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Sample records for sunscreen peers parents

  1. Sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, Marianna; Klit, A; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2012-01-01

    of the malignant disorder for which sunscreens should protect, malignant melanoma, is rapidly increasing and (3) an increasing number of experimental studies indicating that several UV-filters might have endocrine disruptive effects. The selected UV-filters we review in this article are benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 3...

  2. Parents, Peers and Pot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Marsha

    This book looks at the problem of drug abuse, particularly the use of marihuana by children ages 9 to 14, and describes one strategy parents can use to prevent drug use by their children. On the premise that nonmedical drug use is not acceptable for children, parents need to provide guidance and exercise discipline with respect to drug use among…

  3. Parents' and peers' communication to toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, L C; Hiebert, E; Rembold, K

    1981-09-01

    The speech which parents and peers direct to toddlers was examined for differences as a function of sex of parent, parent/peer status, sex of child, and age of child. Mothers, fathers, and peers of 18 parent dyads were individually audio- and videotaped in a natural play setting with their children (nine boys and nine girls) when the children were 2 years (parents only) and 2 1/2 years (both parents and peers). Ten language measures were coded from the transcribed speech samples: mean length of utterance, type-token ratio, number of utterances, number of turns, rate of questioning, rate of answering, rate of directives, rate of attentionals, rate of polite directives, and rate of repetitions. Analyses of variance on these dependent measures produced significant main effects for parents/peer status for number of utterances, number of turns, mean length of utterance, questions, answers, and polite directives; however, no main effects for sex of child, age of child, and sex of parent were produced.

  4. From parent to 'peer facilitator': a qualitative study of a peer-led parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, S; Michelson, D; Day, C

    2015-01-01

    Peer-led interventions are increasingly common in community health settings. Although peer-led approaches have proven benefits for service users, relatively little is known about the process and outcomes of participation for peer leaders. This study investigated experiences of parents who had participated as 'peer facilitators' in Empowering Parents, Empowering Communities (EPEC), a peer-led programme designed to improve access to evidence-based parenting support in socially disadvantaged communities. A qualitative cross-sectional design was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 peer facilitators and scrutinized using thematic analysis. Peer facilitators developed their knowledge and skills through personal experience of receiving parenting support, participation in formal training and supervised practice, access to an intervention manual, and peer modelling. Peer facilitators described positive changes in their own families, confidence and social status. Transformative personal gains reinforced peer facilitators' role commitment and contributed to a cohesive 'family' identity among EPEC staff and service users. Peer facilitators' enthusiasm, openness and mutual identification with families were seen as critical to EPEC's effectiveness and sustainability. Peer facilitators also found the training emotionally and intellectually demanding. There were particular difficulties around logistical issues (e.g. finding convenient supervision times), managing psychosocial complexity and child safeguarding. The successful delivery and sustained implementation of peer-led interventions requires careful attention to the personal qualities and support of peer leaders. Based on the findings of this study, support should include training, access to intervention manuals, regular and responsive supervision, and logistical/administrative assistance. Further research is required to elaborate and extend these findings to other peer-led programmes. © 2014 John Wiley

  5. Parental Management of Peer Relationships and Early Adolescents' Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounts, Nina S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship…

  6. Parental management of peer relationships and early adolescents' social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounts, Nina S

    2011-04-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship between parental management of peers (consulting and guiding), conflict about peers, and adolescents' social skills (cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control) and to examine potential precursors (goals of improving peer relationships and beliefs about authority over peer relationships) to parental management of peer relationships. A predominantly White sample (71%) of 75 seventh-graders (57% female) and their primary caregivers participated in the 9-month investigation. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding goals of improving their adolescents' peer relationships, beliefs about parental authority over peer relationships, parental management of peers, and adolescents' social skills. Adolescents completed questionnaires regarding their social skills. Path analyses suggest that a greater number of caregivers' goals of improving peer relationships and higher beliefs about parental authority over peers were related to higher levels of consulting, guiding, and conflict about peers. Higher levels of conflict about peers in conjunction with higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of assertion and responsibility in peer relationships over time. When parents reported having a greater number of goals of improving peer relationships, adolescents reported higher levels of cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self control over time. Findings suggest that caregivers' goals and beliefs are important in predicting parental management of peer relationships and adolescents' social skills over time, and that conflict about peers undermines caregivers' efforts to be positively involved in

  7. Best Sunscreen: Understand Sunscreen Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 8, 2016. Burnett ME, et al. Current sunscreen controversies: A critical review. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine. 2011;27: ... healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/best-sunscreen/art-20045110 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  8. Resurrecting the chimera: Progressions in parenting and peer processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgatch, Marion S; Snyder, James J; Patterson, Gerald R; Pauldine, Michael R; Chaw, Yvonne; Elish, Katie; Harris, Jasmine B; Richardson, Eric B

    2016-08-01

    This report uses 6-year outcomes of the Oregon Divorce Study to examine the processes by which parenting practices affect deviant peer association during two developmental stages: early to middle childhood and late childhood to early adolescence. The participants were 238 newly divorced mothers and their 5- to 8-year-old sons who were randomly assigned to Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO®) or to a no-treatment control group. Parenting practices, child delinquent behavior, and deviant peer association were repeatedly assessed from baseline to 6 years after baseline using multiple methods and informants. PMTO had a beneficial effect on parenting practices relative to the control group. Two stage models linking changes in parenting generated by PMTO to children's growth in deviant peer association were supported. During the early to middle childhood stage, the relationship of improved parenting practices on deviant peer association was moderated by family socioeconomic status (SES); effective parenting was particularly important in mitigating deviant peer association for lower SES families whose children experience higher densities of deviant peers in schools and neighborhoods. During late childhood and early adolescence, the relationship of improved parenting to youths' growth in deviant peer association was mediated by reductions in the growth of delinquency during childhood; higher levels of early delinquency are likely to promote deviant peer association through processes of selective affiliation and reciprocal deviancy training. The results are discussed in terms of multilevel developmental progressions of diminished parenting, child involvement in deviancy producing processes in peer groups, and increased variety and severity of antisocial behavior, all exacerbated by ecological risks associated with low family SES.

  9. Parenting style, religiosity, peer alcohol use, and adolescent heavy drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P; Bahr, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the associations of parenting style, religiosity, and peer alcohol use with alcohol use and heavy drinking. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate direct and indirect associations among 5,419 adolescents ages 12-14 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997. Adolescents whose parents were authoritative were less likely to drink heavily than adolescents who experienced neglectful or indulgent parenting styles. Religiosity was negatively associated with heavy drinking after other relevant variables were controlled for. Authoritative parenting appears to have both direct and indirect negative associations with the risk of heavy drinking among adolescents. Authoritative parenting, where monitoring and support are above average, and religiosity might help deter adolescents from heavy drinking, even when adolescents experience peer environments where alcohol use is common. Authoritarian parenting, although it was not associated with heavy drinking, was positively associated with alcohol use and peer alcohol use, thus placing adolescents at some risk.

  10. Do parents still matter? Parent and peer influences on alcohol involvement among recent high school graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mark D; Read, Jennifer P; Mitchell, Roger E; Brand, Nancy H

    2004-03-01

    This study investigated the influences of peer and parent variables on alcohol use and problems in a sample of late adolescents in the summer immediately prior to entry into college. Participants (N = 556) completed a mail survey assessing peer influences (alcohol offers, social modeling, perceived norms), parental behaviors (nurturance, monitoring), and attitudes and values (disapproval for heavy drinking, permissiveness for drinking), and alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated significant associations between both peer and parental influences and alcohol involvement, and showed that parental influences moderated peer-influence-drinking behavior, such that higher levels of perceived parental involvement were associated with weaker relations between peer influences and alcohol use and problems. These findings suggest that parents continue to exert an influential role in late adolescent drinking behavior.

  11. Parental Management of Peers and Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity in Predicting Adolescent Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined sympathetic and parasympathetic indices of autonomic nervous system reactivity as moderators of the prospective association between parental management of peers via directing of youths' friendships and peer adjustment in a sample of typically developing adolescents. Participants included 246 adolescents at Time 1 (T1)…

  12. Parenting practices and peer group affiliation in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B B; Mounts, N; Lamborn, S D; Steinberg, L

    1993-04-01

    Social scientists have often assumed that parental influence is sharply curtailed at adolescence because of the rising counterinfluence of peer groups, over which parents have little control. The present study tested a conceptual model that challenged this view by arguing that parents retain a notable but indirect influence over their teenage child's peer associates. Data from a sample of 3,781 high school students (ages 15-19) indicated that specific parenting practices (monitoring, encouragement of achievement, joint decision making) were significantly associated with specific adolescent behaviors (academic achievement, drug use, self-reliance), which in turn were significantly related to membership in common adolescent crowds (jocks, druggies, etc). Findings encourage investigators to assess more carefully parents' role in adolescents' peer group affiliations.

  13. Gender Role Typing and Attachment to Parents and Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Gordon B.; Adams-Curtis, Leah E.

    2000-01-01

    Replicates and extends a study investigating the effects of sex/gender role typing on attachment to parent and peers. Participants were 395 undergraduate freshmen. Finds that androgynous females reported more close childhood friends, gender role typing and closeness to parents were related, and androgynous gender role typing predicted closeness to…

  14. Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behaviors: Parents, Peers, and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…

  15. Sunscreening Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  16. Early Adolescent Substance Use in Mexican Origin Families: Peer Selection, Peer Influence, and Parental Monitoring*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Because adolescents vary in their susceptibility to peer influence, the current study addresses potential reciprocal effects between associating with deviant peers and use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD), as well as the potential buffering role of parental monitoring on these reciprocal effects. Method 674 children of Mexican origin reported at fifth and seventh grade(10.4 years old at fifth grade)on the degree to which they associated with deviant peers, intended to use alcohol, tobacco or other drugs (ATOD) in the future, and had used controlled substances during the past year. Trained observers rated parental monitoring from video-recorded family interactions at the first assessment. Results Youth who intended to use ATODs during fifth grade experienced a relative increase in number of deviant peers by seventh grade, and youth with more deviant peers in fifth grade were more likely to use ATODs by seventh grade. Parental monitoring buffered (i.e., moderated) the reciprocal association between involvement with deviant peers and both intent to use ATODs and actual use of ATODs. Conclusions Parental monitoring can disrupt the reciprocal associations between deviant peers and ATOD use during the transition from childhood to adolescence PMID:26525416

  17. Sunscreen use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodén, M; Beitner, H; Gonzalez, H

    2011-01-01

    and photoageing owing to the potential toxicity of the ultraviolet (UV) filters for humans and the environment. The protection against UV radiation offered by sunscreens was recently standardized in the European Union (EU) based on international harmonization of measurement techniques. Four different categories...... of sun protection have been implemented along with recommendations on how to use sunscreen products in order to obtain the labelled protection. The UV filters in sunscreens have long been authorized for use by the EU authority on the basis of data from studies on acute toxicity, subchronic and chronic...... toxicity, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, photogenotoxicity, carcinogenicity, irritation, sensitization, phototoxicity and photosensitization as well as on environmental aspects. New challenges with respect to the safety of UV filters have arisen from the banning of animal experiments...

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Peer Support Program for Parents Facing Perinatal Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Rachel M; Roose, Rosmarie E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this program evaluation was to understand the perspectives of peer parents and parents receiving support within a peer support program for perinatal bereavement at a midsized hospital within the midwestern United States. To document participants' perceptions of the program, a focus group was conducted with peer parents, and surveys were completed by both peer parents and parents receiving support. In this article we review our model of a peer support program for perinatal bereavement and report on parents' evaluation of the program. Recommendations through which other organizations can develop peer support programs for parents who have experienced a perinatal loss are provided.

  19. The Role of Parents and Peers in Understanding Female Adolescent Sexuality--Testing Perceived Peer Norms as Mediators between Some Parental Variables and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajhvajn Bulat, Linda; Ajdukovic, Marina; Ajdukovic, Dea

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has confirmed peers and parents as significant agents of socialisation with respect to young people's sexuality. The aim of this cross-sectional cohort study was to examine how parental and peer variables predict young women's sexual behaviour and sexuality-related thoughts and emotions, and whether perceived peer influences…

  20. The Role of Parents and Peers in Understanding Female Adolescent Sexuality--Testing Perceived Peer Norms as Mediators between Some Parental Variables and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajhvajn Bulat, Linda; Ajdukovic, Marina; Ajdukovic, Dea

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has confirmed peers and parents as significant agents of socialisation with respect to young people's sexuality. The aim of this cross-sectional cohort study was to examine how parental and peer variables predict young women's sexual behaviour and sexuality-related thoughts and emotions, and whether perceived peer influences…

  1. Developing adolescent sexuality in context: Relations with parents and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongardt, D. van de

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation it was investigated how various aspects of adolescents’ developing sexuality (behaviors, cognitions, emotions) are intertwined over time with adolescents’ relations with parents and peers. The overall goal of the six empirical studies, which utilized a multi-method approach (lon

  2. Developing adolescent sexuality in context: Relations with parents and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongardt, D. van de

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation it was investigated how various aspects of adolescents’ developing sexuality (behaviors, cognitions, emotions) are intertwined over time with adolescents’ relations with parents and peers. The overall goal of the six empirical studies, which utilized a multi-method approach (lon

  3. Developing adolescent sexuality in context: Relations with parents and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongardt, D. van de

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation it was investigated how various aspects of adolescents’ developing sexuality (behaviors, cognitions, emotions) are intertwined over time with adolescents’ relations with parents and peers. The overall goal of the six empirical studies, which utilized a multi-method approach

  4. Peer & Parent Encouragement of Early Algebra Enrollment & Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filer, Kimberly L.; Chang, Mido

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), path analytic procedures were performed to test a model of the effects of parent and peer encouragement to take algebra on the mathematics achievement of eighth grade students. The effects of socio-economic status (SES) on middle school algebra course-taking and…

  5. Parental and Peer Support as Predictors of Depression and Self-Esteem among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Susan Tinsley; Albert, Arielle Berman; Dwelle, Deborah G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between parent support and peer support as predictors of depression and self-esteem in college students. Several competing models of parental and peer influence were compared including a mediational model in which peer support was hypothesized to mediate the effects of parental support on adjustment. The results…

  6. Parental and Peer Support as Predictors of Depression and Self-Esteem among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Susan Tinsley; Albert, Arielle Berman; Dwelle, Deborah G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between parent support and peer support as predictors of depression and self-esteem in college students. Several competing models of parental and peer influence were compared including a mediational model in which peer support was hypothesized to mediate the effects of parental support on adjustment. The results…

  7. Neural correlates of adolescents' viewing of parents' and peers' emotions: Associations with risk-taking behavior and risky peer affiliations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Social reorientation from parents to same-age peers is normative in adolescence, but the neural correlates of youths' socioemotional processing of parents and peers have not been explored. In the current study, 22 adolescents (average age 16.98) underwent neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) while viewing and rating emotions shown in brief video clips featuring themselves, their parents, or an unfamiliar peer. Viewing self vs. other and parents vs. the peer activated regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, replicating prior findings that this area responds to self-relevant stimuli, including familiar and not just similar others. Viewing the peer compared with parents elicited activation in posterior 'mentalizing' structures, the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and right temporoparietal junction, as well as the ventral striatum and bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Relative activations in the PCC and precuneus to the peer vs. the parent were related both to reported risk-taking behavior and to affiliations with more risk-taking peers. The results suggest neural correlates of the adolescent social reorientation toward peers and away from parents that may be associated with adolescents' real-life risk-taking behaviors and social relationships.

  8. Parenting style, religiosity, peers, and adolescent heavy drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Stephen J; Hoffmann, John P

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful parenting styles were associated with adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking, after controlling for peer use, religiosity, and other relevant variables. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate direct and indirect associations of parenting style with alcohol use and heavy drinking among 4,983 adolescents in Grades 7-12. Adolescents whose parents were authoritative were less likely to drink heavily than adolescents from the other three parenting styles, and they were less likely to have close friends who used alcohol. In addition, religiosity was negatively associated with heavy drinking after controlling for other relevant variables. Authoritative parenting appears to have both direct and indirect associations with the risk of heavy drinking among adolescents. Authoritative parenting, where monitoring and support are above average, might help deter adolescents from heavy alcohol use, even when adolescents have friends who drink. In addition, the data suggest that the adolescent's choice of friends may be an intervening variable that helps explain the negative association between authoritative parenting and adolescent heavy drinking.

  9. Helicopter Parenting: The Effect of an Overbearing Caregiving Style on Peer Attachment and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ingen, Daniel J.; Freiheit, Stacy R.; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Moore, Linda L.; Wimer, David J.; Knutt, Adelle D.; Scapinello, Samantha; Roberts, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Helicopter parenting, an observed phenomenon on college campuses, may adversely affect college students. The authors examined how helicopter parenting is related to self-efficacy and peer relationships among 190 undergraduate students ages 16 to 28 years. Helicopter parenting was associated with low self-efficacy, alienation from peers, and a lack…

  10. In the company we keep: social physique anxiety levels differ around parents and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of two scales which assessed social physique anxiety (SPA) in the context of peers (peer SPA) and parents (parent SPA), and differences in reported levels of peer SPA and parent SPA. Young adults (N = 381, 161 males, M(age) = 18.69 years) completed self-report measures. Results supported the internal consistency, convergent validity and factor structure of the peer SPA and parent SPA scales. Also, participants reported significantly higher levels of peer SPA compared to parent SPA. Findings offer preliminary support for the investigation of contextualized SPA using the scales tested in this study, and suggest more research is needed to better understand the processes that may increase or decrease SPA when surrounded by peers and parents.

  11. Delinquency in Adolescent Girls: Using a Confluence Approach to Understand the Influences of Parents and Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, Angela K; Tolan, Patrick H; Hipwell, Alison E; Keenan, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Determining the interdependence of family and peer influences on the development of delinquency is critical to defining and implementing effective interventions. This study explored the longitudinal relationship among harsh punishment, positive parenting, peer delinquency, and adolescent delinquency using data from a sub-sample of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Participants were 622 adolescent girls (42% European American, 53% African American); families living in low-income neighborhoods were oversampled. After controlling for the effects of race, living in a single parent household, and receipt of public assistance, harsh punishment and peer delinquency in early adolescence were positively related to delinquency in mid-adolescence. No significant main effects of positive parenting or interaction effects between parenting and peer delinquency were observed. Thus, the effects of harsh parenting and peer delinquency are independent and perhaps additive, rather than interdependent. Results indicate the continued importance of targeting both parenting and peer relationships to prevent delinquency in adolescent girls.

  12. Mexican American Parents' Involvement in Adolescents' Peer Relationships: Exploring the Role of Culture and Adolescents' Peer Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of Mexican American mothers' and fathers' involvement in adolescents' peer relationships along 4 dimensions: support, restriction, knowledge, and time spent with adolescents and peers. Mexican American adolescents and their parents in 220 families described their family relationships, cultural…

  13. Parenting style and peer attachment as predictors of emotional instability in children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Llorca-Mestre, Anna; Cortes-Tomas, Maria Teresa; Samper-Garcia, Paula; Malonda-Vidal, Elisabet

    2017-01-01

    .... Considering emotional and cognitive variables, the results for our participant group show that parenting styles and peer attachment were equally significant as predictors of emotional instability. Keyword...

  14. Peer Attachment, Perceived Parenting Style, Self-concept, and School Adjustments in Adolescents with Chronic Illness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sunhee

    2016-01-01

    .... Multiple-group structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the difference of relations for peer attachment, parenting style, self-concept, and school adjustment variable between adolescents...

  15. Stress with Parents and Peers: How Adolescents from Six Nations Cope with Relationship Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Karaman, Neslihan Guney; Cok, Figen; Herrera, Dora; Rohail, Iffat; Macek, Petr; Hyeyoun, Han

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how 2000 adolescents from middle-class families in six countries perceived and coped with parent-related and peer-related stress. Adolescents from Costa Rica, Korea, and Turkey perceived parent-related stress to be greater than peer-related stress, whereas stress levels in both relationship types were similar in the Czech…

  16. Bidirectional Influences between Maternal Parenting and Children's Peer Problems: A Longitudinal Monozygotic Twin Difference Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Shinji; Takahashi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Koken; Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Nonaka, Koichi; Ando, Juko

    2013-01-01

    This twin study examined the bidirectional relationship between maternal parenting behaviors and children's peer problems that were not confounded by genetic and family environmental factors. Mothers of 259 monozygotic twin pairs reported parenting behaviors and peer problems when twins were 42 and 48 months. Path analyses on monozygotic twin…

  17. Perceived Parental and Peer Disapproval toward Substances: Influences on Adolescent Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Thomas M.; Stevenson, John F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relative influence of perceived parent and peer disapproval for using drugs on youth intentions to use drugs. In a cross-sectional design, sixth and eighth grade students (N = 1,649) completed surveys that included measures of parent disapproval, peer disapproval, and intentions to use drugs in the future. Parent…

  18. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  19. Clusters and Correlates of Experiences with Parents and Peers in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Marni L.; McHale, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    This study used a person-oriented approach to examine links between adolescents' experiences with parents and peers. Cluster analysis classified 361, White, working- and middle-class youth (mean age = 12.16 years) based on mothers' and fathers' reports of parental acceptance and adolescents' reports of perceived peer competence. Three patterns…

  20. Pathways between Parent-Child Interactions and Peer Acceptance: The Role of Children's Social Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Yumee; Parke, Ross D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the links among parents' interaction styles, their children's social information processing, and peer acceptance. Fourth-grade children (N = 159) and their parents were observed during family discussions. One year later peer acceptance and children's information processing choices (goals, strategies, and attributions) in…

  1. Stress with Parents and Peers: How Adolescents from Six Nations Cope with Relationship Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Karaman, Neslihan Guney; Cok, Figen; Herrera, Dora; Rohail, Iffat; Macek, Petr; Hyeyoun, Han

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how 2000 adolescents from middle-class families in six countries perceived and coped with parent-related and peer-related stress. Adolescents from Costa Rica, Korea, and Turkey perceived parent-related stress to be greater than peer-related stress, whereas stress levels in both relationship types were similar in the Czech…

  2. Effects of Parenting and Deviant Peers on Early to Mid-Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7–9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n=112 boys; n=107 girls; n=7 gender unknown), their parents, and teachers. Both effective parenting and association with deviant peers influenced later conduct problems; however, the pattern of influence varied across time and between fathers and mothers, with complex patterns of interactions between effective parenting and peer deviance. From seventh to eighth grade, effective parenting by both mothers and fathers buffered the effect of higher levels of peer deviance on conduct problems across adolescent gender. From eighth to ninth grade (i.e., transition into high school), fathers’ effective parenting buffered the effects of deviant peer association on their daughters’ conduct problems, whereas both fathers’ and mothers’ influence was stronger for sons when deviant peer associations were lower. Analyses also evaluated bi-directional longitudinal effects among adolescents, parents, and peers. Although varying by parent and adolescent gender or adolescent age, results generally supported the protective effects of parenting on their children’s conduct problems during early to mid adolescence. PMID:22648200

  3. Parents’ Optimism, Positive Parenting, and Child Peer Competence in Mexican-Origin Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Schilo, Laura; Ferrer, Emilio; Taylor, Zoe E.; Robins, Richard W.; Conger, Rand D.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study examined how parents’ optimism influences positive parenting and child peer competence in Mexican-origin families. Design A sample of 521 families (521 mothers, 438 fathers, and 521 11-year-olds) participated in the cross-sectional study. We used structural equation modeling to assess whether effective parenting would mediate the effect of parents’ optimism on child peer competence and whether mothers’ and fathers’ optimism would moderate the relation between positive parenting and child social competence. Results Mothers’ and fathers’ optimism were associated with effective parenting, which in turn was related to children’s peer competence. Mothers’ and fathers’ optimism also moderated the effect of parenting on child peer competence. High levels of parental optimism buffered children against poor parenting; at low levels of parental optimism, positive parenting was more strongly related to child peer competence. Conclusions Results are consistent with the hypothesis that positive parenting is promoted by parents’ optimism and is a proximal driver of child social competence. Parental optimism moderates effects of parenting on child outcomes. PMID:23526877

  4. Emotion Socialization in Anxious Youth: Parenting Buffers Emotional Reactivity to Peer Negative Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Caroline W; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Waller, Jennifer M; Ryan, Neal D; Allen, Kristy Benoit; Sheeber, Lisa; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Silk, Jennifer S

    2016-10-01

    Anxious youth exhibit heightened emotional reactivity, particularly to social-evaluative threat, such as peer evaluation and feedback, compared to non-anxious youth. Moreover, normative developmental changes during the transition into adolescence may exacerbate emotional reactivity to peer negative events, particularly for anxious youth. Therefore, it is important to investigate factors that may buffer emotional reactivity within peer contexts among anxious youth. The current study examined the role of parenting behaviors in child emotional reactivity to peer and non-peer negative events among 86 anxious youth in middle childhood to adolescence (Mean age = 11.29, 54 % girls). Parenting behavior and affect was observed during a social-evaluative laboratory speech task for youth, and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods were used to examine youth emotional reactivity to typical daily negative events within peer and non-peer contexts. Results showed that parent positive behaviors, and low levels of parent anxious affect, during the stressful laboratory task for youth buffered youth negative emotional reactivity to real-world negative peer events, but not non-peer events. Findings inform our understanding of parenting influences on anxious youth's emotional reactivity to developmentally salient negative events during the transition into adolescence.

  5. Negative parenting behavior and childhood oppositional defiant disorder: differential moderation by positive and negative peer regard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Lee, Steve S

    2014-01-01

    Although negative parenting behavior and peer status are independently associated with childhood conduct problems (e.g., oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)), relatively little is known about their interplay, particularly in relation to differentiated measures of positive and negative peer regard. To improve the specificity of the association of negative parenting behavior and peer factors with ODD, we explored the potential interaction of parenting and peer status in a sample of 169 five-to ten-year-old ethnically diverse children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed using multiple measures (i.e., rating scales, interview) and informants (i.e., parents, teachers). Controlling for children's age, sex, number of ADHD symptoms, and parents' race-ethnicity, peer acceptance inversely predicted and inconsistent discipline, harsh punishment, and peer rejection were each positively associated with ODD symptom severity. Interactive influences were also evident such that inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment each predicted elevated ODD but only among children experiencing low peer acceptance or high peer rejection. These findings suggest that supportive environments, including peer acceptance, may protect children from negative outcomes associated with inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment. Findings are integrated with theories of social support, and we additionally consider implications for intervention and prevention.

  6. Person × Environment Interactions on Adolescent Delinquency: Sensation Seeking, Peer Deviance and Parental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-04-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior.

  7. The relation between adolescent's relationship with his/her parents and peers and substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the correlations between adolescents' perception of their relationship with mother, father and peers, parental monitoring, parental and peer influence, and frequency of substance use in the life and in the past month. 151 college students (43,7% male aged 18-22 years participated in the study. The results showed statistically significant negative correlations between frequency of substance use and adolescents' perception of: (1 open communication and (2 trust in their relationship with mother, father and peers, (3 parental monitoring, and (4 mother's influence. The correlations between frequency of substance use and adolescents' perception of (1 alienation from parents and peer, and (2 influence of peer were positive.

  8. Parent/Child Concordance about Bullying Involvement and Family Characteristics Related to Bullying and Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Melissa K.; Kaufman Kantor, Glenda; Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parent perspectives on bullying, parent/child concordance about bullying involvement, and family characteristics associated with bullying perpetration and peer victimization. Participants were 205 fifth-grade students and their parents. Students attended an urban, ethnically diverse school district in the Northeast. Youth…

  9. The Influence of Parental Support, Depressed Affect, and Peers on the Sexual Behaviors of Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used longitudinal data from 76 adolescent girls and their parents to investigate effects of parental warmth and supportiveness on adolescents' depressed affect, attitudes about sexuality, peer influence, and sexual experience. Girls with more emotionally distant parents were more likely to manifest symptoms of depression. Depressed affect was…

  10. Sex Differences in the Value of Parents versus Same-Sex Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce F. Benenson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current research examined the hypothesis that males derive greater benefits than females do from cooperation with same-sex peers versus parents. In Study 1, 194 children, early adolescents, older adolescents, and adults from Brussels, Belgium predicted whether parents or same-sex peers would provide more benefits to a typical individual of their same age and sex. Results showed that at all four age levels, compared with females, males predicted that same-sex peers would provide more benefits relative to parents. Study 2 was designed to examine which benefits same-sex peers relative to parents provide more for males than females. In Study 2, 50 young adults from Montreal, Canada were asked to report to what extent same-sex peers and parents satisfied physical needs, fulfilled socioemotional needs, and helped with acquiring societal skills over the past year. Males more than females reported that same-sex peers relative to parents satisfied socioemotional needs and helped with the acquisition of societal skills. Discussion revolves around the hypothesized differential relations of males and females to families versus same-sex peers.

  11. Adolescents, gangs, and perceptions of safety, parental engagement, and peer pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Peer and parental influences on adolescents' substance use: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R A; Hunter, M; Keats, J A

    1994-04-01

    Five hundred and seven 14-to-16-year-old students gave self-report responses to a substance use questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed adolescents' use, preferences, and norms and also their perceptions of their parents' and peers' use and norms in relation to alcohol, tobacco, and tea/coffee. Path analysis revealed that adolescents' internalization of parental and peer pressures is a stronger predictor of substance use than are direct effects. Internalized effects occur by means of preferences rather than norms, and peer pressure is predominantly through modeling behavior, whereas parental influence is through perceived normative standards. Peers' influence is stronger in relation to tobacco use, parental influence is stronger in relation to tea/coffee use, and both are equally important in relation to alcohol use. These findings are discussed in relation to preventive strategies.

  13. The Influence of Parental Communication and Perception of Peers on Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Carl D; Tan, Huey Peing; Meyer, Jacob C

    2015-08-01

    The authors used the theory of planned behavior to examine the influence of parents and peers on early adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Adolescents (N = 212) provided self-reports of their perception of parent and peer attitudes regarding sexual behavior. The authors used bivariate and regression analyses to examine the relation between parent and peer attitudes with adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Although there were gender differences, the analyses revealed the importance of both parents and peers on adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and intentions to have vaginal sex in the next year.

  14. Social Support Seeking in Relation to Parental Attachment and Peer Relationships among Victims of Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševcíková, Anna; Machácková, Hana; Wright, Michelle F.; Dedková, Lenka; Cerná, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Victims use social support seeking (SSS) to buffer the negative effects of cyberbullying. It is unknown whether cybervictims' perceptions of harm and having poor peer and parental relationships influence SSS. Using a sample of 451 cyberbullying-victims, aged 12-18, 68% girls, this study examined relationships of gender, harm, peer rejection,…

  15. Moderators of Negative Peer Influence on Early Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors: Individual Behavior, Parenting, and School Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which antisocial behavior, parenting, and school connectedness moderated the association between peer deviancy in preadolescence and externalizing problems in early adolescence. The participants included 500 boys and girls, most of them African Americans. Peer deviancy was measured with teacher reports of…

  16. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  17. The Psychosocial Adjustment of African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: The Relative Contribution of Parents and Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Charlene; Jones, Deborah J.; Zalot, Alecia; Sterrett, Emma

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relative roles of parents and peers in the psychosocial adjustment of African American youth (7-15 years old) from single mother homes (N = 242). Main effects of both positive parenting and peer relationship quality were found for youth depressive symptoms. In addition, a main effect of peer relationship quality and an…

  18. Peer relations in adolescents: effects of parenting and adolescents' self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deković, M; Meeus, W

    1997-04-01

    In this study we examined the link between the parent-adolescent relationship and the adolescent's relationship with peers. The proposed model assumes that the quality of the parent-child relationship affects the adolescent's self-concept, which in turn affects the adolescent's integration into the world of peers. The sample consisted of 508 families with adolescents (12- to 18-years-old). The data were obtained at the subjects' homes, where a battery of questionnaires was administered individually to mothers, fathers and adolescents. Several constructs relating to the quality of parent-child relationship were assessed: parental acceptance, attachment, involvement, responsiveness, love withdrawal and monitoring of the child. The measures of the adolescent's self-concept included Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Adolescents and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The indicators of the quality of peer relations were: degree of peer activity, having a best friend, perceived acceptance by peers and attachment to peers. Assessment of the hypothesized model showed that the adolescent's self-concept serves a mediating role in the relationship between maternal child-rearing style and involvement with peers. The mediating role of self-concept was greatest for maternal acceptance. Paternal child-rearing style, however, appeared to have an independent effect on the adolescent's involvement with peers that is not accounted for by the adolescent's self-concept. The prediction of the quality of adolescents' peer relations yielded similar results for both mothers and fathers. The results suggest that a positive self-concept and warm supportive parenting each contribute unique variance to satisfactory peer relations.

  19. "Peers, parents and phones"--Swedish adolescents and health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor

    2012-01-01

    Many unhealthy behaviors are created during adolescence and follow the individual into adulthood. In addition, health behaviors often occur in clusters as those who are inactive are more likely to eat unhealthy food and smoke. This makes the early foundation of healthy behaviors vital. The aim was to describe and develop an understanding of adolescents' awareness and experiences concerning health promotion. Data was collected using focus groups with a total of 28 seventh graders and was analysed with latent qualitative content analysis. One main theme was identified; being competent, ambivalent and creative at the same time. The following three subthemes also emerged: being a digital native for better and for worse, knowing what is healthy, and sometimes doing it, and considering change and having ideas of how change could be supported. The main theme elucidates how the majority of students were informed and able but they did not always prioritize their health. The concept of health promotion relies upon the engagement of the individual; however, although the students had clear ideas about how they would like to change their own behaviors, they felt a need for support. Interestingly, the students were able to make several suggestions about the kind of support that would make a difference to their adoption to more healthy modes of living. They suggested information and communication technology (ICT), for example encouraging text messages (SMS), and social support, for example parents setting rules and peers inspiring them to adhere to a healthy behavior. The knowledge gained from this study echoes our view of inclusion and this could be helpful for those who encounter the challenge of promoting health among adolescents.

  20. Configurations of Adolescents' Peer Experiences : Associations With Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Parental Problem Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Meeus, Wim; Verhulst, Frank C.; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents' peer experiences embrace behavior, relationship quality, status, and victimization, but studies that account for multiple dimensions are rare. Using latent profile modeling and measures of peer behavior, relationship quality, peer status, and victimization assessed from 1,677 adolescent

  1. Ready to Make Nice: Parental Socialization of Young Sons' and Daughters' Prosocial Behaviors with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Paul D.; McShane, Kelly E.; Parker, Richard; Ladha, Farriola

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which maternal and paternal parenting styles, cognitions, and behaviors were associated with young girls' and boys' more compassionate (prototypically feminine) and more agentic (prototypically masculine) prosocial behaviors with peers. Parents of 133 preschool-aged children reported on their…

  2. Ready to Make Nice: Parental Socialization of Young Sons' and Daughters' Prosocial Behaviors with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Paul D.; McShane, Kelly E.; Parker, Richard; Ladha, Farriola

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which maternal and paternal parenting styles, cognitions, and behaviors were associated with young girls' and boys' more compassionate (prototypically feminine) and more agentic (prototypically masculine) prosocial behaviors with peers. Parents of 133 preschool-aged children reported on their…

  3. Parenting and Children's Adjustment Problems: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem and Peer Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Nicos A.; Stavrinides, Panayiotis; Georgiou, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of parental and personal characteristics on children's internalizing/externalizing problems. Further, this study aimed to examine personal characteristics (self-esteem, peer relations) as mediators in the relation between parenting and internalizing/externalizing problems. In order to address…

  4. Sunscreening Agents: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Latha, M. S.; Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; B R Naveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food an...

  5. Parental Social Coaching Promotes Adolescent Peer Acceptance Across the Middle School Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S

    2017-03-20

    The present study investigated longitudinal associations between behavioral and cognitive dimensions of parental social coaching (i.e., advice about how to behave or think about peer challenges) and young adolescents' peer acceptance, and whether such associations are moderated by youths' social skills. Time 1 (T1) participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years; 50% boys; 58.5% European American). Parents gave open-ended reports about their social coaching to hypothetical peer stress scenarios, which were coded from low to high quality on behavioral and cognitive dimensions. Parents and teachers reported on adolescent prosocial behavior (i.e., social-behavioral skills), and adolescents reported on their social appraisals and social self-efficacy (i.e., social-cognitive skills). At T1 (before the first year of middle school) and Time 2 (approximately 10 months later, after the first year of middle school), parents and teachers rated adolescent peer acceptance. Analyses revealed that parents' prosocial behavioral advice and benign cognitive framing independently predicted adolescents' higher peer acceptance prospectively (controlling for earlier levels of peer acceptance). Furthermore, adolescent social skills moderated links between coaching and peer acceptance. Specifically, adolescents with higher, but not lower, social-cognitive skills became more accepted in the context of higher-quality coaching, supporting a "capitalization" pattern, such that these youth may be better able to utilize coaching suggestions. Results underscore the utility of parents' behavioral advice and cognitive framing for adolescent peer adjustment across the middle school transition and suggest that optimal social-coaching strategies may depend in part on adolescent social skill level. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Peer Victimization and Harsh Parenting Predict Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A.; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha R.; Zelkowitz, Rachel; Bilsky, Sarah A.; Roeder, Kathryn; Spinelli, Tawny

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study examined peer victimization and harsh parenting as longitudinal predictors of broadband and narrowband cognitions associated with the etiology of depression in children and adolescents. Method The sample consisted of 214 elementary and middle school students. At the start of the study, their average age was 12.2 years (SD = 1.0). The sex ratio was 112 girls to 102 boys. The sample was ethnically diverse (58.9% Caucasian, 34.1% African American, 10.7% Hispanic, 3.3% Asian, and 5.2% other). Children and their parents completed measures of peer victimization and harsh parenting. At two waves one year apart, children also completed questionnaire measures of negative and positive broadband cognitive style (e.g., personal failure, global self-worth) and narrowband self-perceptions (e.g., perceived social threat, social acceptance). Results Every wave 2 cognitive variable was predicted by peer victimization or harsh parenting or both, even after controlling for a wave 1 measure of the same cognitive variable. Peer victimization more consistently predicted narrowband social/interpersonal cognitions, whereas harsh parenting more consistently predicted broadband positive and negative cognitions. Furthermore, controlling for positive and negative self-cognitions eliminated a statistically significant effect of harsh parenting and peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Conclusions Support emerged for the social learning of negative self-cognitions. Support also emerged for negative self-cognitions as a mediator of depressive symptoms. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:25751612

  7. Peer Victimization and Harsh Parenting Predict Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha R; Zelkowitz, Rachel; Bilsk, Sarah A; Roeder, Kathryn; Spinelli, Tawny

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined peer victimization and harsh parenting as longitudinal predictors of broadband and narrowband cognitions associated with the etiology of depression in children and adolescents. The sample consisted of 214 elementary and middle school students. At the start of the study, their average age was 12.2 years (SD = 1.0). The sex ratio was 112 girls to 102 boys. The sample was ethnically diverse (58.9% Caucasian, 34.1% African American, 10.7% Hispanic, 3.3% Asian, and 5.2% other). Children and their parents completed measures of peer victimization and harsh parenting. At two waves 1 year apart, children also completed questionnaire measures of negative and positive broadband cognitive style (e.g., personal failure, global self-worth) and narrowband self-perceptions (e.g., perceived social threat, social acceptance). Every Wave 2 cognitive variable was predicted by peer victimization or harsh parenting or both, even after controlling for a Wave 1 measure of the same cognitive variable. Peer victimization more consistently predicted narrowband social/interpersonal cognitions, whereas harsh parenting more consistently predicted broadband positive and negative cognitions. Furthermore, controlling for positive and negative self-cognitions eliminated a statistically significant effect of harsh parenting and peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Support emerged for the social learning of negative self-cognitions. Support also emerged for negative self-cognitions as a mediator of depressive symptoms. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  8. Contributions of parents, peers, and media to attitudes toward homosexuality: investigating sex and ethnic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Ward, L Monique

    2009-01-01

    Although research on sexual socialization continues to grow, still little is known about the processes by which youth learn about homosexuality and about how ethnicity and sex influence their learning experiences. To explore these issues, 745 undergraduates were interviewed and asked to indicate the amount and content of parental, peer, and media communication they regularly encounter about homosexuality. Results indicated that media and peers addressed the topic of homosexuality more frequently than parents; men and Black participants tended to receive fewer positive messages than did women and members of other ethnic groups, although results were moderated by religiosity and parental education.

  9. The moderating role of verbal aggression on the relationship between parental feedback and peer status among children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Allison; Mikami, Amori Yee; Calhoun, Casey D

    2011-10-01

    We examined associations between children's sociometric status and (a) observed parental feedback as well as (b) child aggression. Participants were 94 children ages 6-10 (64 male; 44 with ADHD) and their parents. Children's peer status, parental feedback to their children, and child aggression were all assessed during lab-based playgroups of four children and their parents. Parent criticism in front of the child's peers was associated with the child receiving more negative ("disliked") and fewer positive ("liked") nominations, but only for children who displayed aggression; this interaction applied almost exclusively to children with ADHD. Parent praise in front of peers was associated with fewer negative nominations when children displayed low levels of aggression, but more at higher levels. Additional analyses revealed that relationships did not exist in the full sample between privately-given parental feedback and children's peer status. Processes by which peers use overheard adult feedback to inform their assessments of children are discussed.

  10. Adolescents' media-related cognitions and substance use in the context of parental and peer influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Tracy M; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Parker, Alison E; Elmore, Kristen C; Benson, Jessica W

    2010-09-01

    Two cross-sectional studies investigated media influences on adolescents' substance use and intentions to use substances in the context of exposure to parental and peer risk and protective factors. A total of 729 middle school students (n = 351, 59% female in Study 1; n = 378, 43% female in Study 2) completed self-report questionnaires. The sample in Study 1 was primarily African-American (52%) and the sample in Study 2 was primarily Caucasian (63%). Across the two studies, blocks of media-related cognitions made unique contributions to the prediction of adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future above and beyond self-reported peer and parental influences. Specifically, identification with and perceived similarity to media messages were positively associated with adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future, and critical thinking about media messages and media message deconstruction skills were negatively associated with adolescents' intention to use substances in the future. Further, peer influence variables (e.g., peer pressure, social norms, peer substance use) acted as risk factors, and for the most part, parental influence variables (e.g., parental pressure to not use, perceived parental reaction) acted as protective factors. These findings highlight the importance of developing an increased understanding of the role of media messages and media literacy education in the prevention of substance use behaviors in adolescence.

  11. The Role of Parental Mediation and Peer Norms on the Likelihood of Cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Hagit; Mesch, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a disturbing behavior associated with the use of communication technologies among adolescents. Many studies have been devoted to the activities of cyber victims as risk factors, while others have considered parental mediation a protective factor. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating the joint contribution of parental mediation, peer norms and risky online activities to the likelihood of being bullied on the Internet. To fill this gap, we conducted a study among a representative sample of 495 sixth to eleventh grade adolescents. We measured risky behavior online with items indicating the frequency of posting personal details, sending an insulting message and meeting face-to-face with a stranger met online. Respondents reported their perceptions about their peers. attitudes toward these risky online behaviors. We also measured three types of parental mediation: active guidance, restrictive supervision and non-intervention. Binary logistic regression findings show that risky online behaviors and peer norms regarding these behaviors had a significant effect, suggesting that the likelihood of being bullied on the Internet is associated with both risky behavior online and the norms prevalent within the adolescents. peer group. Restrictive supervision had a significant effect, implying that parents who feel their children are being bullied online may increase their oversight. The results emphasize the critical role of peers and the declining influence of parents in adolescence.

  12. Child-parent attachment and children's peer relations: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, B H; Atkinson, L; Tardif, C

    2001-01-01

    The central premise of attachment theory is that the security of the early child-parent bond is reflected in the child's interpersonal relationships across the life span. This meta-analysis was based on 63 studies that reported correlations between child-parent attachment and children's peer relations. The overall effect size (ES) for child-mother attachment was in the small-to-moderate range and was quite homogeneous. ESs were similar in studies that featured the Strange Situation and Q-sort methods. The effects were larger for peer relations in middle childhood and adolescence than for peer relations in early childhood. ESs were also higher for studies that focused on children's close friendships rather than on relations with other peers. Gender and cultural differences in ESs were minimal. The results for the few studies on father-child attachment were inconclusive.

  13. Peer Attachment, Perceived Parenting Style, Self-concept, and School Adjustments in Adolescents with Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sunhee

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify how peer attachment and parenting style differentially affect self-concept and school adjustment in adolescents with and without chronic illness. A cross-sectional study using multiple group analysis on the Korean panel data was used. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used and the survey was conducted in 2013 on 2,092 first-year middle school students in Korea. We used standardized instruments by the National Youth Policy Institute to measure peer attachment, parenting style, self-concept, and school adjustment. Multiple-group structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the difference of relations for peer attachment, parenting style, self-concept, and school adjustment variable between adolescents with chronic illness and those without chronic illness. The model fit of a multiple-group structural equation modeling was good. The difference of the path from negative parenting style to self-concept between the two groups was significant, and a significant between-group difference in the overall path was found. This indicated that self-concept in adolescents with chronic illness was more negatively affected by negative parenting style than in adolescents without chronic illness. Healthcare providers can promote the process of school adjustment in several ways, such as discussing this issue directly with adolescent patients, along with their parents and peers, examining how the organization and content of the treatment can be modified according to the adolescents' school life. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Delinquency in Adolescent Girls: Using a Confluence Approach to Understand the Influences of Parents and Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Henneberger, Angela K.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Keenan, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Determining the interdependence of family and peer influences on the development of delinquency is critical to defining and implementing effective interventions. This study explored the longitudinal relationship among harsh punishment, positive parenting, peer delinquency, and adolescent delinquency using data from a sub-sample of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Participants were 622 adolescent girls (42% European American, 53% African American); families living in low-income neighborhoods were o...

  15. Conflict Resolution in the Parent-Child, Marital, and Peer Contexts and Children's Aggression in the Peer Group: A Process-Oriented Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq; Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Theories of socialization propose that children's ability to handle conflicts is learned at home through mechanisms of participation and observation--participating in parent-child conflict and observing the conflicts between parents. We assessed modes of conflict resolution in the parent-child, marriage, and peer-group contexts among 141 Israeli…

  16. Adoptive Parent Hostility and Children's Peer Behavior Problems: Examining the Role of Genetically Informed Child Attributes on Adoptive Parent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Kit K.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children's social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children's socially disruptive behavior using genetically sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and…

  17. Exploring the role of parents and peers in young adolescents' risk taking on social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Wonsun; Ismail, Nurzali

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs.

  18. Peer victimization as reported by children, teachers, and parents in relation to children's health symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mæhle Magne

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Victims of bullying in school may experience health problems later in life. We have assessed the prevalence of children's health symptoms according to whether peer victimization was reported by the children, by their teachers, or by their parents. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 419 children in grades 1-10 the frequency of peer victimization was reported by children, teachers and parents. Emotional and somatic symptoms (sadness, anxiety, stomach ache, and headache were reported by the children. Frequencies of victimization reported by different informants were compared by the marginal homogeneity test for paired ordinal data, concordance between informants by cross-tables and Spearman's rho, and associations of victimization with health symptoms were estimated by logistic regression. Results The concordance of peer victimization reported by children, teachers, and parents varied from complete agreement to complete discordance also for the highest frequency (weekly/daily of victimization. Children's self-reported frequency of victimization was strongly and positively associated with their reports of emotional and somatic symptoms. Frequency of victimization reported by teachers or parents showed similar but weaker associations with the children's health symptoms. Conclusion The agreement between children and significant adults in reporting peer victimization was low to moderate, and the associations of reported victimization with the children's self-reported health symptoms varied substantially between informants. It may be useful to assess prospectively the effects of employing different sources of information related to peer victimization.

  19. PARENT AND PEER GROUP PRESSURES TOWARD DEVIANT STUDENT BEHAVIOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HILL, ROBERT B.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS PROJECT WAS TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH THE FOLLOWING FOUR FACTORS, SIMULTANEOUSLY AND SEPARATELY, AFFECT THE RATES OF CHEATING AMONG 10TH GRADE STUDENTS--(1) INDIVIDUAL ROLE ADAPTATIONS, (2) PEER GROUP INFLUENCE, (3) SOCIAL CONTEXT, AND (4) FAMILY INFLUENCE. A PARADIGM (MERTON'S) THAT RELATES INDIVIDUAL ANOMIA, SOCIAL…

  20. Parent-Child Interactions and Relational Aggression in Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Daisy; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Kuppens, Sofie

    2008-01-01

    The major aim of this review is to propose new ways of thinking about the role of parents in the development and course of children's relationally aggressive behavior. An important theoretical framework from which to start thinking about linkages between parenting and relational aggression is provided by attachment theory. Attachment theory…

  1. Friendship Network in the Classroom: Parents Bias and Peer Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landini, Fabio; Montinari, Natalia; Pin, Paolo

    We interview both parents and their children enrolled in six primary schools in the district of Treviso (Italy). We study the structural differences between the children network of friends reported by children and the one elicited asking their parents. We find that the parents’ network has a bias...

  2. Parent-child interactions and relational aggression in peer relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiels, Daisy; Grietens, Hans; Onghena, Patrick; Kuppens, Sofie

    2008-01-01

    The major aim of this review is to propose new ways of thinking about the role of parents in the development and course of children's relationally aggressive behavior. An important theoretical framework from which to start thinking about linkages between parenting and relational aggression is provid

  3. Friendship Network in the Classroom: Parents Bias and Peer Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landini, Fabio; Montinari, Natalia; Pin, Paolo

    We interview both parents and their children enrolled in six primary schools in the district of Treviso (Italy). We study the structural differences between the children network of friends reported by children and the one elicited asking their parents. We find that the parents’ network has a bias...

  4. Participation in Advanced Mathematics: Do Expectation and Influence of Students, Peers, Teachers, and Parents Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin

    2001-01-01

    Using six waves of data (Grades 7 through 12) from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), this study investigated the effects of expectation and influence of students, peers, teachers, and parents on participation in advanced mathematics. Results of survival analysis indicated a significant decline in participation rate in the transition from Grades 11 to 12. Students with higher future expectation were more likely to participate in advanced mathematics. Peer influence and teacher expectation did not have strong effects, and the effect of student future expectation was independent of peer and teacher effects. The effect of parent expectation and parent college plan for children were strong, and in their presence, the effect of student future expectation declined. Mathematics achievement and attitude toward mathematics were the most important factors affecting participation in advanced mathematics. With control over achievement and attitude, (a) the effect of student future expectation declined, (b) the effects of peer influence and teacher expectation disappeared, and (c) the effects of parent expectation and parent college plan for children were reduced. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. Parents, peers, and sexual values influence sexual behavior during the transition to college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Neal, Dan J; Fromme, Kim

    2010-06-01

    Several decades of research have identified the contributions of psychosocial influences on adolescent and young adult sexual behavior; however, few studies have examined parental and peer influence and sexual values during the transition from high school to college. The current study tested the influence of sexual values and perceived awareness and caring (PAC), or beliefs about how much parents and peers know and care about students' behavior, on sexual behavior during this transitional period. Using data from a longitudinal study, generalized estimating equations and the generalized linear model were used to examine the associations among sexual values, parental and peer PAC, and sexual behavior, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Participants (N = 1,847; 61% female) completed web-based surveys the summer before college matriculation and at the end of the first semester in college. Results indicated that individuals with high levels of both parental and peer PAC engaged in less frequent sexual behaviors and that PAC moderated the effect of sexual values on sexual behaviors. Furthermore, both PAC variables decreased during the transition from high school to college, and high school sexual values, parental PAC, and their interaction predicted the number of sexual partners during the first semester of college. Only sexual values and high school unsafe sexual behaviors predicted unsafe sexual behavior in college. Findings suggest that complex associations exist among perceived awareness and caring, sexual values, and sexual behaviors, and that the transition from high school to college may be an ideal time for safer-sex interventions.

  6. Experiences of Parent Peer Nutrition Educators Sharing Child Feeding and Nutrition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Richard; Collins, Clare

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of parents as peer educators disseminating nutrition and child feeding information. Parents of infants aged from birth to three years were trained as peer educators in a face-to-face workshop, and then shared evidence-based child feeding and nutrition information via Facebook, email, and printed resources for six months to peers, family, and social media contacts. Semi-structured telephone or group interviews were conducted after a six-month online and face-to-face peer nutrition intervention period investigating peer educator experiences, barriers, enablers of information dissemination, and the acceptability of the peer educator model. Transcripts from interviews were independently coded by two researchers and thematically analysed. Twenty-eight participants completed the study and were assigned to either group or individual interviews. The cohort consenting to the study were predominantly female, aged between 25 and 34 years, non-indigenous, tertiary educated, and employed or on maternity leave. Dominant themes to emerge from the interviews included that the information was trustworthy, child feeding practice information was considered most helpful, newer parents were the most receptive and family members the least receptive to child feeding and nutrition information, and sharing and receiving information verbally and via social media were preferred over print and email. In conclusion, parents reported positive experiences as peer nutrition educators, and considered it acceptable for sharing evidence-based nutrition information. Further research may determine the impact on diet quality and the food-related behaviours of babies and young children on a population level. PMID:28850096

  7. The Role of Parental and Peer Attachment in the Psychological Health and Self-Esteem of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ross B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of 3 studies examining the relationships of parental attachment, peer attachment, and self-esteem to adolescent psychological health. A model is presented in which parental attachment directly influences both psychological health and self-esteem and the influence of peer attachment on psychological health is totally…

  8. Pathways to Self-Esteem in Late Adolescence: The Role of Parent and Peer Attachment, Empathy, and Social Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah J.; Carlo, Gustavo; Roesch, Scott C.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine both the direct and indirect relations of parent and peer attachment with self-esteem and to examine the potential mediating roles of empathy and social behaviour. 246 college students ("Mage" = 18.6 years, s.d. = 1.61) completed self-report measures of parent and peer attachment, empathy, social behaviour,…

  9. Does the influence of peers and parents on adolescents' drunkenness differ between Roma and non-Roma adolescents in Slovakia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobakova, D.; Kolarcik, P.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; Klein, D.; Reijneveld, S.A.; van Dijk, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Roma adolescents have been shown to use less alcohol than non-Roma adolescents. This could be due to the protective influences of peers and parents. Objective. The purpose of this study was to explore differences in the levels of peer and parental influence and their effects on

  10. Pathways to Self-Esteem in Late Adolescence: The Role of Parent and Peer Attachment, Empathy, and Social Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah J.; Carlo, Gustavo; Roesch, Scott C.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine both the direct and indirect relations of parent and peer attachment with self-esteem and to examine the potential mediating roles of empathy and social behaviour. 246 college students ("Mage" = 18.6 years, s.d. = 1.61) completed self-report measures of parent and peer attachment, empathy, social behaviour,…

  11. Does the influence of peers and parents on adolescents' drunkenness differ between Roma and non-Roma adolescents in Slovakia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobakova, D.; Kolarcik, P.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; Klein, D.; Reijneveld, S.A.; van Dijk, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Roma adolescents have been shown to use less alcohol than non-Roma adolescents. This could be due to the protective influences of peers and parents. Objective. The purpose of this study was to explore differences in the levels of peer and parental influence and their effects on drunkenne

  12. Relations Between Neighborhood Factors, Parenting Behaviors, Peer Deviance, and Delinquency Among Serious Juvenile Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    CHUNG, HE LEN; Steinberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relations among neighborhood structural and social characteristics, parenting practices, peer group affiliations, and delinquency among a group of serious adolescent offenders. The sample of 14–18-year-old boys (N = 488) was composed primarily of economically disadvantaged, ethnic-minority youth living in urban communities. The results indicate that weak neighborhood social organization is indirectly related to delinquency through its associations with parenting beh...

  13. Temperament and Parenting Styles in Early Childhood Differentially Influence Neural Response to Peer Evaluation in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Jarcho, Johanna M.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children’s caregiving context. The convergence of a child’s temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (Mage = 17.89 years, N= 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development. PMID:25588884

  14. Temperament and Parenting Styles in Early Childhood Differentially Influence Neural Response to Peer Evaluation in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E; Jarcho, Johanna M; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Eric E

    2015-07-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children's caregiving context. The convergence of a child's temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (M(age) = 17.89 years, N = 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development.

  15. Early adolescent alcohol use in context: how neighborhoods, parents, and peers impact youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Elisa M; Colder, Craig R; Wieczorek, William F; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W

    2014-05-01

    Developmental-ecological models are useful for integrating risk factors across multiple contexts and conceptualizing mediational pathways for adolescent alcohol use, yet these comprehensive models are rarely tested. This study used a developmental-ecological framework to investigate the influence of neighborhood, family, and peer contexts on alcohol use in early adolescence (N = 387). Results from a multi-informant longitudinal cross-lagged mediation path model suggested that high levels of neighborhood disadvantage were associated with high levels of alcohol use 2 years later via an indirect pathway that included exposure to delinquent peers and adolescent delinquency. Results also indicated that adolescent involvement with delinquent peers and alcohol use led to decrements in parenting, rather than being consequences of poor parenting. Overall, the study supported hypothesized relationships among key microsystems thought to influence adolescent alcohol use, and thus findings underscore the utility of developmental-ecological models of alcohol use.

  16. The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers, and Coping Style upon Adolescent Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Robertson, Joan F.

    1989-01-01

    Developed and tested adolescent drug use model integrating social learning theory and recent stress and coping studies. Interviewed adolescents (N=343) aged 13-17 and found increase in adolescent drug use with presence of parental rejection, deviant peers, and combination of low self-esteem and avoidant coping style. Suggests both individual…

  17. Identifying determinants of young children's brand awareness: Television, parents, and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of young children's brand awareness, and the relative influence of environmental factors (e.g., television, parents, peers) on brand awareness. We presented 196 two- to eight-year-olds with 12 brand logos. After exposure to these logos, we ask

  18. Parents' and peers' contribution to risky driving of male teen drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Ari, Orit Taubman; Kaplan, Sigal; Lotan, Tsippy

    2015-01-01

    The current study joins efforts devoted to understanding the associations of parents' personality, attitude, and behavior, and to evaluating the added contribution of peers to the driving behavior of young drivers during their solo driving. The study combines data gathered using in-vehicle data r...

  19. Socialization Goals, Parenting Practices, and Peer Competence in Chinese and English Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Emma; Rao, Nirmala

    2003-01-01

    Examined relations between Hong Kong and English mothers' socialization goals and childrearing practices and their impact upon preschool peer competence. Found significant correlations between socialization toward filial piety and authoritarian practices, and valuing socioemotional development and authoritative parenting for both groups. Chinese…

  20. Influence of socio-economic status, parents and peers on smoking behaviour of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, AM; Stewart, R; van Dijk, JP; Orosova, O; Groothoff, JW; Post, D

    2005-01-01

    With the aim of analysing the importance of psycho-social factors in predicting adolescents' smoking behaviour, a model of the interrelations between socio-economic status, parents', peers' and adolescents' own smoking behaviours was tested. The sample consisted of 2,616 adolescents. LISREL analyses

  1. The Influence of Parent and Peer Attachments on Life Satisfaction in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Nagle, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    Satisfaction in different life domains was examined with respect to parent and peer attachment relationships in middle childhood and early adolescence. Three hundred and three students, evenly distributed across sex and grade (fourth, sixth, and eighth) were administered "People in My Life," a measure of attachment relationships, and the…

  2. Does the Importance of Parent and Peer Relationships for Adolescents' Life Satisfaction Vary across Cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Beate; Mayer, Boris; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Ben-Arieh, Asher; Friedlmeier, Mihaela; Lubiewska, Katarzyna; Mishra, Ramesh; Peltzer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the associations between (a) the quality of the parent-child relationship and peer acceptance and (b) early adolescents' life satisfaction differed depending on the importance of family values in the respective culture. As part of the Value of Children Study, data from a subsample of N = 1,034 adolescents (58%…

  3. Parent-Child Predictors of Social Competence with Peers in Children with and without Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Shantel E.; Robinson, Lauren T.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated the relations among parent-child joint engagement, dyadic interactive behaviors, and children's subsequent social competence with peers. Participants were 40 children (20 children with autism, and 20 developmentally-matched typical children) between the ages of 2.75 and 6.5 years. Observational coding was conducted…

  4. Effects of Parenting and Deviant Peers on Early to Mid-Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7…

  5. Socialization Goals, Parenting Practices, and Peer Competence in Chinese and English Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Emma; Rao, Nirmala

    2003-01-01

    Examined relations between Hong Kong and English mothers' socialization goals and childrearing practices and their impact upon preschool peer competence. Found significant correlations between socialization toward filial piety and authoritarian practices, and valuing socioemotional development and authoritative parenting for both groups. Chinese…

  6. The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers, and Coping Style upon Adolescent Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Robertson, Joan F.

    1989-01-01

    Developed and tested adolescent drug use model integrating social learning theory and recent stress and coping studies. Interviewed adolescents (N=343) aged 13-17 and found increase in adolescent drug use with presence of parental rejection, deviant peers, and combination of low self-esteem and avoidant coping style. Suggests both individual…

  7. The mediating effects of parental and peer pressure on the migration intentions of graduates in Nanjing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, C.; Geertman, S.C.M.; Hooimeijer, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the migration intentions of university graduates using the Theory of Planned Behaviour not just to unravel their intention but also to uncover how subjective perceptions enter the decision-making process. The results suggest that perceived parental and peer pressures have strong

  8. Parents and Peers: Serendipity in a Study of Shifting Reference Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Russell L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Presents and tests a theory which specifies the conditions under which adolescents shift their valuations between three sets of reference sources--fathers, mothers, and peers; the thesis incorporates components from four interpretations of parent--adolescent cleavage, summarily entitle Push, Pull, Selective Attachment, and Drift. (Author/JM)

  9. The mediating effects of parental and peer pressure on the migration intentions of graduates in Nanjing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, C.; Geertman, S.C.M.; Hooimeijer, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the migration intentions of university graduates using the Theory of Planned Behaviour not just to unravel their intention but also to uncover how subjective perceptions enter the decision-making process. The results suggest that perceived parental and peer pressures have strong

  10. Effects of Parenting and Deviant Peers on Early to Mid-Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7…

  11. Coping with parental cancer: web-based peer support in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Giesbers; I.M. Verdonck-de Leeuw; F.J. van Zuuren; N. Kleverlaan; M.H.M van der Linden

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the use and content of web-based peer support in children coping with parental cancer. Methods: In children aged above 12 years, 158 forum discussions on the Dutch website www.kankerspoken.nl in a time-period of 3 months were investigated. Age, gender, number of discussions

  12. Loneliness as a Function of Parent-Child and Peer Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza

    1982-01-01

    To assess the effects of unsatisfactory parental and peer relationships on loneliness in adulthood, the UCLA loneliness scale and a personal data sheet were administered independently to two groups of subjects: 232 Iranian college students studying in American universities and 305 Iranian students studying in Iranian universities. (Author/RH)

  13. Parents and Peers: Serendipity in a Study of Shifting Reference Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Russell L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Presents and tests a theory which specifies the conditions under which adolescents shift their valuations between three sets of reference sources--fathers, mothers, and peers; the thesis incorporates components from four interpretations of parent--adolescent cleavage, summarily entitle Push, Pull, Selective Attachment, and Drift. (Author/JM)

  14. Loneliness as a Function of Parent-Child and Peer Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza

    1982-01-01

    To assess the effects of unsatisfactory parental and peer relationships on loneliness in adulthood, the UCLA loneliness scale and a personal data sheet were administered independently to two groups of subjects: 232 Iranian college students studying in American universities and 305 Iranian students studying in Iranian universities. (Author/RH)

  15. Identifying determinants of young children's brand awareness: Television, parents, and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of young children's brand awareness, and the relative influence of environmental factors (e.g., television, parents, peers) on brand awareness. We presented 196 two- to eight-year-olds with 12 brand logos. After exposure to these logos, we

  16. Identifying Determinants of Young Children's Brand Awareness: Television, Parents, and Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Buijzen, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of young children's brand awareness, and the relative influence of environmental factors (e.g., television, parents, peers) on brand awareness. We presented 196 two- to eight-year-olds with 12 brand logos. After exposure to these logos, we asked children to mention the brand name (brand…

  17. How Do Supports from Parents, Teachers, and Peers Influence Academic Achievement of Twice-Exceptional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Clare Wen; Neihart, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived external factors such as supports from parents and teachers, and influences from peers contributed to the academic successes and failures of Singaporean twice-exceptional (2e) students. A total of six 2e participants from one secondary school in Singapore voluntarily participated in the study. This study used…

  18. Leaving home of migrant and Dutch young adults: parent-child and peer relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinepier, T.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of parents and peer relations on home-leaving behavior among young adults of migrant and Dutch descent. Data come from the TIES survey including the Turkish (n = 493) and Moroccan (n = 486) second generation and a native Dutch comparison group (n = 506). Competing risks

  19. Attachment to Parents and Peers as a Parameter of Bullying and Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Militsa Nikiforou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was threefold. First, we tried to investigate whether the quality of attachment with parents and peers predicts bullying and victimization. Second, we also attempted a moderation analysis in order to examine whether the relationship between quality of attachments and bullying is moderated by the child’s gender. Finally, we explored whether there are significant differences in the quality of attachment between children identified as bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved. The participants were 303 fifth and sixth grade children with a mean age of 11.06 years that completed the Revised Bullying and Victimization Questionnaire and the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. The results showed that poor quality of attachment with parents and peers predicts bullying and victimization. Moderation analysis revealed that the link between quality of attachment and bullying and victimization is significantly stronger for girls. Also, as hypothesized, bullies and bully/victims manifest the worst quality of attachment with parents and peers. The results are discussed with the framework of attachment and aggression theory, exploring the pathways that explain the association between poor attachment and externalizing problems during late childhood.

  20. How Do Supports from Parents, Teachers, and Peers Influence Academic Achievement of Twice-Exceptional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Clare Wen; Neihart, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how perceived external factors such as supports from parents and teachers, and influences from peers contributed to the academic successes and failures of Singaporean twice-exceptional (2e) students. A total of six 2e participants from one secondary school in Singapore voluntarily participated in the study. This study used…

  1. Relations between Neighborhood Factors, Parenting Behaviors, Peer Deviance, and Delinquency among Serious Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Steinberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relations among neighborhood structural and social characteristics, parenting practices, peer group affiliations, and delinquency among a group of serious adolescent offenders. The sample of 14-18-year-old boys (N = 488) was composed primarily of economically disadvantaged, ethnic-minority youth living in urban…

  2. Identifying determinants of young children's brand awareness: Television, parents, and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of young children's brand awareness, and the relative influence of environmental factors (e.g., television, parents, peers) on brand awareness. We presented 196 two- to eight-year-olds with 12 brand logos. After exposure to these logos, we ask

  3. Influence of Parents, Peers, and Partners on the Contraceptive Use of College Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Linda; Spanier, Graham B.

    1978-01-01

    This study investigates the relative influences of parents, peers, and partners on the contraceptive use of college men and women. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by a nonprobability, purposive sample of 434 never-married, sexually active males and females between the ages of 17 and 22 years. (Author)

  4. Adolescents' Media-Related Cognitions and Substance Use in the Context of Parental and Peer Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Tracy M.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Parker, Alison E.; Elmore, Kristen C.; Benson, Jessica W.

    2010-01-01

    Two cross-sectional studies investigated media influences on adolescents' substance use and intentions to use substances in the context of exposure to parental and peer risk and protective factors. A total of 729 middle school students (n = 351, 59% female in Study 1; n = 378, 43% female in Study 2) completed self-report questionnaires. The sample…

  5. Parental and Peer Factors Associated with Body Image Discrepancy among Fifth-Grade Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Kathryn; Elliott, Marc N.; Dittus, Patricia J.; Kanouse, David E.; Wallander, Jan L.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Franzini, Luisa; Taylor, Wendell C.; Qureshi, Tariq; Franklin, Frank A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Many young adolescents are dissatisfied with their body due to a discrepancy between their ideal and actual body size, which can lead to weight cycling, eating disorders, depression, and obesity. The current study examined the associations of parental and peer factors with fifth-graders’ body image discrepancy, physical self-worth as a mediator between parental and peer factors and body image discrepancy, and how these associations vary by child’s sex. Body image discrepancy was defined as the difference between young adolescents’ self-perceived body size and the size they believe a person their age should be. Data for this study came from Healthy Passages, which surveyed 5,147 fifth graders (51 % females; 34 % African American, 35 % Latino, 24 % White, and 6 % other) and their primary caregivers from the United States. Path analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. The findings for boys suggest father nurturance and getting along with peers are related negatively to body image discrepancy; however, for girls, fear of negative evaluation by peers is related positively to body image discrepancy. For both boys and girls, getting along with peers and fear of negative evaluation by peers are related directly to physical self-worth. In addition, mother nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for girls, and father nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for boys. In turn, physical self-worth, for both boys and girls, is related negatively to body image discrepancy. The findings highlight the potential of parental and peer factors to reduce fifth graders’ body image discrepancy. PMID:23334988

  6. Latina adolescent suicide ideations and attempts: associations with connectedness to parents, peers, and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Susan M; Wyman, Peter; Warren, Keith

    2012-12-01

    Associations between suicidal behavior and social-ecological variables were examined among 1,618 Latina high school students (mean age = 15) from the nationally representative Add Health sample (68% were U.S.-born). Ideations were associated with having a suicidal friend, lower perceived father support, and overall parental caring. Attempts were associated with having a suicidal friend, and lower perceived teacher and parental support. Peer and mother relationship variables were not predictors of ideations or attempts. The protective role of father and teacher support has not previously been emphasized in the literature. Strengthening connections to parents and teachers may reduce suicidal behavior in adolescent Latinas.

  7. The role of religiosity in the relationship between parents, peers, and adolescent risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landor, Antoinette; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Brody, Gene H; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2011-03-01

    Research has documented a negative relationship between religion and risky sexual behavior. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby religion exerts this effect. The present study develops and tests a model of various mechanisms whereby parental religiosity reduces the likelihood of adolescents' participation in risky sexual behavior (early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use). Structural equation modeling, using longitudinal data from a sample of 612 African American adolescents (55% female), provided support for the model. The results indicated that parental religiosity influenced adolescent risky sexual behavior through its impact on authoritative parenting, adolescent religiosity, and adolescent affiliation with less sexually permissive peers. Some mediating mechanisms differed by the gender of the respondent, suggesting a "double-standard" for daughters but not for sons. Findings also indicated the importance of messages about sexual behavior that are transmitted to adolescents by their peers. Theoretical and policy implications of the findings are discussed.

  8. The Role of Religiosity in the Relationship Between Parents, Peers, and Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2012-01-01

    Research has documented a negative relationship between religion and risky sexual behavior. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby religion exerts this effect. The present study develops and tests a model of various mechanisms whereby parental religiosity reduces the likelihood of adolescents’ participation in risky sexual behavior (early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use). Structural equation modeling, using longitudinal data from a sample of 612 African American adolescents (55% female), provided support for the model. The results indicated that parental religiosity influenced adolescent risky sexual behavior through its impact on authoritative parenting, adolescent religiosity, and adolescent affiliation with less sexually permissive peers. Some mediating mechanisms differed by the gender of the respondent, suggesting a “double-standard” for daughters but not for sons. Findings also indicated the importance of messages about sexual behavior that are transmitted to adolescents by their peers. Theoretical and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21052800

  9. Child, family, and neighborhood associations with parent and peer interactive play during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Mary Kay

    2012-04-01

    To examine national patterns of peer and parent interactive play opportunities that enhance early learning/socialization. Bivariate and multivariable analyses of cross-sectional data on 22,797 children aged 1-5 years from the National Survey of Children's Health 2007 were performed to determine the child, family, and neighborhood factors associated with four parent-initiated activities. Outcomes measures included time (days/week) children spent: participating in peer play; being read to; sung to/told stories; and taken on family outings. Covariates included race/ethnicity, poverty, TV watching, childcare, child and maternal physical and mental health, family factors (structure, size, language, stress, education), and neighborhood factors (amenities, support, physical condition, safety). According to adjusted regression models, minority children from lower income, non-English-speaking households with limited education, poorer maternal health and greater parenting stress were read to/told stories less than children without these characteristics, while neighborhood factors exerted less influence. In contrast, significant reductions in days/week of peer play were associated with unsupportive neighborhoods and those with the poorest physical conditions and limited amenities. Likewise, reductions in outings were associated with fewer neighborhood amenities. The findings of this study indicate that a variety of child, family, and neighborhood factors are associated with parent-initiated behaviors such as reading, storytelling, peer interactive play, and family outings. Appropriate evidence-based home visiting interventions targeting child health, parenting skills, early childhood education, and social services in at-risk communities would appear to be appropriate vehicles for addressing such parent-initiated play activities that have the potential to enhance development.

  10. The Development and Evaluation of a Parent Empowerment Program for Family Peer Advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, James; Olin, S S; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Shen, Sa; Burton, Geraldine; Radigan, Marleen; Jensen, Peter S

    2011-08-01

    Family-to-family services are emerging as an important adjunctive service to traditional mental health care and a vehicle for improving parent engagement and service use in children's mental health services. In New York State, a growing workforce of Family Peer Advocates (FPA) is delivering family-to-family services. We describe the development and evaluation of a professional program to enhance Family Peer Advocate professional skills, called the Parent Engagement and Empowerment Program (PEP). We detail the history and content of PEP and provide data from a pre/post and 6-month follow up evaluation of 58 FPA who participated in the first Statewide regional training effort. Self-efficacy, empowerment, and skills development were assessed at 3 time points: baseline, post-training, and 6-month follow-up. The largest changes were in self-efficacy and empowerment. Regional differences suggest differences in Family Peer Advocate workforce across areas of the state. This evaluation also provides the first systematic documentation of Family Peer Advocate activities over a six-month period. Consistent with peer specialists within the adult health care field, FPA in the children's mental health field primarily focused on providing emotional support and service access issues. Implications for expanding family-to-family services and integrating it more broadly into provider organizations are described.

  11. The role of personality, parents and peers in adolescents career exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracke, Baerbel

    2002-02-01

    The role of individual characteristics, parental behaviours and peers for occupational exploration was examined in a sample of 192 German ninth graders (80 girls, 112 boys) from middle-track schools. The adolescents completed questionnaires at two points of measurement which were 6 months apart. The results showed that individual characteristics which reflected an active and constructive approach to developmental demands were correlated with more intense occupational exploration. Child-centred parental behaviours were also correlated positively with information-seeking behaviours. Moreover, parental behaviours predicted change in exploration over the observed time period. Concerning the role of peers which was often neglected in career development theory, the results showed that frequent talks with peers about career-related issues were significantly associated with the intensity of information-seeking behaviours and, at the same time, predicted an intensification of occupational exploration during the following 6-month period. The findings suggest that it would be fruitful to consider more thoroughly the role of peers in future research on adolescents' career development.

  12. Adolescent Alcohol Use: Protective and Predictive Parent, Peer, and Self-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handren, Lindsay M; Donaldson, Candice D; Crano, William D

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent alcohol use has been linked with a multitude of problems and a trajectory predictive of problematic use in adulthood. Thus, targeting factors that enhance early prevention efforts is vital. The current study highlights variables that mitigate or predict alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. Using Monitoring the Future (MTF) data, multiple path analytic models revealed links between parental involvement and alcohol abstinence and initiation. Parental involvement predicted enhanced self-esteem and less self-derogation and was negatively associated with peer alcohol norms for each MTF grade sampled, with stronger associations for 8th and 10th graders than 12th graders. For younger groups, self-esteem predicted increased perceptions of alcohol risk and reduced drinking. Self-derogation was associated with peers' pro-alcohol norms, which was linked to lower risk perceptions, lower personal disapproval of use, and increased drinking. Peer influence had a stronger association with consumption for 8th and 10th graders, whereas 12th graders' drinking was related to personal factors of alcohol risk perception and disapproval. In all grades, general alcohol use had a strong connection to heavy episodic drinking within the past 2 weeks. Across-grade variations in association of parent, peer, and personal factors suggest the desirability of tailored interventions focused on specific factors for each grade level, with the overall goal of attenuating adolescent alcohol use.

  13. Mediating effects of teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and emotional/behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jiyoon; Oh, Insoo

    2016-11-01

    The current study examined the mediating effects of the teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and a child's emotional/behavioral problems. A total of 2070 student surveys from the panel of the Korean Child Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) were analyzed by path analysis. The key findings of this study are outlined below. Firstly, parental physical and emotional abuse and neglect had significant effects on children's problems. The direct effect of parental abuse on emotional/behavioral problems was higher than the direct effect of parental neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Secondly, the teacher relationship partially mediated the effects of the parental abuse/neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Thirdly, the peer relationship also partially mediated the effects of parental abuse/neglect on children's emotional/behavioral problems. The indirect effect of parental neglect via teacher relationships and peer relationships was stronger than the indirect effect of parental abuse. This study is significant in that it identified that parental abuse/neglect was mediated by the teacher and peer relationship, thereby suggesting an implication for effective intervention with children who have suffered abuse and neglect. In terms of the teacher and peer relationship, understanding the influence of parental abuse and neglect on children's problems was discussed, and the limitations and recommendations for future study were suggested.

  14. The Moderating Role of Verbal Aggression on the Relationship between Parental Feedback and Peer Status among Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Allison; Mikami, Amori Lee; Calhoun, Casey D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations between children's sociometric status and (a) observed parental feedback as well as (b) child aggression. Participants were 94 children ages 6-10 (64 male; 44 with ADHD) and their parents. Children's peer status, parental feedback to their children, and child aggression were all assessed during lab-based playgroups of four…

  15. Covert antisocial behavior, peer deviancy training, parenting processes, and sex differences in the development of antisocial behavior during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James J; Schrepferman, Lynn P; Bullard, Lisha; McEachern, Amber D; Patterson, Gerald R

    2012-08-01

    Two longitudinal studies were used to examine the occurrence and consequences of peer deviancy training during childhood and the relative role of early covert antisocial behavior in risk for antisocial behavior in early adolescence. Peer deviancy training was apparent in a sample of at-risk first grade children, and it showed persistence and increased prevalence across the school year. Peer deviancy training, peer rejection, and unskilled parenting made additive contributions to the development of antisocial behavior during kindergarten and first grade and to antisocial behavior in fourth grade. Skilled parenting partially mitigated the association of peer deviancy training with antisocial behavior for boys. The appearance and growth of covert antisocial behavior was a predictor of fourth grade antisocial for boys and girls, more so than aggressive and overt antisocial behavior. Peer deviancy training and early covert antisocial behavior were key pathways to girls' antisocial behavior in fourth grade, and they complemented the roles of peer rejection and overt antisocial behavior for boys. The relationships of parenting and peer processes to trajectories of antisocial behavior were similar for boys and girls; but boys showed higher levels of antisocial behavior, were more involved in peer deviancy training, and were more likely to experience peer rejection.

  16. Personal values as a mediator between parent and peer expectations and adolescent behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Carlo, Gustavo

    2007-09-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of adolescents' personal values on the relation between maternal and peer expectations for prosocial behaviors and adolescents' self-reported prosocial and antisocial behaviors. One hundred thirty-four adolescents (mean age = 16.22 years, 54% girls) completed measures of their own values and behaviors, as well as their perceptions of the positive expectations that their mother and their best friend(s) had for their (the adolescents') prosocial behaviors. Stepwise regression analyses suggested that adolescents' personal prosocial values mediated the relation between adolescents' perceptions of both maternal and peer expectations and adolescents' prosocial behaviors. In addition, for boys, perceptions of positive peer expectations were directly and negatively related to antisocial behaviors. The current study has important implications for parents, educators, and practitioners who are concerned about promoting adolescents' positive behaviors and discouraging negative behaviors.

  17. Parents' and peers' contribution to risky driving of male teen drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman - Ben-Ari, Orit; Kaplan, Sigal; Lotan, Tsippy; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-05-01

    The current study joins efforts devoted to understanding the associations of parents' personality, attitude, and behavior, and to evaluating the added contribution of peers to the driving behavior of young drivers during their solo driving. The study combines data gathered using in-vehicle data recorders from actual driving of parents and their male teen driver with data collected from self-report questionnaires completed by the young drivers. The sample consists of 121 families, who participated in the study for 12 months, beginning with the licensure of the teen driver. The current examination concentrates on the last 3 months of this first year of driving. The experimental design was based on a random control assignment into three treatment groups (with different forms of feedback) and a control group (with no feedback). Findings indicate that the parents' (especially the fathers') sensation seeking, anxiety, and aggression, as well as their risky driving events rate were positively associated with higher risky driving of the young driver. In addition, parents' involvement in the intervention, either by feedback or by training, led to lower risky driving events rate of young drivers compared to the control group. Finally, higher cohesion and adaptability mitigated parents' model for risky driving, and peers norms' of risky driving were associated with higher risk by the teen drivers. We conclude by claiming that there is an unequivocal need to look at a full and complex set of antecedents in parents' personality, attitudes, and behavior, together with the contribution of peers to the young drivers' reckless driving, and address the practical implications for road safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relations Between Neighborhood Factors, Parenting Behaviors, Peer Deviance, and Delinquency Among Serious Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined relations among neighborhood structural and social characteristics, parenting practices, peer group affiliations, and delinquency among a group of serious adolescent offenders. The sample of 14–18-year-old boys (N = 488) was composed primarily of economically disadvantaged, ethnic-minority youth living in urban communities. The results indicate that weak neighborhood social organization is indirectly related to delinquency through its associations with parenting behavior and peer deviance and that a focus on just 1 of these microsystems can lead to oversimplified models of risk for juvenile offending. The authors also find that community social ties may confer both pro- and antisocial influences to youth, and they advocate for a broad conceptualization of neighborhood social processes as these relate to developmental risk for youth living in disadvantaged communities. PMID:16569170

  19. Positive and negative qualities of South African adolescents' parent and peer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Elmien; de Jager, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Parent and peer relationships are important social resources for adolescents. South African research on adolescents' relationships, however, underemphasises these relationships as potential positive resources. Studies also tend to use samples from urban populations, while rural and semi-rural adolescent populations are neglected. This study focused on White and Coloured adolescents living in one South African semi-rural community and their ratings of positive and negative relationship qualities in relationships with parents and peers. Using the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI), we found that mothers, best friends and romantic partners were relatively equal sources of social support. Mothers' high ratings for support, conflict and punishment may point to mothers bearing the primary responsibility for child care. Fathers' low support ratings raise concern as father involvement is important for adolescents' well-being. White participants overall rated their relationship higher for support and lower for negative qualities than the Coloured participants.

  20. Psychosocial support for patients in pediatric oncology: the influences of parents, schools, peers, and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Lalita K; Kato, Pamela M

    2003-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of pediatric cancer can be associated with profound psychosocial changes in the life of young patients. Although nurses, physicians, and other health care professionals are important sources of support, psychosocial support is also available through parents, schools, and peers. This article presents a review of the literature on how parents, schools, and peers affect the coping and adjustment of young patients with cancer and critically reviews interventions directed at improving functioning in these areas. Special attention is paid to recent interventions that exploit technology such as video games, CD-ROMs, and the Internet to provide creative new forms of support for patients in pediatric oncology. Existing research on both technological and interpersonal forms of intervention and support shows promising results, and suggestions for further study are provided.

  1. Harsh parenting and peer acceptance in Chinese early adolescents: Three child aggression subtypes as mediators and child gender as moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingzhong

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the mediating roles of three types of child aggression in the relation between harsh parenting and Chinese early adolescents' peer acceptance as well as the moderating role of child gender on this indirect relation. 833 children (mean age=13.58, 352 girls) with their parents were recruited as participants from two junior high schools in Shandong Province, People's Republic of China. The results showed that paternal harsh parenting was only associated with boys' aggressive behaviors and maternal harsh parenting was only associated with boys' and girls' verbal aggression. Adolescents' verbal and relational aggressions were negatively associated with their peer acceptance. Verbal aggression was more strongly and negatively associated with girls' peer acceptance. The results imply that in the Chinese cultural context, paternal harsh parenting may compromise boys' peer acceptance through boys' verbal and relational aggression as mediators, whereas maternal harsh parenting may impair children's peer acceptance through children's verbal aggression as a mediator, especially for girls. These results provide a theoretical basis for ameliorating the negative effect of harsh parenting on early adolescents' peer acceptance by reducing their aggressive behaviors, with different strategies between boys and girls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rearing Styles, Parents' Attachment Mental State,and Children's Social Abilities: The Link to Peer Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Attili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the discriminant effect of mothers' and fathers' attachment working models, the quality of their relationships in everyday settings, and children's social abilities on children's peer acceptance. Participants were thirty-four 7–9 year olds, their mothers, and fathers. Interactions were observed at home and coded on global measures of positive, negative, controlling, disconfirming, correcting behaviors, and neutral conversation. Parents' IWM were assessed by the AAI. Children's peer acceptance and behavioral orientations as a measure of a child's social competence at school were assessed by sociometric techniques. By using both traditional statistical analyses and a multidimensional scaling approach (MDS, in terms of “similarity structure analysis (SSA” and the “external variables as points technique,” it emerged that children's lack of success among peers associated with social behaviors which were linked to parents' rejecting/neglecting and directive interactive styles, mainly to negative, disconfirming, and a few positive interactions. These parenting styles were significantly affected by adults' insecure IWM.

  3. Pathways to self-esteem in late adolescence: the role of parent and peer attachment, empathy, and social behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah J; Carlo, Gustavo; Roesch, Scott C

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine both the direct and indirect relations of parent and peer attachment with self-esteem and to examine the potential mediating roles of empathy and social behaviour. 246 college students (M age = 18.6 years, S.D. = 1.61) completed self-report measures of parent and peer attachment, empathy, social behaviour, and self-esteem. Structural equation modelling revealed that parental attachment had mostly direct effects on self-esteem. Among females, the links between peer attachment and self-esteem, however, were entirely mediated by empathy and prosocial behaviour. The findings from this study suggest that although close supportive relationships with parents and peers are related to adolescent self-esteem, these links are complex.

  4. Bids for Joint Attention by Parent-Child Dyads and by Dyads of Young Peers in Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninio, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Before they are 3;0-3;6, children typically do not engage with peers in focused interaction, although they do with adults. With parents, children interact around the "here-and-now". We hypothesize that young peers do not attempt to establish joint attention to present objects. Using the CHILDES database, we compared attention-directives…

  5. The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Parent and Peer Influences upon Drug Use among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Abell, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study recruited 567 African American youth (mean age = 15.27 years; 65.1% girls) to examine the role of parent and peer contexts on drug use among African American adolescents. Data were collected on demographics, drug refusal efficacy, drug use, and various psychosocial factors including family and peer factors. When controlling for age and…

  6. Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna C. M. Centifanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11–18 years completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour.

  7. Correlates of Chilean Adolescents’ Negative Attitudes Toward Cigarettes: The Role of Gender, Peer, Parental, and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the association of peer, parental, and environmental factors with negative attitudes toward cigarettes among youth from Santiago, Chile. Methods: A total of 860 youth from Santiago, Chile, completed questions regarding their lifetime use of cigarettes, intentions to smoke, attitudes toward cigarettes, and questions that assessed peer, parental, and environmental factors. Results: For both boys and girls, peer disapproval of smoking was associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes and peer smoking was associated with less negative attitudes toward cigarettes. Peer pressure was significantly associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes for girls only. Parental smoking was associated with less negative attitudes and parental control with more negative attitudes, but these associations were significant in the overall sample only. School prevention efforts and exposure to cigarette ads were not associated with cigarette attitudes. Difficulty in accessing cigarettes was positively associated with negative attitudes for boys and girls. Conclusion: Smoking prevention efforts focus on attitude change, but scant information is available about the experiences that influence Chilean youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Results from the current study suggest that prevention efforts could benefit from gender-specific strategies. Girls’ but not boys’ attitudes were influenced by peer pressure. Moreover, negative attitudes toward cigarettes were associated with lower current smoking in girls only. Parental smoking was an important influence on youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Efforts to reduce smoking among Chilean youth may benefit from concurrently reducing parental smoking. PMID:22157230

  8. Correlates of chilean adolescents' negative attitudes toward cigarettes: the role of gender, peer, parental, and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Bares, Cristina; Delva, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We examined the association of peer, parental, and environmental factors with negative attitudes toward cigarettes among youth from Santiago, Chile. A total of 860 youth from Santiago, Chile, completed questions regarding their lifetime use of cigarettes, intentions to smoke, attitudes toward cigarettes, and questions that assessed peer, parental, and environmental factors. For both boys and girls, peer disapproval of smoking was associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes and peer smoking was associated with less negative attitudes toward cigarettes. Peer pressure was significantly associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes for girls only. Parental smoking was associated with less negative attitudes and parental control with more negative attitudes, but these associations were significant in the overall sample only. School prevention efforts and exposure to cigarette ads were not associated with cigarette attitudes. Difficulty in accessing cigarettes was positively associated with negative attitudes for boys and girls. Smoking prevention efforts focus on attitude change, but scant information is available about the experiences that influence Chilean youth's attitudes toward cigarettes. Results from the current study suggest that prevention efforts could benefit from gender-specific strategies. Girls' but not boys' attitudes were influenced by peer pressure. Moreover, negative attitudes toward cigarettes were associated with lower current smoking in girls only. Parental smoking was an important influence on youth's attitudes toward cigarettes. Efforts to reduce smoking among Chilean youth may benefit from concurrently reducing parental smoking.

  9. The Developmental Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence and Harmful Drinking in Emerging Adulthood: The Role of Peers and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Francesca; Shelton, Katherine H; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus; Hickman, Matthew; van den Bree, Marianne B M

    2015-09-01

    Depressive symptoms have been linked to the development of harmful drinking in adolescence but it remains unclear to what extent this effect continues into emerging adulthood. Deviant peers represent a risk factor while parental monitoring is a protective factor for harmful drinking. The study explored the relationship between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking between early adolescence and emerging adulthood. We also assessed to what extent this relationship is mediated by the influence of deviant peers and whether parental monitoring weakens this process. The sample consisted of 2964 adolescents (64 % females) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children study assessed between the ages of 14 and 19. Using structural equation modelling, we found that affiliation with deviant peers mediated the association between depressive symptoms and harmful drinking after adjustment for socio-demographic variables, parental drinking and depression, teenager's sex, conduct problems as well as drinking and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. We also found that parental control and solicitation reduced the influence of deviant peers on harmful drinking. The results indicate that prevention programs should offer adolescents training for peer resistance training and monitoring skills training for parents may have a long-term effect at weakening peer influences on harmful drinking.

  10. Alcohol consumption among Chilean adolescents: Examining individual, peer, parenting and environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study examined whether adolescents from Santiago, Chile who had never drunk alcohol differed from those who had drunk alcohol but who had never experienced an alcohol-related problem, as well as from those who had drunk and who had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem on a number of variables from four domains - individual, peers, parenting, and environmental. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community based sample. Participants 909 adolescents from Santiago, Chile. Measurements Data were analyzed with multinomial logistic regression to compare adolescents who had never drunk alcohol (non-drinkers) with i) those that had drunk but who had experienced no alcohol-related problems (non-problematic drinkers) and ii) those who had drunk alcohol and had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem (problematic drinkers). The analyses included individual, peer, parenting, and environmental factors while controlling for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Findings Compared to non-drinkers, both non-problematic and problematic drinkers were older, reported having more friends who drank alcohol, greater exposure to alcohol ads, lower levels of parental monitoring, and more risk-taking behaviors. In addition, problematic drinkers placed less importance on religious faith to make daily life decisions and had higher perceptions of neighborhood crime than non-drinkers. Conclusions Prevention programs aimed at decreasing problematic drinking could benefit from drawing upon adolescents’ spiritual sources of strength, reinforcing parental tools to monitor their adolescents, and improving environmental and neighborhood conditions. PMID:24465290

  11. Bullied by Siblings and Peers: The Role of Rejecting/Neglecting Parenting and Friendship Quality Among Korean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jingu; Kim, Eunha

    2016-07-19

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect links of rejecting/neglecting parenting, sibling victimization, and friendship quality with peer victimization using a convenience sample of 584 Korean children in Grades 3 to 6. In addition, we tested whether these associations differed between male and female students. Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data. The results revealed rejecting/neglecting parenting indirectly influenced peer victimization through sibling victimization for both males and females, although such effects were stronger for females than males. Sibling victimization had a direct effect on peer victimization across both sexes, although it indirectly influenced peer victimization through poor friendship quality only for males. Therefore, bullying prevention and intervention programs must involve parents to make them aware of the important role they play in this process and to improve their parenting styles and involvement in sibling conflicts. Furthermore, while the role of friendship quality needs to be highlighted to prevent peer victimization among males, future research continues to explore other peer variables that are related to decreased peer victimization for females. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Longitudinal associations of parental and peer influences with physical activity during adolescence: findings from the COMPASS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Lau

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To examine temporal variations in parental and peer influences on adolescent physical activity (PA and whether these variations predicted changes in PA. Methods: We analyzed data from Years 1, 2 and 3 of the COMPASS study. Participants were 22 909 students in Grades 9 to 12 (mean age [years] = 15.42 ± 1.12, 46% boys, 85% White, who had completed the following survey items on 2 or more consecutive occasions: age, sex, grade, race/ethnicity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, parental encouragement and parental instrumental support for PA, and number of active peers. We used a linear-mixed model to investigate longitudinal effects of parental and peer influences on changes in square-root transformed average MVPA. We used a generalized-estimating-equations (GEE model to investigate compliance with Canadian PA guidelines for youth. These models included parental encouragement, instrumental support and number of active peers as time-varying predictors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and grade as covariates, and accounting for the clustering within children and schools. Results: We found that adolescents perceived significantly less parental encouragement and instrumental support and reported fewer active peers as they got older. In addition, the adjusted models suggest that, for a one-unit increase in the score of parental encouragement, parental instrumental support and number of active peers, average MVPA significantly increased by 0.22 units, 0.23 units and 0.16 units, respectively. For the same one-unit increase, adjusted odds of an adolescent complying with the PA guidelines increased by 9%, 4% and 6%, respectively. Conclusion: Promoting parental support and facilitating the formation and maintenance of a physically active friendship network may play an important role in attenuating declines in PA during adolescence.

  13. The Influence of Sensation-Seeking and Parental and Peer Influences in Early Adolescence on Risk Involvement through Middle Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in Grade 6, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over 3 years. Youth sensation-seeking in Grade 6 contributed to risk…

  14. The Influence of Sensation-Seeking and Parental and Peer Influences in Early Adolescence on Risk Involvement through Middle Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in Grade 6, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over 3 years. Youth sensation-seeking in Grade 6 contributed to risk…

  15. Family Correlates of Children's Social and Physical Aggression with Peers: Negative Interparental Conflict Strategies and Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.; Gentsch, Joanna K.; Galperin, Mikal B.; Risser, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examines whether negative interparental conflict strategies (stonewalling, triangulation, verbal aggression, and physical aggression) and parenting styles are related to social and physical aggression with peers for children followed longitudinally from age 9 to 10 (N = 256). Parents reported on negative conflict strategies and…

  16. The Developmental Significance of Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Parent and Peer Predictors of Engagement and Quality at Age 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Spieker, Susan

    2009-01-01

    From a longitudinal sample (n = 957; 49.9% male; 77.3% White/non-Hispanic) of participants studied from infancy through age 15, adolescents' depth of engagement in, and quality of romantic relationships were predicted from early and contemporaneous parent-child interactive quality and peer social competence. High quality maternal parenting and…

  17. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  18. Parent and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration in early adolescence: tests of moderation and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R

    2009-07-01

    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development and prevention of violence among middle school students. Those students who reported having a boyfriend/girlfriend reported significantly more drug use and delinquent activity and were more likely to be male. Twenty-nine percent of youth with a boyfriend/girlfriend reported perpetrating physical aggression against their boyfriend/girlfriend. Parenting and peer variables were significant predictors of physical dating violence. However, gender moderated the association between parenting practices and physical dating violence, with parental monitoring inversely linked to dating violence for boys and parent support for nonaggression inversely linked to dating violence for girls. Parent support for aggression also moderated the association between peer deviancy and reported perpetration. Finally, gender moderated the interaction between peer deviancy and parent support for nonaggressive solutions.

  19. Peer acceptance protects global self-esteem from negative effects of low closeness to parents during adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Breivik, Kyrre; Wold, Bente

    2014-01-01

    Having a distant relationship with parents seems to increase the risk of developing a more negative global self-esteem. This article describes a longitudinal study of 1,090 Norwegian adolescents from the age of 13-23 (54 % males) that explored whether peer acceptance can act as a moderator and protect global self-esteem against the negative effects of experiencing low closeness in relationships with parents. A quadratic latent growth curve for global self-esteem with closeness to parents and peer acceptance as time-varying covariates was modeled, taking partial measurement invariance in global self-esteem into account. Peer acceptance was found to have a general protective effect on global self-esteem for all adolescents. In addition, at most ages, peer acceptance was found to have a protective-stabilizing effect on the relationship between closeness to parents and global self-esteem. This indicates that peer acceptance can be an especially valuable source of global self-esteem when closeness to parents is low.

  20. Individual differences in the development of early peer aggression: Integrating contributions of self-regulation, theory of mind, and parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Sheryl L.; LOPEZ-DURAN, NESTOR; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; CHANG, HYEIN; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study focused on self-regulatory, social–cognitive, and parenting precursors of individual differences in children’s peer-directed aggression at early school age. Participants were 1993-year-old boys and girls who were reassessed following the transition to kindergarten (5.5–6 years). Peer aggression was assessed in preschool and school settings using naturalistic observations and teacher reports. Children’s self-regulation abilities and theory of mind understand...

  1. Non-sunscreen photoprotection: antioxidants add value to a sunscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mary S; Hsia, Andrew; Miller, Janine D; Hanneman, Kaija; Scull, Heather; Cooper, Kevin D; Baron, Elma

    2009-08-01

    The association between ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and both skin cancer and photo-aging is well documented. In addition to the conventional organic-chemical and physical-mineral type sunscreens, other non-sunscreen protective strategies have been developed. These include topically applied botanical extracts and other antioxidants as well as topical DNA repair enzymes. Standard terms of photoprotection such as sun protection factor (SPF) do not accurately reflect the photoprotection benefits of these materials. For example, in spite of minimal SPF, tea extract containing polyphenols such as (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to protect against UV-induced DNA damage and immune suppression, in part through its ability to reduce oxidative stress and inhibit NF-kB. The addition of botanical antioxidants and vitamins C and E to a broad-spectrum sunscreen may further decrease UV-induced damage compared with sunscreen alone. These agents have been shown to enhance protection against UV-induced epidermal thickening, overexpression of MMP-1and MMP-9, and depletion of CD1a(+) Langerhans cells. Non-sunscreen materials such as botanical extracts, antioxidants, and DNA repair enzymes can contribute value when applied topically to human skin in vivo.Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings (2009) 14, 56-59; doi:10.1038/jidsymp.2009.14.

  2. The impact of peer victimization, parent distress and child depression on barrier formation and physical activity in overweight youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Wendy N; Janicke, David M; Ingerski, Lisa M; Silverstein, Janet H

    2008-02-01

    With the prevalence of childhood overweight reaching epidemic proportions, there is an increased need to identify factors which may aid in the development of successful weight intervention programs. Given that lower levels of physical activity are inversely correlated with weight status in children, research has focused on identifying and addressing reported barriers to physically activity. A relationship exists between the number of reported barriers and weight status such that children who are overweight report more barriers to being physically active. However, important demographic and psychosocial correlates of barriers have not been examined. This study investigates the relationship among parent distress, peer victimization, childhood depression, barriers to physical activity, and physical activity among a sample of 95 clinically overweight children and adolescents. Higher levels of parent distress, peer victimization, and childhood depression are predictive of a variety of barriers to physical activity, with peer victimization emerging as the strongest predictor of barriers. Barriers to physical activity mediate the relationships between peer victimization, parent distress, child depression and physical activity. These findings have significant implications for the development/design of weight intervention programs. Interventions targeting increases in physical activity should not only focus on the barriers children report, but should also include a psycho-emotional component to address factors such as parent distress, peer victimization and child mood that may contribute to barrier formation/maintenance. Future interventions may benefit from the identification of additional factors that impact barrier formation and physical activity levels among children.

  3. Interparental Conflict, Parenting Behavior, and Children's Friendship Quality as Correlates of Peer Aggression and Peer Victimization Among Aggressor/Victim Subgroups in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Hee; Hong, Jun Sung; Yoon, Jina; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2014-07-01

    The focus of this study was to examine whether interparental conflict, maternal parenting behaviors, and children's friendship quality varied as a function of peer aggression/victim subgroups among a sample of 227 elementary school children and their mothers in South Korea. Both self-report and peer-report data indicated that the majority of the students were uninvolved in peer aggression situations, and the number of participants in the subgroups (aggressors, victims, and aggressor-victims) varied depending on the source of report. According to the self-report data, victims and aggressor-victims reported a higher level of maternal rejection than uninvolved youth. Aggressors, victims, and aggressor-victims reported higher maternal neglect than uninvolved youth. The highest level of interparental conflict was reported by victims, followed by aggressors. Interestingly, no significant differences were found in positive functioning of friendship quality among the subgroups, although results indicated a significant difference among groups in negative friendship quality.

  4. Does the influence of peers and parents on adolescents' drunkenness differ between Roma and non-Roma adolescents in Slovakia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobakova, Daniela; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Klein, Daniel; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2012-01-01

    Roma adolescents have been shown to use less alcohol than non-Roma adolescents. This could be due to the protective influences of peers and parents. The purpose of this study was to explore differences in the levels of peer and parental influence and their effects on drunkenness between Roma and non-Roma adolescents. Data were obtained in Eastern Slovakia from 330 Roma (mean age=14.50; 48.5% boys) and 722 non-Roma (mean age=14.86; 53.2% boys) primary school pupils. We analysed data on adolescent drunkenness (being drunk at least once in the past four weeks), parental monitoring (parents knowing with whom their children are when they go out) and peer influence (best friend drinking alcohol at least once a week) using logistic regression. Roma adolescents self-reported more parental monitoring and less peer influence when compared with their non-Roma counterparts (pRoma adolescents, whereas the effects of these factors per level do not vary between Roma and non-Roma adolescents.

  5. Conduits from community violence exposure to peer aggression and victimization: contributions of parental monitoring, impulsivity, and deviancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sabina; Espelage, Dorothy

    2014-04-01

    Community violence exposure results in heightened risk for engaging in and being a victim of interpersonal violence. Despite this robust literature, few studies have specifically examined how the relation between community violence exposure, peer aggression, and victimization is modified by individual, peer, and familial influences (considered jointly). In the current study, we used risk and resiliency theory to examine links between community violence exposure and peer aggression and victimization. Impulsivity and parental monitoring were examined as potential moderators of the link between community violence exposure and outcomes, both directly and indirectly via deviant behavior. Survey data on bullying involvement, fighting, deviancy, parental monitoring, and impulsivity were collected on 3 occasions over an 18-month period among a large cohort of adolescents (N = 1,232) in 5th-7th grades. Structural equation modeling suggests that for both male and female adolescents, impulsivity exacerbates the effects of community violence exposure by increasing involvement in deviant behavior. Parental monitoring buffered the effects of community violence exposure on perpetration and victimization (for males and female adolescents) via reduced involvement in deviant behavior. Findings suggest that impulsivity and parental monitoring are implicated in modifying the effects of community violence exposure on both victimization and perpetration through deviancy, although deviancy is not as potent of a predictor for victimization. Thus, prevention efforts would seem to be optimally targeted at multiple ecological levels, including parental involvement and peer networks.

  6. Using self- and parent-reports to test the association between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms in verbally fluent adolescents with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E; Fredstrom, Bridget K; Duncan, Amie W; Holleb, Lauren J; Bishop, Somer L

    2014-04-01

    The current study tested the associations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms in 54 verbally fluent adolescent males with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Adolescent- and parent-reports of multiple types of peer victimization and internalizing symptoms were used. First, the validity and reliability of the adolescent-report measure of peer victimization were successfully tested, with some exceptions. Then, structural equation models showed that adolescent-reports of peer victimization were associated with a latent construct of internalizing symptoms even after controlling for parent-reports of peer victimization. Discussion focuses on the importance of considering adolescent-reports of negative peer experience, such as peer victimization, rather than relying exclusively on parent reports.

  7. Individual differences in the development of early peer aggression: integrating contributions of self-regulation, theory of mind, and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sheryl L; Lopez-Duran, Nestor; Lunkenheimer, Erika S; Chang, Hyein; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2011-02-01

    This prospective longitudinal study focused on self-regulatory, social-cognitive, and parenting precursors of individual differences in children's peer-directed aggression at early school age. Participants were 199 3-year-old boys and girls who were reassessed following the transition to kindergarten (5.5-6 years). Peer aggression was assessed in preschool and school settings using naturalistic observations and teacher reports. Children's self-regulation abilities and theory of mind understanding were assessed during a laboratory visit, and parenting risk (corporal punishment and low warmth/responsiveness) was assessed using interview-based and questionnaire measures. Individual differences in children's peer aggression were moderately stable across the preschool to school transition. Preschool-age children who manifested high levels of aggressive peer interactions also showed lower levels of self-regulation and theory of mind understanding, and experienced higher levels of adverse parenting than others. Our main finding was that early corporal punishment was associated with increased levels of peer aggression across the transition from preschool to school, as was the interaction between low maternal emotional support and children's early delays in theory of mind understanding. These data highlight the need for family-directed preventive efforts during the early preschool years.

  8. Individual differences in the development of early peer aggression: Integrating contributions of self-regulation, theory of mind, and parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    OLSON, SHERYL L.; LOPEZ-DURAN, NESTOR; LUNKENHEIMER, ERIKA S.; CHANG, HYEIN; SAMEROFF, ARNOLD J.

    2014-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study focused on self-regulatory, social–cognitive, and parenting precursors of individual differences in children’s peer-directed aggression at early school age. Participants were 1993-year-old boys and girls who were reassessed following the transition to kindergarten (5.5–6 years). Peer aggression was assessed in preschool and school settings using naturalistic observations and teacher reports. Children’s self-regulation abilities and theory of mind understanding were assessed during a laboratory visit, and parenting risk (corporal punishment and low warmth/responsiveness) was assessed using interview-based and questionnaire measures. Individual differences in children’s peer aggression were moderately stable across the preschool to school transition. Preschool-age children who manifested high levels of aggressive peer interactions also showed lower levels of self-regulation and theory of mind understanding, and experienced higher levels of adverse parenting than others. Our main finding was that early corporal punishment was associated with increased levels of peer aggression across the transition from preschool to school, as was the interaction between low maternal emotional support and children’s early delays in theory of mind understanding. These data highlight the need for family-directed preventive efforts during the early preschool years. PMID:21262052

  9. Application of sunscreen--theory and reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present research on sunscreen use with possible pitfalls and discuss theory vs. reality. A literature review in PubMed was conducted using the terms 'sunscreen application', 'sunscreen use' and 'sun protection factor'. The sun protection factor (SPF) of sunscreens are tested using a thickness...... of 2 mg/cm(2) , but investigations show that sunscreen under natural conditions is applied insufficiently with amounts about 0.39 to 1.0 mg/cm(2) , which decreases the protection factor considerably. It has been shown that early reapplication or use of very high SPF (70-100) may partly compensate...

  10. Rejection and acceptance across contexts : parents and peers as risks and buffers for early adolescent psychopathology. the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Omvlee, Annelies; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, René

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: n = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls) it was investigated whether the effects of parental and peer acceptance and rejection on psychopathology (externalizing and internalizing problems) remain when taking into account both contexts simultaneously. Moreover

  11. Which variables relate to the attitudes of teachers, parents and peers towards students with special educational needs in regular education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Post, Wendy; Minnaert, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    While there is an increased interest in describing attitudes of teachers, parents and peers towards students with special educational needs in regular education, there is a lack of knowledge about various variables relating to the attitudes of these three groups. The aims of this study are: (1) to e

  12. Social Influences on the Development of Children's Adaptive Help Seeking: The Role of Parents, Teachers, and Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Richard S.

    2000-01-01

    Maintains that adaptive help seeking exemplifies how elementary- and middle-school students regulate their own learning and intellectual development. Discusses how parents, teachers, and peers contribute to the development of children's skills and attitudes associated with adaptive help seeking. Traces early help-seeking behaviors in the home and…

  13. Rejection and acceptance across contexts : parents and peers as risks and buffers for early adolescent psychopathology. the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Omvlee, Annelies; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, René

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: n = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls) it was investigated whether the effects of parental and peer acceptance and rejection on psychopathology (externalizing and internalizing problems) remain when taking into account both contexts simultaneously.

  14. Parents as Moderators of the Impact of School Norms and Peer Influences on Aggression in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D.; Henry, David B.; Mays, Sally A.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parenting variables as protective factors to reduce the influence of school and peer risk factors on adolescents' aggression. Five waves of data spanning 3 years were collected from 5,581 students at 37 schools who began the 6th grade in 2001 or 2002. Class-level and perceived school norms supporting aggression, delinquent peer…

  15. Victimization and Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: The Influence of Parental and Peer Behaviors, and Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Yeung, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Consistent with the view that adolescent relationships are established in the context of important characteristics of their social networks, we examined the effects of adolescents' experiences of parenting (psychological control and positive monitoring) and of peer aggression and victimization, on their self reports of dating victimization and…

  16. Parent and Peer Predictors of Physical Dating Violence Perpetration in Early Adolescence: Tests of Moderation and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development…

  17. Mechanisms of adolescent smoking cessation: roles of readiness to quit, nicotine dependence, and smoking of parents and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Leeuwe, van J.; Brug, J.; Zundert, van R.M.P.; Eijn, van den R.J.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple levels of influence should be considered in interventions aimed at the adolescent smoker, including psychological, addiction, peer and parental influences. However, the mechanism by which these variables influence the process of smoking cessation in adolescents is not well elucidated. There

  18. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment: Individual Differences and Their Relationship to Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armsden, Gay G.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    The development and validation of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), a self-report instrument for use with adolescents, is described. Item content of the instrument was suggested by Bowlby's theoretical formulations concerning the nature of feelings toward attachment figures. A hierarchical regression model was employed to…

  19. Self-Esteem of Young Adults Experiencing Interparental Violence and Child Physical Maltreatment: Parental and Peer Relationships as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…

  20. Rejection and acceptance across contexts : parents and peers as risks and buffers for early adolescent psychopathology. the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Omvlee, Annelies; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, René

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: n = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls) it was investigated whether the effects of parental and peer acceptance and rejection on psychopathology (externalizing and internalizing problems) remain when taking into account both contexts simultaneously. Moreover

  1. Beyond the Primary Influences of Parents and Peers on Very Young Adolescent Alcohol Use: Evidence of Independent Community Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dayna T.; Kelly, Adrian B.; Chan, Gary C. K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Patton, George C.; Williams, Joanne W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which young adolescent alcohol use was related to alcohol-related norms and law enforcement of underage alcohol use, after accounting for known strong parent and peer correlates. Our sample consisted of 7,674 students (X-bar age = 12 years) from 30 Australian communities. Two-level (individuals nested within…

  2. Self-Esteem of Young Adults Experiencing Interparental Violence and Child Physical Maltreatment: Parental and Peer Relationships as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…

  3. Which Variables Relate to the Attitudes of Teachers, Parents and Peers towards Students with Special Educational Needs in Regular Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Post, Wendy; Minnaert, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    While there is an increased interest in describing attitudes of teachers, parents and peers towards students with special educational needs in regular education, there is a lack of knowledge about various variables relating to the attitudes of these three groups. The aims of this study are: (1) to examine which variables relate to the attitudes of…

  4. Perceived security, self-representation, and dyadic child-parent and child-peer play interactions : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to increase our understanding and knowledge of the relation between children's two social worlds, that of parents and that of peers. This dissertation contains a number of articles reporting on the relation between perceived security, self-representation, and dyadic child-

  5. Communication with Parents and Peers on Sexual Matters: the Experience of Adolescents in the Northeastern of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-ying ZHANG; Iqbal Shah; Wendy Baldwin

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyze the status of parent-child communication on sexual matters and its relationship to the sexual behaviors of adolescents.Methods The data were obtained from a study which was conducted in Changchun city of China in 2001. Unmarried adolescents aged 15-19 years old(322 males and 360 females) were selected for this analysis.Results Ten percent of adolescents reported having experience of sexual intercourse (16% of male and 5% of female). The percentages of adolescents communicating with peers, mothers and fathers were 35%, 30% and 17%, respectively. Males were more likely to talk about sexual issues with peer, while females were more likely to talk with mothers. Significant difference was also noted between the ratio of communication on sexual matters and having a girl/boy friend with peers and with parents. There was a statistically significant relationship between sexual experience and communication with fathers among male adolescents. Despite the fact that parents are the most closest care providers, adolescents obtained most of the sex information from "reading materials"and from "teachers ", but not from their parents. There was an age difference in the main source of obtaining sexual information. Younger adolescents obtained sexual information mainly from teachers while older adolescents mainly from reading materials.Conclusion In addition to schools and reading materials, parents should serve as an important source of information on sexual education as well.

  6. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies Regarding Adolescents' Peer-Related Loneliness: Associations with Adolescent Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spithoven, Annette W M; Vanhalst, Janne; Lodder, Gerine; Bijttebier, Patricia; Goossens, Luc

    2017-03-27

    Because loneliness is a subjective experience, it is often examined using self-reports. Yet, researchers have started to use other-reports to examine loneliness. As previous research suggests that discrepancies between self- and other views might have important implications for adolescents' mental health, the current study examines discrepancies in multi-informant reports on adolescents' loneliness in relation with prosocial behavior, aggression, and adolescents' parent-related loneliness. The sample consisted of 374 mother-adolescent dyads and 318 father-adolescent dyads (41.80% male, M age  = 15.67 years, SD = 1.25). Results indicated that informants used different reference points to assess adolescents' peer-related loneliness, but were otherwise comparable. Moreover, informant discrepancies were associated with greater adolescents' reported parent-related loneliness. The current study did not provide evidence that discrepancies were related to prosocial or aggressive behavior. The current study adds to the notion that other-reports on loneliness show substantial convergence with self-reports. In addition, this study indicates that the discrepancy between other- and self-reports on loneliness holds valuable information for adolescent socio-emotional adjustment.

  7. Safety of nanoparticles in sunscreens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Sunscreens may contain ZnO or TiO2 nanoparticles to absorb UV radiation. Available data do not allow for precisely establishing risk associated with these nanoparticles. However, there is substantial evidence that the hazard of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles probably comes from their ability to generate

  8. Reactive/proactive aggression and the development of internalizing problems in males: the moderating effect of parent and peer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J; Rubens, Sonia L; Preddy, Teresa M; Raine, Adrian; Pardini, Dustin A

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether reactive and/or proactive aggression in adolescent males prospectively predicted increased levels of internalizing symptoms (depression and anxiety) in late adolescence. It was postulated that reactive aggression would be robustly related to later internalizing problems, but only among adolescent males who had problematic family or peer social relationships. Participants were a racially diverse group of 289 adolescent males (Mean age = 16). Measures of reactive and proactive aggression, peer rejection, and poor parent-adolescent communication were examined as predictors of both depression and anxiety symptoms assessed approximately 3 years later. The interactive effects between the two facets of aggression and measures of peer rejection and poor parent-adolescent communication in predicting internalizing problems was also examined. Adolescents with high levels of reactive aggression were more likely to exhibit elevated internalizing problems during late adolescence, even when controlling for pre-existing levels of anxiety/depression. However, this association only emerged for adolescents who had high levels of peer rejection and/or poor communication with their parent. Consistent with expectations, proactive aggression was unrelated to internalizing symptoms regardless of social relationship quality. Adolescent reactive, but not proactive, aggression is a risk factor for the development of internalizing problems. However, the findings suggest that interventions designed to foster positive social relationships among reactively aggressive youth may help protect them from developing significant internalizing problems over time.

  9. The economic burden of sunscreen usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Ritika; Leo, Michael S; Ma, Brian; Sivamani, Raja K

    2014-06-15

    Excessive sun exposure is known to be the leading cause of skin cancer. The direct cellular damage inflicted by the ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun results in premature aging, DNA damage, and mutations that ultimately lead to skin cancer. Sunscreens are highly recommended to protect against UV radiation. However, little research has been conducted on the economic burden of sunscreen use. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the annual cost of sunscreen under both ideal and actual use conditions while stratifying for the sun protection factor (SPF) and by the name brand or equivalent store brand sunscreen. Pricing data was collected for sunscreens of SPF 30, 50, 70, and 100. For each type of sunscreen, the size and price of the container were recorded. Our results demonstrated that sunscreen prices increased with SPF but purchasing a generic sunscreen resulted in savings of 40%-50%. Our estimates reveal that sunscreens are affordable with annual expenditures ranging from $30.21 to $61.94, depending on brand, for SPF 50 sunscreens used with minimal application density for the average person.

  10. Adoptive Parent Hostility and Children’s Peer Behavior Problems: Examining the Role of Genetically-Informed Child Attributes on Adoptive Parent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Kit K.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children’s social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children’s socially disruptive behavior using genetically-sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and child-on-parent (evocative genotype-environment correlation) effects when examining family process and child outcome associations. Using an adoption-at-birth design, the present study controlled for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examined evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE) while examining the associations between family processes and children’s peer behavior. Specifically, the present study examined the evocative effect of genetic influences underlying toddler low social motivation on mother-child and father-child hostility, and the subsequent influence of parent hostility on disruptive peer behavior during the preschool period. Participants were 316 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children. Path analysis showed that birth mother low behavioral motivation predicted toddler low social motivation, which predicted both adoptive mother-child and father-child hostility, suggesting the presence of an evocative genotype-environment association. In addition, both mother-child and father-child hostility predicted children’s later disruptive peer behavior. Results highlight the importance of considering genetically-influenced child attributes on parental hostility that in turn link to later child social behavior. Implications for intervention programs focusing on early family processes and the precursors of disrupted child social development are discussed. PMID:24364829

  11. The effect of parent and peer attachment on suicidality: the mediation effect of self-control and anomie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Arash; Teymoori, Ali; Nasiri, Hedayat

    2015-04-01

    We explore the influence of psycho-social factors including the attachment to parent and peer, self-control, and anomie on suicidality. Research questionnaires were distributed among 336 students of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in Iran. The results demonstrated that mother and peer attachments had an indirect effect on suicidality via self-control and anomie, and self-control had a direct effect on suicidality and an indirect effect via anomie. Self-control and anomie had the most efficient role in the model with a large effect size. Findings are discussed theoretically and with regards to the socio-cultural sphere of Iranian society.

  12. Long-term improvements in oral communication skills and quality of peer relations in children with cochlear implants: parental testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-Chava, Y; Martin, D; Imperatore, L

    2014-11-01

    Few research studies have examined longitudinal improvements in oral communication skills and quality of peer relationships of children with implants. Moreover, although the emerging literature suggests that improvement in social functioning follows improvement in oral communication, it is still unknown what factors enhance or impede the relations between these constructs. Based on parent interviews, the current study examined the long-term improvements in speech and oral language skills and relationships with hearing peers in 19 implanted children. Results demonstrate that on average, children continue to improve in oral communication skills and quality of peer relationships even years after implantation, especially those with initial poorer skills. While oral communication ability and quality of peer relationships are strongly associated at each time point, gains in these two variables are associated only for some of the children. Other factors, including self-confidence and peer acceptance, seem to moderate this relationship. Qualitative data are presented to illustrate these relations among variables and to assist in theory building. The results highlight the need for more specific examination of various developmental periods in combination with the progress of oral communication and peer relationships among children with implants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Parent, sibling and peer influences on smoking initiation, regular smoking and nicotine dependence. Results from a genetically informative design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Xian, Hong; Pan, Hui; Pergadia, Michele L; Madden, Pamela A F; Grant, Julia D; Sartor, Carolyn E; Haber, Jon Randolph; Jacob, Theodore; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2012-03-01

    We sought to determine whether parenting, sibling and peer influences are associated with offspring ever smoking, regular smoking and nicotine dependence (ND) after controlling for familial factors. We used a twin-family design and data from structured diagnostic surveys of 1919 biological offspring (ages 12-32 years), 1107 twin fathers, and 1023 mothers. Offspring were classified into one of four familial risk groups based on twin fathers' and their co-twins' history of DSM-III-R nicotine dependence. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to model familial risk, paternal and maternal parenting behavior and substance use, sibling substance use, and friend and school peer smoking, alcohol and drug use. Ever smoking was associated with increasing offspring age, white race, high maternal pressure to succeed in school, sibling drug use, and friend smoking, alcohol and drug use. Offspring regular smoking was associated with these same factors with additional contribution from maternal ND. Offspring ND was associated with increasing offspring age, male gender, biological parents divorce, high genetic risk from father and mother ND, maternal problem drinking, maternal rule inconsistency and sibling drug use, and friend smoking, alcohol and drug use. Friend smoking had the largest magnitude of association with offspring smoking. This effect remains after accounting for familial liability and numerous parent and sibling level effects. Smoking interventions may have greatest impact by targeting smoking prevention among peer groups in adolescent and young adult populations.

  14. Peer support for parents of children with chronic disabling conditions: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, Val; Morris, Christopher; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Rogers, Morwenna; Logan, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    To review the qualitative and quantitative evidence of the benefits of peer support for parents of children with disabling conditions in the context of health, well-being, impact on family, and economic and service implications. We comprehensively searched multiple databases. Eligible studies evaluated parent-to-parent support and reported on the psychological health and experience of giving or receiving support. There were no limits on the child's condition, study design, language, date, or setting. We sought to aggregate quantitative data; findings of qualitative studies were combined using thematic analysis. Qualitative and quantitative data were brought together in a narrative synthesis. Seventeen papers were included: nine qualitative studies, seven quantitative studies, and one mixed-methods evaluation. Four themes were identified from qualitative studies: (1) shared social identity, (2) learning from the experiences of others, (3) personal growth, and (4) supporting others. Some quantitative studies reported a positive effect of peer support on psychological health and other outcomes; however, this was not consistently confirmed. It was not possible to aggregate data across studies. No costing data were identified. Qualitative studies strongly suggest that parents perceive benefit from peer support programmes, an effect seen across different types of support and conditions. However, quantitative studies provide inconsistent evidence of positive effects. Further research should explore whether this dissonance is substantive or an artefact of how outcomes have been measured. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  15. Attachment to parents and peers as a risk factor for adolescent depressive disorders: the mediating role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullik, Angelika; Petermann, Franz

    2013-08-01

    This study examined emotion regulation as a mediator in the relationship of attachment and depression in adolescents. Participants (N girls = 127; M age = 14.50; N boys = 121; M age = 14.31) completed self-report questionnaires of attachment to parents and peers, emotion regulation and depression. Models with dysfunctional emotion regulation as a mediation variable were tested via hierarchical multiple regression analyses and bootstrapping procedure. Results revealed significant relations between attachment to parents and peers, dysfunctional emotion regulation and depression. For girls, internal-dysfunctional emotion regulation was a mediator in the relation of attachment to parents and depression and partly mediated the association of attachment to peers. For boys, internal- and external-dysfunctional emotion regulation acted as partly mediators in association of attachment to parents and depression. Results indicate important mechanisms that contribute to the refinement of conceptual models and provide indications for gender specific prevention and intervention for depressive disorders.

  16. Adolescents' Susceptibility to Peer Pressure: Relations to Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Adolescents' Emotional Autonomy from Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui; Chan, Kwok-Wai

    2013-01-01

    Studies on factors affecting susceptibility to peer pressure are not plentiful although this susceptibility has been found to be associated with youth problems such as substance use and risky sexual behavior. The present study examined how adolescents' susceptibility to peer pressure is related to their relationships with mothers and emotional…

  17. Adolescents' Susceptibility to Peer Pressure: Relations to Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Adolescents' Emotional Autonomy from Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui; Chan, Kwok-Wai

    2013-01-01

    Studies on factors affecting susceptibility to peer pressure are not plentiful although this susceptibility has been found to be associated with youth problems such as substance use and risky sexual behavior. The present study examined how adolescents' susceptibility to peer pressure is related to their relationships with mothers and emotional…

  18. Sunscreen Purchase Intention amongst Young Moroccan Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Bachleda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Employing structural equation modeling and an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB incorporating the additional influence of price perception as a conceptual framework, this paper explored the determinants of sunscreen purchase intention for young Moroccan adults. Consistent with the TPB, results confirmed the importance of subjective norms, attitude and perceived control in shaping sunscreen purchase intention. However, contrary to assumptions price was not found to be a significant factor in sunscreen purchase intention. Results of this study support the application of the TPB in the sunscreen purchase context and highlight the importance of using its constructs over price in the development of effective marketing campaigns.

  19. Predicting a high rate of self-assessed and parent-assessed peer problems--Is it typical for students with disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Susanne; Gebhardt, Markus; Hessels, Marco G P; Nusser, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Peer problems are common in children with special educational needs (SEN), but the reasons are poorly understood. This study aims to identify risk factors of peer problems (e.g., SEN, school setting, pro-social behaviour) for their occurrence. A subsample of 3900 children from the National Educational Panel Study in Germany was analysed. Children and parents answered the items of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) subscales 'peer problems' and 'pro-social behaviour'. Students with SEN (attending special schools or inclusive classes) were more likely to score within the abnormal range of the SDQ subscale peer problems than students without SEN. The results further show a low level of parent-child agreement on the subscale 'peer problems'. Logistic regression analyses showed that having SEN is always an explaining variable for 'peer problems' and that group differences cannot be fully explained by gender, school setting or 'pro-social behaviour'.

  20. Parenting factors, social skills, and value commitments as precursors to school failure, involvement with deviant peers, and delinquent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, R L; Whitbeck, L B; Conger, R D; Conger, K J

    1991-12-01

    Elements of social control theory were combined with social learning theory to construct a model of delinquency which specifies the manner in which parenting factors, social skills, value commitments, and problems in school contribute to association with deviant peers and involvement in delinquent behavior. The model was tested using a sample of 61 families, each of which included a seventh grader. Questionnaire responses and coded videotaped family interaction were employed as measures of study constructs. The results largely supported the proposed model.

  1. The Peer Group as a Context: Moderating Effects on Relations between Maternal Parenting and Social and School Adjustment in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; He, Yunfeng; Liu, Hongyun

    2005-01-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial M age=11 years), the moderating effects of the peer group on relations between maternal supportive parenting and social and school adjustment. Data were collected from multiple sources including peer assessments, teacher ratings, school records, and maternal reports.…

  2. Parental responsiveness and adolescent susceptibility to peer influence: A cross-cultural investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Zhiyong; Laroche, Michel

    2011-01-01

    ..., researchers associate this parenting strategy with a variety of socialization outcome variables. In consumer research, scholars associate parental responsiveness with adolescents' use of influe...

  3. Peers, parents and phones”—Swedish adolescents and health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunvor Gard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many unhealthy behaviors are created during adolescence and follow the individual into adulthood. In addition, health behaviors often occur in clusters as those who are inactive are more likely to eat unhealthy food and smoke. This makes the early foundation of healthy behaviors vital. The aim was to describe and develop an understanding of adolescents’ awareness and experiences concerning health promotion. Data was collected using focus groups with a total of 28 seventh graders and was analysed with latent qualitative content analysis. One main theme was identified; being competent, ambivalent and creative at the same time. The following three subthemes also emerged: being a digital native for better and for worse, knowing what is healthy, and sometimes doing it, and considering change and having ideas of how change could be supported. The main theme elucidates how the majority of students were informed and able but they did not always prioritize their health. The concept of health promotion relies upon the engagement of the individual; however, although the students had clear ideas about how they would like to change their own behaviors, they felt a need for support. Interestingly, the students were able to make several suggestions about the kind of support that would make a difference to their adoption to more healthy modes of living. They suggested information and communication technology (ICT, for example encouraging text messages (SMS, and social support, for example parents setting rules and peers inspiring them to adhere to a healthy behavior. The knowledge gained from this study echoes our view of inclusion and this could be helpful for those who encounter the challenge of promoting health among adolescents.

  4. Engaging Parents in Reproductive Health Education: Lessons Learned Implementing a Parent Designed, Peer-Led Educational Model for Parents of Preteens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Cherie L.; Anderson, Frances R.

    2012-01-01

    Engaging and supporting parents to provide sexuality education to their children is successful when parents take ownership of the intervention. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the lessons learned from implementing a parent-designed, parent-led sexuality education curriculum for parents of preteens (10-14 year olds). The parents…

  5. Engaging Parents in Reproductive Health Education: Lessons Learned Implementing a Parent Designed, Peer-Led Educational Model for Parents of Preteens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Cherie L.; Anderson, Frances R.

    2012-01-01

    Engaging and supporting parents to provide sexuality education to their children is successful when parents take ownership of the intervention. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the lessons learned from implementing a parent-designed, parent-led sexuality education curriculum for parents of preteens (10-14 year olds). The parents…

  6. Alcohol use and abuse in young adulthood: do self-control and parents' perceptions of friends during adolescence modify peer influence? The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2013-12-01

    To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. We analyzed data from the first, third, and fourth wave of a population-based prospective cohort study of 2230 adolescents conducted between 2001 and 2010 (mean ages: 11.1, 16.3, and 19.1, respectively). Alcohol use and abuse were measured at T4 by self-report questionnaires and by the Composite International Diagnostics Interview (CIDI), respectively. Peer alcohol use, self-control, and parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends were measured at T3. We adjusted for gender, age, socioeconomic-status, parental alcohol use, and adolescent baseline alcohol use. Peer alcohol use during adolescence was related to young adults' alcohol use and abuse [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.31 (1.11-1.54) and 1.50 (1.20-1.87), respectively]. Neither parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends nor self-control modified this relationship. Alcohol abusers were more likely to have low self-control than alcohol users. No differences were found between alcohol users and abusers regarding their parents' perception of their friends and peer alcohol use. Peer alcohol use during adolescence affects young adults' alcohol use and abuse. We found that self-control was only related to alcohol abuse. Peer influence was not modified by parents' perception of peers or by self-control. Peer alcohol use and self-control should thus be separate targets in the prevention of alcohol use/abuse. © 2013.

  7. Carious lesions of permanent molars and oral health practices of parents and peers in Saudi male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhurji, Eman; El Tantawi, Maha M; Gaffar, Balgis O; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa S; Al-Ansari, Asim A

    2017-07-01

    To assess the association between carious lesions in first and second permanent molars in adolescents and their parents' and peers' oral health practices. Methods: This cross-sectional study of 12-15 year-old male adolescents was conducted in  Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, on February 2016. Data collection included dental examination to measure carious lesions and plaque. There was a questionnaire to assess oral health practices such as brushing with fluoridated toothpaste, current daily tobacco use, and daily consumption of sugary food and drinks. Logistic regression models assessed the association between first and second molars carious lesions with adolescents', parents', and peers' oral health practices. Results: Of 302 students, 294 participated. The mother's brushing was significantly associated with a lower odds of carious lesions in the first molar (odds ratio [OR] = 0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.04 - 0.77). The mothers' sugary food intake and students' own brushing were significantly associated with carious lesions in the second molar (OR = 1.95 and 0.36, 95% CI: 1.01-9.89 and 0.12-0.89). Friends' intake of sugary drinks had a strong, but non-significant, association with second molar's carious lesions (OR=3.61, 95% CI: 0.35 - 7.44). Conclusion: In Saudi society, mothers have a major influence on their adolescent sons' carious lesions. Adolescents' oral health strategies should involve parents to reduce their risk of caries.

  8. Peer support for parents of disabled children part 2: how organizational and process factors influenced shared experience in a one-to-one service, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, V; Bailey, S; Logan, S; Morris, C

    2015-07-01

    Parents of disabled children often seek support from their peers. The shared experience between parents appears to be a crucial mediating factor. Understanding how a sense of shared experience is fostered can help to design and evaluate services that seek to provide peer support. We carried out a qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Participants were 12 parents and 23 befrienders who had contact with the Face2Face one-to-one befriending service in Devon and Cornwall during a 12-month period, and 10 professionals from health, social care and education. Formal structures and processes in place such as training and ongoing supervision and support were highly valued as was the highly personalized, confidential, flexible, one-to-one at-home nature of the service. Crucial to establishing rapport was putting the right people together and ensuring a good match between befrienders and parents. Clearly, the befriending parent has to be emotionally prepared to provide help. However, if the parent being offered support was not ready to accept help at the time it was offered or the type of support was not right for them, they are less likely to engage with the service. Organizational and process factors as well as characteristics of the parents offering and receiving support contribute to the sense of shared experience in one-to-one peer support. These factors interact to influence whether peer support is effective and should be explicitly considered when designing and evaluating services. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sunscreen regulations and use of anti-inflammatory agents in sunscreens

    OpenAIRE

    Haydar, Kamran; Burkhart, Craig G

    2013-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been more proactive in regulating sunscreen products. In 2011, the FDA publicized a set of new requirements for marketing over-the-counter sunscreens in the United States. The primary goal of the new FDA requirements was to provide consumers with a clear understanding of the level of protection actually provided by a sunscreen. Furthermore, information about protection against ultraviolet A radiation, associated with early aging and skin cancer, was ...

  10. The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  11. Direct and indirect relations between parent-child attachments, peer acceptance, and self-esteem for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alexandra; Veríssimo, Manuela; Gatinho, Ana; Santos, António J; Vaughn, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to test Bowlby's suggestions concerning relations between the child's attachment quality with parents and subsequently constructed models of self-worth during early childhood. In most research on this question, attachment with mothers is considered in relation to self-worth but the child's attachment with fathers is not. Neither has the peer group been studied as an influence on child self-esteem, in the context of attachment research. This study addresses these relatively unstudied influences on child self-esteem. Attachment security to mother and father was measured by the Attachment Behavior Q-Set at two and half years of age. At five years of age social acceptance was measured using two sociometric techniques, and the self-esteem with the California Child Q-Sort. Our analyses indicated that security of the attachment to father and peer acceptance are both unique, significant predictors of the childrens' self-esteem. The security of the attachment to mother was also related to child self-esteem but did not emerge as a uniquely significant predictor. Peer acceptance appeared to moderate of the effect of the security of the attachment to father on the self-esteem of children. Our results extend the relatively sparse literature relating early attachments to self-esteem during early childhood.

  12. The role of parental, school, and peer factors in adolescent bullying involvement: results from the Turkish HBSC 2005/2006 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erginoz, Ethem; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Ercan, Oya; Uysal, Omer; Alp, Zeynep; Ocak, Suheyla; Oktay Tanyildiz, Gulsah; Ekici, Baris; Yucel, Ilker Kemal; Albayrak Kaymak, Deniz

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between involvement in bullying behaviors and school, family, and peer factors. Health Behavior in School Age Children survey questionnaire was used. Of the students surveyed, 20% were both bully and victim, 11% were bully, and 21% were victim. Being male, poor parental support, and poor monitoring by the father were found to be risk factors for being both bully and victim. Poor academic achievement, having peers at different ages, poor quality of friendship, poor communication with parents, and not being isolated by peers were found to be risk factors for being bully. Not liking school, feeling pressured by school work, poor quality of friendship, poor monitoring by the father, close bonding with mother, and poor status of the peer group were found to be risk factors for being victim. These findings highlight the importance that bullying intervention programs should include country-specific and culture-specific influences for success.

  13. Delinquent behavior, poor relationship quality with parents, and involvement with deviant peers in delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents: different processes, informant bias, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asscher, Jessica J; Wissink, Inge B; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether two risk factors that are frequently selected as targets for prevention and intervention purposes-involvement with deviant peers and parent-adolescent relationship quality-are associated with delinquent behavior in the same way in a juvenile general population sample (n = 88) as in a juvenile offender sample (n = 85). Information on delinquency and the quality of parent-adolescent relationship was obtained from adolescents and parents. The results of path analyses showed that relations between poor parent-adolescent relationship quality, involvement with deviant peers, and delinquency depended on whose point of view is used (adolescent or parent) and which sample is used (general population or delinquent sample). These findings indicate that caution is warranted when theories based on research with community samples are used for development of intervention programs for juvenile delinquents. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Process Evaluation of the Project SHINE Intervention for African American Families: An Integrated Positive Parenting and Peer Monitoring Approach to Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K; McDaniel, Tyler; Alia, Kassandra A

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the process evaluation of Project SHINE, a randomized family-based health promotion intervention that integrated parenting and peer monitoring for improving sedentary behavior, physical activity, and diet in African American families. Adolescent-parent dyads (n = 89) were randomized to a 6-week behavioral, positive parenting, and peer monitoring skills intervention or a general health education comparison condition. Process evaluation included observational ratings of fidelity, attendance records, psychosocial measures, and qualitative interviews. Results indicated that the intervention was delivered with high fidelity based on facilitator adherence (>98% of content delivered) and competent use of theoretically based behavior change and positive parenting skills (100% of ratings >3 on a 1-4 scale). Although only 43% of peers attended the "bring a friend" session, overall attendance was high (4.39 ± 1.51 sessions) as was the retention rate (88%). Parents in the intervention condition reported significant improvements in communication related to adolescents' engagement in health behaviors both on their own and with peers. These findings were supported by qualitative themes related to improvements in family communication and connectedness. This study provides an innovative example of how future family-based health promotion trials can expand their process evaluation approaches by assessing theoretically relevant positive parenting variables as part of ongoing monitoring.

  15. Normative beliefs and self-efficacy for nonviolence as moderators of peer, school, and parental risk factors for aggression in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael E; Bettencourt, Amie; Tolan, Patrick H

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the direct effects of beliefs about aggression and nonviolence on physical aggression and their role as protective factors that buffer adolescents from key risk factors in the peer, school, and parenting domains. Multilevel analyses were conducted on data from 5,581 adolescents representing two cohorts from 37 schools in four communities collected at the beginning and end of the sixth grade and at the end of the following 2 school years. Individual norms for aggression at Wave 1 moderated relations of delinquent peer associations and parental support for fighting with physical aggression. Self-efficacy for nonviolence at Wave 1 moderated relations of school risk, delinquent peer associations and parental support for fighting with physical aggression. There was clearer evidence for protective effects for self-efficacy for nonviolence for girls than for boys.

  16. DNA dosimetry assessment for sunscreen genotoxic photoprotection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Passaglia Schuch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the increase of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV incidence over the last few decades, the use of sunscreen has been widely adopted for skin protection. However, considering the high efficiency of sunlight-induced DNA lesions, it is critical to improve upon the current approaches that are used to evaluate protection factors. An alternative approach to evaluate the photoprotection provided by sunscreens against daily UV radiation-induced DNA damage is provided by the systematic use of a DNA dosimeter. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Sun Protection Factor for DNA (DNA-SPF is calculated by using specific DNA repair enzymes, and it is defined as the capacity for inhibiting the generation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD and oxidised DNA bases compared with unprotected control samples. Five different commercial brands of sunscreen were initially evaluated, and further studies extended the analysis to include 17 other products representing various formulations and Sun Protection Factors (SPF. Overall, all of the commercial brands of SPF 30 sunscreens provided sufficient protection against simulated sunlight genotoxicity. In addition, this DNA biosensor was useful for rapidly screening the biological protection properties of the various sunscreen formulations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The application of the DNA dosimeter is demonstrated as an alternative, complementary, and reliable method for the quantification of sunscreen photoprotection at the level of DNA damage.

  17. Unexpected photolysis of the sunscreen octinoxate in the presence of the sunscreen avobenzone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Robert M; Dowdy, John C; Gerwig, Andre J; Shields, William J; Lloyd, Roger V

    2005-01-01

    A major concern raised about photostability studies of sunscreen products is that the photodegradation of sunscreens does not readily translate into changes in product performance. This study examines the correlation between photochemical degradation of sunscreen agents and changes in protection provided by sunscreen films. Films of a commercial sunscreen product containing avobenzone, oxybenzone and octinoxate were irradiated using a fluorescent UV-A phototherapy lamp with additional UV-B blocking filter. Periodically, during irradiation the transmittances of the films were measured and samples collected for chemical analysis of the sunscreen agents using high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. The results show that UV-induced changes in UV transmittance of sunscreen films correlate with changes in concentration of sunscreen agents. In a parallel experiment, we also irradiated a thin film of the same product in the cavity of an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer. We report the concomitant photolysis of avobenzone and octinoxate that predominates over expected E/Z photoisomerization and that irradiation of a film of this product produced free radicals detected by ESR spectroscopy that persisted even after exposure had ended.

  18. From Racial Discrimination to Risky Sex: Prospective Relations Involving Peers and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Murry, Velma M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.; Lorenz, Frederick O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how early experience with racial discrimination affected the subsequent risky sexual behaviors of a diverse sample of African American youths (N = 745). The analyses focused on 3 risk-promoting factors thought to mediate the hypothesized discrimination--risky sex relation: negative affect, affiliation with deviant peers,…

  19. The Use of Peer Mediation and Arbitration To Resolve Conflicts among District Employees, Students, and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Gary D.; Marcee, Tom

    School districts in Texas have used the same grievance procedure for approximately 20 years. In response to general dissatisfaction throughout the Socorro Independent School District (SISD) in El Paso, Texas, the district developed a new, user-friendly grievance procedure. This paper describes the use of peer mediation and arbitration to resolve…

  20. Social Support and Behavioral and Affective School Engagement: The Effects of Peers, Parents, and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, David B.; Perdue, Neil H.

    2013-01-01

    School engagement has long been seen as an important component of school completion, and research shows that social support in the home and school promotes engagement. However, many researchers have argued that it is not a unitary construct but rather a multifaceted phenomenon, and the role of peer social support has not been as well studied as…

  1. Parents and Peers: Their Importance in the Career Decision Making Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, M. Harry; And Others

    This paper examines the role played by parents in their children's career decision-making process. Parents are identified as preeminent influences of adolescents' career decision making, a fact that has been largely unrecognized by career guidance personnel and school administrators, as evidenced by the lack of programs designed to enable parents…

  2. Primary School Teachers and Parents Perception of Peer Bullying Among Children in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Somaieh; Patel, Ahmed; Taghavi, Mona; Pooravari, Minoo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to recognize bullying behavior in the students in Iran and analyze the perception of school teachers and parents in this regard. Materials and Methods Several semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted with four teachers and eight parents of children involved in bully/victim problems and the analysis was interpreted through established comparative evaluation methods. Results Iranian teachers and the parents perceived bullying mainly as physical and verbal attacks with little understanding of the psychological factors. They emphasized that the underlying influence of religious beliefs should also be considered in the context of bullying among Iranian society due to the strict conformance applied by parents upon their child. Conclusions Based on the outcomes of the study, it is recommended that the teachers participate in anti-bullying programs orientated to prevent bullying behaviors and develop strong supportive relationship with parents to reduce this behavior through personal contacts and interactive workshops. PMID:27822274

  3. The value "social responsibility" as a motivating factor for adolescents' readiness to participate in different types of political actions, and its socialization in parent and peer contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-06-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for participation in legal protest actions. No relationships with readiness for participation in federal elections or with readiness for participation in illegal protest actions occurred, and a negative relationship with readiness for participation in political violent actions was found. In a second step, the socialization of the value social responsibility in the parents and peer context was the focus. Value similarities between adolescents, their parents and friends, as well as other contextual factors were considered. Multiple regression analyses revealed differential effects for male and female adolescents. In male adolescents, authoritative parenting and political discussions with parents were positively linked to social responsibility. Furthermore, peer-group membership had a negative impact. For female adolescents, significant value similarities with their parents, especially with their mothers, occurred. Value similarities with their friend were found in both gender groups, but appeared to be higher in the female group. Also, in both gender groups, a positive parent-child relationship quality was linked to higher social responsibility. In sum, findings show that parents as well as peer contextual factors were contributing to the adolescents' value acquisition.

  4. Should You Put Sunscreen on Infants? Not Usually

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Should You Put Sunscreen on Infants? Not Usually Share Tweet Linkedin ... month-old baby is there, too. Should you put sunscreen on her? Not usually, according to Hari ...

  5. Accumulation of sunscreen in human skin after daily applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Akerström, Ulf; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF....

  6. Assessing peer and parental influence on the religious attitudes and attendance of young churchgoers : exploring the Australian National Church Life Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Leslie J.; Penny, Gemma; Powell, Ruth, Ph.D.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from the 2011 Australian National Church Life Survey, this study was designed to assess peer and parental influence on frequency of church attendance, attitude toward church, and attitude toward Christianity among a sample of 6,256 young churchgoers between the ages of 8 and 14 years, attending a range of denominations, including Catholic, Anglican, Uniting, Pentecostal, and other Protestant Churches. The data indicated the power of parental example on frequency of church atte...

  7. Predictors of premarital sexual activity among unmarried youth in Vientiane, Lao PDR: the role of parent-youth interactions and peer influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychareun, Vanphanom; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Hansana, Visanou; Chaleunvong, Kongmany; Kounnavong, Sengchan; Sawhney, Monika; Durham, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that adolescents in low-income countries have an early sexual debut and engage in risky sexual behaviours. Few studies in low-income countries however, have explored the factors that influence young people's sexual behaviours. This study examined individual, family and peer-level factors associated with premarital sexual behaviours in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with unmarried youth aged 18 to 24 years (N = 1200) in Vientiane Capital City. Logistic regression models, controlling for confounding variables, were employed to test for the contribution of factors influencing premarital sexual activity. Most respondents held positive attitudes towards premarital sex, with males having more liberal attitudes than females (mean score of 2.68 vs. 2.32, p sexual activity was higher among males than females (44.7% and 19.2%, respectively). Predictors of premarital sex for males were age, sexual attitudes, perceived parental expectations regarding sex, dating and peer influence. For females, predictors were father's level of education, parent-youth sexual communication, peer influence and liberal sexual attitudes. The results highlight the role of parent-youth interaction and peer influence. The results suggest the need for a range of strategies at the individual, peer and family level, as well as a gender-specific focus.

  8. The development of adolescent self-regulation: reviewing the role of parent, peer, friend, and romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Julee P; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2014-06-01

    Self-regulation plays an important role in adolescent development, predicting success in multiple domains including school and social relationships. While researchers have paid increasing attention to the influence of parents on the development of adolescent self-regulation, we know little about the influence of peers and friends and even less about the influence of romantic partners on adolescent development of self-regulation. Extant studies examined a unidirectional model of self-regulation development rather than a bidirectional model of self-regulation development. Given that relationships and self-regulation develop in tandem, a model of bidirectional development between relationship context and adolescent self-regulation may be relevant. This review summarizes extant literature and proposes that in order to understand how adolescent behavioral and emotional self-regulation develops in the context of social relationships one must consider that each relationship builds upon previous relationships and that self-regulation and relationship context develop bidirectionally.

  9. The Development of Adolescent Self-Regulation: Reviewing the Role of Parent, Peer, Friend, and Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulation plays an important role in adolescent development, predicting success in multiple domains including school and social relationships. While researchers have paid increasing attention to the influence of parents on the development of adolescent self-regulation, we know little about the influence of peers and friends and even less about the influence of romantic partners on adolescent development of self-regulation. Extant studies examined a unidirectional model of self-regulation development rather than a bidirectional model of self-regulation development. Given that relationships and self-regulation develop in tandem, a model of bidirectional development between relationship context and adolescent self-regulation may be relevant. This review summarizes extant literature and proposes that in order to understand how adolescent behavioral and emotional self-regulation develops in the context of social relationships one must consider that each relationship builds upon previous relationships and that self-regulation and relationship context develop bidirectionally. PMID:24793391

  10. Community social organization, parents, and peers as mediators of perceived neighborhood block characteristics on delinquent and prosocial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillon, Dan

    2006-03-01

    Research on contextual and neighborhood effects has grown exponentially over the past decade as researchers have reacknowledged that community matters. Although empirical findings have consistently documented the significant influence of neighborhood context, the field is just beginning to investigate the varied and multiple pathways through which this influence is transmitted. The current study found support for both a direct and indirect influence of perceived neighborhood structural characteristics (i.e., neighborhood stability, income), measured at the block level, on neighborhood and youth outcomes. Directly, perceived neighborhood advantage led to significantly lower neighborhood rates of official delinquency and higher rates of prosocial activity. Indirectly, perceived neighborhood advantage significantly impacted outcomes by influencing more proximal constructs such as community social organization, informal social control, parenting practices, and affiliation with delinquent peers. Different pathways were significant across neighborhood and youth outcomes, yet perceived neighborhood advantage, in particular neighborhood stability, consistently exerted substantial effects, highlighting the need for more comprehensive and multilevel prevention efforts.

  11. Young adults' reactions to gay and lesbian peers who became suicidal following "coming out" to their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, Jennifer E; Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2003-01-01

    Rates of nonfatal suicidal behavior among gay and lesbian youth surpass those recorded among their heterosexual peers. A frequently cited precipitant of gay and lesbian nonfatal suicidal behavior is the turmoil associated with coming out to one's family. This study investigated young adults' attitudes toward peers who engaged in suicidal behavior after coming out and being rejected by their parents, and compared them with attitudes toward persons who had become suicidal in response to other stressors (a physical illness, a relationship loss, or an academic failure). Our goal was to explore whether young persons hold beliefs that may encourage lesbian and gay suicidal behavior. We found that gays and lesbians who engaged in suicidal behavior following coming out were not viewed in particularly forgiving or empathic ways, as was the case for persons who became suicidal following an incurable illness. All suicidal persons were perceived as relatively feminine. At the same time, suicidal males were rated as more masculine if they engaged in suicidal behavior because of an academic failure or a physical illness, while suicidal females were viewed as more masculine only if their suicidal behavior followed an academic failure. Finally, we found that both respondent sex and respondent gender-identity influenced evaluations of suicidal persons. Building on these findings, future research should explore attitudes toward the permissibility of a suicidal decision by lesbian and gay persons.

  12. Normative Beliefs and Self-Efficacy for Nonviolence as Moderators of Peer, School, and Parental Risk Factors for Aggression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D.; Henry, David B.; Schoeny, Michael E.; Bettencourt, Amie; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the direct effects of beliefs about aggression and nonviolence on physical aggression and their role as protective factors that buffer adolescents from key risk factors in the peer, school, and parenting domains. Multilevel analyses were conducted on data from 5,581 adolescents representing two cohorts from 37 schools in four…

  13. The impact of media-related cognitions on children's substance use outcomes in the context of parental and peer substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Tracy M; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller

    2014-05-01

    Media-related cognitions are a unique influence on adolescents' substance use outcomes even after accounting for the powerful influence of parent and peers. This cross-sectional study expands upon prior research by investigating the impact of media-related cognitions on children's alcohol and tobacco outcomes in the context of parental and peer substance use. Six hundred forty-nine elementary school children (M = 9.4 years of age, SD = 1.1 years; 51 % female) completed self-report questionnaires. After accounting for peer and parental substance use, children's media-related cognitions were independently associated with three outcomes: preferences for alcohol-branded merchandise, moral beliefs about underage alcohol and tobacco use, and intentions to use alcohol and tobacco. Children's perceptions of the desirability and realism of alcohol and tobacco ads--and their similarity to and identification with these ads--predicted greater intentions to use. Desirability and identification with alcohol and tobacco ads were associated with stronger preferences for alcohol-branded merchandise, and understanding advertising's persuasive intent predicted weaker preferences. Media deconstruction skills predicted stronger beliefs that underage alcohol and tobacco use is wrong. Peer and parental substance use were associated with stronger substance-use intentions among children and weaker feelings that substance use is wrong. The findings highlight the role of media influence in contributing to youth substance use and the potential role of media literacy education in the early prevention of substance use.

  14. The Impact of Media-related Cognitions on Children’s Substance Use Outcomes in the Context of Parental and Peer Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Tracy M.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller

    2013-01-01

    Media-related cognitions are a unique influence on adolescents’ substance use outcomes even after accounting for the powerful influence of parent and peers. This cross-sectional study expands upon prior research by investigating the impact of media-related cognitions on children’s alcohol and tobacco outcomes in the context of parental and peer substance use. Six hundred forty-nine elementary school children (M = 9.4 years of age, SD = 1.1 years; 51% female) completed self-report questionnaires. After accounting for peer and parental substance use, children’s media-related cognitions were independently associated with three outcomes: preferences for alcohol-branded merchandise, moral beliefs about underage alcohol and tobacco use, and intentions to use alcohol and tobacco. Children’s perceptions of the desirability and realism of alcohol and tobacco ads—and their similarity to and identification with these ads— predicted greater intentions to use. Desirability and identification with alcohol and tobacco ads were associated with stronger preferences for alcohol-branded merchandise, and understanding advertising’s persuasive intent predicted weaker preferences. Media deconstruction skills predicted stronger beliefs that underage alcohol and tobacco use is wrong. Peer and parental substance use were associated with stronger substance-use intentions among children and weaker feelings that substance use is wrong. The findings highlight the role of media influence in contributing to youth substance use and the potential role of media literacy education in the early prevention of substance use. PMID:24002678

  15. Cognitive impulsivity and the development of delinquency from late childhood to early adulthood: Moderating effects of parenting behavior and peer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive impulsivity may increase children's risk of developing delinquent behavior. However, the influence of cognitive impulsivity may depend on social environmental risk factors. This study examined the moderating effect of late childhood parenting behaviors and peer relations on the influence of children's cognitive impulsivity on delinquency development across adolescence and early adulthood, while taking possible interactions with intelligence also into account. Delinquent behavior of 412 boys from the Pittsburgh Youth Study was measured annually from ages 13 to 29 years with official arrest records. Cognitive impulsivity (neurocognitive test scores) and intelligence were assessed at age 12-13. Parenting behaviors (persistence of discipline, positive reinforcement, and parental knowledge), peer delinquency, and peer conventional activities were assessed between ages 10 and 13 years. Results showed that, while controlling for intelligence, the influence of youths' cognitive impulsivity on delinquency depended on their parents' behaviors. An interaction was found among cognitive impulsivity, intelligence, and peer delinquency, but instead of cognitive impulsivity, the effect of intelligence on delinquency was particularly moderated. Overall, findings suggest that when there was moderation, high cognitive impulsivity and low intelligence were associated with an increased probability for engaging in delinquency predominantly among boys in a good social environment, but not in a poor social environment.

  16. Alcohol use and abuse in young adulthood : Do self-control and parents' perceptions of friends during adolescence modify peer influence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F.C.; Reijneveld, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. Methods: We analyzed data from the first, third, and

  17. The Role of Peer Contacts in the Relationship between Parental Knowledge and Adolescents' Externalizing Behaviors: A Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Ellen; Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct and indirect effects (through peer contacts) of parental knowledge on adolescents' delinquent and aggressive problem behavior, using latent growth curve modeling. A sample of 457 13- to 14-year old adolescents at first measurement wave (M = 13.27; SD = 0.45 years) filled out questionnaires…

  18. Alcohol use and abuse in young adulthood : Do self-control and parents' perceptions of friends during adolescence modify peer influence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F.C.; Reijneveld, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. Methods: We analyzed data from the first, third, and

  19. Peering into a Chilean black box: parental storytelling in pediatric genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Jessica; Margarit, Sonia; Downs, Katy; Yashar, Beverly M

    2013-12-01

    While genetic counseling has expanded to multiple international settings, research about providing culturally sensitive services to non-U.S. patients is limited. To gain insights, we utilized a process study to explore parental communication in pediatric genetics clinics in Chile. We utilized a phenomenological hermeneutic approach to assess storytelling in six pediatric sessions that were conducted in Spanish, and translated into English. The majority of the sessions focused on information gathering (35 %), and providing medical (20 %) and genetics education (18 %). The 14 instances of storytelling we identified usually emerged during information gathering, genetics education, and the closing of the session. Stories illustrated parental efforts to create a cognitive and emotional context for their child's genetic diagnosis. Parents emerged as competent caregivers who discussed the role of the child as a social being in the family and the larger community. Our analysis found that genetic counseling sessions in the U.S. and Chile are structured similarly and although communication is not a balanced process, parents use storytelling to participate as active agents in the session. Via storytelling, we learned that parents are working to understand and gain control over their child's genetic diagnosis by relying on mechanisms that extend beyond the genetics appointment.

  20. Korean Children's Evaluation of Parental Restrictions Regarding Gender-Stereotypic Peer Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonjung; Lee-Kim, Jennie; Killen, Melanie; Park, Kyoungja; Kim, Jihyun

    2012-01-01

    Korean children's evaluations of parental restrictions of children's activities based on gender stereotypic expectations were investigated. Third and sixth grade Korean (N = 128) children evaluated scenarios in which a boy or girl desired to play ballet or soccer. Participants used stereotypes to support children's desires to play…

  1. The Role of Religiosity in the Relationship between Parents, Peers, and Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landor, Antoinette; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2011-01-01

    Research has documented a negative relationship between religion and risky sexual behavior. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby religion exerts this effect. The present study develops and tests a model of various mechanisms whereby parental religiosity reduces the likelihood of adolescents' participation in risky sexual…

  2. Latina Adolescent Suicide Ideations and Attempts: Associations with Connectedness to Parents, Peers, and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Susan M.; Wyman, Peter; Warren, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Associations between suicidal behavior and social-ecological variables were examined among 1,618 Latina high school students (mean age = 15) from the nationally representative Add Health sample (68% were U.S.-born). Ideations were associated with having a suicidal friend, lower perceived father support, and overall parental caring. Attempts were…

  3. A prospective study on the impact of peer and parental pressure on body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfert, Susanne; Warschburger, Petra

    2011-03-01

    The current study explores the role of appearance-related social pressure regarding changes in body image in adolescent girls (n=236) and boys (n=193) over a 1-year-period. High school students aged 11-16 completed measures of body dissatisfaction (i.e., weight and muscle concerns) and appearance-related social pressure from peers and parents. Three aspects proved to be particularly crucial: Parental encouragement to control weight and shape was a strong predictor of weight concerns in boys and girls alike; influences of friends affected gender-specific body image concerns by leading to weight concerns in girls and muscle concerns in boys; finally appearance-based exclusion was a predictor of weight concerns in boys. The findings provide longitudinal evidence for the crucial impact of appearance-related social pressure and suggest that a detailed assessment of different types of social impacts can identify concrete targets for effective prevention and therapy for weight-related problems among adolescents.

  4. The face of appearance-related social pressure: gender, age and body mass variations in peer and parental pressure during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfert, Susanne; Warschburger, Petra

    2013-05-17

    Appearance-related social pressure plays an important role in the development of a negative body image and self-esteem as well as severe mental disorders during adolescence (e.g. eating disorders, depression). Identifying who is particularly affected by social pressure can improve targeted prevention and intervention, but findings have either been lacking or controversial. Thus the aim of this study is to provide a detailed picture of gender, weight, and age-related variations in the perception of appearance-related social pressure by peers and parents. 1112 German students between grades 7 and 9 (mean age: M = 13.38, SD = .81) filled in the Appearance-Related Social Pressure Questionnaire (German: FASD), which considers different sources (peers, parents) as well as various kinds of social pressure (e.g. teasing, modeling, encouragement). Girls were more affected by peer pressure, while gender differences in parental pressure seemed negligible. Main effects of grade-level suggested a particular increase in indirect peer pressure (e.g. appearance-related school and class norms) from early to middle adolescence. Boys and girls with higher BMI were particularly affected by peer teasing and exclusion as well as by parental encouragement to control weight and shape. The results suggest that preventive efforts targeting body concerns and disordered eating should bring up the topic of appearance pressure in a school-based context and should strengthen those adolescents who are particularly at risk - in our study, girls and adolescents with higher weight status. Early adolescence and school transition appear to be crucial periods for these efforts. Moreover, the comprehensive assessment of appearance-related social pressure appears to be a fruitful way to further explore social risk-factors in the development of a negative body image.

  5. Peer Leadership Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Nikki; Hachmeister, Paula

    This is a manual for peer counselors and parents in an alcohol and drug abuse prevention program for teenagers. The document opens with the training objectives for the peer helpers: to know yourself, to be a resource, and to promote and establish a drug-free peer group and drug-free activities in school. Discussion on these topics is provided: (1)…

  6. Peer Attachment: A Meta-Analytic Review of Gender and Age Differences and Associations with Parent Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrese, Anna; Ruggieri, Ruggero

    2012-01-01

    In adolescence, peers represent key actors within individual social network. Given the relevance of peer connections and the growing literature examining them, the purpose of this article was to review, through a meta-analytic approach, studies on adolescent and youth peer relationships within the theoretical framework of attachment. First, we…

  7. A qualitative exploration of attitudes towards alcohol, and the role of parents and peers of two alcohol-attitude-based segments of the adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Meriam M; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; van Oers, Hans A M; Garretsen, Henk F L

    2014-05-24

    An earlier study using social marketing and audience segmentation distinguished five segments of Dutch adolescents aged 12-18 years based on their attitudes towards alcohol. The present, qualitative study focuses on two of these five segments ('ordinaries' and 'ordinary sobers') and explores the attitudes of these two segments towards alcohol, and the role of parents and peers in their alcohol use in more detail. This qualitative study was conducted in the province of North-Brabant, the Netherlands. With a 28-item questionnaire, segments of adolescents were identified. From the ordinaries and ordinary sobers who were willing to participate in a focus group, 55 adolescents (30 ordinaries and 25 ordinary sobers) were selected and invited to participate. Finally, six focus groups were conducted with 12-17 year olds, i.e., three interviews with 17 ordinaries and three interviews with 20 ordinary sobers at three different high schools. The ordinaries thought that drinking alcohol was fun and relaxing. Curiosity was an important factor in starting to drink alcohol. Peer pressure played a role, e.g., it was difficult not to drink when peers were drinking. Most parents advised their child to drink a small amount only. The attitude of ordinary sobers towards alcohol was that drinking alcohol was stupid; moreover, they did not feel the need to drink. Most parents set strict rules and prohibited the use of alcohol before the age of 16. Qualitative insight into the attitudes towards alcohol and the role played by parents and peers, revealed differences between ordinaries and ordinary sobers. Based on these differences and on health education theories, starting points for the development of interventions, for both parents and adolescents, are formulated. Important starting points for interventions targeting ordinaries are reducing perceived peer pressure and learning to make one's own choices. For the ordinary sobers, an important starting point includes enabling them to

  8. Teacher, peer and parent autonomy support in physical education and leisure-time physical activity: A trans-contextual model of motivation in four nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Hein, Vello; Soós, István; Karsai, István; Lintunen, Taru; Leemans, Sofie

    2009-07-01

    An extended trans-contextual model of motivation for health-related physical activity was tested in samples from four nations. The model proposes a motivational sequence in which perceived autonomy support from teachers in a physical education (PE) context and from peers and parents in a leisure-time physical activity context predict autonomous motivation, intentions and physical activity behaviour in a leisure-time context. A three-wave prospective correlational design was employed. High-school pupils from Britain, Estonia, Finland and Hungary completed measures of perceived autonomy support from PE teachers, autonomous motivation in both contexts, perceived autonomy support from peers and parents, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and measures of behaviour and past behaviour in a leisure-time context. Path-analyses controlling for past behaviour supported trans-contextual model hypotheses across all samples. Effects of perceived autonomy support from peers and parents on leisure-time autonomous motivation were small and inconsistent, while effects on TPB variables were stronger. There was a unique effect of perceived autonomy support from PE teachers on leisure-time autonomous motivation. Findings support the model, which provides an explanation of the processes by which perceived autonomy support from different sources affects health-related physical activity motivation across these contexts.

  9. A randomized controlled trial of the Korean version of the PEERS(®) parent-assisted social skills training program for teens with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Bahn, Geonho; Cho, In-Hee; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Min, Jung-Won; Lee, Won-Hye; Seo, Jun-Seong; Jun, Sang-Shin; Bong, Guiyoung; Cho, Soochurl; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Park, Subin; Laugeson, Elizabeth A

    2014-02-01

    Impaired social functioning is a hallmark feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), often requiring treatment throughout the life span. PEERS(®) (Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills) is a parent-assisted social skills training for teens with ASD. Although PEERS(®) has an established evidence base in improving the social skills of adolescents and young adults with ASD in North America, the efficacy of this treatment has yet to be established in cross-cultural validation trials. The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility and treatment efficacy of a Korean version of PEERS(®) for enhancing social skills through a randomized controlled trial (RCT).The English version of the PEERS(®) Treatment Manual (Laugeson & Frankel, 2010) was translated into Korean and reviewed by 21 child mental health professionals. Items identified as culturally sensitive were surveyed by 447 middle school students, and material was modified accordingly. Participants included 47 teens between 12 and 18 years of age with a diagnosis of ASD and a verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) ≥ 65. Eligible teens were randomly assigned to a treatment group (TG) or delayed treatment control group (CG). Primary outcome measures included questionnaires and direct observations quantifying social ability and problems directly related to ASD. Secondary outcome measures included scales for depressive symptoms, anxiety, and other behavioral problems. Rating scales for parental depressive symptoms and anxiety were examined to detect changes in parental psychosocial functioning throughout the PEERS(®) treatment. Independent samples t-tests revealed no significant differences at baseline across the TG and CG conditions with regard to age (14.04 ± 1.64 and 13.54 ± 1.50 years), IQ (99.39 ± 18.09 & 100.67 ± 16.97), parental education, socioeconomic status, or ASD symptoms (p teens with ASD in Korea with modest cultural adjustment. In an RCT, participants receiving the

  10. The importance of a positive family history of alcoholism, parental rejection and emotional warmth, behavioral problems and peer substance use for alcohol problems in teenagers: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc A; Lucht, Michael; John, Ulrich; Freyberger, Harald J

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothetical model of alcohol problems in German adolescents. Among 180 offspring, family history of alcoholism, parenting styles, behavioral and emotional problems, peer-group characteristics, feelings of self-esteem, behavioral problems and psychiatric comorbidity of the parents were examined. Data were generated from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), in which families were randomly selected if 12-18 year old biological offspring were members of the household; a smaller group of subjects was selected from local outpatient treatment centers. Members of 133 families, including 180 (50.6% male) offspring who were appropriate for the current analyses, received personal semistructured diagnostic interviews and several self-rating questionnaires. Analyses compared offspring with alcohol problems (AP; n = 40) and with no alcohol problems (NAP; n = 140), and used structural equation modeling to test a hypothetical model. The comparisons revealed that the AP group had significantly more behavioral problems (e.g., aggression/delinquency), more perceived parental rejection and less emotional warmth, a higher amount of alcohol consumption, were more likely to associate with substance-using peers and more often received a diagnosis of conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder. Whereas the family history of alcoholism did not differ significantly between groups, parents of offspring with an alcohol use disorder had significantly more additional diagnoses on DSM-IV Axis I. The evaluation of the model supported the importance of aggression/delinquency and association with substance-using peers for alcohol problems in people. An additional diagnosis in the parents was directly and indirectly (through aggression/delinquency) related to alcohol problems of the adolescents. The data indicate that alcohol problems in the offspring are associated with several domains of influence in their environment. Prospective studies

  11. Effective sunscreen ingredients and cutaneous irritation in patients with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, K; Desai, N; Lebwohl, M G

    1998-06-01

    Patients with rosacea are particularly susceptible to the irritation caused by sunscreen ingredients. The purpose of this bilateral comparison study was to examine the effects of different ingredients found in sunscreen on facial cutaneous irritancy in patients with rosacea. patients clinically diagnosed with rosacea were asked to test different preparations of common sunscreens on their faces. The results show that the presence or absence of appropriate protective ingredients, such as dimethicone and cyclomethicone in the vehicle, may prevent irritation from other sunscreen ingredients in patients with inflammatory conditions such as rosacea.

  12. Modifying parents peer attachment scale with item response theory%用项目反应理论修订父母同伴依恋量表

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧运洪; 赵守盈; 陈维; 潘运; 张禹

    2012-01-01

    The item discrimination, difficulty and information peak function of the item response theory are used to revise parents peer attachment scale produced by Armsden and Greenberg ( 1991 ), the purpose is that this scale revised is more accurate to survey the status of parents peer attachment of Chinese youth. SPSS15.0 software is used to manage data , using MULTILOG 7.03 software to analysis parameters, using AMOS4.0 to test the verification revised. Results are as follows : 1. Parents peer attachment scale is one-dimensional which can be revised by item response theory. 2. The item discrimination a, difficulty b of new scale are with reasonable scope. 3. The test information peak function of new scale is smaller and has a higher reliability. New father and peer attachment scale contain two factors: trust and communication. New mather attachment scale include factors: trust, communication and alienation,which have the same factors with the original scale . Surveyed officially, the scale revised can effectively survey the status of parents peer attachment of Chinese miao youth.%应用项目反应理论的区分度、难度和信息函数峰值3个参数对Armsden和Greenberg(1991)的父母同伴依恋量表进行修订,目的:使修订后的量表更能精确地调查中国初中生的依恋现状。结果:父母同伴依恋量表符合单维性检验,可以根据项目反应理论进行修订。新量表的区分度a值和难度b值具有合理的取值范围。新量表的测验信息峰值函数变小,具有更高的信度。新父亲和同伴依恋量表均包含两个因子:信任和沟通。新母亲依恋量表包含的因子个数和原量表相同:信任、沟通和疏离。经正式施测,修订后的量表可以有效地调查中国苗族初中生的依恋现状。

  13. Low cultural identification, low parental involvement and adverse peer influences as risk factors for delinquent behaviour among Filipino youth in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Anthony P S; Nishimura, Stephanie T; Chang, Janice Y; Ona, Celia; Cunanan, Vanessa L; Hishinuma, Earl S

    2010-07-01

    Among Filipino youth in Hawai'i, low Filipino cultural identification and low family support may be important risk factors for delinquency. To examine, in a sample of Filipino youth in Hawai'i, correlations between delinquent behaviour and the aforementioned - as well as other, potentially mediating - variables. A youth risk survey and Filipino Culture Scale were administered to Filipino students (N = 150) in Hawai'i. A parent risk survey was administered to available and consenting parents. Delinquent behaviour correlated positively with acculturative stress, low cultural identification and adverse peer influences; and negatively with total Filipino Culture Scale score. Structural equation modelling suggested that absent/ineffective adults and adverse peer influences might be more important variables compared to low self-esteem and less religiosity, linking low cultural identification to delinquent behaviour. Although further studies are warranted, to be effective, efforts to prevent delinquency by enhancing Filipino youths' cultural connectedness may also need to enhance family connectedness and address adverse peer influences.

  14. What Influences Chinese Adolescents’ Choice Intention between Playing Online Games and Learning? Application of Theory of Planned Behavior with Subjective Norm Manipulated as Peer Support and Parental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Liu, Ying; Xu, Le; Zhen, Rui

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how and why Chinese adolescents choose between playing online games and doing homework, using the model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in which the subjective norm was manipulated as two sub-elements (peer support and parental monitoring). A total of 530 students from an elementary school and a middle school in China were asked to complete the measures assessing two predictors of TPB: attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Next, they completed a survey about their choice intention between playing an online game and doing homework in three different situations, wherein a conflict between playing online games and doing homework was introduced and subjective norm was manipulated as peers supporting and parents objecting to playing online games. The results showed that adolescents’ attitude and PBC, as well as the perception of obtaining or not obtaining support from their peers and caregivers (manipulated subjective norm), significantly influenced their choice intention in online gaming situations. These findings contribute to the understanding of the factors affecting adolescents’ online gaming, which has been a concern of both caregivers and educators. With regard to the theoretical implications, this study extended previous work by providing evidence that TPB can be applied to analyze choice intention. Moreover, this study illuminated the effects of the separating factors of subjective norm on choice intention between playing online games and studying. PMID:28458649

  15. O/W microemulsion as a vehicle for sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, M Eugenia; Gallarate, Marina; Rossatto, Valeria

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, transparent dispersions or diluted milks have been used as sunscreens. These products contain water-soluble sunscreen agents, and quite frequently are washed away from the skin. However, O/W microemulsions are now being prepared as transparent vehicles for sunscreens. They are waterproof, nonsticky, and easily spreadable. The microemulsions are prepared by using pseudoternary diagrams, by combining lipids with surfactant blends and a polar phase. Soya lecithin and decylpolyglucose produce transparent systems with the lowest percentage of surfactants. These microemulsions contain 4-methylbenzilidene camphor or octylmethoxycinnamate as sunscreen agents. Cyclomethicone, menthol, and allantoin give products a good skin feel, and stearyl methicone gives the waterproof effect. These systems show a Newtonian flux. Little permeation of the sunscreens' trough lipophilic and hydrophilic membrane is evidenced.

  16. The association between peer, parental influence and tobacco product features and earlier age of onset of regular smoking among adults in 27 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-10-01

    Factors that influence smoking initiation and age of smoking onset are important considerations in tobacco control. We evaluated European Union (EU)-wide differences in the age of onset of regular smoking, and the potential role of peer, parental and tobacco product design features on the earlier onset of regular smoking among adults current and former smokers aged 15-39 years, collected for the Eurobarometer 77.1 survey (2012). Respondents reported their age at regular smoking onset and factors that influenced their decision to start smoking, including peer influence, parental influence and features of tobacco products. Multi-variable logistic regression, adjusted for age; geographic region; education; difficulty to pay bills; and gender, was used to assess the role of the various pro-tobacco influences on early onset of regular smoking (i.e. parents (OR = 1.60; 95%CI 1.21-2.12) were more likely to have started smoking regularly patterns among EU countries, which may warrant different approaches in the prevention of tobacco use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Hatice; DİNÇER, Çağlayan

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  18. The relation between sunscreen layer thickness and vitamin D production after ultraviolet B exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A; Beyer, D M; Schmedes, A;

    2012-01-01

    Sunscreens absorb ultraviolet B (UVB) and it is a major concern that sunscreen use may lead to vitamin D deficiency.......Sunscreens absorb ultraviolet B (UVB) and it is a major concern that sunscreen use may lead to vitamin D deficiency....

  19. New microencapsulated sunscreens: technology and comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, C; Centini, M; Rossi, C; Ricci, M; Rastrelli, A; Andreassi, M; Buonocore, A; La Rosa, C

    2002-08-21

    The aim of this work is to obtain new technologically improved microencapsulated sunscreens characterised by UV-radiation stability, good substantivity, low toxicity, a better tolerability and easiness to formulation. For this purpose we prepared two different systems using semisynthetic Hyaluronic Acid (HA) benzyl ester and a synthetic polymer (patent pending). We obtained these systems using two different methodologies: emulsification/solvent evaporation and emulsification/solvent extraction. The comparison between the two formulated systems was carried out in terms of their chemical-physical and biological properties.

  20. Sunscreen Keeps People Out In Dangerous Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maggie; Fox; 陈鸣煜

    1999-01-01

    本文最吸引读者、最值得回味的是标题。其含义和主题句一致,彼此呼应。但是,标题更简洁、更精彩,它是一句具有拟人色彩的非人称主语句(ImpersonalSubject Sentence)。标题是否可译为:防晒露将人们置于“毒日”之下! 防晒霜的作用本来是 shield people from the sun’s burning rays。 然而,为什么 people who use sunscreen have higher rates of skin cancer andalso develop more moles(痣). which can become cancerous(致癌的)? 值得好好研究!原来,原因之一是防晒霜使用者的微妙的心理在起作用: …people feel a false sense of security when they use sunscreen. 另一个原因是:本来只能使用4次的一瓶防晒霜,不少人却使用了整整一个夏季。自然, 防晒霜就没有能够发挥其作用。为此,作者出语诙谐: Sunscreen should be something on your weekly or monthly grocery list. 文章的末句是: People should be warned to avoid the sun,period, and told sunscreen is foruse when they have to be out,she added. 其中出现的period不是名词,而是感叹词。它常用于美国口语,意思是:就是这么回事。用于叙述事实或看法后表示强调。另如: I could have prevented them,and I didn’t.Period. 我本可以拦住?

  1. An examination of the relationship among Iiraqi high school students' science achievement and perceptions of the value of education, parent support, and peer support in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mandwee, Samir F.

    The objective of this dissertation was to quantitatively study Iraqi students (N=90) who arrived in the U.S.A. in the last 20 years. A non-experimental, descriptive research design was used for this study, which took place in one of three high schools in a large Midwestern suburban school district, during the 2013--2014 academic year. Three factors, including the students' perception of the value of education, the parental support, and the peer support, were examined using the Facilitating Conditions Questionnaire. The three subscales were part of a larger self-administered questionnaire used by McInerney (1997). In addition to the FCQ survey, a student demographic questionnaire was also used in the survey. Quantitative data from the FCQ survey reported that the students' perception of the value of education and their perception of peer support had a significant relationship with science academic achievement, which was measured for two semesters. Moreover, their peer support was the only predictor for science achievement.

  2. Social cognitive correlates of young adult sport competitors' sunscreen use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nadine C; O'Riordan, David L; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-02-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis (n = 48) completed a sun habits survey. Almost half (n = 113) of the participants used sunscreen inadequately and 30% (n = 70) reported not using sunscreen. In fully adjusted models, social cognitive attributes significantly (p competitors and as a result may be useful in informing behavior change interventions within the sporting context.

  3. Assessing the Current Market of Sunscreen: A Cross-Sectional Study of Sunscreen Availability in Three Metropolitan Counties in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle T. Amber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreen use is recommended for the prevention of sunburn and skin cancer. Little is known regarding sunscreen availability in high versus low income communities. We analyzed sunscreen availability in three large metropolitan counties to determine the relationship between availability and community demographics. We included sun care products in all pharmacies and supermarkets open as of July 2013 in representative high and low income zip codes in Cook County, Illinois, Miami-Dade County, Florida, and San Diego County, California. We recorded the percentage of tanning oil, sunscreens with a sun protection factor (SPF  15, physical sunscreens, spray sunscreens, mean price per ounce (PPO, and mean SPF. Of the total products assessed, 11.0% were tanning oils, with physical sunscreens accounting for only 3.4% of the available sunscreens and 46.2% of sunscreens being spray-on. A comparison between higher and lower income zip codes demonstrated a significantly increased percentage of sunscreens with SPF  15 and higher PPO, even when taking into account SPF. Further studies of sunscreen usage patterns in different populations must take into account sunscreen availability and price, as these significantly differ based on the community demographic.

  4. Understanding the Authoritative Parenting-Early Adolescent Tobacco Use Link; The Mediating Role of Peer Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk-Robinette, Stacey L.; Fletcher, Anne C.; Wright, Kristie

    2002-01-01

    Studied the link between authoritative parenting style and early adolescent tobacco use through the self-reports of 156 eighth graders and independent reports on tobacco use from their friends. Results show that high levels of authoritative parenting are associated with lower levels of tobacco use among target adolescents. (SLD)

  5. Low-Income Hispanic and Latino High School Students' Perceptions of Parent and Peer Academic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Lizbeth; Machida, Sandra K.; Kline, Linda; Huang, Leesa

    2014-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and parental support play important roles in determining academic achievement and have been positively correlated with academic success. It is important to determine if students from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) families perceive less parent support than students from middle-SES families. The participants (n?=?54) were high…

  6. Demystifying Conventional Assumptions: Do African American Parents Anticipate Investing Less toward Their Children's College Costs than Their White Peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekleselassie, Abebayehu Aemero

    2010-01-01

    Some researchers and theorists tend to portray African American parents as lacking the cultural know-how to provide a supportive home environment that enhances college access and success for their children. Since contribution toward college costs is one tangible means by which researchers gauge parents' commitment toward their children's…

  7. Sunscreen use and failures--on site observations on a sun-holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Datta, Pameli; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    sites with sunscreen were exposed to UVR significantly longer and received significantly higher UVR doses than skin sites without sunscreen. They received an average of 0.62 SED [0.0-9.3 SED] (13% of their MED) before the first sunscreen application of the day. The average sunscreen used was SPF15...... and the sunscreen application thickness was in average 0.79 mg cm(-)2 giving an approximated effect of SPF3. For different body parts either the total UVR exposure dose or the UVR exposure time and UVR exposure dose before the first sunscreen application were higher for sunburned than non-sunburned skin sites....... In the final model gender, skin type and UVR to skin (adjusted for SPF and sunscreen application thickness) were significant predictors of sunburning. The sunscreen application thickness of 0.79 mg cm(-)2 was less than the 2 mg cm(-2) used for testing SPF. The late start of sunscreen use and improper...

  8. Clothing reduces the sun protection factor of sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Haedersdal, M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF)....

  9. Clothing reduces the sun protection factor of sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Haedersdal, M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF).......Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF)....

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Disparities in Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Physical Abuse, and Peer Victimization Among Sexual Minority and Sexual Nonminority Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921

  11. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  12. Photophysics of sunscreen molecules in the gas phase: a stepwise approach towards understanding and developing next-generation sunscreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Natércia D. N.; Staniforth, Michael; Stavros, Vasilios G.

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer urges the need for extra photoprotection, which is presently provided by widespread commercially available sunscreen lotions. Apart from having a large absorption cross section in the UVA and UVB regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, the chemical absorbers in these photoprotective products should also be able to dissipate the excess energy in a safe way, i.e. without releasing photoproducts or inducing any further, harmful, photochemistry. While sunscreens are tested for both their photoprotective capability and dermatological compatibility, phenomena occurring at the molecular level upon absorption of UV radiation are largely overlooked. To date, there is only a limited amount of information regarding the photochemistry and photophysics of these sunscreen molecules. However, a thorough understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms by which popular sunscreen molecular constituents dissipate excess energy has the potential to aid in the design of more efficient, safer sunscreens. In this review, we explore the potential of using gas-phase frequency- and time-resolved spectroscopies in an effort to better understand the photoinduced excited-state dynamics, or photodynamics, of sunscreen molecules. Complementary computational studies are also briefly discussed. Finally, the future outlook of expanding these gas-phase studies into the solution phase is considered.

  13. Peer Pressure: An Issue That Crosses Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittredge, Karen; McCarthy, Alice R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent research on peer pressure shows that: parents are important to teens, today's teens face unique challenges, and teaching teens to say no does not mean losing friends. The paper presents parenting tips for countering peer pressure, noting the influence of adult peer pressure on children. A sidebar examines the right age to start talking to…

  14. Middle school girls' STEM education: Using teacher influences, parent encouragement, peer influences, and self efficacy to predict confidence and interest in math and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenberg, Tabetha A.

    Reports are clear that there is an underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. With the current and predicted future shortage of STEM workforce, it is more important than ever to encourage young women to enter these important fields of study. Using Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Model, possible predictors of middle school girls' confidence and interest in math and science where explored. The factors in this study included the macrosystems of age and race/ethnicity and the microsystems of self-efficacy, teacher influences, parent encouragement, and peer influences. Sequential regression analysis results revealed that self-efficacy was a significant predictor for confidence in math and science. While, math/science teacher influences and peer influences were significant predictors of interest and confidence in both math and science. Sequential regression analysis also indicated age was a significant predictor of math interest. The results of this study provides information on the systemic connections among the variables and suggestions on how to impact middle school girls' STEM development, thus impacting the future STEM workforce.

  15. Beyond Parents and Peers: The Role of Important Non-Parental Adults (VIPs) in Adolescent Development in China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen; Farruggia, Susan; Bush, Kevin; Dong, Qi

    2003-01-01

    To understand cross-cultural differences and similarities in the social contexts for adolescent development, American and Chinese 11th graders were surveyed about a non-parental adult who had played an important role in their lives (VIPs). Results showed that adolescents' VIPs in Chinese were more likely to be teachers, to provide support in…

  16. Children's adjustment after parental separation: teacher, peer and self-report in a Greek sample: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzichristou, C

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychosocial and academic competence of children from divorced families in Greece and to compare it with findings in other countries. The sample of the study consisted of fifth and sixth grade elementary school pupils (mean age = 11.3) attending Greek public schools. The "divorced family" group consisted of 26 children, while the control group consisted of all classmates of these students (N = 381) from intact families. Teacher, peer and self-rating instruments were used. Children from divorced families were found to experience serious difficulties in various aspects of their behavior and competence.

  17. Thai Adolescents' Normative Beliefs of the Popularity of Smoking among Peers, Adults, the Successful and Elite, and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Sloan, Arielle; Kironde, Jennifer; West, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of Thailand adolescents regarding the prevalence of smoking, the popularity of smoking among successful/elite elements of society, and disapproval of smoking by friends and parents. These perceptions were analyzed in conjunction with actual smoking and smoking susceptibility rates among the…

  18. Size characterization of metal oxide nanoparticles in commercial sunscreen products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Lim, Jin-Hee; Fong, Andrew; Linder, Sean W.

    2017-07-01

    There is an increase in the usage of engineered metal oxide (TiO2 and ZnO) nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens due to their pleasing esthetics and greater sun protection efficiency. A number of studies have been done concerning the safety of nanoparticles in sunscreen products. In order to do the safety assessment, it is pertinent to develop novel analytical techniques to analyze these nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens. This study is focused on developing analytical techniques that can efficiently determine particle size of metal oxides present in the commercial sunscreens. To isolate the mineral UV filters from the organic matrices, specific procedures such as solvent extraction were identified. In addition, several solvents (hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, and tetrahydrofuran) have been investigated. The solvent extraction using tetrahydrofuran worked well for all the samples investigated. The isolated nanoparticles were characterized by using several different techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, differential centrifugal sedimentation, and x-ray diffraction. Elemental analysis mapping studies were performed to obtain individual chemical and morphological identities of the nanoparticles. Results from the electron microscopy techniques were compared against the bulk particle sizing techniques. All of the sunscreen products tested in this study were found to contain nanosized (≤100 nm) metal oxide particles with varied shapes and aspect ratios, and four among the 11 products were showed to have anatase TiO2.

  19. Benefits of Anti-Aging Actives in Sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lintner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreens are functional, utilitarian, cosmetic products. The criteria of purchase are different from those for skin care and make-up. Companies are trying to add glamour and value to basic sunscreens by incorporating “active” ingredients (other than UV filters into these formulas and by communicating about the additional benefits, be they anti-aging, moisturizing, firming, anti-wrinkle, etc. While some of these ideas of additional ingredients make sense as supplementary skin protection, some others do not afford much benefit in view of the infrequent application and short period of usage. The present article reviews some of these ideas and presents a few active ingredients that might be of value in such a context, even if substantiation of such additional claims in sunscreens is often lacking.

  20. Sunscreen Product Performance and Other Determinants of Consumer Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Kwa, Michael; Agarwal, Ashwin; Rademaker, Alfred; Kundu, Roopal V

    2016-08-01

    Sunscreen use is a modifiable behavior that can help reduce the risk for skin cancer, prevent sunburns, mitigate photoaging, and treat photosensitive dermatoses. A better understanding of consumer sunscreen preferences would inform dermatologists in their own recommendations. To determine the characteristics and the most commonly cited positive and negative features of highly rated sunscreens described by consumers. The top 1 percentile of sunscreen products on Amazon.com as of December 2015 was selected according to average consumer review (≥4 stars) and the highest number of consumer reviews. Descriptive data for each product were collected from the product page and manufacturer claims. The top 5 "most helpful" reviews (positive and critical) were analyzed and coded by a consensus qualitative coding scheme, which included positive and negative descriptors in 6 major categories according to consumer comments: affordability, cosmetic elegance, separate ratings, product ingredients, product performance, and skin compatibility. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to determine whether characteristics of each product (eg, American Academy of Dermatology [AAD] criteria, sun protection factor [SPF], or vehicle) could be used to predict price per ounce. The number (percentage) of comments categorized by major themes and subthemes was determined. Illustrative consumer comments were also collected. There were 6500 products categorized as sunscreens in the Amazon.com, online catalog. Of the 65 products evaluated, the median price per ounce was $3.32 (range, $0.68-$23.47). Of products, 40% (26 of 65) did not adhere to AAD guidelines (broad spectrum, SPF ≥30, and water resistant) for sunscreens. Vehicles, AAD, and sunscreen type predicted a higher price per ounce. Cosmetic elegance was the most cited positive feature (198 of 325 [61%] comments) followed by product performance (146 of 325 [45%] comments) and skin type compatibility (78 of 325 [24%] comments). In this

  1. Heroin use among Miami's public school students, 1992: peers and the "drug subculture" overwhelm parents, religion and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnold, B M

    1996-01-01

    This analysis examines the use of heroin by 481 adolescents in Dade County, Florida public schools during 1992. Statistically significant factors which tend to increase the probability of heroin use by adolescents include: peer use of heroin and students' involvement in school clubs. Not significantly related to heroin use is their access to the drug, their ethnic background or race, and their gender. Although not statistically significant, adolescents were more likely to use heroin if they knew of the risks associated with heroin use. There are no statistically significant variables which inhibit the rise of heroin by Miami adolescents. When religion was an important part of their lives, they were at lower risk for heroin use, but this was not significant. Also not significantly related to heroin use are a number of other variables, including family-related variables (whether adolescents live with their mothers, fathers, or alone: and whether someone in the family has a problem with drugs or alcohol). Similarly, early cigarette smoking and alcohol rise did not serve as gateways to later heroin use. Academic performance, and extracurricular school activities (athletics, music, and other activities) were all unrelated to the use of heroin by adolescents, with the exception of involvement in school clubs which substantially increased the risk of heroin use.

  2. How Do High School Seniors See Their Future? Parental and Peer Influences on Their Personal and Professional Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovu Mihai-Bogdan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Future orientation is a multidimensional and multistage phenomenon. Studies have indicated that how adolescents anticipate and plan for their future is greatly influenced by the particular context in which they are placed, but most of the research in this area has been conducted with adolescents from western cultures. Aim: This study examined the personal (getting married, moving with the partner, having a child and professional (having a job, starting a business future planning of adolescents in contemporary Romania and its relation with adolescents’ background and with parents and friends support. Method: We administered a questionnaire measuring their future orientation and support from parents and friends to 3524 high school seniors from Romania. Results: Adolescents’ personal future planning varies across different life domains. Females were more likely to plan moving with the partner and getting married, while males were more likely to plan a career option. Family had an effect on professional plans, but the effect is negative, while friends were positive associated with all the future planning

  3. The impact of parental and peer social support on dating violence perpetration and victimization among female adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tara N; Branch, Kathryn A; Ray, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the role social support may play in reducing the risk of adolescent dating violence perpetration and victimization. This study is a longitudinal analysis of the independent impact of social support from friends and parents on the risk of emotional and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization among a large sample of female youth (n = 346). Findings indicate that 22% of the sample indicated perpetrating physical dating violence against a partner, whereas almost 16% revealed being the victim of physical dating violence; 34% of the sample indicated perpetrating emotional dating violence against a partner, whereas almost 39% revealed being the victim of emotional dating violence. Negative binomial regression models indicated that increased levels of support from friends at Time 1 was associated with significantly less physical and emotional dating violence perpetration and emotional (but not physical) dating violence victimization at Time 2. Parental support was not significantly related to dating violence in any model. Implications for dating violence curriculum and future research are addressed.

  4. 同伴拒绝、同伴接纳与农村留守儿童的心理适应:亲子亲合与逆境信念的作用*%Peer Rejection, Peer Acceptance and Psychological Adjustment of Left-Behind Children:The Roles of Parental Cohesion and Children’s Cultural Beliefs about Adversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The widening gap in societal and economic development between urban and rural communities and the relaxation of migration restrictions in China since the 1980s have led large numbers of rural laborers to leave their countryside homes in search of better job opportunities in urban areas. As a result of this wave of migration, millions of children were left behind by their migrant parent in rural communities, in the care of the nonmigrant parent, the children’s grandparents or other relatives, even some are left to care for themselves. Long-term and long-distance family separation and lack of face-to-face communications characterize the interactions between migrant parent(s) and their left-behind offspring, and this relative absence of parental affection puts left-behind children at a disadvantage compared with children from nonmigrant families. Although left-behind children were reported to have a higher probability of risk for maladjustment than their peers from nonmigrant families, literatures suggest that there are considerable variations in the adaptations of left-behind children; while some children are at a high risk for delays in adaptive functioning, some do not experience adaptive problems, and still some even show positive development. A key issue with important preventive and theoretical implications in the study of left-behind children involves the identification of potentially protective processes that support positive adaptation in children from migrant families. The present study was designed to examine the moderate effects of parental cohesion and children’s cultural beliefs about adversity on the relationship between peer rejection/acceptance and adaptive functioning by comparing left-behind children with children from nonmigrant families. A total of 424 rural children were recruited from a rural area in Henan province of China, including 76 children from two-parent-migrant families, 133 children from father-migrant families, and 215 children

  5. Photon Harvesting in Sunscreen-Based Functional Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sadananda; Bera, Rajesh; Das, Somnath; Nayak, Sandip K; Pramanik, Amitava; Patra, Amitava

    2015-12-01

    The ultraviolet light component in the solar spectrum is known to cause several harmful effects, such as allergy, skin ageing, and skin cancer. Thus, current research attention has been paid to the design and fundamental understanding of sunscreen-based materials. One of the most abundantly used sunscreen molecules is Avobenzone (AB), which exhibits two tautomers. Here, we highlight the preparation of spherically shaped nanoparticles from the sunscreen molecule AB as well as from sunscreen-molecule-encapsulated polymer nanoparticles in aqueous media and study their fundamental photophysical properties by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy. Steady-state studies confirm that the AB molecule is in the keto and enol forms in tetrahydrofuran, whereas the enol form is stable in the case of both AB nanoparticles and AB-encapsulated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles. Thus, the keto-enol transformation of AB molecules is restricted to a nanoenvironment. An enhancement of photostability in both the nanoparticle and PMMA-encapsulated forms under UV light irradiation is observed. The efficient excited energy transfer (60 %) from AB to porphyrin molecules opens up further prospects in potential applications as light-harvesting systems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Photoprotection: part II. Sunscreen: development, efficacy, and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rebecca; Osterwalder, Uli; Wang, Steven Q; Burnett, Mark; Lim, Henry W

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the naturally occurring, physical, and systemic photoprotective agents reviewed in part I, topical ultraviolet radiation filters are an important cornerstone of photoprotection. Sunscreen development, efficacy, testing, and controversies are reviewed in part II of this continuing medical education article. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of Titanium Dioxide in Commercial Sunscreens by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    example erythema, caused by solar ultraviolet radiation. ... sunscreens must offer broad-spectrum protection against both the UVB and UVA ... iron oxide (Fe2O3); with TiO2 being the most commonly used. These oxides scatter ... remains invisible on the skin. ... used, titanium dioxide has been detected no further than the.

  8. Remedies for common family ailments: 5. Sunscreen creams and lotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, A

    1994-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to strong sunlight significantly increases the risk of skin cancer. Sunscreens provide useful protection from sunburn if correctly used. Some sunscreens contain chemical compounds which work by absorbing UVB wavelengths. Others contain chemicals which act as reflectants of UVA waves, eg titanium dioxide. Stars on the packet indicate how much UVA protection the product provides-the more stars, the more protection. Products are labelled with their sunscreen protection factor (SPF). The higher the factor, the greater the protection. Products used on children should have an SPF of at least 15. Fair-skinned and freckled people also need a high SPF as they burn easily. Use products according to the manufacturer's instructions and reapply at intervals and after swimming. Some products combine sunscreen properties with being water resistant perspiration-resistant or insect-repellent. Avoid folklore remedies like coconut oil. It is better to go or a scientifically formulated, branded product. A properly formulated after-sun lotion is advisable in order to counteract the drying effects of the sun on the skin.

  9. Sunscreen Use on the Dorsal Hands at the Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald B. Warren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since skin of the dorsal hands is a known site for the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, an epidemiologic investigation was needed to determine if beachgoers apply sunscreen to the dorsal aspect of their hands as frequently as they apply it to other skin sites. Aim. The aim of the current study was to compare the use of sunscreen on the dorsal hands to other areas of the body during subtropical late spring and summer sunlight exposure at the beach. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional survey from a convenience sample of beachgoers was designed to evaluate respondent understanding and protective measures concerning skin cancer on the dorsal hands in an environment with high natural UVR exposure. Results. A total of 214 surveys were completed and analyzed. Less than half of subjects (105, 49% applied sunscreen to their dorsal hands. Women applied sunscreen to the dorsal hands more than men (55% women versus 40% men, . Higher Fitzpatrick Skin Type respondents were less likely to protect their dorsal hands from ultraviolet radiation (. Conclusions. More public education focused on dorsal hand protection from ultraviolet radiation damage is necessary to reduce the risk for squamous cell carcinomas of the hands.

  10. Sunscreen use on the dorsal hands at the beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Donald B; Riahi, Ryan R; Hobbs, Jason B; Wagner, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    Background. Since skin of the dorsal hands is a known site for the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, an epidemiologic investigation was needed to determine if beachgoers apply sunscreen to the dorsal aspect of their hands as frequently as they apply it to other skin sites. Aim. The aim of the current study was to compare the use of sunscreen on the dorsal hands to other areas of the body during subtropical late spring and summer sunlight exposure at the beach. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional survey from a convenience sample of beachgoers was designed to evaluate respondent understanding and protective measures concerning skin cancer on the dorsal hands in an environment with high natural UVR exposure. Results. A total of 214 surveys were completed and analyzed. Less than half of subjects (105, 49%) applied sunscreen to their dorsal hands. Women applied sunscreen to the dorsal hands more than men (55% women versus 40% men, P = 0.04). Higher Fitzpatrick Skin Type respondents were less likely to protect their dorsal hands from ultraviolet radiation (P = 0.001). Conclusions. More public education focused on dorsal hand protection from ultraviolet radiation damage is necessary to reduce the risk for squamous cell carcinomas of the hands.

  11. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.35 Cosmetics containing... protect the color of the product). To avoid consumer misunderstanding, if a cosmetic product contains...

  12. Lip sun protection factor of a lipstick sunscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard, B; Ademola, J

    2001-01-01

    There is a well-documented need for effective human UVA and UVB photoprotection. Since there are important anatomical variations, the sun protection factor (SPF) of a lipstick sunscreen was measured on the anatomical site intended for use. The SPF tests were performed according to Federal US and European COLIPA guidelines. Prior to performing a test on the lip, the minimal erythemal dose (MED) of the unprotected back skin was determined. Subsequently, the sunscreen SPF was measured on the anatomical target site (lip). The evaluator was blinded with respect to scoring the SPF of each sunscreen treatment. Individual test sites were assigned to one of the following treatment conditions: (1) no treatment (MED of unprotected skin); (2) test formulation; (3) reference standard. The MED on unprotected back skin was found to be 25% lower than on unprotected lip skin. The SPF of the lipstick sunscreen was measured 2 units lower than the SPF determined in the classical way on the back skin. It was hypothesized that the higher MED of the lower lip compared with back skin was due to the adaptation of this tissue to the continuous exposure to UV radiation. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Social Cognitive Correlates of Young Adult Sport Competitors' Sunscreen Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nadine C.; O'Riordan, David L.; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-01-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis…

  14. Parents, peers and pornography: the influence of formative sexual scripts on adult HIV sexual risk behaviour among Black men in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussen, Sophia A; Bowleg, Lisa; Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Malebranche, David J

    2012-01-01

    Black men in the USA experience disproportionately high rates of HIV infection, particularly in the Southeastern part of the country. We conducted 90 qualitative in-depth interviews with Black men living in the state of Georgia and analysed the transcripts using Sexual Script Theory to: (1) characterise the sources and content of sexual scripts that Black men were exposed to during their childhood and adolescence and (2) describe the potential influence of formative scripts on adult HIV sexual risk behaviour. Our analyses highlighted salient sources of cultural scenarios (parents, peers, pornography, sexual education and television), interpersonal scripts (early sex- play, older female partners, experiences of child abuse) and intrapsychic scripts that participants described. Stratification of participant responses based on sexual-risk behaviour revealed that lower- and higher-risk men described exposure to similar scripts during their formative years; however, lower-risk men reported an ability to cognitively process and challenge the validity of risk-promoting scripts that they encountered. Implications for future research are discussed.

  15. Are Peer Educators Really Peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Amy Badura; Millard, Michele; Shah, Kinjal

    2008-01-01

    Objective, Participants and Methods: To determine whether peer educators are considered peers by their audiences, the authors compared 28 peer educators and 28 college students on their personal qualities using self-report surveys. Results: Students who wanted to become peer educators reported higher self-esteem, greater leadership skills, and…

  16. Sunscreen use and failures--on site observations on a sun-holiday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bibi; Datta, Pameli; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    With this observation study we aimed to determine how and when sunscreen was used. 20 sun seekers were observed during a one-week sun holiday in Hurghada, Egypt. The sunscreen application thickness was related to part of body, time outdoors, exposure to ultraviolet radiation and to sunburning. Skin sites with sunscreen were exposed to UVR significantly longer and received significantly higher UVR doses than skin sites without sunscreen. They received an average of 0.62 SED [0.0-9.3 SED] (13% of their MED) before the first sunscreen application of the day. The average sunscreen used was SPF15 and the sunscreen application thickness was in average 0.79 mg cm(-)2 giving an approximated effect of SPF3. For different body parts either the total UVR exposure dose or the UVR exposure time and UVR exposure dose before the first sunscreen application were higher for sunburned than non-sunburned skin sites. In the final model gender, skin type and UVR to skin (adjusted for SPF and sunscreen application thickness) were significant predictors of sunburning. The sunscreen application thickness of 0.79 mg cm(-)2 was less than the 2 mg cm(-2) used for testing SPF. The late start of sunscreen use and improper application thickness was ineffective in preventing sunburn, and therefore could not compensate for the risk of prolonged UVR exposure and high UVR doses. Our results lead us to suspect that the protective effect of sunscreen use against DNA-damage, and thereby skin cancer, is minimal the way sunscreen is used under real sun holiday conditions.

  17. 父母婚姻冲突对儿童同伴关系的影响%Effect of children's perception of parental marital conflicts on their peer relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红香; 郑建梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the impact of parental marital conflict on childrens peer relationship, and to provide the reference for constructing harmonious family atmosphere and to promote the healthy growth of children. Methods By using Children's Perception of Inter-parental Conflict Scale (CPIC) and peer nomination scales, a total of 748 subjects were selected randomly from Grade 4 - 6 in Linfen City. Results Children's perception of inter-parental conflicts more frequently leads to self-attribution; Children s peer relationships were affected by the difference of gender and family background (family in rural/urban area) ; Children's perception of parental maritalrconfricts had a significant impact on their peer relationships. Conclusion Parental marital conflict affects the children's peer relationship, which has also influenced the children's physical and mental health.%目的 研究父母婚姻冲突对儿童同伴关系的影响,为构建和谐家庭、促进儿童健康成长提供参考.方法 选取山西省临汾市6所小学,每所小学四至六年级各整群抽取1个班共计18个班,采用婚姻冲突儿童知觉量表和同伴提名法,对748名小学四至六年级学生进行问卷调查.结果 儿童对父母婚姻冲突的感知较多进行自我归因;儿童的同伴关系具有性别与城乡差异;儿童关于父母婚姻冲突的感知对其同伴关系产生了影响.结论 父母婚姻冲突影响了儿童的同伴关系,进而影响了儿童的身心健康.

  18. New Parent Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your parenting and improve your childrearing skills. Everyone wins with responsible parenting. Protect Your Children from Health ... or peer aggression, is more common than you think. It consists of any behavior – verbal or physical – ...

  19. Comprehensive Review of Ultraviolet Radiation and the Current Status on Sunscreens

    OpenAIRE

    Dale Wilson, Brummitte; Moon, Summer; Armstrong, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In the past, manufacturers’ labeling of sunscreen varied greatly, confusing the consumers regarding efficacy and the appropriate photoprotection provided by their products. Therefore, in June 2011, the United States Food and Drug Administration issued new guidelines for sunscreen labeling. Sunscreen products are over-the-counter drugs; therefore, they are regulated by the United States Food and Drug Administration to determine safety, efficacy, and labeling. This article discusses ultraviolet...

  20. An initial peer configuration algorithm for multi-streaming peer-to-peer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    The growth of the Internet technology enables us to use network applications for streaming audio and video. Especially, real-time streaming services using peer-to-peer (P2P) technology are currently emerging. An important issue on P2P streaming is how to construct a logical network (overlay network) on a physical network (IP network). In this paper, we propose an initial peer configuration algorithm for a multi-streaming peer-to-peer network. The proposed algorithm is based on a mesh-pull approach where any node has multiple parent and child nodes as neighboring nodes, and content transmitted between these neighboring nodes depends on their parent-child relationships. Our simulation experiments show that the proposed algorithm improves the number of joining node and traffic load.

  1. Electromagnetic sunscreen model: design of experiments on particle specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lécureux, Marie; Deumié, Carole; Enoch, Stefan; Sergent, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    We report a numerical study on sunscreen design and optimization. Thanks to the combined use of electromagnetic modeling and design of experiments, we are able to screen the most relevant parameters of mineral filters and to optimize sunscreens. Several electromagnetic modeling methods are used depending on the type of particles, density of particles, etc. Both the sun protection factor (SPF) and the UVB/UVA ratio are considered. We show that the design of experiments' model should include interactions between materials and other parameters. We conclude that the material of the particles is a key parameter for the SPF and the UVB/UVA ratio. Among the materials considered, none is optimal for both. The SPF is also highly dependent on the size of the particles.

  2. 家庭教养影响儿童同伴关系的路径分析%A Path Analysis of Parenting Style Impacting on Children's Peer Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奇勇; 李庶泉

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨家庭教养对儿童同伴关系的路径模型.方法:采用父母教养方式评价量表、一般自我效能感量表、儿童社交焦虑量表和同伴提名法对小学四到六年级学生进行测评.结果:观测数据与修正后的非饱和递归模型非常拟合,不同类型儿童在父、母家庭教养各维度上存在显著性差异.结论:①自我效能感与社交焦虑在家庭教养与儿童同伴关系间起中介作用.②受欢迎儿童的正向教养和自我效能感水平最高,而问题儿童的负向教养和焦虑水平均显著高于受欢迎儿童.%Objective: To examine the path through which parenting style impacted on peer relationship.Methods: EMBU, GSES, SASC and peer nominations were used to survey elementary school children from the forth grade to the sixth.Results: Two unsaturated recursive models had good model fit and all regression weights were significant.There exited significant differences in dimensions of EMBU across children's types.Conclusion: ①Self-efficacy and social anxiety mediated the relations between parenting style and peer relationship.②The acceptable children have gotten more positive parenting and self-efficacy than the other children, on the contrary, the problematic children have gotten more negative parenting and anxiety than the acceptable children.

  3. Facilitating sunscreen use in women by a theory-based online intervention: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Catrinel; Schüz, Natalie; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2012-03-01

    This study compares a motivational skin cancer prevention approach with a volitional planning and self-efficacy intervention to enhance regular sunscreen use. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted with 205 women (mean age 25 years) in three groups: motivational; volitional; and control. Sunscreen use, action planning, coping planning and coping self-efficacy were assessed at three points in time. The volitional intervention improved sunscreen use. Coping planning emerged as the only mediator between the intervention and sunscreen use at Time 3. Findings point to the role played by coping planning as an ingredient of sun protection interventions.

  4. Skin nonpenetrating sunscreens for cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Elka; Godin, Biana

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation produces harmful effects on the skin including sunburn, local immunosuppression, skin photoaging, and cutaneous malignancies. Although application of sunscreens is the "gold standard" for protecting the skin from UV radiation, studies have shown that currently used sunscreens can cause adverse skin and systemic reactions, owing to their penetration into the viable cutaneous strata and to transdermal absorption. This paper presents new nonpermeating sunscreens (NPSUN) suitable for use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The basic idea behind the design of the new photoprotectors was to immobilize UV-absorbing moieties in the Jojoba oil chemical backbone. The physicochemical characteristics of NPSUNs allow these derivatives to remain confined to the upper stratum corneum where the sunscreen molecule acts, with no further clearance to deeper dermal strata or systemic circulation. As an example, no permeation across the skin of methoxycinnamate-NPSUN was observed during 24-hour in vitro experiments, after topical application of either unformulated substances or of methoxycinnamate-NPSUNs formulated in oil-in-water cream, in water-in-oil cream, or in Jojoba oil. Another approach to increase the photoprotective effect against the UV radiation is targeting the delivery of alpha tocopherol into the deeper skin layers and across the cell membranes. This is necessary for optimal photoprotection and prevention of malignant processes. For this purpose, ethosomal vitamin E compositions were designed, characterized, and tested. Efficient intracellular and dermal accumulation of vitamin E from ethosomes was demonstrated. A good clinical strategy could be the use of NPSUNs during direct UV exposure followed by the application of alpha-tocopherol compositions after short- or long-term solar radiation.

  5. Phosphates nanoparticles doped with zinc and manganese for sunscreens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, T.S. de, E-mail: tatiana.araujo@ifs.edu.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Sergipe, Sergipe (Brazil); Souza, S.O. de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe (Brazil); Miyakawa, W. [Divisao de Fotonica - Instituto de Estudos Avancados, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Sousa, E.M.B. de [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN/CNEN, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2010-12-01

    The crescent number of skin cancer worldwide gives impulse to the development of sunscreen that can both prevent skin cancer and also permit gradual tanning. In this work, the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate nanocrystalline powders was investigated in order to obtain materials with optical properties and appropriate size for sunscreen. Pure, Zn{sup 2+}-doped and Mn{sup 2+}-doped hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) were produced by the wet precipitation process using diammonium phosphate, calcium nitrate, ammonium hydroxide, zinc nitrate and manganese nitrate as reagents. The pure and doped HAP precipitates were calcined at 500 deg. C for 1 h, while the {beta}-TCP (pure and doped) were calcined at 800 deg. C for 2 h. The powder samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet (UV)-vis spectroscopy. XRD and EDX showed the formation of the expected materials (HAP and {beta}-TCP) without toxic components. AFM micrographs showed aggregated ellipsoidal particles with dimensions smaller than 120 nm. Optical absorption spectra showed that the calcium phosphate produced in this work absorbs in the UV region. The obtained materials presented structural, morphological and optical properties that allow their use as the active centers in sunscreens.

  6. Between Party, Parents and Peers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the lived contradictions entailed in being a young member of the Chinese Communist Party (ccp) today. The focus is on how political and existential issues intersect. It explores party membership as a strategy for personal mobility among Beijing elite university students...

  7. Leveraging public health nurses for disaster risk communication in Fukushima City: a qualitative analysis of nurses' written records of parenting counseling and peer discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Local public health nurses (PHNs) have been recognized as the main health service providers in communities in Japan. The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 has, however, created a major challenge for them in responding to mothers’ concerns. This was in part due to difficulties in assessing, understanding and communicating health risks on low-dose radiation exposure. In order to guide the development of risk communication plans, this study sought to investigate mothers’ primary concerns and possible solutions perceived by a core healthcare profession like the PHNs. Methods A total of 150 records from parenting counseling sessions conducted between PHNs and mothers who have attended mandatory 18-month health checkups for their children at the Fukushima City Health and Welfare Center in 2010, 2011 (year of disaster) and 2012 were examined. Discussion notes of three peer discussions among PHNs organized in response to the nuclear disaster in 2012 and 2013 were also analyzed. All transcribed data were first subjected to text mining to list the words according to their frequencies and inter-relationships. The Steps Coding and Theorization method was then undertaken as a framework for qualitative analysis. Results PHNs noted mothers to have considerable needs for information on radiation risks as they impact on decisions related to relocations, concerns for child safety, and experiences with interpersonal conflicts within the family owing to differing risk perceptions. PHNs identified themselves as the information channels in the community, recommended the building of their risk communication capacities to support residents in making well-informed decisions, and advocated for self-measurement of radiation levels to increase residents’ sense of control. PHNs also suggested a more standardized form of information dissemination and an expansion of community-based counseling services. Conclusions Inadequate risk communication on radiation in the Fukushima

  8. 76 FR 35665 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Enforcement Policy for Over-the-Counter Sunscreen Drug Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Enforcement Policy for Over-the- Counter Sunscreen Drug Products Marketed Without an Approved Application... ``Enforcement Policy--OTC Sunscreen Drug Products Marketed Without an Approved Application.'' The draft guidance... enforcement policy for certain OTC sunscreen products marketed without an approved new drug application....

  9. Peer Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Asher Silberman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Peer comment on: Crime, Controversy and the Comments Section: Discussing archaeological looting, trafficking, and the illicit antiquities trade online by Meg Lambert and Donna Yates

  10. Sunscreen products impair the early developmental stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Damiani, Elisabetta; Marcellini, Francesca; Falugi, Carla; Tiano, Luca; Brugè, Francesca; Danovaro, Roberto

    2017-08-10

    Marine ecosystems are increasingly threatened by the release of personal care products. Among them, sunscreens are causing concern either for the effects on skin protection from UV radiation and for the potential impacts on marine life. Here, we assessed the UVA protective efficacy of three sunscreens on human dermal fibroblasts, including two common products in Europe and USA, and an eco-friendly product. The sunscreens' effects were also tested on Paracentrotus lividus, a marine species possibly threatened by these contaminants. We found that all tested sunscreens had similar efficacy in protecting human fibroblasts from UVA radiation. Conversely, the sunscreens' effects on embryo-larval development of P. lividus were dependent on the product tested. In particular, the USA sunscreen, containing benzophenone-3, homosalate and preservatives, caused the strongest impact on the sea urchin development, whereas the eco-friendly sunscreen determined the weakest effects. These results suggest that although the tested products protected human skin cells from UVA-induced damage, they might severely affect the success of recruitment and survival of the sea urchin. Our findings underline the importance of developing eco-friendly sunscreens for minimising or avoiding the impact on marine life while protecting human skin from UV damage.

  11. 75 FR 30838 - Drometrizole Trisiloxane Eligibility for Potential Inclusion in Sunscreen Monograph; Over-the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Eligibility for Potential Inclusion in Sunscreen Monograph; Over-the-Counter Sunscreen Drug Products for Human... monograph. We reviewed a time and extent application (TEA) for drometrizole trisiloxane and determined that it is eligible to be considered for inclusion in our OTC drug monograph system. We will evaluate the...

  12. Motives of Belgian adolescents for using sunscreen: The role of action plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, H. de; Mesters, I.; Riet, J.P. van 't; Willems, K.; Reubsaet, A.

    2006-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to analyze the differences between adolescents who use sunscreen frequently and those who do not. The second objective was to explore the importance of specific action plans when planning sunscreen use. Data was gathered among 602 Belgian secondary school studen

  13. Psychosocial aspects associated with use of sunscreen, natural sunlight exposure, and artificial tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventenilla, Jessica; França, Katlein; Lotti, Torello; Keri, Jonette

    2017-02-08

    Natural and artificial tanning have become very popular in Western culture, yet at the same time, there is still a psychodermatology concern for this activity. Not much has been examined with the psychological aspects of tanning and sunscreen use. The purpose of this study is to examine the psychosocial effects associated with sun protection, natural, and artificial tanning among individuals 18 years old or older visiting the University of Miami Dermatology Outpatient Clinic. We distributed a survey on tanning and sunscreen use to 150 dermatology outpatients, hospital employees, and hospital visitors for three weeks during June/July 2015 asking about how often they tan, use sunscreen, and how they feel about this topic. Demographics, such as gender, ethnicity, and education were taken into consideration to examine the different responses in each category. Our results suggest that people's perception to tanning and sunscreen use have evolved over time. Most people in South Florida nowadays feel guilty when exposed to natural sunlight without sunscreen and do not tan frequently. The majority of the people, specifically women, utilize the recommended amount of sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 30-50. However, we can conclude that communication between social media and the general public can affect people's decision-making on tanning and sunscreen use with physician advice being the most effective method of encouraging people to use sunscreen. This study will add to the growing knowledge about psychodermatology.

  14. El Papel de los Padres en el Desarrollo de la Competencia Social (The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  15. Peer to Peer Network Mergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYunfei; CHENChangjia

    2005-01-01

    We propose the conception and infrastructure of peer-to-peer network mergence. We show that Peer to peer (P2P for short) mergence is possible and advantageous in file sharing, balance of scalability and performance, higher searching efficiency and security. We alsoput forward four possible mergence schemes-bigger chord,gateway chord, overlay chord and line chord and compare their performance. We find that overlay chord could achieve the same performance as that of bigger chord. Finally one practical solution is proposed to illustrate our idea.

  16. Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who are unsure of themselves, new to the group, or inexperienced with peer pressure may also be more likely to give in. ... stand that makes you look uncool to your group. But these situations can be ... up to peer pressure, but it does take courage — yours: Listen to ...

  17. Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Keith J.

    2009-01-01

    Peer assessment is an arrangement for learners to consider and specify the level, value, or quality of a product or performance of other equal-status learners. Products to be assessed can include writing, oral presentations, portfolios, test performance, or other skilled behaviors. Peer assessment can be summative or formative. A formative view is…

  18. SPF measurement and cytotoxicity of sunscreen agents in cosmetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.Y. [Cheiljedang, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, S.W. [Han Nam University, Tae-Jeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    Consumers have recently preferred to purchase extensive UV intercepting products, which are waterproof and free from side effects on skin. During the testing of cytotoxicity (in-vitro) in neutral red (NR) method, cell survival ratio of UV-B interceptors decreased to just above 0.08 w/v%, and it was observed that the UV-A interceptors the ratio also decreased to just above 0.06 w/v%. In addition patch-tests of inorganic UV interceptors resulted in no skin irritation even below 10.0 and 11.25. In absorption curves, UV-B was most suitable for octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) and UV-A for butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane (BMDM). For this reason, Nylonpoly{sup TM} UVA/UVB the material of OMC and BMDM coated with Nylon and polyethylene, was used as the organic UV interceptor. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) was used as inorganic UV interceptors. The appropriate mixture ratio of ZnO and TiO{sub 2} was 6 to 4:6% of ZnO, 4% of TiO{sub 2} and 5% of Nylonpoly{sup TM} UVA/UVB were all combined and added to our sunscreen cream. The SPF value of in-vitro was 38.9. In practical application, each sun protection factor (SPF) duration of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion and water-in-silicone (W/S) emulsion containing sunscreen cream of the same content shoed that W/S type of sunscreen cream was 5 times as durable as the other. Therefore, this product is fit for use in swimming, climbing or skiing. This research is to minimize skin trouble caused by UV interceptors and to make one with proper softness, skin safety and UV intercepting efficiency.

  19. A new biocompatible nanocomposite as a promising constituent of sunscreens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Rehab M., E-mail: rehabamin@niles.edu.eg [Department of Laser Applications in Photochemistry, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University (Egypt); Elfeky, Souad A. [Department of Laser Applications in Photochemistry, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University (Egypt); University of Bath, Department of Chemistry, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Verwanger, Thomas; Krammer, Barbara [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2016-06-01

    Skin naturally uses antioxidants to protect itself from the damaging effects of sunlight. If this is not sufficient, other measures have to be taken. Like this, hydroxyapatite has the potential to be applied as an active constituent of sunscreens since calcium phosphate absorbs in the ultraviolet region (UV). The objective of the present work was to synthesize a hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposite (HAp/AA-NC) as a new biocompatible constituent of sunscreens and to test its efficiency with skin cell models. The synthesized HAp/AA-NC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, absorption spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction analysis. The protective effect of the construct was tested with respect to viability and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of primary human dermal fibroblasts (SKIN) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). Both cell lines were irradiated with UV light, λ{sub max} = 254 nm with a fluence of 25 mJ cm{sup −2} to mimic the effect of UV radiation of sunlight on the skin. Results showed that HAp/AA-NC had a stimulating effect on the cell viability of both, HaCaT and SKIN cells, relative to the irradiated control. Intracellular ROS significantly decreased in UV irradiated cells when treated with HAp/AA-NC. We conclude that the synthesized HAp/AA-NC have been validated in vitro as a skin protector against the harmful effect of UV-induced ROS. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposites were synthesized and characterized. • The prepared composites had a stimulating effect on the skin cell viability. • Reactive oxygen species decreased in UV-irradiated nanocomposite treated cells. • Hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposites could be used in sunscreens.

  20. Rhetorical gamesmanship in the nano debates over sunscreens and nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berube, David M., E-mail: dmberube@ncsu.ed [North Carolina State University, Department of Communication, Public Communication on Science and Technology (PCOST) Project (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Communication of risk profiles associated with sunscreens incorporating nanoparticles has been challenging when some communicators shift risk profiles from highly problematic nanoparticles to others, which are much less problematic. This article vets a popular publication from a civic advocacy group that cited scientific research papers to make environmental health and safety claims. The phenomenon of risk profile shifts is demonstrated by re-examining the scientific articles being cited. In addition, the authors for correspondence for each of the articles cited were interviewed via email and their comments about the claims made are included.

  1. Substantivity of sunscreens -in vitro evaluation of the transdermal permeation characteristics of some benzophenone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, D; Saettone, M F; Centini, M; Anselmi, C

    1993-04-01

    Synopsis The in vitro permeation through excised hairless mouse skin of a series of 4-O-(N, N-dimethylaminoalkyl)-benzophenones, non-quaternarized and quaternarized, and of two commercial benzophenone sunscreens, taken as reference compounds, was investigated. The aim of the study was to verify the skin penetration of the highly skin-substantive quaternary ammonium derivatives, in comparison with their parent, non-quaternarized compounds. While the quaternary derivatives proved unable to permeate the skin during the period of observation (45 h), their parent amine hydrochlorides and the reference sunscreens (2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzophenone-5-sulphonic acid and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxy-benzophenone 5,5'-sodium disulphonate), showed appreciable transdermal fluxes. These data indicate that the presence of a quaternary ammonium group in a molecule, besides inducing a high affinity for cutaneous keratin, may result in hindered or reduced transdermal (and possibly systemic) absorption. Both features may contribute in improving the safety of a cosmetic sunscreen. Résumé On a analysé la pénétration in vitro au travers de peau excisée de souris sans poils d'une gamme de 4-O-(N, N-dimethylaminoalkyl)benzophenones quaternisés et non quaternisés ainsi que de 2 écrans solaires au benzophénone commercialisés utilisés comme témoins. Cette étude avait pour but de vérifier la pénétration dermique de dérivés d'ammonium quaternaire hautement substantifs sur la peau, par rapport à des composés non quatenaires de la même famille. Tandis que les dérivés quaternaires se sont avérés incapables de pénétrer la peau durant la période d'observation (45 heures), les hydrochlorures d'amine et les écrans solaires témoins (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-acide sulfonique et 2,2'-dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxy-benzophenone 5,5'-disulphonate de sodium), ont montré des flux transdermiques appréciales. Ces données indiquent que la présence d'un groupe d

  2. Peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twaij, H; Oussedik, S; Hoffmeyer, P

    2014-04-01

    The maintenance of quality and integrity in clinical and basic science research depends upon peer review. This process has stood the test of time and has evolved to meet increasing work loads, and ways of detecting fraud in the scientific community. However, in the 21st century, the emphasis on evidence-based medicine and good science has placed pressure on the ways in which the peer review system is used by most journals. This paper reviews the peer review system and the problems it faces in the digital age, and proposes possible solutions.

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of sunscreen active ingredients mediated by nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Vazquez, Loraine

    Water scarcity and pollution are environmental issues with terrible consequences. In recent years several pharmaceutical and personal care products, such as sunscreen active ingredients, have been detected in different water matrices. Its recalcitrant behavior in the environment has caused controversies and generated countless questions about its safety. During this research, we employed an advanced oxidation process (photocatalysis) to degrade sunscreen active ingredients. For this study, we used a 3x3 system, evaluating three photocatalysts and three different contaminants. From the three catalysts employed, two of them were synthesized. ZnO nanoparticles were obtained using zinc acetate dihydrated as the precursor, and TiO2 nanowires were synthesized from titanium tetrachloride precursor. The third catalyst employed (namely, P25) was obtained commercially. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized in terms of the morphology, elemental composition, crystalline structure, elemental oxidation states, vibrational modes and surface area, using SEM-EDS, XRD, XPS, Raman spectroscopy and BET measurements, respectively. The photocatalysts were employed during the study of the degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, and benzophenone-4. In all the cases, at least 50% degradation was achieved. P25 showed degradation efficiencies above 90%, and from the nine systems, 7 of them degraded at least 86%.

  4. Are sunscreens a new environmental risk associated with coastal tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quiles, David; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The world coastal-zone population and coastal tourism are expected to grow during this century. Associated with that, there will be an increase in the use of sunscreens and cosmetics with UV-filters in their formulation, which will make coastal regions worldwide susceptible to the impact of these cosmetics. Recent investigations indicate that organic and inorganic UV-filters, as well as many other components that are constituents of the sunscreens, reach the marine environment--directly as a consequence of water recreational activities and/or indirectly from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents. Toxicity of organic and inorganic UV filters has been demonstrated in aquatic organism. UV-filters inhibit growth in marine phytoplankton and tend to bioaccumulate in the food webs. These findings together with coastal tourism data records highlight the potential risk that the increasing use of these cosmetics would have in coastal marine areas. Nevertheless, future investigations into distribution, residence time, aging, partitioning and speciation of their main components and by-products in the water column, persistence, accumulation and toxicity in the trophic chain, are needed to understand the magnitude and real impact of these emerging pollutants in the marine system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaporation of Sunscreen Films: How the UV Protection Properties Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Brown, Jonathan; Fletcher, Paul D I; Johnson, Andrew J; Marinopoulos, Ioannis; Crowther, Jonathan M; Thompson, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the evaporation of thin sunscreen films and how the light absorption and the derived sun protection factor (SPF) change. For films consisting of solutions of common UV filters in propylene glycol (PG) as solvent, we show how evaporation generally causes three effects. First, the film area can decrease by dewetting leading to a transient increase in the average film thickness. Second, the film thins by evaporative loss of the solvent. Third, precipitation of the UV filter occurs when solvent loss causes the solubility limit to be reached. These evaporation-induced changes cause the UV absorbance of the film to decrease with resultant loss of SPF over the time scale of the evaporation. We derive an approximate model which accounts semiquantitatively for the variation of SPF with evaporation. Experimental results for solutions of different UV filters on quartz, different skin mimicking substrates, films with added nanoparticles, films with an added polymer and films with fast-evaporating decane as solvent (instead of slow evaporating PG) are discussed and compared with model calculations. Addition of either nanoparticles or polymer suppress film dewetting. Overall, it is hoped that the understanding gained about the mechanisms whereby film evaporation affects the SPF will provide useful guidance for the formulation of more effective sunscreens.

  6. The Influence of Authoritative Parenting during Adolescence on Depressive Symptoms in Young Adulthood: Examining the Mediating Roles of Self-Development and Peer Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Joan H.; Cavell, Emily Cohen; Lustig, Kara

    2010-01-01

    A diverse sample of 1,143 high school seniors and 182 students who were part of the same cohort but who left high school without graduating were interviewed during late adolescence (Time 1 [T1]) as well as 2 (Time 2 [T2]) and 4 years later (Time 3 [T3]). Perceived self-development, peer support, and prior levels of depressive symptoms (T2) were…

  7. 父母、同伴及文化取向对青少年饮酒行为的影响%The analysis of the influence on the drinking behavior of students by parents,peers and cultural orientation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄烨; 梁雪梅; 刘可智

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence on drinking behavior of the students by parent,peers and cultural orienta-tion.So to provide a scientific proof for the intervention of adolescent binge drinking.Methods Stratified cluster random sam-pling method was used in this study.644 students were randomly selected from 12 classes in the 4 schools in Luzhou city.The students were asked to finish the following questionnaires:the general questionnaire,the alcohol consumption scale(including the parents and peers'attitude toward alcohol)and the youth and cultural orientation scale.Results 644 questionnaires were handed out and retrieved 604 valid questionnaires,the effective rate was 93.8%.The total drinking rate was 36.6%.The male 's drinking rate was 38.3% and the female's was 34.5%.There were no statistical differences between the male and female drinking rate(P>0.05).There were no statistical differences in the drinking rate among the 3 different drinking attitude of parents groups (support,neutral,opposed to drinking alcohol)(P>0.05).Alcohol drinking rate was the highest in the peer support group (48.8%),while the drinking rate of the peer against drinking group was the lowest (32.2%).The drinking rate of the peer neutral group was between the above two groups (35%)and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05)。父母对饮酒持支持、中立、反对态度的3组青少年饮酒率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。同伴对饮酒持支持、中立、反对态度的3组青少年饮酒率分别为48.8%、35.0%、32.2%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。饮酒组与非饮酒组传统文化倾向得分比较[(3.12±0.55)分 vs.(3.26±0.58)分]差异有统计学意义(t=-2.95,P=0.03)。结论青少年饮酒行为普遍,父母的饮酒态度对青少年饮酒行为影响小,同伴对饮酒的支持态度更容易让青少年产生饮酒行为。“传统文化倾向”可能是青少年饮酒的保护因素。

  8. Synergistic effect of broad-spectrum Sunscreens and antihistamines in the control of idiopathic solar urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A.; Wulf, Hans Chr.

    2008-01-01

    Background: It can be difficult to provide patients with idiopathic solar urticaria adequate protection from sunlight. In a nonrandomized controlled trial, we used a standardized phototest procedure to determine the effects of using sunscreen and antihistamine to control idiopathic solar urticaria....... The patients were then treated with a high-protection, broad-spectrum sunscreen and a nonsedative antihistamine alone and in combination and underwent similar phototesting. The use of sunscreen allowed the patients to tolerate much higher doses of UV radiation (32-38 times the MUD on untreated skin......). Antihistamine use did not increase the patients' MUD but did suppress wheal formation and itch, and only immediate erythema sharply located in the irradiated areas occurred. The combination of sunscreen and antihistamine acted synergistically and increased the tolerance to UV radiation markedly (80-267 times...

  9. Detecting free radicals in sunscreens exposed to UVA radiation using chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millington, Keith R; Osmond, Megan J; McCall, Maxine J

    2014-04-05

    One of the current concerns with the application of nanoparticles in sunscreens, and in particular nano-TiO2 and ZnO, is their potential to photogenerate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they absorb ultraviolet wavelengths from sunlight. Free radicals and ROS are known to be associated with UV-induced skin damage and oxidative stress, from which sunscreens are expected to offer significant protection. Here we describe a simple method, based on chemiluminescence emission, for detecting free radicals generated in commercial sunscreens alone, and when applied to various substrates, following exposure to UVA (320-400nm) radiation. This photo-induced chemiluminescence (PICL) technique could be used to optimise sunscreen formulations so as to minimise free radical photogeneration during exposure to sunlight.

  10. Relationships of sun-protection habit strength with sunscreen use during outdoor sport and physical activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawler, Sheleigh; McDermott, Liane; O'Riordan, David; Spathonis, Kym; Eakin, Elizabeth; Leslie, Evie; Gallois, Cindy; Berndt, Nadine; Owen, Neville

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional questionnaire study was to assess associations of a self-report index of sun protection habit strength with sunscreen use in sporting environments and outdoor physical activity. Participants (n = 234...

  11. UV absorption and scattering properties of inorganic-based sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Terry A; Tooley, Ian R

    2012-04-01

    This article first introduces the concepts that underlie the calculations of scattering and absorption of light by small particles. Results of Mie theory calculations of light scattering and light absorption by 20, 50 and 100 nm TiO₂ and ZnO particles are then presented. As the attenuation, or extinction, by these particles is the sum of the scattering and absorption, the attenuation can then be calculated for wavelengths over the UVA and UVB region. These theoretical results are then shown to be in reasonable agreement with experimental results for alkyl benzoate dispersions of three different types of TiO₂ particle whose mean sizes range from 35 to 145 nm. Finally, the link between these measurements and the absorption curves of formulated dispersions of sunscreens are demonstrated and related to in vitro SPF and UVAPF measurements.

  12. Electroanalytical determination of the sunscreen agent octocrylene in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, J B G; Araujo, T A; Trindade, M A G; Ferreira, V S

    2012-02-01

    An electroanalytical method was developed to detect and quantify the sunscreen agent octocrylene (OCR) in cosmetic products. The method was based on electrochemical reduction, using voltammetric techniques. OCR was reduced at -0.97 V vs. Ag/AgCl on a glassy carbon electrode using a mixture of Britton-Robinson buffer (0.04 mol L(-1)) and ethanol (7 : 3, v/v) as the supporting electrolyte solution. Under optimized conditions and square-wave voltammetry, OCR response was linear from 5.0 × 10(-6) to 8.0 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) (r = 0.9995), with a limit of detection of 2.8 × 10(-6) mol L(-1). The proposed electroanalytical method proved simple, fast and suitable for detection and quantification of OCR in samples of cosmetic products, with satisfactory results in the recovery test and analytical determination in real samples.

  13. Evaporation of Particle-Stabilized Emulsion Sunscreen Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Johnson, Andrew J; Marinopoulos, Ioannis; Crowther, Jonathan M; Thompson, Michael A

    2016-08-24

    We recently showed (Binks et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2016, DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b02696) how evaporation of sunscreen films consisting of solutions of molecular UV filters leads to loss of UV light absorption and derived sun protection factor (SPF). In the present work, we investigate evaporation-induced effects for sunscreen films consisting of particle-stabilized emulsions containing a dissolved UV filter. The emulsions contained either droplets of propylene glycol (PG) in squalane (SQ), droplets of SQ in PG or droplets of decane in PG. In these different emulsion types, the SQ is involatile and shows no evaporation, the PG is volatile and evaporates relatively slowly, whereas the decane is relatively very volatile and evaporates quickly. We have measured the film mass and area, optical micrographs of the film structure, and the UV absorbance spectra during evaporation. For emulsion films containing the involatile SQ, evaporation of the PG causes collapse of the emulsion structure with some loss of specular UV absorbance due to light scattering. However, for these emulsions with droplets much larger than the wavelength of light, the light is scattered only at small forward angles so does not contribute to the diffuse absorbance and the film SPF. The UV filter remains soluble throughout the evaporation and thus the UV absorption by the filter and the SPF remain approximately constant. Both PG-in-SQ and SQ-in-PG films behave similarly and do not show area shrinkage by dewetting. In contrast, the decane-in-PG film shows rapid evaporative loss of the decane, followed by slower loss of the PG resulting in precipitation of the UV filter and film area shrinkage by dewetting which cause the UV absorbance and derived SPF to decrease. Measured UV spectra during evaporation are in reasonable agreement with spectra calculated using models discussed here.

  14. Ratio of Seaweed Porridge Eucheuma cottonii and Sargassum sp. as a Sunscreen Cream Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Novi Luthfiyana; Nurjanah Nurjanah; Mala Nurilmala; Effionora Anwar; Taufik Hidayat*

    2016-01-01

    The use of sunscreen is highly recommended to protect the health of the skin from ultraviolet radiation.The aim of this study was to get the best ratio sunscreen preparation of porridge E. cottonii and Sargassumsp. through the total test microbes, antioxidants and SPF value, get a stable cream preparations physicallythrough sensory test, pH, consistency, Cycling test and centrifugal test. The main materials used were E.cottonii, Sargassum sp. and raw materials stocks cream. This study used a ...

  15. Simplifying sun safety: a guide to the new FDA sunscreen monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrener, Roman

    2014-04-01

    Dermatologists are instrumental in educating their patients about safe sun practices. As residents, we should begin to instill this teaching point into our daily patient encounters. The new US Food and Drug Administration sunscreen guidelines, instituted fully in December 2012, help consumers make more educated decisions about sunscreens they purchase but also introduce new classifications and claims with which dermatologists should be intimately familiar. This article aims to concisely summarize the revisions as well as any continued controversies with the guidelines.

  16. Peer Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Christian

    Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser.......Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser....

  17. New Approach to Develop Optimized Sunscreens that Enable Cutaneous Vitamin D Formation with Minimal Erythema Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Kockott

    Full Text Available Sunscreens protect the skin against erythemal radiation (Eer. But at the same time they reduce the effective radiation dose (EVD responsible for the formation of previtamin D in the skin. The paper describes a calculation method for optimizing the ratio EVD/Eer behind sunscreens e.g. with SPF 5, 15 and 30 respectively. Taking into account that a majority of people in industrialized countries suffer from a shortage in vitamin D even in summer time, the ratio Evd/Eer is a new and important criterion for the quality of sunscreens. Furthermore the exposure time tvd needed per day for forming the equivalent of the recommended amount of 2000 IU of vitamin D per day for skin type 2 is estimated when sunscreens with different filter compositions are used. In vitro experiments show a significant increase of the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC to previtamin D when exposed to artificial solar radiation behind an experimental sunscreen optimized for previtamin D production compared to a commercial sunscreen having the same SPF.

  18. Bioconvertible vitamin antioxidants improve sunscreen photoprotection against UV-induced reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kerry M; Clegg, Robert M

    2003-01-01

    The ability of sunscreens and antioxidants to deactivate highly destructive reactive oxygen species in human skin has remained inconclusive. Two-photon fluorescence imaging microscopy was used to determine the effect of sunscreen/antioxidant combinations upon UV-induced ROS generation in ex vivo human skin. A sunscreen combination containing octylmethoxycinnamate (Parsol MCX) and avobenzone (Parsol 1789) at SPF 8 and SPF 15 was tested for its ability to prevent UV radiation from generating ROS in the viable epidermal strata of ex vivo human skin. A UV dose equivalent to two hours of North American solar UV was used to irradiate the skin. Each sunscreen reduced the amount of ROS induced in the viable strata by a value consistent with the SPF level. UV photons that were not absorbed/scattered by the sunscreen formulations generated ROS within the viable epidermal layers. The addition of the bioconvertible antioxidants vitamin E acetate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate (STAY-C 50) improves photoprotection by converting to vitamins E and C, respectively, within the skin. The bioconversion forms an antioxidant reservoir that deactivates the ROS generated (within the strata granulosum, spinosum, and basale) by the UV photons that the sunscreens do not block in the stratum corneum.

  19. Peer Relations of Adolescents from Nuclear and Separated Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Peter; Krettek, Christine; Walper, Sabine

    2001-01-01

    Examined peer relations of young people from nuclear families, step families, and single-parent families. Findings suggest peer relations were affected by parental separation only to a minor extent as compared to, e.g. gender- or age-specific effects. A central aspect of friendship quality, however, namely admiration by friends, clearly suffered…

  20. The Influence of Peers on Children's Socialization to Gender Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Susan D.

    2000-01-01

    Presents model for major influences on children's gender role socialization: parents, media, school, and peers. Reviews literature on role of peer relationships in development of self concept and perpetuation of gender biases and stereotypes. Concludes that parents should set a positive example of gender fair behavior because children will…

  1. Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna Winata, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    - Peer Review Microbiological analysis of Dringking Water and Soybean Milk, Proceeding International Seminar "Strategy to manage Bio- Eco- Health System for Stabilizing animal health and Productivity to support public health, ISBN: 978-602-8967-69-3, Surabaya-Indonesia 19-20 June 2012 JW Marriot Hotel Surabaya, Faculty of Veterinary medicine- Universitas Airlangga

  2. PEER REVIEWER

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    - PEER REVIEWER Understanding The Dynamics Interaction Within Indonesia Healthcare Competition (Penulis: Indrianty Sudirman). Jurnal International: European Journal of Business and Management ISSN: 2222-1905 (Paper), 2222-2839 (Online), Vol. 4, No.11. Tahun 2012. Hal. 94-100. Penerbit: IISTE www.iiste.org

  3. PEER REVIEWER

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin

    2015-01-01

    - PEER REVIEWER Judul: Environmental Risk Assessment of transgenic cotton in South Sulawesi, Indonesia : Impact on Soil microorganisms (Key Note Lecture) Penulis: Antonius Suwanto, Yusminah hala and Nur Amin. SPIN : Scientific Programme Indonesia Netherlands BIORIN : Biotechnology Research Indonesian Netherlands, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 25 th Februari 2003. Hal. 1-9.

  4. Peer Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Christian

    Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser....

  5. Dealing with Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Dealing With Peer Pressure KidsHealth > For Kids > Dealing With Peer Pressure Print ... talk about how to handle it. Defining Peer Pressure Peers influence your life, even if you don' ...

  6. Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure.

  7. Quality of Parent-Child Relationship, Family Conflict, Peer Pressure, and Drinking Behaviors of Adolescents in an Asian Context: The Case of Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyekyung; Shek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing data from a probability sample representative of secondary school students in Singapore (N = 1,599), this study examined the independent impact between the quality of mother-child relationship, the quality of father-child relationship and family conflict on the frequency of drinking and drunkenness, and whether each dyadic parent-child…

  8. Quality of Parent-Child Relationship, Family Conflict, Peer Pressure, and Drinking Behaviors of Adolescents in an Asian Context: The Case of Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyekyung; Shek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing data from a probability sample representative of secondary school students in Singapore (N = 1,599), this study examined the independent impact between the quality of mother-child relationship, the quality of father-child relationship and family conflict on the frequency of drinking and drunkenness, and whether each dyadic parent-child…

  9. Characteristics of Parent-Child Interactions: A Systematic Review of Studies Comparing Children with Primary Language Impairment and Their Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Anna K. M.; Harding, Sam; Babayigit, Selma; Roulstone, Sue

    2015-01-01

    The importance of parent-child interaction (PCI) for language development has been well established. This has led many speech and language therapy (SLT) interventions to focus on modifying PCI as a means to improving children's early language delay. However, the success of such programs is mixed. The current review compares PCI, observed in…

  10. Relevance of UV filter/sunscreen product photostability to human safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J Frank; Tanner, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Photostability or photo-instability of sunscreen products is most often discussed in undesirable terms with respect to human safety. The health risks, specifically associated with sunscreens, photostable or photo-unstable, include phototoxic/photoirritation or photoallergic responses and, longer-term, an increased risk of skin cancers or photoageing. The aims of this paper are to define photostability/photo-instability and objectively assess the acute and chronic toxicological consequences from the human exposure to UV filter/sunscreens and any probable photo-degradation products. The reported prevalence of photoirritation and photoallergic responses to sunscreens is rare compared with adverse events, for example, skin irritation or sensitization, produced by cosmetics or topically applied drugs and do not directly implicate potential photo-degradation products of UV filters. Moreover, for at least one photo-unstable combination, octyl methoxycinnamate and avobenzone, the long-term benefits to humans, i.e., reduction in skin cancers, seem to outweigh any potential adverse consequences attributed to photo-degradation. Sunscreen products are formulated to achieve maximum efficacy which, by necessity and design, incorporate measures to support and promote photostability since all organic UV filters have the potential to photo-degrade. Current performance measures, in vivo SPF and in vitro UVA, conducted under standardized conditions, in part account for photostability. The concerns expressed when considering human exposure to potential photo-unstable UV filters or sunscreen products may not manifest as health risks under conditions of use. Still, improvement in sunscreen product photostability continues to be a key strategic objective for manufacturers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might get you involved in clubs, sports, or religious groups. Your world would be far less rich ... or adopt particular attitudes toward school, other students, parents, and teachers in order to win acceptance and ...

  12. Peer Review

    OpenAIRE

    ANIS IRAWAN ANWAR, ANIS IRAWAN ANWAR

    2013-01-01

    - Peer Review IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICHAL ANALYSIS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF ADENOHYPOPHYSIAL CELLS IN THE PITUITARY PARS DISTALIS OF THE OSTRICH (STRUTHIO CAMELUS), Proceeding International Seminar "Strategy to manage Bio-Eco-Health system for stabilizing animal health and productivity to support public health, Surabaya- Indonesia, 19- 20 June 2012 JW Marriot Hotel Surabaya, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine- Universitas Airlangga, Centre Publishing and Printing of Airlangga University (AUP)

  13. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens: focus on their safety and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smijs TG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Threes G Smijs1–3, Stanislav Pavel4 1Faculty of Science, Open University in The Netherlands, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2University of Leiden, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden, The Netherlands; 3Erasmus MC, Center for Optical Diagnostics and Therapy, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 4Charles University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Pilsen, Czech Republic Abstract: Sunscreens are used to provide protection against adverse effects of ultraviolet (UVB (290–320 nm and UVA (320–400 nm radiation. According to the United States Food and Drug Administration, the protection factor against UVA should be at least one-third of the overall sun protection factor. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 and zinc oxide (ZnO minerals are frequently employed in sunscreens as inorganic physical sun blockers. As TiO2 is more effective in UVB and ZnO in the UVA range, the combination of these particles assures a broad-band UV protection. However, to solve the cosmetic drawback of these opaque sunscreens, microsized TiO2 and ZnO have been increasingly replaced by TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs (<100 nm. This review focuses on significant effects on the UV attenuation of sunscreens when microsized TiO2 and ZnO particles are replaced by NPs and evaluates physicochemical aspects that affect effectiveness and safety of NP sunscreens. With the use of TiO2 and ZnO NPs, the undesired opaqueness disappears but the required balance between UVA and UVB protection can be altered. Utilization of mixtures of micro- and nanosized ZnO dispersions and nanosized TiO2 particles may improve this situation. Skin exposure to NP-containing sunscreens leads to incorporation of TiO2 and ZnO NPs in the stratum corneum, which can alter specific NP attenuation properties due to particle–particle, particle–skin, and skin–particle–light physicochemical interactions. Both sunscreen NPs induce (photocyto- and genotoxicity and have been sporadically observed in viable

  14. Biological sunscreens tune polychromatic ultraviolet vision in mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Michael J; Porter, Megan L; Place, Allen R; Cronin, Thomas W

    2014-07-21

    Stomatopod crustaceans, or mantis shrimp, are renowned for their complex visual systems. Their array of 16 types of photoreceptors provides complex color reception, as well as linear and circular polarization sensitivity [1-6]. The least-understood components of their retina are the UV receptors, of which there are up to six distinct, narrowly tuned spectral types [4]. Here we show that in the stomatopod species Neogonodactylus oerstedii, this set of receptors is based on only two visual pigments. Surprisingly, five of the six UV receptor types contain the same visual pigment. The various UV receptors are spectrally tuned by a novel set of four short- and long-pass UV-specific optical filters in the overlying crystalline cones. These filters are composed of various mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) pigments. Commonly referred to as "nature's sunscreens," MAAs are usually employed for UV photoprotection [7, 8], but mantis shrimp uniquely incorporate them into powerful spectral tuning filters, extending and diversifying their preeminently elaborate photoreceptive arsenal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The "Peer" in "Peer Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gad; Bertoluci, Jaime; Bury, Bruce; Hansen, Robert W.; Jehle, Robert; Measey, John; Moon, Brad R.; Muths, Erin; Zuffi, Marco A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review is the best available mechanism for assessing and improving the quality of scientific work. As herpetology broadens its disciplinary and geographic boundaries, high-quality external review is ever more essential. We are writing this editorial jointly because the review process has become increasingly difficult. The resulting delays slow publication times, negatively affect performance reviews, tenure, promotions, and grant proposal success. It harms authors, agencies, and institutions (Ware 2011).

  16. Photostability evaluation of five UV-filters, trans-resveratrol and beta-carotene in sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana Vescovi; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo

    2015-10-12

    Trans-resveratrol (RES) is used in cosmetic formulations and beta-carotene (BTC) is a classical sunscreen antioxidant, but their photostability in sunscreens, a property directly correlated to performance and safety has not been addressed in the literature. This paper reports the assessment of RES and/or BTC influence on the photostability of five UV-filters (octyl methoxycinnamate - OMC, avobenzone -AVO, octocrylene - OCT, bemotrizinole - BMZ, octyltriazone - OTZ) in three different combinations after UVA exposure followed by the identification of degradation products and the assessment of photoreactivity. The evaluation of sunscreen photostability was performed by HPLC and spectrophotometric analysis, and degradation products were identified by GC-MS analysis. Components RES, BTC, OMC and AVO were significantly degraded after UV exposure (reduction of around 16% in recovery). According to HPLC analysis, all formulations presented similar photostability profiles. Eleven degradation products were identified in GC-MS analysis, among them products of RES, BTC, OMC and AVO photodegradation. All evaluated formulations were considered photoreactive, as well as the isolated compounds RES and AVO. Considering HPLC, spectrophotometric and GC-MS results, it is suggested that formulations containing BMZ were considered the most photostable. The combination RES+BTC in a sunscreen improved the photostability of AVO. The benefits of using a combination of antioxidants in sunscreens was demonstrated by showing that using RES+BTC+studied UV-filters led to more photostable formulations, which in turn implies in better safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Percutaneous penetration and pharmacodynamics: Wash-in and wash-off of sunscreen and insect repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jocelyn; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Increased awareness of skin cancer and mosquito-transmitted diseases has increased use of insect repellents and sunscreens. The challenge in setting recommendations for use and reapplication, especially when used concomitantly, lies in finding the balance between applying a durable product effective in withstanding natural and physical factors such as water, sweat, temperature and abrasion, while limiting percutaneous absorption and decreasing risk of potential dermal and systemic toxicity. Inorganic sunscreens show no or little percutaneous absorption or toxic effects in comparison to organic sunscreens, which show varying levels of dermal penetration and cutaneous adverse effects. An alternative to N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), the traditional gold standard compound in insect repellents, picaridin appears as efficacious, has lower risk of toxicity, and when used simultaneously with sunscreen may decrease percutaneous absorption of both compounds. Conversely, combined use of DEET and sunscreen results in significantly higher absorption of both compounds. It is important to increase consumer awareness of "washing in" of various compounds leading to increased risk of toxicity, as well as differences in reapplication need due to "washing off" caused by water, sweat and abrasion. Although much remains to be studied, to maximize efficacy and decrease toxicity, contemporary research tools, including dermatopharmokinetics, should aid these prospective advances.

  18. Influence of anatomical site and topical formulation on skin penetration of sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Heather Ae; Sarveiya, Vikram; Risk, Stacey; Roberts, Michael S

    2005-09-01

    Sunscreen products are widely used to protect the skin from sun-related damage. Previous studies have shown that some sunscreen chemicals are absorbed across the skin to the systemic circulation. The current study shows that absorption into the skin of sunscreen chemicals applied to the face is up to four times greater than that of the same product applied to the back. This has implications for the way sunscreen products are formulated and may allow the use of less potent products on the face compared with the rest of the body. The effect of formulation vehicles on the release and skin penetration of the common sunscreen agent benzophenone-3 (common name oxybenzone) was also assessed. Penetration of benzophenone-3 across excised human epidermis and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) membrane was measured using in vitro Franz-type diffusion cells. Penetration and epidermal retention was measured following application of infinite and finite (epidermis only) doses of benzophenone-3 in five vehicles: liquid paraffin, coconut oil, 50:50 ethanol:coconut oil, aqueous cream BP, and oily cream BP. Highest benzophenone-3 skin retention was observed for the ethanol:coconut oil combination. Maximal and minimal benzophenone-3 fluxes were observed from liquid paraffin and coconut oil, respectively. The alcohol-based vehicle exhibited low benzophenone-3 release from the vehicle but high skin penetration and retention.

  19. The tanning habits and interest in sunscreen of Google users: what happened in 12 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberger, Michael C; Heppt, Markus V; Eigentler, Thomas K; Kirchberger, Markus A; Schuler, Gerold; Heinzerling, Lucie

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of melanoma has been rising worldwide. One possible reason for this is natural and artificial UV exposure. Only little data on actual consumer statistics from tanning studios and the usage of sunscreen are available. Therefore, it is difficult to describe trends for both and identify the impact of preventive measures. To gain knowledge about the popularity of 'tanning bed' and 'sunscreen', normalized search volumes for both search queries were obtained from Google Trends for 11 countries between January 2004 and June 2016. With few exceptions, worldwide interest in 'tanning bed' has been declining, whereas interest in 'sunscreen' has been increasing. The assessed countries from the Southern Hemisphere showed minor interest in tanning compared to the Northern Hemisphere. Both search queries were observed to fluctuate in a seasonal pattern. Skin cancer prevention measures influence the interest in tanning beds and sunscreen. Google Trends data can act as a first surrogate marker to evaluate the influence of skin cancer campaigns on the popularity of tanning beds and sunscreen. Fine-tuning of skin cancer campaigns according to seasonal and geographic trends and behaviors may help to maximize their success. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Parenting Young Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Linda Kreger

    1986-01-01

    Provides information on the following for parents and care-givers of gifted children: (1) recognizing giftedness; (2) dealing with nongifted children in the family; (3) effect of chronic early ear infection on IQ; (4) introversion; (5) "normalizing" gifted children; (6) need for gifted peers; and (7) responsive parenting. A list of guidelines for…

  1. 76 FR 35669 - Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ..., for sunscreens that are generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE) and not misbranded. DATES... washes, and shampoos are not currently considered eligible for inclusion in the sunscreen monograph, and... (ANPR) (43 FR 38206 at 38207, 38223, 38224, 38229, and 38239) as lip protectants, which are allowed...

  2. Integrating Elemental Analysis and Chromatography Techniques by Analyzing Metal Oxide and Organic UV Absorbers in Commercial Sunscreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin~ones, Rosalynn; Bayline, Jennifer Logan; Polvani, Deborah A.; Neff, David; Westfall, Tamara D.; Hijazi, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    A series of undergraduate laboratory experiments that utilize reversed-phase HPLC separation, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) are described for the analysis of commercial sunscreens. The active ingredients of many sunscreen brands include zinc or titanium…

  3. Biological, familial, and peer influences on dating in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Laura J; Connolly, Jennifer A; Pepler, Debra J; Craig, Wendy M

    2007-12-01

    The current study examined the joint contributions of pubertal maturation, parental monitoring, involvement in older peer groups, peer dating, and peer delinquency on dating in a sample of early adolescent boys and girls. The sample consisted of 784 adolescents (394 boys, 390 girls) enrolled in grades 5, 6, and 7 who were followed for one year. In addition to measures of pubertal maturation and parental monitoring, adolescents and their peer group members completed indices of dating and delinquency. Average dating and delinquency scores for each participant's peer group network were computed. Results indicated that it was the combination of pubertal maturation, peer delinquency, and peer dating that explained increases in early dating. For boys only, parental monitoring was a significant predictor. The more knowledgeable parents were about their boys' activities, the lower the number of dating activities reported. These results highlight the importance of considering the joint effects of these biological and social predictors in understanding early dating. When rapid changes occur in all three domains, early dating is most likely to ensue. The findings of this study have practical importance. Parents and professionals who work closely with youth should attend to the special vulnerability of early maturing adolescents in the face of peer pressure and to the important role of parental monitoring in regulating dating activities.

  4. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bugge Henriksen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems and Freshwaters (REEF, the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM. The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations and performing focus group interviews. The application of peer assessment is investigated by analyzing the agreement of peer assessment between students assessing the same assignment. Our analyses confirm previous research on the value of peer learning and peer assessment and we argue that there could also be a huge benefit from developing learning design patterns that facilitate informal peer learning and reinforce knowledge sharing practices.

  5. HyperPeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, R.D.; Bouvin, N.O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents HyperPeer, a framework for developing peer-to-peer based hypermedia. The distribution of hypermedia structures is handled through a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, allowing for highly scalable sharing between users. A central challenge of all decentralized systems is to locate mat...

  6. Multiple Roles of Photosynthetic and Sunscreen Pigments in Cyanobacteria Focusing on the Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichi Matsugo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria have two types of sunscreen pigments, scytonemin and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs. These secondary metabolites are thought to play multiple roles against several environmental stresses such as UV radiation and desiccation. Not only the large molar absorption coefficients of these sunscreen pigments, but also their antioxidative properties may be necessary for the protection of biological molecules against the oxidative damages induced by UV radiation. The antioxidant activity and vitrification property of these pigments are thought to be requisite for the desiccation and rehydration processes in anhydrobiotes. In this review, the multiple roles of photosynthetic pigments and sunscreen pigments on stress resistance, especially from the viewpoint of their structures, biosynthetic pathway, and in vitro studies of their antioxidant activity, will be discussed.

  7. Relations of Marital Satisfaction to Peer Outcomes in Adolescent Boys: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. Shirley; Wentzel, Kathryn R.

    1995-01-01

    Examined connection between parents' marital relationship and parenting styles to peer-related outcomes. Analysis of boys' (n=62) and parents' reports on marriage over a four-year period indicate that children who experience emotional closeness within the family might not need high levels of social attention and approval from peers. (RJM)

  8. Fighting Fair: Adaptive Marital Conflict Strategies as Predictors of Future Adolescent Peer and Romantic Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miga, Erin M.; Gdula, Julie Ann; Allen, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between reasoning during inter-parental conflict and autonomous adolescent conflict negotiation with peers over time. Participants included 133 adolescents and their parents, peers, and romantic partners in a multimethod, multiple reporter, longitudinal study. Inter-parental reasoning at adolescent age of 13…

  9. Relations of Marital Satisfaction to Peer Outcomes in Adolescent Boys: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. Shirley; Wentzel, Kathryn R.

    1995-01-01

    Examined connection between parents' marital relationship and parenting styles to peer-related outcomes. Analysis of boys' (n=62) and parents' reports on marriage over a four-year period indicate that children who experience emotional closeness within the family might not need high levels of social attention and approval from peers. (RJM)

  10. Effects of silicone emulsifiers on in vitro skin permeation of sunscreens from cosmetic emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Lucia; Paolino, Donatella; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    The effects of different silicone emulsifiers on the in vitro permeation through human skin of two sunscreens (octylmethoxycinnamate, OMC, and butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane, BMBM) were investigated from cosmetic emulsions. The formulations being tested were prepared using the same oil and aqueous phase ingredients and the following silicone emulsifiers: dimethicone copolyol and cyclomethicone (emulsion 1), cetyldimethicone copolyol (emulsion 2), polyglyceryl-4-isostearate and cetyldimethicone copolyol and hexyllaurate (emulsion 3), lauryldimethicone copolyol (emulsion 4), and cyclomethicone and dimethicone copolyol (emulsion 5). The cumulative amount of OMC that permeated in vitro through human skin after 22 h from emulsions 1-5 decreased in the order 2 approximate, equals 1 > 5 > 4 approximate, equals 3 and was about twofold higher from emulsion 2 compared to emulsion 4. As for BMBM, no significant difference was observed in regard to its skin permeation from the emulsions being tested. In vitro release experiments of OMC and BMBM from emulsions 1-5 were performed through cellulose acetate membranes using Franz diffusion cells. Emulsions 1-3 showed an initial slow release of BMBM followed by a fast release phase, while the release of OMC showed a different pattern since the sunscreen was released very rapidly at the beginning of the experiment and then a plateau was observed followed by a second step of fast release. A pseudo-first-order release rate was observed only for BMBM from emulsion 4, while emulsion 5 released very small amounts of both sunscreens during 22 h. These findings could be attributed both to changes in sunscreen thermodynamic activity in the vehicle and to modified interactions between the active ingredient and the formulation components. The results of this study suggest that the type of silicone emulsifier used to prepare sunscreen emulsions should be carefully chosen in order to prevent the percutaneous absorption of sunscreens from these

  11. Body consciousness moderates the effect of message framing on intentions to use sunscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevey, D; Pertl, M; Thomas, K; Maher, L; Craig, A; Chuinneagain, S Ni

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of messages differing in focus (health vs appearance) and frame (gain vs loss) on intentions for sunscreen use and sunbed use, and the potential moderating role of body consciousness. Questionnaire data from 390 young adults were analysed using factorial ANOVA. Results showed a significant interaction between message frame and body consciousness, such that gain-framed health or appearance messages had the strongest effect on sunscreen use intentions for those high in body consciousness, compared to those low in body consciousness. We conclude that message framing effects on precautionary sun behaviour intentions are moderated by body consciousness.

  12. Biosynthetic mechanism for sunscreens of the biocontrol agent Lysobacter enzymogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Lysobacter are ubiquitous environmental bacteria emerging as novel biocontrol agents and new sources of anti-infectives. So far, very little effort has been invested in the study of the biology of these Gram-negative gliding bacteria. Many Lysobacter species are characterized by their yellow-orange appearance. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified a stand-alone polyketide synthase (PKS gene cluster required for the pigment production in L. enzymogenes OH11. The yellow pigments were abolished in the "white" mutants generated by target-specific deletions of ketosynthase (KS, acyl carrier protein, or ketoreductase. Spectroscopic data suggested that the pigments belong to xanthomonadin-like aryl polyenes. Polyene-type polyketides are known to be biosynthesized by modular PKS (Type I, not by stand-alone PKS (Type II which always contain the heterodimer KS-CLF (chain-length factor as the key catalytic component. Remarkably, this aryl polyene PKS complex only contains the KS (ORF17, but not the CLF. Instead, a hypothetical protein (ORF16 is located immediately next to ORF17. ORF16-17 homologs are widespread in numerous uncharacterized microbial genomes, in which an ORF17 homolog is always accompanied by an ORF16 homolog. The deletion of ORF16 eliminated pigment production, and homology modeling suggested that ORF16 shares a structural similarity to the N-terminal half of CLF. A point-mutation of glutamine (Q166A that is the conserved active site of known CLF abolished pigment production. The "white" mutants are significantly more sensitive to UV/visible light radiation or H2O2 treatment than the wild type. These results unveil the first example of Type II PKS-synthesized polyene pigments and show that the metabolites serve as Lysobacter "sunscreens" that are important for the survival of these ubiquitous environmental organisms.

  13. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems...... and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...... and performing focus group interviews. The application of peer assessment is investigated by analyzing the agreement of peer assessment between students assessing the same assignment. Our analyses confirm previous research on the value of peer learning and peer assessment and we argue that there could also...

  14. Peer-to-Peer Simulation Architecture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Distributed parallel and soft real-time simulation architecture is presented. It employs a publish-subscribe communication framework layered on a peer-to-peer Transport Control Protocol-based message passing architecture. Mechanisms for efficient...

  15. Peer Feedback Marking: Developing Peer Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchikov, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Reviews studies of peer assessment in higher education and describes a study that attempted to capitalize on the benefits of peer assessment in terms of improving the learning process, sharpening critical abilities, and increasing student autonomy. Results indicate a close correspondence between lecturer and peer assessment. (Author/LRW)

  16. Phototoxic properties of perfumes containing bergamot oil on human skin: photoprotective effect of UVA and UVB sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubertret, L; Serraf-Tircazes, D; Jeanmougin, M; Morlière, P; Averbeck, D; Young, A R

    1990-11-01

    As part of an international cooperative study of the photophysical, photomutagenic and photocarcinogenic properties of bergamot oil and the effect of UVA and UVB sunscreens, the phototoxic properties of model perfumes containing 5, 15 and 50 ppm 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) in bergamot oil with and without a sunscreen have been investigated on human skin. It has been confirmed that the photosensitivity of human skin is maximal 2 h after perfume application. Interestingly the addition of a UVA sunscreen is more efficient for decreasing the phototoxic properties of bergamot oil than is a UVB sunscreen. The addition of sunscreens in a model perfume containing 50 ppm 5-MOP in bergamot oil can reduce the phototoxic properties of this perfume to a toxicity equivalent to that produced by the application of a model perfume containing 15 ppm 5-MOP without sunscreens. However, despite their promising protective effect in vitro, UVB and UVA sunscreens at low concentration (0.5%-1%) in perfumes cannot suppress the phototoxicity of bergamot oil on human skin.

  17. Release and toxicity comparison between industrial- and sunscreen-derived nano-ZnO particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many consumer products containing ZnO have raised concern for safety in regards toenvironmental impact and the public health. Widely used sunscreens for protectingagainst UV and avoiding sunburns represent a great exposure to nano-ZnO, one of theingredients commonly applied in su...

  18. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate as the Sunscreen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiana I Gusti M. Ngurah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and in vitro test of C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate as the sunscreen has been conducted. The C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate was synthesized in 2 steps. They were synthesis of C-methylcalix[4]resorcinarene via acid catalyzed condensation of resorcinol and acetaldehyde, followed by estherification using cinnamoyl chloride and pyridine catalyst. The characterization of the target molecule was performed by infra red spectrophotometer, proton-NMR, carbon-NMR and mass spectromether. The sunscreen activity test was conducted by spectroscopic method and MTT-assay. Spectroscopic analysis (UV showed that the target molecule absorbed the dangerous ultraviolet radiation between 280 and 320 nm (UV B wave length with the maximum absorption at 290 nm (ε = 31.535 M-1 cm-1. The MTT-assay indicated that the IC50 of C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate is 12.006 ppm. The sunscreen activity of C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate is stronger than commercial sunscreen Intersun (IC50 = 18.235 ppm.

  19. Enhancing Planning Strategies for Sunscreen Use at Different Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Catrinel; Schuz, Natalie; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    To promote sun safety by implementing different plans for sunscreen use, different psychological interventions are compared. Self-regulatory strategies such as action planning and coping planning are seen as proximal predictors of actual behavior. The study compares a pure planning intervention with a broader resource communication and examines…

  20. Sunscreens in human plasma and urine after repeated whole-body topical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, N R; Kongshoj, B; Andersson, A-M;

    2008-01-01

    The three chemical ultraviolet absorbers benzophenone-3 (BP-3), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC) and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC) are commercially used in sunscreens worldwide. Apart from sun protection, they may possess endocrine-disrupting effects in animals and in vitro. For all three...

  1. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen (Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen. This report is a starting point to determine what is known and what needs to be known about selected nanomaterials as par...

  2. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen (Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen. This report is a starting point to determine what is known and what needs to be known about selected nanomaterials as par...

  3. 76 FR 35672 - Revised Effectiveness Determination; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ...., those with skin type I, a history of skin cancer, or an immunosuppression condition). Increasing the... (NAICS), where the SBA's definition of a small business is fewer than 500 employees. Census data from... using the SBA definition. A casual analysis of the sunscreen manufacturers suggests, however, that...

  4. Does chronic sunscreen use reduce vitamin D production to insufficient levels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norval, M.; Wulf, Hans Chr.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet B radiation in sunlight provides the mechanism for more than 90% of the vitamin D production in most individuals. Concern has been expressed in recent years that the widespread use of sunscreens, particularly those with high sun protection factors, may lead to a significant...

  5. Novel biocomposite of carboxymethyl chitosan and pineapple peel carboxymethylcellulose as sunscreen carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkom, Lucksanee; Jimtaisong, Ampa

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to prepare of biocomposite of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from Ananas comosus (pineapple) peel for use as broad spectrum sunscreen carrier. Biocomposite was produced by using ferulic acid (FA), a plant extract, as crosslinker with the optimal ratio of CMC: CM-chitosan: FA at 1:2:4%w. FT-IR technique demonstrated that crosslinking may occur at amine group of CM-chitosan and carboxyl group of FA and hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl group of CMC and carboxyl group of FA. Biocomposite is pale yellow powder and present fibre bundle-like surface in the SEM image. DSC, TGA and XRD results indicated that new compound was formed. The particle size of biocomposite is 626nm determined by using Zetasizer. Hydrophilic TiO2 and phenylbenzimidazole sulphonic acid (PBSA) were used as sunscreen agent at ratio of TiO2: PBSA at 2:1%w. The biocomposite sunscreen possesses the SPF value of 2.47 with boost star rating of 3 at 2% compound. The results obtained indicate that the biocomposite was successfully prepared from CM-chitosan and pineapple peel CMC and the system can be used as matrix delivery system for hydrophilic sunscreens.

  6. New Approach to Develop Optimized Sunscreens that Enable Cutaneous Vitamin D Formation with Minimal Erythema Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kockott, Dieter; Herzog, Bernd; Reichrath, Jörg; Keane, Kevin; Holick, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    .... with SPF 5, 15 and 30 respectively. Taking into account that a majority of people in industrialized countries suffer from a shortage in vitamin D even in summer time, the ratio Evd/Eer is a new and important criterion for the quality of sunscreen...

  7. An Investigation of Optimum NLC-Sunscreen Formulation Using Taguchi Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao Chi Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used three kinds of wax and three kinds of oil, with fixed mixture ratio including UV-blocking materials of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, oxybenzone, and avobenzone, and applied hot high-pressure homogenization process to prepare nanolipid sunscreen formulations. The measured particle size of the sunscreen formulations was 100~300 nm around PDI of 0.2 having a moderate polydisperse system. The distribution of zeta potential was −50 mV to −35 mV, showing a stable system. The UV light-absorbing range of 9 groups of sunscreen formulations was 275 nm~380 nm ranging within UVA and UVB. The rheological analysis found that the viscosity change is shear, thinning exhibiting colloid behavior. Taguchi analysis found that the optimum combinations are the carnauba wax and the blackcurrant oil combination for crystallinity and the beeswax and CPG oil for UV absorption. In addition, UV-blocking ability shows that the SPF was 51.5 and PFA was three stars for SU9 formulation. Finally, the effect of temperature on the properties of sunscreen formulations was also explored.

  8. Peer Effects on Obesity in a Sample of European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes peer effects on childhood obesity using data from the first two waves of the IDEFICS study, which applies several anthropometric and other measures of fatness to approximately 14,000 children aged two to nine participating in both waves in 16 regions of eight European countries....... Peers are defined as same-sex children in the same school and age group. The results show that peer effects do exist in this European sample but that they differ among both regions and different fatness measures. Peer effects are larger in Spain, Italy, and Cyprus – the more collectivist regions in our...... sample – while waist circumference generally gives rise to larger peer effects than BMI. We also provide evidence that parental misperceptions of their own children's weight goes hand in hand with fatter peer groups, supporting the notion that in making such assessments, parents compare their children...

  9. Peer to Peer Networks Management Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Amad, Mourad; Aïssani, Djamil

    2012-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems are based on the concept of resources localization and mutualisation in dynamic context. In specific environment such as mobile networks, characterized by high variability and dynamicity of network conditions and performances, where nodes can join and leave the network dynamically, resources reliability and availability constitute a critical issue. The resource discovery problem arises in the context of peer to peer (P2P) networks, where at any point of time a peer may be placed at or removed from any location over a general purpose network. Locating a resource or service efficiently is one of the most important issues related to peer-to-peer networks. The objective of a search mechanism is to successfully locate resources while incurring low overhead and low delay. This paper presents a survey on P2P networks management: classification, applications, platforms, simulators and security.

  10. Determination of fourteen sunscreen agents in cosmetics using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N I; Yoo, M Y; Lee, S H

    2015-04-01

    Commercial sunscreens consist of various compounds ranging from inorganic mineral pigments to organic chemical absorbents to achieve the required degree of protection against sunlight. However, the UV radiation screening ingredients have side effects. In this study, therefore, to ensure compliance with the maximum permissible chemical concentrations in sunscreen cosmetic products, a simultaneous and improved determination method for sunscreen chemicals was assessed. Waters 2690 separations module HPLC system equipped with a Waters 486 tunable absorbance detector (UV-visible detector) has been employed and optimized to detect 14 compounds. For the separation, a Waters C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm i.d. 150 mm) and 1% of 0.1 M phosphoric acid in ethanol (solvent A) and in distilled water (solvent B) as mobile phases were used. The correlation coefficients of 14 standard mixture solutions exceeded 0.9993 in the range 2.5-200 μg mL(-1). The intra- and interday recovery and precision (relative standard deviation) of the method were 90.91-109.98% and within 10%, respectively, indicating that the developed method could provide reliable, precise and reproducible data. The detection limit was determined to be 0.01-1.99 μg mL(-1), and the quantization limit was determined to be 0.02-6.02 μg mL(-1), which were relatively lower than previous studies. This method was highly optimized in terms of selectivity, reproducibility and efficiency for the detection of 14 compounds. The validation data indicated that the improved method was quite suitable for their quantitative analysis of commercial product samples. Therefore, this method was applied to the determination of 14 compounds in commercial sunscreen cosmetic products. We verified that the amounts of sunscreen ingredients in the five currently sold sunscreens were >0.5% and within the designated limit, which means those could produce the safe and desired sunscreen effects on the skin. The present method could be applied to

  11. Peer-review thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bill; Goodman, Maurice

    2016-03-01

    In reply to the news article on challenges for peer-review by Michael Banks “Peer review under the spotlight” (February pp12-13), the editorial by Matin Durrani “Handle with care” cautioning against reforming peer review too fast (February p15) and Robert P Crease's article “Peer review's value” (February p17).

  12. Peer Relations in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F.; Payne, Alexandra; Chadwick, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    We present a developmental model that describes normal peer relations and highlights processes that underlie the emergence of problems with peers in childhood. We propose that children's relationships with peers begin in the first years of life, with stable individual differences and preferences for particular peers emerging by three years of age.…

  13. Frontier Minority Areas Boarding Pupils'Peer Relationship and Parent-child Relationship,and Loneliness%边疆少数民族地区寄宿制小学生同伴关系、亲子沟通与孤独感之间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘启颖

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To Analysis the relationship between peer relations ,parent-child communica-tion and loneliness of primary school students in the frontier minority areas of rural boarding ,and explore the internal mechanism of loneliness .Methods:463 primary school students in frontier minority areas completed the peer relationship , parent -child communication and loneliness scale .Structural equation was used to build models .Results:①Peer relationship ,parent-child communication and loneliness had a close relationship;Parent-child communication did not only impact on loneliness directly ,but also could influence loneliness by peer relations .②The parent-child communication impacted on loneliness direct-ly with path coefficient 0.45 and 0.30,③ Peer acceptance and peer fear inferiority were mediators that affect the parent -child communication of loneliness with path coefficient 0.47 and 0.47 respectively. Conclusion:Parent-child relationship has an impact on loneliness directly and indirectly through peer relations.%目的:分析边疆少数民族地区的农村寄宿制小学生同伴关系、亲子沟通和孤独感之间的关系,探讨影响孤独感的内在机制。方法:采用同伴关系量表、亲子沟通问卷和孤独感量表对463名边疆少数民族地区寄宿制小学生进行调查,用结构方程对三者之间的因果关系构建模型,并用收集来的数据进行模型拟合。结果:①同伴关系、亲子沟通和孤独感有密切的相关关系;②亲子沟通对孤独感产生直接影响,路径系数分别为-0.45和-0.30;③同伴关系是亲子沟通对孤独感产生影响的中介因素,亲子沟通通过同伴接受和同伴恐惧自卑影响孤独感的路径系数分别为-0.47和0.57。结论:亲子关系、同伴关系和孤独感之间的关系表现为亲子关系不仅对孤独感产生直接影响,还通过同伴关系这一中介对孤独感产生影响。

  14. Modeling structured peer-to-peer systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Li; LEI Zhen-ming

    2006-01-01

    Distributed network architecture and dynamic change of nodes makes the operation of structured peer-to-peer networks unpredictable. This article aims to present a research on the running rule of structured peer-to-peer networks through a mathematical model. The proposed model provides a low-complexity means to estimate the performance of a structured peer-to-peer network from two aspects: the average existent time of a node and probability of returning to a temporarily steady state of network. On the basis of the results, it can be concluded that the proposed structured peer-to-peer network is suitable for those conditions where the frequency of node change is under limited value, and this value mainly depends on the initializing time of the node. Otherwise,structured peer-to-peer network can be abstracted as a network queuing system, which is composed of many node queuing systems in a meshy way and the relation between the throughput of the node system and network system is analyzed.

  15. Peer-to-Peer Service Sharing Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The sharing economy has been growing continuously in the last decade thanks to the proliferation of internet-based platforms that allow people to disintermediate the traditional commercial channels and to share excess resources and trade with one another effectively at a reasonably low transaction...... cost. Whereas early peer-to-peer platforms were designed to enable file sharing and goods trading, we recently witness the emergence of a new breed of peer-to-peer platforms that are designed for ordinary service sharing. Ordinary services entail intangible provisions and are defined as an economic...... activity that generates immaterial benefits and does not result in ownership of material goods. Based on a structured analysis of 41 internet-based rideshare platforms, we explore and layout the unique characteristics of peer-to-peer service sharing platforms based on three distinct temporal patterns...

  16. Reducing adverse effects from UV sunscreens by zeolite encapsulation: comparison of oxybenzone in solution and in zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrétien, Michelle N; Heafey, Eve; Scaiano, Juan C

    2010-01-01

    Oxybenzone (OXB) is one of the most widely employed sunscreen ingredients, yet its allowed load is limited to a maximum of 6% reflecting the frequency with which adverse effects are reported. From a spectroscopic point of view, OXB has excellent absorption properties in both the UVB and UVA regions. We propose that zeolite encapsulation can lead to a sunscreen composite ingredient, that we describe as a supramolecular sunscreen, that will retain the excellent spectroscopic properties of OXB, while preventing contact between the skin and the active ingredient. OXB is very photostable, with the only photodegradative pathway observed being the monophotonic photoejection of electrons that leads to trace yields of phenoxyl radicals; this trace reaction is so minor that it cannot be detected from the recovery of unreacted OXB following UV exposure. Solution, as well as powder and in vitro studies of the supramolecular sunscreen, demonstrate that the protective properties of OXB are totally preserved when encapsulated in zeolite NaY.

  17. Peer harassment and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review existing literature regarding peer harassment and its association with a range of weight-related attitudes and behaviors. We conceptualize peer harassment to include traditionally defined bullying behavior, other social and relational forms of bullying, as well as teasing and other verbal harassment. Weight-based teasing is particularly relevant to weight-related issues and has been associated with clinical eating disorders, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and weight-related attitudes, such as body dissatisfaction. Studies using both clinical samples of eating disorder patients and general samples of college students or adolescents have demonstrated these relations. Emerging issues in this field, including teasing by family members, research with males, teasing and weight-related issues in developing countries, and the measurement of teasing experience are also discussed. Interventions with healthcare providers, parents, school personnel, and policy can contribute to the prevention of teasing and its associated weight-related attitudes and behaviors.

  18. Peer Relationships of Children with Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-Chava, Yael; Deignan, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of interviews with parents of children with cochlear implants found that, although implants have the potential to improve deaf children's relationships with hearing peers, these children still face communication obstacles which impede their social relationships. Results are discussed from the viewpoints of…

  19. Parenting and Socialization of Only Children in Urban China: An Example of Authoritative Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a semistructured interview of 328 urban Chinese parents regarding their parenting beliefs and practices with respect to their only children. Statistical analyses of the coded parental interviews and peer nomination data from the children show none of the traditional Chinese parenting or child behaviors that have been widely…

  20. Parenting and Socialization of Only Children in Urban China: An Example of Authoritative Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui Jing; Chang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a semistructured interview of 328 urban Chinese parents regarding their parenting beliefs and practices with respect to their only children. Statistical analyses of the coded parental interviews and peer nomination data from the children show none of the traditional Chinese parenting or child behaviors that have been widely…

  1. Commercial sunscreen formulations: UVB irradiation stability and effect on UVB irradiation-induced skin oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Fernanda M P; Oliveira, Franciane M; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A; Cunha, Thiago M; Fonseca, Maria J V

    2016-10-01

    Evidence shows that sunscreens undergo degradation processes induced by UV irradiation forming free radicals, which reduces skin protection. In this regard, the biological effects of three commercial sunscreen formulations upon UVB irradiation in the skin were investigated. The three formulations had in common the presence of benzophenone-3 added with octyl methoxycinnamate or octyl salycilate or both, which are regular UV filters in sunscreens. The results show that formulations F1 and F2 presented partial degradation upon UVB irradiation. Formulations F1 and F2 presented higher skin penetration profiles than F3. None of the formulations avoided UVB irradiation-induced GSH depletion, but inhibited reduction of SOD activity, suggesting the tested formulations did not present as a major mechanism inhibiting all UVB irradiation-triggered oxidative stress pathways. The formulations avoided the increase of myeloperoxidase activity and cytokine production (IL-1β and TNF-α), but with different levels of protection in relation to the IL-1β release. Concluding, UVB irradiation can reduce the stability of sunscreens, which in turn, present the undesirable properties of reaching viable skin. Additionally, the same SPF does not mean that different sunscreens will present the same biological effects as SPF is solely based on a skin erythema response. This found opens up perspectives to consider additional studies to reach highly safe sunscreens.

  2. Predictors of Peer Victimization among Hispanic Adolescent Girls: Implications for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anne; Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive behavior aimed at peers in school settings is a persistent problem for students, teachers, parents, and school social workers. Peer victimization is particularly troubling for adolescent girls in light of recent increases in aggression and violence among female adolescents. However, most studies of peer victimization, particularly among…

  3. Sunscreen use related to UV exposure, age, sex, and occupation based on personal dosimeter readings and sun-exposure behavior diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter A; Sandby-Møller, Jane; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2005-08-01

    To examine during what behaviors people apply sunscreen and to assess the relationship to UV exposure monitored by personal dosimetry and diaries. Open prospective observational study. University hospital. A convenience sample of 340 Danish volunteers: children, adolescents, indoor workers, sun worshippers, golfers, and gardeners (age range, 4-68 years). Intervention Subjects recorded sunscreen use and sun-exposure behavior in diaries and carried personal, electronic UV dosimeters, measuring time-stamped UV doses continuously, during a median of 119 days covering 346 sun-years (1 sun-year equals 1 subject participating during 1 summer season). Associations between sunscreen use and age, sex, skin type, occupation, sunburn, UV exposure doses, and behavior; and adequate application density and sun protection factor required to prevent sunburn. There were great variations in sunscreen use, which was highly correlated with risk behavior (sunbathing or exposing the upper body) (r = 0.39; P<.001). Sunscreens were used on a median of 5 days per sun-year (range, 1 day for gardeners to 16 days for sun worshippers). Ten percent of females and 41% of males never used sunscreens. Females used sunscreens more but also had more unprotected risk behavior than males (8 days vs 4 days; P<.001). Sunscreen use was not correlated with age, and children had as much unprotected risk behavior as adults. Sunscreens were used on 86% of the days with risk behavior in southern Europe vs 20% in northern Europe (P<.001). The UV doses were significantly higher on days with sunscreen (P< or = .03) and on sunburn days (P<.001). The median sun protection factor was 10.5. The sun-protecting effect corresponded to an application density of 0.5 mg/cm2. Days with sunscreen correlated not with days without risk behavior, but with days "sunbathing with the intention to tan," indicating that sunscreens were used as tanning aids to avoid sunburn.

  4. Peer-to-Peer Science Data Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, J. B.; Holland, M. P.

    2004-12-01

    The goal of P2PSDE is to provide a convenient and extensible Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network architecture that allows: distributed science-data services-seamlessly incorporating collaborative value-added services with search-oriented access to remote science data. P2PSDE features the real-time discovery of data-serving peers (plus peer-groups and peer-group services), in addition to the searching for and transferring of science data. These features are implemented using "Project JXTA", the first and only standardized set of open, generalized P2P protocols that allow arbitrary network devices to communicate and collaborate as peers. The JXTA protocols standardize the manner in which peers discover each other, self-organize into peer groups, advertise and discover network services, and securely communicate with and monitor each other-even across network firewalls. The key benefits include: Potential for dramatic improvements in science-data dissemination; Real-time-discoverable, potentially redundant (reliable), science-data services; Openness/Extensibility; Decentralized use of small, inexpensive, readily-available desktop machines; and Inherently secure-with ability to create variable levels of security by group.

  5. Anxious Solitude, Unsociability, and Peer Exclusion in Middle Childhood: A Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Tamara; Gazelle, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    This study examines convergent and divergent validity for middle childhood anxious solitude, unsociability, and peer exclusion as assessed by five informants (peers, teachers, observers, the self, and parents). Participants were 163 (67 male, 96 female) third grade children (M age = 8.70 years). Parent reports were available for a subset of the…

  6. Sunscreens with Titanium Dioxide (TiO(2)) Nano-Particles: A Societal Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Johannes F; van de Poel, Ibo; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2010-08-01

    The risks of novel technologies, such as nano(bio)technology cannot be fully assessed due to the existing uncertainties surrounding their introduction into society. Consequently, the introduction of innovative technologies can be conceptualised as a societal experiment, which is a helpful approach to evaluate moral acceptability. This approach is illustrated with the marketing of sunscreens containing nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles. We argue that the marketing of this TiO(2) nanomaterial in UV protective cosmetics is ethically undesirable, since it violates four reasonable moral conditions for societal experimentation (absence of alternatives, controllability, limited informed consent, and continuing evaluation). To remedy the current way nano-sized TiO(2) containing sunscreens are utilised, we suggest five complementing actions (closing the gap, setup monitoring tools, continuing review, designing for safety, and regulative improvements) so that its marketing can become more acceptable.

  7. Sunscreens with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Nano-Particles: A Societal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Poel, Ibo; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The risks of novel technologies, such as nano(bio)technology cannot be fully assessed due to the existing uncertainties surrounding their introduction into society. Consequently, the introduction of innovative technologies can be conceptualised as a societal experiment, which is a helpful approach to evaluate moral acceptability. This approach is illustrated with the marketing of sunscreens containing nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles. We argue that the marketing of this TiO2 nanomaterial in UV protective cosmetics is ethically undesirable, since it violates four reasonable moral conditions for societal experimentation (absence of alternatives, controllability, limited informed consent, and continuing evaluation). To remedy the current way nano-sized TiO2 containing sunscreens are utilised, we suggest five complementing actions (closing the gap, setup monitoring tools, continuing review, designing for safety, and regulative improvements) so that its marketing can become more acceptable. PMID:20835397

  8. AQUATOX Peer Review Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    AQUATOX Release 2 underwent an external peer review in early 2003, and Release 3 underwent an external peer review in late 2008. Reviewers stated model enhancements have made AQUATOX one of the most exciting tools in aquatic ecosystem management.

  9. Relations between Parenting Style and Children's Play Behavior. Issues in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Mellisa A.; Robila, Mihaela

    2001-01-01

    Studied Baumrind's approach to parenting style to examine the relations between parenting style and preschool children's social competence manifested through peer play. Found that mothers' and fathers' parenting style is related to children's play with peers, with an authoritative parenting style correlating to more complex levels of play. (SD)

  10. Relations between Parenting Style and Children's Play Behavior. Issues in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Mellisa A.; Robila, Mihaela

    2001-01-01

    Studied Baumrind's approach to parenting style to examine the relations between parenting style and preschool children's social competence manifested through peer play. Found that mothers' and fathers' parenting style is related to children's play with peers, with an authoritative parenting style correlating to more complex levels of play. (SD)

  11. High School Students’ Use of Sunscreen and Tanning Beds

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-20

    This podcast is an interview with Corey Basch, EdD, MPH, assistant professor in the Department of Public Health at William Paterson University. Dr. Basch discusses her study on high school students’ use of sunscreen and tanning beds between 2001 and 2011.  Created: 8/20/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/20/2014.

  12. The photocatalytic and cytotoxic effects of titanium dioxide particles used in sunscreen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampaul, Ashti

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are used in sunscreens to reflect UV radiation from the skin. However, titanium dioxide as anatase and rutile crystal forms is a well-known photocatalyst. The nanoparticles are surface coated with inert inorganic oxides such as silica and alumina or organics such as organosilanes or silicone polymers and more recently, have been doped with manganese oxide. These modifications to the titanium dioxide particles are purported to prevent the production of harmful reactive oxygen species. A range of sunscreens was tested with crystal form and modification type identified via XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, XPS and SSNMR. The particle modification and crystal form determined whether the particles were inert or rapidly degraded methylene blue dye, and killed or protected cultured human epithelium cells. Novel solid state Electron Paramagnetic Resonance analysis showed that the greatest amount of superoxide anions was formed during UVA irradiation of the mixed anatase and rutile crystal forms coated with an organosilane. These particles also degraded methylene blue at a similar rate to Degussa P25, a standard uncoated titanium dioxide powder and produced an increase in UVA induced apoptosis of human keratinocytes. Double Stranded Breaks were observed extensively in cells exposed to UVA irradiated mixed anatase and rutile titanium dioxide with organosilane. A new apoptotic-like cell death mechanism may have been recognised during the UVA irradiation of animal and human cells in the presence of titanium dioxide. This research concludes that mixed anatase and rutile crystal forms of titanium dioxide coated with organosilane or dimethicone may not be safe to use in sunscreen lotions. A less harmful alternative for sunscreen formulations is the manganese doped rutile particles or the alumina coated rutile powders, both of which exhibited a protective effect on cultured epithelial cells.

  13. The effects of continuous application of sunscreen on photoaged skin in Japanese elderly people – the relationship with the usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Makoto Mizuno,1,2 Kayo Kunimoto,1 Eiji Naru,2 Koichi Kameyama,2 Fukumi Furukawa,1 Yuki Yamamoto1,3 1Department of Dermatology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan; 2Fundamental Research Laboratories, KOSÉ Corporation, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Cosmetic Dermatology and Photomedicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan Abstract: Since photoaging of skin is caused by chronic sun exposure, it is well-recognized that regular sunscreen use can help prevent photoaging of skin in fair-skinned people. Therefore, application of sunscreen is recommended for the prevention of photoaging in many countries. However, the relationship between UV exposure and photoaging has rarely been investigated in clinical studies in Japan. In addition, there have been almost no long-term interventional studies in Japanese people. We have previously conducted a study where Japanese actinic keratosis patients were instructed to continuously apply sunscreen. The results indicated that long-term application of sunscreen is effective in suppressing actinic keratosis progression and generation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sunscreen on photoaged skin in 14 elderly Japanese people. Skin conditions such as water content, transepidermal water loss, the number of spots, wrinkles, and skin color tone uniformity were measured and compared before and after the study. A statistically significant difference was observed only in skin surface hydration. There were large inter-individual differences in amount of sunscreen used throughout the study. The changes in the number of spots and skin color tone uniformity during the 18 months showed good correlation with amount of sunscreen being used. These results suggest an increase in the number of spots and deterioration in skin color tone uniformity in the 18-month non-sunscreen application period, and that such skin conditions improved with increasing use of sunscreen. In this study, we suggested

  14. The Peer Influence Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Maureen T.

    1981-01-01

    Outlining a conceptual scheme specifying how peer influences mediate the effects of organizational characteristics of schools on student outcomes, with social psychological theories of interpersonal attraction and influence as the basis for the outline, is the aim of this paper. Selection of peers and influence of peers is outlined. (CE)

  15. Evaluation of the photostability of different UV filter combinations in a sunscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, L R; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2006-01-13

    Development of photostable sunscreens is extremely important to preserve the UV protective capacity and to prevent the reactive intermediates of photounstable filter substances behaving as photo-oxidants when coming into direct contact with the skin. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the photostability of four different UV filter combinations in a sunscreen by using HPLC analysis and spectrophotometry. The formulations that were investigated included four different UV filter combinations often used in SPF 15 sunscreens. The UV filter combinations were: octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC), benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and octyl salicylate (OS) (formulation 1); OMC, avobenzone (AVB) and 4-methylbenzilidene camphor (MBC) (formulation 2); OMC, BP-3 and octocrylene (OC) (formulation 3); OMC, AVB and OC (formulation 4). In the photostability studies, 40 mg of each formulation were spread onto a glass plate and left to dry before exposure to different UVA/UVB irradiation. Exposed samples were then immersed in isopropanol and the dried film dissolved ultrasonically. The filter components in the resulting solution were quantified by HPLC analysis with detection at 325 nm and by spectrophotometry. In this study, the four UV filter combinations showed different photostability profiles and the best one was formulation 3 (OMC, BP-3 and OC), followed by formulations 4, 1 and 2. In addition, OC improved the photostability of OMC, AVB and BP-3.

  16. Photostabilization of sunscreens by incorporation of tea as the external phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Pereira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of isolated ultraviolet (UV filters in photoprotective formulations creates products with limited protection against radiation, emphasising the need to develop formulations containing UVA and UVB filter combinations. However, most of the formulations developed to include both filters are unstable as a result of this combination, as well as by exposure to UV radiation. It is, therefore, crucial to include additives that enable photostabilization. Tea is the second most widely consumed beverage in the world and represents a good source of bioactive compounds, particularly polyphenols, which provide antioxidant activity. In the present work formulations containing green tea or black tea, as well as the sunscreens avobenzone (UVA sunscreen and octilmetoxinamato (UVB sunscreen, were developed and evaluated in order to develop new and effective photostable formulations providing broad spectrum photoprotection. These formulations have been developed with complete replacement of the external phase of the oil in water (O/W emulsion by these teas. The results showed that both teas presented photostabilizing capacity, particularly for green tea in the storage conditions at room temperature and at 5 °C, and black tea for the samples stored at 40 °C.

  17. Mesoporous silicate MCM-41 as a particulate carrier for octyl methoxycinnamate: Sunscreen release and photostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrogi, Valeria; Latterini, Loredana; Marmottini, Fabio; Pagano, Cinzia; Ricci, Maurizio

    2013-05-01

    Octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a widely used UV filter characterized by good absorbing properties; however, it shows light susceptibility (photoinstability) and potential skin permeation. This paper describes the application of a new particulate carrier to improve OMC safety and photostability. The UV filter was included into the pores of the mesoporous silicate MCM-41 and then entrapped there by plugging the pore openings. The last step was performed treating the MCM-41 inclusion product with a lipid cosmetic ingredient by the hot-melt method. The loaded samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption isotherms. Photochemical studies demonstrated that the coated samples allow a broader photoprotection range and remarkable improvement of sunscreen photostability. Finally, they were properly formulated in an emulgel, and the sunscreen release was studied in vitro by Franz diffusion cell and compared with those obtained from the same formulation containing the free filter. Sunscreen release from the studied formulations resulted negligible, meaning that the proposed approach represents a valuable strategy for UV filters stabilization toward light and safety improvement. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Percutaneous characterization of the insect repellent DEET and the sunscreen oxybenzone from topical skin application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasichayanula, Sreeneeranj; House, James D; Wang, Tao; Gu, Xiaochen

    2007-09-01

    The synergistic percutaneous enhancement between insect repellent DEET and sunscreen oxybenzone has been proven in our laboratory using a series of in vitro diffusion studies. In this study, we carried out an in vivo study to characterize skin permeation profiles from topical skin application of three commercially available repellent and sunscreen preparations. The correlation between skin disposition and drug metabolism was attempted by using data collected. Both DEET and oxybenzone permeated across the skin after the application and achieved substantial systemic absorption. Combined use of DEET and oxybenzone significantly enhanced the percutaneous penetration percentages (ranging 36-108%) due to mutual enhancement effects. Skin disposition indicated that DEET produced a faster transdermal permeation rate and higher systemic absorption extent, but oxybenzone formed a concentrated depot within the skin and delivered the content slowly over the time. In vivo AUCP/MRT of DEET and oxybenzone was increased by 37%/17% and 63%/10% when the two compounds were used together. No DEET was detected from the urine samples 48 h after the application. Tape stripping seemed to be a satisfactory approach for quantitative assessment of DEET and oxybenzone penetration into the stratum corneum. It was also concluded that pharmacological and toxicological perspectives from concurrent application of insect repellent and sunscreen products require further evaluation to ensure use efficacy and safety of these common consumer healthcare products.

  19. Ratio of Seaweed Porridge Eucheuma cottonii and Sargassum sp. as a Sunscreen Cream Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Luthfiyana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe use of sunscreen is highly recommended to protect the health of the skin from ultraviolet radiation.The aim of this study were to get the best ratio sunscreen preparation of porridge E. cottonii and Sargassumsp. through the total test microbes, antioxidants and SPF value, get a stable cream preparations physicallythrough sensory test, pH, consistency, Cycling test and centrifugal test. The main materials used were E.cottonii, Sargassum sp. and raw materials stocks cream. This study used a completely randomized design(CRD, which consisted of four treatments with two replications.The results showed that the best ratio ofsunscreen cream was cream with the addition of E. cottonii and Sargassum (1:1. The result obtained wasthe absence of microbs at creams and porridge E. cottonii and Sargassum sp. The antioxidant activity of E.cottonii porridge 127.23 ± 2.77μg/mL, Sargassum sp. 119.66 ± 0.25 μg/mL, and cream 83.4 ± 0.03 μg/mL.Cream SPF value was 7.03 ± 0.01. Consumer acceptance of the products through sensory test ranged fromnormal to like. Sunscreen creams had good physical stability and the cream has a shelf life preparation oneyear.

  20. Ratio of Seaweed Porridge Eucheuma cottonii and Sargassum sp. as a Sunscreen Cream Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Luthfiyana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of sunscreen is highly recommended to protect the health of the skin from ultraviolet radiation.The aim of this study was to get the best ratio sunscreen preparation of porridge E. cottonii and Sargassumsp. through the total test microbes, antioxidants and SPF value, get a stable cream preparations physicallythrough sensory test, pH, consistency, Cycling test and centrifugal test. The main materials used were E.cottonii, Sargassum sp. and raw materials stocks cream. This study used a completely randomized design(CRD, which consisted of four treatments with two replications.The results showed that the best ratio ofsunscreen cream was cream with the addition of E. cottonii and Sargassum (1:1. The result obtained wasthe absence of microbs at creams and porridge E. cottonii and Sargassum sp. The antioxidant activity of E.cottonii porridge 127.23 ± 2.77μg/mL, Sargassum sp. 119.66 ± 0.25 μg/mL, and cream 83.4 ± 0.03 μg/mL.Cream SPF value was 7.03 ± 0.01. Consumer acceptance of the products through sensory test ranged fromnormal to like. Sunscreen creams had good physical stability and the cream has a shelf life preparation oneyear.

  1. Sunscreens as a source of hydrogen peroxide production in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quiles, David; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio

    2014-08-19

    Sunscreens have been shown to give the most effective protection for human skin from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Chemicals from sunscreens (i.e., UV filters) accumulate in the sea and have toxic effects on marine organisms. In this report, we demonstrate that photoexcitation of inorganic UV filters (i.e., TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles) under solar radiation produces significant amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a strong oxidizing agent that generates high levels of stress on marine phytoplankton. Our results indicate that the inorganic oxide nanoparticle content in 1 g of commercial sunscreen produces rates of H2O2 in seawater of up to 463 nM/h, directly affecting the growth of phytoplankton. Conservative estimates for a Mediterranean beach reveal that tourism activities during a summer day may release on the order of 4 kg of TiO2 nanoparticles to the water and produce an increment in the concentration of H2O2 of 270 nM/day. Our results, together with the data provided by tourism records in the Mediterranean, point to TiO2 nanoparticles as the major oxidizing agent entering coastal waters, with direct ecological consequences on the ecosystem.

  2. Consensus Modeling for Prediction of Estrogenic Activity of Ingredients Commonly Used in Sunscreen Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixiao Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreen products are predominantly regulated as over-the-counter (OTC drugs by the US FDA. The “active” ingredients function as ultraviolet filters. Once a sunscreen product is generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE via an OTC drug review process, new formulations using these ingredients do not require FDA review and approval, however, the majority of ingredients have never been tested to uncover any potential endocrine activity and their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER is unknown, despite the fact that this is a very extensively studied target related to endocrine activity. Consequently, we have developed an in silico model to prioritize single ingredient estrogen receptor activity for use when actual animal data are inadequate, equivocal, or absent. It relies on consensus modeling to qualitatively and quantitatively predict ER binding activity. As proof of concept, the model was applied to ingredients commonly used in sunscreen products worldwide and a few reference chemicals. Of the 32 chemicals with unknown ER binding activity that were evaluated, seven were predicted to be active estrogenic compounds. Five of the seven were confirmed by the published data. Further experimental data is needed to confirm the other two predictions.

  3. Development of hydroxyapatite-chitosan gel sunscreen combating clinical multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Reda; Ali, Sameh S.; El-Shetehy, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    The several harmful effects on infected human skin resulting from exposure to the sun's UV radiation generate an interest in the development of a multifunctional hydroxyapatite-chitosan (HAp-chitosan) gel that works as an antibacterial sunscreen agent for skin care. In this work, HAp-chitosan gel was synthesized via coprecipitation method by dissolving chitosan in phosphoric acid and adding HAp. The characteristics of HAp-chitosan composite were investigated by conventional techniques, such as XRD, FTIR, and SEM techniques, while its sunscreen property was investigated by UV-spectroscopy. In addition to the influence of the gel on bacterial cell morphology, the antibacterial activity of HAp-chitosan gel against clinical multidrug resistant skin pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been studied. The results revealed the formation of HAp-chitosan gel having nanosized particles, which confers protection against UV-radiation. The antibacterial activity records showed that chitosan-HAp gel exhibits a significant effect on the growth and ultrastructure of multi-drug resistant bacterial activities. Therefore, the chitosan-HAp gel is promising for skin health care as an antibacterial sunscreen.

  4. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  5. JiaZhang Dui ErTong FaZhan TongBan GuanXi De ZuoYong (The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  6. Small amounts of zinc from zinc oxide particles in sunscreens applied outdoors are absorbed through human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; McCall, Maxine; Korsch, Michael; Gomez, Laura; Casey, Philip; Oytam, Yalchin; Taylor, Alan; McCulloch, Malcolm; Trotter, Julie; Kinsley, Leslie; Greenoak, Gavin

    2010-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are commonly used in personal-care formulations as protective agents against exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Although previous research has concluded that nanoparticles do not penetrate healthy skin, it remains contentious whether this conclusion holds under normal conditions of sunscreen use. Humans (n = 20) were exposed to sunscreens containing zinc oxide (ZnO) particles to determine if Zn from the particles was absorbed through skin over five consecutive days under outdoor conditions. Two sunscreens were tested-"nano sunscreen" containing 19-nm nanoparticles and "bulk sunscreen" containing > 100-nm particles. Venous blood and urine samples were collected 8 days before exposure, twice daily during the trial, and 6 days post-exposure. As the first application in nanotechnology studies, stable isotope tracing was used where the ZnO, enriched to > 99% with the stable isotope (68)Zn, allowed dermally absorbed zinc to be distinguished from naturally occurring zinc. The overwhelming majority of applied (68)Zn was not absorbed, although blood and urine samples from all subjects exhibited small increases in levels of tracer (68)Zn. The amount of tracer detected in blood after the 5-day application period was ∼1/1000 th that of total Zn in the blood compartment. Tracer levels in blood continued to increase beyond the 5-day application phase in contrast to those in urine. Levels of (68)Zn in blood and urine from females receiving the nano sunscreen appeared to be higher than males receiving the same treatment and higher than all subjects receiving the bulk sunscreen. It is not known whether (68)Zn has been absorbed as ZnO particles or soluble Zn or both.

  7. In vitro assessment of the broad-spectrum ultraviolet protection of sunscreen products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffey, B L; Tanner, P R; Matts, P J; Nash, J F

    2000-12-01

    There are considerable data to suggest that protection from solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation will reduce the risk of acute and chronic skin damage in humans. Whereas the sun protection factor (SPF) provides an index of protection against erythemally effective solar UV, largely confined to the UVB (290-320 nm) and short-wavelength UVA (320-340 nm) region, there is currently no agreed-upon method to measure broad-spectrum protection against long-wavelength UVA (340-400 nm). The objective of these studies was to assess the potential of in vitro UV substrate spectrophotometry and subsequent calculation of the "critical wavelength" value as a measure of broad-spectrum UV protection and as a routine, practical procedure for classification of sunscreen products. The spectral absorption of 59 commercially available sunscreen products and multiple experimental formulas with one or more UV filters was measured. Sunscreen product, 1 mg/cm(2), was applied to a hydrated synthetic collagen substrate, preirradiated with a solar simulator, and then subjected to UV substrate spectrophotometry. Multiple determinations from 5 independent samples per product were used to calculate the critical wavelength value, defined as the wavelength at which the integral of the spectral absorbance curve reached 90% of the integral from 290 to 400 nm. We found that a recognized long-wave UVA active ingredient such as titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, or avobenzone is a necessary but insufficient product requirement for achieving the highest proposed broad-spectrum classification, that is, critical wavelength of 370 nm or more. Although SPF and critical wavelength are largely independent of each other, UVA absorbance must increase commensurate with SPF to maintain the same critical wavelength value. Substrate spectrophotometry and the calculation of critical wavelength can readily account for sunscreen photostability by UV preirradiation. Finally, there is also a strong positive relationship between

  8. Parent-Adolescent Conflict: An Empirical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Compares psychoanalytic, systems, and social learning theories to determine the empirical support for each theoretical orientation in treating problematic conflict between parents and adolescents. Discusses parent-adolescent conflict, including developmental stage theory, parenting styles, peer pressures, communication skills, marital conflict,…

  9. Design of a photostabilizer having built-in antioxidant functionality and its utility in obtaining broad-spectrum sunscreen formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Ratan K; Lascu, Zoia; Puccetti, Germain; Deshpande, Anant A; Paknikar, Sashikumar K

    2006-01-01

    Di-2,2'-diethylhexyl-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-benzylidenemalonate (INCI name diethylhexyl syringylidene malonate, DESM), the target photostabilizer, was synthesized in one step by condensation of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy benzaldehyde (Syringaldehyde) with di-2,2'-diethylhexyl malonate. Photostability data in sunscreen formulations showed that DESM is photostable and improves the photostability of avobenzone significantly when compared to control (without a photostabilizer). Photostable broad-spectrum sunscreen formulations with high SPF (>30) have been achieved by combining avobenzone, DESM and UV-B sunscreens, such as homosalate, octisalate or other UV-B sunscreens. It seems that (a) triplet-state energy transfer from avobenzone to DESM and (b) scavenging of reactive species are responsible for the observed stabilization of avobenzone. In vitro study of the two formulations containing DESM clearly showed critical wavelength of well over 370 nm and can thus be categorized as broad-spectrum sunscreens. DESM does not have any contribution to in vivo SPF; instead it boosts SPF by about 5 units in high-SPF products. DESM was found to be an excellent singlet-oxygen quencher, thereby reducing photodegradation of avobenzone caused by singlet oxygen. In short, the multiplicity of effects and formulation benefits seen with DESM makes it an ideal choice as a unique antioxidant photostabilizer for a variety of cosmetic products targeting young and mature skin alike.

  10. Potential risks of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles released from sunscreens into outdoor swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Soo-kyung [Center for Water Resource Cycle, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy Environment Policy and Technology, Green School, Korea University (KU)-Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-ju [Center for Water Resource Cycle, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaesang [Energy Environment Policy and Technology, Green School, Korea University (KU)-Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seunghak, E-mail: seunglee@kist.re.kr [Center for Water Resource Cycle, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy Environment Policy and Technology, Green School, Korea University (KU)-Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Nanoparticles from sunscreen products can be released into public pools. • Nanoparticles and organic ingredients can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). • A negative impact of ROS should not be significant in swimming pool. - Abstract: The potential risks of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens being released into swimming water were evaluated by a series of laboratory experiments simulating the fate and transport of NPs in outdoor swimming pools. NPs released from sunscreen-applied skin were estimated using pig skins covered with five different commercial sunscreens containing TiO{sub 2}, ZnO, or both at various concentrations. Assuming that the swimming water treatment processes consisted of filtration, UV irradiation, heating, and chlorination, possible removal of the released NPs by each process was estimated. Generation of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) by the NPs under sunlight and after UV photochemical treatment were measured, and the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration possibly present in the swimming pool was calculated based on some specific scenarios of operating an outdoor swimming pool. It was found that a significant amount of the NPs in sunscreens could be released into the swimming water, and accumulate during circulation through the treatment system. However, the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} possibly present in the swimming pool should be below the level at which an adverse effect to bathers is concerned.

  11. Learning about technology: Family vs. peer pairings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Patricia; Padilla, Michael; Hertel, Barbara; Olstad, Roger

    Recently a number of institutions have begun sponsoring nondeficit science and/or technology learning experiences for parents and their middle school-aged children which are intended to be enriching rather than remedial or compensatory in purpose. Very little research documenting the effects of parental involvement in the education of older children has been reported, however.The intent of this article was to present two studies designed to determine whether middle school-aged children's attitudes and content achievement are different when they take a technology course with their parents (parent-child treatment) or with their peers (child-child treatment). The first study focused on learning about communications technology (primarily telegraphs, telephones and radios); the second study focused on microcomputers.Results indicate that parents have little affect in helping their children learn the subject matter of technology courses. Likewise, parents do not affect children's attitudes toward computers. Both results were attenuated by the fact that the students in the studies were high achievers who were interested in and motivated to learn the subject matter, regardless of treatment. Significant differences were noted for computer literacy favoring the parent-child group, however. Parents also seemed to effect children's attitudes toward the subject matter of the courses.Further research needs to be done with less appealing course content or with less motivated students to fully determine the effect of parent-child and child groupings in science and technology courses.

  12. Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Tipsord, Jessica M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that "select" adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors.

  13. Are They Listening? Parental Social Coaching and Parenting Emotional Climate Predict Adolescent Receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Kim D; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S; Tu, Kelly M

    2016-12-01

    Associations linking parenting emotional climate and quality of parental social coaching with young adolescents' receptivity to parental social coaching were examined (N = 80). Parenting emotional climate was assessed with adolescent-reported parental warmth and hostility. Quality of parental social coaching (i.e., prosocial advice, benign framing) was assessed via parent-report and behavioral observations during a parent-adolescent discussion about negative peer evaluation. An adolescent receptivity latent variable score was derived from observations of adolescents' behavior during the discussion, change in adolescents' peer response plan following the discussion, and adolescent-reported tendency to seek social advice from the parent. Parenting climate moderated associations between coaching and receptivity: Higher quality coaching was associated with greater receptivity in the context of a more positive climate. Analyses suggested a stronger association between coaching and receptivity among younger compared to older adolescents. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  14. Social Skills as a Mediator between Anxiety Symptoms and Peer Interactions among Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoca, Luci M.; Williams, Sandra; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the relations among youth anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills. Also examined was the mediating role of social skills in the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. Youth sex and age were examined as moderators. Method The sample consisted of 397 children and adolescents (M = 10.11 years; 53.4% boys; 74.8% Hispanic Latino) referred to an anxiety disorders clinic. Anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills were assessed using youth and parent ratings. Results Structural equation modeling results indicated that for youth ratings only, youth anxiety symptoms were negatively related to positive peer interactions controlling for primary social phobia and comorbid depressive disorders. For both youth and parent ratings, youth anxiety symptoms were positively related to negative peer interactions and negatively related to social skills. Also for both youth and parent ratings, social skills mediated the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. For parent ratings only, the effects of youth anxiety symptoms and social skills on peer interactions were significantly moderated by youth age. Youth sex was not a significant moderator using youth and parent ratings. Conclusions Findings suggest difficulties with social skills and peer interactions are problematic features of youth referred for anxiety problems. Findings highlight the need to improve understanding of anxiety symptoms, social skills, and peer interactions in this population. PMID:22471319

  15. Changing the social contexts of peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie; Hoglund, Wendy

    2006-02-01

    While school-based prevention programs often target deficits in individual children's social skills in order to limit their aggression or exposure to peer victimization, there is increasing evidence that school-wide and classroom-level factors can affect the success of these programs. We describe the WITS Primary Program which takes a community development approach for the prevention of victimization. It was designed for kindergarten to grade 3 students, and aims to create responsive communities for the prevention of peer victimization by engaging the support of parents, teachers, school counselors, older student, and emergency services personnel. Evidence supporting the program's feasibility and effectiveness are reported. The prevention of peer victimization and bullying may require targeted programs with demonstrated support from many adults in young children's social networks.

  16. Peer reviewing made easy

    OpenAIRE

    Halder, Neel; Ramsay, Rosalind; Tyrer, Peter; Casey, Patricia R.

    2011-01-01

    Peer review in scientific journals has existed for over 200 years. This process is currently the accepted way of assessing scientific manuscripts prior to publication for most journals. Despite this, little has been written about the process of peer reviewing, with hardly anything specific to psychiatric journals. This article answers fundamental questions related to peer reviewing and includes practical tips to writing reviews. It will be helpful for those keen on improving their knowledge a...

  17. The Effect Mechanism of Parental Control, Deviant Peers and Sensation Seeking on Drug Use among Reform School Students%父母控制、不良同伴和感觉寻求对工读生毒品使用的影响机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶宝娟; 杨强; 胡竹菁

    2012-01-01

    Based on social learning theory and ecological systems theory, this present study constructed a moderated mediation model in which affiliation with deviant peers mediated the relationship between parental psychological control, behavioral control and drug use among reform school students, and this mediation effect was moderated by sensation seeking. Participants were 514 reform school students, and they completed parental control questionnaire, affiliation with deviant peers questionnaire, sensation seeking scale, and drug use questionnaire. The results indicated that: (1) parental.psychological control and behavioral control were associated with drug use; (2) affiliation with deviant peers mediated the effect of parental psychological control, behavioral control and drug use ; (3) sensation seeking moderated this effect.%在社会学习理论和生态系统理论基础上提出一个有调节的中介模型,探讨父母心理控制、行为控制与工读生毒品使用的关系,以及结交不良同伴的中介效应和感觉寻求的调节效应。514名工读生完成了父母控制问巷、不良同伴问卷、感觉寻求量表和毒品使用问卷。结果显示:(1)父母心理控制能正向预测工读生的毒品使用,父母行为控制能负向预测工读生的毒品使用。(2)结交不良同伴在心理控制、行为控制与工读生毒品使用的关系中起中介作用。(3)结交不良同伴的中介作用受到感觉寻求的调节。

  18. School Learning Environments as Reported by Teachers, Parents, and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Nicholas; Nolin, Mary Jo

    American parents who are trying to rear their children in responsible ways do so in the face of peer influences that may be at odds with the parents' values. This report examines some of the findings of the 1993 National Household Education Survey (NHES) to show how families and students' peers sometimes work at cross-purposes. Specifically…

  19. Mangiferin and naringenin affect the photostability and phototoxicity of sunscreens containing avobenzone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Camila Martins; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo

    2015-10-01

    Efficient UV-absorbing molecules are designed to protect against UV-light exposure. However, the development of photostable sunscreens is important to preserve the photoprotective efficacy and to prevent the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and photodegradation products, which can promote phototoxic or photoallergic contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mangiferin and naringenin on the photostability and phototoxicity of sunscreens containing avobenzone. Cosmetic sunscreen formulations containing octocrylene (OCT), octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) and avobenzone (AVO) were prepared and supplemented or not with mangiferin, naringenin, or with both compounds in combination. For photostability studies, samples of the formulations were spread onto glass plates, exposed to UVA radiation and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine UV filters and the antioxidants recovery. The phototoxicity of the UV filters and antioxidants was evaluated using 3T3 fibroblast cultures that were subjected (or not) to irradiation according to OECD TG 432. The photostability studies demonstrated that AVO and naringenin showed the highest photodegradation when present in formulation FN (containing octocrylene, avobenzone, octyl methoxycinnamate and naringenin). The addition of mangiferin to this combination (FMN) resulted in an improved photostability of both substances compared to FN. The in vitro phototoxicity test showed that only avobenzone was considered phototoxic. The combination containing AVO/naringenin exhibited phototoxic potential; however, this was reduced by the addition of mangiferin (combination CMN). The results of this study are promising because it was demonstrated that mangiferin could increase the photostability and reduce the phototoxic potential of the combination of naringenin and AVO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Worry about skin cancer mediates the relation of perceived cancer risk and sunscreen use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Ellis, Erin M

    2014-12-01

    Preventive health behaviors are believed to be motivated in part by a person's perception of risk for a particular health problem. Risk contains a cognitive component, beliefs about the chances of a health problem occurring, and an affective component, fear or worry about the health problem. Although both have been shown to influence behavior, the nature of their interrelation as an influence on behavior has not been examined. Data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, a US nationally-representative telephone survey was analyzed. Participants reported perceived absolute and comparative risk for skin cancer, feelings of worry about skin cancer, and sunscreen use behavior. Analyses examined main effects models for the relation between perceived risk, worry, and sunscreen use, as well as both moderated and mediated models. For both absolute and comparative risk, the relation between cognitively-based perceived risk for skin cancer and sunscreen use was fully mediated by feelings of worry, as evidenced by significant direct effects of worry (bs > 0.046, ps worry (bs > 0.19, ps worry was included in the models, direct effects of risk perceptions were non-significant (bs worry on the relation between risk and behavior. While cognitive risk appraisals do influence decision making and may be addressed by interventions, these findings demonstrate that affectively-based risk components play a key role in behavior regulation. Affectively-based risk might be an effective target for interventions and should be incorporated more fully in decision-making models.

  1. Formulation development of sunscreen lotion containing jackfruit starch and the lotion acceptance evaluation in volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitropas, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In present study, a 23 full factorial design was used for optimization of the sunscreen lotions containing mucilage from jackfruit (JK, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC and Carbopol 940 as the thickening agents. The optimized sunscreen lotion containing JK, control and benchmark product were tested for acceptance by 44 volunteers using randomized controlled study. To optimize the formulation, the changes of physical properties before and after freeze-thaw cycling of sunscreen lotion, which were pH, conductivity, viscosity as well as stability of emulsions, were investigated. It was found that any formulation containing SCMC was unstable. After undergoing 6 freeze-thaw cycles, pH and conductivity of all formulations had changed but with no significant difference. In addition, the viscosity of all formulations increased after 6 cycles. The formulation containing low and high levels of JK as well as containing JK in combination with Carbopol 940 showed a good signs of emulsion stability. In conclusion, the formulation containing high levels of JK in combination with Carbopol 940 exhibited the greatest physical stability of lotion. Using JK alone in formula gave a stable physical properties and good texture but the viscosity of the lotion was practically low. As a result, in order to obtain the stable lotion and high viscosity, it is important to use in combination with other viscosity-inducing agents. When the lotion containing JK alone was tested for acceptance in volunteers, it was found that the JK lotion texture and odor needed to be improved. However, its penetration, stickiness and moisturizing properties, as well as its feeling after use, were acceptable more or less the same as the benchmark product.

  2. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Krægpøth, Morten; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school-cohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  3. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Krægpøth, Morten; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school-cohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  4. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Krægpøth, Morten Visby; Skyt Nielsen, Helena

    This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving schoolcohort. We...... identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic...

  5. Quercetin and rutin as potential sunscreen agents: determination of efficacy by an in vitro method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquenet, Benjamin; Couteau, Céline; Paparis, Eva; Coiffard, Laurence J M

    2008-06-01

    Given that flavonoids are known for their ultraviolet (UV)B photoprotective properties in plants that contain them, we chose to study quercetin (1) and rutin (2) as agents that could potentially be used in sunscreen products. These two substances proved to behave in similar ways. When incorporated in oil-in-water emulsions, at a concentration of 10% (w/w), 1 and 2 give sun protection factor (SPF) values similar to that of homosalate, a standard substance. These two flavonoids also provided a non-negligible level of photoprotection in the UVA range. When used in association with titanium dioxide, the SPF obtained was around 30.

  6. In vitro photostability and photosensitizing properties of bergamot oil. Effects of a cinnamate sunscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlière, P; Hüppe, G; Averbeck, D; Young, A R; Santus, R; Dubertret, L

    1990-11-01

    Bergamottin, which accounts for about two-thirds of the absorption of UVA and UVB light by bergamot oil, is shown to be fairly unstable on UV irradiation of solutions of bergamot oil (in ethanol-water, 80:20 (w/w)). Bergamottin photodegradation is partly inhibited by molecular oxygen and also by a cinnamate sunscreen acting as a triplet excited state quencher. On UV irradiation of bergamot oil, type II photodynamic properties, i.e. singlet oxygen production, are observed, which can be mainly attributed to the excitation of bergamottin by light. Therefore bergamottin can be considered as a potential photosensitizer in the photobiological activity of bergamot oil.

  7. Determination of three ultraviolet filters in sunscreen formulations and from skin penetration studies by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maria Pinto Vilela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical procedure to quantify 3-benzophenone, octylmethoxycinnamate and octylsalicylate was validated and employed to assess these ultraviolet filters in sunscreen formulations and from skin penetration studies. The effect of the vehicle on the skin retention of these filters was investigated. HPLC and extraction procedure were found to be reliable when obtaining data for the sunscreen formulations and for evaluation skin penetration. The results demonstrated that a cream gel generated higher epidermal concentrations of these filters than a lotion or cream-based formulation. Additionally, when comparing the skin retentions of each filter using the same formulation, 3-benzophenone showed the highest skin retention.

  8. Expertise-based peer selection in Peer-to-Peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Harmelen, van Frank

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a model in which peers advertise their expertise in the

  9. Expertise-based peer selection in Peer-to-Peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, Peter; Siebes, Ronny; Harmelen, van Frank

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems have proven to be an effective way of sharing data. Modern protocols are able to efficiently route a message to a given peer. However, determining the destination peer in the first place is not always trivial. We propose a a message to a given peer. However, determining the des

  10. Blog enabled peer-to-peer learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kami

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to simulate development of a community oral health plan using technology-based tools at the students' disposal. The specific research questions were: Will students use the Internet to identify community oral health issues and develop solutions to address the issues? Will blogs be a good tool to discuss and engage students in conversation with each other and to connect them with community oral health resources? How will blogging impact future academic and personal communications for the student? Dental hygiene students (n=30) participated in a community oral health course for 7 weeks. Students were asked to create a blog on which they would post weekly assignments and respond to 2 of their peer's blogs each week. Methods for data collection were post-treatment survey (15 items) analyzed for descriptive statistics and an analysis of written blog content according to a counting and coding scheme. Students used the Internet to identify issues and problem solving scenarios. Blogs were a good tool to engage students in discussions on oral health issues and peer-to-peer learning. Qualitative discourse analysis revealed evidence of critical thought and discourse throughout blog posts. Students referenced the Internet in blogs, while specific instances of resource sharing and provision of solutions to peers were less common. Students felt blogging encouraged them to engage with one another. Twenty percent of participating students have extended their use of blogging for both academic and personal purposes.

  11. Technology enhanced peer learning and peer assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...

  12. Structured Query Translation in Peer to Peer Database Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehedi Masud

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a query translation mechanism between heterogeneous peers in Peer to Peer Database Sharing Systems (PDSSs. A PDSS combines a database management system with P2P functionalities. The local databases on peers are called peer databases. In a PDSS, each peer chooses its own data model and schema and maintains data independently without any global coordinator. One of the problems in such a system is translating queries between peers, taking into account both the schema and data heterogeneity. Query translation is the problem of rewriting a query posed in terms of one peer schema to a query in terms of another peer schema. This paper proposes a query translation mechanism between peers where peers are acquainted in data sharing systems through data-level mappings for sharing data.

  13. Parents are Educators: Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Ed

    1982-01-01

    Discusses growing recognition of the importance of parenting and of parents as educators, due to the increase in single-parent households and awareness of importance of early childhood learning experiences. Ways outdoor education can help (emphasizing methods, materials, motivations) are described, including 11 starting points and 15 tips for…

  14. Stability Study of Sunscreens with Free and Encapsulated UV Filters Contained in Plastic Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Briasco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreens play a fundamental role in skin cancer prevention and in protection against photo-aging. UV filters are often photo-unstable, especially in relation to their vehicles and, being lipophilic substances, they are able to interact with plastic packaging. Finally, UV filter stability can be significantly affected by the routine use of the product at high temperatures. This work aims to study the stability of sunscreen formulations in polyethylene packaging. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene, both in a free form and as encapsulated filters were chosen as UV filters. Stability evaluations were performed both in the packaging and on the formulations. Moreover, a further two non-destructive techniques, near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and a multiple light scattering technique, were also used to evaluate the stability of the formulation. Results demonstrated clearly that all of the pack underwent significant changes in its elastic/plastic behavior and in external color after solar irradiation. From the evaluation of the extractable profile of untreated and treated packaging material an absorption of 2-phenoxyethanol and octocrylene were shown. In conclusion, the results highlighted clearly that a reduction of the UV filter in the formulation packed in high-density polyethylene/low-density polyethylene (HDPE/LDPE material can occur over time, reducing the protective effect of the product when applied to the skin.

  15. Sunscreening fungal pigments influence the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in boreal forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber, Leonie; Sølhaug, Knut Asbjorn; Esseen, Per-Anders; Bilger, Wolfgang; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2014-06-01

    Pendulous lichens dominate canopies of boreal forests, with dark Bryoria species in the upper canopy vs. light Alectoria and Usnea species in lower canopy. These genera offer important ecosystem services such as winter forage for reindeer and caribou. The mechanism behind this niche separation is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that species-specific sunscreening fungal pigments protect underlying symbiotic algae differently against high light, and thus shape the vertical canopy gradient of epiphytes. Three pale species with the reflecting pigment usnic acid (Alectoria sarmentosa, Usnea dasypoga, U. longissima) and three with dark, absorbing melanins (Bryoria capillaris, B. fremontii, B. fuscescens) were compared. We subjected the lichens to desiccation stress with and without light, and assessed their performance with chlorophyll fluorescence. Desiccation alone only affected U. longissima. By contrast, light in combination with desiccation caused photoinhibitory damage in all species. Usnic lichens were significantly more susceptible to light during desiccation than melanic ones. Thus, melanin is a more efficient light-screening pigment than usnic acid. Thereby, the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in forest canopies is consistent with a shift in type and functioning of sunscreening pigments, from high-light-tolerant Bryoria in the upper to susceptible Alectoria and Usnea in the lower canopy.

  16. Sunscreens in human plasma and urine after repeated whole-body topical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, N.R.; Kongshoj, B.; Andersson, A.M.;

    2008-01-01

    Background The three chemical ultraviolet absorbers benzophenone-3 (BP-3), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC) and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC) are commercially used in sunscreens worldwide. Apart from sun protection, they may possess endocrine-disrupting effects in animals and in vitro...... the first application, all three sunscreens were detectable in plasma. The maximum median plasma concentrations were 187 ng/mL BP-3, 16 ng/mL 4-MBC and 7 ng/mL OMC for females and 238 ng/mL BP-3, 18 ng/mL 4-MBC and 16 ng/mL OMC for men. In the females, urine levels of 44 ng/mL BP-3 and 4 ng/mL of 4-MBC...... and 6 ng/mL OMC were found, and in the males, urine levels of 81 ng/mL BP-3, 4 ng/mL of 4-MBC and OMC were found. In plasma, the 96-h median concentrations were higher compared with the 24-h concentrations for 4-MBC and OMC in men and for BP-3 and 4-MBC in females Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  17. Characteristics of titanium dioxide microdispersions with different photo-activity suitable for sunscreen formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubáč, L; Akrman, J; Kejlová, K; Bendová, H; Klánová, K; Hladíková, Z; Pikal, P; Kovaříková, L; Kašparová, L; Jírová, D

    2015-03-15

    The aim of the study was the comparison of photo-activity of three types of titanium dioxide (TiO2) micro-dispersions intended for use as UV filters for cosmetic sunscreen products. The dispersions were also investigated with regard to their influence on the stability of photo-protective systems in cosmetic emulsions, their skin penetration/absorption and their photo-toxicity for humans and skin bacterial flora. All the tested micro-dispersions of rutile TiO2 type (agglomerates with diameter 120-150 nm), with primary particle size lower than 100 nm, demonstrated no phototoxic effect and insignificant antimicrobial behaviour. On the other hand, TiO2 with insufficient deactivation of photo-activity had significant negative impact on the stability of other organic UV filters and therefore on the stability of declared UV protective factors (SPF, UVA-PF). The study demonstrated that the level of deactivation of TiO2 is one of the highly important factors for evaluation of UV filters used as sunscreens.

  18. Biochemical characterization of sunscreening mycosporine-like amino acids from two Nostoc species inhabiting diverse habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2015-01-01

    We have screened two Nostoc species inhabiting diverse habitats for the presence of sunscreening mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) compounds. The identification and characterization of one MAA (RT 3.1-3.8 min, λmax -334 nm) from both Nostoc species were performed using absorption spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Shinorine and porphyra-334 were commonly present in both Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2 and Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-6. Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2 also showed the presence of an unknown MAAs with retention time of 6.9 min and a corresponding λmax of 334 nm. Present investigation clearly demonstrated the presence of diverse profile of MAAs in the hot spring cyanobacterium in comparison to the rice field isolate. Thus, Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2 would be a better source for the production of MAAs that can be used as a potent natural sunscreen against UV-B irradiation.

  19. Stability Study of Sunscreens with Free and Encapsulated UV Filters Contained in Plastic Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briasco, Benedetta; Capra, Priscilla; Mannucci, Barbara; Perugini, Paola

    2017-05-31

    Sunscreens play a fundamental role in skin cancer prevention and in protection against photo-aging. UV filters are often photo-unstable, especially in relation to their vehicles and, being lipophilic substances, they are able to interact with plastic packaging. Finally, UV filter stability can be significantly affected by the routine use of the product at high temperatures. This work aims to study the stability of sunscreen formulations in polyethylene packaging. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene, both in a free form and as encapsulated filters were chosen as UV filters. Stability evaluations were performed both in the packaging and on the formulations. Moreover, a further two non-destructive techniques, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and a multiple light scattering technique, were also used to evaluate the stability of the formulation. Results demonstrated clearly that all of the pack underwent significant changes in its elastic/plastic behavior and in external color after solar irradiation. From the evaluation of the extractable profile of untreated and treated packaging material an absorption of 2-phenoxyethanol and octocrylene were shown. In conclusion, the results highlighted clearly that a reduction of the UV filter in the formulation packed in high-density polyethylene/low-density polyethylene (HDPE/LDPE) material can occur over time, reducing the protective effect of the product when applied to the skin.

  20. Clinical application and safety of sunscreens%防晒剂的应用及其安全性的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李沛沛; 段西凌

    2008-01-01

    Skin photoaging is proved to be closely associated with ultraviolet exposure. Ultraviolet protection may be realized by wearing protective clothings, environmental photoprotection, sunscreen application. The use of sunscreens is aimed to minimize the damage of ultraviolet to skin, so as to slow down the process of skin photoaging. Based on the mechanism of action, sunscreens could be classified into physical sunscreens, chemical sunscreens and vegetal sunscreens. Sunscreens have been widely applied in the treatment and prevention of skin photodamage, and with the development of science and process technology, their safety is also gradually improved.%皮肤光老化与紫外线的关系密切,保护皮肤免受紫外线的损伤方式有:穿戴光防护的衣物和帽子等、自然环境防护、使用防晒剂等.防晒剂使用的目的是将紫外线辐射对皮肤的损害减少到最小,从而减缓皮肤光老化的过程.防晒剂按作用机制可分为物理、化学和植物防晒剂,广泛应用于治疗和防护,其安全性也随着科技和工艺的改进逐步提高.

  1. Relations Among Peer Acceptance,Social Behavior and Parenting Style of Junior High School Students%初中生的自尊、同伴接纳与学业成绩的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    展宁宁

    2011-01-01

    对302名初中生的自尊及同伴接纳状况进行了调查,探讨初中生的自尊、同伴接纳与学业成绩的关系. 结果显示,初中生的自尊发展存在年级差异,但不存在性别上的差异;初中生的自尊发展、同伴接纳与学业成绩都存在着密切的关系;初中生的自尊发展、同伴接纳对学业成绩有显著预测作用.%This paper makes a survey of 320 junior high school students about their self-esteem and peer acceptance. The findings indicate that junior high school students' self-esteem is different in grades,but no difference in genders. There is a remarkable relationship between self-esteem,peer acceptance and academic achievements. Their self-esteem and peer acceptance predict academic achievements.

  2. Parent-to-Parent Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sue; Doyle, Phyllis

    1984-01-01

    A parent-to-parent support program was begun to provide early support for parents of handicapped children. New parents are carefully matched with helping parents, who have been trained in communication, resource finding, and referral making. (CL)

  3. Relationship between parent-child relationship, peer relationslip, teacher-student relationship and social self-concept of the left-behind kids in junior middle school%农村留守初中生亲子同伴师生关系与社会自我的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚恩菊; 陈旭

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between parent-child relationship, peer relationship,teacher-student relationship and social self-concept among the left-behind children in junior middle school, and to provide references for mental health education. Methods A total of 1 433 junior school students were investigated with the Social Self-concept Questionnaire, Parent-child Cohesion Questionnaire, Parent-child Conflict Questionnaire, Friendship Quality Questionnaire and Teacher-Student Relationship Questionnaire ( Student Version). Results There was significant difference in interpersonal sensitivity, role adjustment, parent-child cohesion, conflict and betray, conflict between left-behind junior high school students and control group. There was significant positive correlation between social self-concept and parent-child cohesion, help accompany, intimate communication, affirmative value, trust and respect, intimacy and reactive( P<0.01). Multi-variant regression analysis indicated that help accompany, intimacy and intimate communication can significantly forecast social self-concept. Conclusion The rural left-behind students' social self-concept is correlated to parent-child cohesion, peer and teacher-student relationship. The left-behind children's health should be promoted by the positive effects of the teachers and the peers.%目的 探讨农村留守初中生亲子、同伴、师生关系与社会自我的关系,为农村留守儿童的心理健康教育提供参考依据.方法 采用青少年社会自我问卷、亲子亲合问卷、亲子冲突问卷、同伴友谊质量量表、师生关系量表,对随机整群抽取的重庆市4所乡镇中学1 433名初中生进行调查.结果 留守初中生的人际敏感性显著高于非留守初中生,角色调节、父子亲合、冲突背叛、冲突性均显著低于非留守初中生(P值均<0.05);社会自我与父子亲合、帮助陪伴、亲密交流、肯定价值、信任尊重、亲密性、反应

  4. 河南某县城小学生同伴暴力及其与亲子关系的关联%Peer violence and its association with parent-child relationship among primary school students in a county of Henan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王付曼; 陈晶琦; 肖晚晴; 马亚婷; 张曼

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence of peer violence and its association with parent-child relationship among primary school students, and to provide theoretical bases for children's voilence prevention.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1 526 students in grade 4 -6 from 4 schools in a county of Henan province.All the participants were asked to complete a self-report anonymous questionnaire included aggression, victimization and parent-child relationship.Results Among the 1 526 students, 55.8% of them aggressed their peers in the past year, 75.6% were victims.Incidence rates of emotional, physical and sexual aggression were 54.0%, 20.8% and 3.8% respectively, and the corresponding prevalence of victimization were 74.7%, 37.4% and 8.1%, respectively.Boys had higher prevalence than girls in aggression and victimization.Compared with students who were not involved in aggression and victimization, the group of aggression and victimization had lower scores in parent-child relationship, respectively.Conclusion Peer violence is a serious problem in primary school students in the county of Henan and it is related with lower parent-child relationship.It is expected to raise people's awareness on violence, to enhance the communication between parents and children, in order to promote the relationship of parent-child.%目的 了解小学生同伴暴力发生情况及其与亲子关系的关联,为预防儿童青少年暴力提供理论依据.方法 在河南省某县城4所小学校四~六年级学生中进行横断面调查,调查内容包括暴力攻击、暴力受害和亲子关系等.结果 近1 a来1 526名小学生暴力攻击和暴力受害的发生率分别为55.8%和75.6%,精神暴力、躯体暴力和性暴力攻击的发生率分别为54.0%,20.8%和3.8%,相应暴力受害的发生率分别为74.7%,37.4%和8.1%.男生暴力攻击和暴力受害的发生率均高于女生.与非暴力攻击和非暴力受害组学生相比,暴力

  5. Differential scanning calorimetry studies on sunscreen loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared by the phase inversion temperature method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, L; Sarpietro, M G; Ottimo, S; Puglisi, G; Castelli, F

    2011-08-30

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are regarded as interesting carriers to improve sunscreens' safety and effectiveness. In this work, surfactant effects on the physico-chemical properties of SLN loading two of the most widely used UV-filters, octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (BMBM), were evaluated and the interactions between SLN components and loaded UV-filters were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). All the SLN showed a mean size ranging from 30 to 95 nm, and a single peak in size distribution. The use of isoceth-20 or oleth-20 as primary surfactants did not provide SLN with suitable physico-chemical properties since: (a) OMC loaded SLN proved unstable; (b) BMBM could not be loaded. OMC or BMBM loaded SLN prepared using ceteth-20 as primary surfactant were stable but their loading capacity lowered when both sunscreens were loaded simultaneously. DSC analyses showed that OMC distributed inside the SLN and caused a decrease of the lipid matrix molecules cooperativity while BMBM did not affect SLN calorimetric behaviour. When OMC and BMBM were loaded together into these SLN, an interaction between BMBM and OMC occurred. These results suggest that the interactions between sunscreens and between sunscreens and SLN components deserve further investigation to evaluate their effect on UV-filter-loaded SLN effectiveness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Complementary effects of antioxidants and sunscreens in reducing UV-induced skin damage as demonstrated by skin biomarker expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Galdi, Angelike; Foltis, Peter; Pillai, Sreekumar

    2010-06-01

    UV-exposure of the skin causes oxidative stress, leading to inflammatory reactions and premature skin aging. Sunscreens protect by absorbing or reflecting UV on the skin surface. Antioxidants provide protection by quenching UV-induced reactive oxygen species inside skin. To evaluate the complementary photoprotective benefits of formulas containing either an antioxidant complex of Cassia alata leaf extract or a combination of the antioxidant complex and sunscreens on normal healthy volunteers using biomarkers of skin damage. Each formula and a placebo control were applied separately to selected areas on the lower back of 10 individuals for 4 consecutive days. On Day 4, the control and three test sites were exposed to 5 x MED (minimal erythemal dose) of solar-simulated UV-irradiation (UVR). On Day 5, 4-mm punch biopsies were collected from the four exposed sites and a control site (untreated, unexposed) for immunohistochemistry. Exposure to 5 x MED demonstrated significant damage as assessed by thymine dimer formation, MMP-9 and p53 protein expression on untreated exposed skin. The formula containing sunscreens + the antioxidant complex was the most protective, followed by the formula with the antioxidant alone. The study demonstrated that a combination of antioxidants and sunscreens complement each other, resulting in superior photoprotection.

  7. New Approach to Develop Optimized Sunscreens that Enable Cutaneous Vitamin D Formation with Minimal Erythema Risk: e0145509

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dieter Kockott; Bernd Herzog; Jörg Reichrath; Kevin Keane; Michael F Holick

    2016-01-01

    .... with SPF 5, 15 and 30 respectively. Taking into account that a majority of people in industrialized countries suffer from a shortage in vitamin D even in summer time, the ratio Evd/Eer is a new and important criterion for the quality of sunscreen...

  8. Jupiter: Peer-to-Peer Networking Platform over Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Ishikawa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer has entered the public limelight over the last few years. Several research projects are underway on peer-to-peer technologies, but no definitive conclusion is currently available. Compared with traditional Internet technologies, peer-to-peer has the potential to realize highly scalable, extensible, and efficient distributed applications. This is because its basic functions realize resource discovery, resource sharing, and load balancing in a highly distributed manner. An easy prediction is the emergence of an environment in which many sensors, people, and many different kinds of objects exist, move, and communicate with one another. Peer-to-peer is one of the most important and suitable technologies for such networking since it supports discovery mechanisms, simple one-to-one communication between devices, free and extensible distribution of resources, and distributed search to handle the enormous number of resources. The purpose of this study is to explore a universal peer-to-peer network architecture that will allow various devices to communicate with one another across various networks. We have been designing architecture and protocols for realizing peer-to-peer networking among various devices. We are currently designing APIs that are available for various peer-to-peer applications and are implementing a prototype called "Jupiter" as a peer-to-peer networking platform over heterogeneous networks.

  9. PLATON: Peer-to-Peer load adjusting tree overlay networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lymberopoulos, L.; Pittaras, C.; Grammatikou, M.; Papavassiliou, S.; Maglaris, V.

    2011-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems supporting multi attribute and range queries use a number of techniques to partition the multi dimensional data space among participating peers. Load-balancing of data accross peer partitions is necessary in order to avoid the presence of network hotspots which may cause

  10. PLATON: Peer-to-Peer load adjusting tree overlay networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lymberopoulos, L.; Pittaras, C.; Grammatikou, M.; Papavassiliou, S.; Maglaris, V.

    2011-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer systems supporting multi attribute and range queries use a number of techniques to partition the multi dimensional data space among participating peers. Load-balancing of data accross peer partitions is necessary in order to avoid the presence of network hotspots which may cause perform

  11. Promoting Residential Renewable Energy via Peer-to-Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Nissilä, Heli; Tainio, Pasi

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer learning is gaining increasing attention in nonformal community-based environmental education. This article evaluates a novel modification of a concept for peer-to-peer learning about residential energy solutions (Open Homes). We organized collective "Energy Walks" visiting several homes with novel energy solutions and…

  12. Child Pornography in Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Chad M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The presence of child pornography in peer-to-peer networks is not disputed, but there has been little effort done to quantify and analyze the distribution and nature of that content to-date. By performing an analysis of queries and query hits on the largest peer-to-peer network, we are able to both quantify and describe the nature of…

  13. Efficient Skyline Computation in Structured Peer-to-Peer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Bin; Chen, Lijiang; Xu, Linhao;

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of large-scale applications exploit peer-to-peer network architecture to provide highly scalable and flexible services. Among these applications, data management in peer-to-peer systems is one of the interesting domains. In this paper, we investigate the multidimensional skyl...

  14. Self-Report Measures of Parent-Adolescent Attachment and Separation-Individuation: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…

  15. Self-Report Measures of Parent-Adolescent Attachment and Separation-Individuation: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…

  16. Digital portfolio og peer to peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ditte; Bahrenscheer, Jesper Glarborg

    2017-01-01

    studerende og øget transfer mellem teori og praksis. Artiklen tager afsæt i erfaringerne fra udvikling, anvendelse og evaluering af den digitale portfolio og peer to peer feedback. Portfolien er digital og tilknyttet Metropols Learning Management System. De studerende uploader individuelt ugentligt deres......På Bioanalytikeruddannelsen på Professionshøjskolen Metropol har vi på ti-ugers modulet ”Molekylærbiologiske og genetiske analyser”, udviklet en digital portfolio som didaktisk redskab. Portfolien er blevet afprøvet på fire forløb, og har været med til at skabe større engagement blandt de...

  17. Mobility Helps Peer-to-Peer Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Buttyan, Levente

    2006-01-01

    We propose a straightforward technique to provide peer-to-peer security in mobile networks. We show that far from being a hurdle, mobility can be exploited to set up security associations among users. We leverage on the temporary vicinity of users, during which appropriate cryptographic protocols...... are run. We illustrate the operation of the solution in two scenarios, both in the framework of mobile ad hoc networks. In the first scenario, we assume the presence of an offline certification authority and we show how mobility helps to set up security associations for secure routing; in this case......, the security protocol runs over one-hop radio links. We further show that mobility can be used for the periodic renewal of vital security information (e.g., the distribution of hash chain/Merkle tree roots). In the second scenario, we consider fully self-organized security: Users authenticate each other...

  18. EERE Peer Review Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  19. The Effect of Negative Social Environment on Problem Behavior of Unattended and Migrated Children: Parent-Child Relationship and Peer Relationship as Moderators%社会负性环境对流动和留守儿童问题行为的影响:亲子和同伴关系的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金灿灿; 刘艳; 陈丽

    2012-01-01

    Unattended children and migrated children are a unique phenomenon in China. As China develops its economy, a great number of peasants move to cities, looking for jobs. Those peasant-workers'children, who follow their parents to cities, become "migra- ted children" ; others who did not migrate with their parents and were left with their relatives are called "unattended children. " Because the living environments of unattended and migrated children are worse than those of their peers, problematic behaviors of the unattended children and the migrated children call for attention. Earlier researches discussed separately the problems of the unattended children and the migrated children. However, few researches focused on the difference of the problematic behaviors and its effect mechanism between the two groups of children. This study is to fill in the research gap. To achieve this goal, a questionnaire was administered to 4279 migrated children, unattended children and ordinary rural children from Beijing, Shanxi and Henan provinces. First, MANOVA was used to analyze the characteristics of grade and gender of the three groups of children. Secondly, MANOVA was used to analyze the differences of the negative socialenvironment, the parent-child relation- ships, the teacher-student relationship, and the peer relationship among the three groups of children. Finally, these three types of per- sonal relationships were used to examine their moderating effects of the negative social environment on problematic behavior for the three groups of children by structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings suggested that ( 1 ) mild problematic behaviors of the migrated children from elementary schools were worse than those of the unattended children and the ordinary children ; serve problematic behaviors of the migrated and unattended children from elemen- tary school were worse than those of the ordinary children; mild problematic behaviors of the migrated children from secondary

  20. The Potential of Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Fiarman, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Peer review of teachers is controversial for several reasons. Some say peer reviewers encroach on the rightful domain of the principal as instructional leader. Others argue that, because peer evaluators are fellow teachers, they may be biased or unwilling to make hard decisions. Many teachers find the prospect of peer evaluation unsettling because…

  1. Parental Monitoring or an Invasion of Privacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A parent's goal is to be sure each teen stays safe, makes responsible decisions, and respects others. But the influence of peers, the temptation of freedom, access to alcohol and other drugs, and unsupervised activities cause parents to fear that their teen may be ill-equipped to negotiate the complicated world. The transition from dependence to…

  2. Parental Monitoring or an Invasion of Privacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A parent's goal is to be sure each teen stays safe, makes responsible decisions, and respects others. But the influence of peers, the temptation of freedom, access to alcohol and other drugs, and unsupervised activities cause parents to fear that their teen may be ill-equipped to negotiate the complicated world. The transition from dependence to…

  3. Young Children Selectively Expect Failure Disclosure to High-Achieving Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Catherine M.; Liu, David

    2017-01-01

    Children make many decisions about whether and how to disclose their performance to peers, teachers, parents and others. Previous research has found that children's disclosure declines with age and that older children and teenagers preferentially choose a peer audience for performance disclosure based on similar achievement. This research examines…

  4. Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

  5. The Association Between Peer and Own Aggression is Moderated by the BDNF Val-Met Polymorphism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Peer antisocial behavior robustly predicts adolescents' own behavior, but not all adolescents are equally vulnerable to their peers' influence and genetic factors may confer vulnerability. This study used data of n=3,081 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to examine

  6. Testing a Model of Resistance to Peer Pressure among Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors associated with resistance to peer pressure toward antisocial behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin adolescents (n=564) living in a large Southwestern city in the U.S. A model examining the influence of generational status, emotional autonomy from parents, and self-esteem on resistance to peer pressure was…

  7. Evidence-Based Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The UCLA PEERS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Frankel, Fred; Gantman, Alexander; Dillon, Ashley R.; Mogil, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the efficacy and durability of the PEERS Program, a parent-assisted social skills group intervention for high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Results indicate that teens receiving PEERS significantly improved their social skills knowledge, social responsiveness, and overall social skills in the areas of social…

  8. Evidence-Based Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The UCLA PEERS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Frankel, Fred; Gantman, Alexander; Dillon, Ashley R.; Mogil, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the efficacy and durability of the PEERS Program, a parent-assisted social skills group intervention for high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Results indicate that teens receiving PEERS significantly improved their social skills knowledge, social responsiveness, and overall social skills in the areas of social…

  9. An analytical cross-sectional study of peer pressure on adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Khan

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Though, it may appear that teens are all influenced by their peers, parents continue to be the most influential persons in their lives. Peer friendships although thought of as all negative impact, can also have a positive effect on youth development. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 606-610

  10. Testing a Model of Resistance to Peer Pressure among Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors associated with resistance to peer pressure toward antisocial behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin adolescents (n=564) living in a large Southwestern city in the U.S. A model examining the influence of generational status, emotional autonomy from parents, and self-esteem on resistance to peer pressure was…

  11. Peer Victimization in Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relations with Symptoms of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Ledley, Deborah Roth; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Johns, Natalie B.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Geffken, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of peer victimization and psychological symptom correlates among youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 52 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD. The child's parent or guardian…

  12. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  13. Personalised Peer-Supported Learning: The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneli, Joseph; Mikroyannidis, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE) is a proposed approach to helping learners co-construct their learning environment using recommendations about people, content, and tools. The work draws on current research on PLEs, and participant observation at the Peer-to-Peer University (P2PU). We are particularly interested in ways of eliciting…

  14. Sunscreens FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Boards study tools Online Learning Center Meetings and events Make a difference Career planning Media Relations Toolkit AAD apps Academy meeting Chronic urticaria—for members Chronic urticaria—for public Dermatology World Dialogues in Dermatology JAAD Mohs AUC ...

  15. Nano-sized cosmetic formulations or solid nanoparticles in sunscreens: a risk to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Dufour, Eric K

    2012-07-01

    Personal care products (PCP) often contain micron- or nano-sized formulation components, such as nanoemulsions or microscopic vesicles. A large number of studies suggest that such vesicles do not penetrate human skin beyond the superficial layers of the stratum corneum. Nano-sized PCP formulations may enhance or reduce skin absorption of ingredients, albeit at a limited scale. Modern sunscreens contain insoluble titanium dioxide (TiO₂) or zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NP), which are efficient filters of UV light. A large number of studies suggest that insoluble NP do not penetrate into or through human skin. A number of in vivo toxicity tests, including in vivo intravenous studies, showed that TiO₂ and ZnO NP are non-toxic and have an excellent skin tolerance. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, photo-genotoxicity, general toxicity and carcinogenicity studies on TiO₂ and ZnO NP found no difference in the safety profile of micro- or nano-sized materials, all of which were found to be non-toxic. Although some published in vitro studies on insoluble nano- or micron-sized particles suggested cell uptake, oxidative cell damage or genotoxicity, these data are consistent with those from micron-sized particles and should be interpreted with caution. Data on insoluble NP, such as surgical implant-derived wear debris particles or intravenously administered magnetic resonance contrast agents suggest that toxicity of small particles is generally related to their chemistry rather than their particle size. Overall, the weight of scientific evidence suggests that insoluble NP used in sunscreens pose no or negligible risk to human health, but offer large health benefits, such as the protection of human skin against UV-induced skin ageing and cancer.

  16. Mutational studies of putative biosynthetic genes for the cyanobacterial sunscreen scytonemin in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eFerreira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The heterocyclic indole-alkaloid scytonemin is a sunscreen found exclusively among cyanobacteria. An 18-gene cluster is responsible for scytonemin production in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133. The upstream genes scyABCDEF in the cluster are proposed to be responsible for scytonemin biosynthesis from aromatic amino acid substrates. In vitro studies of ScyA, ScyB and ScyC proved that these enzymes indeed catalyze initial pathway reactions. Here we characterize the role of ScyD, ScyE and ScyF, which were logically predicted to be responsible for late biosynthetic steps, in the biological context of N. punctiforme. In-frame deletion mutants of each were constructed (∆scyD, ∆scyE and ∆scyF and their phenotypes studied. Expectedly, ∆scyE presents a scytoneminless phenotype, but no accumulation of the predicted intermediaries. Surprisingly, ∆scyD retains scytonemin production, implying that it is not required for biosynthesis. Indeed, scyD presents an interesting evolutionary paradox: it likely originated in a duplication event from scyE, and unlike other genes in the operon, it has not been subjected to purifying selection. This would suggest that it is a pseudogene, and yet scyD is highly conserved in the scytonemin operon of cyanobacteria. ∆scyF also retains scytonemin production, albeit exhibiting a reduction of the production yield compared with the wild-type. This indicates that ScyF is not essential but may play an adjuvant role for scytonemin synthesis. Altogether, our findings suggest that these downstream genes are not responsible, as expected, for the late steps of scytonemin synthesis and we must look for those functions elsewhere. These findings are particularly important for biotechnological production of this sunscreen through heterologous expression of its genes in more tractable organisms.

  17. A potential role for endogenous proteins as sacrificial sunscreens and antioxidants in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, Sarah A; Watson, Rachel E B; Gibbs, Neil K; Costello, Patrick; Baldock, Clair; Weiss, Anthony S; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Sherratt, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure of the skin is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Although both exogenous sunscreens and endogenous tissue components (including melanins and tryptophan-derived compounds) reduce UVR penetration, the role of endogenous proteins in absorbing environmental UV wavelengths is poorly defined. Having previously demonstrated that proteins which are rich in UVR-absorbing amino acid residues are readily degraded by broadband UVB-radiation (containing UVA, UVB and UVC wavelengths) here we hypothesised that UV chromophore (Cys, Trp and Tyr) content can predict the susceptibility of structural proteins in skin and the eye to damage by physiologically relevant doses (up to 15.4 J/cm(2)) of solar UVR (95% UVA, 5% UVB). We show that: i) purified suspensions of UV-chromophore-rich fibronectin dimers, fibrillin microfibrils and β- and γ-lens crystallins undergo solar simulated radiation (SSR)-induced aggregation and/or decomposition and ii) exposure to identical doses of SSR has minimal effect on the size or ultrastructure of UV chromophore-poor tropoelastin, collagen I, collagen VI microfibrils and α-crystallin. If UV chromophore content is a factor in determining protein stability in vivo, we would expect that the tissue distribution of Cys, Trp and Tyr-rich proteins would correlate with regional UVR exposure. From bioinformatic analysis of 244 key structural proteins we identified several biochemically distinct, yet UV chromophore-rich, protein families. The majority of these putative UV-absorbing proteins (including the late cornified envelope proteins, keratin associated proteins, elastic fibre-associated components and β- and γ-crystallins) are localised and/or particularly abundant in tissues that are exposed to the highest doses of environmental UVR, specifically the stratum corneum, hair, papillary dermis and lens. We therefore propose that UV chromophore-rich proteins are localised in regions of high UVR exposure

  18. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. PMID:25328265

  19. Family, Teachers, and Peers: Keys for Supporting Victims of Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Cava

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyse the differences in psychological adjustment in victims of bullying as a function of the quality of their relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. More specifically, it was compared four psychological adjustment indicators (self-esteem, depressive mood, loneliness, and stress perception in victims with good or bad communication with his/her mother, good or bad communication with his/her father, high or low perception of teacher´s help, and high or low identification with their peer group. The initial sample was composed of 1795 adolescents aged from 11 to 18 years old (M = 14.2, SD = 1.68. Results indicated better psychological adjustment in victims with better relationships with their parents, teachers, and peers than in victims with worse quality relationships. These results are discussed, and their implications in the development of intervention programmes on school violence are pointed out.

  20. Holding On to Our Kids in a Peer Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    The chief and most damaging of the competing attachments undermining parental and elder authority and love is the increasing bonding of children with their peers. The disorder affecting today's young children and adolescents is rooted in their loss of orientation toward the nurturing adults in their lives. For the first time in history, young…