 1998–2004 (n=1802). Main Outcome Measure Self-reported peer-group deviance at ages 8 to 11, 12 to 14, 15 to 17, 18 to 21, and 22 to 25 years. Results Mean and variance of peer-group deviance increased substantially with age. Genetic effects on peer-group deviance showed a strong and steady increase over time. Family environment generally declined in importance over time. Individual-specific environmental influences on peer-group deviance levels were stable in the first 3 age periods and then increased as most twins left home. When standardized, the heritability of peer-group deviance is approximately 30% at ages 8 to 11 years and rises to approximately 50% across the last 3 time periods. Both genes and shared environment contributed to individual differences in the developmental trajectory of peer-group deviance. However, while the correlation between childhood peer-group deviance levels and the subsequent slope of peer-group deviance over time resulting from genetic factors was positive, the same relationship resulting from shared environmental factors was negative. Conclusions As male twins mature and create their own social worlds, genetic factors play an increasingly important role in their choice of peers, while shared environment becomes less influential. The individual specific environment increases in importance when individuals leave home. Individuals who have deviant peers in childhood, as a result of genetic vs

  7. The Origin of the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦遥

    2010-01-01

    @@ The world came into being① thousands of years ago.For a long time,it grew,changed,and developed to be what we see it today.However,at the very beginning,how did our world emerge? Different cultures provide various explanations.

  8. Regular Numbers and Mathematical Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, Ian; Bouhjar, Khalid; Bishop, Jessica Pierson; Philipp, Randolph; Schappelle, Bonnie P.

    2016-01-01

    Rather than describing the challenges of integer learning in terms of a transition from positive to negative numbers, we have arrived at a different perspective: We view students as inhabiting distinct mathematical worlds consisting of particular types of numbers (as construed by the students). These worlds distinguish and illuminate students'…

  9. World's finest tech sites immortalised

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    They may have transformed man's understanding of the universe but the monumental impact of the world's first large radio telescope and the planet's largest particle physics lab has never been fully recognised. Now both Jodrell Bank and CERN are among the technological landmarks that could be immortalised alongside the pyramids of Egypt and Taj Mahal on UNESCO's World Heritage Site (WHS) list.

  10. Alice in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Tom

    2012-01-01

    As a fifth-grade mathematics teacher, the author tries to create authentic problem-solving activities that connect to the world in which his students live. He discovered a natural connection to his students' real world at a computer camp. A friend introduced him to Alice, a computer application developed at Carnegie Mellon, under the leadership of…

  11. Making “World Machines”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Light, Ann; Bardzell, Jeffrey; Bardzell, Shaowen;

    2015-01-01

    be combined and turned to crowd-sourcing public engagement with shared world issues - as an alternative to business-as-usual in the context of developing and deploying networked technology. We combine theoretical aspects of world machines, such as what a political entity of this kind might seek to do...

  12. Organising, Educating... Changing the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, John

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years a constellation of social movements and organisations concerned with issues of globalisation and world poverty have exploded onto the world stage. They have mobilised demonstrations, organised mass gatherings and conferences, created e-networks and websites and become major players in international political lobbying and…

  13. Ethnography in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumar, Wesley; Madison, Nora

    2013-01-01

    This article situates the discussion of virtual ethnography within the larger political/economic changes of twenty-first century consumer capitalism and suggests that increasingly our entire social world is a virtual world and that there were very particular utopian and dystopian framings of virtual community growing out of that history. The…

  14. Natural Dyes. Third World Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  15. World Reaction to Virtual Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    DRaW Computing developed virtual reality software for the International Space Station. Open Worlds, as the software has been named, can be made to support Java scripting and virtual reality hardware devices. Open Worlds permits the use of VRML script nodes to add virtual reality capabilities to the user's applications.

  16. Space exploration and world peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercieca, C.

    1972-01-01

    The possibility of using space exploration as an instrument in procuring world peace is studied. Suggestions for obtaining such a peace, utilizing space programs, include removal of worldwide educational and communication barriers, building of an emotionally and socially stable society, creation of a unit or whole world rather than the mine and yours concept, and reevaluation and reorientation of human relations and values.

  17. Clay Pots. Third World Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  18. Our Brave New World Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aldous Huxley is perhaps the only author to have written a work of science fiction and a work of nonfiction to ascertain whether fiction had become reality. Both "Brave New World" and "Brave New World Revisited" are discussed and compared with Jacques Ellul's work on technology.

  19. Canada and the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Andrew F.

    1984-01-01

    Canada did not develop strong ties with the Third World until well after World War II. Three factors that have channeled and limited Canada's relationships with developing nations--location, history, and internal political relationships--are discussed. Also examined are patterns of Canadian foreign aid and investment and peace-seeking efforts. (RM)

  20. Methane Digestors. Third World Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  1. The World of Sports Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeagwali, N. Susan

    2008-01-01

    Soon, the best athletes in the world will face each other at the Summer Olympics in Beijing. Many of them will sustain injuries, or seek to prevent them, and will be thankful that among their entourages are some of the best sports medicine professionals in the world. When an athlete collapses from fatigue, or something else, there will be a group…

  2. The metaphors of virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    The analysis of recollections of experiencing two types of virtual worlds where the recollections were in the form of metaphors.......The analysis of recollections of experiencing two types of virtual worlds where the recollections were in the form of metaphors....

  3. Worlds in the Everett Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, D

    2001-01-01

    This is a discussion of how we can understand the world-view given to us by the Everett interpretation of quantum mechanics, and in particular the role played by the concept of `world'. The view presented is that we are entitled to use `many-worlds' terminology even if the theory does not specify the worlds in the formalism; this is defended by means of an extensive analogy with the concept of an `instant' or moment of time in relativity, with the lack of a preferred foliation of spacetime being compared with the lack of a preferred basis in quantum theory. Implications for identity of worlds over time, and for relativistic quantum mechanics, are discussed.

  4. World Assessment Unit Geological Characterizations, 2000 World Petroleum Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapfile includes arcs and polygons that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined petroleum resource Assessment Units of the World. Each assessment unit is...

  5. Xinjiang Girl World Super Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Leading Chinese model Yue Mei won thetitle of World Super Model at the ’98 WorldSuper Model Competition held in FranceSeptember 6 - 17. Yue, a university studentfrom the Xinjiang Uygur AutonomousRegion, had won the top title at ’98 ChinaSuper Model Competition held in Beijingone month earier.After that, she underwentone month’s professional modeling trainingwith the New Silk Road ModelingManagement Company before setting off forthe world competition. In France, Yueimpressed the judges with her strikingfeatures, and display of oriental elegance and

  6. Women Swimmers Win World Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE; SHAW

    1995-01-01

    THE Seventh World Webfoot Swimming Championships concluded with the women’s 4x100-meter relay event. Chinese swimmers took all 12 gold medals in the women’s events. China has taken part in four world championships and has won the team championship three times in eight years. Diving competitions began in 1959 in China. The Chinese Women’s Diving Team impressed audiences with its fighting spirit in rivers, lakes and the sea. But the "cultural revolution" discontinued the development of diving as well as many other sports. It was not until 1975 that diving was resumed. In 1984, Yu Jianling, from Hubei Province, broke two world records three times

  7. Rockets in World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    World War I enlisted rockets once again for military purposes. French pilots rigged rockets to the wing struts of their airplanes and aimed them at enemy observation balloons filled with highly inflammable hydrogen.

  8. American Nurses Association Nursing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ANA Staff Nurses Advanced Practice Nurses Nurse Managers Nursing Research Student Nurses Educators What is Nursing? NursingWorld About ... Online Course Alert! The Ins and Outs of Nursing Research 11/09/16 ANA Ready to Work with ...

  9. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  10. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  11. Tomorrow`s solar world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitch, Meg

    1996-12-31

    The largest privately funded solar power installation in the world is at the Florida Walt Disney World. It is the Universe of Energy exhibit at the Experimental Prototype Community of the World. The Universe of Energy shows the development and exploitation of energy sources and how energy is used and includes a recreation of the primeval world from which coal and oil deposits were formed. Visitors travel through two giant theatres in electrically powered cars. Most of the ride system is powered by a solar cell array on the roof of the building. The array is composed of 2,200 modules each made up of 36 cells and can generate 70kW of DC power which is fed through an inverter to convert it to AC. (UK)

  12. Big, Fat World of Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Home Page The Big, Fat World of Lipids By Emily Carlson Posted August 9, 2012 Cholesterol ... ways to diagnose and treat lipid-related conditions. Lipid Encyclopedia Just as genomics and proteomics spurred advances ...

  13. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  14. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  15. Quantum Small-world Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Zong-Wen; Han, Xiao-Pu

    2011-01-01

    Quantum networks are critical to quantum communication and distributed quantum computing. Here we propose a small-world model of large-scale quantum repeater networks, where "small-world" is a fundamental concept rooted in complex networks, which describe a broad range of real systems. The core of the model is to relate the hierarchical fashion of measurements to coarse-graining process, when quantum repeater protocols are implemented. We demonstrate that quantum repeater networks with fractal structure can be enlarged with certain length scale in geographic space, while preserving topology by performing renormalization. Actually, renormalization here serves as an organizing principle determining the distribution of long-range entangled links over quantum networks, which gives rise to fractal to small-world transition. Furthermore, by iterative implementation of renormalization on the former coarse-grained network, we eventually obtain an onion-like, hierarchical quantum small-world network, where the distanc...

  16. ENHANCING SPIRITUALISM IN VIRTUAL WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Lata DANGWAL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spiritualism is one word which puts man on the highest plinth of life. Spirituality is the way we find meaning, hope, comfort and inner peace in life. Spirituality in the virtual World is generally known as Virtual Spirituality. A goldmine of wisdom from all kinds of religious and spiritual philosophies, traditions and practices can be found in virtual World now. Technology and Spirituality together forms the material to which man can incline on to and work for the development of a globe in which war will be considered a taboo and violence a rejected dogma. Therefore there is an urgent nee to made the world a safe place to live in and the spiritual reconstruction can help us in achieving this.Spiritualism, Virtual World, Online Technology.

  17. World of Forensic Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? The World of Forensic Laboratory Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... made-for-television lab scenario, real-life forensic laboratories' analyses of evidence are much slower. For example, ...

  18. Woman Precision Parachuting World Champion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    1. Twenty-four-year-old Sheng Jun won three gold medals at the 22nd World Parachuting Championships. one for women’s group total score title. one for women’s group precision landing title and the other for women’s individual precision landing title. She also created the women’s individual precision landing record of the World Championships by scoring 0.00 ten times.

  19. Language learning in virtual worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Saba, Riad

    2013-01-01

    Language Learning has utilized technology for decades, and while world-wide social dynamics place more demands for language learning, there has not been a widespread use of a specific technology as the dominant medium for language learning. In the meanwhile, Virtual Worlds technology emerged during the last two decades as an immersive technology that offers an online representation of reality, allowing user interaction with the surrounding environment including objects and other users through...

  20. Distributed Pervasive Worlds: The Case of Exergames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Teemu H.; Sedano, Carolina Islas

    2015-01-01

    Pervasive worlds are computing environments where a virtual world converges with the physical world through context-aware technologies such as sensors. In pervasive worlds, technology is distributed among entities that may be distributed geographically. We explore the concept, possibilities, and challenges of distributed pervasive worlds in a case…

  1. On the Thirty-percent-investigation and Seventy-percent-experience for Medium-small Scale Geoengineering Projects%试论中小型地质工程“三分勘察七分经验”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚彦军; 金维浚; 何万通; 李坤; 杨长德

    2016-01-01

    作为服务于地质工程设计和施工基本工作的工程地质勘察,先进理论、技术方法和类似工程的经验等支撑起了它有序开展。然而,在复杂地质条件下,常因揭露出不良地质体和诸多诱发因素存在而导致施工地质灾害,使得中小型地质工程中勘察实物工作量和工程地质分析为主的经验必须有机结合,即业界俗称“三分勘察七分经验”。如何科学认识和合理实施此对策?在学习吸收前人综合集成理论等基础上,本文试着将工程地质勘察同中医诊治进行对比,提出了正算(归纳总结)反演(假说演绎加典型类比)相结合的思想。结合北方某高速公路边坡施工中发生破坏的案例,从教训剖析中揭示复杂地质条件下中小型地质工程勘察理论和经验紧密结合的必要性和可操作性。本文研究结果为深入认识勘察实物工作量的合理性、基础代表性,专家经验的正确性和地区制约性等,提供了可资参考的资料和案例分析结果。%Objectives:Engineering geological investigation, as one essential basis of geoengineering design and construction,is supported by advanced theories,technologies and the experiences from previous typical examples. While in complicated geological conditions,the engineers have to adopt not only those procedures conducted by manpower and instruments,but also the empirical method which is mainly based on engineering geological analysis, in case of potential construction induced geohazards.That is what the so called thirty-percent-investigation and seventy-percent-experience approach.How to scientifically understand the meanings of this approach and to accomplish engineering geological investigation in a feasible way?Methods:Reviewing and summarizing the theories in engineering geology,and comparing them to the TCM (Theory of Chinese Medicine),this paper introduce the idea of normal deducing plus back analysis

  2. The Future of Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims; Lutters, Wayne; Rhoten, Diana; Lowood, Henry

    This book, like the May 2008 conference in World of Warcraft, ends with projections toward what the future might hold for virtual worlds. Every chapter thus far has included speculations about future directions, even while standing on data from the past. This last chapter, like the final session of the conference on which it is based, incorporates comments from dozens of participants into a stream of ideas. We have edited selected comments together with the panel's contributions. Our intention is to provide a portal from this book into a wider virtual community comprising researchers and residents in virtual worlds. The discussion surveys many recent lines of development, some of which have already been surveyed in scientific and historical literature, or by journalists (Au 2008; Castronova 2007; Guest 2007; Ludlow and Wallace 2007). Yet, many of the topics here have not received such attention. Considered as a set of socio-technical innovations, virtual worlds are not just about technical possibilities; they also inspired the participants to consider the economic bases for investing in those possibilities and the novel cultural, social, and artistic forms virtual worlds might offer.

  3. Microenterprise in the First and Third Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Schreiner

    2001-01-01

    Sparked by examples from the third world, hundreds of microenterprise programmes have been started in the first world. Will they be successful? This paper reviews the evidence and concludes that microenterprise development is more difficult in the first world. For example, the microenterprise sector in the first world is smaller because most people can get wage jobs and because of the public safety net. Unlike third-world entrepreneurs, first-world entrepreneurs are more often constrained by ...

  4. Microenterprise in the First and Third Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Schreiner

    2001-01-01

    Sparked by examples from the third world, hundreds of microenterprise programmes have been started in the first world. Will they be successful? This paper reviews the evidence and concludes that microenterprise development is more difficult in the first world. For example, the microenterprise sector in the first world is smaller because most people can get wage jobs and because of the public safety net. Unlike third-world entrepreneurs, first-world entrepreneurs are more often constrained by ...

  5. Wikipedia ranking of world universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, José; Patt, Antoine; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-03-01

    We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the wikipedia ranking of world Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60% overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically important universities leading to a different estimation of efficiency of world countries in university education. The historical development of university ranking is analyzed during ten centuries of their history.

  6. World-line perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    van Holten, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    The motion of a compact body in space and time is commonly described by the world line of a point representing the instantaneous position of the body. In General Relativity such a world-line formalism is not quite straightforward because of the strict impossibility to accommodate point masses and rigid bodies. In many situations of practical interest it can still be made to work using an effective hamiltonian or energy-momentum tensor for a finite number of collective degrees of freedom of the compact object. Even so exact solutions of the equations of motion are often not available. In such cases families of world lines of compact bodies in curved space-times can be constructed by a perturbative procedure based on generalized geodesic deviation equations. Examples for simple test masses and for spinning test bodies are presented.

  7. Being in a Virtual World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads; Grimshaw, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework by which virtual world sound designers may work towards the attainment of presence. Drawing on the study of cognitive metaphors and the view that sound is an emergent perception we offer an account of the environment as a salient and dynamic construct that funct......We present a theoretical framework by which virtual world sound designers may work towards the attainment of presence. Drawing on the study of cognitive metaphors and the view that sound is an emergent perception we offer an account of the environment as a salient and dynamic construct...... that functions as a synecdoche for the nonself. Separating environment from world, we discuss the role of sound in the forming of the environment and argue that it is this environment that establishes the means for presence because it is the process behind the construction of the environment that individuates...

  8. SYMMETRY IN WORLD TRADE NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui WANG; Guangle YAN; Yanghua XIAO

    2009-01-01

    Symmetry of the world trade network provides a novel perspective to understand the world-wide trading system. However, symmetry in the world trade network (WTN) has been rarely studied so far. In this paper, the authors systematically explore the symmetry in WTN. The authors construct WTN in 2005 and explore the size and structure of its automorphism group, through which the authors find that WTN is symmetric, particularly, locally symmetric to a certain degree. Furthermore, the authors work out the symmetric motifs of WTN and investigate the structure and function of the symmetric motifs, coming to the conclusion that local symmetry will have great effect on the stability of the WTN and that continuous symmetry-breakings will generate complexity and diversity of the trade network. Finally, utilizing the local symmetry of the network, the authors work out the quotient of WTN, which is the structural skeleton dominating stability and evolution of WTN.

  9. Virtual Laboratories and Virtual Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Hut, Piet

    2007-01-01

    Since we cannot put stars in a laboratory, astrophysicists had to wait till the invention of computers before becoming laboratory scientists. For half a century now, we have been conducting experiments in our virtual laboratories. However, we ourselves have remained behind the keyboard, with the screen of the monitor separating us from the world we are simulating. Recently, 3D on-line technology, developed first for games but now deployed in virtual worlds like Second Life, is beginning to make it possible for astrophysicists to enter their virtual labs themselves, in virtual form as avatars. This has several advantages, from new possibilities to explore the results of the simulations to a shared presence in a virtual lab with remote collaborators on different continents. I will report my experiences with the use of Qwaq Forums, a virtual world developed by a new company (see http://www.qwaq.com)

  10. World Health Organization encourages traditional medicine in the third world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozorio, P

    1979-01-01

    The executive board of WHO (World Health Organization) recently passed a resolution calling on countries 1) to promote the role of traditional practitioners in the health care systems of developing countries and 2) to allocate more financial support for the development of traditional medical systems. The board also urged the medical profession not to undervalue the traditional medical system. WHO recognizes that modern medical care is unavailable to the majority of the world's poor residents and that traditional birth attendants deliver 2/3 of the world's babies. To fulfill the primary health needs of all the world's inhabitants it will be necessary to utilize both the Western and the traditional medical system. In some countries, such as Sri Lanka, India, and China the traditional health system is legally recognized. WHO also advocates utilizing those medicinal plants and remedies used by traditional practitioners to effectively treat their patients. Example of some of these plants are 1) Ammi visnage, a Mediterranean plant, used to treat angina pectoris; 2) Cymbopogan proximus, an Egyptian plant, used to remove urinary tract stones; 3) the root of Combretum, used in Ghana to treat guinea-worm; 4) bitter leaf, a Nigerian plant which kills mouth bacteria; and 5) Desmodium adcendens, Thonningia sanguinea, and Deinbollia pinnata used in various combinations to treat bronchial asthma.

  11. World Culture in the Capitalist World-System in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Tom G.; Arnove, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    World culture theory (WCT) offers an explanatory framework for macro-level comparative analyses of systems of mass education, including their structures, accompanying policies and their curricular and pedagogical practices. WCT has contributed to broader efforts to overcome methodological nationalism in comparative research. In this paper, we…

  12. World Culture in the Capitalist World-System in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Tom G.; Arnove, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    World culture theory (WCT) offers an explanatory framework for macro-level comparative analyses of systems of mass education, including their structures, accompanying policies and their curricular and pedagogical practices. WCT has contributed to broader efforts to overcome methodological nationalism in comparative research. In this paper, we…

  13. Inclusion in a Polarised World

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This paper on inclusion was presented to the at the 2005 summer school of DEEEP (Development Education Exchange in Europe Project), Härnösand - Sweden, 5 - 12 June 2005. It addresses the significance of the concept of world civilisation. It assesses how meaning may be attached to the concept of inclusion in an economically polarised world. It develops a critique of the conception of economic inclusion, by means of an exploration of linguistic inclusion and the notion of ‘disability’. ‘...

  14. The USGS World Energy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    The world has recently experienced rapid change to market-driven economies and increasing reliance on petroleum supplies from areas of political instability. The interplay of unprecedented growth of the global population, increasing worldwide energy demand, and political instability in two major petroleum exporting regions (the former Soviet Union and the Middle East) requires that the United States maintains a current, reliable, objective assessment of the world's energy resources. The need is compounded by the environmental implications of rapid increases in coal use in the Far East and international pressure on consumption of fossil fuels.

  15. WORLD DELTAS AND THEIR EVOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In August 1998, an international symposium on the world deltas was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. This symposium attracted discussion about more than 25 deltas from around the world with emphasis placed on those that are most densely populated and impacted by humans. Keynote papers printed details about the physical, biological, engineering and socioeconomic aspects of six deltas including the Mississippi, Nile, Ganges-Brahmaputra, Rhine-Meuse, Changjiang and Po. The main purpose of this symposium was to inform scientists, engineers and decision-makers about information that is currently available and to provide them a basis for working in such environments.

  16. New Threat to World Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The aggregate amount of money and credit in the global economy has risen sharply over the past 30 years,with its growth rate and stock far exceeding that of the real economy or real assets of the world.This is the view of Xiang Songzuo,professor at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology,whose opinion was first published in a recent article in China Business News.Xiang said this situation is a real threat to the world economy.Excerpts of his article are reprinted below:

  17. Population and the World Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, S

    1973-12-01

    The World Bank Group regards excessive population growth as the single greatest obstacle to economic and social advance in the underdeveloped world. Since 1969 the Bank and the International Development Agency have provided countries with technical assistance through education, fact-finding, and analysis and given 65.7 million dollars for population projects. These projects, in India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, and Malaysia provide training centers, population education, research, and evaluation as well as actual construction of clinics and mobile units. Because population planning touches sensitive areas of religion, caste, race, morality, and politics, the involved nation's political commitment to plan population growth is critical to the success of any program.

  18. Being in a Virtual World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads; Grimshaw, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework by which virtual world sound designers may work towards the attainment of presence. Drawing on the study of cognitive metaphors and the view that sound is an emergent perception we offer an account of the environment as a salient and dynamic construct that funct......We present a theoretical framework by which virtual world sound designers may work towards the attainment of presence. Drawing on the study of cognitive metaphors and the view that sound is an emergent perception we offer an account of the environment as a salient and dynamic construct...

  19. WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    1. THE UNITED STATES U.S. President Barack Obama, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and President of the Palestinian National Authority Mahmoud Abbas confer during trilateral negotiations on Middle East peace on September 22 in New York

  20. WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    RUSSIA President Vladimir Putin answers questions during his annua press conference in Moscow on December 18,2014,where he expressed confidence in the nation’s economic prospects FRANCE Police officers inspect the van a driver used to plough into a market thatI resulted in the injuries of at least 10 people before the perpetrator

  1. World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    USA&EU 美欧新谈判6月17日,美同总统奥巴马与欧盟领导人在英国北爱尔兰厄恩湖举行的八国峰会上联合宣布,美欧正式启动《跨大西洋贸易和投资伙伴关系协定》(TTIP)谈判,并将于今年7月8日举行首轮谈判。

  2. World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    美联储想“退”了据媒体5月11日报道,关联储正在筹划退出“量比宽松”政策,并将根据就业市场和通胀变化不断调整购债计划。其实,今年2月公布的美联储1月货币政策会议纪要显示,

  3. World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Russia普京归来弗拉基米尔·普京赢得了自己的第三个俄罗斯总统任期。据报道,俄罗斯中央选举委受会5日在莫斯科公布的初步统计结果显示,在对全国100%选票进行统计后,总统候选人、现任总理普京得票率为63.6%。其他几位候选人的得票率分别如俄罗斯共产党候选人久加诺夫以17.18%的得票率位居第二、独立候选人普罗霍罗夫得票率为7.98%、自由民主党候选人日里诺夫斯基得票率为6.22%、公正俄罗斯党候选人米罗诺夫的得票率为3.85%。

  4. WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    伦敦吃霸王餐泛滥在伦敦高档餐厅享用霸王餐如今成为一些食客的消费宝典。吃霸王餐的行为在去年11月引起英国民众的关注。除了普通食客,名人也来蹭霸王餐。如电影制片人简尼斯·诺兹在伦敦9家高级餐厅享用了价值约6000英镑的美食后落跑,而最终被警方抓获。事后他除了被罚付清所欠账单以外,还被明令禁止踏入伦敦的各大高档餐馆。

  5. World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Sweden 世纪洪水6月初以来,连续的强降雨袭击中东欧地区,德国、奥地利、捷克、匈牙利等国的很多河流水位暴涨,泛滥成灾,部分河流的水位甚至达到了近400年来的峰值。截举6月9日,洪灾已造成至少20人遇难,数万人被迫撤离家同。有媒体将这次洪灾称为“世纪洪水”,多国宣布进入“紧急状态”。

  6. World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    瑞典女王储大婚5万份中国陶瓷做国礼32岁的瑞典女王储、未来的瑞典女王维多利亚公主与"平民"出身的未婚夫、36岁的韦斯特林前不久在瑞典首都举行婚礼,这场婚礼是近年来欧洲最大的王室盛事,来自世界各地的王室成员和政府首脑悉数列席。王室公布逾950名

  7. World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    福布斯最富有王室排名公布泰王以300亿美元居首金融危机的若即若离,让各国王室的日子也有好有坏。近日,美国著名的《福布斯》杂志就公布全球最富有王室的最新排名。虽然泰国政治环境动荡不安,但泰国国王普密蓬仍然以300亿美元的资产连续第三年位列王室富豪排行榜之首。

  8. World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    USA 美国的欧洲时刻过去三年间,美国领导人一直以几乎不加掩饰的蔑视态度旁观欧洲对欧元危机的处理。但从近来美国政客们避免财政悬崖灾难的表现来看,

  9. World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    欧盟2012首次峰会:通过“财政契约”草案近日,继达沃斯世界经济论坛后,欧盟于布鲁塞尔再开峰会寻求解困方案。与过去10多次峰会相同,这次峰会欧盟领袖持续倡议强化财政纪律足解决欧债危机的唯一途径。

  10. World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    碳价狂跌从最高峰时的15~20欧元,跌到现在的0.7~0.8欧元一吨,四年时间阁际碳交易价格直跌至“白菜价”。作为《京都议定书》中规定的三个灵活履约机制之一,CDM(清沽发展机制)允许发达国家通过在发展中国家实施具有温室气体减排效果的项目,

  11. World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    金砖褪色从2010年初至今,巴西工业产出就一直止步不前,3年来倒退了近3%,伴随着工业生产的萎靡不振,投资增速也大幅放缓.政府对保增长的忧虑更是与日俱增。

  12. Teaching World Cultures through Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauf, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching world cultures in the middle-level geography classroom presents challenges both because of the complexity of culture and because of the characteristics of students of this age. One effective way to teach about a culture is through the use of cultural artifacts. This article discusses how to collect and use cultural artifacts in the…

  13. Sustainability in a multipolar world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basha i Novosejt, A.; Weterings, R.; Ridder, M. de; Frinking, E.

    2010-01-01

    In its 30-Year Update of the well-known publication ‘The Limits to growth’ the Club of Rome stressed that the once debated notion of a physically limited world growth is becoming apparent in many well-documented studies. Three decades ago, the Brundtland Commission on Development and Environment ini

  14. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  15. Savior of the World Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The credit crunch and generally tightened monetary policy caused by the subprime crisis in the United States are still being widely assessed around the globe.Worries are that a further downturn of the U.S.market in the coming year will intensify cash flow shortages and spur more economic losses,resulting in a complete decline of the U.S.market and therefore slowing down the world economy.Another theory has surfaced assuming that China and the United States are the double-barreled engines of the world economy.As China’s influence spreads,it will have to complement the United States to rid the world of this crisis. Ding Yifan,Deputy Director of the Institute of World Development under the Development Research Center of the State Council,has made clear China’s growing impact on the global economy.However,as Ding wrote to the Global Times,a Beijing-based daily publication,the knockdown effect of the mortgage crisis is apparent,and emerging markets look even more vulnerable because of it.Excerpts follow:

  16. Teenagers and their digital world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Guus Wijngaards; Dr. Jos Fransen; Pieter Swager

    2006-01-01

    The Internet and computers increasingly determine our daily lives. This goes for almost everyone in the Netherlands. Still, it is mostly teenagers who are well informed on how to use all the possibilities of new technologies. They are building a digital world of their own that parents usually know

  17. World Input-Output Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  18. Achieving world class maintenance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlingson, P.D. [Paul D. Tomingson Associates (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The article written by a management consultant, discusses the art of successful planning and operation of maintenance in mines considering factors such as benchmaking, key performance indices (KPIs) and frequency of procedures which can help achieve 'world class maintenance'. 1 fig.

  19. Witches in the Atlantic World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslaw, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that focuses on witchcraft in the Atlantic world. Describes each of the four sections of the lesson that encompasses learning about terms and religious views on witchcraft to the history of witchcraft in New England, in the United States, and the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. (CMK)

  20. World Wide Web Homepage Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Michael L.

    This paper examines hypermedia design and draws conclusions about how educational research and theory applies to various aspects of World Wide Web (WWW) homepage design. "Hypermedia" is defined as any collection of information which may be textual, graphical, visual, or auditory in nature and which may be accessed via a nonlinear route.…