WorldWideScience

Sample records for sunrise sunset moonrise

  1. Comparing the Effectiveness of Online Sunrise/Sunset Calculators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlips, Alan; Wilson, Teresa; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Bartlett, Jennifer Lynn

    2018-01-01

    The USNO is responsible for providing information through its website on various types of natural phenomena, including times of sunrise and sunset for any given day and location. Alternative websites were explored to see what options are available in case the USNO can no longer support this on-line tool in the future. Websites with sunrise/sunset calculators were examined to see what algorithm they cited, if any. A large percentage of the websites took their calculations from three main sources (USNO, Meeus, and Schlyter). For ease of comparison, one website with an Application Programming Interface (API) for each algorithm was used to generate sunrise/sunset times for 2 dates per year for 24 years at latitudes from the equator to each pole along the prime meridian. Additionally, dates on which only one phenomenon was expected (first and last day of polar day and night) were tested to examine how each algorithm would perform for these extreme edge cases. At mid-latitudes, all of the algorithms agreed within 1 minute of each other but their predictions began to diverge as they approached the poles. Close to the poles, all three differed by more than a minute. While the algorithms diverged well before reaching the poles, Schlyter did so at much lower latitudes compared to the other two. In the edge cases, Schlyter and Meeus did not correctly document the missing sunrise/sunsets. Until a set of arctic or antarctic observations of sunrise and sunset times can be analyzed, we cannot ascertain which algorithm is the most accurate. However, the USNO algorithm handled cases of continuous day and night better than the others. There currently seems to be no better alternative to provide robust sunrise/set times than the USNO Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/RS_OneDay.php).

  2. Towards Using Smartphones to Refine Sunrise and Sunset Time Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa; Bartlett, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Current atmospheric models used to predict the times of sunrise and sunset have a minimum error of about one minute. Particularly at higher latitudes, slight changes in refraction may result in significant discrepancies, such as causing the Sun to appear to set several minutes prematurely or remain continuously above the horizon for an unexpectedly long time. Atmospheric models could be better constrained by a substantial collection of observed sunset times with associated meteorological data such temperature, pressure and height of observer. We report on the development of a project recording the necessary data with a few smartphones that will then be the groundwork of a citizen science project.

  3. Medium frequency radiowave absorption at sunrise and sunset times in the geomagnetic anomaly region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.R.; Pardo, P.M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The ionosphere, at lower regions, behaves differently during sunrise and sunset times compared to the others day times. The E layer which is well formed during the day, almost disappears at these times and the effect of solar presence or absence at these altitudes is well evidenced immediately after sunrise or sunset. In the South Atlantic anomaly region, the energetic particle precipitaton complicates the phenomenon comprehension in these times. The carried out studies on presunrise and presunset absorption effects in the period from May to July, 1986, in order to understand the ionization processes in the lower ionospheric regions at these times. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. What Time is Your Sunset? Accounting for Refraction in Sunrise/set Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa; Bartlett, Jennifer Lynn; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Hilton, James; Phlips, Alan; Edgar, Roman

    2018-01-01

    Algorithms that predict sunrise and sunset times currently have an uncertainty of one to four minutes at mid-latitudes (0° - 55° N/S) due to limitations in the atmospheric models they incorporate. At higher latitudes, slight changes in refraction can cause significant discrepancies, including difficulties determining whether the Sun appears to rise or set. While different components of refraction are known, how they affect predictions of sunrise/set has not yet been quantified. A better understanding of the contributions from temperature profile, pressure, humidity, and aerosols could significantly improve the standard prediction.We present a sunrise/set calculator that interchanges the refraction component by varying the refraction model. We, then, compared these predictions with data sets of observed rise/set times taken from Mount Wilson Observatory in California, University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, and onboard the SS James Franco in the Atlantic. A thorough investigation of the problem requires a more substantial data set of observed rise/set times and corresponding meteorological data from around the world.We have developed a mobile application, Sunrise & Sunset Observer, so that anyone can capture this astronomical and meteorological data using their smartphone video recorder as part of a citizen science project. The Android app for this project is available in the Google Play store. Videos can also be submitted through the project website (riseset.phy.mtu.edu). Data analysis will lead to more complete models that will provide higher accuracy rise/set predictions to benefit astronomers, navigators, and outdoorsmen everywhere.

  5. Comportamiento de los cultivares de papaya Sunset, Sunrise y de los genotipos Baixinho de Santa Amalia y BH - 65 en la zona sur de la isla de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodríguez Pastor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los antecedentes de la papaya (Carica papaya, L. en Canarias vienen a poner de manifiesto, la viabilidad de este cultivo en invernadero y la posibilidad de su mayor expansión a corto plazo, debido a la introducción a lo largo de los últimos años de cultivares comerciales y de gran calidad, procedentes de Hawaii ('Sunrise' y de Brasil 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' (BSA. En este trabajo se ha estudiado el crecimiento, desarrollo y productividad de los cultivares Sunset, Sunrise, y de los genotipos BH-65 y 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' y las características morfológicas y organolépticas de sus frutos, con el fin de continuar con la selección de aquellos cultivares que mejor se adapten y cumplan con las exigencias mínimas de mercado, que mantengan una buena productividad en aquellas zonas marginales para la platanera y que sirvan de base para futuros programas de mejora. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los mayores porcentajes de floración se obtienen en el mes de Mayo (6 meses después de la plantación en las plantas hermafroditas de todos los cultivares, correspondiendo los mayores porcentajes a 'Sunset' y 'Sunrise' (80 y 90,4%, respectivamente. El número de hojas emitidas mensualmente es semejante en todos los cultivares, entre 7,5 y 7,8. Las plantas femeninas de 'Sunrise' así como las hermafroditas de 'Sunset' tienen mayor diámetro, y además, este último cultivar es más precoz en florecer y sus frutos son de mayor peso y tamaño. Hay que destacar también que en el punto de consumo los frutos del cultivar Sunrise son los que poseen mayor contenido en sólidos solubles totales (10,33 ºBrix. Además, los frutos hermafroditas de 'Sunrise' son los primeros en ser recolectados (422 días desde la plantación. Finalmente, señalar que el cultivar Sunset destaca por ser el más productivo (59,5 kg/pl y por tener mayores rendimientos por hectárea (158,627 kg/ha. No obstante, los genotipos BH-65 y BSA poseen un comportamiento muy

  6. Comportamiento de los cultivares de papaya Sunset, Sunrise y de los genotipos Baixinho de Santa Amalia y BH - 65 en la zona sur de la isla de Tenerife Behavior of papaya cultivars Sunset, Sunrise and genotypes of 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' and BH- 65 in the south of Tenerife island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodríguez Pastor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los antecedentes de la papaya (Carica papaya, L. en Canarias vienen a poner de manifiesto, la viabilidad de este cultivo en invernadero y la posibilidad de su mayor expansión a corto plazo, debido a la introducción a lo largo de los últimos años de cultivares comerciales y de gran calidad, procedentes de Hawaii ('Sunrise' y de Brasil 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' (BSA. En este trabajo se ha estudiado el crecimiento, desarrollo y productividad de los cultivares Sunset, Sunrise, y de los genotipos BH-65 y 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' y las características morfológicas y organolépticas de sus frutos, con el fin de continuar con la selección de aquellos cultivares que mejor se adapten y cumplan con las exigencias mínimas de mercado, que mantengan una buena productividad en aquellas zonas marginales para la platanera y que sirvan de base para futuros programas de mejora. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los mayores porcentajes de floración se obtienen en el mes de Mayo (6 meses después de la plantación en las plantas hermafroditas de todos los cultivares, correspondiendo los mayores porcentajes a 'Sunset' y 'Sunrise' (80 y 90,4%, respectivamente. El número de hojas emitidas mensualmente es semejante en todos los cultivares, entre 7,5 y 7,8. Las plantas femeninas de 'Sunrise' así como las hermafroditas de 'Sunset' tienen mayor diámetro, y además, este último cultivar es más precoz en florecer y sus frutos son de mayor peso y tamaño. Hay que destacar también que en el punto de consumo los frutos del cultivar Sunrise son los que poseen mayor contenido en sólidos solubles totales (10,33 ºBrix. Además, los frutos hermafroditas de 'Sunrise' son los primeros en ser recolectados (422 días desde la plantación. Finalmente, señalar que el cultivar Sunset destaca por ser el más productivo (59,5 kg/pl y por tener mayores rendimientos por hectárea (158,627 kg/ha. No obstante, los genotipos BH-65 y BSA poseen un comportamiento muy

  7. Synoptic ozone, cloud reflectivity, and erythemal irradiance from sunrise to sunset for the whole earth as viewed by the DSCOVR spacecraft from the earth–sun Lagrange 1 orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Herman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available EPIC (Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera on board the DSCOVR (Deep Space Climate Observatory spacecraft is the first earth science instrument located near the earth–sun gravitational plus centrifugal force balance point, Lagrange 1. EPIC measures earth-reflected radiances in 10 wavelength channels ranging from 317.5 to 779.5 nm. Of these channels, four are in the UV range 317.5, 325, 340, and 388 nm, which are used to retrieve O3, 388 nm scene reflectivity (LER: Lambert equivalent reflectivity, SO2, and aerosol properties. These new synoptic quantities are retrieved for the entire sunlit globe from sunrise to sunset multiple times per day as the earth rotates in EPIC's field of view. Retrieved ozone amounts agree with ground-based measurements and satellite data to within 3 %. The ozone amounts and LER are combined to derive the erythemal irradiance for the earth's entire sunlit surface at a nadir resolution of 18 × 18 km2 using a computationally efficient approximation to a radiative transfer calculation of irradiance. The results show very high summertime values of the UV index (UVI in the Andes and Himalayas (greater than 18, and high values of UVI near the Equator at equinox.

  8. "Sunrise" and "Sunset" of Lithuanian Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalis NAKROŠIS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the transformative approach, the NPM and post-NPM models this article explains the proliferation, autonomy, control and innovative behavior of Lithuanian agencies and other public sector organizations in the 1990-2010 period. While the expansion of governmental functions during Lithuania’s transition to democracy and its accession to the EU brought agencification in 1990-2004, the adoption of government-wide organizational reforms during the economic crisis marked the start of de-agencification in 2009- 2010. The degree of autonomy and control of the Lithuanian public sector organizations is largely explained by their legal basis and political salience of their tasks. Finally, in line with the post-NPM model, structural capacities and participation in networks have a strong impact on innovative behavior of these organizations.

  9. What Time Is Sunrise? Revisiting the Refraction Component of Sunrise/set Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa; Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Hilton, James Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Algorithms that predict sunrise and sunset times currently have an error of one to four minutes at mid-latitudes (0° - 55° N/S) due to limitations in the atmospheric models they incorporate. At higher latitudes, slight changes in refraction can cause significant discrepancies, even including difficulties determining when the Sun appears to rise or set. While different components of refraction are known, how they affect predictions of sunrise/set has not yet been quantified. A better understanding of the contributions from temperature profile, pressure, humidity, and aerosols could significantly improve the standard prediction. We present a sunrise/set calculator that interchanges the refraction component by varying the refraction model. We then compare these predictions with data sets of observed rise/set times to create a better model. Sunrise/set times and meteorological data from multiple locations will be necessary for a thorough investigation of the problem. While there are a few data sets available, we will also begin collecting this data using smartphones as part of a citizen science project. The mobile application for this project will be available in the Google Play store. Data analysis will lead to more complete models that will provide more accurate rise/set times for the benefit of astronomers, navigators, and outdoorsmen everywhere.

  10. Young Campers in Love: Who Are the Grown-Ups in "Moonrise Kingdom?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture, especially movie culture, is the arena where the struggles of the diverse cultures belonging to age groups are carried out. "Moonrise Kingdom" is an unusual movie, different from the usual summer or coming of age movies. In such movies, different theories of youth are displayed, providing tools for constructing the…

  11. Recording A Sunrise: A Citizen Science Project to Enhance Sunrise/set Prediction Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Bartlett, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones, with their ever increasing capabilities, are becoming quite instrumental for data acquisition in a number of fields. Understanding refraction and how it affects what we see on the horizon is no exception. Current algorithms that predict sunrise and sunset times have an error of one to four minutes at mid-latitudes (0° - 55° N/S) due to limitations in the atmospheric models they incorporate. At higher latitudes, slight changes in refraction can cause significant discrepancies, even including difficulties determining when the Sun appears to rise or set. A thorough investigation of the problem requires a substantial data set of observed rise/set times and corresponding meteorological data from around the world, which is currently lacking. We have developed a mobile application so that this data can be taken using smartphones as part of a citizen science project. The app allows the viewer to submit a video of sunrise/set and attaches geographic location along with meteorological data taken from a local weather station. The project will help increase scientific awareness in the public by allowing members of the community to participate in the data-taking process, and give them a greater awareness of the scientific significance of phenomenon they witness every day. The data from the observations will lead to more complete rise/set models that will provide more accurate times to the benefit of astronomers, navigators, and outdoorsmen. The app will be available on the Google Play Store.

  12. Refining Sunrise/set Prediction Models by Accounting for the Effects of Refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa; Bartlett, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Current atmospheric models used to predict the times of sunrise and sunset have an error of one to four minutes at mid-latitudes (0° - 55° N/S). At higher latitudes, slight changes in refraction may cause significant discrepancies, including determining even whether the Sun appears to rise or set. While different components of refraction are known, how they affect predictions of sunrise/set has not yet been quantified. A better understanding of the contributions from temperature profile, pressure, humidity, and aerosols, could significantly improve the standard prediction. Because sunrise/set times and meteorological data from multiple locations will be necessary for a thorough investigation of the problem, we will collect this data using smartphones as part of a citizen science project. This analysis will lead to more complete models that will provide more accurate times for navigators and outdoorsman alike.

  13. Forgotten Sunrise "Forgotten Sunrise. Behind The Abysmal Sky / Forever Sleeping Greystones". "The Moments When God Was Wrong" / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Forgotten Sunrise. Behind The Abysmal Sky / Forever Sleeping Greystones. [Tallinn] : Nailboard, 2009. Forgotten Sunrise. The Moments When God Was Wrong. [Tallinn] : Forgotten Sunrise, 2009. Uutest heliplaatidest

  14. Alien Sunset (Artist Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Our solitary sunsets here on Earth might not be all that common in the grand scheme of things. New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope have revealed that mature planetary systems -- dusty disks of asteroids, comets and possibly planets -- are more frequent around close-knit twin, or binary, stars than single stars like our sun. That means sunsets like the one portrayed in this artist's photo concept, and more famously in the movie 'Star Wars,' might be quite commonplace in the universe. Binary and multiple-star systems are about twice as abundant as single-star systems in our galaxy, and, in theory, other galaxies. In a typical binary system, two stars of roughly similar masses twirl around each other like pair-figure skaters. In some systems, the two stars are very far apart and barely interact with each other. In other cases, the stellar twins are intricately linked, whipping around each other quickly due to the force of gravity. Astronomers have discovered dozens of planets that orbit around a single member of a very wide stellar duo. Sunsets from these worlds would look like our own, and the second sun would just look like a bright star in the night sky. But do planets exist in the tighter systems, where two suns would dip below a planet's horizon one by one? Unveiling planets in these systems is tricky, so astronomers used Spitzer to look for disks of swirling planetary debris instead. These disks are made of asteroids, comets and possibly planets. The rocky material in them bangs together and kicks up dust that Spitzer's infrared eyes can see. Our own solar system is swaddled in a similar type of disk. Surprisingly, Spitzer found more debris disks around the tightest binaries it studied (about 20 stars) than in a comparable sample of single stars. About 60 percent of the tight binaries had disks, while the single stars only had about 20 percent. These snug binary systems are as close or closer than just three times the distance between Earth and

  15. hostel bedrooms after sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Shaharin Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After sunset, the indoor of buildings would be relatively warmer as compared to that of the outdoor due to thermal was associated with the heat stored in the building structures and furniture. In tropical countries, doors and windows are usually shut after sunset in order to avoid mosquitoes. Thus, the condition of the indoor air is worsened as the hot air is trapped inside the bedroom and takes long time to be fully dissipated to the surrounding. This causes discomfort to the occupants as bedrooms where they are expecting to have a good rest to rejuvenate from hard day works. The objective of this study was to analyze the nature of air temperature profile in bedrooms of a hostel at night and the effect of ventilation systems in reducing the indoor air temperature. The study was conducted by measuring temperature of air in the bedrooms throughout a night. It was found that the exhaust fan gave the best results by reducing the air temperature by 1.5°C to 2.5°C.

  16. Sunrise deploys mobile network for CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Sunrise, the alternative telecoms provider in Switzerland, is finalizing the installation of a mobile network comprising about forty sites located around the new particle accelerator at CERN (1 paragraph)

  17. Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C.; SunRISE Team

    2018-06-01

    The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity currently in Phase A. SunRISE is a constellation of spacecraft flying in a 10-km diameter formation and operating as the first imaging radio interferometer in space. The purpose of SunRISE is to reveal critical aspects of solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and transport into space by making the first spatially resolved observations of coherent Type II and III radio bursts produced by electrons accelerated at CMEs or released from flares. SunRISE will focus on solar Decametric-Hectometric (DH, 0.1 space before major SEP events, but cannot be seen on Earth due to ionospheric absorption. This talk will describe SunRISE objectives and implementation. Presented on behalf of the entire SunRISE team.

  18. Timing Sunsets with Smartphones: Proof of Concept for a Citizen Science Project that Quantifies the Atmosphere and Supports Astronomical Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa; Kantamneni, A.; Bartlett, J. L.; Nemiroff, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Current models that predict the times of sunrise and sunset are only accurate, typically, to a few minutes. Variations in atmospheric refraction contribute to the differences between computed and observed times. At high latitudes, slight changes in refraction can cause the Sun to remain continuously above the horizon instead of appearing to set. A substantial collection of observations would help constrain atmospheric models, which should, in turn, complement astronomical observations through improved understanding of air stability, refraction, and transparency. We report on a small project recording data from a few smartphones as a proof of concept for a possible larger scale citizen science effort.

  19. Near Earth space sporadic radio emission busts occurring during sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, A. V.; Zaljubovsky, I. I.; Kartashev, V. M.; Lasarev, A. V.; Shmatko, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    During the period of low solar activity at sunrise the effect of sporadic high frequency near Earth space radio emission was experimentally discovered at middle latitudes. The possible mechanism of its origin is discussed.

  20. [Unemployment and Addiction: The SUNRISE Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, N; Specka, M; Kaspar, C; Mikoteit, T; Lieb, B

    2018-01-01

    In the SUNRISE-project, the unemployment benefit office refers long-term unemployed clients (25-49 years old) to medical and psychological specialists of an addiction clinic, if substance-related problems are suspected as an obstacle for job placement. The present study aims at characterizing these clients with respect to educational qualifications, vocational training, diagnosed addictive disorders, and other mental disorders. Of special interest is the temporal sequence of unemployment and addictive disorders. Officials referred clients to medical examination if substance abuse was suspected. The examination was based on Europ-ASI, diagnosis of mental disorders based on SCID-I and SCID-II. In 87 out of the first 100 examined persons, an addictive disorder was diagnosed, most frequently alcohol-related disorders, and often multiple addictive disorders. These 87 clients were on average 40 years old (SD 8.5), and mostly male (73 out of 87 clients). About one-third had very low school qualification, and 55.2% had not completed vocational training. An additional psychiatric diagnosis was made in 51.7%. Addictive disorders had commenced during adolescence or early adulthood in most cases. The longest duration of continuous employment was 3 years (median). In only a few cases (7.4%), the current period of unemployment had started before regular substance use. Many long-term unemployed clients examined here showed deficits in schooling and vocational training, early onset of regular substance use, and additional mental disorders. In most cases, the addictive disorder did not emerge as a consequence of unemployment, but had existed before. Programs combining the efforts of unemployment benefit offices and the healthcare system are needed for these clients to help them gain access to the regular job market. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. The two-loop sunrise integral and elliptic polylogarithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Luise; Weinzierl, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Bogner, Christian [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In this talk, we present a solution for the two-loop sunrise integral with arbitrary masses around two and four space-time dimensions in terms of a generalised elliptic version of the multiple polylogarithms. Furthermore we investigate the elliptic polylogarithms appearing in higher orders in the dimensional regularisation ε of the two-dimensional equal mass solution. Around two space-time dimensions the solution consists of a sum of three elliptic dilogarithms where the arguments have a nice geometric interpretation as intersection points of the integration region and an elliptic curve associated to the sunrise integral. Around four space-time dimensions the sunrise integral can be expressed with the ε{sup 0}- and ε{sup 1}-solution around two dimensions, mass derivatives thereof and simpler terms. Considering higher orders of the two-dimensional equal mass solution we find certain generalisations of the elliptic polylogarithms appearing in the ε{sup 0}- and ε{sup 1}-solutions around two and four space-time dimensions. We show that these higher order-solutions can be found by iterative integration within this class of functions.

  2. SunRISE Mission Concept Step 2 Study Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibay, F.; Kasper, J. C.; Lazio, J.; Neilsen, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present an update on the Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) mission concept, which was selected for a Step 2 study as part of the Small Explorer (SMEX) Mission of Opportunity (MoO) call. SunRISE is space-based sparse array, composed of six 6U CubeSats, designed to localize the radio emission associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun. Radio emission from CMEs is a direct tracer of the particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Furthermore, CME radio emission is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required, and a small mission would make a fundamental advancement. Indeed, the state-of-the-art for tracking CME radio emission is defined by single antennas (Wind/WAVES, Stereo/SWAVES) in which the tracking is accomplished by assuming a frequency-to-density mapping. This type of Heliophysics mission would be inherently cost prohibitive in a traditional spacecraft paradigm. However, the use of CubeSats, accompanied by the miniaturization of subsystem components, enables the development of this concept at lower cost than ever before. We present the most recent updates on this mission concept, starting from the concept's performance as compared to the required science and driving technical requirements. We then focus on the SunRISE mission concept of operations, which consists of six 6U CubeSats placed in a GEO graveyard orbit for 6 months to achieve the aforementioned science goals. The spacecraft fly in a passive formation, which allows them to form an interferometer while minimizing the impact on operations complexity. We also present details of the engineering design and the key trades being performed as part of the Step 2 concept study.

  3. Magneto-static Modeling from Sunrise/IMaX: Application to an Active Region Observed with Sunrise II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegelmann, T.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Noort, M. van [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Neukirch, T. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Nickeler, D. H. [Astronomical Institute, AV CR, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Rodríguez, J. Blanco [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Iniesta, J. C. Del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Pillet, V. Martínez [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Knölker, M., E-mail: wiegelmann@mps.mpg.de [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Magneto-static models may overcome some of the issues facing force-free magnetic field extrapolations. So far they have seen limited use and have faced problems when applied to quiet-Sun data. Here we present a first application to an active region. We use solar vector magnetic field measurements gathered by the IMaX polarimeter during the flight of the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory in 2013 June as boundary conditions for a magneto-static model of the higher solar atmosphere above an active region. The IMaX data are embedded in active region vector magnetograms observed with SDO /HMI. This work continues our magneto-static extrapolation approach, which was applied earlier to a quiet-Sun region observed with Sunrise I. In an active region the signal-to-noise-ratio in the measured Stokes parameters is considerably higher than in the quiet-Sun and consequently the IMaX measurements of the horizontal photospheric magnetic field allow us to specify the free parameters of the model in a special class of linear magneto-static equilibria. The high spatial resolution of IMaX (110–130 km, pixel size 40 km) enables us to model the non-force-free layer between the photosphere and the mid-chromosphere vertically by about 50 grid points. In our approach we can incorporate some aspects of the mixed beta layer of photosphere and chromosphere, e.g., taking a finite Lorentz force into account, which was not possible with lower-resolution photospheric measurements in the past. The linear model does not, however, permit us to model intrinsic nonlinear structures like strongly localized electric currents.

  4. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, J. C.; Lazio, J.; Alibay, F.; Amiri, N.; Bastian, T.; Cohen, C.; Landi, E.; Hegedus, A. M.; Maksimovic, M.; Manchester, W.; Reinard, A.; Schwadron, N.; Cecconi, B.; Hallinan, G.; Krupar, V.

    2017-12-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 R_S. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (nu > 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  5. Counting the number of master integrals for sunrise diagrams via the Mellin-Barnes representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu.; Kniehl, Bernd A.

    2017-06-01

    A number of irreducible master integrals for L-loop sunrise and bubble Feynman diagrams with generic values of masses and external momenta are explicitly evaluated via the Mellin-Barnes representation.

  6. Doubling Your Sunsets or How Anyone Can Measure the Earth's Size with Wristwatch and Meterstick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple method to measure the size of the Earth to an accuracy of order of magnitude 10 percent. The procedure involves finding the time interval between two sunsets, a sunset observed at sea level while lying down, and a sunset viewed at eye height after standing up. (GA)

  7. Modeling dynamic exchange of gaseous elemental mercury at polar sunrise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastoor, Ashu P; Davignon, Didier; Theys, Nicolas; Van Roozendael, Michel; Steffen, Alexandra; Ariya, Parisa A

    2008-07-15

    At polar sunrise, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) undergoes an exceptional dynamic exchange in the air and at the snow surface during which GEM can be rapidly removed from the atmosphere (the so-called atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs)) as well as re-emitted from the snow within a few hours to days in the Polar Regions. Although high concentrations of total mercury in snow following AMDEs is well documented, there is very little data available on the redox transformation processes of mercury in the snow and the fluxes of mercury at the air/snow interface. Therefore, the net gain of mercury in the Polar Regions as a result of AMDEs is still an open question. We developed a new version of the global mercury model, GRAHM, which includes for the first time bidirectional surface exchange of GEM in Polar Regions in spring and summer by developing schemes for mercury halogen oxidation, deposition, and re-emission. Also for the first time, GOME satellite data-derived boundary layer concentrations of BrO have been used in a global mercury model for representation of halogen mercury chemistry. Comparison of model simulated and measured atmospheric concentrations of GEM at Alert, Canada, for 3 years (2002-2004) shows the model's capability in simulating the rapid cycling of mercury during and after AMDEs. Brooks et al. (1) measured mercury deposition, reemission, and net surface gain fluxes of mercury at Barrow, AK, during an intensive measurement campaign for a 2 week period in spring (March 25 to April 7, 2003). They reported 1.7, 1.0 +/- 0.2, and 0.7 +/- 0.2 microg m(-2) deposition, re-emission, and net surface gain, respectively. Using the optimal configuration of the model, we estimated 1.8 microg m(-2) deposition, 1.0 microg m(-2) re-emission, and 0.8 microg m(-2) net surface gain of mercury for the same time period at Barrow. The estimated net annual accumulation of mercury within the Arctic Circle north of 66.5 degrees is approximately 174 t with +/-7 t of

  8. Campaign to counter a deteriorating consumer market: Philip Morris's Project Sunrise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givel, M

    2013-02-01

    From 1997 to 2000, Philip Morris implemented Project Sunrise. This paper discusses the impact of this project on national and Philip Morris's cigarette unit sales, public opinion about smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke, and national prevalence trends for tobacco use. A qualitative archival content analysis of Project Sunrise from 1997 to 2000, and a descriptive statistical analysis of cigarette unit sales and operating profits, acceptability of smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke, and national prevalence trends for tobacco use from 1996 to 2006. Qualitative data sources related to Project Sunrise found on WebCat, Pubmed.com, LexisNexis Academic and Philip Morris's website, and archived tobacco industry documents were analysed using NVivo Version 9.0. A descriptive statistical analysis of cigarette unit sales, public opinion about smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke, and national prevalence trends for tobacco use was undertaken. Project Sunrise was a high-level strategic corporate plan to maintain profits that included four possible scenarios resulting in seven interwoven strategies. However, national prevalence rates for tobacco use declined, sales of national and Philip Morris cigarettes declined, operating profits remained at substantially lower levels after 2000 from 2001 to 2006, and a large majority of Americans agreed that there were significant health dangers associated with smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke. The impact of Project Sunrise, including countering the anti-tobacco movement, was less than successful in the USA. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The threshold expansion of the 2-loop sunrise self-mass master amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffo, M.; Czyz, H.; Remiddi, E.

    2001-01-01

    The threshold behavior of the master amplitudes for two loop sunrise self-mass graph is studied by solving the system of differential equations, which they satisfy. The expansion at the threshold of the master amplitudes is obtained analytically for arbitrary masses

  10. 76 FR 78888 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review: Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Sunset Review: Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia AGENCY: Import Administration... and nitrided vanadium from the Russian Federation (Russia), pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff... vanadium from Russia, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset...

  11. Kaks kanget: Forgotten Sunrise ning Tharaphitha enne ja nüüd / Anders Melts, Ants Lill ; intervjueerinud Mart Kalvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Melts, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Küsimustele vastavad dark-elektro-bändi Forgotten Sunrise laulja Anders Melts ja pagan-metal-bändi Tharaphita laulja-kitarrist Ants Lill. Ansamblitest ja nende esimestest heliplaatidest, mis üllitati hiljuti uuesti plaadifirma Nailboard Records poolt: Tharaphita albumi "Raev" digipack-CD, millele on lisatud 1996. aastal ilmunud neljalooline demosalvestis "Kui varjud põlevad" ja Forgotten Sunrise demo "Behind The Abysmal Sky" (1993) ja minialbumi "Forever Sleeping Greystones" (1994) lood

  12. Preliminary Data Pipeline for SunRISE: Assessing the Performance of Space Based Radio Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, A. M.; Kasper, J. C.; Lazio, J.; Amiri, N.; Stuart, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity that was recently awarded phase A funding. SunRISE's main science goals are to localize the source of particle acceleration in coronal mass ejections to 1/4th of their width, and trace the path of electron beams along magnetic field lines out to 20 solar radii. These processes generate cascading Type II and III bursts that have ever only been detected in low frequencies with single spacecraft antenna. These bursts emit below the ionospheric cutoff of 10 MHz past 2 solar radii, so a synthetic aperture made from multiple space antennae is needed to pinpoint the origin of these bursts. In this work, we create an end to end simulation of the data processing pipeline of SunRISE, which uses 6 small satellites to do this localization. One of the main inputs of the simulation is a ground truth of what we want the array to image. We idealized this as an elliptical Gaussian offset from the sun, which previous modeling suggests is a good approximation of what SunRISE would see in space. Another input is an orbit file describing the positions of all the spacecraft. The simulated orbit determinations are made with GPS sidelobes and have an error associated with the recovered positions. From there we compute the Fourier coefficients every antenna will see, then apply the correct phase lags and multiply each pair of coefficients to simulate the process of correlation. We compute the projected UVW coordinates and put these along with the correlated visibilities into a CASA MS file. The correlated visibilities are compared to CASA's simulated visibilities at the same UVW coordinates, verifying the accuracy of our method. The visibilities are then subjected to realistic thermal noise, as well as phase noise from uncertainties in the spacecraft position. We employ CASA's CLEAN algorithm to image the data, and CASA's imfit algorithm to estimate the parameters of the imaged

  13. A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo Marcadores microssatélites para Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Correa Santos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.Em áreas experimentais das Fazendas de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP/Campus de Ilha Solteira e Jaboticabal foram selecionadas e marcadas 20 plantas hermafroditas e 20 femininas dos cultivares Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 e Baixinho de Santa Amália. As sementes provenientes dos frutos selecionados foram plantadas para analisar-se a eficiência da autofecundação e a freqüência dos sexos nas progênies. Posteriormente, amostras de tecido foliar jovem das plantas matrizes foram coletadas para a extração de DNA. Foram construídas cinco bibliotecas enriquecidas de seqüências microsatélites, utilizando-se as sondas (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8. Foi possível o

  14. An analytic approach to sunset diagrams in chiral perturbation theory: Theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Ghosh, Shayan [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Karnataka (India); Bijnens, Johan [Lund University, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund (Sweden); Hebbar, Aditya [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Karnataka (India); University of Delaware, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Newark, DE (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We demonstrate the use of several code implementations of the Mellin-Barnes method available in the public domain to derive analytic expressions for the sunset diagrams that arise in the two-loop contribution to the pion mass and decay constant in three-flavoured chiral perturbation theory. We also provide results for all possible two mass configurations of the sunset integral, and derive a new one-dimensional integral representation for the one mass sunset integral with arbitrary external momentum. Thoroughly annotated Mathematica notebooks are provided as ancillary files in the Electronic Supplementary Material to this paper, which may serve as pedagogical supplements to the methods described in this paper. (orig.)

  15. An analytic approach to sunset diagrams in chiral perturbation theory: Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Ghosh, Shayan; Bijnens, Johan; Hebbar, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of several code implementations of the Mellin-Barnes method available in the public domain to derive analytic expressions for the sunset diagrams that arise in the two-loop contribution to the pion mass and decay constant in three-flavoured chiral perturbation theory. We also provide results for all possible two mass configurations of the sunset integral, and derive a new one-dimensional integral representation for the one mass sunset integral with arbitrary external momentum. Thoroughly annotated Mathematica notebooks are provided as ancillary files in the Electronic Supplementary Material to this paper, which may serve as pedagogical supplements to the methods described in this paper. (orig.)

  16. The analytic value of a 3-loop sunrise graph in a particular kinematical configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrolia, P.; Remiddi, E.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the scalar integral associated to the 3-loop sunrise graph with a massless line, two massive lines of equal mass M, a fourth line of mass equal to Mx, and the external invariant timelike and equal to the square of the fourth mass. We write the differential equation in x satisfied by the integral, expand it in the continuous dimension d around d=4 and solve the system of the resulting chained differential equations in closed analytic form, expressing the solutions in terms of harmonic polylogarithms. As a byproduct, we give the limiting values of the coefficients of the (d-4) expansion at x=1 and x=0

  17. Laurent series expansion of sunrise-type diagrams using configuration space techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groote, S.; Koerner, J.G.; Pivovarov, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    We show that configuration space techniques can be used to efficiently calculate the complete Laurent series ε-expansion of sunrise-type diagrams to any loop order in D-dimensional space-time for any external momentum and for arbitrary mass configurations. For negative powers of ε the results are obtained in analytical form. For positive powers of ε including the finite ε 0 contribution the result is obtained numerically in terms of low-dimensional integrals. We present general features of the calculation and provide exemplary results up to five-loop order which are compared to available results in the literature. (orig.)

  18. Sunrise as a tourist attraction in the context of tourist motivation theory: a case study of the peak of Babia Góra (Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocior Ewelina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourist ascents of mountain peaks before sunrise are increasingly popular. Babia Góra (Western Carpathians is a peak on the Polish-Slovak border frequently visited by a great number of tourists at sunrise. The main objective of our research, based on the case study of Babia Gora, was to answer a more general question whether the sunrise can be considered a tourist attraction. The research included the observation and description of every sunrise at summer holiday weekends during 2012 from the peak of Babia Góra as well as the collection of data on the number of tourists and weather conditions. Survey interviews, using questionnaire, with randomly selected hikers present on the peak of Babia Góra at sunrise (269 were conducted. The investigation showed that during summer holiday sunrises there were a maximum of 130 people on the summit of Babia Góra at the same time. Most of the surveyed people (84% agreed that the opportunity to observe the sunrise was one of the pull factors for them. This confirms the hypothesis that sunrise constitutes a tourist attraction.

  19. Diferentes substratos e recipientes na formação de mudas de mamoeiro 'sunrise solo' Different substrates and recipients in the formation of papaya seedlings 'sunrise solo'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Mendonça

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar a viabilidade de diferentes substratos e recipientes na formação de mudas de mamoeiro 'Sunrise Solo', realizou-se o presente experimento em condições de casa de vegetação, no Pomar da Universidade Federal de Lavras-UFLA. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x3, com quatro repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constituíram-se dos seguintes substratos: Plantimaxâ; substrato A (esterco de curral + carvão vegetal + solo e areia na proporção de 2:1:1:1 v/v; substrato B (vermicomposto + carvão vegetal + solo e areia na proporção de 1:1:1:1 v/v e substrato C (Plantimaxâ + carvão vegetal + solo e areia na proporção de 1:1:1:1 v/v; e dos seguintes recipientes: saco de polietileno com de 750 ml, bandeja de isopor com capacidade de 70 ml/célula de capacidade e tubetes de 50 ml. Foram avaliados altura das mudas, número de folhas, matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea e raiz. Pelos resultados, concluiu-se que o recipiente saco de polietileno, juntamente com o substrato A, foram os que apresentaram resultados favoráveis para todas as características avaliadas, e o substrato C proporcionou resultados desfavoráveis ao desenvolvimento das mudas.In order to evaluate the viability of different substrate and recipients at the production of " Sunrise soil papaya" seedlings, on experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the orchard of the Lavras Federal University-UFLA. The experimental design was entirely randomized in a 2 factors arrangement (4x3, with four replicates per treatment and five plants per plot, totalizing 240 plants. The substrates used were: Plantimaxâ; substrate A (cattle mature, soil, vegetable coal and sand, at the proportion of 2:1:1:1 v/v; substrate B ( earthworm, soil, vegetable coal and sand, at the proportion of 1:1:1:1v/v and substrate C (Plantimaxâ, vegetable coal, soil and sand at the proportion of 1:1:1:1 v/v. The

  20. Dynamic Oxidation of Gaseous Mercury in the Arctic Troposphere at Polar Sunrise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Brooks, S.; Lin, C.-J.

    2002-01-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) is a globally distributed air toxin with a long atmospheric residence time. Any process that reduces its atmospheric lifetime increases its potential accumulation in the biosphere. Our data from Barrow, AK, at 71 degrees N show that rapid, photochemically driven...... oxidation of boundary-layer Hg0 after polar sunrise, probably by reactive halogens, creates a rapidly depositing species of oxidized gaseous mercury in the remote Arctic troposphere at concentrations in excess of 900 pg m(-3). This mercury accumulates in the snowpack during polar spring at an accelerated...... rate in a form that is bioavailable to bacteria and is released with snowmelt during the summer emergence of the Arctic ecosystem. Evidence suggests that this is a recent phenomenon that may be occurring throughout the earth's polar regions. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Mar-15...

  1. Elliptic polylogarithms and iterated integrals on elliptic curves. II. An application to the sunrise integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broedel, Johannes; Duhr, Claude; Dulat, Falko; Tancredi, Lorenzo

    2018-06-01

    We introduce a class of iterated integrals that generalize multiple polylogarithms to elliptic curves. These elliptic multiple polylogarithms are closely related to similar functions defined in pure mathematics and string theory. We then focus on the equal-mass and non-equal-mass sunrise integrals, and we develop a formalism that enables us to compute these Feynman integrals in terms of our iterated integrals on elliptic curves. The key idea is to use integration-by-parts identities to identify a set of integral kernels, whose precise form is determined by the branch points of the integral in question. These kernels allow us to express all iterated integrals on an elliptic curve in terms of them. The flexibility of our approach leads us to expect that it will be applicable to a large variety of integrals in high-energy physics.

  2. F-15B ACTIVE with thrust vectoring nozzles on test stand at sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This November 13, 1995, photograph of the F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, shows the aircraft on a test stand at sunrise. Not shown in this photograph are the aircraft's two new Pratt & Whitney nozzles that can turn up to 20 degrees in any direction. These nozzles give the aircraft thrust control in the pitch (up and down) and yaw (left and right) directions. This will reduce drag and increase fuel economy or range as compared with conventional aerodynamic controls, which increase the retarding forces (drag) acting upon the aircraft. These tests could result in significant performance increases for military and commercial aircraft. The research program is the product of a collaborative effort by NASA, the Air Force's Wright Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace. The aircraft was originally built as an F-15B (Serial #71-0290).

  3. 75 FR 56089 - Equitrans, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Sunrise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF10-19-000] Equitrans, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Sunrise Pipeline Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting September 3, 2010. The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  4. BOKASUN: a fast and precise numerical program to calculate the Master Integrals of the two-loop sunrise diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Caffo, Michele; Czyz, Henryk; Gunia, Michal; Remiddi, Ettore

    2008-01-01

    We present the program BOKASUN for fast and precise evaluation of the Master Integrals of the two-loop self-mass sunrise diagram for arbitrary values of the internal masses and the external four-momentum. We use a combination of two methods: a Bernoulli accelerated series expansion and a Runge-Kutta numerical solution of a system of linear differential equations.

  5. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Analysis of Volatile Components in Phalaenopsis Nobby’s Pacific Sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsin Yeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis is the most important economic crop in the Orchidaceae family. There are currently numerous beautiful and colorful Phalaenopsis flowers, but only a few species of Phalaenopsis have an aroma. This study reports the analysis volatile components present in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset by solid-phase microextraction (SPME coupled with gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results show that the optimal extraction conditions were obtained by using a DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber. A total of 31 compounds were identified, with the major compounds being geraniol, linalool and α-farnesene. P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset had the highest odor concentration from 09:00 to 13:00 on the eighth day of storage. It was also found that in P. Nobby’s Pacific Sunset orchids the dorsal sepals and petals had the highest odor concentrations, whereas the column had the lowest.

  6. 76 FR 78613 - Furfuryl Alcohol From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty Order... September 1, 2011, the Department of Commerce (``Department'') initiated the third five-year (``sunset'') review of the antidumping duty order on furfuryl alcohol from the People's Republic of China (``PRC...

  7. 76 FR 62040 - Pure Magnesium From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty Order... June 1, 2011, the Department of Commerce (``the Department'') initiated the third five-year (``sunset'') review of the antidumping duty order on pure magnesium from the People's Republic of China (``PRC...

  8. 76 FR 54206 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-815] Gray Portland Cement and... portland cement and clinker from Japan. As a result of this third sunset review, the Department finds that... initiation of the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from...

  9. Statistical evolution of quiet-Sun small-scale magnetic features using Sunrise observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, L. S.; Solanki, S. K.; Hirzberger, J.; Feller, A.

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of small magnetic features in quiet regions of the Sun provides a unique window for probing solar magneto-convection. Here we analyze small-scale magnetic features in the quiet Sun, using the high resolution, seeing-free observations from the Sunrise balloon borne solar observatory. Our aim is to understand the contribution of different physical processes, such as splitting, merging, emergence and cancellation of magnetic fields to the rearrangement, addition and removal of magnetic flux in the photosphere. We have employed a statistical approach for the analysis and the evolution studies are carried out using a feature-tracking technique. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the feature-tracking algorithm that we have newly developed and we present the results of a statistical study of several physical quantities. The results on the fractions of the flux in the emergence, appearance, splitting, merging, disappearance and cancellation qualitatively agrees with other recent studies. To summarize, the total flux gained in unipolar appearance is an order of magnitude larger than the total flux gained in emergence. On the other hand, the bipolar cancellation contributes nearly an equal amount to the loss of magnetic flux as unipolar disappearance. The total flux lost in cancellation is nearly six to eight times larger than the total flux gained in emergence. One big difference between our study and previous similar studies is that, thanks to the higher spatial resolution of Sunrise, we can track features with fluxes as low as 9 × 1014 Mx. This flux is nearly an order of magnitude lower than the smallest fluxes of the features tracked in the highest resolution previous studies based on Hinode data. The area and flux of the magnetic features follow power-law type distribution, while the lifetimes show either power-law or exponential type distribution depending on the exact definitions used to define various birth and death events. We have

  10. Evolução dos pigmentos durante o amadurecimento de mamão 'Sunrise Solo' e 'Golden'

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca,Marcos José de Oliveira; Leal,Nilton Rocha; Cenci,Sérgio Agostinho; Cecon,Paulo Roberto; Bressan-Smith,Ricardo Enrique; Balbino,José Mauro de Souza

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi explicar as diferenças na coloração da polpa e da casca entre os frutos dos mamoeiros 'Sunrise Solo' e 'Golden', e desenvolver escalas de maturação visual. Os frutos foram colhidos em sete estádios de maturação, baseando-se no percentual de coloração amarela na casca, em pomar comercial localizado em Linhares-ES. O mamão 'Golden' mostrou-se difícil de classificar por meio de escala visual, devido a sua coloração mais clara. O mamão 'Sunrise Solo' possui teores mais...

  11. DETECTION OF VORTEX TUBES IN SOLAR GRANULATION FROM OBSERVATIONS WITH SUNRISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, O.; Franz, M.; Bello Gonzalez, N.; Nutto, Ch.; Rezaei, R.; Schmidt, W.; Martinez Pillet, V.; Bonet Navarro, J. A.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Knoelker, M.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated a time series of continuum intensity maps and corresponding Dopplergrams of granulation in a very quiet solar region at the disk center, recorded with the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) on board the balloon-borne solar observatory SUNRISE. We find that granules frequently show substructure in the form of lanes composed of a leading bright rim and a trailing dark edge, which move together from the boundary of a granule into the granule itself. We find strikingly similar events in synthesized intensity maps from an ab initio numerical simulation of solar surface convection. From cross sections through the computational domain of the simulation, we conclude that these granular lanes are the visible signature of (horizontally oriented) vortex tubes. The characteristic optical appearance of vortex tubes at the solar surface is explained. We propose that the observed vortex tubes may represent only the large-scale end of a hierarchy of vortex tubes existing near the solar surface.

  12. High-frequency Oscillations in Small Magnetic Elements Observed with Sunrise/SuFI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarzadeh, S.; Solanki, S. K.; Cameron, R. H.; Danilovic, S.; Stangalini, M.; Steiner, O.

    2017-01-01

    We characterize waves in small magnetic elements and investigate their propagation in the lower solar atmosphere from observations at high spatial and temporal resolution. We use the wavelet transform to analyze oscillations of both horizontal displacement and intensity in magnetic bright points found in the 300 nm and the Ca ii H 396.8 nm passbands of the filter imager on board the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. Phase differences between the oscillations at the two atmospheric layers corresponding to the two passbands reveal upward propagating waves at high frequencies (up to 30 mHz). Weak signatures of standing as well as downward propagating waves are also obtained. Both compressible and incompressible (kink) waves are found in the small-scale magnetic features. The two types of waves have different, though overlapping, period distributions. Two independent estimates give a height difference of approximately 450 ± 100 km between the two atmospheric layers sampled by the employed spectral bands. This value, together with the determined short travel times of the transverse and longitudinal waves provide us with phase speeds of 29 ± 2 km s −1 and 31 ± 2 km s −1 , respectively. We speculate that these phase speeds may not reflect the true propagation speeds of the waves. Thus, effects such as the refraction of fast longitudinal waves may contribute to an overestimate of the phase speed.

  13. Fire-climate-human interactions during the postglacial period at Sunrise Ridge, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Megan K.; Lukens, Michael L.; McCutcheon, Patrick T.; Burtchard, Greg C.

    2017-12-01

    With the creation of Mount Rainier National Park (MORA) in 1899 came the active management of the park's landscapes and a heavy emphasis on fire suppression. Today, managers at MORA seek to better manage current fire activity; however, this requires an improved understanding of past fire activity on the mountain. In this study high-resolution macroscopic charcoal analysis and pollen analysis of lake sediment records was used to reconstruct the postglacial fire and vegetation history for the Sunrise Ridge area of MORA. Fire activity was lowest during the Late Glacial when vegetation was sparse and climate was cool and dry. Fire activity increased during the early Holocene as the regional climate warmed and dried, and burnable biomass became more abundant. Fire activity continued to increase into the middle Holocene (until ca. 6600 cal yr BP) even as the regional climate became wetter and eventually cooler; the modern-day mesic forest and subalpine meadow landscapes of the park established at this time. Fire activity was generally highest and mean fire return intervals were lowest on Sunrise Ridge during the late Holocene, and are consistent with tree-ring based estimates of fire frequency. The similarity between the Sunrise Ridge and other paleofire records in the Pacific Northwest suggests that broad-scale climatic shifts, such as the retreat of the Cordilleran ice sheet and changes in annual insolation, as well as increased interannual climate variability (i.e., drought) particularly in the middle to late Holocene, were responsible for changes in fire activity during the postglacial period. However, abundant and increasing archaeological evidence from Sunrise Ridge during the middle to late Holocene suggests that humans may have also influenced the landscape at this time. It is likely that fires will continue to increase at MORA as drought becomes a more frequent occurrence in the Pacific Northwest.

  14. Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Brian Hunt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra / Neeme Järvi. Deutsche Grammophon 453 426-2; 70:37 DDD

  15. 75 FR 52509 - Potassium Permanganate from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-001] Potassium Permanganate from...'') initiated a sunset review of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from the People's Republic... antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from the PRC pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of...

  16. Equatorial F region neutral winds and shears near sunset measured with chemical release techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, A.; Larsen, M. F.; Kudeki, E.

    2015-10-01

    The period near sunset is a dynamic and critical time for the daily development of the equatorial nighttime ionosphere and the instabilities that occur there. It is during these hours that the preconditions necessary for the later development of Equatorial Spread F (ESF) plasma instabilities occur. The neutral dynamics of the sunset ionosphere are also of critical importance to the generation of currents and electric fields; however, the behavior of the neutrals is experimentally understood primarily through very limited single-altitude measurements or measurements that provide weighted altitude means of the winds as a function of time. To date, there have been very few vertically resolved neutral wind measurements in the F region at sunset. We present two sets of sounding rocket chemical release measurements, one from a launch in the Marshall Islands on Kwajalein atoll and one from Alcantara, Brazil. Analysis of the release motions has yielded vertically resolved neutral wind profiles that show both the mean horizontal winds and the vertical shears in the winds. In both experiments, we observe significant vertical gradients in the zonal wind that are unexpected by classical assumptions about the behavior of the neutral wind at these altitudes at sunset near the geomagnetic equator.

  17. STS-39 Earth observation of Earth's limb at sunset shows atmospheric layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-39 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, shows the Earth's limb at sunset with numerous atmospheric scattering layers highlighted. The layers consist of fine particles suspended in very stable layers of the atmosphere. The layers act as a prism for the sunlight.

  18. 76 FR 18383 - Extension of Sunset Date for Attorney Advisor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Electronic Version The... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404 and 416 [Docket No. SSA-2009-0048] RIN 0960-AH05 Extension of Sunset Date for Attorney Advisor Program AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final...

  19. 19 CFR 351.218 - Sunset reviews under section 751(c) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under section 751(c) of the Act. (a) Introduction. The URAA added a new procedure, commonly referred to... paragraph (d)(3) of this section from respondent interested parties accounting on average for more than 50... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sunset reviews under section 751(c) of the Act...

  20. The 1988 Arctic Survey, Diurnal Study (Sunrise and Sunset) and Peak Altitude (22 km) Flights for the In Situ Detection of ClO and BrO from the NASA ER-2 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James G.

    1996-01-01

    Two critical areas of research were addressed successfully by this research. The first involves NASA ER-2 airborne observations of ClO and BrO radical destruction of ozone within the arctic vortex. The second involves the analysis of diurnal variations in ClO, to test the production and loss rates of ClO that constitutes the test for coupling reactions between the chlorine and nitrogen systems. We discuss results from this research in order.

  1. 76 FR 57019 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany and Italy: Final Results of Sunset Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ...On August 1, 2011, the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated the sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 45778 (August 1, 2011) (Initiation Notice). Because no domestic interested party filed a notice of intent to participate in response to the notice of initiation of the sunset reviews by the applicable deadline, the Department is revoking the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy.

  2. Transverse Oscillations in Slender Ca ii H Fibrils Observed with Sunrise/SuFI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarzadeh, S. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Solanki, S. K.; Gafeira, R.; Noort, M. van; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Iniesta, J. C. del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Knölker, M. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Schmidt, W., E-mail: shahin.jafarzadeh@astro.uio.no [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    We present observations of transverse oscillations in slender Ca ii H fibrils (SCFs) in the lower solar chromosphere. We use a 1 hr long time series of high- (spatial and temporal-) resolution seeing-free observations in a 1.1 Å wide passband covering the line core of Ca ii H 3969 Å from the second flight of the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. The entire field of view, spanning the polarity inversion line of an active region close to the solar disk center, is covered with bright, thin, and very dynamic fine structures. Our analysis reveals the prevalence of transverse waves in SCFs with median amplitudes and periods on the order of 2.4 ± 0.8 km s{sup −1} and 83 ± 29 s, respectively (with standard deviations given as uncertainties). We find that the transverse waves often propagate along (parts of) the SCFs with median phase speeds of 9 ± 14 km s{sup −1}. While the propagation is only in one direction along the axis in some of the SCFs, propagating waves in both directions, as well as standing waves are also observed. The transverse oscillations are likely Alfvénic and are thought to be representative of magnetohydrodynamic kink waves. The wave propagation suggests that the rapid high-frequency transverse waves, often produced in the lower photosphere, can penetrate into the chromosphere with an estimated energy flux of ≈15 kW m{sup −2}. Characteristics of these waves differ from those reported for other fibrillar structures, which, however, were observed mainly in the upper solar chromosphere.

  3. High-frequency Oscillations in Small Magnetic Elements Observed with Sunrise/SuFI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarzadeh, S. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Solanki, S. K.; Cameron, R. H.; Danilovic, S. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Stangalini, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (RM) (Italy); Steiner, O., E-mail: shahin.jafarzadeh@astro.uio.no [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    We characterize waves in small magnetic elements and investigate their propagation in the lower solar atmosphere from observations at high spatial and temporal resolution. We use the wavelet transform to analyze oscillations of both horizontal displacement and intensity in magnetic bright points found in the 300 nm and the Ca ii H 396.8 nm passbands of the filter imager on board the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. Phase differences between the oscillations at the two atmospheric layers corresponding to the two passbands reveal upward propagating waves at high frequencies (up to 30 mHz). Weak signatures of standing as well as downward propagating waves are also obtained. Both compressible and incompressible (kink) waves are found in the small-scale magnetic features. The two types of waves have different, though overlapping, period distributions. Two independent estimates give a height difference of approximately 450 ± 100 km between the two atmospheric layers sampled by the employed spectral bands. This value, together with the determined short travel times of the transverse and longitudinal waves provide us with phase speeds of 29 ± 2 km s{sup −1} and 31 ± 2 km s{sup −1}, respectively. We speculate that these phase speeds may not reflect the true propagation speeds of the waves. Thus, effects such as the refraction of fast longitudinal waves may contribute to an overestimate of the phase speed.

  4. 76 FR 18573 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Sunset Area Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... shopping and commercial space; and green infrastructure. Sunset Terrace's redevelopment provides the... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5513-N-01] Notice of Availability of a.... [[Page 18574

  5. Comparison of solar photospheric bright points between Sunrise observations and MHD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Schüssler, M.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Feller, A.; Gandorfer, A.; Hirzberger, J.

    2014-08-01

    Bright points (BPs) in the solar photosphere are thought to be the radiative signatures (small-scale brightness enhancements) of magnetic elements described by slender flux tubes or sheets located in the darker intergranular lanes in the solar photosphere. They contribute to the ultraviolet (UV) flux variations over the solar cycle and hence may play a role in influencing the Earth's climate. Here we aim to obtain a better insight into their properties by combining high-resolution UV and spectro-polarimetric observations of BPs by the Sunrise Observatory with 3D compressible radiation magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations. To this end, full spectral line syntheses are performed with the MHD data and a careful degradation is applied to take into account all relevant instrumental effects of the observations. In a first step it is demonstrated that the selected MHD simulations reproduce the measured distributions of intensity at multiple wavelengths, line-of-sight velocity, spectral line width, and polarization degree rather well. The simulated line width also displays the correct mean, but a scatter that is too small. In the second step, the properties of observed BPs are compared with synthetic ones. Again, these are found to match relatively well, except that the observations display a tail of large BPs with strong polarization signals (most likely network elements) not found in the simulations, possibly due to the small size of the simulation box. The higher spatial resolution of the simulations has a significant effect, leading to smaller and more numerous BPs. The observation that most BPs are weakly polarized is explained mainly by the spatial degradation, the stray light contamination, and the temperature sensitivity of the Fe i line at 5250.2 Å. Finally, given that the MHD simulations are highly consistent with the observations, we used the simulations to explore the properties of BPs further. The Stokes V asymmetries increase with the distance to the

  6. PENGARUH PROGRAM EKSTENSIFIKASI DAN INTENSIFIKASI PAJAK, NPWP SERTA SUNSET POLICY TERHADAP PEMENUHAN KEWAJIBAN PERPAJAKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistaul Amaliyah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to see how perceptions tax extensification and intensification programe, tax identification number (NPWP, with sunset policy to tax compliance to the respondent an individual tax payer and the entity that reported as many as 250 tax on each KPP Pratama Yogyakarta, Sleman, wonosari, Wates, and Bantul taken by simple random sampling method. Data analysis using an analytical approach to structural equation models (SEM software using partial least square (PLS. Test results that the perception of tax extensification and intensification programe, NPWP with facility sunset policy that has been applied by the Directorate General of Taxes has not impacted significantly to tax compliance with t-statistic value of each (0.70, 0098, 0.436 sunset policy with t-statistics value of each of (1.742, 2.211> t-table (1.645. Test results that with the addition of NPWP provided by the Directorate General of Taxes can have a positive impact on tax compliance to the value of t-statistic (2.313> t-table (1.645. The perception of tax extensification programe and facilities sunset policy that have been implemented by the Directorate General of Taxes can have a positive impact on the addition NPWP with t-statistics value of each of (1.929, 2.626> t-table (1.645. The programs and facilities as well as NPWP implemented by Directorate General of Taxes should be increased and expanded again to the awareness of taxpayers in tax compliance to boost significantly impact (voluntary compliance

  7. Renormalization of self-consistent approximation schemes at finite temperature. II. Applications to the sunset diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hees, Hendrik van; Knoll, Joern

    2002-01-01

    The theoretical concepts for the renormalization of self-consistent Dyson resummations, devised in the first paper of this series, are applied to first example cases of φ 4 theory. In addition to the tadpole (Hartree) approximation, as a novel part the numerical solutions are presented, which include the sunset self-energy diagram into the self-consistent scheme based on the Φ-derivable approximation or the two-particle irreducible effective action concept

  8. Renormalization of self-consistent approximation schemes at finite temperature II: applications to the sunset diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hees, H. van; Knoll, J.

    2001-01-01

    The theoretical concepts for the renormalization of self-consistent Dyson resummations, deviced in the first paper of this series, are applied to first example cases for the φ 4 -theory. Besides the tadpole (Hartree) approximation as a novel part the numerical solutions are presented which includes the sunset self-energy diagram into the self-consistent scheme based on the Φ-derivable approximation or 2PI effective action concept. (orig.)

  9. Equilibrium Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Tartrazine and Sunset Yellow

    OpenAIRE

    Okeola, F. O.; Odebunmi, E. O.; Ameen, O. M.; Amoloye, M. A.; Lawal, A. A.; Abdulmummeen, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    Batch adsorption experiment was carried out on freema (combination of Tartrazine and Sunset Yellow) an adsorbent prepared from moringa pod. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was determined. Effect of such factors as initial concentration of the adsorbate solution, contact time with the adsorbent, pH of the dye solution, and temperature of the dye solution on the adsorption capacity of the absorbent was determined. The result showed that the optimum adsorption was attained at pH of 3, a...

  10. Schouten identities for Feynman graph amplitudes; The Master Integrals for the two-loop massive sunrise graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remiddi, Ettore; Tancredi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    A new class of identities for Feynman graph amplitudes, dubbed Schouten identities, valid at fixed integer value of the dimension d is proposed. The identities are then used in the case of the two-loop sunrise graph with arbitrary masses for recovering the second-order differential equation for the scalar amplitude in d=2 dimensions, as well as a chained set of equations for all the coefficients of the expansions in (d−2). The shift from d≈2 to d≈4 dimensions is then discussed

  11. The Variation of Oncidium Rosy Sunset Flower Volatiles with Daily Rhythm, Flowering Period, and Flower Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tien Chiu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oncidium is an important ornamental crop worldwide, and in recent years, the characteristics of the flower aroma have become a concern for breeders. This study used headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of the volatile compounds to study the aroma characteristics of Onc. Rosy Sunset. A total of 45 compounds were identified, with the major compound being linalool. Onc. Rosy Sunset had the highest odor concentration from 10:00 to 12:00 and lowest from 20:00 to 24:00. The inflorescence emitted the highest quantities of volatile compounds during stages 3–6, which then decreased with the aging of the flowers. In Onc. Rosy Sunset, the sepals and petals were the major parts for the floral fragrance emission, in which linalool content was the highest, whereas the lip and column had a different composition of major volatile compounds, of which benzaldehyde, β-myrcene, and β-caryophyllene dominated.

  12. EXPOSURE TO MASS MEDIA AS A DOMINANT FACTOR INFLUENCING PUBLIC STIGMA TOWARD MENTAL ILLNESS BASED ON SUNRISE MODEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Sintha Pratiwi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The person suffering mental disorders is not only burdened by his condition but also by the stigma. The impact of stigma extremely influences society that it is considered to be the obstacle in mental disorders therapy. Stigma as the society adverse view toward severe mental disorders is related with the cultural aspect. The interaction appeared from each component of nursing model namely sunrise model, which a model developed by Madeleine Leininger is connected with the wide society views about severe mental disorders condition in society. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the factors related to public stigma and to find out the dominant factors related to public stigma about severe mental illness through sunrise model approach in Sukonolo Village, Malang Regency. Methods: This study using observational analytical design with cross sectional approach. There were 150 respondents contributed in this study. The respondents were obtained using purposive sampling technique. Results: The results showed a significant relationship between mass media exposure, spiritual well-being, interpersonal contact, attitude, and knowledge with public stigma about mental illness. The result from multiple logistic regression shows the low exposure of mass media has the highest OR value at 26.744. Conclusion: There were significant correlation between mass media exposure, spiritual well-being, interpersonal contact, attitude, and knowledge with public stigma toward mental illness. Mass media exposure as a dominant factor influencing public stigma toward mental illness.

  13. Composite Sunrise Butte pluton: Insights into Jurassic–Cretaceous collisional tectonics and magmatism in the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth H.; Schwartz, J.J.; Žák, Jiří; Verner, Krystof; Barnes, Calvin G.; Walton, Clay; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wright, James E.; Kistler, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    The composite Sunrise Butte pluton, in the central part of the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon, preserves a record of subduction-related magmatism, arc-arc collision, crustal thickening, and deep-crustal anatexis. The earliest phase of the pluton (Desolation Creek unit) was generated in a subduction zone environment, as the oceanic lithosphere between the Wallowa and Olds Ferry island arcs was consumed. Zircons from this unit yielded a 206Pb/238U age of 160.2 ± 2.1 Ma. A magmatic lull ensued during arc-arc collision, after which partial melting at the base of the thickened Wallowa arc crust produced siliceous magma that was emplaced into metasedimentary rocks and serpentinite of the overthrust forearc complex. This magma crystallized to form the bulk of the Sunrise Butte composite pluton (the Sunrise Butte unit; 145.8 ± 2.2 Ma). The heat necessary for crustal anatexis was supplied by coeval mantle-derived magma (the Onion Gulch unit; 147.9 ± 1.8 Ma).The lull in magmatic activity between 160 and 148 Ma encompasses the timing of arc-arc collision (159–154 Ma), and it is similar to those lulls observed in adjacent areas of the Blue Mountains Province related to the same shortening event. Previous researchers have proposed a tectonic link between the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath Mountains and northern Sierra Nevada Provinces farther to the south; however, timing of Late Jurassic deformation in the Blue Mountains Province predates the timing of the so-called Nevadan orogeny in the Klamath Mountains. In both the Blue Mountains Province and Klamath Mountains, the onset of deep-crustal partial melting initiated at ca. 148 Ma, suggesting a possible geodynamic link. One possibility is that the Late Jurassic shortening event recorded in the Blue Mountains Province may be a northerly extension of the Nevadan orogeny. Differences in the timing of these events in the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath–Sierra Nevada Provinces suggest that

  14. [Analysis of tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake in foods by capillary zone electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiding; Chang, Cuilan; Guo, Qilei; Cao, Hong; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2014-04-01

    A novel analytical method for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was studied. The pigments contained in the color lakes were successfully separated from the aluminum matrix in the pre-treatment process, which included the following steps: dissolve the color lakes in 0.1 mol/L H2SO4, adjust the pH of the solution to 5.0, then mix it with the solution of EDTA x 2Na and heat it in a water bath, then use polyamide powder as the stationary phase of solid phase extraction to separate the pigments from the solution, and finally elute the pigments with 0.1 mol/L NaOH. The CZE conditions systematically optimized for tartrazine aluminum lake were: 48.50 cm of a fused silica capillary with 40.00 cm effective length and 50 microm i. d., the temperature controlled at 20.0 degrees C, 29.0 kV applied, HPO4(2-)-PO4(3-) (0.015 mol/L, pH 11.45) solution as running buffer, detection at 263 nm. The conditions for sunset yellow aluminum lake were: the same capillary and temperature, 25.0 kV applied, HPO4(2-)-PO4(3-) (0.025 mol/L, pH 11.45) solution as running buffer, detection at 240 nm. The limits of detection were 0.26 mg/L and 0.27 mg/L, and the linear ranges were 0.53-1.3 x 10(2) mg/L and 0.54-1.4 x 10(2) mg/L for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake, respectively. The RSDs were 4.3% and 5.7% (run to run, n = 6), 5.6% and 6.0% (day to day, n = 6) for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake, respectively. Further developments for this method could make it a routinely used method analyzing color lakes in foods.

  15. Distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Trace Metals in Arctic Aerosols: Long-Range Atmospheric Transport, Photochemical Degradation/Production at Polar Sunrise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Yanase, Ayako; Barrie, Leonard A

    2017-08-15

    The distributions, correlations, and source apportionment of aromatic acids, aromatic ketones, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace metals were studied in Canadian high Arctic aerosols. Nineteen PAHs including minor sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAH (dibenzothiophene) and major 6 carcinogenic PAHs were detected with a high proportion of fluoranthene followed by benzo[k]fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene. However, in the sunlit period of spring, their concentrations significantly declined likely due to photochemical decomposition. During the polar sunrise from mid-March to mid-April, benzo[a]pyrene to benzo[e]pyrene ratios significantly dropped, and the ratios diminished further from late April to May onward. These results suggest that PAHs transported over the Arctic are subjected to strong photochemical degradation at polar sunrise. Although aromatic ketones decreased in spring, concentrations of some aromatic acids such as benzoic and phthalic acids increased during the course of polar sunrise, suggesting that aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidized to result in aromatic acids. However, PAHs do not act as the major source for low molecular weight (LMW) diacids such as oxalic acid that are largely formed at polar sunrise in the arctic atmosphere because PAHs are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less abundant than LMW diacids. Correlations of trace metals with organics, their sources, and the possible role of trace transition metals are explained.

  16. VERTICAL MIXING AND CHEMISTRY OVER AN ARID URBAN SITE: FIRST RESULTS FROM AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS MADE DURING THE PHOENIX SUNRISE CAMPAIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERKOWITZ, C.M.; SPRINGSTON, S.R.; DORAN, J.C.; FAST, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    The role of boundary layer mixing is increasingly recognized as an important factor in determining the concentrations of ozone and other trace gases near the surface. While the concentrations at the surface can vary widely due to horizontal transport of chemical plumes, the boundary layer is also characterized by turbulence that follows a diurnal cycle in height and intensity. Surface oxidant concentrations can therefore undergo significant changes even in the absence of photochemistry. A central goal of the Phoenix 2001 Field Campaign was to study vertical mixing with the onset of convection and to quantify the effect of this mixing on chemistry within an urban boundary layer. As part of this study, a series of low altitude aircraft sampling flights were made over the Greater Phoenix area between June 16-30, 2001. The resulting observations, in conjunction with a series of surface measurements and meteorological observations, are being used to study the vertical transport and reactivity of ozone and ozone-precursors shortly after sunrise. Additional details of this campaign are given in Doran, et al. (2002). It was anticipated that turbulence over Phoenix at night would be suppressed as a result of cooling of the boundary layer over the city. By sampling shortly after sunrise, we hoped to collect measurements above the residual nocturnal stable layer and to continue sampling through the developmental period of a convectively active boundary layer. We report here on the first analysis of these observations, made from a Gulstream-1 (G-1) aircraft operated by the U.S. Department of Energy

  17. On the evaluation of a certain class of Feynman diagrams in x-space: Sunrise-type topologies at any loop order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groote, S.; Koerner, J.G.; Pivovarov, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    We review recently developed new powerful techniques to compute a class of Feynman diagrams at any loop order, known as sunrise-type diagrams. These sunrise-type topologies have many important applications in many different fields of physics and we believe it to be timely to discuss their evaluation from a unified point of view. The method is based on the analysis of the diagrams directly in configuration space which, in the case of the sunrise-type diagrams and diagrams related to them, leads to enormous simplifications as compared to the traditional evaluation of loops in momentum space. We present explicit formulae for their analytical evaluation for arbitrary mass configurations and arbitrary dimensions at any loop order. We discuss several limiting cases in their kinematical regimes which are e.g. relevant for applications in HQET and NRQCD. We completely solve the problem of renormalization using simple formulae for the counterterms within dimensional regularization. An important application is the computation of the multi-particle phase space in D-dimensional space-time which we discuss. We present some examples of their numerical evaluation in the general case of D-dimensional space-time as well as in integer dimensions D = D 0 for different values of dimensions including the most important practical cases D 0 = 2, 3, 4. Substantial simplifications occur for odd integer space-time dimensions where the final results can be expressed in closed form through elementary functions. We discuss the use of recurrence relations naturally emerging in configuration space for the calculation of special series of integrals of the sunrise topology. We finally report on results for the computation of an extension of the basic sunrise topology, namely the spectacle topology and the topology where an irreducible loop is added

  18. Adsorptive removal of congo red and sunset yellow dyes from water systems by lady finger stem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, A.; Murtaza, S.; Ayub, R.; Rehman, R.; Zahid, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: In this research work two anionic dyes, i.e. Congo Red and Sunset Yellow were removed successfully from aqueous media by Lady Finger stem in batch mode. Operational conditions optimization showed that agitation speed and particle size did not affect much in adsorption of these dyes; but contact time, pH, adsorbent dose and temperature of system effects the adsorption rate. Optimized conditions of adsorption for Congo Red dye were: 40 minute contact time, 8.0 pH, 0.5 g adsorbent dose, 40-60 microns mesh sized particles, 150 rpm agitation speed and 50 degree C temperature. Whereas for Sunset Yellow optimized conditions were: 30 minute contact time, 2.0 pH, 2.5 g adsorbent dose, 20-40 microns mesh sized particles, 50 rpm agitation speed and 30 degree C temperature. Suitability of equilibrium data was modulated with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models and found that both physisorption and chemisorption processes play important role in adsorption of these dyes by Lady Finger stem. The results demonstrated that Lady Finger stem can be efficiently employed on larger scale wastewater treatment. (author)

  19. 77 FR 777 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... antidumping duty order fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), pursuant to section 751(c... the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC pursuant to section...

  20. 77 FR 59896 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-863] Honey From the People's... Department of Commerce (``the Department'') initiated the second five-year (``sunset'') review of the antidumping duty order on honey from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') pursuant to section 751(c) of...

  1. 77 FR 33420 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Tianjin Co., Ltd 69.54 Datong Juqiang Activated Carbon Co., Ltd 67.14 Datong Locomotive Coal & Chemicals... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-904] Certain Activated Carbon... (``sunset'') review of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of...

  2. 76 FR 19747 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-801, A-823-801] Solid Urea From... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from the Russian Federation (Russia) and Ukraine... initiation of the sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders \\1\\ on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine...

  3. 78 FR 693 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta From Italy... Sunset Review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Italy. The Department finds that... pasta from Italy was published on July 24, 1996. See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order and Amended...

  4. 78 FR 2368 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Reviews of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818; A-489-805] Certain Pasta... Department'') initiated five-year (``sunset'') reviews of the antidumping duty orders on certain pasta (``pasta'') from Italy and Turkey. As a result of these reviews, the Department finds that revocation of...

  5. 78 FR 692 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-806] Certain Pasta From Turkey... Sunset Review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Turkey. The Department finds that... pasta from Turkey was published on July 24, 1996. See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Certain Pasta...

  6. BOKASUN: A fast and precise numerical program to calculate the Master Integrals of the two-loop sunrise diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffo, Michele; Czyż, Henryk; Gunia, Michał; Remiddi, Ettore

    2009-03-01

    We present the program BOKASUN for fast and precise evaluation of the Master Integrals of the two-loop self-mass sunrise diagram for arbitrary values of the internal masses and the external four-momentum. We use a combination of two methods: a Bernoulli accelerated series expansion and a Runge-Kutta numerical solution of a system of linear differential equations. Program summaryProgram title: BOKASUN Catalogue identifier: AECG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9404 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 104 123 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN77 Computer: Any computer with a Fortran compiler accepting FORTRAN77 standard. Tested on various PC's with LINUX Operating system: LINUX RAM: 120 kbytes Classification: 4.4 Nature of problem: Any integral arising in the evaluation of the two-loop sunrise Feynman diagram can be expressed in terms of a given set of Master Integrals, which should be calculated numerically. The program provides a fast and precise evaluation method of the Master Integrals for arbitrary (but not vanishing) masses and arbitrary value of the external momentum. Solution method: The integrals depend on three internal masses and the external momentum squared p. The method is a combination of an accelerated expansion in 1/p in its (pretty large!) region of fast convergence and of a Runge-Kutta numerical solution of a system of linear differential equations. Running time: To obtain 4 Master Integrals on PC with 2 GHz processor it takes 3 μs for series expansion with pre-calculated coefficients, 80 μs for series expansion without pre-calculated coefficients, from a few seconds up to a few minutes for Runge-Kutta method (depending

  7. Kinetics and Isotherm of Sunset Yellow Dye Adsorption on Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticle Loaded on Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mosallanejad, A. Arami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the potential of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles loaded onto activated carbon (CdSN-AC for the removal of sunset yellow (SY dye from aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch mode varying solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, CdSN-AC dose. In order to investigate the efficiency of SY adsorption on CdSN-AC, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic models were studied. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better than other kinetic models with good correlation coefficient. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir model. It was found that the sorption of SY onto CdSN-AC is followed by these results. 

  8. Designing institutions for global democracy: flexibility through escape clauses and sunset provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Kuyper

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How can advocates of global democracy grapple with the empirical conditions that constitute world politics? I argue that flexibility mechanisms—;commonly used to advance international cooperation—should be employed to make the institutional design project of global democracy more tractable. I highlight three specific reasons underpinning this claim. First, flexibility provisions make bargaining over different institutional designs more manageable. Second, heightened flexibility takes seriously potential concerns about path-dependent institutional development. Finally, deliberately shortening the time horizons of agents by employing flexibility provisions has cognitive benefits as it forces designers to focus specifically on issues of feasibility as well as desirability. I discuss a range of flexibility mechanisms and highlight the utility of sunset provisions and escape clauses. From this analysis, I build an argument for the usage of small-scale democratic experiments through which citizens (or their representatives have a say in global policy making.

  9. Highly sensitive determination of sunset yellow FCF (E110) in food products based on Chitosan/Nanoparticles/MWCNTs with modified gold electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovina, K.; Siddiquee, S.; Shaarani, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    Sunset Yellow belongs to the family of azo dyes, commonly used in food industry. High consumption of Sunset Yellow can cause health problem to human. Due to arising of the health issues, there are several analytical methods available for determination of Sunset Yellow. However, these methods are required skilled manpower, complicated procedures, time consuming and high cost. Herein, an electrochemical sensor was developed based on the combination of chitosan (CHIT), calcium oxide nanoparticles (CaONPs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) sensing film for detection of Sunset Yellow in food products. Electrochemical behavior of the modified gold electrode in the presence of Sunset Yellow was studied by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The morphological characteristics of CHIT/CaONPs/MWCNTs were observed under scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Under optimal conditions, the DPV was detected with different concentrations of Sunset Yellow in the range of 0.9 to 10 ppm, with detection limit of 0.8 ppm. The developed method has successfully applied for monitoring the presence of Sunset Yellow with different food products including candy, royal jelly, ice cream and soft drink with satisfactory results.

  10. Cooling in the Post-Sunrise Equatorial Topside Ionosphere During the 22-23 June 2015 Superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneback, R.; Hairston, M. R.; Coley, W. R.; Heelis, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    During the recovery phase of the 22-23 June 2015 superstorm multiple DMSP spacecraft observed two separate and short-lived (~ 30 minutes) events of localized cooling in the topside equatorial ionosphere (~840 km) in the post-sunrise region (between 6:15 and 7:30 local time). The ion temperatures dropped from the nominal 2000-3000° observed in these regions to 1000 to 1500°. This cooling effect was not observed on the corresponding duskside equatorial crossings of the DMSP spacecraft during this storm. Further, these cooling events do not normally occur during major storms; no such phenomenon was observed by DMSP during the March 2015 superstorm. Flow data from DMSP and the CINDI instruments on the C/NOFS spacecraft indicate these cooling events are associated with short-lived vertical flows bringing up cooler plasma from lower altitudes. The two cooling events correspond to large northward turnings of the IMF during the storm and these are being explored as a possible trigger mechanism.

  11. The BLLAST field experiment: Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Pino, D.; Couvreux, F.; Pardyjak, E. R.; Reuder, J.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Durand, P.; Hartogensis, O.; Legain, D.; Augustin, P.; Gioli, B.; Lenschow, D. H.; Faloona, I.; Yagüe, C.; Alexander, D. C.; Angevine, W. M.; Bargain, E.; Barrié, J.; Bazile, E.; Bezombes, Y.; Blay-Carreras, E.; van de Boer, A.; Boichard, J. L.; Bourdon, A.; Butet, A.; Campistron, B.; de Coster, O.; Cuxart, J.; Dabas, A.; Darbieu, C.; Deboudt, K.; Delbarre, H.; Derrien, S.; Flament, P.; Fourmentin, M.; Garai, A.; Gibert, F.; Graf, A.; Groebner, J.; Guichard, F.; Jiménez, M. A.; Jonassen, M.; van den Kroonenberg, A.; Magliulo, V.; Martin, S.; Martinez, D.; Mastrorillo, L.; Moene, A. F.; Molinos, F.; Moulin, E.; Pietersen, H. P.; Piguet, B.; Pique, E.; Román-Cascón, C.; Rufin-Soler, C.; Saïd, F.; Sastre-Marugán, M.; Seity, Y.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Toscano, P.; Traullé, O.; Tzanos, D.; Wacker, S.; Wildmann, N.; Zaldei, A.

    2014-10-01

    Due to the major role of the sun in heating the earth's surface, the atmospheric planetary boundary layer over land is inherently marked by a diurnal cycle. The afternoon transition, the period of the day that connects the daytime dry convective boundary layer to the night-time stable boundary layer, still has a number of unanswered scientific questions. This phase of the diurnal cycle is challenging from both modelling and observational perspectives: it is transitory, most of the forcings are small or null and the turbulence regime changes from fully convective, close to homogeneous and isotropic, toward a more heterogeneous and intermittent state. These issues motivated the BLLAST (Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) field campaign that was conducted from 14 June to 8 July 2011 in southern France, in an area of complex and heterogeneous terrain. A wide range of instrumented platforms including full-size aircraft, remotely piloted aircraft systems, remote-sensing instruments, radiosoundings, tethered balloons, surface flux stations and various meteorological towers were deployed over different surface types. The boundary layer, from the earth's surface to the free troposphere, was probed during the entire day, with a focus and intense observation periods that were conducted from midday until sunset. The BLLAST field campaign also provided an opportunity to test innovative measurement systems, such as new miniaturized sensors, and a new technique for frequent radiosoundings of the low troposphere. Twelve fair weather days displaying various meteorological conditions were extensively documented during the field experiment. The boundary-layer growth varied from one day to another depending on many contributions including stability, advection, subsidence, the state of the previous day's residual layer, as well as local, meso- or synoptic scale conditions. Ground-based measurements combined with tethered-balloon and airborne observations captured the

  12. One-step electrochemical approach for the preparation of graphene wrapped-phosphotungstic acid hybrid and its application for simultaneous determination of sunset yellow and tartrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Tian; Sun Junyong; Cao Shuqin; Gao Fuxing; Zhang Yuxia; Yang Yingqin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Graphene layer–wrapped PTA hybrid is one–step electropolymerized onto GCE surface. ► Graphene–PTA/GCE is used for simultaneous detection of sunset yellow and tartrazine. ► The oxidation mechanisms of sunset yellow and tartrazine were studied. ► Sunset yellow and tartrazine contents in soft drink samples are successfully determined. - Abstract: We have demonstrated a one-step and effective electrochemical method to prepare graphene (GN) layer-wrapped phosphotungstic acid (PTA) hybrid on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using graphene as an electron transfer mediator. The PTA coupled with graphene provides good selectivity and high sensitivity for the simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants, sunset yellow and tartrazine, exhibiting as well-defined oxidation peaks in differential pulse voltammetry with a peak potential separation of ca. 260 mV. The detection limit was found to be 0.5 μg L −1 for sunset yellow and 30.0 μg L −1 for tartrazine. The interference of some common food additives was studied and it was concluded that application of this method for the determination of sunset yellow and tartrazine in several commercial soft drink samples led to satisfactory results. This study provides useful further evidences for the development of portable sensors for food additives.

  13. Moon Teachings for the Masses at the U.Mass. Sunwheel and around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    With the culmination of the 18.6 year cycle of the Moon in 2006, the major lunar standstill, we are afforded the unique opportunity to teach the public about the monthly, annual, and 18.6-year wanderings of the Moon. The 18.6 year cycle is caused by the precession of the plane of the lunar orbit, while this orbit maintains a 5 degree tilt relative to the ecliptic. At the peak of this cycle, the Moon's declination swings from -28.8 to +28.8 degrees each month. And even though we are more than 1 year away from the peak of the 18.6-year cycle, already the Moon's declination ranges each month between -28 and +28 degrees. What this means is that each month for the years 2005-2007, the Moon can be seen to rise and set more northerly and also more southerly than the solar extremes, and will transit monthly with altitudes which are higher in the sky than the summer Sun and lower in the sky than the winter Sun. The U.Mass. Sunwheel is a stone circle calendar constructed in 1997 on the campus of U.Mass. Amherst, with 8'-10' tall stones marking the cardinal directions, the solstice sunrise and sunset directions, and the northernmost and southernmost moonrise and moonset directions. Over 13,000 people have visited the Sunwheel since its construction, and over 5,000 have attended the seasonal sunrise and sunset gatherings which I host. Already, late in 2004, I have begun showning the public the Moon at it's extremes, and there will be monthly opportunities over the next several years for all of us to notice the very high or very low transiting Moon. Finally, Moon teachings from calendar sites at Callanish, Chaco Canyon, and Stonehenge will be presented.

  14. Determination of Sudan I in drinks containing Sunset yellow by adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Marisol; Arancibia, Verónica; Aliaga, Margarita; Núñez, Claudia; Rojas-Romo, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    An efficient, fast and sensitive method for the determination of Sudan I (SI) in drinks containing Sunset yellow (Sy) is developed and validated using an adsorptive stripping voltammetric procedure. Sy is currently added to a large number of foods; however during their synthesis SI may be produced. The determination is based on adsorption of Sy and SI onto HMDE and later reduction of the azo group at -0.71 and -0.82V, respectively. Using the best set of the experimental conditions (pH 12.3; Eads: -0.40V) for the determination of SI in Sy, a linear response for SI in the concentration range 0.5-27.2μgL(-1) was found, with a detection limit of 1.5μgL(-1) in a tads of only 30s. The method was applied to the determination of SI in commercial drinks with satisfactory results. The presence of SI was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Negative ions in the auroral mesosphere during a PCA event around sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. del Pozo

    Full Text Available This is a study of the negative ion chemistry in the mesosphere above Tromsø using a number of EISCAT observations of high energy proton precipitation events during the last solar maximum, and in particular around sunset on 23 October, 1989. In these conditions it is possible to look at the relative importance of the various photodetachment and photodissociation processes controlling the concentration of negative ions. The data analysed are from several UHF GEN11 determinations of the ion-plasma ACF together with the pseudo zero-lag estimate of the `raw' electron density, at heights between 55 km and 85 km, at less than 1 km resolution. The power profiles from the UHF are combined with the 55-ion Sodankylä model to obtain consistent estimates of the electron density, the negative ion concentrations, and the average ion mass with height. The neutral concentrations and ion temperature are given by the MSIS90 model. These parameters are then used to compare the calculated widths of the ion-line with the GEN11 determinations. The ion-line spectrum gives information on the effects of negative ions below 70 km where they are dominant; the spectral width is almost a direct measure of the relative abundance of negative ions.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ion chemistry and composition; particle precipitation.

  16. Cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon as adsorbent for removal of sunset yellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M.; Hekmati Jah, A.; Khodadoust, S.; Sahraei, R.; Daneshfar, A.; Mihandoost, A.; Purkait, M. K.

    2012-05-01

    Adsorption is a promising technique for decolorization of effluents of textile dyeing industries but its application is limited due to requirement of high amounts of adsorbent required. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded onto activated carbon (CdTN-AC) for the removal of sunset yellow (SY) dye from aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch mode varying solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, CdTN-AC dose, and temperature. In order to investigate the efficiency of SY adsorption on CdTN-AC, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were studied. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better than other kinetic models with good correlation coefficient. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy, activation energy, and sticking probability were also calculated. It was found that the sorption of SY onto CdTN-AC was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The proposed adsorbent is applicable for SY removal from waste of real effluents including pea-shooter, orange drink and jelly banana with efficiency more than 97%.

  17. Highly sensitive electrochemical determination of Sunset Yellow based on gold nanoparticles/graphene electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jin; Yang, Beibei; Wang, Huiwen; Yang, Ping; Du, Yukou

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor was prepared using Au nanoparticles and reduced graphene successfully decorated on the glassy carbon electrode (Au/RGO/GCE) through an electrochemical method which was applied to detect Sunset Yellow (SY). The as-prepared electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical measurements. The results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) proved that Au/RGO/GCE had the highest catalytic activity for the oxidation of SY as compared with GCE, Au/GCE, and RGO/GCE. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) showed that the linear calibration curves for SY on Au/RGO/GCE in the range of 0.002 μM–109.14 μM, and the detection limit was estimated to be 2 nM (S/N = 3). These results suggested that the obtained Au/RGO/GCE was applied to detect SY with high sensitivity, low detection limit and good stability, which provided a promising future for the development of portable sensor in food additives. - Highlights: • An Au/RGO composite was fabricated by electrochemical deposition method. • The oxidation current of SY on the composition is up to 10 μA. • The detection range of SY is 0.002–109.14 μM with a detection limit of 2 nM.

  18. Equilibrium Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Tartrazine and Sunset Yellow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. Okeola

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Batch adsorption experiment was carried out on freema (combination of Tartrazine and Sunset Yellow an adsorbent prepared from moringa pod. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was determined. Effect of such factors as initial concentration of the adsorbate solution, contact time with the adsorbent, pH of the dye solution, and temperature of the dye solution on the adsorption capacity of the absorbent was determined. The result showed that the optimum adsorption was attained at pH of 3, adsorption equilibrium was attained within 60 min. The adsorption capacity increases with increase in initial concentration of the dye solution. The result of the kinetics study showed that the adsorption process was better described by the pseudo-second order rate equation. The adsorption process fitted well with both Freundlich (R2 = 0.983 and Langmuir (R2 = 0.933 models. Thermodynamic result showed ΔH and ΔS were all negative. Gibbs free energy change (ΔG increases with increase in temperature of the dye solution.

  19. Adsorption of sunset yellow FCF from aqueous solution by chitosan-modified diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Z; Li, J; Li, W J; Li, Y

    2015-01-01

    Sunset yellow (SY) FCF is a hazardous azo dye pollutant found in food processing effluent. This study investigates the use of diatomaceous earth with chitosan (DE@C) as a modified adsorbent for the removal of SY from wastewater. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicate the importance of functional groups during the adsorption of SY. The obtained N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm values accord well with IUPAC type II. Our calculations determined a surface area of 69.68 m2 g(-1) for DE@C and an average pore diameter of 4.85 nm. Using response surface methodology, optimized conditions of process variables for dye adsorption were achieved. For the adsorption of SY onto DE@C, this study establishes mathematical models for the optimization of pH, contact time and initial dye concentration. Contact time plays a greater role in the adsorption process than either pH or initial dye concentration. According to the adjusted correlation coefficient (adj-R2>0.97), the models used here are suitable for illustration of the adsorption process. Theoretical experimental conditions included a pH of 2.40, initial dye concentration of 113 mg L(-1) and 30.37 minutes of contact time. Experimental values for the adsorption rate (92.54%) were close to the values predicted by the models (95.29%).

  20. Simultaneous determination of Sunset yellow and Tartrazine in soft drinks using gold nanoparticles carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Sayed Mehdi; Behpour, Mohsen; Golestaneh, Mahshid

    2012-05-01

    The monitoring of synthetic dyes in foods is very important due to their potential harmfulness to human beings. Herein, a carbon-paste electrode (CPE) that is chemically modified with gold nanoparticles (nAu) was fabricated and used for the determination of Sunset yellow (SY) and Tartrazine (Tz). Cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry (CV and DPV) results revealed two well-resolved anodic peaks for SY and Tz with remarkably increase in oxidation signals of these colourants. Based on this, a novel electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of SY and Tz. High sensitivity and selectivity, sub-micromolar detection limit, high reproducibility and regeneration of the electrode surface by simple polishing make the nAu-CPE electrode very suitable for the determination of SY and Tz in commercially available soft drinks. The detection limits was 3.0×10(-8) and 2.0×10(-9)moll(-1) for SY and Tz, respectively, which are remarkably lower than those reported previously for SY and Tz using other modified electrodes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA binding studies of Sunset Yellow FCF using spectroscopy, viscometry and electrochemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaadi, Sara; Hajian, Reza

    2017-10-01

    Color is one of the important factors in food industry. All food companies use synthetic pigments to improve the aesthetic of products. Studies on the interaction between deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and food dye molecules is important because DNA is responsible for some processes including replication and transcription of cells, mutations, genetic diseases, and some synthetic chemical nucleases. In this study, the molecular interaction between Sunset Yellow FCF (SY) as a common food coloring additive and calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) has been studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and viscometry techniques. The binding constant between ct-DNA and SY in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) was calculated as 2.09 × 103 L mol-1. The non-electrostatic bonding constant (K0t) was almost consistent and the ratio of K0t/Kb increased by increasing the ionic strength in the range of 0.01-0.1 mol L-1 of KCl. This observation shows that, the molecular bonding of SY to ct-DNA is a combination of electrostatic and intercalation interactions. In the electrochemical studies, an oxidation peak at 0.71 V and a reduction peak at about 0.63 V was observed with the peak potential difference (ΔEp) of 0.08 V, showing a reversible process. The oxidation and reduction peaks were significantly decreased in the presence of ct-DNA and the reduction peak current shifted to negative values. In spectrofluorometric study, the fluorescence intensity of SY increased dramatically after successive addition of DNA due to the increasing of molecular surface area and decreasing of impact frequency between solvent and SY-DNA adduct. Moreover, viscometric study shows that the increasing of viscosity for SY solution in the presence of DNA is due to the intercalation mechanism with double strand DNA (ds-DNA).

  2. Surface-enhanced oxidation and detection of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine using multi-walled carbon nanotubes film-modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weikang; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Xiaojiang; Huang, Wensheng; Wan, Chidan

    2009-11-01

    The insoluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) was successfully dispersed into water in the presence of hydrophobic surfactant. After that, MWNT film-coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was achieved via dip-coating and evaporating water. Owing to huge surface area, high sorption capacity and subtle electronic properties, MWNT film exhibits highly efficient accumulation efficiency as well as considerable surface enhancement effects to Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine. As a result, the oxidation peak currents of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine remarkably increase at the MWNT film-modified GCE. Based on this, a novel electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine. The limits of detection are 10.0 ng mL(-1) (2.2 x 10(-8)mol L(-1)) and 0.1 microg mL(-1) (1.88 x 10(-7)mol L(-1)) for Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used to detect Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine in soft drinks.

  3. ANALISIS SIKAP DAN PERILAKU KONSUMEN TERHADAP PEMILIHAN RUMAH TINGGAL PADA KAWASAN SUNSET GARDEN DI KOTA DENPASAR, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I K. Ade Siswanta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The research is motivated by the more selective consumers in choosing a house which impact on changes in market conditions ongoing. Developers should anticipate factors that influence changes in market conditions, such as attitudes and behaviors of consumers in choosing a house. One excample of this condition is development of Sunset Garden area located at Jalan Pura Mertasari Sunset Road, Denpasar, Bali which is this properties are able to attract consumers to buy houses in this area although this price of the house is quite expensive. Therefore, the research was conducted to determine factors that are considered in the selection of residential, consumer attitudes and behavior on the selection of a house and the relationship of consumer characteristics and attributes of products offered in this area. This study used research instruments such as questionnaires to obtain information on the characteristics of respondents and the four components of the attitudes and behavior of the level of confidence, the level of evaluation, the level of normative beliefs and motivation levels. The data analysis technique used is a factor analysis to identify the factors considered in choosing a house, attitudes and behavior analysis with Fishbein method and contingency coefficient analysis to determine the magnitude of the relationship variable product attributes and consumer characteristics. The results of this study indicate the factors that affect the house is 5 (five factors, they are the location and the legality factors, supporting facilities factors, physical factors, factor values, and environmental factors. Attitudes and behavior are shown in choosing a house on Sunset Garden Zone fall into this category good enough. The results showed that there is a relationship between consumer characteristics and attributes of the product which the consumer's income level has the strongest ties to the variable price of the product.

  4. Driblando a censura: o macarthismo e a figuração do trabalho em Sunset Boulevard, de Billy Wilder

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Maria Ribeiro Saad

    2014-01-01

    Sunset Boulevard (Crepúsculo dos Deuses, EUA) foi coescrito e dirigido pelo cineasta Billy Wilder (1906-2002), entrando em cartaz em 1950 período marcado pela ascensão do macarthismo nos Estados Unidos. Para burlar a censura imposta pelo Red Scare, o filme apresenta diversas possibilidades de interpretação, as quais serão perseguidas ao longo da análise. Dentre elas, observa-se o melodrama aos moldes hollywoodianos; um panorama da transição do cinema mudo ao sonoro (e suas implicações); um m...

  5. Serological Changes Induced by Blend of Sunset Yellow, Metanil Yellow and Tartrazine in Swiss Albino Rat, Rattus Norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as con...

  6. Electrochemical fabrication of a novel ZnO/cysteic acid nanocomposite modified electrode and its application to simultaneous determination of sunset yellow and tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorraji, Parisa S; Jalali, Fahimeh

    2017-07-15

    A new nanocomposite (ZnO/Cysteic acid) was deposited on glassy carbon electrode by cyclic voltammetry. Uniform deposition of the nanocomposite was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The electron transfer characteristics of two food additives, sunset yellow and tartrazine, were greatly improved on the modified electrode. The prepared electrode was used in the sensitive simultaneous determination of sunset yellow and tartrazine by differential pulse voltammetry. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration ranges of 0.1-3.0, and 0.07-1.86μM, and detection limits of 0.03 and 0.01μM for sunset yellow and tartrazine, respectively. The proposed method was evaluated by determination of the dyes in processed soft drinks with satisfactory results (recovery>95% and RSD%<5%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous Preconcentration and Determination of Brilliant Blue and Sunset Yellow in Foodstuffs by Solid-Phase Extraction Combined UV-Vis Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bişgin, Abdullah Taner

    2018-05-29

    Background: Brilliant Blue and Sunset Yellow, two highly water-soluble synthetic food dyes, are the most popular food dyes used and consumed. Although they are not highly toxic, some health problems can be observed when excessive amounts of food products containing these dyes are consumed. Objectives: The aim of the study was to develop a simultaneous UV-Vis combined solid-phase extraction method, based on the adsorption onto Amberlite XAD-8 resin, for determination of Brilliant Blue and Sunset Yellow dyes. Methods: Sample solution was poured into the reservoir of the column and permitted to gravitationally pass through the column at 2 mL/min flow rate. Adsorbed dyes were eluted to 5 mL of final volume with 1 mol/L HNO₃ in ethanol solution by applying a 2 mL/min flow rate. Dye concentrations of the solution were determined at 483 and 630 nm for Sunset Yellow and Brilliant Blue, respectively. Results: The detection limits of the method for Brilliant Blue and Sunset Yellow were determined as 0.13 and 0.66 ng/mL, respectively. Preconcentration factor was 80. Brilliant Blue contents of real food samples were found to be between 11 and 240 μg/g. Sunset Yellow concentrations of foodstuffs were determined to be between 19 and 331 μg/g. Conclusions: Economical, effective, and simple simultaneous determination of Brilliant Blue and Sunset Yellow was achieved by using a solid-phase extraction combined UV-Vis spectrometry method. Highlights: The method is applicable and suitable for routine analysis in quality control laboratories without the need for expert personnel and high operational costs because the instrumentation is simple and inexpensive.

  8. A modelling study of the post-sunset formation of plasma temperature troughs in the equatorial topside ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, G.J.; Moffett, R.J.; Simmons, P.A.; Footitt, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Results of model calculations are used to study the post-sunset development of plasma temperature troughs along tubes of plasma at equatorial latitudes. The calculations show that for about 90 minutes after sunset the ion field-aligned velocities are directed poleward in both hemispheres even though the meridional neutral air wind blows from the summer hemisphere to the winter hemisphere. After about 90 minutes the ion field-aligned velocities become directed from the summer hemisphere to the winter hemisphere in both hemispheres. As time advances plasma temperature troughs are formed along the tubes of plasma. Initially the plasma temperature troughs increase in depth, but because in the calculations the tubes of plasma are taken to be moving towards the Earth, the plasma temperature troughs then decrease in depth. At sunspot maximum the plasma temperature troughs are deep and narrow in dip latitude; at sunspot minimum they are shallow and wide. It is shown that the ion field-aligned velocities and the depth of the plasma temperature troughs are extremely sensitive to the neutral atomic hydrogen concentration, especially when the topside ionosphere is dominated by O + . Indications are that the MSIS-83 sunspot maximum concentrations of neutral atomic hydrogen in the topside ionosphere at equatorial latitudes are too low by a factor of about 2. The neutral atomic hydrogen concentration determines whether the transequatorial O + flow is a subsonic ''breeze'' or a supersonic ''wind''

  9. L'Astronomia del Venerdí Santo, l'eclissi di Luna e l'ora della Sindone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    Dating the crucifixion on friday 3 April 33, when, at sunset a partially eclipsed Moon rised allows to interprete the speech of Saint Peter (Acts 2:20=Joel 3:4) on the day of Pentecost as including an account of this eclipse, as fulfillment of the Scriptures. Few minutes later the apparition of a third star of medium magnitude stated the beginning of the sabbatical rest: before that time Jesus has been buried, wrapped into the shroud. The observations of the equinoctial moonrise from the Mount of Olives on September 2013 are strongly in favour of the hypotehsis of possible observation of the lunar eclipse of 33 AD by Jewish people, as well as the sunrises observed from the Temple Institute terrace in Southern-East Jerusalem demonstrated that this eclipse could have been seen from Jerusalem. The depression of the horizon and the refraction allow to see Sun and Moon more than 1 degree below the geometrical horizon in the azimuthal direction ranging from 90 to 116, prologing to 16 minutes the duration of the partial lunar eclipse observed in 33AD. Texts of Matthew, Mark and Cyrillus of Jerusalem are also commented.

  10. Photospheric Response to an Ellerman Bomb-like Event—An Analogy of Sunrise/IMaX Observations and MHD Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilovic, S.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Van Noort, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Suárez, D. Orozco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Pillet, V. Martínez [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Knölker, M., E-mail: danilovic@mps.mpg.de [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Ellerman Bombs are signatures of magnetic reconnection, which is an important physical process in the solar atmosphere. How and where they occur is a subject of debate. In this paper, we analyze Sunrise/IMaX data, along with 3D MHD simulations that aim to reproduce the exact scenario proposed for the formation of these features. Although the observed event seems to be more dynamic and violent than the simulated one, simulations clearly confirm the basic scenario for the production of EBs. The simulations also reveal the full complexity of the underlying process. The simulated observations show that the Fe i 525.02 nm line gives no information on the height where reconnection takes place. It can only give clues about the heating in the aftermath of the reconnection. However, the information on the magnetic field vector and velocity at this spatial resolution is extremely valuable because it shows what numerical models miss and how they can be improved.

  11. Gamma radiation use as a quarantine treatment for Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) in papaya fruits (Carica papaya, Linnaeus), cultivar sunrise solo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, J.T. de.

    1989-01-01

    The gamma irradiation as treatment for control of the immature stages of fruit flies, C. capitata and A. fraterculus in papaya fruits, cultivar Sunrise Solo is studied. The gamma rays attenuation was observed by one and two papaya fruits placed between source and infested fruit, and this changed the radiation doses required to obtain mortality in eggs and larvae of the Medfly. The efficacy of irradiation was higher when the infested papayas were packed in paper box. The radiation dose determined using the Probit 9 concept, for immature stages mortality of C. capitata was 107,74 Gy and for A. fraterculus was 50,82 Gy. The sterilizing doses for adults of C. capitata and D. fraterculus, irradiated as pupae, was 60 Gy and 40 Gy, respectively. (author)

  12. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY POINT OF USE REVERSE OSMOSIS. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SUNSET RANCH DEVELOPMENT IN HOMEDALE, ID. SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the point of use arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Sunset Ranch Development in Homedale, ID. The objectives of the project are to evaluate t...

  13. Effects of diet on growth and survival of rats fed toxic levels of tartrazine (FD & C Yellow No. 5) and sunset yellow FCF (FD & C Yellow No. 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershoff, B H

    1977-05-01

    Tests were conducted on the effects of diet on the response of immature male rats to massive doses of tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No.5) and Sunset Yellow FCF (FD&C Yellow No. 6). When incorporated at a 5% level in a stock diet, tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF had no grossly observable toxic effects. When fed with a purified diet, however, both tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF at 5% level in the diet resulted in a marked retardation in growth, an unthrifty appearance of the fur and death of 50% or more of the rats within an experimental period of 14 days. The toxic effects obtained by feeding the latter diets were counteracted by the concurrent feeding of blond psyllium seed powder, carrot root powder, alfalfa leaf meal and wheat bran. Supplements of the known nutrients had little if any protective effect. Supplements of purified cellulose were without protective effect for the rats fed tartrazine but had a moderate protective effect for those fed Sunset Yellow FCF.

  14. Serological changes induced by blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine in swiss albino rat, rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as control and respective group of animals received 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of food colors by gavaging up to 30 days. The serological study showed a decrease in total protein and albumin and an increase in alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and total bilirubin. The results revealed that oral administration of these blend did not affect the body weight gain. The prolonged consumption of the blend may cause adverse effect on human health.

  15. Conservação pós-colheita de mamão 'Sunrise Solo' com uso de quitosana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce de Queiróz Barbosa Galo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O mamão é um fruto de grande importância econômica, social e nutricional. No entanto, apresenta conservação limitada devido à deterioração pós-colheita e ao rápido amadurecimento. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar soluções de quitosana associadas ao glicerol como recobrimento de mamão papaia da cultivar 'Sunrise Solo' para manter a qualidade pós-colheita e prolongar sua vida útil. Os frutos foram lavados em água potável, higienizados em solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 200 mg L-1 por 10 minutos e secos à temperatura ambiente. Os tratamentos consistiram na imersão ou não (controle dos frutos em cinco concentrações (0,25%; 0,50%; 0,75%; 1,0% e 1,25% de quitosana. Decorrida a secagem natural do revestimento, os frutos foram armazenados a 28 ± 3 ºC e 65-70% UR. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualisado, utilizando-se de seis concentrações de quitosana com oito repetições, totalizando 48 frutos. Ao atingir o ponto ótimo para o consumo, avaliaram-se o teor de ácido ascórbico, de sólidos solúveis, da acidez titulável, da firmeza, a perda de massa fresca, o desenvolvimento fúngico e a vida útil. A aplicação de quitosana em mamão 'Sunrise Solo' manteve a firmeza e os teores de sólidos solúveis, de acidez titulável e de ácido ascórbico dos frutos até o ponto considerado ótimo para o consumo, em termos de aparência. A concentração de 1% de quitosana manteve a qualidade e aumentou a vida útil dos frutos em quatro dias. A quitosana inibiu o crescimento de fungos dos gêneros Cladosporium, Aspergillus e Penicillium.

  16. Impact of Time-Restricted Feeding and Dawn-to-Sunset Fasting on Circadian Rhythm, Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse L. Mindikoglu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity now affects millions of people and places them at risk of developing metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. This rapidly emerging epidemic has led to a search for cost-effective methods to prevent the metabolic syndrome and NAFLD as well as the progression of NAFLD to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In murine models, time-restricted feeding resets the hepatic circadian clock and enhances transcription of key metabolic regulators of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Studies of the effect of dawn-to-sunset Ramadan fasting, which is akin to time-restricted feeding model, have also identified significant improvement in body mass index, serum lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters. Based on the findings of studies conducted on human subjects, dawn-to-sunset fasting has the potential to be a cost-effective intervention for obesity, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD.

  17. Impact of Time-Restricted Feeding and Dawn-to-Sunset Fasting on Circadian Rhythm, Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagan, Sood K.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity now affects millions of people and places them at risk of developing metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and even hepatocellular carcinoma. This rapidly emerging epidemic has led to a search for cost-effective methods to prevent the metabolic syndrome and NAFLD as well as the progression of NAFLD to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In murine models, time-restricted feeding resets the hepatic circadian clock and enhances transcription of key metabolic regulators of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Studies of the effect of dawn-to-sunset Ramadan fasting, which is akin to time-restricted feeding model, have also identified significant improvement in body mass index, serum lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters. Based on the findings of studies conducted on human subjects, dawn-to-sunset fasting has the potential to be a cost-effective intervention for obesity, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD. PMID:29348746

  18. Determination of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine in Food Samples by Combining Ionic Liquid-Based Aqueous Two-Phase System with High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Ou; Zhu, Xiashi; Feng, Yanli; Ma, Weixing

    2014-01-01

    We proposed a simple and effective method, by coupling ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase systems (IL-ATPSs) with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), for the analysis of determining tartrazine and sunset yellow in food samples. Under the optimized conditions, IL-ATPSs generated an extraction efficiency of 99% for both analytes, which could then be directly analyzed by HPLC without further treatment. Calibration plots were linear in the range of 0.01–50.0 μg/mL for both Ta and SY. The limits of detection were 5.2 ng/mL for Ta and 6.9 ng/mL for SY. This method proves successful for the separation/analysis of tartrazine and sunset yellow in soft drink sample, candy sample, and instant powder drink and leads to consistent results as obtained from the Chinese national standard method. PMID:25538857

  19. Determination of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine in Food Samples by Combining Ionic Liquid-Based Aqueous Two-Phase System with High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Sha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a simple and effective method, by coupling ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase systems (IL-ATPSs with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, for the analysis of determining tartrazine and sunset yellow in food samples. Under the optimized conditions, IL-ATPSs generated an extraction efficiency of 99% for both analytes, which could then be directly analyzed by HPLC without further treatment. Calibration plots were linear in the range of 0.01–50.0 μg/mL for both Ta and SY. The limits of detection were 5.2 ng/mL for Ta and 6.9 ng/mL for SY. This method proves successful for the separation/analysis of tartrazine and sunset yellow in soft drink sample, candy sample, and instant powder drink and leads to consistent results as obtained from the Chinese national standard method.

  20. Determination of sunset yellow and tartrazine in food samples by combining ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase system with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Ou; Zhu, Xiashi; Feng, Yanli; Ma, Weixing

    2014-01-01

    We proposed a simple and effective method, by coupling ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase systems (IL-ATPSs) with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), for the analysis of determining tartrazine and sunset yellow in food samples. Under the optimized conditions, IL-ATPSs generated an extraction efficiency of 99% for both analytes, which could then be directly analyzed by HPLC without further treatment. Calibration plots were linear in the range of 0.01-50.0 μg/mL for both Ta and SY. The limits of detection were 5.2 ng/mL for Ta and 6.9 ng/mL for SY. This method proves successful for the separation/analysis of tartrazine and sunset yellow in soft drink sample, candy sample, and instant powder drink and leads to consistent results as obtained from the Chinese national standard method.

  1. A simple method for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of brilliant blue fcf and sunset yellow fcf in food samples after cloud point extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a simple and low-cost method for extraction and pre-concentration of brilliant blue FCF and sunset yellow FCF in food samples using cloud point extraction (CPE) and spectrophotometric detection was developed. The effects of main factors such as solution pH, surfactant concentration, salt and its concentration, incubation time and temperature on the CPE of both dyes were investigated and optimized. Linear range of calibration graphs were obtained in the range of 16.0-1300 ng mL-1 for brilliant blue FCF and 25.0-1300 ng mL/sup -1/ for sunset yellow FCF under the optimum conditions. Limit of detection values for brilliant blue FCF and sunset yellow FCF were 3 and 6 ng mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values of both dyes for repeated measurements (n=6) were less than 4.57 %. The obtained results were demonstrated the proposed method can be applied satisfactory to determine these dyes in different food samples. (author)

  2. Sunset Crater, AZ: Evolution of a highly explosive basaltic eruption as indicated by granulometry and clast componentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, C. M.; Clarke, A. B.; Pioli, L.; Alfano, F.

    2011-12-01

    Basaltic scoria cone volcanoes are the most abundant volcanic edifice on Earth and occur in all tectonic settings. Basaltic magmas have lower viscosities, higher temperatures, and lower volatile contents than silicic magmas, and therefore generally have a lower potential for explosive activity. However, basaltic eruptions display great variability in eruptive style, from mild lava flows to more energetic explosions with large plumes. The San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF) in northern Arizona, active from 6 Ma-present, consists of over 600 volcanoes, mostly alkali basalt scoria cones, and five silicic centers [Wood and Kienle (1990), Cambridge University Press]. The eruption of Sunset Crater in the SFVF during the Holocene was an anomalously large basaltic explosive eruption, consisting of eight tephra-bearing phases and three lava flows [Amos (1986), MS thesis, ASU]. Typical scoria cone-forming eruptions have volumes sorted. Future work will include textural analysis of bubbles and crystals to understand the ascent and cooling history of the different clast types, and also to better interpret differences in abundance as related to variations in eruption or vent dynamics.

  3. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Gangsheng

    2015-01-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua (OLLS) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of OLLS were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the reflection peak wavelength of the wet OLLS blue-shifts from 454 nm to 392 nm with the increasing of air drying time from 0 to 40 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and vanishes at last, relevant color changes from blue to black background color. The structural color in the OLLS is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consisting of aligned protein fibers, in which the diameter of protein fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 101 ± 12 nm. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tuning the interaction between inter-fiber spacing and average refractive index. - Highlights: • A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure • Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure. • This photonic structure may yield very useful template for artificial structures

  4. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weigang, E-mail: abczwg15@163.com [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou 239000 (China); Zhang, Gangsheng [College of Material Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China)

    2015-07-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua (OLLS) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of OLLS were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the reflection peak wavelength of the wet OLLS blue-shifts from 454 nm to 392 nm with the increasing of air drying time from 0 to 40 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and vanishes at last, relevant color changes from blue to black background color. The structural color in the OLLS is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consisting of aligned protein fibers, in which the diameter of protein fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 101 ± 12 nm. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tuning the interaction between inter-fiber spacing and average refractive index. - Highlights: • A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure • Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure. • This photonic structure may yield very useful template for artificial structures.

  5. Genetic damage induced by a food coloring dye (sunset yellow) on meristematic cells of Brassica campestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Kshama; Kumar, Girjesh

    2015-01-01

    We have performed the present piece of work to evaluate the effect of synthetic food coloring azo dye (sunset yellow) on actively dividing root tip cells of Brassica campestris L. Three doses of azo dye were administered for the treatment of actively dividing root tip cells, namely, 1%, 3%, and 5%, for 6-hour duration along with control. Mitotic analysis clearly revealed the azo dye induced endpoint deviation like reduction in the frequency of normal divisions in a dose dependent manner. Mitotic divisions in the control sets were found to be perfectly normal while dose based reduction in MI was registered in the treated sets. Azo dye has induced several chromosomal aberrations (genotoxic effect) at various stages of cell cycle such as stickiness of chromosomes, micronuclei formation, precocious migration of chromosome, unorientation, forward movement of chromosome, laggards, and chromatin bridge. Among all, stickiness of chromosomes was present in the highest frequency followed by partial genome elimination as micronuclei. The present study suggests that extensive use of synthetic dye should be forbidden due to genotoxic and cytotoxic impacts on living cells. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess potential hazardous effects of these dyes on other test systems like human and nonhuman biota for better scrutiny.

  6. Degradation of Sunset Yellow FCF using copper loaded bentonite and H2O2 as photo-Fenton like reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Chanderia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, photo-Fenton degradation of Sunset Yellow FCF under visible light was carried out by using copper loaded bentonite and hydrogen peroxide. The photocatalyst was prepared by loading copper ions on bentonite by wet impregnation method. The rate of photocatalytic degradation of dye was measured spectrophotometrically by measuring absorbance of the reaction mixture at regular time intervals. The effect of various parameters such as pH, concentration of dye, amount of photocatalyst, amount of H2O2 and light intensity on the reaction rate has also been studied. Characterization of photocatalyst has been done by IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the reaction mixture has been determined before and after treatment. A tentative mechanism involving ·≡OH radical as an oxidant for degradation of dye has also been proposed. Involvement of ·≡OH radicals as an active oxidizing agent has been confirmed by using isopropanol and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT as radical scavengers. It has been observed that the rate of reaction is drastically reduced in the presence of these scavengers. The rate of reaction is much retarded by using BHT as compared with isopropanol.

  7. Tartrazine and sunset yellow are xenoestrogens in a new screening assay to identify modulators of human oestrogen receptor transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axon, Andrew; May, Felicity E.B.; Gaughan, Luke E.; Williams, Faith M.; Blain, Peter G.; Wright, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause that occurs most frequently in post-menopausal women. Since the female sex hormone oestrogen can be cholestatic, we hypothesised that PBC may be triggered in part by chronic exposure to xenoestrogens (which may be more active on a background of low endogenous oestrogen levels seen in post-menopausal women). A reporter gene construct employing a synthetic oestrogen response element predicted to specifically interact with oestrogen receptors (ER) was constructed. Co-transfection of this reporter into an ER null cell line with a variety of nuclear receptor expression constructs indicated that the reporter gene was trans-activated by ERα and ERβ, but not by the androgen, thyroid, progesterone, glucocorticoid or vitamin D receptors. Chemicals linked to PBC were then screened for xenoestrogen activity in the human ERα-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Using this assay, the coal-derived food and cosmetic colourings – sunset yellow and tartrazine – were identified as novel human ERα activators, activating the human ER with an EC 50% concentration of 220 and 160 nM, respectively.

  8. Tartrazine and sunset yellow are xenoestrogens in a new screening assay to identify modulators of human oestrogen receptor transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axon, Andrew; May, Felicity E B; Gaughan, Luke E; Williams, Faith M; Blain, Peter G; Wright, Matthew C

    2012-08-16

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause that occurs most frequently in post-menopausal women. Since the female sex hormone oestrogen can be cholestatic, we hypothesised that PBC may be triggered in part by chronic exposure to xenoestrogens (which may be more active on a background of low endogenous oestrogen levels seen in post-menopausal women). A reporter gene construct employing a synthetic oestrogen response element predicted to specifically interact with oestrogen receptors (ER) was constructed. Co-transfection of this reporter into an ER null cell line with a variety of nuclear receptor expression constructs indicated that the reporter gene was trans-activated by ERα and ERβ, but not by the androgen, thyroid, progesterone, glucocorticoid or vitamin D receptors. Chemicals linked to PBC were then screened for xenoestrogen activity in the human ERα-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Using this assay, the coal-derived food and cosmetic colourings--sunset yellow and tartrazine--were identified as novel human ERα activators, activating the human ER with an EC(50%) concentration of 220 and 160 nM, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Whither Does the Sun Rove?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    If one asked some friends where on the horizon they should expect to see the sunrise, half of the answers would be in the east. Of course, something analogous would happen with the sunset and the west. However, sunrise and sunset virtually never occur at these cardinal points. In fact, those answers correctly describe observations only during the…

  10. 50 CFR 32.62 - Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hunting for raccoon and opossum from legal sunset to legal sunrise. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting... do not open for spring squirrel hunting. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow the hunting of white-tailed... hours for raccoon and opossum are legal sunset to legal sunrise. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting...

  11. The Second Flight of the Sunrise Balloon-borne Solar Observatory: Overview of Instrument Updates, the Flight, the Data, and First Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanki, S. K.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Barthol, P.; Danilovic, S.; Deutsch, W.; Doerr, H.-P.; Feller, A.; Gandorfer, A.; Germerott, D.; Gizon, L.; Grauf, B.; Heerlein, K.; Hirzberger, J.; Kolleck, M.; Lagg, A.; Meller, R.; Tomasch, G.; Noort, M. van [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco; Blesa, J. L. Gasent, E-mail: solanki@mps.mpg.de [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); and others

    2017-03-01

    The Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory, consisting of a 1 m aperture telescope that provides a stabilized image to a UV filter imager and an imaging vector polarimeter, carried out its second science flight in 2013 June. It provided observations of parts of active regions at high spatial resolution, including the first high-resolution images in the Mg ii k line. The obtained data are of very high quality, with the best UV images reaching the diffraction limit of the telescope at 3000 Å after Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution reconstruction accounting for phase-diversity information. Here a brief update is given of the instruments and the data reduction techniques, which includes an inversion of the polarimetric data. Mainly those aspects that evolved compared with the first flight are described. A tabular overview of the observations is given. In addition, an example time series of a part of the emerging active region NOAA AR 11768 observed relatively close to disk center is described and discussed in some detail. The observations cover the pores in the trailing polarity of the active region, as well as the polarity inversion line where flux emergence was ongoing and a small flare-like brightening occurred in the course of the time series. The pores are found to contain magnetic field strengths ranging up to 2500 G, and while large pores are clearly darker and cooler than the quiet Sun in all layers of the photosphere, the temperature and brightness of small pores approach or even exceed those of the quiet Sun in the upper photosphere.

  12. New liquid chromatographic-chemometric approach for the determination of sunset yellow and tartrazine in commercial preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Erdal; Aktaş, A Hakan; Ustündağ, Ozgür

    2005-01-01

    A new liquid chromatographic (LC)-chemometric approach was developed for the determination of sunset yellow (SUN) and tartrazine (TAR) in commercial preparations. This approach uses LC and chemometric calibration methods, i.e., classical least-squares (CLS), principal component regression (PCR), and partial-least squares (PLS), simultaneously. The combined LC-chemometric approaches, denoted as LC-CLS, LC-PCR, and LC-PLS, are based on photodiode array (PDA) detection at multiple wavelengths. Optimum chromatographic separation of SUN and TAR with allura red as the internal standard (IS) was obtained by using a Waters Symmetry C18 column, 5 microm, 4.6 x 250 mm, and 0.2 M acetate buffer (pH 5)-acetonitrile-methano-bidistilled water (55 + 20 + 15 + 10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.9 mL/min. The LC data sets consisting of the ratios of analyte peak areas to the IS peak area were obtained by using PDA detection at 5 wavelengths (465, 470, 475, 480, and 485 nm). LC-chemometric calibrations for SUN and TAR were separately constructed by using the relationship between the peak-area ratio and the training sets for each colorant. LC-chemometric approaches were tested for different synthetic mixtures containing SUN and TAR in the presence of the IS. These LC-chemometric calibrations were applied to a commercial preparation of the 2 colorants. The experimental results of the LC-chemometric approaches were compared with those obtained by a developed classical LC method using single-wavelength detection.

  13. Yield and fruit of papaya ‘sunrise solo’ as function of doses of nitrogen and boron/ Produtividade e qualidade de frutos de mamoeiro ‘sunrise solo’ em função de doses de nitrogênio e boro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raunira da Costa Araújo

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the yield and fruit quality of papaya ‘Sunrise Solo’ as function of nitrogen and boron fertilization. The experiment had a randomized block design with four replications, two plants per plot with a single border. To make up the treatments, we used the experimental array Plan Puebla III, which set the rates for nitrogen (0.0 to 111.2 - 200 – 288.9 - 400 g plant-1, and B (0.0 – 0.83 - 1.5 – 2.16 - 3.0 g plant-1, in a total of ten treatments. The addition of nitrogen increased the yield, average fruit weight and number of fruits per plant. The nitrogen and boron increased the diameter and length of the fruit, amount of seeds and content of soluble solids. The pH of the pulp decreased linearly with increasing doses of nitrogen and boron. It was observed a significant effect of N rates on the level of vitamin C.O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade de frutos de mamoeiro ‘Sunrise Solo’ em função de doses de nitrogênio e boro. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na fazenda Chan de Jardim no Centro de Ciências Agrárias–UFPB no Município de Areia, em um solo de textura areno-argilosa classificado como Neossolo Regolítico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e duas plantas úteis por parcela com bordadura simples. Para a composição dos tratamentos, utilizou-se a matriz experimental Plan Puebla III, onde se definiram as doses para nitrogênio (0,0 - 111,2 – 200 – 288,9 – 400 g planta-1, e para boro (0,0 - 0,83 - 1,5 - 2,16 - 3,0 g planta-1, totalizando dez tratamentos. A adição de nitrogênio aumentou a produtividade, o peso médio dos frutos e o número de frutos por planta. As doses de nitrogênio e boro aumentaram o diâmetro e comprimento do fruto, rendimento de semente e teor de sólidos solúveis totais. O pH da polpa decresceu linearmente com o aumento das doses de N e de boro. Houve efeito significativo das

  14. Tequila Sunrise and Social Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aedo Valejos

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos un ejercicio narrativo acerca de la acción social y las teorías hermenéuticas que han intentado definir o hablar acerca de la misma. Se recogen propuestas diversas: desde las que abogan por considerar a la acción social como un texto hasta las consideraciones más pragmatistas acerca del para qué de la acción. En este relato se pone en juego, en el más puro sentido gadameriano, una ficción que tiene la virtud de tematizar y poner en acto, simultáneamente, un concepto que teóricamente ha sido elusivo. Este abordaje asume la sutil noción de narración ficticia que, de acuerdo a Paul Ricoeur, tiene la característica paradójica de que entre más irreal se sitúa una lectura, es más profunda y lejana su influencia sobre la realidad social. Por otro lado, coincidimos con Alfred Schutz en que, al abandonarnos a la risa, hay un ámbito de significado que otorga realidad al mundo ficticio y resignifica el mundo de la vida cotidiana.

  15. Artificial neural network (ANN) method for modeling of sunset yellow dye adsorption using zinc oxide nanorods loaded on activated carbon: Kinetic and isotherm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, M.; Ghaedi, M.; Zinali, A.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Habibi, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, ZnO nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (ZnO-NPs-AC) was synthesized simply by a low cost and nontoxic procedure. The characterization and identification have been completed by different techniques such as SEM and XRD analysis. A three layer artificial neural network (ANN) model is applicable for accurate prediction of dye removal percentage from aqueous solution by ZnO-NRs-AC following conduction of 270 experimental data. The network was trained using the obtained experimental data at optimum pH with different ZnO-NRs-AC amount (0.005-0.015 g) and 5-40 mg/L of sunset yellow dye over contact time of 0.5-30 min. The ANN model was applied for prediction of the removal percentage of present systems with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), a linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer and a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) in the hidden layer with 6 neurons. The minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.0008 and coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.998 were found for prediction and modeling of SY removal. The influence of parameters including adsorbent amount, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time on sunset yellow (SY) removal percentage were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. Optimal conditions were set as follows: pH, 2.0; 10 min contact time; an adsorbent dose of 0.015 g. Equilibrium data fitted truly with the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 142.85 mg/g for 0.005 g adsorbent. The adsorption of sunset yellow followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation.

  16. Estabilidade dos corantes Tartrazina e Amarelo Crepusculo em refrigerantes = The stability of synthetic food dyes tartrazine and yellow sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indianara Ostroski

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a estabilidade dos corantes alimentícios sintéticos tartrazina e amarelo crepúsculo em relação à intensidade de radiação na região do ultravioleta e do visível, bem como a influência do pH e de outros aditivos comumente presentes em produtos alimentícios. Foram realizadas leituras periódicas do espectro de absorção noscomprimentos de onda entre 700 e 190 nm para verificar alterações químicas nos corantes estudados. No caso de refrigerantes em embalagem de PET verificou-se a relação entre luz incidente e luz transmitida pela embalagem, estabelecendo a sua função como filtro adeterminadas radiações luminosas. Os dados obtidos com os corantes nas amostras de refrigerantes foram comparados com os dados obtidos com os corantes em solução. Constatou-se que em pH mais ácido há um aumento na velocidade de degradação dos corantes, do mesmo modo que na presença de citratos ou ascorbatos. A presença de benzoatos retarda o processo de degradação dos corantes.The stability of synthetic food dyes tartrazine and yellow sunset was studied in relation to the intensity of radiation in the ultraviolet and visible spectra, as well as the influence of the pH and others additives normally presents in some products. Periodic scanning of theabsorption spectrum was accomplished in the wavelengths between 700 nm and 190 nm to verify alterations in this dyes. In the case of soft drinks in PET packing, the relation was verified between incident light and light transmitted by the packing, establishing its function as filter to radiation. The data obtained with the dyes in the samples of soft drinks were compared with standard dyes solutions. In acid media, citrate and ascorbate presence, a major degradation process occurs. In benzoate presence, the dye degradation is lower.

  17. Gold Nanorods as Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Substrates for Rapid and Sensitive Analysis of Allura Red and Sunset Yellow in Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yiming; Wang, Xiaohui; Lai, Keqiang; Huang, Yiqun; Rasco, Barbara A; Fan, Yuxia

    2018-03-21

    Synthetic colorants in food can be a potential threat to human health. In this study, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) coupled with gold nanorods as substrates is proposed to analyze allura red and sunset yellow in beverages. The gold nanorods with different aspect ratios were synthesized, and their long-term stability, SERS activity, and the effect of the different salts on the SERS signal were investigated. The results demonstrate that gold nanorods have a satisfactory stability (stored up to 28 days). SERS coupled with gold nanorods exhibit stronger sensitivity. MgSO 4 was chosen to improve the SERS signal of sunset yellow, and no salts could enhance the SERS signal of allura red. The lowest concentration was 0.10 mg/L for both colorant standard solutions. The successful prediction results using SERS were much closer to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography for the sample in beverages. SERS combined with gold nanorods shows potential for analyzing food colorants and other food additives as a rapid, convenient, and sensitive method.

  18. Lack of genotoxic effect of food dyes amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine and their metabolites in the gut micronucleus assay in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poul, Martine; Jarry, Gérard; Elhkim, Mostafa Ould; Poul, Jean-Michel

    2009-02-01

    The food dyes amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine were administered twice, at 24h intervals, by oral gavage to mice and assessed in the in vivo gut micronucleus test for genotoxic effects (frequency of micronucleated cells) and toxicity (apoptotic and mitotic cells). The concentrations of each compound and their main metabolites (sulfanilic acid and naphthionic acid) were measured in faeces during a 24-h period after single oral administrations of the food dyes to mice. Parent dye compounds and their main aromatic amine metabolites were detected in significant amounts in the environment of colonic cells. Acute oral exposure to food dye additives amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine did not induce genotoxic effect in the micronucleus gut assay in mice at doses up to 2000 mg/kg b.w. Food dyes administration increased the mitotic cells at all dose levels when compared to controls. These results suggest that the transient DNA damages previously observed in the colon of mice treated by amaranth and tartrazine by the in vivo comet assay [Sasaki, Y.F., Kawaguchi, S., Kamaya, A., Ohshita, M., Kabasawa, K., Iwama, K., Taniguchi, K., Tsuda, S., 2002. The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food additives. Mutat. Res. 519, 103-119] are unable to be fixed in stable genotoxic lesions and might be partly explained by local cytotoxicity of the dyes.

  19. Hibiscus acetosella 'Sahara Sunset'

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, hereby release to nurserymen a new African Hibiscus, Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern., named ‘Sahara Sunset’. This cultivar, tested as HAC06-11 was selected from a group seedlings grown at the Thad Cochran Southern Horti...

  20. NASA Science Engagement Through "Sky Art"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, K. L.; Damadeo, K.

    2013-12-01

    Sky Art is a NASA-funded online community where the public can share in the beauty of nature and the science behind it. At the center of Sky Art is a gallery of amateur sky photos submitted by users that are related to NASA Earth science mission research areas. Through their submissions, amateur photographers from around the world are engaged in the process of making observations, or taking pictures, of the sky just like many NASA science instruments. By submitting their pictures and engaging in the online community discussions and interactions with NASA scientists, users make the connection between the beauty of nature and atmospheric science. Sky Art is a gateway for interaction and information aimed at drawing excitement and interest in atmospheric phenomena including sunrises, sunsets, moonrises, moonsets, and aerosols, each of which correlates to a NASA science mission. Educating the public on atmospheric science topics in an informal way is a central goal of Sky Art. NASA science is included in the community through interaction from scientists, NASA images, and blog posts on science concepts derived from the images. Additionally, the website connects educators through the formal education pathway where science concepts are taught through activities and lessons that align with national learning standards. Sky Art was conceived as part of the Education and Public Outreach program of the SAGE III on ISS mission. There are currently three other NASA mission involved with Sky Art: CALIPSO, GPM, and CLARREO. This paper will discuss the process of developing the Sky Art online website, the challenges of growing a community of users, as well as the use of social media and mobile applications in science outreach and education.

  1. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY POINT-OF-USE (POU) REVERSE OSMOSIS. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SUNSET RANCH DEVELOPMENT IN HOMEDALE, ID. FINAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal technology demonstration project at the Sunset Ranch Development in Homedale, ID. The objectives of the project are to evaluate: 1) the effectiveness of a point of use (POU) re...

  2. Citotoxicity of food dyes sunset yellow (E-110, bordeaux red (E-123, and tatrazine yellow (E-102 on Allium cepa L. root meristematic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiva Maria Silva Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the food dyes sunset yellow, bordeaux red, and tartrazine yellow on the cellular cycle of Allium cepa L. Each dye was evaluated at the doses of 0.4 and 4.0 mL, at the exposure times of 24 and 48 hours in root tip cells of Allium cepa L. Slides were prepared and cells were analyzed during the whole cell cycle for cellular aberrations totaling 5,000 total cells for each dose evaluated. The mitotic index was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-squared test (p < 0.05. The results showed that the three dyes used under the evaluated doses and exposure times were cytotoxic to the cells of the system-test used. Further cytotoxicity studies should be conducted for additional results and a proper evaluation of the effect of these three dyes on a cellular level.

  3. Moonrise: Sampling the South Pole-Aitken Basin to Address Problems of Solar System Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Shearer, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    A mission to land in the giant South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin on the Moon's southern farside and return a sample to Earth for analysis is a high priority for Solar System Science. Such a sample would be used to determine the age of the SPA impact; the chronology of the basin, including the ages of basins and large impacts within SPA, with implications for early Solar System dynamics and the magmatic history of the Moon; the age and composition of volcanic rocks within SPA; the origin of the thorium signature of SPA with implications for the origin of exposed materials and thermal evolution of the Moon; and possibly the magnetization that forms a strong anomaly especially evident in the northern parts of the SPA basin. It is well known from studies of the Apollo regolith that rock fragments found in the regolith form a representative collection of many different rock types delivered to the site by the impact process (Fig. 1). Such samples are well documented to contain a broad suite of materials that reflect both the local major rock formations, as well as some exotic materials from far distant sources. Within the SPA basin, modeling of the impact ejection process indicates that regolith would be dominated by SPA substrate, formed at the time of the SPA basin-forming impact and for the most part moved around by subsequent impacts. Consistent with GRAIL data, the SPA impact likely formed a vast melt body tens of km thick that took perhaps several million years to cool, but that nonetheless represents barely an instant in geologic time that should be readily apparent through integrated geochronologic studies involving multiple chronometers. It is anticipated that a statistically significant number of age determinations would yield not only the age of SPA but also the age of several prominent nearby basins and large craters within SPA. This chronology would provide a contrast to the Imbrium-dominated chronology of the nearside Apollo samples and an independent test of the timing of the lunar cataclysm.

  4. Searching for a Room of One's Own: Rethinking the Iranian Diaspora in "Persepolis", "Shahs of Sunset" and "A Girl Walks Home Alone at Night"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Edwards

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For diasporic communities created through violence or forcible resettlement, home transcends physical boundaries and becomes a blend of past experience and future imagination. Iranians displaced after the 1979 Revolution have imagined home through various cultural mediums, such as, television, film, and literature. Three cultural texts produced by Iranian women, (Persepolis, Shahs of Sunset, and A Girl Walks Home Alone at Night, in particular, offer illuminating glimpses into the diaspora experience. I propose to engage in a close textual reading of the aforementioned works across methodological boundaries to show that despite their portrayal of varied diaspora life experiences, the diaspora paradigm reduces these experiences to a figurative return to the homeland. I argue that the diaspora paradigm, by offering a highly romanticized and homogenizing understanding of home and foreign land, flattens the diversity of identity and experience. Furthermore, the diaspora paradigm denies the role of intersection of class and gender on the lived experiences of the actual diaspora population. Through an alternative reading of these texts, I hope to challenge the prevalent paradigm through which Iranian diaspora identity is understood. I focus on autobiographical textual trends as a method of story-telling and self-formation, comparing this narrative structure to the theory of identity as ‘infinitely postponed’ in exile. I specifically highlight crucial interactions of local and global forces that shape diaspora experiences otherwise elided in the existing scholarship, complicating romantic understandings of both home and abroad.

  5. An enhanced electrochemical platform based on graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for sensitive determination of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xinlan; Lu, Limin; Leng, Jing; Yu, Yongfang; Wang, Wenmin; Jiang, Min; Bai, Ling

    2016-01-01

    A novel electrochemical platform was designed for the simultaneous determination of Sunset Yellow (SY) and Tartrazine (TT), synthetic food dyes, by combining the signal amplification properties of graphene oxide (GO) and the excellent electronic and antifouling properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Stable dispersion of GO/MWCNTs composite was produced by sonication mixing. Compared with glassy carbon, MWCNTs and GO electrodes, GO/MWCNTs electrode exhibited strong enhancement effect and greatly increased the oxidation signal of SY and TT. Under optimized conditions, the enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 0.09-8.0 μM, with a low limit of detection of 0.025 μM for SY and 0.01 μM for TT (S/N = 3), respectively. To further validate its possible application, the proposed method was successfully used for the determination of SY and TT in orange juice with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Breeding ecology of the Iranian ground jay (Podoces pleskei)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... located between Marvast region and Yazd city in the vicinity of. Mehriz protected .... indirect field observation using a micro video camera, TV card, PC ... med from sunrise to sunset on days in which the weather was suitable.

  7. Teaching Science: Beats the Daylight Out of Me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    Presents activities for observing, measuring, collecting, and graphing data about times of sunrise and sunset to teach an understanding about arrival of Daylight Savings Time in April. Also discusses seasonal affective disorder (SAD). (TM)

  8. Red Star Ruby (Sunrise) and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits and their influence on plasma lipid levels and plasma antioxidant activity in rats fed with cholesterol-containing and cholesterol-free diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Tapia, María S; Katrich, Elena; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2005-09-23

    Bioactive compounds of peels and peeled red Star Ruby (Sunrise) and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits were analyzed and their antioxidant potential was assessed. The dietary fibers were determined according to Prosky et al., the total polyphenol content by Folin-Ciocalteu method and measured at 765 nm, minerals and trace elements by atomic absorption spectrometer, phenolic and ascorbic acids by HPLC and the antioxidant potential by two different antioxidant assays (DPPH and beta-carotene linoleate model system). It was found that the contents of most studied bioactive compounds in both qualities are comparable. Only the contents of total polyphenols and flavonoids were higher in red grapefruits, but not significant. The antioxidant potentials of red peeled grapefruits and their peels were significantly higher than of blond peeled grapefruits and their peels (Pcholesterol added diet. In conclusion, both qualities of Jaffa grapefruits contain high quantities of bioactive compounds, but the antioxidant potential of red grapefruits is significantly higher. Diets supplemented with both qualities of Jaffa grapefruits improve the plasma lipid levels and increase the plasma antioxidant activity, especially in rats fed with cholesterol added diets. Jaffa grapefruits, especially their red Star Ruby quality, could be a valuable supplementation for diseases-preventing diets.

  9. Characteristics and sources of the electron density irregularities in the mid latitude E and Fregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-10

    and has since been monitoring the occurrence of field-aligned irregularities ( FAIs ) in the northern middle latitudes. We investigated the...characteristics and occurrence climatology of the FAIs in the middle latitude E- and F-region ionosphere using the Daejeon VHF radar data. Depending on the...sunset and post-sunrise periods. The F-region FAIs in the mid-latitude are bounded to occur during the nighttime between local sunset and sunrise [J

  10. Mycophenolate mofetil combined with systemic corticosteroids prevents progression to chronic recurrent inflammation and development of 'sunset glow fundus' in initial-onset acute uveitis associated with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Asrar, Ahmed M; Dosari, Mona; Hemachandran, Suhail; Gikandi, Priscilla W; Al-Muammar, Abdulrahman

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as first-line therapy combined with systemic corticosteroids in initial-onset acute uveitis associated with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease. This prospective study included 38 patients (76 eyes). The main outcome measures were final visual acuity, corticosteroid-sparing effect, progression to chronic recurrent granulomatous uveitis and development of complications, particularly 'sunset glow fundus'. The mean follow-up period was 37.0 ± 29.3 (range 9-120 months). Visual acuity of 20/20 was achieved by 93.4% of the eyes. Corticosteroid-sparing effect was achieved in all patients. The mean interval between starting treatment and tapering to 10 mg or less daily was 3.8 ± 1.3 months (range 3-7 months). Twenty-two patients (57.9%) discontinued treatment without relapse of inflammation. The mean time observed off of treatment was 28.1 ± 19.6 months (range 1-60 months). None of the eyes progressed to chronic recurrent granulomatous uveitis. The ocular complications encountered were glaucoma in two eyes (2.6%) and cataract in five eyes (6.6%). None of the eyes developed 'sunset glow fundus', and none of the patients developed any systemic adverse events associated with the treatment. Use of MMF as first-line therapy combined with systemic corticosteroids in patients with initial-onset acute VKH disease prevents progression to chronic recurrent granulomatous inflammation and development of 'sunset glow fundus'. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Bazı Şekerlemeler ve Yapay Toz İçeceklerdeki Diazo Boyar Madde Olan Sunset Yellow FCF ile Tartrazin Miktar Tayinlerinin Voltametrik ve Spektrofotometrik Metod Karşılaştırması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Altıniğne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bazı şekerlemeler ve toz içeceklere katımlı olan sunset yellow FCF ve tartrazin boyar maddelerin analizleri, voltametrik (DPP ve spektrofotometrik metotlarla yapılarak karşılaştırılmıştır. Şekerlemelerde ve sentetik toz içeceklerde boyar maddenin yalnız bir tanesi bulunduğunda, doğru, hassas ve güvenli sonuçlar elde edilebilmektedir. Uygulanan her iki metodun korelasyon sayısı r= 0.995 ve tayin sınıfları 0.8 mg/ml olarak saptanmıştır. Bu çalışma nitel ve nicel tayinlerin, spektrofotometrik metot yanında voltametri metoduyla da yapılabildiğini göstermiştir.

  12. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    107th FS at Selfridge ANGB MI, F-16 at Toledo ANGB OH, A-10 at Fort Wayne ANGB IN, and all units deployed in training at Alpena CRTC. The range also...Sheppard AFB, TX 76311 DSN 736- 2675/4995, C817-676-2675/4995. Sunrise-Sunset Mon-Fri, OT by NOTAM 233 VR1624 ALPENA CRTC/OTM, 5884 A. Sreet, Alpena , MI...49707-8125 DSN 741-6509/6226. Same as Originating Activity Sunrise-Sunset 233 VR1625 ALPENA CRTC/OTM, 5884 A. Sreet, Alpena , MI 49707-8125 DSN 741

  13. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming

    2013-05-24

    We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant kb, were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0×10(-8) to 2.0×10(-5) mol L(-1), with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25×10(-8) mol L(-1) for SY and 1.43×10(-8) mol L(-1) for TT (SN(-1)=3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant differences were found. By the treatment of the experimental data, the electrochemical reaction mechanisms of SY and TT both involved a one-electron-one-proton-transfer process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Foraging activity of the free-tailed bat Molossus molossus (Chiroptera; Molossidae in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEL. Esbérard

    Full Text Available Sunset and sunrise regulate the activities of most studied bat species. To verify patterns of foraging activity, 29 bat sampling nights were carried out over a dam in Rio de Janeiro city, which resulted in 363 hours with 730 captures, representing 13 species of insectivorous bats. Molossus molossus constituted the bulk of the captures (79.9% and was present in 82.8% of the sampling nights. This bat species exhibited crepuscular and nocturnal activity (from -6 minutes to 900 minutes after the time of sunset. A bimodal activity pattern was observed, and two non-overlapping capture peaks. The first peak lasted from 6 minutes before sunset to 420 minutes after sunset. The second peak began at 564 minutes after sunset and ended just after sunrise. The first capture peak was observed in 75.9% of the nights, and the second peak in 62.1% of the nights. The time of the first capture exhibited a positive linear relationship with sunset and the time of the last capture, a positive linear relationship with sunrise. The existence of a relationship between night length and the difference between first and last captures of each night shows that M. molossus has longer activity the longer the night, showing a seasonal variation in the activity period.

  15. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A green and facile approach for synthesis of β-CD-PDDA-Gr at room temperature. •We present the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE for simultaneous detection of SY and TT. •SY and TT's electrooxidations are both the one-electron-one-proton-transfer process. •Diffusion coefficients and standard rate constants of SY and TT were discussed. -- Abstract: We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant k b , were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0 × 10 −8 to 2.0 × 10 −5 mol L −1 , with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25 × 10 −8 mol L −1 for SY and 1.43 × 10 −8 mol L −1 for TT (S N −1 = 3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant differences were found. By the treatment of the

  16. The association of leisure-time physical activity and active commuting with measures of socioeconomic position in a multiethnic population living in the Netherlands: results from the cross-sectional SUNSET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munter, Jeroen S L; Agyemang, Charles; Brewster, Lizzy M; Stronks, Karien; van Valkengoed, Irene G M

    2012-09-21

    In most European origin populations measures of socioeconomic position are positively associated with leisure time physical activity (LTPA), this is unclear for active commuting. In addition, these associations have scarcely been studied in ethnic minority groups, who often have a high cardiovascular disease risk. Because of the expected public health potential, we assessed the relationship of active commuting and LTPA with measures of socioeconomic position across two large ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands as compared to the European-Dutch population. We included South Asian-Surinamese (n = 370), African-Surinamese (n = 689), and European-Dutch (n = 567) from the cross-sectional population-based SUNSET study (2001-2003). Active commuting and LTPA were assessed by the SQUASH physical activity questionnaire and calculated in square-root-transformed metabolic equivalents of task-hours/week (SQRTMET). Socioeconomic position was indicated by level of education (low/high) and occupational class (low/high). We used age-adjusted linear regression models to assess the association between physical activity and socioeconomic position. Compared to the European-Dutch men, South Asian-Surinamese men engaged in lower levels of commuting activity and LTPA, and South Asian-Surinamese women engaged in lower levels of LTPA than their European-Dutch counterparts. Differences between the African Surinamese and the European-Dutch were small. We observed a positive gradient in active commuting activity for education in European-Dutch men (beta high education was 0.93, 95%CI: 0.45-1.40 SQRTMET higher versus low education), in South Asian-Surinamese men (beta: 0.56, 0.19-0.92), but not in African-Surinamese men (-0.06, -0.45-0.33, p for ethnicity-interaction = 0.002). In women we observed a positive gradient in active commuting activity and occupational class in European-Dutch women, and less strongly in South Asian-Surinamese and African-Surinamese women (p for

  17. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A green and facile approach for synthesis of β-CD-PDDA-Gr at room temperature. •We present the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE for simultaneous detection of SY and TT. •SY and TT's electrooxidations are both the one-electron-one-proton-transfer process. •Diffusion coefficients and standard rate constants of SY and TT were discussed. -- Abstract: We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant k{sub b}, were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0 × 10{sup −8} to 2.0 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1}, with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} for SY and 1.43 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} for TT (S N{sup −1} = 3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant

  18. Development of transgenic papayas expressing the coat protein gene from a Brazilian isolate of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) = Desenvolvimento de mamoeiros transgênicos resistentes a vírus expressando o gene da capa protéica de um isolado brasileiro de Papaya ringspot virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, M.T.; Níckel, O.; Gonsalves, D.

    2005-01-01

    Translatable and nontranslatable versions of the coat protein (cp) gene of a Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolate collected in the state of Bahia, Brazil, were engineered for expression in Sunrise and Sunset Solo varieties of papaya (Carica papaya). The biolistic system was used to transform

  19. 33 CFR 207.180 - All waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico (except the Mississippi River, its tributaries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... displayed at all locks as follows: (i) From sunset to sunrise. One green light shall indicate the lock is... projection or cargo loaded in such a manner that is liable to damage the structure. (v) Vessels having chains..., loading and unloading supplies, and making emergency repairs in the vicinity of locks so long as...

  20. 36 CFR 7.97 - Golden Gate National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (i) Crissy Field Wildlife Protection Area (WPA): Dog walking restricted to on-leash only in the area... powerless flight is allowed at times and locations designated by the superintendent, pursuant to the terms... open to bicycle use. (ii) Operating a bicycle on designated bicycle routes between sunset and sunrise...

  1. A hidden Markov model for reconstructing animal paths from solar geolocation loggers using templates for light intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhimberdiev, Eldar; Winkler, David W; Bridge, Eli; Seavy, Nathaniel E; Sheldon, Daniel; Piersma, Theunis; Saveliev, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solar archival tags (henceforth called geolocators) are tracking devices deployed on animals to reconstruct their long-distance movements on the basis of locations inferred post hoc with reference to the geographical and seasonal variations in the timing and speeds of sunrise and sunset.

  2. A hidden Markov model for reconstructing animal paths from solar geolocation loggers using templates for light intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhimberdiev, E.; Winkler, D.W.; Bridge, E.; Seavy, N.E.; Sheldon, D.; Piersma, T.; Saveliev, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Solar archival tags (henceforth called geolocators) are tracking devices deployed on animals to reconstructtheir long-distance movements on the basis of locations inferred post hoc with reference to the geographical andseasonal variations in the timing and speeds of sunrise and sunset.

  3. 50 CFR 218.104 - Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Mitigation. (a) When conducting training and utilizing the sound sources or explosives identified in § 218... Handbook (Naval Education and Training Command [NAVEDTRA] 12968-D). (iii) Lookout training shall include on... Lookout Training Handbook (NAVEDTRA 12968-D). (vi) After sunset and prior to sunrise, lookouts shall...

  4. 33 CFR 117.697 - Hampton River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... each high tide. “Daylight hours” means one-half hour before sunrise to one-half hour after sunset. High tide occurs one-half hour later than the time of high tide for Portland, Maine, as published in the tide tables published by private entities using data provided by the National Ocean Service. At all...

  5. Introduction to Solar Motion Geometry on the Basis of a Simple Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavrus, Vyacheslav; Shelevytsky, Ihor

    2010-01-01

    By means of a simple mathematical model developed by the authors, the apparent movement of the Sun can be studied for arbitrary latitudes. Using this model, it is easy to gain insight into various phenomena, such as the passage of the seasons, dependences of position and time of sunrise or sunset on a specific day of year, day duration for…

  6. Variations of surface temparature with solar activity at two stations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics ... A consistent and persistent diurnal variation in surface air temperature exists which shows an almost constant level in the early morning hours (0000 0600 hours LT.); a rise at sunrise till about 1500 hr LT., a subsequent fall to the constant level by about 1900 hr LT. at sunset.

  7. In the Red Shadow of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.; Hosokawa, Kazuyuki; Carroll, Joshua; Sawell, David; Wilson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A technique is described for calculating the brightness of the atmosphere of the Earth that shines into the Earth's umbra during a total lunar eclipse making the Moon red. This "Rim of Fire" is due to refracted unscattered light from all the sunrises and sunsets rimming the Earth. In this article, a photograph of the totally eclipsed…

  8. The Early Years: The Earth-Sun System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    We all experience firsthand many of the phenomena caused by Earth's Place in the Universe (Next Generation Science Standard 5-ESS1; NGSS Lead States 2013) and the relative motion of the Earth, Sun, and Moon. Young children can investigate phenomena such as changes in times of sunrise and sunset (number of daylight hours), Moon phases, seasonal…

  9. SUNrises on the International Plant Nucleus Consortium: SEB Salzburg 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Graumann, Katja; Bass, Hank W.; Parry, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear periphery is a dynamic, structured environment, whose precise functions are essential for global processes—from nuclear, to cellular, to organismal. Its main components—the nuclear envelope (NE) with inner and outer nuclear membranes (INM and ONM), nuclear pore complexes (NPC), associated cytoskeletal and nucleoskeletal components as well as chromatin are conserved across eukaryotes (Fig. 1). In metazoans in particular, the structure and functions of nuclear periphery components a...

  10. SUNrises on the International Plant Nucleus Consortium: SEB Salzburg 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graumann, Katja; Bass, Hank W; Parry, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear periphery is a dynamic, structured environment, whose precise functions are essential for global processes-from nuclear, to cellular, to organismal. Its main components-the nuclear envelope (NE) with inner and outer nuclear membranes (INM and ONM), nuclear pore complexes (NPC), associated cytoskeletal and nucleoskeletal components as well as chromatin are conserved across eukaryotes (Fig. 1). In metazoans in particular, the structure and functions of nuclear periphery components are intensely researched partly because of their involvement in various human diseases. While far less is known about these in plants, the last few years have seen a significant increase in research activity in this area. Plant biologists are not only catching up with the animal field, but recent findings are pushing our advances in this field globally. In recognition of this developing field, the Annual Society of Experimental Biology Meeting in Salzburg kindly hosted a session co-organized by Katja Graumann and David E. Evans (Oxford Brookes University) highlighting new insights into plant nuclear envelope proteins and their interactions. This session brought together leading researchers with expertise in topics such as epigenetics, meiosis, nuclear pore structure and functions, nucleoskeleton and nuclear envelope composition. An open and friendly exchange of ideas was fundamental to the success of the meeting, which resulted in founding the International Plant Nucleus Consortium. This review highlights new developments in plant nuclear envelope research presented at the conference and their importance for the wider understanding of metazoan, yeast and plant nuclear envelope functions and properties.

  11. Magneto-static Modeling from SUNRISE/IMaX: Application to an Active Region Observed with SUNRISE II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiegelmann, T.; Neukirch, A.J.; Nickeler, Dieter Horst; Solanki, S.K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmueller, T.L.; van Noort, M.; Blanco Rodriguez, J.; del Toro Iniesta, J.C.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Schmidt, W.; Pillet, V.M.; Knolker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 229, č. 1 (2017), 18/1-18/12 ISSN 0067-0049 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05011S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-13277S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * chromosphere * corona Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 8.955, year: 2016

  12. Effect of fasting on renal physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Achraf Hendawy

    2014-01-01

    Total abstention from food and water from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan, is practiced by hundreds of millions of Muslims throughout the world. This pattern of fasting during Ramadan is different from the usual fasting as people are allowed to eat and drink between sunset and dawn but not after dawn. The amount and type of food (rich in protein, fat and sugar) eaten during the night may also be significantly different to that usually consumed during the rest of the year, while ...

  13. The Diurnal Variation of Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Chlorine Radicals: Implications for the Heterogeneous Production of HNO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cohen, R. C.; Anderson, J. G.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R. S.; Keim, E. R.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Stimpfle, R. M.; hide

    1994-01-01

    In situ measurements of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals obtained through sunrise and sunset in the lower stratosphere during SPADE are compared to results from a photochemical model constrained by observed concentrations of radical precursors and environmental conditions. Models allowing for heterogeneous hydrolysis of N205 on sulfate aerosols agree with measured concentrations of NO, NO2, and ClO throughout the day, but fail to account for high concentrations of OH and H02 observed near sunrise and sunset. The morning burst of [OH] and [HO2] coincides with the rise of [NO] from photolysis of N02, suggesting a new source of HO, that photolyzes in the near UV (350 to 400 nm) spectral region. A model that allows for the heterogeneous production of HN02 results in an excellent simulation of the diurnal variations of [OH] and [HO2].

  14. Home Range and Habitat Use of Male Rafinesque's Big-Eared Bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, M.A.; Menzel, J.M.; Ford, W.M.; Edwards, J.W.; Carter, T.C.; Churchill, J.B.; Kilgo, J.C.

    2000-03-13

    We examined home range size and habitat use of four reproductively active male Rafinesque Big-eared bats in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina during August and September of 1999. Most foraging activity occurred during the first 4 hours after sunset and the first two hours before sunrise. Mean home range size was 93.1 hectares. Most foraging activity occurred in young pines even though large tracks of bottomland hardwood were available. Only 9% of foraging occurred in bottomland hardwoods.

  15. Validation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dupuy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents extensive {bias determination} analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO instrument. Here we compare the latest ozone data products from ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO with coincident observations from nearly 20 satellite-borne, airborne, balloon-borne and ground-based instruments, by analysing volume mixing ratio profiles and partial column densities. The ACE-FTS version 2.2 Ozone Update product reports more ozone than most correlative measurements from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. At altitude levels from 16 to 44 km, the average values of the mean relative differences are nearly all within +1 to +8%. At higher altitudes (45–60 km, the ACE-FTS ozone amounts are significantly larger than those of the comparison instruments, with mean relative differences of up to +40% (about +20% on average. For the ACE-MAESTRO version 1.2 ozone data product, mean relative differences are within ±10% (average values within ±6% between 18 and 40 km for both the sunrise and sunset measurements. At higher altitudes (~35–55 km, systematic biases of opposite sign are found between the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise and sunset observations. While ozone amounts derived from the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise occultation data are often smaller than the coincident observations (with mean relative differences down to −10%, the sunset occultation profiles for ACE-MAESTRO show results that are qualitatively similar to ACE-FTS, indicating a large positive bias (mean relative differences within +10 to +30% in the 45–55 km altitude range. In contrast, there is no significant systematic difference in bias found for the ACE-FTS sunrise and sunset measurements.

  16. Citotoxicity of food dyes sunset yellow (E-110, bordeaux red (E-123, and tatrazine yellow (E-102 on Allium cepa L. root meristematic cells Citotoxicidade dos corantes alimentares amarelo crepúsculo (E-110, vermelho bordeaux (E-123 e amarelo tartrazina (E-102 em células meristemáticas de raízes de Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiva Maria Silva Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the food dyes sunset yellow, bordeaux red, and tartrazine yellow on the cellular cycle of Allium cepa L. Each dye was evaluated at the doses of 0.4 and 4.0 mL, at the exposure times of 24 and 48 hours in root tip cells of Allium cepa L. Slides were prepared and cells were analyzed during the whole cell cycle for cellular aberrations totaling 5,000 total cells for each dose evaluated. The mitotic index was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-squared test (p Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito citotóxico dos corantes alimentares amarelo crepúsculo, vermelho bordeaux e amarelo tartrazina sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L. Cada corante foi avaliado nas doses de 0,4 e 4,0 mL, nos tempos de exposição de 24 e 48 horas, em células de pontas de raízes de Allium cepa L. Prepararam-se lâminas e analisaram-se células, em todo o ciclo celular, e a presença de aberrações celulares, totalizando 5.000 células para cada dose avaliada. Foi calculado o índice mitótico e a análise estatística foi feita por meio do teste quiquadrado (p < 0,05. Os resultados mostraram que os três corantes, nas doses e tempos de exposição avaliados, foram citotóxicos às células do sistema-teste utilizado. Estudos adicionais de citotoxicidade devem ser conduzidos para se somar a estes resultados e, assim, avaliar, com propriedade, a ação destes três corantes em nível celular.

  17. Ban the sunset? Nonpropositional content and regulation of pharmaceutical advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegler, Paul; Vargas, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The risk that direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription pharmaceuticals (DTCA) may increase inappropriate medicine use is well recognized. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration addresses this concern by subjecting DTCA content to strict scrutiny. Its strictures are, however, heavily focused on the explicit claims made in commercials, what we term their "propositional content." Yet research in social psychology suggests advertising employs techniques to influence viewers via nonpropositional content, for example, images and music. We argue that one such technique, evaluative conditioning, is operative in DTCA. We further argue that evaluative conditioning fosters unjustified beliefs about drug safety and efficacy, antagonising the autonomy of viewers' choices about advertised medicines. We conclude that current guidelines are deficient in failing to account for evaluative conditioning, and that more research and debate are needed to determine the permissibility of this and other forms of nonpropositional persuasion.

  18. 76 FR 31495 - National Organic Program, Sunset Review (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    .... Does the substance contain residues of heavy metals or other contaminants in excess of FDA tolerances... by law, e.g., vitamin D in milk)? [Sec. 205.600(b)(4)]. 7. Is the substance used in production, and... emulsions, treated seed, vitamins and minerals? d. livestock parasiticides and medicines?. e. production...

  19. 78 FR 61154 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ..., National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), certified organic acreage exceeded 3.5 million acres in... growth over 2010 sales.\\3\\ \\2\\ U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service... 3 Inerts: (1) Modification to the introductory text at section 205.601(m); (2) amending the listing...

  20. 75 FR 14500 - National Organic Program, Sunset Review (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... as Generally Recognized As Safe; Approved by the FDA as a food additive; or Included in the FDA... the National Organic Program (NOP) is required by the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (OFPA). The... oil (CAS 8006-75-5); Fish oil (Fatty acid CAS 's: 10417- 94-4, and 25167-62-8); Fructooligosaccharides...

  1. 78 FR 25879 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ....C. 6503 through 6507) from creating certification programs to certify organic farms or handling... produced agricultural products that are produced in the State and for the certification of organic farm and... organic certification program established under this title. OFPA also provides that the U.S. District...

  2. 76 FR 46595 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... OFPA (7 U.S.C. 6503 through 6507) from creating certification programs to certify organic farms or... State organic certification program may contain additional requirements for the production and handling... certification of organic farm and handling operations located within the State under certain circumstances. Such...

  3. 76 FR 288 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ....C. 6507(b)(2)), a State organic certification program may contain additional requirements for the... the certification of organic farm and handling operations located within the State under certain... Service 7 CFR Part 205 [Document Number AMS-TM-07-0136; TM-07-14PR] RIN 0581-AC77 National Organic Program...

  4. 77 FR 33290 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... resistance in human pathogens; (ii) inconsistency with the prohibition on antibiotic use in organic livestock... synthetic substances that may be used in organic production and nonsynthetic (natural) substances that are prohibited in organic crop and livestock production. The National List also identifies nonagricultural...

  5. 77 FR 1996 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ........ Renew. 9000-70- 8). Gums (Arabic; April 2010 *...... October 21, 2017.. Renew. Guar; Locust bean; Carob..., 2017.. Renew. Tocopherols....... April 2011........ October 21, 2017.. Renew. Xanthan gum....... April... intestines. April 2010 *...... June 27, 2017..... Renew. processed products labeled as Celery powder...

  6. 78 FR 56811 - National Organic Program-Sunset Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... List (Sec. 205.105). Changes to the National List may be requested by any individual or organization... removal of a substance from the National List. What is the importance of submitting public comments to the... proposals for removal of substances leading up to the second public meeting. As discussed in Step 6...

  7. Orientations of the Bronze Age Villa Complex at Vathypetro in Crete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, M.; Henriksson, G.

    We present the results of our archaeoastronomical study of the villa and the tripartite shrine at Vathypetro. We found orientations to three major celestial events (counting the equinoxes as one): to sunrise at the equinoxes and the winter solstice in the case of the villa and to sunset at the summer solstice in the case of the tripartite stone. The axis of symmetry of the major room of the villa was oriented to sunrise of the 22nd of October in the Late Minoan period. This was also the orientation of the axis of symmetry of the main cult room in the west wing of the palace at Malia. We propose that this orientation marked the time for planting and thus the beginning of the agricultural year. It is unusual that archaeoastronomical studies make contributions to historical debates. However certain orientations dating after Late Minoan I seem to reflect the Mycenaean presence in Crete. The orientation of the tripartite shrine to sunset at the summer solstice is the same as the orientations of the small shrines at Malia and Agia Triada, all of which we argue to have been built for Mycenaeans. We propose that there are two types of orientations in the island: those to the east within the limits for sunrise - made by Minoans, and some to the west - made by (or for) Mycenaeans.

  8. The formation and disintegration of magnetic bright points observed by sunrise/IMaX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utz, D.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Bellot Rubio, L. R. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apdo. de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Jurčák, J. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Martínez Pillet, V. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Solanki, S. K. [Max-Planck Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse, 2, D-37191 (Germany); Schmidt, W., E-mail: utz@iaa.es, E-mail: dominik.utz@uni-graz.at [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstrasse 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of the physical parameters of magnetic bright points (MBPs) located in the quiet Sun (mainly in the interwork) during their lifetime is studied. First, we concentrate on the detailed description of the magnetic field evolution of three MBPs. This reveals that individual features follow different, generally complex, and rather dynamic scenarios of evolution. Next, we apply statistical methods on roughly 200 observed MBP evolutionary tracks. MBPs are found to be formed by the strengthening of an equipartition field patch, which initially exhibits a moderate downflow. During the evolution, strong downdrafts with an average velocity of 2.4 km s{sup –1} set in. These flows, taken together with the concurrent strengthening of the field, suggest that we are witnessing the occurrence of convective collapses in these features, although only 30% of them reach kG field strengths. This fraction might turn out to be larger when the new 4 m class solar telescopes are operational as observations of MBPs with current state of the art instrumentation could still be suffering from resolution limitations. Finally, when the bright point disappears (although the magnetic field often continues to exist) the magnetic field strength has dropped to the equipartition level and is generally somewhat weaker than at the beginning of the MBP's evolution. Also, only relatively weak downflows are found on average at this stage of the evolution. Only 16% of the features display upflows at the time that the field weakens, or the MBP disappears. This speaks either for a very fast evolving dynamic process at the end of the lifetime, which could not be temporally resolved, or against strong upflows as the cause of the weakening of the field of these magnetic elements, as has been proposed based on simulation results. It is noteworthy that in about 10% of the cases, we observe in the vicinity of the downflows small-scale strong (exceeding 2 km s{sup –1}) intergranular upflows related spatially and temporally to these downflows. The paper is complemented by a detailed discussion of aspects regarding the applied methods, the complementary literature, and in depth analysis of parameters like magnetic field strength and velocity distributions. An important difference to magnetic elements and associated bright structures in active region plage is that most of the quiet Sun bright points display significant downflows over a large fraction of their lifetime (i.e., in more than 46% of time instances/measurements they show downflows exceeding 1 km s{sup –1}).

  9. The Formation and Disintegration of Magnetic Bright Points Observed by Sunrise/IMaX

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Utz, D.; del Toro Iniesta, J.C.; Bellot Rubio, L.; Jurčák, Jan; Martinez Pillet, V.; Solanki, S.K.; Schmidt, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 796, č. 2 (2014), 79/1-79/17 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) MEB061109 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : high angular resolution * polarimeters * magnetic fields Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.993, year: 2014

  10. Centralized, Decentralized, Distributed: Disruptive Technology in Distance Education, from "Sunrise Semester" to Present-Day MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouty, Rosanna Noelle

    2016-01-01

    Lessons from early academic television courses from the 1950s guide an assessment of current disruptive technologies that shape Massive Open Online Courses (known as MOOCs) and other informal online learning opportunities today. This dissertation explores some of the unique contributing factors that led to the creation of "Sunrise…

  11. The World Is Waiting for the Sunrise: African Americans "yel Mundo Latino."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Danny

    1998-01-01

    Traces the long and varied history of interaction and collective action by African Americans and Latinos, focusing on common culture and political cooperation. Outlines issues related to the continued cooperation of African Americans and Latinos, and common political projects. (SLD)

  12. New Micromegas detectors in the CAST experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, S.; Braeuninger, H.; Dafni, T.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer Ribas, E.; Galan Lacarra, J.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Iguaz, F.; Irastorza, I.G.; Kousouris, K.; Morales, J.; Mols, J.P.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.; Ruz, J.; Soufli, R.; Tomas, A.; Zachariadou, K.

    2009-01-01

    A low background Micromegas detector was operating at the sunrise side of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment during the previous data taking periods (2002-2006). This detector, constructed of low radioactivity materials, operated efficiently and achieved a background level, 5x10 -5 keV -1 cm -2 s -1 , in the 2-7 keV region. This performance was accomplished by exploiting the spatial and energy resolution of the detector as well as the time information contained in the pulse shape of the events. During the second phase of the experiment, the detector at the sunrise was replaced and upgraded by including a shielding. Moreover, the old time projection chamber (TPC) covering the sunset side of the experiment was replaced by two new Micromegas detectors. These detectors belong to the newest generation of Micromegas detectors: 'bulk' and 'microbulk'. Performances and advantages will be presented.

  13. A Study on the Optimal Duration of Daylight Saving Time (DST in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Hee Mihn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Daylight saving time aims at spending effective daylight in summer season. Korea had enforced daylight saving time twelve times from 1948 to 1988. Since 1988, it is not executed, but it is recently discussed the resumption of DST. In this paper, we investigate the trend of DST in other countries, review the history of DST in Korea, and suggest the optimal DST duration in terms of astronomical aspects (times of sunrise and sunset. We find that the starting day of DST in Korea is apt for the second Sunday in Mayor the second Sunday in April according to the time of sunrise or to the difference between Korean standard meridian and observer`s, respectively. We also discuss time friction that might be caused by time difference between DST and Korea Standard Time (KST.

  14. A Sliding Mode Control for a Sensorless Tracker: Application on a Photovoltaic System

    OpenAIRE

    Rhif, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The photovoltaic sun tracker allows us to increase the energy production. The sun tracker considered in this study has two degrees of freedom (2-DOF) and especially specified by the lack of sensors. In this way, the tracker will have as a set point the sun position at every second during the day for a period of five years. After sunset, the tracker goes back to the initial position (which of sunrise). The sliding mode control (SMC) will be applied to ensure at best the tracking mechanism and,...

  15. The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankarani, Kamran B; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Moafian, Ghasem; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001). Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental factors on road traffic accidents and underlines the

  16. Science of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedavyas

    A Multi-disciplinary Research into the Chronologies of Ancient Nations -- like the Vedas of India Rishies, the Chaldeans, Babylonians, Egyptians and the Chinese. Which traces how the "Measurement of Time" -- which began with the observations of sunrise and Sunset, Full-Moons, eclipses, the movement of stars and the Discovery of the Zodiac that starry pathway of sun in his annual Cycle of the 12-Zodiacal months, the Measurement of Time by planetary Cycles the Discovery of Astronomy and Symbolic or Kabalistic Astrology of the Bible's Old Testament; the Epics of Babylonians and 'Cosmic Cycles' of Chaldeans and Egyptians also the Ancient "Four Yugas" or Hindu Vedic Cycles.

  17. A survey of radial velocities in the zodiacal dust cloud

    CERN Document Server

    May, Brian Harold

    2008-01-01

    The Zodiacal Light, that misty diffuse cone of light seen in the West after Sunset and the East before Sunrise, is a beautiful and intriguing phenomenon. Even though everyone can enjoy the sight from a suitably dark location, it is poorly understood, and has been the subject of relatively little research. Brian May began his research into the subject in 1970, and was finally awarded his PhD in 2007, after a hiatus of more than 30 years pursuing his other career as guitarist with his rock band Queen. This book is Brian 's thesis, and as such presents the results of his research for astronomers.

  18. Seasonal variations in general activity, behaviour and cutaneous glandular structures in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mossing, Torgny

    1980-01-01

    The locomotor activity of the reindeer is separated into a diurnal and a nocturnal phase which, in turn, consists of a  number of short-term activity bursts. The onset and termination  of diurnal and nocturnal activity are largely in synchrony  with sunrise and sunset. Since the diurnal phase is  longer, total activity is dependent on the photoperiod. Total  activity as well as the number of activity bursts is greater  in Jùne with continuous daylight than in December with 6  hours daylight. ...

  19. The Remote Sensing of Surface Radiative Temperature over Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing of surface radiative temperature over Barbados was undertaken using a PRT-5 attached to a light aircraft. Traverses across the centre of the island, over the rugged east coast area, and the urban area of Bridgetown were undertaken at different times of day and night in the last week of June and the first week of December, 1969. These traverses show that surface variations in long-wave radiation emission lie within plus or minus 5% of the observations over grass at a representative site. The quick response of the surface to sunset and sunrise was

  20. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  1. Development of an Embedded Solar Tracker using Compact RIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seung Jin; Lee, Yoon Joon; Chun, Won Gee [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    An embedded two-axis solar tracking system using LabVIEW to write the operation and control algorithms was developed for enhancing solar energy utilization. The system consists of a real-time processor, two motion- control modules, two step drives, two step motors, feedback devices, and other accessories needed for functional stability. The real-time processor allows the solar tracker to be used as a stand-alone, real-time system that can operate automatically without any external control. The system combines two different solar tracking methods: the optical method and the astronomical method. CdS sensors are employed to continuously generate feedback signals to the controller, ensuring high-precision solar tracking even under adverse conditions. CdS sensor is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. A database of solar altitude, azimuth, and sunrise and sunset times is provided by this solar tracking system. Other solar trackers operating in an astronomical method may access and use this database over the Internet. Solar position and sunrise and sunset times in the database were compared with those of the Astronomical Applications Department of the U.S. Naval Observatory. The differences were found to be negligible.

  2. Development of an Embedded Solar Tracker using Compact RIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung Jin; Lee, Yoon Joon; Chun, Won Gee

    2011-01-01

    An embedded two-axis solar tracking system using LabVIEW to write the operation and control algorithms was developed for enhancing solar energy utilization. The system consists of a real-time processor, two motion- control modules, two step drives, two step motors, feedback devices, and other accessories needed for functional stability. The real-time processor allows the solar tracker to be used as a stand-alone, real-time system that can operate automatically without any external control. The system combines two different solar tracking methods: the optical method and the astronomical method. CdS sensors are employed to continuously generate feedback signals to the controller, ensuring high-precision solar tracking even under adverse conditions. CdS sensor is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. A database of solar altitude, azimuth, and sunrise and sunset times is provided by this solar tracking system. Other solar trackers operating in an astronomical method may access and use this database over the Internet. Solar position and sunrise and sunset times in the database were compared with those of the Astronomical Applications Department of the U.S. Naval Observatory. The differences were found to be negligible

  3. Latitudinal trends in human primary activities: characterizing the winter day as a synchronizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Olalla, José María

    2018-03-28

    This work analyzes time use surveys from 19 countries (17 European and 2 American) in the middle latitude (38-61 degree) accounting for 45% of world population in this range. Time marks for primary activities are contrasted against light/dark conditions. The analysis reveals winter sunrise synchronizes labor start time below 54 degree, occurring within winter civil twilight. Winter sunset is a source of synchronization for labor end times. Winter terminator punctuate meal times in Europe: dinner occurs 3 h after winter sunset time within 1 h; 40% narrower than variability of dinner local times. The sleep-wake cycle of laborers is shown to be related to winter sunrise whereas standard population's appears to be irrespective of latitude. The significance of the winter terminator depends on two competing factors average labor time (~7 h30 m) and the shortest photoperiod. Winter terminator gains significance when both roughly matches. That is within a latitude range from 38 degree to 54 degree. The significance of winter terminator as a source of synchronization is also related to contemporary year round time schedules: the shortest photoperiod represents the worst case scenario the society faces.

  4. Magneto-static Modeling of the Mixed Plasma Beta Solar Atmosphere Based on Sunrise/IMaX Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiegelmann, T.; Neukirch, A.J.; Nickeler, Dieter Horst; Solanki, S.K.; Martinez Pillet, V.; Borrero, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 815, č. 1 (2015), 10/1-10/6 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24782S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : numerical methods * Sun chromosphere * Sun corona Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.909, year: 2015

  5. How sunrise and weather affect timing of rooks’ (Corvus frugilegus) morning departure from the winter communal roost

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2017), s. 227-230 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : animal behaviour * chronobiology * circadian rhythms * environmental variables Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ornithology Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2016

  6. Equilibrium of particle nitrite with gas phase HONO: Tropospheric measurements in the high Arctic during polar sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-Meng

    1994-12-01

    Gas phase HONO(g) and nitrite in particles of formation rate from HONO(g) photolysis was greater than from the photolysis of both O3 and CH2O by more than one order of magnitude during the sunlit period and led to moderately high levels of OH, e.g., 3×105 molecules cm-3 OH at noontime on April 5. Particle nitrite measurements showed a gradual increase in concentrations with increasing solar insolation, but the concentrations were generally less than 10 ppt. The pH and the sulfate molar concentrations of the particles and the water vapor mixing ratio indicate that the particles were highly acidic being approximately 70% (W/W) H2SO4 solution. In such highly concentrated H2SO4 solution, most particle nitrite should exist as hydrated nitrosonium ion H2ONO+. Taking this into consideration, the particle nitrite was in an approximate equilibrium with the measured HONO(g). This equilibrium, with HONO(g) rapidly photolyzed, was a good indication that the particles were effective sources of HONO(g) and implied rapid production of particle N(+III) during this period. Two possible pathways leading to the formation of particle N(+III) species are suggested, i.e., reduction of HNO3(aq) by SO2(g) and reduction of NO3-; (aq) by Br- (aq). However, N2O5 reaction with NaBr cannot be ruled out as the alternative HONO(g) formation mechanism which bypasses the equilibrium.

  7. 77 FR 44429 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012); Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... products--Must not be produced using synthetic solvents and carrier systems or any artificial preservative. (1) Annatto extract color (pigment CAS 1393-63-1)--water and oil soluble. (2) Beet juice extract...

  8. Oil and gas - a sunset industry? The role of petroleum in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses (1) issues where insights and perceptions have improved over the last 25 years of oil and gas history, (2) summarises some of the most important changes or trends that have shaped energy industries and that are expected to affect developments in the future, and (3) discusses issues that should be considered when it is discussed what the future may bring to the Norwegian petroleum industry and to the energy industries in general. Because of the petroleum activities in the North Sea, Norway is soon the 7th biggest oil producer and is becoming the most important supplier to the Continental gas market. 41 refs., 45 figs., 1 tab.

  9. 45 CFR 170.490 - Sunset of the temporary certification program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT...

  10. 76 FR 76147 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of Countervailing Duty Order: Certain Lined Paper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... recording of written numerical business data; Lined business or office forms, including but not limited to... material joined by 300 denier polyester, coated on the backside with PVC (poly vinyl chloride) coating, and... Centralized Electronic Service System (IA ACCESS). Access to IA ACCESS is available in the Central Records...

  11. 78 FR 45459 - Extension of Sunset Date for Attorney Advisor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... conduct certain prehearing procedures and issue decisions that are fully favorable when the documentary... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and determined that this final rule does not meet the...

  12. Post sunset equatorial spread-F at Kwajalein and interplanetary magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, R. G.; Chandra, H.; Janardhan, P.; Reinisch, B. W.; Bisoi, Susanta Kumar

    2017-10-01

    We connect the time sequence of changes in the IMF-Bz to the development of spread-F at an equatorial station Kwajalein on three different nights in November 2004, one during a geomagnetic quiet period and other two during geomagnetic disturbed periods. The chosen days show clear and smooth variations of IMF-Bz without any large fluctuations thereby enabling one to correlate changes in equatorial spread-F with corresponding changes in IMF-Bz. It is shown that a slow and continuous increase in the IMF-Bz over a duration of few hours has a similar effect on the equatorial ionosphere as of a sudden northward turning of the IMF-Bz in causing an electric field through the polar region and then to the equator. We conclude that the Spread-F at equatorial and low latitudes are due to echoes from ionization irregularities that arise due to the plasma instabilities generated by an eastward electric field on the large plasma density gradient in or below the base of the F-layer during any period of the night time along with the gravity driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  13. The Sunset Supply Base: Long Term COTS Supportability, Implementing Affordable Methods and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    unique requirements, restrictive statements of need, and detailed specifications. Together with DoD 5000.2 and the Federal Acquisition Regulations...go beyond the cost criteria by adding additional caveats and restrictions , such as an �all or nothing� involvement, for functionally different but...ask why the franchisees choose to join, and choose to remain. • The system is collaborative in the sense that the members are assembled and

  14. 77 FR 59287 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012) for Nutrient Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ...) from creating certification programs to certify organic farms or handling operations unless the State.... Pursuant to the OFPA (7 U.S.C. 6507(b)(2)), a State organic certification program may contain additional... the State and for the certification of organic farm and handling operations located within the State...

  15. 77 FR 1979 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012) for Nutrient Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ..., which are naturally present in certain foods. Dietary sources of DHA include: cold water fatty fish... parts 130-169) for a food or class of foods. The standards of identity for enriched cereal-flours and... 205.606 of the National List identifies two components of fish oil, by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS...

  16. The BLLAST field experiment: Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Boer, van de A.; Coster, de O.; Moene, A.F.; Steeneveld, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the major role of the sun in heating the earth's surface, the atmospheric planetary boundary layer over land is inherently marked by a diurnal cycle. The afternoon transition, the period of the day that connects the daytime dry convective boundary layer to the night-time stable boundary

  17. Gender disparities in hypertension among different ethnic groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: The SUNSET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; de Munter, Jeroen; van Valkengoed, Irene; van den Born, Bert-Jan; Stronks, Karien

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies have consistently shown a lower prevalence of hypertension in women than in men. Obesity is an important risk factor for hypertension, and the rate of obesity is particularly high among ethnic minority women. It is therefore questionable whether the lower prevalence of

  18. 76 FR 12939 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... participate was filed by DuPont within the deadline specified in 19 CFR 351.218(d)(1)(i), as extended due to... producer of PTFE resin in the United States. On February 11, 2011, the Department received a substantive... extended due to the Correction Notice. We received no substantive responses from any respondent interested...

  19. Oil and gas - a sunset industry? The role of petroleum in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This report discusses (1) issues where insights and perceptions have improved over the last 25 years of oil and gas history, (2) summarises some of the most important changes or trends that have shaped energy industries and that are expected to affect developments in the future, and (3) discusses issues that should be considered when it is discussed what the future may bring to the Norwegian petroleum industry and to the energy industries in general. Because of the petroleum activities in the North Sea, Norway is soon the 7th biggest oil producer and is becoming the most important supplier to the Continental gas market. 41 refs., 45 figs., 1 tab.

  20. New knowledge in determining the astronomical orientation of Incas object in Ollantaytambo, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzalová, K.; Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper deals about astronomical orientation of Incas objects in Ollantaytambo, which is located about 35 km southeast from Machu Picchu, about 40 km northwest from Cusco, and lies in the Urubamba valley. Everybody writing about Ollantaytambo, shoud read Protzen (1993). He devoted his monograph to description and interpretation of that locality. Book of Salazar and Salazar (2005) deals, among others, with the orientation of objects in Ollantaytambo with respect to the cardinal direction. Zawaski and Malville (2007) documented astronomical context of major monuments of nine sites in Peru, including Ollantaytambo. We tested astronomical orientation in these places and confirm or disprove hypothesis about purpose of Incas objects. For assessment orientation of objects we used our measurements and also satellite images on Google Earth and digital elevation model from ASTER. The satellite images used to approximate estimation of astronomical orientation. The digital elevation model is useful in the mountains, where we need the really horizon for a calculation of sunset and sunrise on specific days (solstices), which were for Incas people very important. By Incas is very famous that they worshiped the Sun. According to him they determined when to plant and when to harvest the crop. In this paper we focused on Temple of the Sun, also known the Wall of six monoliths. We tested which astronomical phenomenon is connected with this Temple. First, we tested winter solstice sunrise and the rides of the Pleiades for the epochs 2000, 1500 and 1000 A.D. According with our results the Temple isn't connected neither with winter solstice sunrise nor with the Pleiades. Then we tested also winter solstice sunset. We tried to use the line from an observation point near ruins of the Temple of Sun, to west-north, in direction to sunset. The astronomical azimuth from this point was about 5° less then we need. From this results we found, that is possible to find another observation

  1. Solar Terminator Waves in the Ionosphere Measured by the Wallops Island, VA Dynasonde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabotin, N. A.; Song, H.; Bullett, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    Solar terminator represents a unique source of atmospheric waves possessing of near-ideal coherent properties: its geometry and magnitude of the impact changes very little from day to day. This feature has been used in [Forbes et al., GRL, 2008] to obtain "snapshots" of terminator waves in the neutral atmosphere at the altitude 400 km by averaging CHAMP accelerometer data over relatively long sequences of the satellite passes. The results were represented in the geographic latitude vs local time coordinates. We apply a similar approach averaging time series of Wallops Island, VA Dynasonde Doppler data to obtain "snapshots" of terminator waves in the ionosphere in the true altitude vs local "terminator time" coordinates. The averaging is performed independently for every month of the yearlong observation period from May 2013 to April 2014. The altitude range covered is 90 km to 400 km with 2 km resolution, representing the entire bottom-side ionosphere. Individual local time segments used for the averaging were 12 hours long and all centered at the times of the sunrise or sunset terminator passing at every specific altitude. This procedure effectively suppresses all kinds of incoherent wave activity and allows one to reveal the perturbation phenomenon mainly caused by the solar terminator. This is an important advantage of this technique compared to multiple "terminator wave" studies based on simple time coincidence. Both sunrise and sunset terminator waves are easily visualized in all of the monthly images. Our results confirm observations of [Forbes et al., GRL, 2008] of the wave structures existing on both sides of the terminator. The phase fronts of the sunset terminator wave are propagating downward indicating upward movement of the terminator-related disturbance and of the wave energy generated by it. The phase fronts of the sunrise terminator waves are propagating upward indicating downward movement of the terminator-related disturbance and of the wave energy

  2. New discoveries on astronomical orientation of Inca site in Ollantaytambo, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolína Hanzalová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with astronomical orientation of Incas objects in Ollantaytambo, which is located about 35 km southeast from Machu Picchu, about 40 km northwest from Cusco, and lies in the Urubamba valley. Everybody writing about Ollantaytambo, shoud read Protzen. (1  He devoted his monograph to description and interpretation of that locality. Book of Salazar and Salazar (2 deals, among others, with the orientation of objects in Ollantaytambo with respect to the cardinal direction. Zawaski and Malville (3 documented astronomical context of major monuments of nine sites in Peru, including Ollantaytambo. We tested astronomical orientation in these places and confirm or disprove hypothesis about purpose of Incas objects. For assessment orientation of objects we used our measurements and also satellite images on Google Earth and digital elevation model from ASTER. The satellite images were used to estimate the astronomical-solar-solstice orientation, together with terrestrial images from Salazar and Salazar (2. The digital elevation model is useful in the mountains, where we need the actual horizon for a calculation of sunset and sunrise on specific days (solstices, which were for Incas people very important. We tested which astronomical phenomenon is connected with objects in Ollantaytambo. First, we focused on Temple of the Sun, also known the Wall of six monoliths.  We tested winter solstice sunrise and the rides of the Pleiades for the epochs 2000, 1500 and 1000 A.D. According with our results the Temple isn´t connected neither with winter solstice sunrise nor with the Pleiades. Then we tested also winter solstice sunset. We tried to use the line from an observation point near ruins of the Temple of Sun, to west-north, in direction to sunset. The astronomical azimuth from this point was about 5° less then we need. From this results we found, that is possible to find another observation point. By Salazar and Salazar (2 we found observation

  3. New knowledge in determining the astronomical orientation of Incas object in Ollantaytambo, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanzalová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals about astronomical orientation of Incas objects in Ollantaytambo, which is located about 35 km southeast from Machu Picchu, about 40 km northwest from Cusco, and lies in the Urubamba valley. Everybody writing about Ollantaytambo, shoud read Protzen (1993. He devoted his monograph to description and interpretation of that locality. Book of Salazar and Salazar (2005 deals, among others, with the orientation of objects in Ollantaytambo with respect to the cardinal direction. Zawaski and Malville (2007 documented astronomical context of major monuments of nine sites in Peru, including Ollantaytambo. We tested astronomical orientation in these places and confirm or disprove hypothesis about purpose of Incas objects. For assessment orientation of objects we used our measurements and also satellite images on Google Earth and digital elevation model from ASTER. The satellite images used to approximate estimation of astronomical orientation. The digital elevation model is useful in the mountains, where we need the really horizon for a calculation of sunset and sunrise on specific days (solstices, which were for Incas people very important. By Incas is very famous that they worshiped the Sun. According to him they determined when to plant and when to harvest the crop. In this paper we focused on Temple of the Sun, also known the Wall of six monoliths. We tested which astronomical phenomenon is connected with this Temple. First, we tested winter solstice sunrise and the rides of the Pleiades for the epochs 2000, 1500 and 1000 A.D. According with our results the Temple isn't connected neither with winter solstice sunrise nor with the Pleiades. Then we tested also winter solstice sunset. We tried to use the line from an observation point near ruins of the Temple of Sun, to west-north, in direction to sunset. The astronomical azimuth from this point was about 5° less then we need. From this results we found, that is possible to find another

  4. Seasonal changes in the apparent position of the Sun as elementary applications of vector operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Many introductory courses in physics face an unpleasant chicken-and-egg problem. One might choose to introduce students to physical quantities such as velocity, acceleration, and momentum in over-simplified one-dimensional applications before introducing vectors and their manipulation; or one might first introduce vectors as mathematical objects and defer demonstration of their physical utility. This paper offers a solution to this pedagogical problem: elementary vector operations can be used without mechanics concepts to understand variations in the solar latitude, duration of daylight, and orientation of the rising and setting Sun. I show how sunrise and sunset phenomena lend themselves to exercises with scalar products, vector products, unit vectors, and vector projections that can be useful for introducing vector analysis in the context of physics. (paper)

  5. Geolocation by light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisovski, Simeon; Hewson, Chris M.; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.

    2012-01-01

    1. Geolocation by light allows for tracking animal movements, based on measurements of light intensity over time by a data-logging device (‘geolocator’). Recent developments of ultra-light devices (.... However, an inherent problem of geolocators is that any factor or process that changes the natural light intensity pattern also affects the positions calculated from these light patterns. Although the most important factors have been identified, estimation of their effect on the accuracy and precision...... of positions estimated has been lacking but is very important for the analyses and interpretation of geolocator data. 2. The ‘threshold method’ is mainly used to derive positions by defining sunrise and sunset times from the light intensity pattern for each recorded day. This method requires calibration...

  6. Lipid management in ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, Ines; Ach, Koussay; Chaieb, Larbi

    2015-05-01

    During Ramadan fast, Muslims must refrain from smoking, eating, drinking, having sexual activity, and consuming oral medications from sunrise to sunset. It has been previously shown that Ramadan fasting induces favourable changes on metabolic parameters, reduces oxidative stress and inflammation and promotes cardiovascular benefits. Although ill people are exempted from fasting, most patients with chronic diseases are keen on performing this Islamic-ritual. During recent years, Risk stratification and treatment adjustment during Ramadan are well known and structured in several guidelines for patients with diabetes mellitus. Data related to the effect of Ramadan fast on lipid profiles are less known and several controversies have been reported. Here, we focus on lipid profile and lipid management during Ramadan taking into account comorbidities and cardiovascular risk.

  7. Distortions in frequency spectra of signals associated with sampling-pulse shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1983-04-01

    A method developed earlier by the author [IC/82/44; IC/82/45] is used to investigate distortions introduced into frequency spectra of signals by the shapes of the sampling pulses involved. Conditions are established under which the use of trapezoid or exponentially-edged pulses to digitize signals can make the frequency spectra of the resultant data samples devoid of the main features of the signals. This observation does not, however, apply in any way to cosinusoidally-edged pulses or to pulses with cosine-squared edges. Since parts of the Earth's surface and atmosphere receive direct solar energy in discrete samples (i.e. only from sunrise to sunset) we have extended the technique and attempted to develop a theory that explains the observed solar terrestrial relationships. A very good agreement is obtained between the theory and previous long-term and short-term observations. (author)

  8. Solar ultraviolet radiation in Syria measurements and relationship with skin cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I; Baydon, S.A.; Dawood, S.

    1994-11-01

    Seasonal variations of solar UVB (285-320) and UVA (320-400) were measured in three sites in Syria (33-37 N sup O) for two years: 1992-1993. UVB measurements were performed using polysulphone films and Robertson-Berger meter, while UVA measurements were done by NVA intensity meter. Two sets of measurements were carried out : - Maximal daily doses three times a week (every other day) - Diurnal variations from sun-rise to sun-set every two hours twice a month (every fortnight). The biological consequences of ultraviolet radiation withreference to some epidemiological data of skin cancer incidence in Syria since 1980 were discussed .(author). 36 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs

  9. Investigating the vertical dimension of Singapore's urban heat island through quadcopter platforms: an pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Winston; Ho, Dawn

    2016-04-01

    In numerous cities, measurements of urban warmth in most urban heat island (UHI) studies are generally constrained towards surface or near-surface (quadcopter platforms to measure urban temperature profiles up to 100 m above ground level in Singapore, which is a rapidly urbanizing major tropical metropolis. Three different land use/land cover categories were sampled; a high-rise residential estate, a university campus, and an urban park/green-space. Sorties were flown repeatedly at four different times - sunrise, noon, sunset and midnight. Initial results indicate significant variations in intra-site stability and inversion development between the urban canopy and boundary layers. These profiles are also temporally dynamic, depending on the time of day and larger-scale weather conditions.

  10. Statistical Analysis of the Grid Connected Photovoltaic System Performance Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Vilariño-García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A methodology based on the application of variance analysis and Tukey's method to a data set of solar radiation in the plane of the photovoltaic modules and the corresponding values of power delivered to the grid at intervals of 10 minutes presents from sunrise to sunset during the 52 weeks of the year 2013. These data were obtained through a monitoring system located in a photovoltaic plant of 10 MW of rated power located in Cordoba, consisting of 16 transformers and 98 investors. The application of the comparative method among the middle of the performance index of the processing centers to detect with an analysis of variance if there is significant difference in average at least the rest at a level of significance of 5% and then by testing Tukey which one or more processing centers that are below average due to a fault to be detected and corrected are.

  11. High-concentration planar microtracking photovoltaic system exceeding 30% efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex J.; Wang, Baomin; Lipski, Michael V.; Fisher, Brent; Lee, Kyu-Tae; He, Junwen; Brulo, Gregory S.; Ma, Xiaokun; Burroughs, Scott; Rahn, Christopher D.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-08-01

    Prospects for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power are growing as the market increasingly values high power conversion efficiency to leverage now-dominant balance of system and soft costs. This trend is particularly acute for rooftop photovoltaic power, where delivering the high efficiency of traditional CPV in the form factor of a standard rooftop photovoltaic panel could be transformative. Here, we demonstrate a fully automated planar microtracking CPV system 660× concentration ratio over a 140∘ full field of view. In outdoor testing over the course of two sunny days, the system operates automatically from sunrise to sunset, outperforming a 17%-efficient commercial silicon solar cell by generating >50% more energy per unit area per day in a direct head-to-head competition. These results support the technical feasibility of planar microtracking CPV to deliver a step change in the efficiency of rooftop solar panels at a commercially relevant concentration ratio.

  12. Not all trees sleep the same - High temporal resolution terrestrial laser scanning shows differences in nocturnal plant movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlinszky, András; Barfod, Anders; Molnár, Bence

    2017-01-01

    Circadian leaf movements are widely known in plants, but nocturnal movement of tree branches were only recently discovered by using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), a high resolution three-dimensional surveying technique. TLS uses a pulsed laser emitted in a regular scan pattern for rapid...... surveyed a series of 18 full scans over a 12-h night period to measure nocturnal changes in shape simultaneously for an experimental setup of 22 plants representing different species. Resulting point clouds were evaluated by comparing changes in height percentiles of laser scanning points belonging...... to the canopy. Changes in crown shape were observed for all studied trees, but clearly distinguishable sleep movements are apparently rare. Ambient light conditions were continuously dark between sunset (7:30 p.m.) and sunrise (6:00 a.m.), but most changes in movement direction occurred during this period, thus...

  13. GPS-VTEC near the magnetic equator during a high solar activity year: Observations and IRI predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezquer, R.G.; Mosert, M.; Brunini, C.; Meza, A.; Cabrera, M.A.; Araoz, L.; Radicella, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The validity of International Reference Ionosphere model to predict the vertical electron content (VTEC) over Arequipa (-16.5, 289.0; geoma. Lat.: - 5.1), station placed near the magnetic equator, is checked. VTEC measurements obtained with GPS satellite signals during year 2000 are considered. These data correspond to equinoxes and solstices. The results are similar to those obtained for the southern peak of the equatorial anomaly in previous work. In some cases, good VTEC predictions have been observed for hours of maximum ionisation. Overestimation for nighttime, sunrise and sunset hours were observed. The disagreements between predictions and measurements could arise because peak characteristics or the shape of the N profile, or both, are not well predicted. More studies including ionosonde measurements would be useful. (author)

  14. Observed Changes in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Properties at Memphis International Airport During August 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, J. Allen; Rodgers, William G., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity Program, Langley Research Center embarked on a series of field measurements of wake vortex characteristics and associated atmospheric boundary layer properties. One measurement period was at the Memphis International Airport in August 1995. Atmospheric temperature, humidity, winds, turbulence, radiation, and soil properties were measured from a variety of sensor systems and platforms including sodars, profilers, aircraft and towers. This research focused on: (1) changes that occurred in tower data during sunrise and sunset transitions, (2) vertical variation of temperature and cross-head winds at selected times utilizing combinations of sensors, and (3) changes measured by an OV-10 aircraft during approaches and level flights. Significant but not unusual changes are documented and discussed in terms of expected boundary layer behavior. Questions on measurement and prediction of these changes from existing and near-term capabilities are discussed in the context of a future Aircraft Vortex Spacing System.

  15. CrossRef The CERN Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Hasinoff, M D; Arik, E; Autiero, D; Avignone, F; Barth, K; Bingol, E; Brauninger, H; Brodzinski, R; Carmona, J; Chesi, E; Cebrian, S; Cetin, S; Collar, J; Creswick, R; Dafni, T; De Oliveira, R; Dedoussis, S; Delbart, A; Di Lella, L; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Farach, H; Fischer, H; Formenti, F; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Goloubev, N; Hartmann, R; Hoffmann, D; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Kang, D; Konigsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krcmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakic, B; Liolios, A; LJubicic, A; Lutz, G; Luzon, G; Miley, H; Morales, A; Morales, J; Mutterer, M; Nikolaidis, A; Ortiz, A; Papaevangelou, T; Placci, A; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Sarsa, M; Savvidis, I; Schopper, R; Semertzidis, I; Spano, C; Villar, J; Vullierme, B; Walckiers, L; Zachariadou, K; Zioutas, K

    2003-01-01

    The CAST experiment at CERN is using a decommissioned LHC prototype magnet to search for solar axions through their Primakoff conversion into x-ray photons. The magnet (B = 9.0 Tesla, L = 10 m) can track the sun each day for a total exposure time of ~180 minutes (sunrise + sunset). We expect to reach a sensitivity in axion-photon coupling, gaγγ ≲ 5 × 10-11 GeV-1 for ma ≲ 10-2 eV after ˜1 year's running time. By filling the beam tube with 4He or 3He gas we should be able to extend the sensitive axion mass region into the eV mass range.

  16. Photosynthesis and water relations of mature and resprout chaparral vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, S.J.; Oechel, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Photosynthesis, leaf conductance, and water potential were measured in the field over time, on mature (ca. 34 years) and resprouts of Arctostaphylos glandulosa Eastw., Quercus dumosa nutt., and Adenostoma fasciculatum H and A. The experimental site is within the US Forest Service's Laguna-Morena Demonstration area of the Cleveland National Forest in southern California. It is characterized as a mixed chaparral community located on an east-facing slope at ca. 1400-meter elevation. Plots of the mature vegetation were marked off (250 meters wide, 675 meters long) and the aboveground biomass removed by either handclearing or controlled burning. Measurements were typically made from sunrise to sunset. A null balance porometer, Sholander pressure bomb, and carbon-14 dioxide were utilized to measure leaf conductance, water potential, and carbon dioxide uptake, respectively

  17. Mid-latitude Geomagnetic Field Analysis Using BOH Magnetometer: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Hwang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute researchers have installed and operated magnetometers at Mt. Bohyun Observatory to measure the Earth's magnetic field variations in South Korea. We, in 2007, installed a fluxgate magnetometer (RFP-523C to measure H, D, and Z components of the geomagnetic field. In addition, in 2009, we installed a Overhauser proton sensor to measure the absolute total magnetic field F and a three-axis magneto-impedance sensor for spectrum analysis. Currently three types of magnetometer data have been accumulated. In this paper, we provide the preliminary and the first statistical analysis using the BOH magnetometer installed at Mt. Bohyun Observatory. By superposed analysis, we find that daily variations of H, D, and Z shows similar tendency, that is, about 30 minutes before the meridian (11:28 a minimum appears and the time after about 3 hours and 30 minutes (15:28 a maximum appears. Also, a quiet interval start time (19:06 is near the sunset time, and a quiet interval end time (06:40 is near the sunrise time. From the sunset to the sunrise, the value of H has a nearly constant interval, that is, the sun affects the changes in H values. Seasonal variations show similar dependences to the sun. Local time variations show that noon region has the biggest variations and midnight region has the smallest variations. We compare the correlations between geomagnetic variations and activity indices as we expect the geomagnetic variation would contain the effects of geomagnetic activity variations. As a result, the correlation coefficient between H and Dst is the highest (r = 0.947, and other AL, AE, AU index and showed a high correlation. Therefore, the effects of geomagnetic storms and geomagnetic substorms might contribute to the geomagnetic changes significantly.

  18. Polarization patterns of the twilight sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Warrant, Eric J.; Greiner, Birgit

    2005-08-01

    Although natural light sources produce depolarized light, patterns of partially linearly polarized light appear in the sky due to scattering from air molecules, dust, and aerosols. Many animals, including bees and ants, orient themselves to patterns of polarization that are present in daytime skies, when the intensity is high and skylight polarization is strong and predictable. The halicitid bee Megalopta genalis inhabits rainforests in Central America. Unlike typical bees, it forages before sunrise and after sunset, when light intensities under the forest canopy are very low, and must find its way to food sources and return to its nest in visually challenging circumstances. An important cue for the orientation could be patterns of polarization in the twilight sky. Therefore, we used a calibrated digital camera to image skylight polarization in an overhead patch of sky, 87.6° across, before dawn on Barro Colorado Island in Panama, where the bees are found. We simultaneously measured the spectral properties of polarized light in a cloudless patch of sky 15° across centered on the zenith. We also performed full-sky imaging of polarization before dawn and after dusk on Lizard Island in Australia, another tropical island. During twilight, celestial polarized light occurs in a wide band stretching perpendicular to the location of the hidden sun and reaching typical degrees of polarization near 80% at wavelengths >600 nm. This pattern appears about 45 minutes before local sunrise or disappears 45 minutes after local sunset (about 20 minutes after the onset of astronomical twilight at dawn, or before its end at dusk) and extends with little change through the entire twilight period. Such a strong and reliable orientation cue could be used for flight orientation by any animal with polarization sensitivity that navigates during twilight.

  19. The effects of long term fasting in Ramadan on glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatoprak, C; Yolbas, S; Cakirca, M; Cinar, A; Zorlu, M; Kiskac, M; Cikrikcioglu, M A; Erkoc, R; Tasan, E

    2013-09-01

    For Ramadan fasting, observing Muslims do not eat or drink between sunrise and sunset during Ramadan, Islam's holy month of the year according to the lunar calendar. In 2011, fasting patients with diabetes fasted for an average of 16.5 hours per day, having 2 meals between sunset and sunrise for a month. We aimed to evaluate the impact of extended fasting on glucose regulation and observe possible complications of extended fasting in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. We conducted a randomized, retrospective, observational study. Patients who presented at the Diabetes Clinic during the 15 days before and after Ramadan in August 2011 Istanbul, whose hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, weight and height value examinations and follow-up were completed were included in the study. Seventy-six diabetes patients who fasted during Ramadan (fasting group) and 71 patients with diabetes who did not fast (non-fasting group) were included in the study. These two groups with similar demographic characteristics were compared before and after Ramadan. HbA1c, fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, body mass index, weight and adverse events were evaluated. No statistically significant difference was observed among the fasting and the non-fasting groups. There was no difference between the pre and post-Ramadan values of the fasting group. We could not find any negative effects of extended fasting on glucose regulation of patients with diabetes who are using certain medications. No serious adverse event was observed. We failed to demonstrate benefits of increasing the number of meals in patients with diabetes.

  20. Meteorological Reference Years of Daily Mean Temperature during the Slighting Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchante Jimenez, M.; Ramirez Santigosa, L.; Navarro Fernandez, A.; Mora Lopez, L.; Sidrach de Cardona Ortin, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the characterization of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time has been analyzed. An algorithm for the hourly series generation from extreme daily values has been applied to evaluate the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time. A generic algorithm has been enhanced as a function of the sunrise time. This algorithm allows taking into account the fractions related to the sunrise and sunset hours. This methodology has been applied in data from 45 Spanish stations, uniformly distributed in the Iberian Peninsula. Data for a period of 14 years has been used in most of locations, and once the interest variable has been calculated, the meteorological reference year of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time has been evaluated in each stations. The next step is the evaluation of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time in any point into the zone of evaluation, not only in the measured stations. From the result data in each measured station, an geographic information system has been used in order to calculate the interpolation, obtaining maps with a data each 5 km. for each of the 365 days of the year. Then, this results can be superposed with the solar radiation evaluation obtaining the input data for the sizing of the photovoltaic grid connected system in any point of the Spanish geography. (Author) 64 refs

  1. Study of the fumigation effect on pollutants over Inshas area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, F.S.; Ramadan, Abou Bakr. A.; Abdel El-Aal, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the effect of morning fumigation event on the ground level pollutants concentration at inshas area. Monitoring stations for mesuring the hourly continues concetration of some pollutants such sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone were placed near the hot lab in nuclear research center for one complete year, At the same time the hourly averages meteorological parameters were measured continuously at different levels. A fortran computer program was developed to determine the relative relative concentration Assuming accident case in two cases, nonfumigation and morning fumigation. The processing and interpretation of the meteorological data and pollutants concentration revealed that these high pollution events occur almost on daily bassis, usually several hours between sunrise and before afternoon. The maximum fumigation peaks occur earlier in the summer than other seasons owing to theearlier sunrise in addition, ozone concentrations appear to reach their maximum a few hours after intense fumigation events. Maximum hourly concentrations of sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and ozone don't exceed threshold values that are considered to be phytotoxic. As sunset pollutant concentration is decrease due to lofting condition

  2. Species-specific patterns of diel migration into the Oxygen Minimum Zone by euphausiids in the Humboldt Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antezana, Tarsicio

    2009-12-01

    A series of stratified bongo net samples taken over a 2 day period at ca. 18°S, about 20 nm off the coast of Peru, South America, suggest species-specific patterns of diel vertical migration into the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) of the Humboldt Current Ecosystem (HCE). The OMZ was the most dramatic feature of the water column and seemed to determine the extent of migration: Stylocheiron affine migrated only to the shallow oxycline; whereas Euphausia mucronata, Euphausia eximia, Euphausia distinguenda and Euphausia tenera migrated to the core of the OMZ; and Nematoscelis gracilis to beneath the core of the OMZ. Some differences were also found in the timing and duration of the ascent and descent, and residence times in shallow and deep layers. E. mucronata, N. gracilis and E. distinguenda displayed a normal descent during sunrise, and ascent during sunset. E. eximia and E. tenera also descended during sunrise but seemed to begin their ascent earlier in the afternoon and consequently shortened their deep residence times. S. affine showed the most extended residence times at the shallow layer and the shortest vertical displacement. Day and night vertical stratification and differences in the timing of migration into and out of the OMZ of the HCE suggest a community structure based on habitat partitioning whereby species avoided co-occurrence in time and space. Species-specific patterns of vertical stratification and migratory chronology are examined with regard to body and gill sizes, feeding adaptations of euphausiids, and potential food resources at the OMZ.

  3. English Medieval Churches, 'Festival Orientation' and William Wordsworth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Peter G.; Ketel, Hans

    2015-05-01

    A church that is shown to be aligned with sunrise or sunset on the feast day of the saint to whom the building was dedicated is said to display 'festival orientation'. The earliest work to touch upon this practice in English dates from c. 1678. William Wordsworth gave impetus to the subject in two poems published in 1827; he also played a part in the design of St Mary's chapel (1823-4), Rydal, Cumbria in the English Lake District. The 14th-century St Catherine's chapel at Houghton St Giles, Norfolk, was constructed for the use of pilgrims on their way to nearby Walsingham. Careful measurement of the orientation and eastern horizon of these two buildings has shown that St Mary's is aligned with sunrise on the Marian festival of The Visitation (2 July), and St Catherine's is directed towards the rising Sun on the feast of St Catherine of Alexandria (25 November). It is only by taking into account the character of the horizon that meaningful tests for festival orientation may be carried out.

  4. Investigation of the single layer model of GPS ionospheric data processing using IRI-90 and the attached diffusive equilibrium model of plasmaspheric electron density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bànyai

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The single layer model of GPS ionospheric data processing is compared with the International Reference Ionosphere í 1990 and the attached Diffusive Equilibrium model of Plasmasphere (IRI-90+DEP which proved to be a good supplement to GPS data processing. These models can be used to estimate the single layer height and to improve the mapping function in day-time. The code delays estimated from IRI-90+DEP models are compared with GPS measurements carried out by TurboRogue receiver. These models can be used to estimate the preliminary receiver biases especially in the case of cross-correlation tracking mode. The practical drawback of the IRI-90 model is the sharp discontinuity of the ion components during sunset and sunrise at an elevation of 1000 km, because it also causes a sharp discontinuity in the TEC values computed from the DEP model. The GPS data may be a good source to improve the topside region of the IRI model estimating smooth TEC transition before and after sunrise in the plasmasphere.

  5. Meteorological Reference Years of Daily Mean Temperature during the Sunlight Time; Anos Tipos de Temperaturas Medias Diarias durante las Horas de Sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchante Jimenez, M.; Ramirez Santigosa, L.N.; Mora Lopez, L.; Sidrach de Cardona Ortin, M.

    2002-07-01

    In this work the characterization of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time has been analyzed. An algorithm for the hourly series generation from extreme daily values has been applied to evaluate the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time. A generic algorithm has been enounced as a function of the sunrise time. This algorithm allows taking into account the fractions related to the sunrise and sunset hours. This methodology has been applied in data from 45 Spanish stations, uniformly distributed in the Iberian Peninsula. Data for a period of 14 years has been used in most of locations, and once the interest variable has been calculated, the meteorological reference year of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time has been evaluated in each stations. The next step is the evaluation of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time in any point into the zone of evaluation, not only in the measured stations. >From the result data in each measured station, an geographic information system has been used in order to calculate the interpolation, obtaining maps with a data each 5 km for each of the 365 days of the year. Then, this results can be superposed with the solar radiation evaluation obtaining the input data for the sizing of the photovoltaic grid connected system in any point of the Spanish geography. (Author) 8 refs.

  6. Near IR Photolysis of HO2NO2: Supplemental Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MkIV measurements of the volume mixing ratio (VMR) of HO2NO2 at 35 deg N, sunset on Sept. 25, 1993 are given. Measurements of HO2NO2 made between approx. 65 and 70 deg N, sunrise on May 8, 1997 are listed. The uncertainties given are 1 sigma estimates of the measurement precision. Uncertainty in the HO2NO2 line strengths is estimated to be 20%; this is the dominant contribution to the systematic error of the HO2NO2 measurement. Model inputs for the simulations are given. The albedos were obtained from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer reflectively data (raw data at ftp://jwocky.gsfc.nasa.gov) for the time and place of observation. Profiles of sulfate aerosol surface area ("Surf. Area") were obtained from monthly, zonal mean profiles measured by SAGE II [Thomason et al., 1997 updated via private communication]. The profile of Be(y) is based on the Wamsley et al. relation with N2O, using MkIV measurements of N20O. All other model inputs given are based on direct MkIV measurements. Finally, we note the latitude of the MkIV tangent point varied considerably during sunrise on May 8, 1997. The simulations shown here were obtained using different latitudes for each altitude.

  7. At What Time a Day Begins in the Korean History?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyeon Ahn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We have reproduced the records of lunar occultation recorded in the History of Three Kingdoms, the History of the Koryo Dynasty, the Annals of the Choson Dynasty, the Daily Records of Royal Secretariat of the Choson Dynasty, and obtained the epochs of their realizations. We analysed these results to understand how the system of hours had been kept and when a day began. During most of the periods encompassed by these annals, the 12 double hours and the system of 100 divisions of the day had been used when the lunar and the solar eclipses were calculated by royal astronomers. In these systems, the starting point of a day is midnight. On the other hand, the five watch system of hours, in which a night is divided into five watches, was also used. In this system, a day begins at the sunrise. We found that the traditional twilight, called dusk and dawn and used in the east Asian countries, largely corresponds to the nautical twilight in modern concepts. This fact means that the Korean expressions and words for time system in every day life had originated from the five watch system of hours. We pointed out that the sunrise and sunset were convenient boundary lines to ancient astronomers, as well as to farmers in the agricultural society. Our results can be used to determine the exact epoch of each astronomical record in chronicles.

  8. Search for Axions with Micromegas Detectors in the CERN CAST Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    YILDIZ, Suleyman Cenk

    The CAST experiment is searching for the axion, which is a light, weakly interacting pseudoscalar particle, that is proposed to solve the so called Strong Charge-Parity Problem. The axions CAST is looking for are produced from photons in the solar core and CAST aims to convert them back into photons in a superconducting LHC dipole magnet and detect the photons in the x-ray detectors attached to ends of each magnet bore. CAST uses three micromegas and a CCD detector and can track the Sun during sunset and sunrise. The two of the micromegas take tracking data during the sunset solar tracking, and were used for the first time in 2008. The analysis of the data taken in 2008 with these two detectors show no signal of axions, and new upper limits on the axion mass-coupling constant parameter space are established due to sensitivity of detectors for the axion mass range of $0.38\\eV$ to $0.65\\eV$.

  9. Twilight vertical migrations of zooplankton in a Chilean fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Castro, Leonardo; Cáceres, Mario; Pizarro, Oscar

    2014-12-01

    Time series of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity profiles were obtained at three sites along a Chilean fjord with the purpose of determining dominant structures of vertical migrations of the sound scattering layer. Ancillary data obtained with stratified net samples indicated that the sound scattering layer may have been dominated by euphausiids and decapods. Therefore, distributions of acoustic backscatter anomalies and vertical velocities were attributed to vertical migrations of predominantly these organisms. Migration patterns were dominated by twilight excursions in which organisms swam toward the water surface at sunset, spent 100 m). This migration strategy can also be termed 'semidiel migration' as two double excursions were linked to light levels. The reasons for this twilight migration remain uncertain. But it is possible that the up and down motion around sunset was related to predation avoidance, hunger-satiation state, ontogeny, seaward transport evasion, or reaction to the environmental shock from the pycnocline, or a combination of all or some of them. In contrast, the sunrise double excursion was probably linked to feeding requirements by organisms that need to spend the day at great depth with no food available. This study demonstrated the existence of semidiel patterns throughout the fjord and through prolonged periods. In addition, identification of this pattern by acoustic backscatter was complemented by direct vertical velocity measurements. It is proposed that twilight vertical migration is a common strategy in Chilean fjords.

  10. Vertical Distribution of NO, NO(2), and HNO(3) as Derived from Stratospheric Absorption Infrared Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, J C; Girard, A; Gramont, L; Louisnard, N

    1975-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the results concerning NO, NO(2), and HNO(3) obtained during airborne experiments performed in June-July 1973 on Concorde 001. The altitude of flight was about 16 km. Results concerning NO are, within the accuracy of measurement, in agreement with results of a previousspectrometric balloonborne experiment conducted jointly by IASB and ONERA (14 May 1973). Nitric oxide is concentrated in stratospheric layers clearly above the flight altitude. Integrated amount of NO along the optical path is (4 +/- 1.5) x 10(16) mol cm(-2) for a solar elevation varying from +2 degrees above the horizontal plane to -1 degrees . A value of 6 x 10(8) mol cm(-3) may be given as an upper limit for the local concentration at the flight altitude. Thereis no significant difference in the integrated amount observed at sunset and sunrise. Measured value of NO(2) local concentration at 15.5 km is (1.1 +/- 0.2) x 10(9) mol cm(-3), in sunset conditions. This value is not greatly modified between 15 km and 30 km. Measured value of HNO(3). This value increases with altitude between 15 km and 20 km. The local concentration is maximum at 20 km. The measured value is (2 +/- 1) x 10(10) mol cm(-3) at 20 km. It seems that local concentration decreases rapidly above 20 km.

  11. Achieving optimum sports performance during Ramadan: some practical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Zerguini, Yacine; Chalabi, Hakim; Dvorak, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Muslim athletes should fast from sunrise to sunset each day throughout the 30 days of Ramadan. Most athletes will continue to train throughout Ramadan, and they may also be required to compete at this time, but they will also engage in the religious, cultural, and social activities that Ramadan represents. The available evidence indicates that high-level athletes can maintain performance during Ramadan if physical training, food and fluid intake, and sleep are appropriate and well controlled. Individualized monitoring of athletes may help to prevent fatigue and overtraining and to reduce the risk of consequent illness and injury. The timing and intensity of training may require adjustment to optimize the training response, and training close to or after sunset may have advantages, but this will vary between individual and team sports and between environments that are predominantly Muslim and those that are predominantly non-Muslim. Training late in the day allows nutrition interventions after training to promote adaptations to the training stimulus, to promote recovery, and might help to reduce muscle damage. Sleep deficits have a number of adverse effects on well-being and performance, and athletes should ensure adequate sleep throughout Ramadan. In non-Muslim majority environments, especially in team sports, coaches and athletes should be sensitive to the needs of their team-mates who may be fasting. Event organizers should take account of the needs of Muslim athletes when scheduling the dates and timings of sports competitions.

  12. Characteristic analysis of a photovoltaic system flying at fixed latitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shun Ching

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Relative sunrise and noon are different for different flight speeds. → ECSC cells are disposed for ECSC batteries matching each PV module. → Working ranges of ECSC battery are determined. → Secondary ECSC battery is considered. → Heat energy to thermostat keeps PV modules at ice point. - Abstract: The characteristic analysis of a PV system equipped with ECSC battery and moving in the air at fixed latitude is presented. The flight plans for 1 year trips at three latitudes from four seasons and with four speeds are considered under the condition that the flying system must come back every 24 h whatever the speed may be. The relative sunrise, solar noon, and sunset are different on each day not only for different seasons but also for different flight speeds, so the times for the moving PV system to take two U turns on each day are different and the durations of insolation on PV modules on each day are also different. The ECSC cells are disposed in series and in parallel for ECSC batteries matching each PV module. The working ranges of ECSC battery are determined by the characteristics of two components, ECSC battery and DC motor, for ensuring that the discharge current from an ECSC battery is always larger than the current driving the DC motor. While the PV modules on the flying machine are not under insolation or does not produce enough after relative sunrise, the primary ECSC battery discharges. The PV generator drives the DC motor and charges the primary ECSC battery during the time about solar noon, and it will charge the secondary ECSC battery when the primary battery is recharged to the full state. Once the PV generator does not produce enough again before relative sunset, the secondary battery discharges until its fractional state of charge backs to the minimum. The thermostat keeps the PV modules at ice point, if the temperature of PV module in the air is less than the 0 deg. C. The heat energy controlled by the thermostat is supplied

  13. 78 FR 21100 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... received no response from the respondent interested parties, i.e., French uranium producers and exporters... Centralized Electronic Service System (IA ACCESS). IA ACCESS is available to registered users at http... the Internet at http://trade.gov/ia/ . The signed Decision Memorandum and electronic versions of the...

  14. As Time Passed by Came Sunset. Christen Købke’s 'View of Lake Sortedam', its Genesis and Colour Changes’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke; Vila Espuna, Anna; Wadum, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The painting 'View of Lake Sortedam from Dosseringen Looking towards the Suburb Nørrebro outside Copenhagen' from 1838 by the Danish artist Christen Købke was subjected to technical investigation by IR imaging techniques, cross section analysis, XRF analysis, Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDX. The g......The painting 'View of Lake Sortedam from Dosseringen Looking towards the Suburb Nørrebro outside Copenhagen' from 1838 by the Danish artist Christen Købke was subjected to technical investigation by IR imaging techniques, cross section analysis, XRF analysis, Raman spectroscopy and SEM...

  15. 78 FR 38944 - Lemon Juice From Mexico: Final Results of Full Sunset Review of the Suspended Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... party and the respondent interested parties, The Coca-Cola Company and its subsidiary, The Coca-Cola....10 percent for The Coca-Cola Export Corporation, Mexico Branch, 205.37 percent for Citrotam...

  16. 77 FR 75998 - Lemon Juice from Mexico: Preliminary Results of Full Sunset Review of the Suspended Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... interested party and the respondent interested parties, The Coca-Cola Company and its subsidiary, The Coca-Cola Export Corporation, Mexico Branch (collectively, ``TCCC'') and Procimart Citrus (``Procimart.../Exporter CHED H= 1 >Weighted-Average Margin (percent) The Coca-Cola Export Corporation, Mexico Branch 146...

  17. 76 FR 68404 - Uranium From the Russian Federation; Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the Suspension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... time. See Notice of Continuation of Suspended Antidumping Duty Investigation: Uranium from Russia, 65..., Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation (``Russia''), Tajikistan... Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan was being sold at less-than-fair-value by...

  18. 78 FR 77425 - Raw Flexible Magnets From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... flexible binders (such as polymers or co-polymers, or rubber) and (ii) a magnetic element, which may..., and may or may not be fully or partially laminated or fully or partially bonded with paper, plastic... individual magnets) that are laminated or bonded with paper, plastic, or other material if such paper...

  19. 76 FR 33243 - Sulfanilic Acid From India; Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... and sodium salt of sulfanilic acid (sodium sulfanilate). Sulfanilic acid is a synthetic organic... additives. The principal differences between the grades are the undesirable quantities of residual aniline... materials. Sodium salt of sulfanilic acid (sodium sulfanilate) is a granular or crystalline material...

  20. 76 FR 5140 - Sparklers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... comprising a cut-to-length wire, one end of which is coated with a chemical mix that emits bright sparks while burning. Sparklers are currently classified under subheadings 3604.10.10.00, 3604.10.90.10, and...

  1. 76 FR 73592 - Certain Lined Paper Products From Indonesia: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ..., primarily suited for the recording of written numerical business data; lined business or office forms... material joined by 300 denier polyester, coated on the backside with PVC (poly vinyl chloride) coating, and... Centralized Electronic Service System (``IA ACCESS''). Access to IA Access is available in the Central Records...

  2. 76 FR 26242 - Paper Clips From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... order are plastic and vinyl covered paper clips, butterfly clips, binder clips, or other paper fasteners... order is revoked. Parties can obtain a public copy of the I&D Memo from the Central Records Unit, room...

  3. 78 FR 61334 - Silicon Metal From the Russian Federation: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-817] Silicon Metal From the... AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. DATES... Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution...

  4. 78 FR 47671 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Reviews of Antidumping Duty Orders: Light-Walled Rectangular...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-201-836, A-489-815, A-570-914, A-580...: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On April 2..., Office 7, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th...

  5. 75 FR 69628 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-855] Non-Frozen Apple Juice... order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). Because the... June 5, 2000, the Department issued an antidumping duty order on certain non-frozen apple juice...

  6. On the Use of the Field Sunset Semi-continuous Analyzer to Measure Equivalent Black Carbon Concentrations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zíková, Naděžda; Vodička, Petr; Ludwig, W.; Hitzenberger, R.; Schwarz, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2016), s. 284-296 ISSN 0278-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147; GA MŠk 7AMB12AT021 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : black carbon * aerosols * aethalometer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.926, year: 2016

  7. 76 FR 37786 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Preliminary Results of Full Third Sunset Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... and ADNSA. See Memorandum to the File, through Melissa Skinner, Director, AD/CVD Operations, Office 3... Secretary for Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Operations, from Melissa Skinner, Director, Antidumping...

  8. 76 FR 45513 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Preliminary Results of Full Third Sunset Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Melissa Skinner, Director, AD/CVD Operations, Office 3, from Kristen Johnson, Trade Analyst, AD/CVD... Operations, from Melissa Skinner, Director, Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Operations, Office 3...

  9. 75 FR 19364 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... cabinets, filing cabinets, credenzas, and bookcases; (4) dining room or kitchen furniture such as dining... wooden canopies for beds) and that do not possess the essential character of wooden bedroom furniture in...

  10. 78 FR 73726 - Endangered Fish and Wildlife; Final Rule To Remove the Sunset Provision of the Final Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... North Atlantic Right Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... submitted to the same address indicated immediately above. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gregory Silber... North Atlantic right whale population has exhibited some promising signs of recovery. For example...

  11. 78 FR 14269 - Folding Gift Boxes From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Second Sunset Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    .... Folding gift boxes are produced from a variety of recycled and virgin paper or paperboard materials... gift boxes included in the scope are typically decorated with a holiday motif using various processes...

  12. 77 FR 65361 - Folding Gift Boxes From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Second Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... variety of recycled and virgin paper or paperboard materials, including, but not limited to, clay-coated... typically decorated with a holiday motif using various processes, including printing, embossing, debossing...

  13. 76 FR 30655 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Agricultura, Montecitrus Trading S.A., and Sucocitrico Cutrale, S.A. Excluded from the scope of the order are...- Manufacturers/Exporters/Producers average margin (percent) Fischer S.A. Comercio, Industria, and Agricultura....A. Comercio, Industria, and Agricultura is the successor-in- interest to Fischer S/A--Agroindustria...

  14. 76 FR 60001 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan; Final Results of the Second Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products... duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff [[Page... on certain tin mill products from Japan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five...

  15. 76 FR 25666 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium: Final Results of Full Sunset Review and Revocation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Corporation and the United Steel, Paper and Forestry, Rubber, Manufacturing, Energy, Allied Industrial and... included in the scope of the AD orders on SSPC from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, the Republic of Korea... Certain Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, and the...

  16. 75 FR 60084 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose from Mexico: Preliminary Results of the First Five-year (“Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ..., Quimica Amtex S.A. de C.V. (Quimica Amtex), within the 30-day deadline specified in 19 CFR 351.218(d)(3)(i... of dumping at the following weighted-average margins: Quimica Amtex 12.61 percent All Others 12.61...

  17. 75 FR 78729 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Sunset Area Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... agency has addressed the following areas in the Draft EIS: Aesthetics; air quality, including greenhouse... education, safety, health, and social services; socioeconomics, including demographic, employment, and...

  18. 78 FR 69644 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited First Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    .... \\2\\ See Petitioner's July 31, 2013 submission. \\3\\ See Memorandum for the Record from Paul Piquado... Products Co., Ltd 21.24 Shandong Oriental Cherry Hardware Group Co., Ltd 21.24 Shandong Oriental Cherry...

  19. 78 FR 14771 - Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico: Termination of Suspension Agreement, Termination of Five-Year Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Lycopersicon esculentum. Important commercial varieties of fresh tomatoes include common round, cherry, grape... publishing this determination under section 733(f) and 734(i) of the Act. Dated: March 1, 2013. Paul Piquado...

  20. Prediction of post-sunset ESF based on the strength and asymmetry of EIA from ground based TEC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, S. V.; Ravindran, S.; Devasia, C. V.; Pant, T. K.; Sreelatha, P.; Sridharan, R.

    The Coherent Radio Beacon Experiment (CRABEX) is aimed at investigating the equatorial ionospheric processes like the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) and Equatorial Spread F (ESF) and their inter relationships. As a part of CRABEX program, a network of six stations covering the region from Trivandrum (8.5°N) to Nainital (29.3°N) is set up along the 77-78° E meridian. These ground receivers basically measure the slant Total Electron Content (TEC) along the line of sight from the Low Earth Orbiting satellites (NIMS). These simultaneous TEC measurements are inverted to obtain the tomographic image of the latitudinal distribution of electron densities in the meridional plane. In this paper, the tomographic images of the equatorial ionosphere along the 77-78°E meridian are presented. The crest intensities in the southern and northern hemispheres also show significant differences with seasons, showing the variability in the EIA asymmetry. The evening images give an indication of the prevailing electrodynamical conditions on different days, preceding the occurrence/non-occurrence of ESF. Apart from this, the single station TEC measurements from the Trivandrum station itself is used to estimate the EIA strength and asymmetry. Since this station is situated at the trough of the EIA, right over the dip equator, the latitudinal gradients on both northern (N) and southern (S) sides can be used to compute the EIA strength and asymmetry. These two parameters, obtained well ahead of the onset time of ESF, are shown to have a definite role on the subsequent ESF activity. Hence, both these factors are combined to define a new `forecast parameter' for the generation of ESF. It has been shown that this parameter can uniquely define the state of the `background ionosphere' conducive for the generation of ESF irregularities as early as 1600 IST. A critical value for the `forecast parameter' has been identified such that when the estimated value for `forecast parameter' exceeds it, the ESF is seen to occur. It is also observed that this critical value varies with season. All these aspects are studied in detail and the results are presented.

  1. SUNSET: Stereotactic Radiation for Ultracentral Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer-A Safety and Efficacy Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Meredith; Mathew, Ashwathy S; Bahig, Houda; Bratman, Scott V; Filion, Edith; Glick, Daniel; Louie, Alexander V; Raman, Srinivas; Swaminath, Anand; Warner, Andrew; Yau, Vivian; Palma, David

    2018-04-18

    Lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is considered a standard curative treatment for medically inoperable early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with ultracentral tumors (signifying tumors whose planning target volume touches or overlaps the central bronchial tree, esophagus, or pulmonary artery) may be at higher risk of serious toxicities such as bronchial stricture and collapse, esophageal strictures, tracheal-esophageal fistula, and hemorrhage. The primary objective of the study is to determine the maximum tolerated dose of radiotherapy for ultracentral NSCLC. This multicenter phase 1 dose-escalation study will use a time-to-event continual reassessment method (TITE-CRM). Accrual will start at level 1 (60 Gy in 8 fractions delivered daily). The model will use all available information from previously accrued patients to assign the highest dose with a predicted risk of grade 3-5 toxicity of 30% or less. All patients with newly diagnosed stage T1-3 N0M0 NSCLC (International Union Against Cancer, 8th edition) with tumor size ≤ 6 cm and meeting the criteria for ultracentral location (ie, tumors whose planning target volume touches or overlaps the central bronchial tree, esophagus, pulmonary vein, or pulmonary artery) will be eligible for this study. It is important to identify a safe dose-fractionation regimen for treating ultracentral tumors with SBRT. In addition, the data from this study may be informative in guiding future studies on the use of SBRT in treating malignancies within the mediastinum-for example, for salvage treatment of mediastinal lymph nodes for recurrent NSCLC or mediastinal oligometastases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 75 FR 13257 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of the Expedited Five-year (Sunset) Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...) and finished pigment in the form of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... countervailing duty (CVD) order on Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 (CVP-23) [[Page 13258

  3. 76 FR 77979 - Sunset of the Patent Application Backlog Reduction Stimulus Plan and a Limited Extension of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... examination, but sets a target of reaching final disposition within 12 months from the time advancement is... restricted to certain categories of invention as in the Pilot Program. DATES: Effective Date: December 15... Program, with an aggregate goal of reaching final disposition within 12 months and maintains an enhanced...

  4. 75 FR 57051 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Sunset Area Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... will be announced through public mailings as well as the local news media. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... significant opportunities for partnership and integration of civil infrastructure improvements. The City of... services, including public education, safety, health, and social services; socioeconomics, including...

  5. 76 FR 64900 - Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... section 771(9)(C) of the Act, as manufacturers, producers, or wholesalers in the United States of a..., 2011, we extended the deadline for the submission of substantive responses until August 10, 2011, for... did not receive any substantive responses from Turkish producers or exporters of the merchandise...

  6. 78 FR 69646 - Sodium Nitrite From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited First Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ....\\2\\ Therefore, all deadlines in this segment of the proceeding have been extended by 16 days. \\2\\ See... countervailable subsidy rates: Net countervailable Manufacturers/exporters/ producers subsidy rate (percent... (``APO'') of their responsibility concerning the return or destruction of proprietary information...

  7. 78 FR 69369 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... responses from the Government of the PRC (GOC) or any Chinese producers or exporters. \\1\\ See Laminated...\\ Therefore, all deadlines in this segment of the proceeding have been extended by 16 days. The revised... countervailable subsidy Manufacturers/ exporters/producers (percent) Zibo Aifudi Plastic Packaging Co., Ltd.... 83...

  8. 76 FR 55351 - Artist Canvas from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited First Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... (``HTSUS''). Specifically excluded from the scope of the order are tracing cloths, ``paint-by-number'' or... addition, a complete public copy of the I&D Memo can be accessed directly on the Web at http://ia.ita.doc...

  9. 76 FR 76123 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Orders: Lined Paper Products From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Unit, room 7046, of the main Commerce building. In addition, a complete version of the Decision... Producer (percent) Shanghai Lian Li Paper Products Shanghai Lian Li 94.91 Co., Ltd. Paper Products Co., Ltd. Shanghai Lian Li Paper Products Sentian Paper 94.91 Co., Ltd. Products Co., Ltd. Shanghai Lian Li Paper...

  10. Observation of intensity of cosmic rays and daily magnetic shifts near meridian 70° in the South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, E. G.; Gálvez, D.; Laroze, D.

    2016-05-01

    In analysis of experiments carried during September 2008 using secondary cosmic ray detectors located in Chacaltaya (Bolivia) and Niteroi (Brazil), Augusto et al. (2010) showed an increase in the intensity of charged particles which takes place 3 h after sunrise and lasts until 1 h after sunset, furthermore they said that during this period the solar magnetic field lines overtake the Earth‧s surface. These stations are located within the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA), having both different magnetic rigidities. To reproduce data from the Niteroi and Chacaltaya stations, we record data during the same hours and days using our neutron monitors, muon telescopes and magnetometers within the stations Putre and Los Cerrillos. Our observation stations in Putre and Cerrillos are located at 18°11‧47.8″S, 69°33‧10.9″W at an altitude of 3600 m and 33°29‧42.3″S, 70°42‧59.81″W with 570 m height above sea level, respectively. These stations are located within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAMA) and are separated approximately 1700 km from each other and 1700 km from the center of the anomaly. Our network is composed furthermore by two auxiliary Cosmic Ray and/or Geomagnetic stations located at different latitudes along 70°W meridian, LARC and O'Higgins stations, which are located within Antarctic territory, covering a broad part of the Southern Hemisphere. Our magnetometer data shows that for each of the components, shifts in the magnetic field intensity for every station (even for those out of the SAMA) lasted between 3 and 4 h after sunrise and 1 and 2 h past sunset, which are the periods when the geomagnetic field is modulated by the transit of the dayside to nightside and nightside to dayside. We believe that, although the magnetometric data indicates the magnetic reconnection for the Chilean region, there is no direct influence from the SAMA other than the lower rigidity cut-off that leads to an increased count rate. Other details about the

  11. Comparison of ionospheric F2 peak parameters foF2 and hmF2 with IRI2001 at Hainan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Shi, J. K.; Wang, G. J.; Gong, Y.

    2009-06-01

    Monthly median values of foF2, hmF2 and M(3000)F2 parameters, with quarter-hourly time interval resolution for the diurnal variation, obtained with DPS4 digisonde at Hainan (19.5°N, 109.1°E; Geomagnetic coordinates: 178.95°E, 8.1°N) are used to investigate the low-latitude ionospheric variations and comparisons with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model predictions. The data used for the present study covers the period from February 2002 to April 2007, which is characterized by a wide range of solar activity, ranging from high solar activity (2002) to low solar activity (2007). The results show that (1) Generally, IRI predictions follow well the diurnal and seasonal variation patterns of the experimental values of foF2, especially in the summer of 2002. However, there are systematic deviation between experimental values and IRI predictions with either CCIR or URSI coefficients. Generally IRI model greatly underestimate the values of foF2 from about noon to sunrise of next day, especially in the afternoon, and slightly overestimate them from sunrise to about noon. It seems that there are bigger deviations between IRI Model predictions and the experimental observations for the moderate solar activity. (2) Generally the IRI-predicted hmF2 values using CCIR M(3000)F2 option shows a poor agreement with the experimental results, but there is a relatively good agreement in summer at low solar activity. The deviation between the IRI-predicted hmF2 using CCIR M(3000)F2 and observed hmF2 is bigger from noon to sunset and around sunrise especially at high solar activity. The occurrence time of hmF2 peak (about 1200 LT) of the IRI model predictions is earlier than that of observations (around 1500 LT). The agreement between the IRI hmF2 obtained with the measured M(3000)F2 and the observed hmF2 is very good except that IRI overestimates slightly hmF2 in the daytime in summer at high solar activity and underestimates it in the nighttime with lower values near

  12. Characteristics of the E - and F -region field-aligned irregularities in middle latitudes: Initial results obtained from the Daejeon 40.8 MHz VHF radar in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sil Kwak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary observations of the field-aligned-irregularities (FAIs in the E and F regions during the solar minimum (2009 - 2010 using the 40.8 MHz coherent backscatter radar at Daejeon (36.18°N, 127.14°E, 26.7°N dip latitude in South Korea. The radar, which consists of 24 Yagi antennas, observes the FAIs using a single beam with a peak power of 24 kW. The radar has been continuously operated since December 2009. Depending on the manner of occurrence of the backscatter echoes, the E-region echoes are largely divided into two types: quasi-periodic (QP and continuous echoes. Our observations show that the QP echoes occur frequently above an altitude of 105 km in the post-sunset period and continuous echoes occur preferentially around an altitude of 105 km in the post-sunrise period. QP echoes appear as striated discrete echoes for a period of about 10 - 20 min. The QP-type echoes occur more frequently than the continuoustype echoes do and the echo intensity of the QP type is stronger than that of the continuous type. In the F region, the FAIs occur at night at an altitude interval of 250 - 450 km. As time proceeds, the occurrence height of the FAIs gradually increases until early in the morning and then decreases. The duration of the F-region FAIs is typically a few hours at night, although, in rare cases, FAIs persist throughout the night or appear even after sunrise. We discuss the similarities and differences of the FAIs observed by the Daejeon radar in comparison with other radar observations.

  13. Cloud Imagers Offer New Details on Earth's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A stunning red sunset or purple sunrise is an aesthetic treat with a scientific explanation: The colors are a direct result of the absorption or reflectance of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols, minute particles (either solid or liquid) in the Earth s atmosphere that occur both naturally and because of human activity. At the beginning or end of the day, the Sun s rays travel farther through the atmosphere to reach an observer s eyes and more green and yellow light is scattered, making the Sun appear red. Sunset and sunrise are especially colorful when the concentration of atmospheric particles is high. This ability of aerosols to absorb and reflect sunlight is not just pretty; it also determines the amount of radiation and heat that reaches the Earth s surface, and can profoundly affect climate. In the atmosphere, aerosols are also important as nuclei for the condensation of water droplets and ice crystals. Clouds with fewer aerosols cannot form as many water droplets (called cloud particles), and consequently, do not scatter light well. In this case, more sunlight reaches the Earth s surface. When aerosol levels in clouds are high, however, more nucleation points can form small liquid water droplets. These smaller cloud particles can reflect up to 90 percent of visible radiation to space, keeping the heat from ever reaching Earth s surface. The tendency for these particles to absorb or reflect the Sun s energy - called extinction by astronomers - depends on a number of factors, including chemical composition and the humidity and temperature in the surrounding air; because cloud particles are so small, they are affected quickly by minute changes in the atmosphere. Because of this sensitivity, atmospheric scientists study cloud particles to anticipate patterns and shifts in climate. Until recently, NASA s study of atmospheric aerosols and cloud particles has been focused primarily on satellite images, which, while granting large-scale atmospheric analysis

  14. The diel vertical migration patterns and individual swimming behavior of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus

    KAUST Repository

    Solberg, Ingrid

    2016-11-27

    We addressed the behavioral patterns and DVM dynamics of sprat overwintering in a 150 m Norwegian fjord with increasing hypoxia by depth. An upward-facing echosounder deployed at the bottom and cabled to shore provided 4 months of continuous acoustic data. This enabled detailed studies of individual behavior, specifically allowing assessment of individual vertical migrations at dusk and dawn in relation to light, analysis of so-called rise-and-sink swimming, and investigation of the sprat’ swimming activity and behavior in severely hypoxic waters. Field campaigns supplemented the acoustic studies. The acoustic records showed that the main habitat for sprat was the upper ∼ 65 m where oxygen concentrations were ⩾ 0.7 mL O2 L-1. The sprat schooled at ∼ 50 m during daytime and initiated an upward migration about 1 hour prior to sunset. While some sprat migrated to surface waters, other individuals interrupted the ascent when at ∼20-30 m, and returned to deeper waters ∼ 20-50 min after sunset. Sprat at depth was on average larger, yet individuals made excursions to- and from upper layers. Sprat were swimming in a “rise and sink” pattern at depth, likely related to negative buoyancy. Short-term dives into waters with less than 0.45 mL O2 L-1 were interpreted as feeding forays for abundant overwintering Calanus spp. The deep group of sprat initiated a dawn ascent less than 1 hour before sunrise, ending at 20-30 m where they formed schools. They subsequently returned to deeper waters about ∼20 min prior to sunrise. Measurements of surface light intensities indicated that the sprat experienced lower light levels in upper waters at dawn than at dusk. The vertical swimming speed varied significantly between the behavioral tasks. The mixed DVM patterns and dynamic nocturnal behavior of sprat persisted throughout winter, likely shaped by individual strategies involving optimized feeding and predator avoidance, as well as relating to temperature, hypoxia and

  15. Review of measurements of dust movements on the Moon during Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brian J.

    2011-11-01

    This is the first review of 3 Apollo experiments, which made the only direct measurements of dust on the lunar surface: (i) minimalist matchbox-sized 270 g Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15, produced 30 million Lunar Day measurements 21 July 1969-30 September, 1977; (ii) Thermal Degradation Samples (TDS) of Apollo 14, sprinkled with dust, photographed, taken back to Earth into quarantine and lost; and (iii) the 7.5 kg Lunar Ejecta and Meteoroids (LEAM) experiment of Apollo 17, whose original tapes and plots are lost. LEAM, designed to measure rare impacts of cosmic dust, registered scores of events each lunation most frequently around sunrise and sunset. LEAM data are accepted as caused by heavily-charged particles of lunar dust at speeds of motivation for returning to the Moon. New analyses here show some raw data are sporadic bursts of 1, 2, 3 or more events within time bubbles smaller than 0.6 s, not predicted by theoretical dust models but consistent with noise bits caused by electromagnetic interference (EMI) from switching of large currents in the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP), as occurred in pre-flight LEAM-acceptance tests. On the Moon switching is most common around sunrise and sunset in a dozen heavy-duty heaters essential for operational survival during 350 h of lunar night temperatures of minus 170 °C. Another four otherwise unexplained features of LEAM data are consistent with the "noise bits" hypothesis. Discoveries with DDE and TDS reported in 1970 and 1971, though overlooked, and extensive DDE discoveries in 2009 revealed strengths of adhesive and cohesive forces of lunar dust. Rocket exhaust gases during Lunar Module (LM) ascent caused dust and debris to (i) contaminate instruments 17 m distant (Apollo 11) as expected, and (ii) unexpectedly cleanse Apollo hardware 130 m (Apollo 12) and 180 m (Apollo 14) from LM. TDS photos uniquely document in situ cohesion of dust particles and their adhesion to 12

  16. How could the Viking Sun compass be used with sunstones before and after sunset? Twilight board as a new interpretation of the Uunartoq artefact fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernáth, Balázs; Farkas, Alexandra; Száz, Dénes; Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Barta, András; Akesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-06-08

    Vikings routinely crossed the North Atlantic without a magnetic compass and left their mark on lands as far away as Greenland, Newfoundland and Baffin Island. Based on an eleventh-century dial fragment artefact, found at Uunartoq in Greenland, it is widely accepted that they sailed along chosen latitudes using primitive Sun compasses. Such instruments were tested on sea and proved to be efficient hand-held navigation tools, but the dimensions and incisions of the Uunartoq find are far from optimal in this role. On the basis of the sagas mentioning sunstones, incompatible hypotheses were formed for Viking solar navigation procedures and primitive skylight polarimetry with dichroic or birefringent crystals. We describe here a previously unconceived method of navigation based on the Uunartoq artefact functioning as a 'twilight board', which is a combination of a horizon board and a Sun compass optimized for use when the Sun is close to the horizon. We deduced an appropriate solar navigation procedure using a twilight board, a shadow-stick and birefringent crystals, which bring together earlier suggested methods in harmony and provide a true skylight compass function. This could have allowed Vikings to navigate around the clock, to use the artefact dial as a Sun compass during long parts of the day and to use skylight polarization patterns in the twilight period. In field tests, we found that true north could be appointed with such a medieval skylight compass with an error of about ±4° when the artificially occluded Sun had elevation angles between +10° and -8° relative to the horizon. Our interpretation allows us to assign exact dates to the gnomonic lines on the artefact and outlines the schedule of the merchant ships that sustained the Viking colony in Greenland a millennium ago.

  17. 76 FR 25670 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Italy: Final Results of the Full Five-Year (“Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is also excluded from the scope of the order. This high... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-824] Stainless Steel Sheet and... duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip (``SSSS'') in coils from Italy would be likely to lead to...

  18. 76 FR 25668 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico: Final Results of the Five-Year (“Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... ``Gilphy 36.'' \\3\\ Certain martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is also excluded from the... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-201-822] Stainless Steel Sheet and... Commerce (``Department'') finds that revocation of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and...

  19. Polarization transition between sunlit and moonlit skies with possible implications for animal orientation and Viking navigation: anomalous celestial twilight polarization at partial moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, András; Farkas, Alexandra; Száz, Dénes; Egri, Ádám; Barta, Pál; Kovács, József; Csák, Balázs; Jankovics, István; Szabó, Gyula; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-08-10

    Using full-sky imaging polarimetry, we measured the celestial distribution of polarization during sunset and sunrise at partial (78% and 72%) and full (100%) moon in the red (650 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) parts of the spectrum. We investigated the temporal change of the patterns of degree p and angle α of linear polarization of sunlit and moonlit skies at dusk and dawn. We describe here the position change of the neutral points of sky polarization, and present video clips about the celestial polarization transition at moonlit twilight. We found that at partial moon and at a medium latitude (47° 15.481' N) during this transition there is a relatively short (10-20 min) period when (i) the maximum of p of skylight decreases, and (ii) from the celestial α pattern neither the solar-antisolar nor the lunar-antilunar meridian can be unambiguously determined. These meridians can serve as reference directions of animal orientation and Viking navigation based on sky polarization. The possible influence of these atmospheric optical phenomena during the polarization transition between sunlit and moonlit skies on the orientation of polarization-sensitive crepuscular/nocturnal animals and the hypothesized navigation of sunstone-aided Viking seafarers is discussed.

  20. The signal of aerosol-induced changes in sunshine duration records: A review of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Romero, A.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Calbó, J.; González, J. A.; Azorin-Molina, C.

    2014-04-01

    Aerosols play a significant yet complex and central role in the Earth's radiation budget, and knowledge of long-term changes in the atmospheric turbidity induced by aerosols is therefore fundamental for a better understanding of climate change. However, there is little available information on changes in aerosol concentration in the atmosphere, especially prior to the 1980s. The present paper reviews publications reporting the suitability of sunshine duration records with regard to detecting changes in atmospheric aerosols. Some of the studies reviewed propose methods for estimating aerosol-related magnitudes, such as turbidity, from sunshine deficit at approximately sunrise and sunset, when the impact of aerosols on the solar beam is more easily observed. In addition, there is abundant evidence that one cause of the decadal changes observed in sunshine duration records involves variations in atmospheric aerosol loading. Possible directions for future research are also suggested: in particular, detailed studies of the burn (not only its length but also its width) registered by means of Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorders may provide a way of creating time series of atmospheric aerosol loading metrics dating back to over 120 years from the present.

  1. Relation between the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Impact Factors under Severe Surface Thermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhuan Ao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reported a comprehensive analysis on the diurnal variation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL in summer of Badain Jaran Desert and discussed deeply the effect of surface thermal to ABL, including the Difference in Surface-Air Temperature (DSAT, net radiation, and sensible heat, based on limited GPS radiosonde and surface observation data during two intense observation periods of experiments. The results showed that (1 affected by topography of the Tibetan Plateau, the climate provided favorable external conditions for the development of Convective Boundary Layer (CBL, (2 deep CBL showed a diurnal variation of three- to five-layer structure in clear days and five-layer ABL structure often occurred about sunset or sunrise, (3 the diurnal variation of DSAT influenced thickness of ABL through changes of turbulent heat flux, (4 integral value of sensible heat which rapidly converted by surface net radiation had a significant influence on the growth of CBL throughout daytime. The cumulative effect of thick RML dominated the role after CBL got through SBL in the development stage, especially in late summer, and (5 the development of CBL was promoted and accelerated by the variation of wind field and distribution of warm advection in high and low altitude.

  2. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Martín García Island, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M Ronderos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1183-1194. Epub 2011 September 01.

  3. An improved method for analysis of time dependent one-dimensional heat exchange between a river flow and atmosphere; Usovrsena metoda za prognoziranje na vremenski zavisna izmena na toplina pomegu voden tek i atmosferata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosevski, T [elektrotehnicki fakultet, Skopje (Yugoslavia); Kusakatov, V [Matematicki fakultet, Skopje (Yugoslavia)

    1978-07-01

    In this work an improvement of the methodology for analysis of time dependent one-dimensional heat exchange between a river flow and atmosphere at additional discharge of condenser heated water from thermal power plant, published at the XXI Yugoslav Conference of ETAN, is performed. In comparison with the already published methodology this work comprises the following improvements: The dispersive member along the river flow is taken into account, so that the basic second order partial differential equation is to be solved. With this improvement the mentioned methodology becomes applicable for analysis of rivers with high and low velocities. The assumption for stationarity is dropped out for at least three consequent days, in a manner that the conditions for equality of temperature and derivative at the beginning and at the end of the day is replaced with assumption that the river flow reaches minimal and maximal ambient temperature at sunrise and sunset. It is possible to conclude that the main characteristics of the developed methodology is the minimal number of hydro meteorological data are needed, that is only two temperature measurements of the water and two measurements of the wind velocity for the whole day - night time period. This conclusion is especially important when statistical analyses of data for longer past period of time are made, i.e. when it is not possible to obtain additional information. (author)

  4. Retrieval of NO2 stratospheric profiles from ground-based zenith-sky uv-visible measurements at 60°N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, F.; van Roozendael, M.; Lambert, J.-C.; Fayt, C.; Hermans, C.; de Mazière, M.

    2003-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO_2) plays an important role in controlling ozone abundances in the stratosphere, either directly through the NOx (NO+NO_2) catalytic cycle, either indirectly by reaction with the radical ClO to form the reservoir species ClONO_2. In this presentation, NO_2 stratospheric profiles are retrieved from ground-based UV-visible NO_2 slant column abundances measured since 1998 at the complementary NDSC station of Harestua (Norway, 60^oN). The retrieval algorithm is based on the Rodgers optimal estimation inversion method and a forward model consisting in the IASB-BIRA stacked box photochemical model PSCBOX coupled to the radiative transfer package UVspec/DISORT. This algorithm has been applied to a set of about 50 sunrises and sunsets for which spatially and temporally coincident NO_2 measurements made by the HALOE (Halogen Occultation Experiment) instrument on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are available. The consistency between retrieved and HALOE profiles is discussed in term of the different seasonal conditions investigated which are spring with and without chlorine activation, summer, and fall.

  5. A mathematical correlation between variations in solar radiation parameters - I: Daily sums of global radiation and midday global radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1987-11-01

    An equation that simply relates variations in the daily sums of global radiation and the corresponding midday global radiation data over an arbitrarily chosen location on the Earth is derived from first principles. Although this equation is specifically tailored for periods incorporating only cloudless days, it is modified slightly in order also to suit any period that incorporates either cloudless days or consistently cloudy days or days characterised by consistently distributed cloud patches or any combination of these. Global radiation data for Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, calculated on the basis of the slightly modified version of the equation mentioned above agree with actual measurements to at least 89% if each of the days involved is either fairly cloudless or consistently cloudy or is characterised by fairly consistent cloud patches from sunrise to sunset. This clearly demonstrates that it is quite possible to work out reasonable estimates of the overall global radiation incident on a given area using only the corresponding midday global radiation data for that particular area. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  6. Summary results of the first United States manned orbital space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, J. H. Jr

    1963-01-01

    This paper describes the principal findings of the first United States manned orbital space flight in light of the flight mission. Consideration is given to the coordinated tracking network, recovery forces and to the spacecraft and its several functional systems. These include mechanisms for heat protection, escape maneuvers, spacecraft control, power supply, communications, life support and landing. A few difficulties encountered in the flight and deviations from the planned sequence are described. Craft preparation, aeromedical studies, flight plan and particularly flight observations--including the color, light, horizon visibility by day and by night, cloud formations and sunrise and sunset effects are given in some detail. The general conclusion from the MA-6 flight is that man can adapt well to new conditions encountered in space flight and that man can contribute importantly to mission reliability and toward mission achievement through his capacities to control the spacecraft and its multiple systems contribute to decision making and adaptation of programming as well as to direct exploratory and experimental observations.

  7. SAGE aerosol measurements. Volume 1, February 21, 1979 to December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccormick, M.P.

    1985-10-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) satellite system, launched on February 18, 1979, provides profiles of aerosol extinction, ozone concentration, and nitrogen dioxide concentration between about 80 N and 80 S. Zonal averages, separated into sunrise and sunset events, and seasonal averages of the aerosol extinction at 1.00 microns and 0.45 microns ratios of the aerosol extinction to the molecular extinction at 1.00 microns, and ratios of the aerosol extinction at 0.45 microns to the aerosol extinction at 1.00 microns are given. The averages for 1979 are shown in tables and in profile and contour plots (as a function of altitude and latitude). In addition, temperature data provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for the time and location of each SAGE measurement are averaged and shown in a similar format. Typical values of the peak aerosol extinction were 0.0001 to 0.0002 km at 1.00 microns depth values for the 1.00 microns channel varied between 0.001 and 0.002 over all latitudes

  8. Pharmacological approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes in fasting adults during Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Sifri S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Saud Al SifriEndocrinology Department, Alhada Armed Forces Hospital, Taif, Saudi ArabiaI read with great interest the recent review article by AlMaatouq regarding the pharmacological approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes in fasting adults during Ramadan.1 This article stated that "A recent prospective study of more than 1000 patients with T2DMwho fasted during Ramadan found that the risk of hypoglycemia associated with a vildagliptin-based regimen (vildagliptin 100 mg once daily was lower than that of a sulfonylurea-based regimen (both with and without metformin."1 This statement needs to be corrected.Ramadan is the lunar month observed each year in which Muslim adults will fast. This fast includes abstinence from eating, drinking, and smoking from sunrise to sunset. Hypoglycemia during this period represents the greatest health risk for these patients. Recently introduced modulators of the incretin system are the dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors, which include sitagliptin, vildagliptin, alogliptin, saxagliptin, and linagliptin. These agents are not associated with hypoglycemia.View original paper by AlMaatouq

  9. Study on Earth Radiation Budget mission scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlhopolsky, R; Hollmann, R; Mueller, J; Stuhlmann, R [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1998-12-31

    The goal of this study is to study optimized satellite configurations for observation of the radiation balance of the earth. We present a literature survey of earth radiation budget missions and instruments. We develop a parametric tool to simulate realistic multiple satellite mission scenarios. This tool is a modular computer program which models satellite orbits and scanning operation. We use Meteosat data sampled at three hour intervals as a database to simulate atmospheric scenes. Input variables are satellite equatorial crossing time and instrument characteristics. Regional, zonal and global monthly averages of shortwave and longwave fluxes for an ideal observing system and several realistic satellite scenarios are produced. Comparisons show that the three satellite combinations which have equatorial crossing times at midmorning, noon and midafternoon provide the best shortwave monitoring. Crossing times near sunrise and sunset should be avoided for the shortwave. Longwave diurnal models are necessary over and surfaces and cloudy regions, if there are only two measurements made during daylight hours. We have found in the shortwave inversion comparison that at least 15% of the monthly regional errors can be attributed to the shortwave anisotropic models used. (orig.) 68 refs.

  10. An intercomparison of the thermal offset for different pyranometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, G.; Cancillo, M. L.; Serrano, A.

    2016-07-01

    An unprecedented intensive intercomparison campaign focused on the experimental measurement of the thermal offset of pyranometers has been conducted at Badajoz (Spain) with the participation of three main manufacturers. The purpose of this study is to compare the thermal offset of six commercially available pyranometers, being some of them widely used and others recently commercialized. In this campaign, the capping methodology has been used to experimentally measure the daytime thermal offset of the pyranometers. Thus, a short but intense campaign has been conducted in two selected summer days under clear-sky conditions, covering a large range of solar zenith angle, irradiance, and temperature. Along the campaign, a total of 305 capping events have been performed, 61 for each pyranometer. The daytime thermal offset obtained for different pyranometers ranges between 0 and -16.8 W/m2 depending on the environmental conditions, being sometimes notably higher than values estimated indoors by manufacturers. The thermal offset absolute value of all instruments shows a diurnal cycle, increasing from sunrise to central hours of the day and decreasing from midafternoon to sunset. The analysis demonstrates that thermal offset is notably higher and more variable during daytime than during nighttime, requiring specific daytime measurements. Main results emphasize the key role played by wind speed in modulating the thermal offset.

  11. History of the Night

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The definition of the night, as the period between sunset and sunrise, is consistent and unalterable, regardless of culture and time. However the perception of the night and its economic, social, and cultural roles are subject to change. Which parameters determine these changes? What can we learn by studying them about the specific character of a culture? Why do people experience the night in different ways in different historical periods and how did this affect their lives? How do references to nocturnal activities in historical sources (works of art, narratives) reveal what the artists/authors wish to communicate to their audiences? Can the night be a meaningful subject of historical and archaeological enquiry? A study of the source material in the Greek world (ca. 400 BC-ca. AD 400) shows a continuous effort to colonize the night with activities of the day, to make the night safer, more productive, more rational, more efficient. The main motors for this change were social developments and religion, no...

  12. Effect of fasting in Ramadan on body composition and nutritional intake: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzy, A; Salehi, M; Philippou, E; Arabi, H; Shiva, F; Mehrnoosh, S; Mohajeri, S M R; Mohajeri, S A Reza; Motaghedi Larijani, A; Nematy, M

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on body weight and composition and the effects of age and sex. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured, body mass index (BMI) was calculated and fat mass, fat-free mass and percentage body fat were assessed by bioelectrical impedance on 240 adult subjects (male: 158) who fasted between sunrise and sunset for at least 20 days. Measurements were taken 1 week before and 1 week after Ramadan. Energy and macronutrient intakes were assessed using a 3-day food frequency questionnaire on a sub-sample of subjects before and during Ramadan. Subjects were grouped according to age and sex: ≤35 years (n = 82, males: 31) and 36-70 years (n = 158, males: 127). There were significant reductions in weight and BMI (P Ramadan, except in males whose protein intake fell during Ramadan (P = 0.032). Ramadan fasting leads to weight loss and fat-free mass reductions. Body composition changes vary depending on age and sex. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Nutrient Intake during Ramadan in Fasting People Referring to Health Centers in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hozoori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: During Ramadan, the ninth month in the Islamic calendar, Muslims abstain from eating and drinking from sunrise adhaan to sunset adhaan. This long fasting period can cause change in certain metabolic and hormonal indices and affect eating behaviors and nutrient intake. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess nutrient intake in fasting people in Qom, Iran. Methods: We enrolled 120 fasting people aged 20-45 years old living in Qom in Ramadan, 2014. A dietary records questionnaire was used to survey the nutrient intake. All questionnaires were collected after three days. The nutrient intake was determined by Nutritionist IV software and then data compared with recommended values. Results: Energy and macronutrients intake were higher than the recommended values (carbohydrate, 110%; protein, 139%; and fat, 114% of daily values. Except iron (19.8 mg or 108% of daily value, intake of all other micronutrients was lower than the recommended values. Conclusion: The nutrient intake of fasting people in Qom is not appropriate, and is characterized by increased intake of energy and energy suppliers. Therefore, given the undeniable role of proper and adequate nutrient intake in health, it seems necessary for fasting people to receive nutrition education to enhance nutrient intake from various food groups.

  14. A comparison of climatological observing windows and their impact on detecting daily temperature extrema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žaknić-Ćatović, Ana; Gough, William A.

    2018-04-01

    Climatological observing window (COW) is defined as a time frame over which continuous or extreme air temperature measurements are collected. A 24-h time interval, ending at 00UTC or shifted to end at 06UTC, has been associated with difficulties in characterizing daily temperature extrema. A fixed 24-h COW used to obtain the temperature minima leads to potential misidentification due to fragmentation of "nighttime" into two subsequent nighttime periods due to the time discretization interval. The correct identification of air temperature extrema is achievable using a COW that identifies daily minimum over a single nighttime period and maximum over a single daytime period, as determined by sunrise and sunset. Due to a common absence of hourly air temperature observations, the accuracy of the mean temperature estimation is dependent on the accuracy of determination of diurnal air temperature extrema. Qualitative and quantitative criteria were used to examine the impact of the COW on detecting daily air temperature extrema. The timing of the 24-h observing window occasionally affects the determination of daily extrema through a mischaracterization of the diurnal minima and by extension can lead to errors in determining daily mean temperature. Hourly air temperature data for the time period from year 1987 to 2014, obtained from Toronto Buttonville Municipal Airport weather station, were used in analysis of COW impacts on detection of daily temperature extrema and calculation of annual temperature averages based on such extrema.

  15. Surveying the Dietary Diversity of Fasting Individuals in Qom in Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Kohandani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : In Islam, fasting means abstaining from food and beverages from sunrise Azaan to sunset Azaan. This long period of hunger with the increasing feeling of weakness leads to changes in nutritional habits and behaviors. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the dietary intake of different food groups with a view to see the effect of food diversity on nutritional needs of fasting individuals in Qom. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was performed on 120 fasting individuals in Qom city in Ramadan in 2014. The respondents -aged between 20-45 years old- were selected from Qom. A dietary records questionnaire was used to survey the dietary intake. And all of questionnaires were collected after three days of recording. The food items were determined on the basis of consumption units and groups and then compared with recommended values. Findings : Consumption of vegetables, meat and meat products and dairy groups was significantly lower than the recommended values and consumption of fruits was higher than recommended values. Moreover, the intake of bread and cereal group and was not statistically different from the recommended values. Conclusion : According to the findings of this study, the dietary intake of fasting individuals in Qom had not enough diversity. Therefore, in accordance with the undeniable role of proper and enough food intake from different groups on health, it seems necessary for fasting individuals to have a nutrition education for proper food selection from various food groups.

  16. Study on Earth Radiation Budget mission scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlhopolsky, R.; Hollmann, R.; Mueller, J.; Stuhlmann, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this study is to study optimized satellite configurations for observation of the radiation balance of the earth. We present a literature survey of earth radiation budget missions and instruments. We develop a parametric tool to simulate realistic multiple satellite mission scenarios. This tool is a modular computer program which models satellite orbits and scanning operation. We use Meteosat data sampled at three hour intervals as a database to simulate atmospheric scenes. Input variables are satellite equatorial crossing time and instrument characteristics. Regional, zonal and global monthly averages of shortwave and longwave fluxes for an ideal observing system and several realistic satellite scenarios are produced. Comparisons show that the three satellite combinations which have equatorial crossing times at midmorning, noon and midafternoon provide the best shortwave monitoring. Crossing times near sunrise and sunset should be avoided for the shortwave. Longwave diurnal models are necessary over and surfaces and cloudy regions, if there are only two measurements made during daylight hours. We have found in the shortwave inversion comparison that at least 15% of the monthly regional errors can be attributed to the shortwave anisotropic models used. (orig.) 68 refs.

  17. Seasonal abundance and blood feeding activity of Anopheles minimus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Bangs, Michael J; Aum-Aung, Boonserm

    2003-11-01

    Anopheline mosquito larvae and adults were sampled at Ban Pu Teuy, Tri-Yok District, Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand, from January 2000 to December 2001. Over the period of 2 yr, Anopheles minimus sensu lato was the most commonly collected species, followed by Anopheles swadiwongporni and Anopheles dirus sensu lato; all three species are important vectors of malaria in Thailand. Attempted blood feeding by An. minimus occurred throughout the night, with two distinct feeding peaks: strong activity immediately after sunset (1800-2100 hours), followed by a second, less pronounced, rise before sunrise (0300-0600 hours). Anopheles minimus were more abundant during the wet season compared with the dry and hot seasons, although nocturnal adult feeding patterns were similar. Anopheles minimus fed readily on humans inside and outside of houses, showing a slight preference for exophagy. The human-biting peak of An. minimus in our study area differed from other localities sampled in Thailand, indicating the possible existence of site-specific populations of An. minimus exhibiting different host-seeking behavior. These results underscore the importance of conducting site-specific studies to accurately determine vector larval habitats and adult activity patterns and linking their importance in malaria transmission in a given area.

  18. Diel tuning of photosynthetic systems in ice algae at Saroma-ko Lagoon, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Shimpei; Hattori, Hiroshi; Gomi, Yasushi; Watanabe, Kentaro; Kudoh, Sakae; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Satoh, Kazuhiko

    Ice algae are the major primary producers in seasonally ice-covered oceans during the cold season. Diurnal change in solar radiation is inevitable for ice algae, even beneath seasonal sea ice in lower-latitude regions. In this work, we focused on the photosynthetic response of ice algae under diurnally changing irradiance in Saroma-ko Lagoon, Japan. Photosynthetic properties were assessed by pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometry. The species composition remained almost the same throughout the investigation. The maximum electron transport rate ( rETRmax), which indicates the capacity of photosynthetic electron transport, increased from sunrise until around noon and decreased toward sunset, with no sign of the afternoon depression commonly observed in other photosynthetic organisms. The level of non-photochemical quenching, which indicates photoprotection activity by dissipating excess light energy via thermal processes, changed with diurnal variations in irradiance. The pigment composition appeared constant, except for xanthophyll cycle pigments, which changed irrespective of irradiance. These results indicate that ice algae tune their photosynthetic system harmonically to achieve efficient photosynthesis under diurnally changing irradiance, while avoiding damage to photosystems. This regulation system may be essential for productive photosynthesis in ice algae.

  19. Sub-hourly impacts of high solar penetrations in the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Debra; Brinkman, Greg; Florita, Anthony; Heaney, Michael; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Hummon, Marissa; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE, Wexford, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Until recently, it has been difficult to study the impacts of significant penetrations of hypothetical, utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) plants over large geographic regions. This was because of the lack of credible data to simulate the output of these plants with appropriate spatial and temporal correlation, especially on a sub-hourly basis. In the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (WWSIS2), we used new technigues to synthesize sub-hourly high-resolution solar output for PV rooftops, utility-scale PV, and concentrating solar power (CSP). This allowed us to examine implications of 25 % solar (60/40 split of PV and CSP) and 8 % wind. In this paper, we present results of analysis on the sub-hourly impacts of high solar penetrations. Extreme event analysis showed that most of the large ramps were because of sunrise and sunset events, which have a significant predictability component. Variability in general was much higher with high penetrations of solar than with high penetrations of wind. Reserve methodologies that had already been developed for wind were therefore modified to take into account the predictability component of solar variability. Significantly less transmission was required for high solar penetrations than wind and significantly less curtailment occurred in the high solar cases. (orig.)

  20. Direct Heat-Flux Measurement System (MDF) for Solar central Receiver Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballestrin, J.

    2001-07-01

    A direct flux measurement system, MDF, has been designed, constructed and mounted on top of the SSPS-CRS tower at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in addition to an indirect flux measurement system based on a CCD camera. It's one of the main future objectives to compare systematically both measurements of the concentrated solar power, increasing in this way the confidence in the estimate of this quantity. Today everything is prepared to perform the direct flux measurement on the aperture of solar receivers: calorimeter array, data acquisition system and software. the geometry of the receiver determines the operation and analysis procedures to obtain the indecent power onto the defined area. The study of previous experiences with direct flux measurement systems ha been useful to define a new simpler and more accurate system. A description of each component of the MDF system is included, focusing on the heat-flux sensors or calorimeters, which enables these measurements to be done in a few seconds without water-cooling. The incident solar power and the spatial flux distribution on the aperture of the volumetric receiver Hitrec II are supplied by the above-mentioned MDF system. The first results obtained during the evaluation of this solar receiver are presented including a sunrise-sunset test. All these measurements have been concentrated in one coefficient that describes the global behavior of the Solar Power Plant. (Author) 18 refs.

  1. An experimental and analytical study on the feasibility of SMA spring driven actuation of an iris mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, Aravindh; Abouseada, Mostafa; Manghaipathy, Pavithra; Ozalp, Nesrin; Majid, Feras Abdul; Salem, Ayman; Srinivasa, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An iris mechanism proposed in response to fluctuations in solar energy. • Iris motion controlled with the use of Nickel–Titanium Shape Memory Alloy springs. • Variation of the force exerted by SMA spring w.r.t. temperature tested experimentally. • An analytical expression that relates the aperture area and crank rotation is given. • SMA springs showed promising actuation mechanism as a replacement to motor. - Abstract: Variation in incoming solar energy adversely affects the temperature inside a solar reactor and lowers its efficiency. Therefore, it is important to develop a mechanism that can maintain semi-constant temperatures inside the reactor from sunrise to sunset. In this paper, we present an iris mechanism that reduces or enlarges its circular opening with the use of Nickel–Titanium Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) springs. SMA springs possess memory of their shapes at certain temperatures. Hence, by controlling the temperature of the spring, it is possible to exert different forces that may then be transferred to the variable aperture mechanism. In this study, variation of the force exerted by an SMA spring with respect to temperature was experimentally tested and the viability of an SMA spring’s use in actuating an iris mechanism aperture was examined. In order to simulate conditions under fluctuating solar radiation, a 7 kW solar simulator was used in experiments at varying power levels. It was observed that SMA springs are promising as a replacement of the actuation mechanism driven by a motor.

  2. Successful magnet quench test for CAST.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice Maximilien

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) consists of a prototype LHC dipole magnet with photon detectors at each end. It searches for very weakly interacting neutral particles called axions, which should originate in the core of the Sun. The telescope, located at Point 8, can move vertically within its wheeled platform, which travels horizontally along tracks in the floor. In this way, the telescope can view the Sun at sunrise through one end and at sunset through the other end. It has been cooled down to below 1.8 K and reached ~95% of its final magnetic field of 9 tesla before a quench was induced to test the whole cryogenic system under such conditions. The cryogenic system responded as expected to the magnet quench and CAST is now ready to start its three-year search for solar axions. Photos 01 & 02 : Members of the LHC cryogenics team pose in front of the axion telescope on the day of the first quench test, together with some of the CAST collaboration.

  3. Temporal variation of erythemally effective UVB/UVA ratio at Chilton, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooke, R. J.; Pearson, A. J.; O'Hagan, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the temporal variation in the erythemally weighted UVB/UVA irradiance ratio using spectral data collected from a monitoring site in Chilton, UK (51 deg. N) for the 5-y period from 2004 to 2008 is presented. The variation in the diurnal ratio was found to be bell-shaped, with minima on average 1 h after sunrise and before sunset. The minima were found to be indicative of the point at which UVB becomes undetectable by the spectro-radiometer and therefore the outer boundary of useful data. A potential flaw entailed in the erythemal weighting of low-level spectral UV data is described. The peak daily ratio value was found to have a bell-shaped distribution over the course of a year with a maximum in July rather than at the summer solstice-a result explained by the ozone cycle. The peak daily ratio was found to vary by a factor of 4 over the course of the year; this range of variation was also found to occur over a single day in the summer. (authors)

  4. Orientations of the Villas at Tylissos on Crete and their Relationships to the Minoan Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Göran; Blomberg, Mary

    2015-05-01

    The two Late Minoan I villas at Tylissos and an unknown earlier building at the site show similar relationships to the celestial bodies that we have encountered at all of the Minoan buildings that we have studied. They had orientations to celestial events relevant to the calendar, such as sunrise or sunset at the equinoxes and the solstices, and the heliacal risings and settings of bright stars. We also re-encountered the phenomenon that different places marked the beginning of one or more solar months, which suggests that certain months had special relevance for specific places, as if to honor a god or goddess or some other special event for that particular place. In addition, the orientations of the two Late Minoan I villas at Tylissos share the same complexity that we have met at two other sites, where diagonal lines were used to create shadows when marking the parts of the calendar that were specific for Tylissos. It now seems clear that an element of Minoan cosmology insisted on a close connection between their places on earth and the celestial sphere. It was the custom for the Mycenaeans and the Greeks, who later inhabited the island, to honor their deities in special months, and we may find the roots of this custom among the Minoans.

  5. The sunstone and polarised skylight: ancient Viking navigational tools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropars, Guy; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Le Floch, Albert

    2014-10-01

    Although the polarisation of the light was discovered at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Vikings could have used the polarised light around the tenth century in their navigation to America, using a 'sunstone' evoked in the Icelandic Sagas. Indeed, the birefringence of the Iceland spar (calcite), a common crystal in Scandinavia, permits a simple observation of the axis of polarisation of the skylight at the zenith. From this, it is possible to guess the azimuth of a hidden Sun below the horizon, for instance. The high sensitivity of the differential method provided by the ordinary and extraordinary beams of calcite at its so-called isotropy point is about two orders higher than that of the best dichroic polariser and permits to reach an accuracy of ±1° for the Sun azimuth (at sunrise and sunset). Unfortunately, due to the relative fragility of calcite, only the so-called Alderney crystal was discovered on board a 16th ancient ship. Curiously, beyond its use as a sunstone by the Vikings, during these last millennia calcite has led to the discovery of the polarisation of the light itself by Malus and is currently being used to detect the atmospheres of exoplanets. Moreover, the differential method for the light polarisation detection is widely used in the animal world.

  6. Human daily rhythms measured for one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, S; Tome, M B; Crawford, D; Mosher, K

    1990-08-01

    Four human subjects recorded their wake-up and to-sleep times for one year each. The data were plotted to display individual circadian rhythms and the data were analyzed statistically. First, individuals had characteristic patterns in which visible changes in the patterns were observed mainly when time zones were changed because of travel. Second, the months with the latest wake-up and latest to-sleep times concentrated around the winter solstice; the months with the earliest wake-up and earliest to-sleep times concentrated around the fall equinox. Third, new moon versus full moon days were not different. Fourth, one-hour changes between standard and daylight savings time in the USA were reflected by near one-hour changes in two subjects, but not in a third. Fifth, weekend delays in wake-up time (0.8-1.6 hours), weekend delays in to-sleep time (0.1-0.5 hours), and shorter weekend awake time (0.8-1.3 hours) were observed. Sixth, throughout the year, wake-up times were close to the time of sunrise, but to-sleep times were several hours past sunset.

  7. The bat-bird-bug battle: daily flight activity of insects and their predators over a rice field revealed by high-resolution Scheimpflug Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Elin; Jansson, Samuel; Zhu, Shiming; Li, Wansha; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune; Rydell, Jens; Song, Ziwei; Bood, Joakim; Brydegaard, Mikkel; Åkesson, Susanne

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of, to our knowledge, the first Lidar study applied to continuous and simultaneous monitoring of aerial insects, bats and birds. It illustrates how common patterns of flight activity, e.g. insect swarming around twilight, depend on predation risk and other constraints acting on the faunal components. Flight activity was monitored over a rice field in China during one week in July 2016, using a high-resolution Scheimpflug Lidar system. The monitored Lidar transect was about 520 m long and covered approximately 2.5 m3. The observed biomass spectrum was bimodal, and targets were separated into insects and vertebrates in a categorization supported by visual observations. Peak flight activity occurred at dusk and dawn, with a 37 min time difference between the bat and insect peaks. Hence, bats started to feed in declining insect activity after dusk and stopped before the rise in activity before dawn. A similar time difference between insects and birds may have occurred, but it was not obvious, perhaps because birds were relatively scarce. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that flight activity of bats is constrained by predation in bright light, and that crepuscular insects exploit this constraint by swarming near to sunset/sunrise to minimize predation from bats.

  8. The Sun lightens and enlightens: high noon shadow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babović, Vukota; Babović, Miloš

    2014-11-01

    Contemporary physicists and science experts include Eratosthenes’ measurement of the Earth's circumference as one of the most beautiful experiments ever performed in physics. Upon revisiting this famous event in the history of science, we find that some interesting generalizations are possible. On the basis of a rather simple model of the Earth's insolation, we have managed, using some advanced mathematics, to derive a new formula for determining the length of the year, generalized in such a way that it can be used for all planets with sufficiently small eccentricity of the orbit and for all locations with daily sunrises and sunsets. The practical technique that our formula offers is simple to perform, entirely Eratosthenian in spirit, and only requires the angle of the noonday sun to be found on successive days around an equinox. Our results show that this kind of approach to the problem of the Earth's insolation deserves to be included in university courses, especially those which cover astronomy and environmental physics.

  9. Pollination of Cambessedesia wurdackii in Brazilian campo rupestre vegetation, with special reference to crepuscular bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Emanuella Lopes; Gimenes, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Cambessedesia wurdackii Martins (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) is presumably endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. A majority of the species of this family are pollinated by diurnal bees that buzz the floral anthers to collect pollen. The present work examined the interactions between C. wurdackii and visiting bees, focusing on temporal, morphological, and behavioral features, especially in regards to the crepuscular bees Megalopta sodalis (Vachal) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) and Ptiloglossa off. dubia Moure (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). The study was undertaken in an area of campo rupestre montane savanna vegetation located in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains of Bahia State, Brazil, between August/2007 and July/2008. Flowering in C. wurdackii occurred from April through July, with a peak in May. A total of 592 visits by diurnal and crepuscular bees to the flowers of C. wurdackii were recorded, with a majority of the visits made by M. sodalis and P. dubia (92%) near sunrise and sunset. The anthers of C. wurdackii are arranged in two tiers, which favors cross pollination. The morphological, temporal and behavioral characteristics of M. sodalis and P. dubia indicated that they were potential pollinators of C. wurdackii, in spite of the fact that the colorful and showy flowers of this species are more typical of a diurnal melittophilous pollination syndrome.

  10. Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, M.P.; Hamill, P.; Pepin, T.J.; Chu, W.P.; Swissler, T.J.; McMaster, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    The potential climatological and environmental importance of the stratospheric aerosol layer has prompted great interest in measuring the properties of this aerosol. In this paper we report on two recently deployed NASA satellite systems (SAM II and SAGE) that are monitoring the stratospheric aerosol. The satellite orbits are such that nearly global coverage is obtained. The instruments mounted in the spacecraft are sun photometers that measure solar intensity at specific wavelengths as it is moderated by atmospheric particulates and gases during each sunrise and sunset encountered by the satellites. The data obtained are ''inverted'' to yield vertical aerosol and gaseous (primarily ozone) extinction profiles with 1 km vertical resolution. Thus, latitudinal, longitudinal, and temporal variations in the aerosol layer can be evaluated. The satellite systems are being validated by a series of ground truth experiments using airborne and ground lidar, balloon-borne dustsondes, aircraft-mounted impactors, and other correlative sensors. We describe the SAM II and SAGE satellite systems, instrument characteristics, and mode of operation; outline the methodology of the experiments; and describe the ground truth experiments. We present preliminary results from these measurements

  11. The Sun lightens and enlightens: high noon shadow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babović, Vukota; Babović, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary physicists and science experts include Eratosthenes’ measurement of the Earth's circumference as one of the most beautiful experiments ever performed in physics. Upon revisiting this famous event in the history of science, we find that some interesting generalizations are possible. On the basis of a rather simple model of the Earth's insolation, we have managed, using some advanced mathematics, to derive a new formula for determining the length of the year, generalized in such a way that it can be used for all planets with sufficiently small eccentricity of the orbit and for all locations with daily sunrises and sunsets. The practical technique that our formula offers is simple to perform, entirely Eratosthenian in spirit, and only requires the angle of the noonday sun to be found on successive days around an equinox. Our results show that this kind of approach to the problem of the Earth's insolation deserves to be included in university courses, especially those which cover astronomy and environmental physics. (paper)

  12. Demography and movement patterns of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) aggregating near the head of a submarine canyon along the open coast of southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosal, D.C.; Cartamil, D.C.; Long, J.W.; Luhrmann, M.; Wegner, N.C.; Graham, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    The demography, spatial distribution, and movement patterns of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) aggregating near the head of a submarine canyon in La Jolla, California, USA, were investigated to resolve the causal explanations for this and similar shark aggregations. All sharks sampled from the aggregation site (n=140) were sexually mature and 97.1 % were female. Aerial photographs taken during tethered balloon surveys revealed high densities of milling sharks of up to 5470 sharks ha-1. Eight sharks were each tagged with a continuous acoustic transmitter and manually tracked without interruption for up to 48 h. Sharks exhibited strong site-fidelity and were generally confined to a divergence (shadow) zone of low wave energy, which results from wave refraction over the steep bathymetric contours of the submarine canyon. Within this divergence zone, the movements of sharks were strongly localized over the seismically active Rose Canyon Fault. Tracked sharks spent most of their time in shallow water (≤2 m for 71.0 % and ≤10 m for 95.9 % of time), with some dispersing to deeper (max: 53.9 m) and cooler (min: 12.7 °C) water after sunset, subsequently returning by sunrise. These findings suggest multiple functions of this aggregation and that the mechanism controlling its formation, maintenance, and dissolution is complex and rooted in the sharks' variable response to numerous confounding environmental factors.

  13. Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Spirometric Values and Clinical Symptoms in Asthmatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Norouzy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is the 9th Islamic lunar month during which Muslims avoid eating and drinking from sunrise to sunset. The effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on asthma control is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on the spirometric variables and clinical symptoms on well-controlled asthmatic patients during Ramadan. Material and Methods: a cohort study was conducted in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi, Iran. Twenty-nine (19 females and 10 males well-controlled asthmatic patients aged 47 (12 years completed the study. The average duration of fasting was 26.5 days. Assessment of spirometric variables (daily peak expiratory flow, peak expiratory flow variability, peak expiratory flow home monitoring as well as asthma clinical symptoms including dyspnea, cough, wheezing, and chest tightness were carried out. Results: No significant changes in clinical symptoms were reported in asthmatic patients at the end of Ramadan fasting. Among spirometric variables, only peak expiratory flow improved after Ramadan (p <0.05. There was a reduction in the mean peak expiratory flow variability from 13% at the first week of fasting to 10% at the fourth week (p <0.05. Conclusion: In well-controlled asthmatic patients, Ramadan fasting resulted in improvement in peak expiratory flow and peak expiratory flow variability.

  14. The Impact of Ramadan Observance upon Athletic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy J. Shephard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan observance requires a total abstention from food and drink from sunrise to sunset for a period of one month. Such intermittent fasting has only minor effects upon the overall nutrition and physiological responses of the general sedentary population. Larger meals are consumed at night and in the early morning. Body mass usually remains unchanged, the total energy intake remains roughly constant, and there is little alteration in the relative consumption of protein, fats and carbohydrates. However, Ramadan observance may be of greater consequence for the training and performance of the competitive athlete, particularly when the festival is celebrated in the hotter part of the year and daylight hours are long, as is the case for the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London, England. The normal sleeping time then tends to be shortened, and blood sugar and tissue hydration decrease progressively throughout the hours of daylight. Some limitation of anaerobic effort, endurance performance and muscle strength might be anticipated from the decrease in muscle glycogen and body fluid reserves, and a reduced blood glucose may cause a depressed mood state, an increased perception of effort, and poorer team work. This review considers empirical data on the extent of such changes, and their likely effect upon anaerobic, aerobic and muscular performance, suggesting potential nutritional and behavioral tactics for minimizing such effects in the Muslim competitor.

  15. Effects of Ramadan fasting on spirometric values and clinical symptoms in asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Norouzy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is the 9th  Islamic lunar month during which Muslims avoid eating and drinking from sunrise to sunset.  The effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on asthma control is controversial.  The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on the spirometric variables and clinical symptoms on well-controlled asthmatic patients during Ramadan. Material and Methods: a cohort study was conducted in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi, Iran. Twenty-nine (19 females and 10 males well-controlled asthmatic patients aged 47 (12 years completed the study.  The average duration of fasting was 26.5 days. Assessment of spirometric variables (daily peak expiratory flow, peak expiratory flow variability, peak expiratory flow home monitoring as well as asthma clinical symptoms including dyspnea, cough, wheezing, and chest tightness were carried out. Results: No significant changes in clinical symptoms were reported in asthmatic patients at the end of Ramadan fasting.  Among spirometric variables, only peak expiratory flow improved after Ramadan (p

  16. Life in a dark biosphere: a review of circadian physiology in "arrhythmic" environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Andrew David; Whitmore, David; Moran, Damian

    2016-12-01

    Most of the life with which humans interact is exposed to highly rhythmic and extremely predictable changes in illumination that occur with the daily events of sunrise and sunset. However, while the influence of the sun feels omnipotent to surface dwellers such as ourselves, life on earth is dominated, in terms of biomass, by organisms isolated from the direct effects of the sun. A limited understanding of what life is like away from the sun can be inferred from our knowledge of physiology and ecology in the light biosphere, but a full understanding can only be gained by studying animals from the dark biosphere, both in the laboratory and in their natural habitats. One of the least understood aspects of life in the dark biosphere is the rhythmicity of physiology and what it means to live in an environment of low or no rhythmicity. Here we describe methods that may be used to understand rhythmic physiology in the dark and summarise some of the studies of rhythmic physiology in "arrhythmic" environments, such as the poles, deep sea and caves. We review what can be understood about the adaptive value of rhythmic physiology on the Earth's surface from studies of animals from arrhythmic environments and what role a circadian clock may play in the dark.

  17. Weather impacts on leisure activities in Halifax, Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinney, Jamie E. L.; Millward, Hugh

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of daily atmospheric weather conditions on daily leisure activity engagement, with a focus on physically active leisure. The methods capitalize on time diary data that were collected in Halifax, Nova Scotia to calculate objective measures of leisure activity engagement. Daily meteorological data from Environment Canada and daily sunrise and sunset times from the National Research Council of Canada are used to develop objective measures of the natural atmospheric environment. The time diary data were merged with the meteorological data in order to quantify the statistical association between daily weather conditions and the type, participation rate, frequency, and duration of leisure activity engagement. The results indicate that inclement and uncomfortable weather conditions, especially relating to thermal comfort and mechanical comfort, pose barriers to physically active leisure engagement, while promoting sedentary and home-based leisure activities. Overall, daily weather conditions exhibit modest, but significant, effects on leisure activity engagement; the strongest associations being for outdoor active sports and outdoor active leisure time budgets. In conclusion, weather conditions influence the type, participation rate, frequency, and duration of leisure activity engagement, which is an important consideration for health-promotion programming.

  18. The (Almost) Unseen Total Eclipse of 1831

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartky, Ian R.

    2008-03-01

    The total eclipse of August 1831 began at sunrise in Australia, swept across the western South Pacific Ocean, and ended at sunset in the central South Pacific. As a result of the eclipse's path over mostly uninhabited ocean, the region's sparse European (British) population, and near-useless local predictions of the event at Hobart and Sydney in almanacs sold to the general public, almost no one witnessed its passage. In an attempt to document the eclipse, journals of naive observers - those having no access to a prediction - were examined. Thus far, the sole record is in the Pitcairn Island Register Book. Considering the Pitcairners' extreme isolation and the rather modest partial eclipse that occurred there, the entry is a surprising one; however, it can be explained in terms of events associated with their initial removal to Tahiti in March 1831 followed by their return home in June. Further, an authoritative means to identify any issues associated with eclipse predictions compiled for private-sector almanacs came in 1833 when sweeping changes in the British Nautical Almanac's section on eclipses were instituted.

  19. Solar Axion search with Micromegas detectors in the CAST Experiment with $^{3}$He as buffer gas

    CERN Document Server

    García, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Axions are well motivated particles proposed in an extension of the Standard Model (SM) as a solution to the CP problem in strong interactions. On the other hand, there is the category of axion-like particles (ALPs) which appear in diverse extensions of the SM and share the same phenomenology of the axion. Axions and ALPs are hypothetical neutral particles that interact weakly with matter, being candidates to solve the Dark Matter problem. CAST, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope is looking for solar axions since 2003. CAST exploit the helioscope technique using a decommissioned LHC dipole magnet in which solar axions could be reconverted into photons. The magnet is mounted on a movable platform that allows tracking the Sun $\\sim$1.5 hours during sunset and during sunrise. The axion signal would be an excess of X-rays in the detectors located at the magnet bore ends and thus low background detectors are mandatory. Three of the four detectors operating at CAST are of the Micromegas type. The analysis of the data o...

  20. A global quantification of “normal” sleep schedules using smartphone data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Olivia J.; Cochran, Amy; Forger, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the circadian clock on sleep scheduling has been studied extensively in the laboratory; however, the effects of society on sleep remain largely unquantified. We show how a smartphone app that we have developed, ENTRAIN, accurately collects data on sleep habits around the world. Through mathematical modeling and statistics, we find that social pressures weaken and/or conceal biological drives in the evening, leading individuals to delay their bedtime and shorten their sleep. A country’s average bedtime, but not average wake time, predicts sleep duration. We further show that mathematical models based on controlled laboratory experiments predict qualitative trends in sunrise, sunset, and light level; however, these effects are attenuated in the real world around bedtime. Additionally, we find that women schedule more sleep than men and that users reporting that they are typically exposed to outdoor light go to sleep earlier and sleep more than those reporting indoor light. Finally, we find that age is the primary determinant of sleep timing, and that age plays an important role in the variability of population-level sleep habits. This work better defines and personalizes “normal” sleep, produces hypotheses for future testing in the laboratory, and suggests important ways to counteract the global sleep crisis. PMID:27386531

  1. A global quantification of "normal" sleep schedules using smartphone data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Olivia J; Cochran, Amy; Forger, Daniel B

    2016-05-01

    The influence of the circadian clock on sleep scheduling has been studied extensively in the laboratory; however, the effects of society on sleep remain largely unquantified. We show how a smartphone app that we have developed, ENTRAIN, accurately collects data on sleep habits around the world. Through mathematical modeling and statistics, we find that social pressures weaken and/or conceal biological drives in the evening, leading individuals to delay their bedtime and shorten their sleep. A country's average bedtime, but not average wake time, predicts sleep duration. We further show that mathematical models based on controlled laboratory experiments predict qualitative trends in sunrise, sunset, and light level; however, these effects are attenuated in the real world around bedtime. Additionally, we find that women schedule more sleep than men and that users reporting that they are typically exposed to outdoor light go to sleep earlier and sleep more than those reporting indoor light. Finally, we find that age is the primary determinant of sleep timing, and that age plays an important role in the variability of population-level sleep habits. This work better defines and personalizes "normal" sleep, produces hypotheses for future testing in the laboratory, and suggests important ways to counteract the global sleep crisis.

  2. Our place in the universe understanding fundamental astronomy from ancient discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, Sun

    2017-01-01

    If you have ever wanted to understand the basic principles of astronomy and celestial movements, you should read this book. Using pictures of the sky observed from different places on Earth, as well as drawings of ancient astronomical methods and tools, Prof. Sun Kwok tells this story in an entertaining and fascinating way. Since the beginning of human civilization, people have wondered about the structure of the cosmos and our place in the Universe. More than 2,000 years ago, our ancestors knew that the seasons were unequal, the Earth was an unattached object floating in space, and stars existed that they could not see. From celestial observations, they concluded that the Earth was round. Using simple tools and mathematics, ancient astronomers accurately determined the sizes of the Earth and Moon, the distance to the Moon, and the lengths of the months and year. With a clever device called the armillary sphere, Greek astronomers could predict the times of sunrise and sunset on any day of the year, at any pla...

  3. Cloud Screening and Quality Control Algorithm for Star Photometer Data: Assessment with Lidar Measurements and with All-sky Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel Perez; Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Navas-Guzman, F.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development and set up of a cloud screening and data quality control algorithm for a star photometer based on CCD camera as detector. These algorithms are necessary for passive remote sensing techniques to retrieve the columnar aerosol optical depth, delta Ae(lambda), and precipitable water vapor content, W, at nighttime. This cloud screening procedure consists of calculating moving averages of delta Ae() and W under different time-windows combined with a procedure for detecting outliers. Additionally, to avoid undesirable Ae(lambda) and W fluctuations caused by the atmospheric turbulence, the data are averaged on 30 min. The algorithm is applied to the star photometer deployed in the city of Granada (37.16 N, 3.60 W, 680 ma.s.l.; South-East of Spain) for the measurements acquired between March 2007 and September 2009. The algorithm is evaluated with correlative measurements registered by a lidar system and also with all-sky images obtained at the sunset and sunrise of the previous and following days. Promising results are obtained detecting cloud-affected data. Additionally, the cloud screening algorithm has been evaluated under different aerosol conditions including Saharan dust intrusion, biomass burning and pollution events.

  4. Periodic variations of atmospheric electric field on fair weather conditions at YBJ, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Zou, Dan; Chen, Ben Yuan; Zhang, Jin Ye; Xu, Guo Wang

    2013-05-01

    Observations of atmospheric electric field on fair weather conditions from the plateau station, YBJ, Tibet (90°31‧50″ E, 30°06‧38″ N), over the period from 2006 to 2011, are presented in this work. Its periodic modulations are analyzed in frequency-domain by Lomb-Scargle Periodogram method and in time-domain by folding method. The results show that the fair weather atmospheric electric field intensity is modulated weakly by annual cycle, solar diurnal cycle and its several harmonic components. The modulating amplitude of annual cycle is bigger than that of solar diurnal cycle. The annual minimum/maximum nearly coincides with spring/autumn equinox. The detailed spectrum analysis show that the secondary peaks (i.e. sidereal diurnal cycle and semi-sidereal diurnal cycle) nearly disappear along with their primary peaks when the primary signals are subtracted from electric field data sequence. The average daily variation curve exhibits dual-fluctuations, and has obviously seasonal dependence. The mean value is bigger in summer and autumn, but smaller in spring and winter. The daytime fluctuation is affected by the sunrise and sunset effect, the occurring time of which have a little shift with seasons. However, the nightly one has a great dependence on season conditions.

  5. Probing eV-scale axions with CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Ruz, J

    2009-01-01

    CAST (CERN Axion Solar Telescope) is a helioscope looking for axions coming from the solar core to the Earth. The experiment, located at CERN, is based on the Primakoff effect and uses a magnetic field of 9 Tesla provided by a decommissioned LHC magnet. CAST is able to follow the Sun during sunrise and sunset having four X-ray detectors mounted on both ends of the magnet to look for photons from axion-to-photon conversions. During its First Phase, which concluded in 2004, CAST searched for axions with masses up to 0.02 eV. By using a buffer gas the coherence needed to scan for axions with masses up to 1.20 eV is re-established in CAST’s Second Phase. This technique enables the experiment to study the theoretical regions for axions. During the years 2005 and 2006, the use of 4He has already enabled the search for axions with masses up to 0.39 eV. Up to present time, CAST has upgraded its experimental setup to operate with 3He in the magnetic field.

  6. Nocturnal activity patterns of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-09-01

    Nocturnal activity of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was studied from August 1991 to July 1992 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. During 2 or 3 nights each month, sand flies were collected with hand-held aspirators each hour between 1730 and 0630 hours, from a pigpen and a cattle corral located 30 m apart. Host-seeking activity of L. longipalpis adults was characterized by 2 general patterns: (1) adult sand fly activity increased shortly after sunset and continued until just after sunrise, and (2) peak sand fly activity was greatest early in the evening (1830-2330 hours) and then declined steadily toward morning. Female L. longipalpis activity generally increased after 2030 hours, whereas that of males remained constant or declined as the evening progressed. There were seasonal differences in sand fly abundance between the 2 sites: peak abundance in the cattle corral occurred during hot, dry periods, whereas maximum abundance in the pigpen occurred when relative humidity was higher. Influence of relative humidity on activity varied with season. Sand fly activity tended to decrease at temperatures below 24 degrees C and increase in the presence of moonlight.

  7. Winter ecology of the Porcupine caribou herd, Yukon: Part III, Role of day length in determining activity pattern and estimating percent lying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Russell

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on the activity pattern, proportion of time spent lying and the length of active and lying periods in winter are presented from a 3 year study on the Porcupine caribou herd. Animals were most active at sunrise and sunset resulting in from one (late fall, early and mid winter to two (early fall and late winter to three (spring intervening lying periods. Mean active/lying cycle length decreased from late fall (298 mm to early winter (238 min, increased to a peak in mid winter (340 min then declined in late winter (305 min and again in spring (240 min. Mean length of the lying period increased throughout the 3 winter months from 56 min m early winter to 114 min in mid winter and 153 min in late winter. The percent of the day animals spent lying decreased from fall to early winter, increased throughout the winter and declined in spring. This pattern was related, in part, to day length and was used to compare percent lying among herds. The relationship is suggested to be a means of comparing quality of winter ranges.

  8. Solar exposure of sunglasses: aging test display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, L. M.; Masili, M.; Momesso, G. A.; Silva, F. M.; Ventura, L.

    2018-02-01

    In previous studies conducted in our lab, we have been investigating the aging effects on sunglasses. Some preliminary results have been indicating changes on the UV protection on the lenses. Therefore, besides irradiating the samples with a proper sun simulator, we have also been concerned on exposing the sunglasses to natural sun for further investigation and comparisons. Thus, this project aims expose the lenses for 24 months using an automatic solar exposition station, which consists of a series of 5 panels, housing 60 lenses arranged in the vertical position to the ground, which will be irradiated by the sun from sunrise until sunset. A box structure moves along a rail, driven by a motor and then the lenses are exposed. Humidity, rain, temperature, dust and UV index sensors, as well as a video camera are part of the system. The exposure time and UV index will be recorded and automatic opening or closing the box system may also be controlled by a PC using a webserver. The system was tested in working conditions, i.e. exposed to the weather and being automatically controlled, for five months to certifying that the samples could be exposed without being damaged. The next step of the research is to start the exposition cycles and to measure the expected transmittance variations after each cycle.

  9. Cycling of clock genes entrained to the solar rhythm enables plants to tell time: data from Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeang, Hoong-Yeet

    2015-07-01

    An endogenous rhythm synchronized to dawn cannot time photosynthesis-linked genes to peak consistently at noon since the interval between sunrise and noon changes seasonally. In this study, a solar clock model that circumvents this limitation is proposed using two daily timing references synchronized to noon and midnight. Other rhythmic genes that are not directly linked to photosynthesis, and which peak at other times, also find an adaptive advantage in entrainment to the solar rhythm. Fourteen datasets extracted from three published papers were used in a meta-analysis to examine the cyclic behaviour of the Arabidopsis thaliana photosynthesis-related gene CAB2 and the clock oscillator genes TOC1 and LHY in T cycles and N-H cycles. Changes in the rhythms of CAB2, TOC1 and LHY in plants subjected to non-24-h light:dark cycles matched the hypothesized changes in their behaviour as predicted by the solar clock model, thus validating it. The analysis further showed that TOC1 expression peaked ∼5·5 h after mid-day, CAB2 peaked close to noon, while LHY peaked ∼7·5 h after midnight, regardless of the cycle period, the photoperiod or the light:dark period ratio. The solar clock model correctly predicted the zeitgeber timing of these genes under 11 different lighting regimes comprising combinations of seven light periods, nine dark periods, four cycle periods and four light:dark period ratios. In short cycles that terminated before LHY could be expressed, the solar clock correctly predicted zeitgeber timing of its expression in the following cycle. Regulation of gene phases by the solar clock enables the plant to tell the time, by which means a large number of genes are regulated. This facilitates the initiation of gene expression even before the arrival of sunrise, sunset or noon, thus allowing the plant to 'anticipate' dawn, dusk or mid-day respectively, independently of the photoperiod. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  10. Intercomparison of ILAS-II version 1.4 and version 2 target parameters with MIPAS-Envisat measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Griesfeller

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the mean differences between the two ILAS-II data versions (1.4 and 2 by comparing them with MIPAS measurements made between May and October 2003. For comparison with ILAS-II results, MIPAS data processed at the Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Karlsruhe, Germany (IMK in cooperation with the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA in Granada, Spain, were used. The coincidence criteria of ±300 km in space and ±12 h in time for H2O, N2O, and CH4 and the coincidence criteria of ±300 km in space and ±6 h in time for ClONO2, O3, and HNO3 were used. The ILAS-II data were separated into sunrise (= Northern Hemisphere and sunset (= Southern Hemisphere. For the sunrise data, a clear improvement from version 1.4 to version 2 was observed for H2O, CH4, ClONO2, and O3. In particular, the ILAS-II version 1.4 mixing ratios of H2O and CH4 were unrealistically small, and those of ClONO2 above altitudes of 30 km unrealistically large. For N2O and HNO3, there were no large differences between the two versions. Contrary to the Northern Hemisphere, where some exceptional profiles deviated significantly from known climatology, no such outlying profiles were found in the Southern Hemisphere for both versions. Generally, the ILAS-II version 2 data were in better agreement with the MIPAS data than the version 1.4, and are recommended for quantitative analysis in the stratosphere. For H2O data in the Southern Hemisphere, further data quality evaluation is necessary.

  11. Cycling of clock genes entrained to the solar rhythm enables plants to tell time: data from arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeang, Hoong-Yeet

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims An endogenous rhythm synchronized to dawn cannot time photosynthesis-linked genes to peak consistently at noon since the interval between sunrise and noon changes seasonally. In this study, a solar clock model that circumvents this limitation is proposed using two daily timing references synchronized to noon and midnight. Other rhythmic genes that are not directly linked to photosynthesis, and which peak at other times, also find an adaptive advantage in entrainment to the solar rhythm. Methods Fourteen datasets extracted from three published papers were used in a meta-analysis to examine the cyclic behaviour of the Arabidopsis thaliana photosynthesis-related gene CAB2 and the clock oscillator genes TOC1 and LHY in T cycles and N–H cycles. Key Results Changes in the rhythms of CAB2, TOC1 and LHY in plants subjected to non-24-h light:dark cycles matched the hypothesized changes in their behaviour as predicted by the solar clock model, thus validating it. The analysis further showed that TOC1 expression peaked ∼5·5 h after mid-day, CAB2 peaked close to noon, while LHY peaked ∼7·5 h after midnight, regardless of the cycle period, the photoperiod or the light:dark period ratio. The solar clock model correctly predicted the zeitgeber timing of these genes under 11 different lighting regimes comprising combinations of seven light periods, nine dark periods, four cycle periods and four light:dark period ratios. In short cycles that terminated before LHY could be expressed, the solar clock correctly predicted zeitgeber timing of its expression in the following cycle. Conclusions Regulation of gene phases by the solar clock enables the plant to tell the time, by which means a large number of genes are regulated. This facilitates the initiation of gene expression even before the arrival of sunrise, sunset or noon, thus allowing the plant to ‘anticipate’ dawn, dusk or mid-day respectively, independently of the photoperiod. PMID:26070640

  12. Thailand low and equatorial F 2-layer peak electron density and comparison with IRI-2007 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichaipanich, N.; Supnithi, P.; Tsugawa, T.; Maruyama, T.

    2012-06-01

    Ionosonde measurements obtained at two Thailand ionospheric stations, namely Chumphon (10.72°N, 99.37°E, dip 3.0°N) and Chiang Mai (18.76°N, 98.93°E, dip 12.7°N) are used to examine the variation of the F 2-layer peak electron density ( N m F 2) which is derived from the F 2-layer critical frequency, f o f 2. Measured data from September 2004 to August 2005 (a period of low solar activity) are analyzed based on the diurnal and seasonal variation and then compared with IRI-2007 model predictions. Our results show that, in general, the diurnal and seasonal variations of the N m F 2 predicted by the IRI (URSI and CCIR options) model show a feature generally similar to the observed N m F 2. Underestimation mostly occurs in all seasons except during the September equinox and the December solstice at Chumphon, and the September equinox and the March equinox at Chiang Mai, when they overestimate those measured. The best agreement between observation and prediction occurs during the pre-sunrise to post-sunrise hours. The best agreement of the %PD values of both the options occurs during the March equinox, while the agreement is the worst during the September equinox. The N m F 2 values predicted by the CCIR option show a smaller range of deviation than the N m F 2 values predicted by the URSI option. During post-sunset to morning hours (around 21:00-09:00 LT), the observed N m F 2 at both stations are almost identical for the periods of low solar activity. However, during daytime, the observed N m F 2 at Chumphon is lower than that at Chiang Mai. The difference between these two stations can be explained by the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA). These results are important for future improvements of the IRI model for N m F 2 over Southeast Asia, especially for the areas covered by Chumphon and Chiang Mai stations.

  13. Efficiency of playback for assessing the occurrence of five bird species in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Boscolo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Playback of bird songs is a useful technique for species detection; however, this method is usually not standardized. We tested playback efficiency for five Atlantic Forest birds (White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea, Swallow-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata, Whiteshouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera and Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura for different time of the day, season of the year and species abundance at the Morro Grande Forest Reserve (South-eastern Brazil and at thirteen forest fragments in a nearby landscape. Vocalizations were broadcasted monthly at sunrise, noon and sunset, during one year. For B. leucoblepharus, C. caudata and T. surrucura, sunrise and noon were more efficient than sunset. Batara cinerea presented higher efficiency from July to October. Playback expanded the favourable period for avifaunal surveys in tropical forest, usually restricted to early morning in the breeding season. The playback was efficient in detecting the presence of all species when the abundance was not too low. But only B. leucoblepharus and T. surrucura showed abundance values significantly related to this efficiency. The present study provided a precise indication of the best daily and seasonal periods and a confidence interval to maximize the efficiency of playback to detect the occurrence of these forest species.A técnica de play-back é muito útil para a detecção de aves, mas este método geralmente não é padronizado. Sua eficiência em atestar a ocorrência de cinco espécies de aves da Mata Atlântica (Pula-pula-assobiador Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Batará Batara cinerea, Tangará Chiroxiphia caudata, Olho-de-fogo Pyriglena leucoptera e Surucuá-de-barriga-vermelha Trogon surrucura foi analisada de acordo com o horário do dia, estação do ano e abundância das espécies na Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande (São Paulo, Brasil e em treze fragmentos florestais de uma paisagem adjacente

  14. Influence of the nycthemeral cycle on the roosting behaviour of the Orange-winged Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiliany N. de Moura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stimuli exert important effects on the expression of the endogenous rhythms. Daily movements of groups of parrots in response to the light/dark cycle have been studied by several researchers. However, the factors modifying the intrinsic rhythmicity of this behaviour remain little known. This study describes how the nychthemeral/circadian periodicity of roost daily movements of the Orange-winged Amazon Amazona amazonica is modified by weather factors. Numbers of parrots arriving or leaving the roosting site Ilha dos Papagaios were determined on a minute by minute basis. More parrots have significantly arrived at the roost after sunset than before, while more parrots have significantly left the roost before sunrise than after. The peak exodus of parrots occurred at 23 ± 5.24 minutes before sunrise, when the average light intensity was 1 lux. The peak influx of parrots occurred at 6 ± 6.1 minutes after sunset, when the average light intensity was 50 lux. By altering ambient light intensity, weather conditions have significantly influenced the arrival and departure times, with parrots leaving later and arriving earlier when conditions were overcast at the roost site.Estímulos ambientais exercem efeitos importantes na expressão de ritmos endógenos. Deslocamentos diários de grupos de psitacídeos em resposta ao ciclo claro/escuro têm sido estudados por alguns autores. Todavia, os fatores que influenciam a ritmicidade intrínseca deste comportamento não são bem conhecidos. Este estudo descreve como a periodicidade nictemeral/circadiana dos deslocamentos diários de dormitórios do Papagaio-do-mangue Amazona amazonica é modificada por fatores climatológicos. Os números de papagaios chegando ou deixando o dormitório Ilha dos Papagaios foram determinados de minuto a minuto. Um número significativamente maior de papagaios chegou ao dormitório após o ocaso, enquanto que um número significativamente maior de papagaios deixou o

  15. Midlatitude D region variations measured from broadband radio atmospherics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feng

    lightning or displaced lightning on others. The nighttime profile sharpness during 2.5 hours in two different nights was calculated, and the results were compared to the equivalent sharpness derived from International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) models. Both the absolute values and variation trends in IRI models are different from those in broadband measurements. Based on sferic data similar to those for nighttime, we also measured the day-time D region electron density profile variations in July and August 2005 near Duke University. As expected, the solar radiation is the dominant but not the only determinant source for the daytime D region profile height temporal variations. The observed quiet time heights showed close correlations with solar zenith angle changes but unexpected spatial variations not linked to the solar zenith angle were also observed on some days, with 15% of days exhibiting regional differences larger than 0.5 km. During the solar flare, the induced height change was approximately proportional to the logarithm of the X-ray fluxes. During the rising and decaying phases of the solar flare, the height changes correlated more consistently with the short (wavelength 0.5--4 A), rather than the long (wavelength 1--8 A) X-ray flux changes. The daytime profile sharpness during morning, noontime and afternoon periods in three different days and for the solar zenith angle range 20 to 75 degrees was calculated. These broadband measured results were compared to narrowband VLF measurements, IRI models and Faraday rotation base IRI models (called FIRI). The estimated sharpness from all these sources was more consistent when the solar zenith angle was small than when it was large. By applying the nighttime and daytime measurement techniques, we also derived the D region variations during sunrise and sunset periods. The measurements showed that both the electron density profile height and sharpness decrease during the sunrise period while increase during the sunset

  16. Studies of the Correlation Between Ionospheric Anomalies and Seismic Activities in the Indian Subcontinent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasmal, S.; Chakrabarti, S. K.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The VLF (Very Low Frequency) signals are long thought to give away important information about the Lithosphere-Ionosphere coupling. It is recently established that the ionosphere may be perturbed due to seismic activities. The effects of this perturbation can be detected through the VLF wave amplitude. There are several methods to find this correlations and these methods can be used for the prediction of these seismic events. In this paper, first we present a brief history of the use of VLF propagation method for the study of seismo-ionospheric correlations. Then we present different methods proposed by us to find out the seismo-ionospheric correlations. At the Indian Centre for Space Physics, Kolkata we have been monitoring the VTX station at Vijayanarayanam from 2002. In the initial stage, we received 17 kHz signal and latter we received 18.2 kHz signal. In this paper, first we present the results for the 17 kHz signal during Sumatra earthquake in 2004 obtained from the terminator time analysis method. Then we present much detailed and statistical analysis using some new methods and present the results for 18.2 kHz signal. In order to establish the correlation between the ionospheric activities and the earthquakes, we need to understand what are the reference signals throughout the year. We present the result of the sunrise and sunset terminators for the 18.2 kHz signal as a function of the day of the year for a period of four years, viz, 2005 to 2008 when the solar activity was very low. In this case, the signal would primarily be affected by the Sun due to normal sunrise and sunset effects. Any deviation from this standardized calibration curve would point to influences by terrestrial (such as earthquakes) and extra-terrestrial (such as solar activities and other high energy phenomena). We present examples of deviations which occur in a period of sixteen months and show that the correlations with seismic events is significant and typically the highest deviation

  17. Celestial polarization patterns sufficient for Viking navigation with the naked eye: detectability of Haidinger's brushes on the sky versus meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gábor; Takács, Péter; Kretzer, Balázs; Szilasi, Szilvia; Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András

    2017-02-01

    If a human looks at the clear blue sky from which light with high enough degree of polarization d originates, an 8-shaped bowtie-like figure, the yellow Haidinger's brush can be perceived, the long axis of which points towards the sun. A band of high d arcs across the sky at 90° from the sun. A person can pick two points on that band, observe the yellow brushes and triangulate the position of the sun based on the orientation of the two observed brushes. This method has been suggested to have been used on the open sea by Viking navigators to determine the position of the invisible sun occluded by cloud or fog. Furthermore, Haidinger's brushes can also be used to locate the sun when it is below the horizon or occluded by objects on the horizon. To determine the position of the sun using the celestial polarization pattern, the d of the portion of the sky used must be greater than the viewer's degree of polarization threshold d* for perception of Haidinger's brushes. We studied under which sky conditions the prerequisite d > d* is satisfied. Using full-sky imaging polarimetry, we measured the d-pattern of skylight in the blue (450 nm) spectral range for 1296 different meteorological conditions with different solar elevation angles θ and per cent cloud cover ρ. From the measured d-patterns of a given sky we determined the proportion P of the sky for which d > d*. We obtained that P is the largest at low solar elevations θ ≈ 0° and under totally or nearly clear skies with cloud coverage ρ = 0%, when the sun's position is already easily determined. If the sun is below the horizon (-5° ≤ θ Viking navigation based on Haidinger's brushes is most useful after sunset and prior to sunrise, when the sun is not visible and large sky regions are bright, clear and polarized enough for perception of Haidinger's brushes.

  18. North error estimation based on solar elevation errors in the third step of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András; Kretzer, Balázs; Egri, Ádám; Horváth, Gábor

    2016-07-01

    The theory of sky-polarimetric Viking navigation has been widely accepted for decades without any information about the accuracy of this method. Previously, we have measured the accuracy of the first and second steps of this navigation method in psychophysical laboratory and planetarium experiments. Now, we have tested the accuracy of the third step in a planetarium experiment, assuming that the first and second steps are errorless. Using the fists of their outstretched arms, 10 test persons had to estimate the elevation angles (measured in numbers of fists and fingers) of black dots (representing the position of the occluded Sun) projected onto the planetarium dome. The test persons performed 2400 elevation estimations, 48% of which were more accurate than ±1°. We selected three test persons with the (i) largest and (ii) smallest elevation errors and (iii) highest standard deviation of the elevation error. From the errors of these three persons, we calculated their error function, from which the North errors (the angles with which they deviated from the geographical North) were determined for summer solstice and spring equinox, two specific dates of the Viking sailing period. The range of possible North errors Δ ω N was the lowest and highest at low and high solar elevations, respectively. At high elevations, the maximal Δ ω N was 35.6° and 73.7° at summer solstice and 23.8° and 43.9° at spring equinox for the best and worst test person (navigator), respectively. Thus, the best navigator was twice as good as the worst one. At solstice and equinox, high elevations occur the most frequently during the day, thus high North errors could occur more frequently than expected before. According to our findings, the ideal periods for sky-polarimetric Viking navigation are immediately after sunrise and before sunset, because the North errors are the lowest at low solar elevations.

  19. The Orientations of the Giza Pyramids and Associated Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, Erin; Ruggles, Clive

    2014-08-01

    Ever since Flinders Petrie undertook a theodolite survey on the Giza plateau in 1881 and drew attention to the extraordinary degree of precision with which the three colossal pyramids are oriented upon the four cardinal directions, there have been a great many suggestions as to how this was achieved and why it was of importance. Surprisingly, given the many astronomical hypotheses and speculations that have been offered in the intervening 130 years, there have been remarkably few attempts to reaffirm or improve on the basic survey data concerning the primary orientations. This paper presents the results of a week-long Total Station survey undertaken by the authors during December 2006 whose principal aim was to clarify the basic data concerning the orientation of each side of the three large pyramids and to determine, as accurately as possible, the orientations of as many as possible of the associated structures. The principal difference between this and all previous surveys is that it focuses upon measurements of sequences of points along multiple straight and relatively well preserved structural segments, with best-fit techniques being used to provide the best estimate of their orientation, as opposed to simple triangulation between directly identified or extrapolated corners. Our results suggest that there is only a very slight difference in orientation (c. 0.5 arc minutes) between the north-south axes of Khufu's and Khafre's pyramids, that the sides of Khafre's are more perfectly perpendicular than those of Khufu's, and that the east-west axis is closer to true cardinality in both cases. The broader context of associated structures suggests that the east-west orientation in relation to sunrise or (in one case) sunset may have been a, or even the, key factor in many cases.

  20. Flying Under the LiDAR: Relating Forest Structure to Bat Community Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, A. C.; Weishampel, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Bats are important to many ecological processes such as pollination, insect (and by proxy, disease) control, and seed dispersal and can be used to monitor ecosystem health. However, they are facing unprecedented extinction risks from habitat degradation as well as pressures from pathogens (e.g., white-nose syndrome) and wind turbines. LiDAR allows ecologists to measure structural variables of forested landscapes with increased precision and accuracy at broader spatial scales than previously possible. This study used airborne LiDAR to classify forest habitat/canopy structure at the Ordway-Swisher Biological Station (OSBS) in north central Florida. LiDAR data were acquired by the NEON airborne observation platform in summer 2014. OSBS consists of open-canopy pine savannas, closed-canopy hardwood hammocks, and seasonally wet prairies. Multiple forest structural parameters (e.g., mean, maximum, and standard deviation of height returns) were derived from LiDAR point clouds using the USDA software program FUSION. K-means clustering was used to segregate each 5x5 m raster across the ~3765 ha OSBS area into six different clusters based on the derived canopy metrics. Cluster averages for maximum, mean, and standard deviation of return heights ranged from 0 to 19.4 m, 0 to 15.3 m, and 0 to 3.0 m, respectively. To determine the relationships among these landscape-canopy features and bat species diversity and abundances, AnaBat II bat detectors were deployed from May to September in 2015 stratified by these distinct clusters. Bat calls were recorded from sunset to sunrise during each sampling period. Species were identified using AnalookW. A statistical regression model selection approach was performed in order to evaluate how forest attributes such as understory clutter, open regions, open and closed canopy, etc. influence bat communities. This knowledge provides a deeper understanding of habitat-species interactions to better manage survival of these species.

  1. Subionospheric VLF/LF radio waves propagation characteristics before, during and after the Sofia, Bulgaria Mw=5.6 earthquake occurred on 22 May 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Iren Adelina; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Nenovski, Petko; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Septimiu Moldovan, Adrian; Ionescu, Constantin

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, INFREP, a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers, was put into operation in Europe having as principal goal, the study of disturbances produced by the earthquakes on the propagation properties of these signals. On May 22nd, 2012 an earthquake with Mw=567 occurred in Bulgaria, near Sofia, inside the "sensitive" area of the INFREP VLF/LF electromagnetic network. The data collected on different frequencies, during April-May 2012 were studied using different methods of analysis: daily correlation methods, spectral approaches and terminator time techniques, in order to find out possible connections between the seismic activity and the subionospheric propagation properties of radio waves. The studies were performed with the help of a specially designed LabVIEW application, which accesses the VLF/LF receiver through internet. This program opens the receiver's web-page and automatically retrieves the list of data files to synchronize the user-side data with the receiver's data. Missing zipped files are also automatically downloaded. The application performs primary, statistical correlation and spectral analysis, appends daily files into monthly and annual files and performs 3D colour-coded maps with graphic representations of VLF and LF signals' intensities versus the minute-of-the-day and the day-of-the-month, facilitating a near real-time observation of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves' propagation. Another feature of the software is the correlation of the daily recorded files for the studied frequencies by overlaying the 24 hours radio activity and taking into account the sunrise and sunset. Data are individually processed (spectral power, correlations, differentiation, filtered using bandpass, lowpass, highpass). JTFA spectrograms (Cone-Shaped Distribution CSD, Gabor, Wavelet, short-time Fourier transform STFT, Wigner-Ville Distribution WVD, Choi-Williams Distribution CWD) are used, too.

  2. Efficiency in energy production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Ryan Mayer

    electricity consumption, but did cause a substantial intra-day shift in demand consistent with activity patterns that are tied to the clock rather than sunrise and sunset.

  3. Diurnal and Seasonal Variations in Mid-Latitude Geomagnetic Field During International Quiet Days: BOH Magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Hwang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute researchers have installed and operated magnetometers at Bohyunsan Observatory to measure the Earth's magnetic field variations in South Korea. In 2007, we installed a fluxgate magnetometer (RFP-523C to measure H, D, and Z components of the geomagnetic field. In addition, in 2009, we installed a Overhauser proton sensor to measure the absolute total magnetic field F and a three-axis magneto-impedance sensor for spectrum analysis. Currently three types of magnetometer data have been accumulated. In this paper, we use the H, D, Z components of fluxgate magnetometer data to investigate the characteristics of mid-latitude geomagnetic field variation. To remove the temporary changes in Earth’s geomagnetic filed by space weather, we use the international quiet days’ data only. In other words, we performed a superposed epoch analysis using five days per each month during 2008-2011. We find that daily variations of H, D, and Z shows similar tendency compared to previous results using all days. That is, H, D, Z all three components’ quiet intervals terminate near the sunrise and shows maximum 2-3 hours after the culmination and the quiet interval start from near the sunset. Seasonal variations show similar dependences to the Sun. As it becomes hot season, the geomagnetic field variation’s amplitude becomes large and the quiet interval becomes shortened. It is well-known that these variations are effects of Sq current system in the Earth’s atmosphere. We confirm that the typical mid-latitude geomagnetic field variations due to the Sq current system by excluding all possible association with the space weather.

  4. Canine Dirofilaria infections in two uninvestigated areas of Serbia: epidemiological and genetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasić, Aleksandar; Tasić-Otašević, Suzana; Gabrielli, Simona; Miladinović-Tasić, Nataša; Ignjatović, Aleksandra; Dorđević, Jovana; Dimitrijević, Sanda; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    In 2009 canine filarial infections were investigated in two northern areas of Serbia (Pančevo and Veliko Gradište), applying morphometry, biochemical staining, and immunological kit to detect Dirofilaria immitis antigens, and two home-made ELISAs to detect antibodies to D. repens and D. immitis somatic/metabolic polyproteins. Moreover, molecular tools were applied to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the isolates. The microfilariae detected in 21/122 dogs (17.2%) were identified as D. repens (n=21) and D. immitis (n=2). D. immitis antigens were found in another 13 animals with occult infection. All of the 15 heartworm-positive dogs also had antibodies to this parasite, which were detected in another 13 subjects, indicating an overall D. immitis seroprevalence rate of 22.9%. Serology for D. repens revealed evidence of antibodies in 42.6% of the dogs, but was negative for 4 microfilaremic dogs. As for the two different areas, the prevalence of microfilariae and/or D. immitis antigens, mainly due to D. repens microfilaremic animals, was not significantly higher in Veliko Gradište (33.3%) than in Pančevo (22%). However, serology showed a different epidemiological picture. Heartworm infection occurred more often in both areas, and antibodies to dirofilarial nematodes were detected in 72.9% of dogs living in Pančevo, a rate higher than in those living in Veliko Gradište (57.1%). No risk factors for infection were found, confirming the uselessness of prophylactic drugs against D. repens, and suggesting the presence in these areas of sunrise- or sunset-biting mosquitoes as important vectors. The results indicate the need for both appropriate entomological studies and further research on the intra-species variability shown by D. repens.

  5. Time analysis of fatal traffic accidents in Fars Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Seyed Taghi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To analyze the time factor in road traffic accidents (RTAs in Fars Province of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in Fars Province, Iran from November 22, 2009 to November 21, 2011. Victims’ information consisted of age, sex, death toll involving dri-vers or passengers of cars, motorcycles and pedestrians, and site of injury etc. Accidents were analyzed in relation to hour of the day, season of the year, lighting condition in-cluding sunrise, sunset, daytime and nighttime. Results: A total of 3 642 deaths (78.3% were males, and the ratio of males to females was about 3.6:1 were studied regarding their autopsy records. There was a steady in-crease in fatal accidents occurring at midnight to 15:59. The risk of being involved in a fatal traffic accident was higher for those injured between 4:00 to 7:59 than at other times (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.85-2.44. The greatest number of fatal RTAs took place in summer. Mortalities due to RTA during spring and summer were more pronounced at 20:00 to 23:59 and midnight to 3:59, whereas mortalities in fall and winter were more pronounced from 12:00 to 15:59. Conclusion: The high mortality rate of RTA is a major public health problem in Fars Province. Our results indicate that the time is an important factor which contributes to road traffic deaths. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Epidemiology; Mortality; Iran

  6. Feeding dynamics and ecomorphology of Oligosarcus jenynsii (Gunther, 1864) and Oligosarcus robustus (Menezes, 1969) in the Lagoa Fortaleza, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, D M; Hartz, S M

    2006-02-01

    Oligosarcus jenynsii and Oligosarcus robustus are fishes of Characidae family that occur in Rio Grande do Sul, Uruguay and northern Argentina. This work purported to study the feeding dynamics (repletion and hepatosomatic indexes and condition factor) over time, and to investigate the coexistence of these two species by evaluating the partition of resources using qualitative and quantitative analyses of diet, temporal and spatial segregation throughout the water column and some ecomorphological aspects of the species in the Lagoa Fortaleza. Specimens were sampled monthly, from May 2000 to April 2001 during 24 h/month, using stationary gill nets of different mesh sizes. The records of each individual included total and standard length; total, stomach and liver weight; sex and stomach repletion. The variation of the mean values of repletion index and relative frequencies of stomach repletion stages indicate that O. jenynsii and O. robustus do not present seasonal differences in feeding intensity. The hepatosomatic index shows an allocation of energy to the liver during every period except reproduction, when part of the energy is used for gonad maturation. The estimated condition factor for both species reveals an increase in the reproductive period, evidencing the influence of gonads upon the condition of the fish. The diet analysis revealed that O. robustus is piscivorous, whereas O. jenynsii is a generalist carnivore, tending to piscivory as well. The active period of O. robustus is more concentrated at sunrise and sunset, whereas O. jenynsii is continually active, a characteristic related to hunting for prey. The ecomorphological analysis revealed differences between the two species in the dimensions of the mouth. Evidence suggests that the species coexist, sharing food sources, differing in oral morphology but ingesting similar prey, possibly because food is not a limiting factor in the environment.

  7. Evidence for exploitative competition: Comparative foraging behavior and roosting ecology of short-tailed fruit bats (Phyllostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, F.J.; Winkelmann, J.R.; Shin, D.; Agrawal, C.I.; Aslami, N.; Bonney, C.; Hsu, A.; Jekielek, P.E.; Knox, A.K.; Kopach, S.J.; Jennings, T.D.; Lasky, J.R.; Menesale, S.A.; Richards, J.H.; Rutland, J.A.; Sessa, A.K.; Zhaurova, L.; Kunz, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chestnut short-tailed bats, Carollia castanea, and Seba's short-tailed bats, C. perspicillata (Phyllostomidae), were radio-tracked (N = 1593 positions) in lowland rain forest at Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Orellana Province, Ecuador. For 11 C. castanea, mean home range was 6.8 ?? 2.2 ha, mean core-use area was 1.7 ?? 0.8 ha, and mean long axis across home range was 438 ?? 106 m. For three C. perspicillata, mean home range was 5.5 ?? 1.7 ha, mean core-use area was 1.3 ?? 0.6 ha, and mean long axis was 493 ?? 172 m. Groups of less than five C. castanea occupied day-roosts in earthen cavities that undercut banks the Tiputini River. Carollia perspicillata used tree hollows and buildings as day-roosts. Interspecific and intraspecific overlap among short-tailed bats occurred in core-use areas associated with clumps of fruiting Piper hispidum (peppers) and Cecropia sciadophylla. Piper hispidum seeds were present in 80 percent of the fecal samples from C. castanea and 56 percent of samples from C. perspicillata. Carollia perspicillata handled pepper fruits significantly faster than C. castanea; however, C. castanea commenced foraging before C. perspicillata emerged from day-roosts. Evidence for exploitative competition between C. castanea and C. perspicillata is suggested by our observations that 95 percent of ripe P. hispidum fruits available at sunset disappear before sunrise (N = 74 marked fruits). Piper hispidum plants produced zero to 12 ripe infructescences per plant each night during peak production. Few ripe infructescences of P. hispidum were available during the dry season; however, ripe infructescences of C. sciadophylla, remained abundant. ?? 2007 The Author(s) Journal compilation ?? 2007 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.

  8. A new moonquake catalog from Apollo 17 seismic data I: Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment: Thermal moonquakes and implications for surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, R. C.; Dimech, J. L.; Phillips, D.; Molaro, J.; Schmerr, N. C.

    2017-12-01

    Apollo 17's Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment's (LSPE) primary objective was to constrain the near-surface velocity structure at the landing site using active sources detected by a 100 m-wide triangular geophone array. The experiment was later operated in "listening mode," and early studies of these data revealed the presence of thermal moonquakes - short-duration seismic events associated with terminator crossings. However, the full data set has never been systematically analyzed for natural seismic signal content. In this study, we analyze 8 months of continuous LSPE data using an automated event detection technique that has previously successfully been applied to the Apollo 16 Passive Seismic Experiment data. We detected 50,000 thermal moonquakes from three distinct event templates, representing impulsive, intermediate, and emergent onset of seismic energy, which we interpret as reflecting their relative distance from the array. Impulsive events occur largely at sunrise, possibly representing the thermal "pinging" of the nearby lunar lander, while emergent events occur at sunset, possibly representing cracking or slumping in more distant surface rocks and regolith. Preliminary application of an iterative event location algorithm to a subset of the impulsive waveforms supports this interpretation. We also perform 3D modeling of the lunar surface to explore the relative contribution of the lander, known rocks and surrounding topography to the thermal state of the regolith in the vicinity of the Apollo 17 landing site over the course of the lunar diurnal cycle. Further development of both this model and the event location algorithm may permit definitive discrimination between different types of local diurnal events e.g. lander noise, thermally-induced rock breakdown, or fault creep on the nearby Lee-Lincoln scarp. These results could place important constraints on both the contribution of seismicity to regolith production, and the age of young lobate scarps.

  9. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam and Recent Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, Ibrahim; Andreas, Afshin; Dooraghi, Mike; Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Kutchenreiter, Mark

    2016-12-14

    Solar and atmospheric science radiometers such as pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference which is maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). An ACR is an open cavity with no window, developed to measure the extended broadband spectrum of the terrestrial direct solar beam irradiance that extends beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands; i.e. below 0.2 um and above 50 um, respectively. On the other hand, the pyranometers and pyrheliometers were developed to measure broadband shortwave irradiance from approximately 0.3 um to 3 um, while the present photovoltaic cells are limited to the spectral range of approximately 0.3 um to 1 um. The broadband mismatch of ACR versus such radiometers causes discrepancy in radiometers' calibration methods that has not been discussed or addressed in the solar and atmospheric science literature. Pyrgeometers, which measure the atmospheric longwave irradiance, are also used for solar and atmospheric science applications and calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference, yet they are calibrated during nighttime only, because no consensus reference has been established for the daytime longwave irradiance. This poster describes a method to measure the broadband longwave irradiance in the terrestrial direct solar beam from 3 um to 50 um, as a first step that might be used to help develop calibration methods to address the mismatch between broadband ACR and shortwave radiometers, and the lack of a daytime reference for pyrgeometers. The described method is used to measure the irradiance from sunrise to sunset; the irradiance varied from approximately 1 Wm-2 to 16 Wm-2 with an estimated uncertainty of 1.5 Wm-2, for a solar zenith angle range from 80 degrees to 16 degrees, respectively. Recent development shows that there is greater than 1.1 percent bias in measuring shortwave solar irradiance.

  10. The influence of day/night cycles on biomass yield and composition of Neochloris oleoabundans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Lenneke; Cabanelas, Iago Teles Dominguez; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Barbosa, Maria J

    2017-01-01

    Day/night cycles regulate the circadian clock of organisms to program daily activities. Many species of microalgae have a synchronized cell division when grown under a day/night cycle, and synchronization might influence biomass yield and composition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to study the influence of day/night cycle on biomass yield and composition of the green microalgae Neochloris oleoabundans . Hence, we compared continuous turbidostat cultures grown under continuous light with cultures grown under simulated day/night cycles. Under day/night cycles, cultures were synchronized as cell division was scheduled in the night, whereas under continuous light cell division occurred randomly synchronized cultures were able to use the light 10-15% more efficiently than non-synchronized cultures. Our results indicate that the efficiency of light use varies over the cell cycle and that synchronized cell division provides a fitness benefit to microalgae. Biomass composition under day/night cycles was similar to continuous light, with the exception of starch content. The starch content was higher in cultures under continuous light, most likely because the cells never had to respire starch to cover for maintenance during dark periods. Day/night cycles were provided in a 'block' (continuous light intensity during the light period) and in a 'sine' (using a sine function to simulate light intensities from sunrise to sunset). There were no differences in biomass yield or composition between these two ways of providing light (in a 'block' or in a 'sine'). The biomass yield and composition of N. oleoabundans were influenced by day/night cycles. These results are important to better understand the relations between research done under continuous light conditions and with day/night cycle conditions. Our findings also imply that more research should be done under day/night cycles.

  11. Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.

  12. Probing the eV-mass range for solar axions with the CAST experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.

    2009-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is searching for solar axions, which could be produced in the core of the Sun via the so-called Primakoff effect. For this purpose, CAST uses a decommissioned LHC prototype magnet. In its magnetic field of 9 Tesla axions could be reconverted into X-ray photons. The magnet is mounted on a structure built to follow the Sun during sunrise and sunset for a total of about 3 hours per day. The analysis of the data acquired during the first phase of the experiment with vacuum in the magnetic field region yielded the most restrictive experimental upper limit on the axion-to-photon coupling constant for axion masses up to about 0.02 eV. In order to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to a wider mass range, the CAST experiment continued its search for axions with helium in the magnet bores. In this way it is possible to restore coherence for larger masses. Changing the pressure of the helium gas enables the experiment to scan different axion masses. In the first part of this second phase of CAST, helium-4 has been used and the axion mass region was extended up to 0.4 eV. Therefore the experiment enters the regions favored by axion models. In CAST's ongoing helium-3 phase the studied mass range is now further extended. We will present the final results of CAST's helium-4 phase. Furthermore the latest upgrades of the experiments will be shown and an outlook on CAST's status and prospects will be given. (author)

  13. A hidden Markov model for reconstructing animal paths from solar geolocation loggers using templates for light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimberdiev, Eldar; Winkler, David W; Bridge, Eli; Seavy, Nathaniel E; Sheldon, Daniel; Piersma, Theunis; Saveliev, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    Solar archival tags (henceforth called geolocators) are tracking devices deployed on animals to reconstruct their long-distance movements on the basis of locations inferred post hoc with reference to the geographical and seasonal variations in the timing and speeds of sunrise and sunset. The increased use of geolocators has created a need for analytical tools to produce accurate and objective estimates of migration routes that are explicit in their uncertainty about the position estimates. We developed a hidden Markov chain model for the analysis of geolocator data. This model estimates tracks for animals with complex migratory behaviour by combining: (1) a shading-insensitive, template-fit physical model, (2) an uncorrelated random walk movement model that includes migratory and sedentary behavioural states, and (3) spatially explicit behavioural masks. The model is implemented in a specially developed open source R package FLightR. We used the particle filter (PF) algorithm to provide relatively fast model posterior computation. We illustrate our modelling approach with analysis of simulated data for stationary tags and of real tracks of both a tree swallow Tachycineta bicolor migrating along the east and a golden-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia atricapilla migrating along the west coast of North America. We provide a model that increases accuracy in analyses of noisy data and movements of animals with complicated migration behaviour. It provides posterior distributions for the positions of animals, their behavioural states (e.g., migrating or sedentary), and distance and direction of movement. Our approach allows biologists to estimate locations of animals with complex migratory behaviour based on raw light data. This model advances the current methods for estimating migration tracks from solar geolocation, and will benefit a fast-growing number of tracking studies with this technology.

  14. Daytime dependence of disturbances of ionospheric Es-layers connected to earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liperovskaya, E. V.; Liperovsky, A. V.; Meister, C.-V.; Silina, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    In the present work variations of the semi-transparency of the sporadic E-layer of the ionosphere due to seismic activities are studied. The semi-transparency Q is determined by the blanketing frequency fbEs and the characteristic frequency foEs, Q = (foEs - fbEs)/fbEs. At low values of the blanketing frequency fbEs, the critical frequency foEs does not describe the maximum ionisation density of the Es-layer, as the critical frequencies of regular ionospheric layers (e.g. foF2) do, but it describes the occurrence of small-scall (tenths of meters) inhomogeneities of the ionisation density along the vertical in the layer. The maximum ionisation density of the sporadic layer is proportional to the square of fbEs. In the case of vertical ionospheric sounding, the sporadic layer becomes transparent for signals with frequencies larger than fbEs. Investigations showed that about three days before an earthquake an increase of the semi-transparency interval is observed during sunset and sunrise. In the present work, analogous results are found for data of the vertical sounding stations "Tokyo" and "Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky". Using the method of superposition of epoches, more than 50 earthquakes with magnitudes M > 5, depths h < 40 km, and distances between the station and the epicenter R < 300 km are considered in case of the vertical sounding station "Tokyo". More than 20 earthquakes with such parameters were analysed in case of the station "Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky". Days with strong geomagnetic activity were excluded from the analysis. According to the station "Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky" about 1-3 days before earthquakes, an increase of Es-spread is observed a few hours before midnight. This increase is a sign of large-scale inhomogeneities in the sporadic layers.

  15. Comparison of foE and M(3000)F2 variability at Ibadan, Singapore and Slough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoye, E. O.; Onori, E. O.; Akala, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    The variability, VR, of critical frequency of E-layer, foE, and ionospheric propagation factor, M(3000)F2 at Ibadan (7.4°N, 3.9°E, 6°S dip) is investigated for local time, seasonal and solar cycle variations. Latitudinal influence of these characteristics is sought by comparison with foE VR and M(3000)F2 VR of Slough ( 51.5°N, 359.4°E, 66.5°N dip) in the European sector, and Singapore (1.3°N,103.8°E, 17.6°S dip) in the Asian sector. While the pattern of foE VR is similar to those of other F2 characteristics with characteristic peaks around dawn and dusk, M(3000)F2 VR shows no clear diurnal trend.A lower bound of foE VR is usually 3% while the maximum VR ranges between 8% and13% at post-sunrise and pre-sunset hours at all the epochs, M(3000)F2 VR is however lower during MSA (about 9%) than during LSA and HSA when it is 4% to about 12-14%. Generally, daytime M(3000)F2 VR is greater than that of foE VR by between 5% and 10%. Furthermore, no latitudinal difference is observed in both characteristics during both HSA and MSA. While nighttime M(3000)F2 VR is about half that of nighttime foF2 VR (the critical frequency of F2-layer ) VR, daytime VR of both characteristics are about equal during the three epochs at Ibadan. For Slough, nighttime M(3000)F2 VR and nighttime foF2 VR as well as the daytime VR of both characteristics are about equal. This difference is most likely due to latitudinal effect.

  16. Floral preferences and climate influence in nectar and pollen foraging by Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) in Ubatuba, São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Adriana de O; Kleinert, Astrid de M P

    2010-01-01

    We describe the environment effects on the amount and quality of resources collected by Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier in the Atlantic Forest at Ubatuba city, São Paulo state, Brazil (44º48'W, 23º22'S). Bees carrying pollen and/or nectar were captured at nest entrances during 5 min every hour, from sunrise to sunset, once a month. Pollen loads were counted and saved for acetolysis. Nectar was collected, the volume was determined and the total dissolved solids were determined by refractometer. Air temperature, relative humidity and light intensity were also registered. The number of pollen loads reached its maximum value between 70% and 90% of relative humidity and 18ºC and 23ºC; for nectar loads this range was broader, 50-90% and 20-30ºC. The number of pollen loads increased as relative humidity rose (rs = 0.401; P < 0.01) and high temperatures had a strong negative influence on the number of pollen loads collected (rs = -0.228; P < 0.01). The number of nectar loads positively correlated with temperature (rs = 0.244; P < 0.01) and light intensity (rs = 0.414; P < 0.01). The percentage of total dissolved solids (TDS) on nectar loads positively correlated with temperature and light intensity (rs = 0.361; P < 0.01 and rs = 0.245; P < 0.01), negatively correlated with relative humidity (rs = -0.629; P < 0.01), and it increased along the day. Most nectar loads had TDS between 11% and 30%, with an average of 24.7%. The volume measures did not show any pattern. Important pollen sources were Sapindaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rubiaceae, Arecaceae, Solanaceae and Myrtaceae; nectar sources were Sapindaceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Arecaceae and Solanaceae.

  17. Effect of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy on neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sarafraz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim &Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 hrs per day. Fasting individuals abstain from drinking liquids and eating foods. Manypregnant women and gynecologists are concerned about the possible complicationsassociated with fasting and effects on fetal health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on neonatalbirth weight.Materials and Methods: The current historical cohort study was performed on pregnant women attending maternity hospitals in Kashan in 2008. Twofasting and non-fasting groups were compared. Multiple pregnancies and gestational age less than 37 weeks were considered as the exclusion criteria. In fasting and non-fasting groups, age, parity, gestational age, body mass index (BMI, mother's occupation, prenatal care attendance and intended or unintended pregnancy were matched. For the statistical analysis of the data, covariance analysis and SPSS v16.0 were used. Results: In this study, 293 cases were evaluated among whom 31.7% did notfast. In the two groups, the mean age, gestational age, parity and weight gain during pregnancy were not significantly different. The mean birth weight was 3338 g (±498 g and 3343 g (± 339 g in fasting and non-fasting groups respectively. The results showed that the mean birth weight of the neonates in fasting and non-fasting groups was not significantly different (p=0. 931 Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the neonatal birth weight and maternal fasting during pregnancy. Therefore we declare thatfasting for pregnant women who receive prenatal care has no effects on neonatal birth weight.

  18. Effect of Ramadan fasting on serum heat shock protein 70 and serum lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, A; Hajhashemi, M; Hassan, Z M; Zarrin, S; Pourpak, Z; Moin, M; Salarilak, S; Masudi, S; Shahabi, S

    2011-07-01

    Ramadan, the holy month for the Islamic world, is a period every year when food and fluid intake is restricted to the pre-sunrise and post-sunset hours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on the serum concentration of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and serum lipid profile in healthy men. A total of 32 male volunteers with a mean age of 28.5 (range 23-37) years were selected for the study. Blood samples were obtained one day prior to Ramadan and on the 3rd and 25th days of fasting. Serum HSP70, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (Chol), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), LDL/HDL and Chol/HDL ratios were investigated. It was observed that the mean concentrations of serum HSP70 and HDL on the 25th day of Ramadan were significantly higher than those recorded one day before Ramadan and on the 3rd day of Ramadan, and the levels on the 3rd day of Ramadan was significantly higher than those recorded one day before Ramadan. Mean concentrations of serum TG, Chol, LDL, and LDL/HDL and Chol/HDL ratios on the 25th day of Ramadan were significantly lower than those recorded one day before Ramadan and on the 3rd day of Ramadan, and the levels found on the 3rd day of Ramadan were also significantly lower than those recorded one day before Ramadan. Ramadan fasting increases serum HSP70 and improves serum lipid profile.

  19. Effect of Ramadan fasting in tropical summer months on ocular refractive and biometric characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowroozzadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Mirhosseini, Amirhossein; Meshkibaf, Mohammad Hassan; Roshannejad, Javad

    2012-03-01

    Islamic Ramadan is the month of fasting, in which intake of food and drink is restricted from sunrise until sunset. The objective of the present study was to find out the effect of altered eating habits during Ramadan fasting on ocular refractive and biometric properties. In this prospective case series, 40 eyes of 22 healthy volunteers with a mean age of 60.55 ± 12.20 years were enrolled. Patients with any systemic disorder and eyes with pathology or previous surgery were excluded. One month before Ramadan (at 8.00 am), during Ramadan fasting (at 8.00 am and 4.00 pm) and one month later during the non-fasting period (at 8.00 am), ocular refractive and biometric characteristics were measured using an autokeratorefractometer (Auto-Kerato-Refractometer KR-8900; Topcon Co, Tokyo, Japan) and contact ultrasonic biometry (Nidek Echoscan US 800; Nidek Co, Tokyo, Japan). Anterior chamber depth was significantly increased during fasting compared with baseline measurements and returned to baseline one month after Ramadan (3.22 ± 0.07 mm and 4.33 ± 0.17 mm for non-fasting and fasting, respectively; p Ramadan (23.09 ± 0.14 mm and 22.65 ± 0.18 mm, for non-fasting and fasting, respectively; p Ramadan (SRK-T formula: 21.46 ± 0.27 D and 22.92 ± 0.46 D, for non-fasting and fasting, respectively; p Ramadan fasting is associated with statistically significant alterations in anterior chamber depth and axial length that result in both statistically and clinically significant changes in intraocular lens power calculations. Therefore, relying on measurements taken during this month might lead to refractive errors after cataract surgery. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2012 Optometrists Association Australia.

  20. Feeding dynamics and ecomorphology of Oligosarcus jenynsii (Gunther, 1864 and Oligosarcus robustus (Menezes, 1969 in the Lagoa Fortaleza, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Nunes

    Full Text Available Oligosarcus jenynsii and Oligosarcus robustus are fishes of Characidae family that occur in Rio Grande do Sul, Uruguay and northern Argentina. This work purported to study the feeding dynamics (repletion and hepatosomatic indexes and condition factor over time, and to investigate the coexistence of these two species by evaluating the partition of resources using qualitative and quantitative analyses of diet, temporal and spatial segregation throughout the water column and some ecomorphological aspects of the species in the Lagoa Fortaleza. Specimens were sampled monthly, from May 2000 to April 2001 during 24 h/month, using stationary gill nets of different mesh sizes. The records of each individual included total and standard length; total, stomach and liver weight; sex and stomach repletion. The variation of the mean values of repletion index and relative frequencies of stomach repletion stages indicate that O. jenynsii and O. robustus do not present seasonal differences in feeding intensity. The hepatosomatic index shows an allocation of energy to the liver during every period except reproduction, when part of the energy is used for gonad maturation. The estimated condition factor for both species reveals an increase in the reproductive period, evidencing the influence of gonads upon the condition of the fish. The diet analysis revealed that O. robustus is piscivorous, whereas O. jenynsii is a generalist carnivore, tending to piscivory as well. The active period of O. robustus is more concentrated at sunrise and sunset, whereas O. jenynsii is continually active, a characteristic related to hunting for prey. The ecomorphological analysis revealed differences between the two species in the dimensions of the mouth. Evidence suggests that the species coexist, sharing food sources, differing in oral morphology but ingesting similar prey, possibly because food is not a limiting factor in the environment.

  1. The cosmic statements in the Holy Quran as introduction to the public understanding of space science in the Islamic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.

    The Holy Quran contains more than 800 cosmic statements speak about: sun, moon, planets, stars, Sirius, zodiac, day, night, twilights, position of stars, navigation, blue sky, night sky, dawn, noon, sunrise and sunset, eclipses, lunar months, release to the sky, landing to the earth, and so on. Due to the new discoveries in the 19th and 20th centuries in astronomy and space sciences, some of the Arabian-Islamic scientists and astronomers wished to find the significance of the cosmic statements in the Holy Quran on the light of these new discoveries. This current started at the end of the 19th century, and was growing through the 20th century. Hundreds of the articles published in the Daily news, and in the Weekly, Monthly, Quarterly, Annually Journals. Also, tens of the books published for different authors, from different Arabian and Islamic countries about the significance of the cosmic statements in the Holy Quran on the light of modern astronomy and Space sciences. Also, Radio and TV play an important role in this field, specially after the releasing of the Human kind to the space in the second half of the 20th century. This activity led to construct the International Commission on Scientific Signs in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah, which follow to the Muslim World League in Makkah Al-Mukarramah in Saudi Arabia. Where, there is a Quarterly Journal for this purpose, and periodic International conference for the same purpose, the seventh conference was held in February 2004. This paper speak about the activity of the different Arabian-Islamic Scientists and Astronomers in the field of interpretations of the cosmic statements in the Holy Quran on the light of modern astronomy and space science, and their role of increasing the public understanding of space science in the Arabian and Islamic countries.

  2. There's An App For That: Planning Ahead for the Solar Eclipse in August 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizek Frouard, Malynda R.; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bell, Steve

    2017-01-01

    With the total solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 over the continental United States approaching, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) on-line Solar Eclipse Computer can now be accessed via an Android application, available on Google Play.Over the course of the eclipse, as viewed from a specific site, several events may be visible: the beginning and ending of the eclipse (first and fourth contacts), the beginning and ending of totality (second and third contacts), the moment of maximum eclipse, sunrise, or sunset. For each of these events, the USNO Solar Eclipse 2017 Android application reports the time, Sun's altitude and azimuth, and the event's position and vertex angles. The app also lists the duration of the total phase, the duration of the eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse, and the percent of the Sun obscured for a particular eclipse site.All of the data available in the app comes from the flexible USNO Solar Eclipse Computer Application Programming Interface (API), which produces JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party Web sites or custom applications. Additional information is available in the on-line documentation (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php).For those who prefer using a traditional data input form, the local circumstances can still be requested at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php.In addition the 2017 August 21 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) consolidates all of the USNO resources for this event, including a Google Map view of the eclipse track designed by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO).Looking further ahead, a 2024 April 8 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2024.php) is also available.

  3. Astronomical and Meteorological Conditions of a Solar System Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Rabczak, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    Acquisition and processing of as much solar energy for heating and electricity generation in Poland and in the world is a very important objective in the policy of alternative energy sources. The main problem with the reception of solar energy by solar collectors is vary energy supply at different times of day and year and low flux density of radiation. The term of solar radiation one mean transmission or emission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. The radiation emitted from the surface of the sun spreads out in all directions in space, reaches the Earth’s surface in only partly, especially the solar collectors. The most important parameters characterizing solar radiation are daily, monthly and annual sum of solar radiation. Its express the amount of solar energy which falls on a unit area at a given time. Number of hours of sunshine during the day are dependent on two key factors. The first one is the time from the sunrise to sunset, which strongly depends on the date and latitude. The second factor is the weather (clouds), influences solar radiation, radiation in touch with clouds is absorbed and dissipated. This publication shows the impact on the energy yield of the flat collector installation and astronomical conditions (angle of inclination and declination of solar), and climate. The calculations of determining the astronomical conditions of the place where the installation is located ware analyzed. The solar installation is located in Rzeszow (Poland) and the plate collector placed on the roof of building. Based on specific methodology for selected days the calculation of the elevation angle of the Sun, hourly angle, the sun azimuth and angle of incidence of the radiation on any plane were set. The results are shown in diagrams. The effect of cloud cover on the acquisition of solar energy by the collector is also shown.

  4. Numerical modeling of possible lower ionospheric anomalies associated with Nepal earthquake in May, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Suman; Sasmal, Sudipta; Basak, Tamal; Ghosh, Soujan; Palit, Sourav; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Ray, Suman

    2017-10-01

    We present perturbations due to seismo-ionospheric coupling processes in propagation characteristics of sub-ionospheric Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals received at Ionospheric & Earthquake Research Centre (IERC) (Lat. 22.50°N, Long. 87.48°E), India. The study is done during and prior to an earthquake of Richter scale magnitude M = 7.3 occurring at a depth of 18 km at southeast of Kodari, Nepal on 12 May 2015 at 12:35:19 IST (07:05:19 UT). The recorded VLF signal of Japanese transmitter JJI at frequency 22.2 kHz (Lat. 32.08°N, Long. 130.83°E) suffers from strong shifts in sunrise and sunset terminator times towards nighttime starting from three to four days prior to the earthquake. The signal shows a similar variation in terminator times during a major aftershock of magnitude M = 6.7 on 16 May, 2015 at 17:04:10 IST (11:34:10 UT). These shifts in terminator times is numerically modeled using Long Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC) Programme. The unperturbed VLF signal is simulated by using the day and night variation of reflection height (h‧) and steepness parameter (β) fed in LWPC for the entire path. The perturbed signal is obtained by additional variation of these parameters inside the earthquake preparation zone. It is found that the shift of the terminator time towards nighttime happens only when the reflection height is increased. We also calculate electron density profile by using the Wait's exponential formula for specified location over the propagation path.

  5. Migratory urge and gll Na+,K+-ATPase activity of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts from the Dennys and Penobscot River stocks, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Randall C.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.

    2010-01-01

    Hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts produced from captive-reared Dennys River and sea-run Penobscot River broodstock are released into their source rivers in Maine. The adult return rate of Dennys smolts is comparatively low, and disparity in smolt quality between stocks resulting from genetic or broodstock rearing effects is plausible. Smolt behavior and physiology were assessed during sequential 14-d trials conducted in seminatural annular tanks with circular flow. “Migratory urge” (downstream movement) was monitored remotely using passive integrated transponder tags, and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was measured at the beginning and end of the trials to provide an index of smolt development. The migratory urge of both stocks was low in early April, increased 20-fold through late May, and declined by the end of June. The frequency and seasonal distribution of downstream movement were independent of stock. In March and April, initial gill Na+,K+-ATPase activities of Penobscot River smolts were lower than those of Dennys River smolts. For these trials, however, Penobscot River smolts increased enzyme activity after exposure to the tank, whereas Dennys River smolts did not, resulting in similar activities between stocks at the end of all trials. There was no clear relationship between migratory urge and gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of both stocks increased in advance of migratory urge and then declined while migratory urge was increasing. Maximum movement was observed from 2 h after sunset through 1 h after sunrise but varied seasonally. Dennys River smolts were slightly more nocturnal than Penobscot River smolts. These data suggest that Dennys and Penobscot River stocks are not markedly different in either physiological or behavioral expression of smolting.

  6. Photogrammetry Measurements During a Tanking Test on the Space Shuttle External Tank, ET-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Schmidt, Tim; Tyson, John; Oliver, Stanley T.; Melis, Matthew E.; Ruggeri, Charles

    2012-01-01

    On November 5, 2010, a significant foam liberation threat was observed as the Space Shuttle STS-133 launch effort was scrubbed because of a hydrogen leak at the ground umbilical carrier plate. Further investigation revealed the presence of multiple cracks at the tops of stringers in the intertank region of the Space Shuttle External Tank. As part of an instrumented tanking test conducted on December 17, 2010, a three dimensional digital image correlation photogrammetry system was used to measure radial deflections and overall deformations of a section of the intertank region. This paper will describe the experimental challenges that were overcome in order to implement the photogrammetry measurements for the tanking test in support of STS-133. The technique consisted of configuring and installing two pairs of custom stereo camera bars containing calibrated cameras on the 215-ft level of the fixed service structure of Launch Pad 39-A. The cameras were remotely operated from the Launch Control Center 3.5 miles away during the 8 hour duration test, which began before sunrise and lasted through sunset. The complete deformation time history was successfully computed from the acquired images and would prove to play a crucial role in the computer modeling validation efforts supporting the successful completion of the root cause analysis of the cracked stringer problem by the Space Shuttle Program. The resulting data generated included full field fringe plots, data extraction time history analysis, section line spatial analyses and differential stringer peak ]valley motion. Some of the sample results are included with discussion. The resulting data showed that new stringer crack formation did not occur for the panel examined, and that large amounts of displacement in the external tank occurred because of the loads derived from its filling. The measurements acquired were also used to validate computer modeling efforts completed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  7. Optimal design and control of solar driven air gap membrane distillation desalination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yih-Hang; Li, Yu-Wei; Chang, Hsuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Air gap membrane distillation unit was used in the desalination plants. ► Aspen Custom Molder was used to simulate each unit of desalination plants. ► Design parameters were investigated to obtain the minimum total annual cost. ► The control structure was proposed to operate desalination plants all day long. -- Abstract: A solar heated membrane distillation desalination system is constructed of solar collectors and membrane distillation devices for increasing pure water productivity. This technically and economically feasible system is designed to use indirect solar heat to drive membrane distillation processes to overcome the unstable supply of solar radiation from sunrise to sunset. The solar heated membrane distillation desalination system in the present study consisted of hot water storage devices, heat exchangers, air gap membrane distillation units, and solar collectors. Aspen Custom Molder (ACM) software was used to model and simulate each unit and establish the cost function of a desalination plant. From Design degree of freedom (DOF) analysis, ten design parameters were investigated to obtain the minimum total annual cost (TAC) with fixed pure water production rate. For a given solar energy density profile of typical summer weather, the minimal TAC per 1 m 3 pure water production can be found at 500 W/m 2 by varying the solar energy intensity. Therefore, we proposed two modes for controlling the optimal design condition of the desalination plant; day and night. In order to widen the operability range of the plant, the sensitivity analysis was used to retrofit the original design point to lower the effluent temperature from the solar collector by increasing the hot water recycled stream. The simulation results show that the pure water production can be maintained at a very stable level whether in sunny or cloudy weather.

  8. Solar access of residential rooftops in four California cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Pomerantz, Melvin

    2010-05-14

    Shadows cast by trees and buildings can limit the solar access of rooftop solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors. This study characterizes residential rooftop shading in Sacramento, San Jose, Los Angeles and San Diego, CA. Our analysis can be used to better estimate power production and/or thermal collection by rooftop solar-energy equipment. It can also be considered when designing programs to plant shade trees. High-resolution orthophotos and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) measurements of surface height were used to create a digital elevation model of all trees and buildings in a well-treed 2.5-4 km{sup 2} residential neighborhood. On-hour shading of roofing planes (the flat elements of roofs) was computed geometrically from the digital elevation model. Values in future years were determined by repeating these calculations after simulating tree growth. Parcel boundaries were used to determine the extent to which roofing planes were shaded by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels. For the subset of S+SW+W-facing planes on which solar equipment is commonly installed for maximum solar access, absolute light loss in spring, summer and fall peaked about two to four hours after sunrise and about two to four hours before sunset. The fraction of annual insolation lost to shading increased from 0.07-0.08 in the year of surface-height measurement to 0.11-0.14 after 30 years of tree growth. Only about 10% of this loss results from shading by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels.

  9. The expression of light-related leaf functional traits depends on the location of individual leaves within the crown of isolated Olea europaea trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Rocafort, Adrián G; Ventre-Lespiaucq, Agustina B; Granado-Yela, Carlos; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Delgado, Juan A; Balaguer, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The spatial arrangement and expression of foliar syndromes within tree crowns can reflect the coupling between crown form and function in a given environment. Isolated trees subjected to high irradiance and concomitant stress may adjust leaf phenotypes to cope with environmental gradients that are heterogeneous in space and time within the tree crown. The distinct expression of leaf phenotypes among crown positions could lead to complementary patterns in light interception at the crown scale. We quantified eight light-related leaf traits across 12 crown positions of ten isolated Olea europaea trees in the field. Specifically, we investigated whether the phenotypic expression of foliar traits differed among crown sectors and layers and five periods of the day from sunrise to sunset. We investigated the consequences in terms of the exposed area of the leaves at the tree scale during a single day. All traits differed among crown positions except the length-to-width ratio of the leaves. We found a strong complementarity in the patterns of the potential exposed area of the leaves among day periods as a result of a non-random distribution of leaf angles across the crown. Leaf exposure at the outer layer was below 60 % of the displayed surface, reaching maximum interception during morning periods. Daily interception increased towards the inner layer, achieving consecutive maximization from east to west positions within the crown, matching the sun's trajectory. The expression of leaf traits within isolated trees of O. europaea varies continuously through the crown in a gradient of leaf morphotypes and leaf angles depending on the exposure and location of individual leaves. The distribution of light-related traits within the crown and the complementarity in the potential exposure patterns of the leaves during the day challenges the assumption of low trait variability within individuals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of

  10. Development of Landscape Architecture through Geo-eco-tourism in Tropical Karst Area to Avoid Extractive Cement Industry for Dignified and Sustainable Environment and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyanti, Pita A. B.; Agus, Cahyono

    2017-08-01

    Karst areas in Indonesia amounted to 154,000 km2, potentially for extractive cement and wall paint industries. Exploitation of karst caused serious problems on the environment, health and social culture of the local community. Even though, karst region as a natural and cultural world heritage also have potential environmental services such as water resources, carbon sink, biodiversity, unique landscapes, natural caves, natural attractions, archaeological sites and mystic areas. Landscape architectural management of in the concept of blue revolution through the empowerment of land resources (soil, water, minerals) and biological resources (plant, animal, human), not only have adding value of economy aspect but also our dignified and sustainable environment and life through health, environmental, social, cultural, technological and management aspects. Geo-eco-tourism offers the efficiency of investment, increased creative innovation, increased funding, job creation, social capital development, stimulation of the socio-entrepreneurship in community. Community based geo-eco-tourism in Gunung Kidul Yogyakarta rapidly growing lately due to the local government banned the exploitation of karst. Landscape architecture at the caves, white sand beaches, cliffs in karst areas that beautiful, artistic and have special rare natural architecture form of stalactite and stalagmite, become the new phenomenal interested object of geo-eco-tourism. Many hidden nature objects that had been deserted and creepy could be visited by many local and foreign tourists. Landscape architectural management on hilltops with a wide view of the universe and fresh, sunset and sunrise, the clouds country are a rare sight for modern community. Local cultural attractions, local culinary, home stay with local communities will be an added attraction, but the infrastructure and human resources should be developed. Traveler photographs that widespread rapidly through social media and mass media became a

  11. Planetary Boundary Layer Dynamics over Reno, Nevada in Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, A.; Sumlin, B.; Loria Salazar, S. M.; Holmes, H.; Arnott, W. P.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is important to understand the transport behavior, mixing, and surface concentrations of air pollutants. In Reno, NV, located in complex, mountainous terrain with high desert climate, the daytime boundary layer can rise to an estimated 3km or more on a summer day due to surface heating and convection. The nocturnal boundary layer, conversely, tends to be much lower and highly stable due to radiative cooling from the surface at night and downslope flow of cool air from nearby mountains. With limited availability of radiosonde data, current estimates of the PBL height at any given time or location are potentially over or underestimated. To better quantify the height and characterize the PBL physics, we developed portable, lightweight sensors that measure CO2 concentrations, temperature, pressure, and humidity every 5 seconds. Four of these sensors are used on a tethered balloon system to monitor CO2 concentrations from the surface up to 300m. We will combine this data with Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) data that measures vertical profiles of wind speed, temperature, and humidity from 40m to 400m. This experiment will characterize the diurnal evolution of CO2 concentrations at multiple heights in the PBL, provide insight into PBL physics during stability transition periods at sunrise and sunset, and estimate the nighttime PBL depth during August in Reno. Further, we expect to gain a better understanding of the impact of mixing volume changes (i.e., PBL height) on air quality and pollution concentrations in Reno. The custom portable sensor design will also be presented. It is expected that these instruments can be used for indoor or outdoor air quality studies, where lightness, small size, and battery operation can be of benefit.

  12. Flat plate solar air heater with latent heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, B.; Kerroumi, N.; Virgone, J.

    2017-02-01

    Our work contains two parts, first is an experimental study of the solar air heater with a simple flow and forced convection, we can use thatlaste oneit in many engineering's sectors as solardrying, space heating in particular. The second part is a numerical study with ansys fluent 15 of the storage of part of this solar thermal energy produced,using latent heat by using phase change materials (PCM). In the experimental parts, we realize and tested our solar air heater in URER.MS ADRAR, locate in southwest Algeria. Where we measured the solarradiation, ambient temperature, air flow, thetemperature of the absorber, glasses and the outlet temperature of the solar air heater from the Sunrise to the sunset. In the second part, we added a PCM at outlet part of the solar air heater. This PCM store a part of the energy produced in the day to be used in peak period at evening by using the latent heat where the PCMs present a grateful storagesystem.A numerical study of the fusion or also named the charging of the PCM using ANSYS Fluent 15, this code use the method of enthalpies to solve the fusion and solidification formulations. Furthermore, to improve the conjugate heat transfer between the heat transfer fluid (Air heated in solar plate air heater) and the PCM, we simulate the effect of adding fins to our geometry. Also, four user define are write in C code to describe the thermophysicalpropriety of the PCM, and the inlet temperature of our geometry which is the temperature at the outflow of the solar heater.

  13. Development of automated prototype for studying the effect of solar aging on sunglasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, L. M.; Ventura, L.

    2015-06-01

    The first Brazilian standard for UV protection sunglasses, NBR15111, was drafted and published in 2003, hitherto a faithful copy (mirror) of European, BSEN1836 standard. From 2010 to 2013 the Laboratório de Instrumentação Oftálmica of the School of Engineering of São Carlos (USP) made contribution in the review and drafting of this standard and the main change so far is on the extension of the UV range analysis for protection of sunglasses, i.e. from 280 - 380nm to 280-400nm. In previous studies, there are indications that ultraviolet protection degrades with use and exposure of sunglasses to natural ultraviolet radiation. Thus, this project aims to build a prototype for irradiating sunglasses lenses, where one of the spectacles will be submitted to the solar simulator; and the other to the prototype. This prototype consists of a panel with cover, which houses 100 lenses arranged in the vertical (user's) position and which will be irradiated by the sun from sunrise until sunset. The lid opens automatically and should turn towards the sun, so that the lens will always be irradiated facing the sun. Sensors will be installed to close the cover and protect the lenses of undesirable weather conditions and to determine the ultraviolet index to which the lenses are being subjected to. The exposure time and UV index will be recorded and automatic opening or closing the lid may also be interfered by a PC by online software. Previously to irradiation, spectroscopy will be performed and then repeated after every 30 days of exposure.

  14. Outreach Testing of Ancient Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Blanco, M. B. M.

    2015-10-01

    This work is an outreach approach to an ubiquitous recent problem in secondary-school education: how to face back the decreasing interest in natural sciences shown by students under 'pressure' of convenient resources in digital devices/applications. The approach rests on two features. First, empowering of teen-age students to understand regular natural events around, as very few educated people they meet could do. Secondly, an understanding that rests on personal capability to test and verify experimental results from the oldest science, astronomy, with simple instruments as used from antiquity down to the Renaissance (a capability restricted to just solar and lunar motions). Because lengths in astronomy and daily life are so disparate, astronomy basically involved observing and registering values of angles (along with times), measurements being of two types, of angles on the ground and of angles in space, from the ground. First, the gnomon, a simple vertical stick introduced in Babylonia and Egypt, and then in Greece, is used to understand solar motion. The gnomon shadow turns around during any given day, varying in length and thus angle between solar ray and vertical as it turns, going through a minimum (noon time, at a meridian direction) while sweeping some angular range from sunrise to sunset. Further, the shadow minimum length varies through the year, with times when shortest and sun closest to vertical, at summer solstice, and times when longest, at winter solstice six months later. The extreme directions at sunset and sunrise correspond to the solstices, swept angular range greatest at summer, over 180 degrees, and the opposite at winter, with less daytime hours; in between, spring and fall equinoxes occur, marked by collinear shadow directions at sunrise and sunset. The gnomon allows students to determine, in addition to latitude (about 40.4° North at Madrid, say), the inclination of earth equator to plane of its orbit around the sun (ecliptic), this

  15. Evapotranspiration dynamics along elevational and disturbance gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsch, Florian; Otte, Insa; Appelhans, Tim; Nauß, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    each. Minor data gaps are introduced by particular environmental conditions (e.g. strong winds, fog) and external power failure, and a random forest-based approach has been successfully implemented to impute missing values. Visual inspection revealed that ET rates on study sites below the forest belt (3500 m a.s.l.) in magnitude and diurnal variation. Diurnal ET variation on the lower elevated research plots followed the course of the sun, with maximum values in the early afternoon and minimum values during sunrise and sunset. Maximum evapotranspirative net water loss occurred on the selected grassland sites, followed by maize, coffee, and minimum values on savanna. The study sites located above the forest belt, however, showed maximum ET rates coinciding with sunrise, whilst ET remained almost constantly low during the remaining hours of sunlight. We tentatively suggest that tree density regulates net water loss on the lower elevated research plots, while water scarcity is of subordinate importance. As for the high-lying sites, maximum ET rates directly after sunrise indicate an immediate sublimation of ice accumulated in the soil during night and subsequently attenuated water loss as a result of limited water availability. However, further analysis steps need to be performed in order to draw more reliable conclusions on the observed ET patterns.

  16. The angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and differences in fasting plasma glucose in Hindustani Surinamese, African Surinamese and ethnic Dutch: the population-based SUNSET-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Stronks, Karien; Hahntow, Ines N.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; Holleman, Frits

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the association between the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion polymorphism and glycemic state. Diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose and mean fasting glucose were not associated with genotype among Hindustani Surinamese, African Surinamese and Dutch

  17. The Song of the Sabia in the 3rd. Festival Internacional da Canção: boo and sunset of the Tom Jobim bossa nova`s aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Guilherme Poletto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the Song of the Sabia, composition of Tom Jobim and Chico Buarque. Mobilizes different series of sources in order to reconstruct historically the boo to the performance of the song during the III International Song Festival, held in 1968 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Seeks to highlight how this episode catalyzed the existence of different expectations on the popular song and its role as a vehicle for ideals of modernity amid the interference of the authoritarian environment in the cultural and political field. Then, based on the analysis of the constitutive parameters of the song, suggests possibilities for understanding its musical and poetic construction in critical dialogue with its reverberations in cultural terms.This article discusses the Song of the Sabia, composition of Tom Jobim and Chico Buarque. Mobilizes different series of sources in order to reconstruct historically the boo to the performance of the song during the III International Song Festival, held in 1968 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Seeks to highlight how this episode catalyzed the existence of different expectations on the popular song and its role as a vehicle for ideals of modernity amid the interference of the authoritarian environment in the cultural and political field. Then, based on the analysis of the constitutive parameters of the song, suggests possibilities for understanding its musical and poetic construction in critical dialogue with its reverberations in cultural terms.

  18. The association of leisure-time physical activity and active commuting with measures of socioeconomic position in a multiethnic population living in the Netherlands: results from the cross-sectional SUNSET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munter, Jeroen S. L.; Agyemang, Charles; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Stronks, Karien; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In most European origin populations measures of socioeconomic position are positively associated with leisure time physical activity (LTPA), this is unclear for active commuting. In addition, these associations have scarcely been studied in ethnic minority groups, who often have a high

  19. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, Steven; Deo, Milind; Deets, Mike

    2002-02-21

    The objective of the project is not just to commercially produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production volumes and costs.

  20. El apagón analógico: el British Film Institute y la educación en los tres últimos decenios Analogue Sunset. The Educational Role of the British Film Institute, 1979-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary Bazalgette

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantean los elementos clave de las estrategias de educación en el cine llevadas a cabo por el Instituto Británico del Cine (BFI en las escuelas británicas durante los veinticinco últimos años de la era analógica. Desde siempre, el BFI se ha implicado de forma activa en el diseño de los planes de estudio de cine, así como en todo lo que de algún modo suscitó preocupación entre los educadores, como fue el caso de la apuesta, de un lado, por el uso instrumental del cine para apoyar el plan curricular y el aprendizaje de las cualidades intrínsecas y distintivas del cine como mediador y, de otro lado, la apuesta por su función ideológica en la sociedad. También se aborda en este artículo la cuestión de si el cine en sí mismo constituye un área de estudio o si sería más adecuado incluirlo en el ámbito de la televisión como parte de los medios de imagen en movimiento. El BFI ha desempeñado un papel crucial en la investigación de estos interrogantes, así como en la demostración y ejemplificación de la enseñanza del cine destinada a los jóvenes. No obstante, las continuas vicisitudes que han surgido en este tiempo han orientado las perspectivas educativas en diferentes direcciones. La tesis central de este artículo es demostrar que la educación en el cine, aplicable a todos los medios de comunicación en general, debe ser un derecho accesible a todos los estudiantes, y no quedar reducido a una minoría o presentado como una posible opción. Los proyectos clave que se detallan a continuación en este artículo orientan sobre algunos procedimientos destinados a que las instituciones culturales subvencionadas con dinero público puedan intervenir en la política educativa y en su implantación.This paper traces key features of the BFI’s evolving strategies for film education in UK schools during the final 25 years of the analogue era. Historically, the BFI did much to establish the characteristics of film study, but it also embodied tensions which have continued to preoccupy educators, such as the relationship between the instrumental use of film to support the curriculum, and learning about its intrinsic and distinctive qualities as a medium, or about its ideological function in society. The paper also addresses the question of whether «film» on its own constitutes a valid area of study, or whether it is more properly studied alongside television as part of «moving image media». The BFI has played a key role in exploring these issues and in exemplifying how film, or moving image media, can be taught to younger learners, but the internal vicissitudes it has constantly experienced have always pulled its educational activities in different directions. The central argument of this paper is that film education –and indeed media education in general– should be an entitlement for every learner, not something offered only to a minority or provided as an optional extra. The key projects described in this paper indicate some of the ways in which a publicly funded cultural institution can intervene in educational policy and practice.

  1. 76 FR 7534 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Ware from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the... People's Republic of China (``PRC'') pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (``Act''). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 60731 (October 1, 2010) (``Sunset...

  2. Dry soil diurnal quasi-periodic oscillations in soil 222Rn concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommasone Pascale, F.; De Francesco, S.; Carbone, P.; Cuoco, E.; Tedesco, D.

    2014-01-01

    222 Rn concentrations have been monitored during the dry season in August 2009 and August 2010, in a reworked alluvial-pyroclastic soil of the Pietramelara Plain, in Southern Italy, with the aim of determining the role of atmospheric factors in producing the quasi-periodic oscillations in soil 222 Rn concentrations reported in the literature. In this study we present the results of a detailed analysis and matching of soil 222 Rn concentrations, meteorological and solar parameters where the observed oscillations feature a characteristic behavior with second order build-up and depletion limbs, separated by a daily maximum and minimum. All these features are clearly shown to be tied to sunrise and sunset timings and environmental radiative flux regimes. Furthermore, a significant, and previously unreported, second order correlation (r 2  = 0.73) between daily maximum hourly global radiation and the daily range of soil 222 Rn concentrations has been detected, allowing estimates of the amplitude of these oscillations to be made from estimated or measured solar radiation data. The correlation has been found to be valid even in the presence of persistent patchy daytime cloudiness. In this case a daytime prolongation of the night-time build up stage and an attenuation or even suppression of daytime depletion is observed (a previously unreported effect). Neither soil cracking, nor precipitation, both suggested in some studies as causative factors for these oscillations, during the dry season appear to be necessary in explaining their occurrence. We also report the results of an artificial shading experiment, conducted in August 2009, that further support this conclusion. As soil 222 Rn concentrations during the dry season show a characteristic daily cycle, radon monitoring in soils under these conditions necessarily has to be gauged to the timings of the daily maximum and minimum, as well as to the eventual occurrence of cloudiness and to its related effects, in order to

  3. Overview of SCIAMACHY validation: 2002–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. M. Piters

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available SCIAMACHY, on board Envisat, has been in operation now for almost three years. This UV/visible/NIR spectrometer measures the solar irradiance, the earthshine radiance scattered at nadir and from the limb, and the attenuation of solar radiation by the atmosphere during sunrise and sunset, from 240 to 2380 nm and at moderate spectral resolution. Vertical columns and profiles of a variety of atmospheric constituents are inferred from the SCIAMACHY radiometric measurements by dedicated retrieval algorithms. With the support of ESA and several international partners, a methodical SCIAMACHY validation programme has been developed jointly by Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium (the three instrument providing countries to face complex requirements in terms of measured species, altitude range, spatial and temporal scales, geophysical states and intended scientific applications. This summary paper describes the approach adopted to address those requirements. Since provisional releases of limited data sets in summer 2002, operational SCIAMACHY processors established at DLR on behalf of ESA were upgraded regularly and some data products – level-1b spectra, level-2 O3, NO2, BrO and clouds data – have improved significantly. Validation results summarised in this paper and also reported in this special issue conclude that for limited periods and geographical domains they can already be used for atmospheric research. Nevertheless, current processor versions still experience known limitations that hamper scientific usability in other periods and domains. Free from the constraints of operational processing, seven scientific institutes (BIRA-IASB, IFE/IUP-Bremen, IUP-Heidelberg, KNMI, MPI, SAO and SRON have developed their own retrieval algorithms and generated SCIAMACHY data products, together addressing nearly all targeted constituents. Most of the UV-visible data products – O3, NO2, SO2, H2O total columns; BrO, OClO slant columns; O3, NO2, BrO profiles

  4. Transcription through the eye of a needle: daily and annual cyclic gene expression variation in Douglas-fir needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronn, Richard; Dolan, Peter C; Jogdeo, Sanjuro; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Neale, David B; St Clair, J Bradley; Denver, Dee R

    2017-07-24

    Perennial growth in plants is the product of interdependent cycles of daily and annual stimuli that induce cycles of growth and dormancy. In conifers, needles are the key perennial organ that integrates daily and seasonal signals from light, temperature, and water availability. To understand the relationship between seasonal cycles and seasonal gene expression responses in conifers, we examined diurnal and circannual needle mRNA accumulation in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) needles at diurnal and circannual scales. Using mRNA sequencing, we sampled 6.1 × 10 9 reads from 19 trees and constructed a de novo pan-transcriptome reference that includes 173,882 tree-derived transcripts. Using this reference, we mapped RNA-Seq reads from 179 samples that capture daily and annual variation. We identified 12,042 diurnally-cyclic transcripts, 9299 of which showed homology to annotated genes from other plant genomes, including angiosperm core clock genes. Annual analysis revealed 21,225 circannual transcripts, 17,335 of which showed homology to annotated genes from other plant genomes. The timing of maximum gene expression is associated with light intensity at diurnal scales and photoperiod at annual scales, with approximately half of transcripts reaching maximum expression +/- 2 h from sunrise and sunset, and +/- 20 days from winter and summer solstices. Comparisons with published studies from other conifers shows congruent behavior in clock genes with Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria), and a significant preservation of gene expression patterns for 2278 putative orthologs from Douglas-fir during the summer growing season, and 760 putative orthologs from spruce (Picea) during the transition from fall to winter. Our study highlight the extensive diurnal and circannual transcriptome variability demonstrated in conifer needles. At these temporal scales, 29% of expressed transcripts show a significant diurnal cycle, and 58.7% show a significant circannual cycle. Remarkably

  5. Implications of oxidative stress in the brain plasticity originated by fasting: a BOLD-fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaïch, Rachida; Boujraf, Saïd; Benzagmout, Mohammed; Magoul, Rabia; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Tizniti, Siham

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study was assessing the intermittent fasting effect on brain plasticity and oxidative stress (OS) using blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD)-functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) approach. Evidences of physiological and molecular phenomena involved in this process are discussed and compared to reported literature. Six fully healthy male non-smokers volunteered in this study. All volunteers were right handed, and have an equilibrated, consistent and healthy daily nutritional habit, and a healthy lifestyle. Participants were allowed consuming food during evening and night time while fasting with self-prohibiting food and liquids during 14 hours/day from sunrise to sunset. All participants underwent identical brain BOLD-fMRI protocol. The images were acquired in the Department of Radiology and Clinical Imaging of the University Hospital of Fez, Fez, Morocco. The anatomical brain and BOLD-fMRIs were acquired using a 1.5-Tesla scanner (Signa, General Electric, Milwaukee, United States). BOLD-fMRI image acquisition was done using single-shot gradient echo echo-planer imaging sequence. BOLD-fMRI paradigm consisted of the motor task where volunteers were asked to perform finger taping of the right hand. Two BOLD-fMRI scan sessions were performed, the first one between the 5th and 10th days preceding the start of fasting and the second between days 25th and 28th of the fasting month. All sessions were performed between 3:30 PM and 5:30 PM. Although individual maps were originated from different individual participants, they cover the same anatomic area in each case. Image processing and statistical analysis were conducted with Statistical Parameter Mapping version 8 (2008, Welcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London UK). The maximal BOLD signal changes were calculated for each subject in the motor area M1; Activation maps were calculated and overlaid on the anatomical images. Group analysis of the data was performed, and the average volume

  6. The International Globe at Night Citizen-Science Campaign: Shedding Light on Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    For 8 years now, the Globe at Night campaign has invited citizen-scientists worldwide to measure and record the brightness of their night sky by hunting for the faintest stars in a particular constellation. Students for science projects and scientists for research use the data to monitor levels of brightness or 'light pollution' around the world. They also use the Globe at Night data to understand light pollution's effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife and human health, as well as our ability to enjoy a starry night sky. The dates of the campaign for 2014 have been extended to every month during the year. Ten days each month (when the Moon is not up between 8pm and 10pm) are the recommended times to take measurements for the campaign. However, one can participate at other times and dates, as long as the Moon is not in the night sky and it is more than an hour after sunset or more than an hour before sunrise. New in 2014 will be an Android app that will allow you to input visual measurements anytime the Moon is not up. Also possibly included will be an iPhone app that will take sky brightness measurements. The campaign dates and the 5 easy steps to participating in the campaign are listed at www.globeatnight.org. You do not need to register. Once on the report page, you enter your location, date and time (automatic for a smart device). You find the constellation of the month in the night sky. (Help is on the website.) Then you choose which chart looks most like what you see toward the constellation. Choose the icon for how clear or cloudy it is and hit the submit button and you are done! The fifth step is returning later to the website to compare your observations on the world map to others from around the globe. Included on the Globe at Night website are many helpful resources and tools from finding the constellations used in the campaign, to understanding concepts like light pollution, to games that test your expertise in choosing 'limiting magnitudes

  7. Atividades relacionadas à construção e aprovisionamento de ninhos de Xylocopa subcyanea (Hymenoptera, Apidae em uma área de restinga na Bahia, Brasil Activities related to construction and provioning of nests of Xylocopa subcyanea (Hymenoptera, Apidae in an area of sandbank in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Gimenes

    Full Text Available As abelhas do gênero Xylocopa Latreille, 1802 são comuns em ecossistemas de restingas em acelerada fase de degradação e são importantes polinizadores deste ecossistema. Elas nidificam especialmente em madeira morta ou apodrecida. As atividades relacionadas à construção e estrutura dos ninhos de Xylocopa (Schoenherria subcyanea Perez, 1901 na restinga do litoral norte da Bahia, Brasil, foram observadas em 43 ninhos ativos de X. subcyanea, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento, em dois troncos apodrecidos. A fase de fundação ou reuso no primeiro tronco foi em agosto e a fase de provisionamento das células nos ninhos, em ambos troncos, em janeiro. As principais atividades foram escavações no tronco, entrada e saída dos ninhos, permanência na entrada do ninho, entrada com pólen e desidratação de néctar. Foi observado horário preferencial ao longo do dia para as atividades de entrada e saída dos ninhos, sendo estas influenciadas pelos horários do nascer e pôr do sol. Ninhos abandonados foram reusados por X. subcyanea e Centris tarsata SMITH, 1874. Os ninhos ativos eram ocupados por quatro diferentes abelhas adultas. Geralmente, uma abelha ficava na entrada do ninho. A estrutura do ninho foi descrita.Bees of the genus Xylocopa Latreille, 1802 are frequent in sandbank ecosystems under accelerated degradation. They nest especially in dead or rotted wood. The nest construction and nest structure of Xylocopa (Schoenherria subcyanea Perez, 1901 were studied in a sandbank from Bahia's north littoral, Brazil. We observed 43 active nests, under different stages of development, in two dead logs. The main activities were excavation of the logs, entering and leaving nest, permanence in the nest entrance, entering with pollen, and nectar dehydration. Preferential times along the day were observed for entering and leaving nest, showing influence of sunrise and sunset times. Abandoned nests were reused by X. subcyanea and Centris tarsata

  8. Overview of SCIAMACHY validation: 2002-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piters, A. J. M.; Bramstedt, K.; Lambert, J.-C.; Kirchhoff, B.

    2006-01-01

    SCIAMACHY, on board Envisat, has been in operation now for almost three years. This UV/visible/NIR spectrometer measures the solar irradiance, the earthshine radiance scattered at nadir and from the limb, and the attenuation of solar radiation by the atmosphere during sunrise and sunset, from 240 to 2380 nm and at moderate spectral resolution. Vertical columns and profiles of a variety of atmospheric constituents are inferred from the SCIAMACHY radiometric measurements by dedicated retrieval algorithms. With the support of ESA and several international partners, a methodical SCIAMACHY validation programme has been developed jointly by Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium (the three instrument providing countries) to face complex requirements in terms of measured species, altitude range, spatial and temporal scales, geophysical states and intended scientific applications. This summary paper describes the approach adopted to address those requirements. Since provisional releases of limited data sets in summer 2002, operational SCIAMACHY processors established at DLR on behalf of ESA were upgraded regularly and some data products - level-1b spectra, level-2 O3, NO2, BrO and clouds data - have improved significantly. Validation results summarised in this paper and also reported in this special issue conclude that for limited periods and geographical domains they can already be used for atmospheric research. Nevertheless, current processor versions still experience known limitations that hamper scientific usability in other periods and domains. Free from the constraints of operational processing, seven scientific institutes (BIRA-IASB, IFE/IUP-Bremen, IUP-Heidelberg, KNMI, MPI, SAO and SRON) have developed their own retrieval algorithms and generated SCIAMACHY data products, together addressing nearly all targeted constituents. Most of the UV-visible data products - O3, NO2, SO2, H2O total columns; BrO, OClO slant columns; O3, NO2, BrO profiles - already have acceptable

  9. Overview of SCIAMACHY validation: 2002 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piters, A. J. M.; Bramstedt, K.; Lambert, J.-C.; Kirchhoff, B.

    2005-08-01

    SCIAMACHY, on board Envisat, is now in operation for almost three years. This UV/visible/NIR spectrometer measures the solar irradiance, the earthshine radiance scattered at nadir and from the limb, and the attenuation of solar radiation by the atmosphere during sunrise and sunset, from 240 to 2380 nm and at moderate spectral resolution. Vertical columns and profiles of a variety of atmospheric constituents are inferred from the SCIAMACHY radiometric measurements by dedicated retrieval algorithms. With the support of ESA and several international partners, a methodical SCIAMACHY validation programme has been developed jointly by Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium (the three instrument providing countries) to face complex requirements in terms of measured species, altitude range, spatial and temporal scales, geophysical states and intended scientific applications. This summary paper describes the approach adopted to address those requirements. The actual validation of the operational SCIAMACHY processors established at DLR on behalf of ESA has been hampered by data distribution and processor problems. Since first data releases in summer 2002, operational processors were upgraded regularly and some data products - level-1b spectra, level-2 O3, NO2, BrO and clouds data - have improved significantly. Validation results summarised in this paper conclude that for limited periods and geographical domains they can already be used for atmospheric research. Nevertheless, remaining processor problems cause major errors preventing from scientific usability in other periods and domains. Untied to the constraints of operational processing, seven scientific institutes (BIRA-IASB, IFE, IUP-Heidelberg, KNMI, MPI, SAO and SRON) have developed their own retrieval algorithms and generated SCIAMACHY data products, together addressing nearly all targeted constituents. Most of the UV-visible data products (both columns and profiles) already have acceptable, if not excellent, quality

  10. Solar occultation images analysis using Zernike polynomials ­— an ALTIUS imaging spectrometer application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekemper, Emmanuel; Fussen, Didier; Loodts, Nicolas; Neefs, Eddy

    The ALTIUS (Atmospheric Limb Tracker for the Investigation of the Upcoming Stratosphere) instrument is a major project of the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB) in Brussels, Belgium. It has been designed to profit from the benefits of the limb scattering ge-ometry (vertical resolution, global coverage,...), while providing better accuracy on the tangent height knowledge than classical "knee" methods used by scanning spectrometers. The optical concept is based on 3 AOTF's (UV-Vis-NIR) responsible for the instantaneous spectral filtering of the incoming image (complete FOV larger than 100km x 100km at tangent point), ranging from 250nm to 1800nm, with a moderate resolution of a few nm and a typical acquisition time of 1-10s per image. While the primary goal of the instrument is the measurement of ozone with a good vertical resolution, the ability to record full images of the limb can lead to other applications, like solar occultations. With a pixel FOV of 200rad, the full high-sun image is formed of 45x45 pixels, which is sufficient for pattern recognition using moments analysis for instance. The Zernike polynomials form a complete othogonal set of functions over the unit circle. It is well suited for images showing circular shape. Any such image can then be decomposed into a finite set of weighted polynomials, the weighting is called the moments. Due to atmospheric refraction, the sun shape is modified during apparent sunsets and sunrises. The sun appears more flattened which leads to a modification of its zernike moment description. A link between the pressure or the temperature profile (equivalent to air density through the perfect gas law and the hydrostatic equation) and the Zernike moments of a given image can then be made and used to retrieve these atmospheric parameters, with the advantage that the whole sun is used and not only central or edge pixels. Some retrievals will be performed for different conditions and the feasibility of the method

  11. Comparison of different statistical modelling approaches for deriving spatial air temperature patterns in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Annette; Beck, Christoph; Breitner, Susanne; Cyrys, Josef; Geruschkat, Uta; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Kühlbach, Benjamin; Kusch, Thomas; Richter, Katja; Schneider, Alexandra; Umminger, Robin; Wolf, Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    evaluated and the relative importance of individual predictors was examined via averaging over orderings (for MLR) and permutation importance (for RF) respectively. The results indicate that MLR is superior to RF with mean squared skill scores reaching up to 0.85 and R2 in leave-one-out cross validation up to 65% for individual situations and setups. The best performing models are obtained for situations with low to medium wind velocities before sunrise and after sunset. Important predictor variables for these situations are percentage of built-up area, sky view factor, and distance from the city centre.

  12. A balloon borne telescope for planetary observations with a fine pointing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Yasuhiro; Onishi, Tomoya; Battazzo, Steve; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Kazuya; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Taguchi, Makoto

    sodium, flows anti-sunward and forms a long tail with a length of 1400 Mercury radii. The intensity profile along the tail shows several bumps, suggesting that temporal variations in sodium release from the surface occur in a day. However the cause is still unknown, because Mercury is only observable during a very short period around sunrise and sunset. The thin atmosphere in the stratosphere also provides darker daytime sky, which enables much longer observation of the Mercury sodium tail. In the presentation, the balloon borne telescope system, the test results of its pointing perfor-mance and the observation plan of the planets in 2011 will be reported.

  13. Solar Eclipse Computer API: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bell, Steve

    2016-01-01

    With the total solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 over the continental United States approaching, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) on-line Solar Eclipse Computer can now be accessed via an application programming interface (API). This flexible interface returns local circumstances for any solar eclipse in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party Web sites or applications. For a given year, it can also return a list of solar eclipses that can be used to build a more specific request for local circumstances. Over the course of a particular eclipse as viewed from a specific site, several events may be visible: the beginning and ending of the eclipse (first and fourth contacts), the beginning and ending of totality (second and third contacts), the moment of maximum eclipse, sunrise, or sunset. For each of these events, the USNO Solar Eclipse Computer reports the time, Sun's altitude and azimuth, and the event's position and vertex angles. The computer also reports the duration of the total phase, the duration of the eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse, and the percent of the Sun obscured for a particular eclipse site. On-line documentation for using the API-enabled Solar Eclipse Computer, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php). The same Web page also describes how to reach the Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day, Phases of the Moon, Day and Night Across the Earth, and Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object services using API calls.For those who prefer using a traditional data input form, local circumstances can still be requested that way at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php. In addition, the 2017 August 21 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) consolidates all of the USNO resources for this event, including a Google Map view of the eclipse track designed by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). Looking further ahead, a

  14. Fasting, Diabetes, and Optimizing Health Outcomes for Ramadan Observers: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansour, Hadi A; Chaar, Betty; Saini, Bandana

    2017-04-01

    Globally, and in Australia, diabetes has become a common chronic health condition. Diabetes is also quite prevalent in culturally and linguistically diverse pockets of the Australian population, including Muslims. There are over 90 million Muslims with diabetes worldwide. Diabetes management and medication use can be affected by religious practices such as fasting during Ramadan. During Ramadan, Muslims refrain from oral or intravenous substances from sunrise to sunset. This may lead to many potential health or medication-related risks for patients with diabetes who observe this religious practice. This literature review aimed to explore (1) health care-related interventions and (2) intentions, perspectives, or needs of health care professionals (HCPs) to provide clinical services to patients with diabetes while fasting during Ramadan with a view to improve health outcomes for those patients. Using a scoping review approach, a comprehensive search was conducted. Databases searched systematically included PubMed, Medline, Embase, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Studies published in English that described interventions or intentions to provide interventions regarding diabetes and Ramadan fasting were included. Fourteen published articles that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved and content analyzed. Of those, nine intervention studies regarded diabetes management education. Five studies described professional service intention, four of which were related to the role of pharmacists in diabetes management in Qatar, Australia, and Egypt, and one French study examined the general practitioners' (GPs) experiences in diabetes management for Ramadan observers. The intervention studies had promising outcomes for diabetes management during Ramadan. Effect sizes for improvement in HbA1c post intervention ranged widely from -1.14 to 1.7. Pharmacists appeared to be willing to participate in programs to help fasting patients with diabetes achieve a safe

  15. Blooming rhythms of cactus Cereus peruvianus with nocturnal peak at full moon during seasons of prolonged daytime photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Attia, Mossadok; Reinberg, Alain; Smolensky, Michael H; Gadacha, Wafa; Khedaier, Achraf; Sani, Mamane; Touitou, Yvan; Boughamni, Néziha Ghanem

    2016-01-01

    Cereus peruvianus (Peruvian apple cactus) is a large erect and thorny succulent cactus characterized by column-like (cereus [L]: column), that is, candle-shaped, appendages. For three successive years (1100 days), between early April and late November, we studied the flowering patterns of eight cacti growing in public gardens and rural areas of north and central Tunisia, far from nighttime artificial illumination, in relation to natural environmental light, temperature, relative humidity and precipitation parameters. Flower blooming was assessed nightly between 23:00 h and until at least 02:00 h, and additionally around-the-clock at ~1 h intervals for 30 consecutive days during the late summer of each year of study to quantify both nyctohemeral (day-night) and lunar patterns. During the summer months of prolonged daytime photoperiod, flower blooming of C. peruvianus exhibited predictable-in-time variation as "waves" with average period of 29.5 days synchronized by the light of the full moon. The large-sized flower (~16 cm diameter) opens almost exclusively at night, between sunset and sunrise, as a 24 h rhythm during a specific 3-4-day span of the lunar cycle (full moon), with a strong correlation between moon phase and number and proportion of flowers in bloom (ranging from r = +0.59 to +0.91). Black, blue and red cotton sheets were used to filter specific spectral bands of nighttime moonlight from illuminating randomly selected plant appendages as a means to test the hypothesis of a "gating" 24 h rhythm phenomenon of photoreceptors at the bud level. Relative to control conditions (no light filtering), black sheet covering inhibited flower bud induction by 87.5%, red sheet covering by 46.6% and blue sheet covering by 34%, and the respective inhibiting effects on number of flowers in bloom were essentially 100%, ~81% and ~44%. C. peruvianus is a unique example of a terrestrial plant that exhibits a circadian flowering rhythm (peak ~00:00 h) "gated" by 24 h, lunar

  16. The propagation effect of paper version and the iPad version for periodicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Digital journal created a new development pattern. We use journal APP as an example to analyze how to migrate the journal content to Internet and other kind of media. Based on the case study of GQ and other fashion magazines, through text analysis, control experiments, in-depth interviews and other research methods, the authors analyzed the differences and connections between the iPad App and print edition of magazines, discussed the approaches towards operation of new media, offered the tendency of mobile device platform development for China’s periodical publications. Design/methodology/approach: control experiment. Findings: The authors give a stance that the print edition of periodical publication will being alive still, and conclude that journal APP and printed version can be mutually beneficial and achieve a win-win state. And we believe that the journal APP is good at advertising propagation, which will accelerate the development of journal APP in such the information age, and such kind of media can integrate many information with variety of media forms. Research limitations/implications: Because of the limitation of technology, the authors only have the experiment on fashion magazine, which might to some degree simplify the issue under discussion. Practical implications: According to the conclusion of a series of experiments, we can imply the future of the media, and give the suggestion of both paper version and ipad version of the journal. Social implications: Since people can not live without media and media has to develope with the help of public, we have to give the new way of both sunrise media and sunset media. Originality/value: Based on the case study of GQ and other fashion magazines, through text analysis, control experiments, in-depth interviews and other research methods, the authors analyzed the differences and connections between the iPad App and print edition of magazines, discussed the approaches towards

  17. Influence of Ramadan fasting on physiological and performance variables in football players: summary of the F-MARC 2006 Ramadan fasting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerguini, Yacine; Dvorak, Jiri; Maughan, Ronald J; Leiper, John B; Bartagi, Zakia; Kirkendall, Donald T; Al-Riyami, Masoud; Junge, Astrid

    2008-12-01

    The timing of food and liquid intake depends on the times of sunset and sunrise during the month of Ramadan. The current body of knowledge presents contradicting results as to the effect of Ramadan fasting on body mass, body composition and metabolic changes. The main objective of the present investigation was to gain additional information and scientific data in conformity with the philosophical background of Islam to allow optimisation of the daily training and dietary regimen in relation to the mental and physical performance of football players. The four teams, along with their coaches and trainers, attended a residential training camp at training centre 3 weeks before the start of Ramadan and throughout the study. Energy intake was relatively stable in the fasting group, but there was a small, albeit significant, decrease of approximately 0.7 kg in body mass. Water intake increased on average by 1.3 l/day in line with the greater energy intake in the non-fasting group in Ramadan. Daily sodium intake fell during Ramadan in the fasting players but increased slightly in the non-fasting group. Fasting players trained on average 11 h after their last food and drink, and reported that they felt slightly less ready to train during the Ramadan fast. None of the assessed performance variables was negatively affected by fasting while nearly all variables showed significant improvement at the third test session, indicating a training effect. Heart rate measurements in one training session during the third week of Ramadan appeared to suggest that the training load during training was marginally greater for the fasting than for the non-fasting players. However, the overall exercise load measures indicated that there was no biologically significant difference between the fasting and non-fasting groups. In the present study, biochemical, nutritional, subjective well-being and performance variables were not adversely affected in young male football players who followed

  18. Mesoscale energetics and flows induced by sea-land and mountain-valley contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federico

    2000-02-01

    opposing coastlines do not interact. Over Calabria peninsula, numerical simulations show that the flow is highly ageostrophic, and that the flow intensity increases from sunrise to reach its maximum in the afternoon but before sunset, which suggests that, in the late part of the day, the conversion of potential energy into kinetic energy is balanced by the dissipation.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; mesoscale meteorology

  19. Vitamin D Deficiency Prevalence and Predictors in Early Pregnancy among Arab Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Al-Musharaf

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Data regarding the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy are limited. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 578 Saudi women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited between January 2014 and December 2015 from three tertiary care antenatal clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Information collected includes socio-economic, anthropometric, and biochemical data, including serum vitamin D (25(OHD levels, intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and sun exposure indices. Pregnant women with 25(OHD levels <50 nmol/L were considered vitamin D deficient. The majority of participants (n = 468 (81% were vitamin D deficient. High levels of indoor activity, whole body clothing, multiparity, total cholesterol/HDL ratio(>3.5, low HDL-cholesterol, and living in West Riyadh were significant independent predictors for vitamin D deficiency, with odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval of 25.4 (5.5–117.3, 17.8 (2.3–138.5, 4.0 (1.7–9.5, 3.3 (1.4–7.9, 2.8 (1.2–6.4, and 2.0 (1.1–3.5, respectively. Factors like increased physical activity, sun exposure at noon, sunrise or sunset, high educational status, and residence in North Riyadh were protective against vitamin D deficiency with ORs 0.2 (0.1–0.5; 0.2 (0.1–0.6; 0.3 (0.1–0.9; and 0.4 (0.2–0.8, respectively. All ORs were adjusted for age, BMI, sun exposure, parity, summer season, vitamin D intake, multivitamin intake, physical activity, education, employment, living in the north, and coverage with clothing. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi women during early pregnancy was high (81%. Timely detection and appropriate supplementation with adequate amounts of vitamin D should reduce the risks of vitamin D deficiency and its complications during pregnancy.

  20. Comparing and Merging Observation Data from Ka-Band Cloud Radar, C-Band Frequency-Modulated Continuous Wave Radar and Ceilometer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment in South China was undertaken to improve understanding of cloud and precipitation properties. Measurements of the vertical structures of non-precipitating and precipitating clouds were obtained using passive and active remote sensing equipment: a Ka-band cloud radar (CR system, a C-band frequency modulated continuous wave vertical pointing radar (CVPR, a microwave radiometer and a laser ceilometer (CEIL. CR plays a key role in high-level cloud observation, whereas CVPR is important for observing low- and mid-level clouds and heavy precipitation. CEIL helps us diminish the effects of “clear-sky” in the planetary boundary layer. The experiment took place in Longmen, Guangdong Province, China from May to September of 2016. This study focuses on evaluating the ability of the two radars to deliver consistent observation data and develops an algorithm to merge the CR, CVPR and CEIL data. Cloud echo base, thickness, frequency of observed cloud types and reflectivity vertical distributions are analyzed in the radar data. Comparisons between the collocated data sets show that reflectivity biases between the CR three operating modes are less than 2 dB. The averaged difference between CR and CVPR reflectivity can be reduced with attenuation correction to 3.57 dB from the original 4.82 dB. No systemic biases were observed between velocity data collected in the three CR modes and CVPR. The corrected CR reflectivity and velocity data were then merged with the CVPR data and CEIL data to fill in the gaps during the heavy precipitation periods and reduce the effects of Bragg scattering and fog on cloud observations in the boundary layer. Meanwhile, the merging of velocity data with different Nyquist velocities and resolutions diminishes velocity folding to provide fine-grain information about cloud and precipitation dynamics. The three daily periods in which low-level clouds tended to occur were at sunrise, noon and sunset and large

  1. Astronauts Need Their Rest Too: Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The success and effectiveness of human space flight depends on astronauts' ability to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance. This alert state ensures the proper operation of sophisticated instrumentation. An important way for humans to remedy fatigue and maintain alertness is to get plenty of rest. Astronauts, however, commonly experience difficulty sleeping while in space. During flight, they may also experience disruption of the body's circadian rhythm - the natural phases the body goes through every day as we oscillate between states of high activity during the waking day and recuperation, rest, and repair during nighttime sleep. Both of these factors are associated with impairment of alertness and performance, which could have important consequences during a mission in space. The human body was designed to sleep at night and be alert and active during the day. We receive these cues from the time of day or amount of light, such as the rising or setting of the sun. However, in the environment of the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station where light levels are highly variable, the characteristics of a 24-hour light/dark cycle are not present to cue the astronauts' bodies about what time of the day it is. Astronauts orbiting Earth see a sunset and sunrise every 90 minutes, sending potentially disruptive signals to the area of the brain that regulates sleep. On STS-107, researchers will measure sleep-wake activity with state-of-the-art technology to quantify how much sleep astronauts obtain in space. Because light is the most powerful time cue to the body's circadian system, individual light exposure patterns of the astronauts will also be monitored to determine if light exposure is associated with sleep disruption. The results of this research could lead to the development of a new treatment for sleep disturbances, enabling crewmembers to avoid the decrements in alertness and performance due to sleep deprivation. What we learn

  2. NmF2 Morphology during four-classes of solar and magnetic activity conditions at an African station around the EIA trough and comparison with IRI-2016 Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebesin, B.; Rabiu, B.; Obrou, O. K.

    2017-12-01

    Better understanding of the electrodynamics between parameters used in describing the ionospheric layer and their solar and geomagnetic influences goes a long way in furthering the expansion of space weather knowledge. Telecommunication and scientific radar launch activities can however be interrupted either on a larger/smaller scales by geomagnetic activities which is susceptible to changes in solar activity and effects. Consequently, the ionospheric NmF2 electrodynamics was investigated for a station near the magnetic dip in the African sector (Korhogo, Geomagnetic: -1.26°N, 67.38°E). Data covering years 1996 and 2000 were investigated for four categories of magnetic and solar activities viz (i) F10.7 7 nT (low solar disturbed, LSD); (iii) F10.7 > 150 sfu, ap ≤ 7 nT (high solar quiet, HSQ); and (iv) F10.7 > 150 sfu, ap > 7 nT (high solar disturbed, HSD). NmF2 revealed a pre-noon peak higher than the post-noon peak during high solar activity irrespective of magnetic activity condition and overturned during low solar activity. Higher NmF2 peak amplitude however characterise disturbed magnetic activity than quiet magnetic condition for any solar activity. The maximum pre-/post-noon peaks appeared in equinox season. June solstice noon-time bite out lagged other seasons by 1-2 h. Daytime variability increases with increasing magnetic activity. Equinox/June solstice recorded the highest pre-sunrise/post-sunset peak variability magnitudes with the lowest emerging in June solstice/equinox for all solar and magnetic conditions. The nighttime annual variability amplitude is higher during disturbed than quiet condition regardless of solar activity period; while the range is similar for daytime observations. The noon-time trough characteristics is not significant in the IRI NmF2 pattern during high solar activity but evident during low solar conditions. IRI-2016 map performed best during disturbed activity conditions especially for F10.7 7 nT condition.

  3. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  4. Trajectory Design Considerations for Exploration Mission 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Timothy F.; Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Batcha, Amelia L.; Williams, Jacob; Pedrotty, Samuel M.

    2018-01-01

    Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will be the first mission to send an uncrewed Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to cislunar space in the fall of 2019. EM-1 was originally conceived as a lunar free-return mission, but was later changed to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) mission as a precursor to the Asteroid Redirect Mission. To understand the required mission performance (i.e., propellant requirement), a series of trajectory optimization runs was conducted using JSC's Copernicus spacecraft trajectory optimization tool. In order for the runs to be done in a timely manner, it was necessary to employ a parallelization approach on a computing cluster using a new trajectory scan tool written in Python. Details of the scan tool are provided and how it is used to perform the scans and post-process the results. Initially, a scan of daily due east launched EM-1 DRO missions in 2018 was made. Valid mission opportunities are ones that do not exceed the useable propellant available to perform the required burns. The initial scan data showed the propellant and delta-V performance patterns for each launch period. As questions were raised from different subsystems (e.g., power, thermal, communications, flight operations, etc.), the mission parameters or data that were of interest to them were added to the scan output data file. The additional data includes: (1) local launch and landing times in relation to sunrise and sunset, (2) length of eclipse periods during the in-space portion of the mission, (3) Earth line of sight from cislunar space, (4) Deep Space Network field of view looking towards cislunar space, and (5) variation of the downrange distance from Earth entry interface to splashdown. Mission design trades can also be performed based on the information that the additional data shows. For example, if the landing is in darkness, but the recovery operations team desires a landing in daylight, then an analysis is performed to determine how to change the mission design

  5. DSCOVR/EPIC observations of SO2 reveal dynamics of young volcanic eruption clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, S. A.; Krotkov, N. A.; Taylor, S.; Fisher, B. L.; Li, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Prata, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ash have been measured by ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) sensors on US and European polar-orbiting satellites since the late 1970s. Although successful, the main limitation of these observations from low Earth orbit (LEO) is poor temporal resolution (once per day at low latitudes). Furthermore, most currently operational geostationary satellites cannot detect SO2, a key tracer of volcanic plumes, limiting our ability to elucidate processes in fresh, rapidly evolving volcanic eruption clouds. In 2015, the launch of the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) aboard the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) provided the first opportunity to observe volcanic clouds from the L1 Lagrange point. EPIC is a 10-band spectroradiometer spanning UV to near-IR wavelengths with two UV channels sensitive to SO2, and a ground resolution of 25 km. The unique L1 vantage point provides continuous observations of the sunlit Earth disk, from sunrise to sunset, offering multiple daily observations of volcanic SO2 and ash clouds in the EPIC field of view. When coupled with complementary retrievals from polar-orbiting UV and IR sensors such as the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), we demonstrate how the increased observation frequency afforded by DSCOVR/EPIC permits more timely volcanic eruption detection and novel analyses of the temporal evolution of volcanic clouds. Although EPIC has detected several mid- to high-latitude volcanic eruptions since launch, we focus on recent eruptions of Bogoslof volcano (Aleutian Islands, AK, USA). A series of EPIC exposures from May 28-29, 2017, uniquely captures the evolution of SO2 mass in a young Bogoslof eruption cloud, showing separation of SO2- and ice-rich regions of the cloud. We show how analyses of these sequences of EPIC SO2 data can elucidate poorly understood processes in transient eruption

  6. 78 FR 13626 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    .... Shanghai Fangjia Industry Co., Ltd.... No. Shanghai Hospitality Product Mfg., No. Co., Ltd. Shanghai... Co., Ltd., Artwork Metal & Plastic Co., Ltd., Jibson Industries Ltd., Always Loyal International.... Taicang Sunrise Wood Industry Co., Ltd., Taicang Fairmount Designs Furniture Co., Ltd., Meizhou Sunrise...

  7. 76 FR 40322 - Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort Parking Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... fleet. Also, the location of the current maintenance shop impedes traffic flow and removes potential... new Sunrise Vehicle Maintenance Shop on the north side of the Sunrise parking lot. DATES: Comments... increasing parking capacity and improving traffic flow in at Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort. Parking capacity...

  8. 77 FR 53867 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... a courtesy, we are making information related to Sunset proceedings, including copies of the... regulations on submission of proprietary information and eligibility to receive access to business proprietary...

  9. 75 FR 53664 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Review). Filing Information As a courtesy, we are making information related to Sunset Review proceedings... submission of proprietary information and eligibility to receive access to business proprietary information...

  10. 75 FR 5042 - Initiation of Five-year (“Sunset”) Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...-0182 Filing Information As a courtesy, we are making information related to Sunset proceedings... submission of proprietary information and eligibility to receive access to business proprietary information...

  11. 77 FR 44213 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and the Republic of Korea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Duty Operations, from Melissa G. Skinner, Director, Office 3, on ``Sunset Reviews of the Antidumping... Assistant Secretary for Antidumping Duty and Countervailing Duty Operations, from Melissa G. Skinner...

  12. 78 FR 34989 - Sodium Hexametaphosphate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited First...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited First Sunset Review of the Antidumping.... SUMMARY: On February 1, 2013, the Department of Commerce (the ``Department'') initiated the first five-year (``sunset'') review of the antidumping duty order on sodium hexametaphosphate from the People's...

  13. 75 FR 13489 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes and Brush Heads from the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Brushes and Brush Heads from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review... from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). See Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009...

  14. 75 FR 12497 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India and the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Pigment 23 from India and the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Reviews of... antidumping duty orders on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from India and the People's Republic of China... Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009) (Notice of Initiation). The Department...

  15. 78 FR 64472 - Laminated Woven Sacks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited First...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited First Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty...'') initiated the first five-year (``sunset'') review of the antidumping duty order on laminated woven sacks from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

  16. 76 FR 7151 - Certain Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and the People...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Reviews of the Antidumping Duty..., Thailand, and the People's Republic of China (PRC), pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 60731 (October 1, 2010...

  17. 75 FR 11120 - Hand Trucks and Certain Parts Thereof from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Parts Thereof from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Five-year (Sunset) Review... the People's Republic of China (PRC) pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended... section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009...

  18. 77 FR 54898 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the Antidumping.... SUMMARY: On May 1, 2012, the Department of Commerce (``the Department'') initiated the first five-year (``sunset'') review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the People's...

  19. 76 FR 64312 - Light-Walled Welded Rectangular Carbon Steel Tubing From Taiwan: Final Results of the Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Rectangular Carbon Steel Tubing From Taiwan: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the Antidumping... the antidumping duty order on light-walled welded rectangular carbon steel tubing from Taiwan pursuant... steel tubing from Taiwan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset...

  20. Counting master integrals: Integration by parts vs. differential reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu.; Kniehl, Bernd A.

    2011-01-01

    The techniques of integration by parts and differential reduction differ in the counting of master integrals. This is illustrated using as an example the two-loop sunset diagram with on-shell kinematics. A new algebraic relation between the master integrals of the two-loop sunset diagram that does not follow from the standard integration-by-parts technique is found.

  1. The Size of Earth from Seven Miles Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottmann, J.

    2013-01-01

    While on a vacation flight from Hawaii to California, I observed sunset occurring on clouds far below. The view triggered a vague memory about a fun article 1 published more than three decades earlier on the topic of "Doubling Your Sunsets." Simple observations from my flight made it possible to compute the Earth's radius.

  2. Counting master integrals. Integration by parts vs. differential reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu; Kniehl, Bernd A.

    2011-05-01

    The techniques of integration by parts and differential reduction differ in the counting of master integrals. This is illustrated using as an example the two- loop sunset diagram with on-shell kinematics. A new algebraic relation between the master integrals of the two-loop sunset diagram that does not follow from the integration-by-parts technique is found. (orig.)

  3. Characterization of down-valley winds in stable stratification from the KASCADE field campaign and WRF mesoscale simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duine, Gert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    and Durance down-valley (CDV and DDV, respectively) winds are both dominating flows during the period of investigation. Once stable stratification has set around sunset, CDV wind continuously grows and thickens. The profile forms in a jet which is mostly observed at around 30 m agl with 2 - 3 m s -1 . CDV wind is a thermally driven flow, which persists regularly throughout the night and disappears in the early morning alongside stable stratification. Though the Cadarache current observational network lacks means of measurement for inside CDV wind, this work shows that it can be now forecasted from available meteorological tower observations. Although the forecast of CDV wind is out of reach of mesoscale modeling on a kilometer-scale resolution, the now casting methodology developed here could be used to forecast it by means of a combination of dynamical and statistical down-scaling. The DDV wind has been investigated by means of observations and modeling - all IOPs were simulated with an optimized WRF configuration at a 1-km horizontal grid spacing. The DDV wind has been recognized as down-valley oriented, and strongly related to stability at a regional scale, as it exists only after sunset when synoptic forcing is very weak. On the one hand, though highly variable, the DDV wind arrival at Cadarache is mostly observed 6 to 9 hours after sunset. On the other hand, it is dominantly present around sunrise, when convectively driven processes are not yet established. Jets are observed mostly at around 175 - 225 m agl with wind speeds between 4 and 8 m s -1 . DDV wind depth appears to be closely related to valley depth, which varies throughout the DV. Some deficiencies of the simulations are found, including underestimations of diurnal temperature ranges, overestimations of atmospheric turbulent fluxes, too early timing for onset and cessation of DDV wind. Despite these, the DDV wind is simulated close to reality thanks to the 1-km resolution allowing a correct

  4. Comparative behaviour and ecology of two sympatric mongoose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Galerefla frequented bush, whereas Cynictis frequented open fields. The yellow mongoose .... approach of a man walking slowly towards the mongoose). ... ences in time between the sunrise and the start of activity times, and ...

  5. Metal. Uut ja vana

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    22. septembril esinesid Von Krahli Teatris neli eesti kolemuusikabändi. Heliplaatidest Forgotten Sunrise "a.Nimal f.Lesh - looma liha", Scavenger "Goattrend", Bestia "Demo", Celestial Crown "Invasion of Suicidal Angels"

  6. 75 FR 16186 - Petitions for Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ...-2010-014-C. Petitioner: Sunrise Coal, LLC, 1183, East Canvasback Drive, Terre Haute, Indiana 47802... Drive, Terre Haute, Indiana 47802. Mine: Carlisle Mine, MSHA I.D. No. 12-02349, located in Sullivan...

  7. Pop / Erik Morna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Morna, Erik, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: The Killers "Sawdust", Forgotten Sunrise "Different knots of Ropelove", Youssou N'Dour "Rokku mi rokka", Wolfpack Unleashed "Anthems Of Resistance", Robert Plant / Alison Krauss "Raising Sand", Sigur Ros"Hvarf-Heim"

  8. Siidii / Kreete Reval

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reval, Kreete

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Velvet Legion "Velvet Legion", Lou Reed "The Raven", Forgotten Sunrise "Please Disconnect Me", Ry Cooder & Manuel Galban "Mambo Sinuendo", Robert Jürjendal & Henn Rebane "Eesti Asi", Melanie C "Reason"

  9. Plaadid / Ants Tõnisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnisson, Ants

    2004-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest "Paris Fetiche", Forgotten Sunrise "Ru.mipu:dus", Wiley "Treddin' On Thin Ice", Sweetback "Stage", Incubus "A Crow Left of the Murder" Masters at Work Present "Latin Verve Sounds"

  10. Plaadid : Pop & rock / Rein Vader

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vader, Rein

    2002-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Cypress Hill "Stoned raiders", Anastacia "Freak Of Nature", Alicia Keys "Songs In A Minor", Robbie Williams "Swing When You're Winning", "Royal House Dance", Yoko Ono "Blueprint For A Sunrise"

  11. Uusi heliplaate / Kozy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kozy, pseud.

    2000-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Cypress Hill "Skull & Bones", Bizarre "Any Day", Steve Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble "Blues at Sunrise", Sweeney "S/T", A-Ha "minor earth, Major Sky", Kadi Toom "3 4", "Randall & Hopkirk"

  12. Pop / Erkki Luuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luuk, Erkki, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Column One "The Audience Is Sleeping", Ry Cooder & Manuel Galban "Mambo Sinuendo", Mr. Scruff "Trouser Jazz", Forgotten Sunrise "Ple:se Disconnect Me", Jan Jelinek "La Nouvelle Pauvrete"

  13. The Globe of Science and Innovation at dawn

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    CERN's exhibition centre 'the Globe of Science and Innovation' is seen just after sunrise. This wooden building was given to CERN in 2004 as a gift from the Swiss Confederation to mark 50 years since the Organisation's foundation.

  14. Pop / Tristan Priimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priimägi, Tristan, 1976-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: "Myth Takes", Mira Calix "Eyes Set Against The Sun", Brides in Bloom "Love Criminal", Forgotten Sunrise "Willand", Radiohead "Airbag / How Am I Driving", Jimi Tenor & Kabu Kabu "Joystone", The Concretes "Hey Trouble", Black Rebel Motorcycle Club "Baby 81"

  15. Morning reduction of photosynthetic capacity before midday depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kohei; Takemoto, Shuhei

    2014-03-17

    Midday depression of photosynthesis has important consequences for ecosystem carbon exchange. Recent studies of forest trees have demonstrated that latent reduction of photosynthetic capacity can begin in the early morning, preceding the midday depression. We investigated whether such early morning reduction also occurs in an herbaceous species, Oenothera biennis. Diurnal changes of the photosynthetic light response curve (measured using a light-emitting diode) and incident sunlight intensity were measured under field conditions. The following results were obtained: (1) the light-saturated photosynthetic rate decreased beginning at sunrise; (2) the incident sunlight intensity on the leaves increased from sunrise; and (3) combining (1) and (2), the net photosynthetic rate under natural sunlight intensity increased from sunrise, reached a maximum at mid-morning, and then showed midday depression. Our results demonstrate that the latent morning reduction of photosynthetic capacity begins at sunrise, preceding the apparent midday depression, in agreement with previous studies of forest trees.

  16. Plaadid / Marko Tiidelepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiidelepp, Marko

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Avril Lavigne "The Best Damn Thing", "Hip Hop V. The Collection", Michael Buble "Call Me Irresponsible", Good Charlotte "Good Morning Revival", Sunrise Avenue "On the Way to Wonderland", "Shrek The Third", Snipe "Million Dollaz"

  17. Limitations to Wildlife Habitat Connectivity in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Trask, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) conducted an evaluation of existing wildlife habitat and movement corridors within southeast Portland, where a new section of highway (the Sunrise Corridor) is proposed. The purpose was to develop a comprehensive strategy to preserve and enhance connections for wildlife passage potentially impacted by the Sunrise Corridor project. The evaluation illustrates limitations to urban wildlife protection that are not typically considered. The proposed a...

  18. Van Gogh's Starry Nights, Lincoln's Moon, Shakespeare's Stars, and More: Tales of Astronomy in Art, History, and Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Donald

    2009-10-01

    How do astronomical methods make it possible to calculate dates and times for Vincent van Gogh's night-sky paintings? Why is there a blood-red sky in Edvard Munch's The Scream? On what dates did Ansel Adams create his moonrise photographs in Yosemite? How can the 18.6-year cycle of the lunar nodes and the Moon's declination on the night of August 29-30, 1857, explain a long-standing mystery about Abraham Lincoln's honesty in the murder case known as the almanac trial? Why is a bright star described in Act 1, Scene 1, of Hamlet? To answer questions like these, our Texas State group has published a series of articles over the last two decades, applying astronomy to art, history, and literature.

  19. Nocturnal behavior by a diurnal ape, the West African chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus), in a savanna environment at Fongoli, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruetz, Jill D

    2018-02-08

    I report on the nocturnal behavior of Fongoli chimpanzees in a savanna mosaic during different seasons and lunar phases and test the hypothesis that hot daytime temperatures influence activity at night. I predicted that apes would be more active at night during periods of greater lunar illuminosity given diurnal primates' lack of visual specializations for low-light conditions and in dry season months when water scarcity exacerbated heat stress. I observed chimpanzees for 403 hrs on 40 nights between 2007 and 2013 and categorized their activity as social, movement, or vocalization. I scored their activity as occurring after moonrise or before moonset and considered the influence of moon phase (fuller versus darker phases) as well as season on chimpanzee nocturnal behavior in the analyses. Results indicate that apes were more active after moonrise or before moonset during fuller moon phases in the dry season but not the wet season. Most night-time activity involved movement (travel or forage), followed by social behavior, and long-distance vocal communication. Animals in highly seasonal habitats often exhibit thermoregulatory adaptations but, like other primates, chimpanzees lack physiological mechanisms to combat thermal stress. This study provides evidence that they may exhibit behaviors that allow them to avoid high temperatures in a savanna environment, such as feeding and socializing at night during the hottest time of year and in the brightest moon phases. The results support theories invoking thermal stress as a selective pressure for hominins in open environments where heat would constrain temporal foraging niches, and suggest an adaptability of sleeping patterns in response to external factors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The New Sun-Sky-Lunar Cimel CE318-T Multiband Photometer - A Comprehensive Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Africa; Cuevas, Emilio; Granados-Munoz, Maria-Jose; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Romero, Pedro M.; Grobner, Julian; Kouremeti, Natalia; Almansa, Antonio F.; Stone, Tom; Toledano, Carlos; hide

    2016-01-01

    measurements from independent reference instruments has served to assess the CE318-T performance as well as to confirm its estimated uncertainty. Daytime AOD evaluation, performed at Izana station from March to June 2014, encompassed measurements from a reference CE318-T, a CE318-AERONET master instrument, a Precision Filter Radiometer (PFR) and a Precision Spectroradiometer (PSR) prototype, reporting low AOD discrepancies between the four instruments (up to 0.006). The nocturnal AOD evaluation was performed using CE318-T- and starphotometer-collocated measurements and also by means of a day/night coherence transition test using the CE318-T master instrument and the CE318 daytime data from the CE318-AERONET master instrument. Results showed low discrepancies with the star photometer at 870 and 500 nm channels(less tna or equal to 0.013) and differences with AERONET daytime data (1 h after and before sunset and sunrise) in agreement with the estimated u(sup N)(sub AOD) values at all illumination conditions in the case of channels within the visible spectral range, and only for high moon's illumination conditions in the case of near infrared channels. Perceptible water vapour (PWV) validation showed a good agreement between CE318-T and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) PWV values for all illumination conditions, within the expected precision for sun photometry. Finally, two case studies have been included to highlight the ability of the new CE318-T to capture the diurnal cycle of aerosols and water vapour as well as short-term atmospheric variations, critical for climate studies.

  1. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Martín García Island, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M Ronderos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1183-1194. Epub 2011 September 01.Alrededor de 230 especies de ceratopogónidos han sido registradas o descritas en Argentina, 38 de ellas son conocidas para la provincia de Buenos Aires y sólo una ha sido previamente citada para la Isla Martín García. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir de muestreos realizados en seis viajes a la isla

  2. A review of models and micrometeorological methods used to estimate wetland evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, J.Z.; Snyder, R.L.; Spano, D.; Paw, U.K.T.

    2004-01-01

    Within the past decade or so, the accuracy of evapotranspiration (ET) estimates has improved due to new and increasingly sophisticated methods. Yet despite a plethora of choices concerning methods, estimation of wetland ET remains insufficiently characterized due to the complexity of surface characteristics and the diversity of wetland types. In this review, we present models and micrometeorological methods that have been used to estimate wetland ET and discuss their suitability for particular wetland types. Hydrological, soil monitoring and lysimetric methods to determine ET are not discussed. Our review shows that, due to the variability and complexity of wetlands, there is no single approach that is the best for estimating wetland ET. Furthermore, there is no single foolproof method to obtain an accurate, independent measure of wetland ET. Because all of the methods reviewed, with the exception of eddy covariance and LIDAR, require measurements of net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G), highly accurate measurements of these energy components are key to improving measurements of wetland ET. Many of the major methods used to determine ET can be applied successfully to wetlands of uniform vegetation and adequate fetch, however, certain caveats apply. For example, with accurate Rn and G data and small Bowen ratio (??) values, the Bowen ratio energy balance method can give accurate estimates of wetland ET. However, large errors in latent heat flux density can occur near sunrise and sunset when the Bowen ratio ?? ??? - 1??0. The eddy covariance method provides a direct measurement of latent heat flux density (??E) and sensible heat flux density (II), yet this method requires considerable expertise and expensive instrumentation to implement. A clear advantage of using the eddy covariance method is that ??E can be compared with Rn-G H, thereby allowing for an independent test of accuracy. The surface renewal method is inexpensive to replicate and, therefore, shows

  3. Retrieval of stratospheric and tropospheric BrO profiles and columns using ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations at Harestua, 60° N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Pyle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A profiling algorithm based on the optimal estimation method is applied to ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible measurements from Harestua, Southern Norway (60° N, 11° E in order to retrieve BrO vertical profiles. The sensitivity of the zenith-sky observations to the tropospheric BrO detection is increased by using for the spectral analysis a fixed reference spectrum corresponding to clear-sky noon summer conditions. The information content and retrieval errors are characterized and it is shown that the retrieved stratospheric profiles and total columns are consistent with correlative balloon and satellite observations, respectively. Tropospheric BrO columns are derived from profiles retrieved at 80° solar zenith angle during sunrise and sunset for the 2000–2006 period. They show a marked seasonality with mean column value ranging from 1.52±0.62×1013 molec/cm² in late winter/early spring to 0.92±0.38×1013 molec/cm² in summer, which corresponds to 1.0±0.4 and 0.6±0.2 pptv, respectively, if we assume that BrO is uniformly mixed in the troposphere. These column values are also consistent with previous estimates made from balloon, satellite, and other ground-based observations. Daytime (10:30 LT tropospheric BrO columns are compared to the p-TOMCAT 3-D tropospheric chemical transport model (CTM for the 2002–2003 period. p-TOMCAT shows a good agreement with the retrieved columns except in late winter/early spring where an underestimation by the model is obtained. This finding could be explained by the non-inclusion of sea-ice bromine sources in the current version of p-TOMCAT. Therefore the model cannot reproduce the possible transport of air-masses with enhanced BrO concentration due to bromine explosion events from the polar region to Harestua. The daytime stratospheric BrO columns are compared to the SLIMCAT stratospheric 3-D-CTM. The model run used in this study, which assumes 21.2 pptv for the Bry loading (15 pptv for long

  4. Shuttle Columbia Post-landing Tow - with Reflection in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. MartinMarietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

  5. The Terminator Time in subionospheric VLF/LF diurnal variation as recorded by the Romanian VLF/LF radio monitoring system related to earthquake occurrence and volcano erruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, I. A.; Moldovan, A. S.; Biagi, P. F.; Ionescu, C.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Boudjada, M. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Romanian VLF/LF monitoring system consisting in a radio receiver and the infrastructure that is necessary to record and transmit the collected data is part of the European international network named INFREP. Information on electromagnetic fields' intensities created by transmitters at a receiving site are indicating the quality of the propagation along the paths between the receivers and transmitters. Studying the ionosphere's influences on the electromagnetic waves' propagation along a certain path is a method to put into evidence possible modifications of its lower structure and composition as earthquakes' precursors. The VLF/LF receiver installed in Romania was put into operation in February 2009 and has already 3 years of testing, functioning and proving its utility in the forecast of some earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. Simultaneously we monitor, in the same site with the VLF/LF receiver, the vertical atmospheric electric field and different other meteorological parameters as: temperature, pressure or rainfall. The global magnetic conditions are emphasized with the help of Daily Geomagnetic Index Kp. At a basic level, the adopted analysis consists in a simple statistical evaluation of the signals by comparing the instantaneous values to the trend of the signal. In this paper we pay attention to the terminator times in subionospheric VLF/LF diurnal variation, which are defined as the times of minimum in amplitude (or phase) around sunrise and sunset. These terminator times are found to shift significantly just around the earthquake. In the case of Kobe earthquake, there were found significant shifts in both morning and evening terminator times and these authors interpreted the shift in terminator time in terms of the lowering of lower ionosphere by using the full-wave mode theory. A LabVIEW application which accesses the VLF/LF receiver through internet was developed. This program opens the receiver's web-page and automatically retrieves the list of data

  6. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  7. A Unique test for Hubble's new Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    In mid-October, a team from the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA will perform a difficult, never-before-done test on one of the Hubble Space Telescope's new solar array panels. Two of these panels, or arrays, will be installed by astronauts in November 2001, when the Space Shuttle Columbia visits Hubble on a routine service mission. The test will ensure that the new arrays are solid and vibration free before they are installed on orbit. The test will be conducted at ESA's European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) in Noordwijk, The Netherlands. Because of the array's size, the facility's special features, and ESA's longstanding experience with Hubble's solar arrays, ESTEC is the only place in the world the test can be performed. This test is the latest chapter in a longstanding partnership between ESA and NASA on the Hubble Space Telescope. The Large Space Simulator at ESTEC, ESA's world-class test facility, features a huge vacuum chamber containing a bank of extremely bright lights that simulate the Sun's intensity - including sunrise and sunset. By exposing the solar wing to the light and temperature extremes of Hubble's orbit, engineers can verify how the new set of arrays will act in space. Hubble orbits the Earth once every 90 minutes. During each orbit, the telescope experiences 45 minutes of searing sunlight and 45 minutes of frigid darkness. This test will detect any tiny vibrations, or jitters, caused by these dramatic, repeated changes. Even a small amount of jitter can affect Hubble's sensitive instruments and interfere with observations. Hubble's first set of solar arrays experienced mild jitter and was replaced in 1993 with a much more stable pair. Since that time, advances in solar cell technology have led to the development of even more efficient arrays. In 2001, NASA will take advantage of these improvements, by fitting Hubble with a third-generation set of arrays. Though smaller, this new set generates more power than the previous

  8. Analysis and comparison between a concentrating solar and a photovoltaic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, Umberto; Campana, Pietro Elia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of CSP and PV plants were compared with similar assumptions. • The influence of the site on the performance of CSP and PV plants is determined. • CSP plants performance is always higher in locations where DNI is prevailing. • CSP levelized electricity costs are generally lower than those from PV plants. • PV plants may produce larger amounts of electricity where the DNI is not prevailing. - Abstract: Solar energy is a source, which can be exploited in two main ways to generate power: direct conversion into electric energy using photovoltaic panels and by means of a thermodynamic cycle. In both cases the amount of energy, which can be converted, is changing daily and seasonally, causing a discontinuous electricity production. In order to limit this drawback, concentrated solar power plants (CSP) and photovoltaic plants (PV) can be equipped with a storage system that can be configured not only for covering peak-loads but also for the base-load after the sunset or before the sunrise. In CSP plants it is the sun’s thermal energy to be stored, whereas in PV applications it is the electrical energy to be stored in batteries, although this is not economically and environmentally feasible in large-scale power plants. The main aim of this paper is to study the performance of concentrated solar power plants equipped with molten salts thermal storage to cover a base load of 3 MW el . In order to verify the possibility of storing effectively the thermal energy and to design a plant for base load operation, two locations were chosen for the study: Gela in southern Italy, and Luxor in Egypt. The electricity production of the CSP facilities has been analyzed and then compared with the electricity production of PV plants. Two different comparisons were done, one by sizing the PV plant to provide the same peak power and one using the same collectors surface. This paper has also highlighted some important issues in site selection and in

  9. Objective evaluation of choroidal melanin contents with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masahiro; Makita, Shuichi; Yasuno, Yoshiaki; Ikuno, Yasushi; Uematsu, Sato; Iwasaki, Takuya; Goto, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    We non-invasively evaluated choroidal melanin contents in human eyes with PS-OCT. We calculated the percentage area of low DOPU in the choroidal interstitial stroma for Vogt-Koyanagi- Harada disease with sunset glow fundus, without sunset glow fundus, control group and tessellated fundus with high myopia. The mean percentage area of low DOPU in the sunset group was significantly lower than the other groups. PS-OCT provides an in vivo objective evaluation of choroidal melanin loss in vivo human eyes.

  10. 78 FR 8698 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013 0005] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... BEANS is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: Sightseeing and sunset cruises. Geographic Region: Florida...

  11. 78 FR 6192 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-65; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... incorporated in the United States and then reincorporated in a tax haven. Item II--Extension of Sunset Date for... minimal economic impact on small businesses because the 2 percent excise tax is [[Page 6193

  12. 76 FR 74775 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ...). Filing Information As a courtesy, we are making information related to Sunset proceedings, including... business proprietary information under APO can be found at 19 CFR 351.304-306. Information Required From...

  13. 76 FR 11202 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... (202) 482-0162. Filing Information As a courtesy, we are making information related to Sunset... regulations on submission of proprietary information and eligibility to receive access to business proprietary...

  14. 76 FR 18163 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    .... Filing Information As a courtesy, we are making information related to Sunset Review proceedings... eligibility to receive access to business proprietary information under APO can be found at 19 CFR 351.304-306...

  15. 75 FR 103 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Filing Information As a courtesy, we are making information related to Sunset proceedings, including... information and eligibility to receive access to business proprietary information under APO can be found at 19...

  16. 76 FR 5563 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Goldberger, (202) 482-4136. Filing Information As a courtesy, we are making information related to Sunset... regulations on submission of proprietary information and eligibility to receive access to business proprietary...

  17. 77 FR 45589 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review and Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... As a courtesy, we are making information related to Sunset proceedings, including copies of the... regulations on submission of proprietary information and eligibility to receive access to business proprietary...

  18. 78 FR 13862 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...-5047. Filing Information As a courtesy, we are making information related to Sunset proceedings... information and eligibility to receive access to business proprietary information under APO can be found at 19...

  19. 77 FR 59897 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ..., Review). (202) 482-1391. Filing Information As a courtesy, we are making information related to Sunset... information and eligibility to receive access to business proprietary information under APO can be found at 19...

  20. 78 FR 72061 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...). 4136. Filing Information As a courtesy, we are making information related to sunset proceedings... eligibility to receive access to business proprietary information under APO can be found at 19 CFR 351.304-306...

  1. 78 FR 68813 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, New Jersey Application for Reorganization/Expansion Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ...)-- Middlesex Center, 200 Middlesex Drive, Cranbury; Site 6 (35 acres, sunset 11/30/13)--EastPointe Property... Counties of Ocean, Middlesex, Monmouth, Union and Burlington, New Jersey, as described in the application...

  2. 75 FR 339 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Department contact Tissue Paper Products from the People's Brandon Farlander (202) 482-0182. Republic of... Sunset Reviews are set forth in 19 CFR 351.218. Guidance on methodological or analytical issues relevant...

  3. 77 FR 12561 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Department contact Folding Gift Boxes From the People's Republic Jennifer Moats (202) 482-5047. of China (A... analytical issues relevant to the Department's conduct of Sunset Reviews is set forth in the Department's...

  4. Zero-Based Budgeting in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Marie; Eckert, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Zero-based budgeting (ZBB) refers to a system whereby the entire nursing program is reevaluated yearly and justification for all programs and expenditures must be made. ZBB is compared to the governmental sunset law. (JOW)

  5. 32 CFR 770.2 - Licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required for all persons between the ages sixteen and sixty-four, inclusive. (1) The privilege card may be... one hour after either sunset or the hour hunting is secured on holidays or during special season. (d...

  6. Two energy storage alternatives for a solar-powered sustainable single floor desert home

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    the solar energy driving the whole energy system. During the day time, the modules form an elevated horizontal surface above the roof, shielding it from direct solar radiation. After sunset, the photovoltaic modules are flipped vertically upwards to expose

  7. Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) Sunsetted/For Reference ... page is not being updated . The Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) began as the ...

  8. Identifikasi Pewarna Sintesis Pada Minuman Serbuk Rasa Jeruk Secara Kromatografi Kertas Di Balai Besar Pengawas Obat Dan Makanan

    OpenAIRE

    Jawari, Amalia Putri

    2015-01-01

    Identification has been made of synthetic dyes contained in the powder drink orange flavor in Chromatography Paper at the Center for Food and Drug Administration. Solvents are used to determine the synthesis of dyes is the ratio of the volume of isobutanol: ethanol: water is 3: 2: 2 and trisodium as elution and with Methilen Yellow, Ponceau 4 R, Tartrazine, and Yellow FCF / Sunset Yellow as a solution Baku. From the results of the analysis obtained dye Sunset Yellow and Tart...

  9. Effects of lek count protocols on greater sage-grouse population trend estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian; Edmunds, David; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2016-01-01

    Annual counts of males displaying at lek sites are an important tool for monitoring greater sage-grouse populations (Centrocercus urophasianus), but seasonal and diurnal variation in lek attendance may increase variance and bias of trend analyses. Recommendations for protocols to reduce observation error have called for restricting lek counts to within 30 minutes of sunrise, but this may limit the number of lek counts available for analysis, particularly from years before monitoring was widely standardized. Reducing the temporal window for conducting lek counts also may constrain the ability of agencies to monitor leks efficiently. We used lek count data collected across Wyoming during 1995−2014 to investigate the effect of lek counts conducted between 30 minutes before and 30, 60, or 90 minutes after sunrise on population trend estimates. We also evaluated trends across scales relevant to management, including statewide, within Working Group Areas and Core Areas, and for individual leks. To further evaluate accuracy and precision of trend estimates from lek count protocols, we used simulations based on a lek attendance model and compared simulated and estimated values of annual rate of change in population size (λ) from scenarios of varying numbers of leks, lek count timing, and count frequency (counts/lek/year). We found that restricting analyses to counts conducted within 30 minutes of sunrise generally did not improve precision of population trend estimates, although differences among timings increased as the number of leks and count frequency decreased. Lek attendance declined >30 minutes after sunrise, but simulations indicated that including lek counts conducted up to 90 minutes after sunrise can increase the number of leks monitored compared to trend estimates based on counts conducted within 30 minutes of sunrise. This increase in leks monitored resulted in greater precision of estimates without reducing accuracy. Increasing count

  10. Electrochemical sensor based on graphene and mesoporous TiO2 for the simultaneous determination of trace colourants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tian; Sun, Junyong; Meng, Wen; Song, Li; Zhang, Yuxia

    2013-12-15

    Currently, synthetic colourants draw much attention as food additives. This paper investigated the simultaneous electrocatalytic oxidation of sunset yellow and tartrazine, two yellow colourants commonly present in food together, with a novel voltammetric sensor based on graphene and mesoporous TiO2 modified carbon paste electrode. Due to the high accumulation effect and great catalytic capability of graphene and mesoporous TiO2, the developed sensor exhibited well-defined and separate square wave voltammetric peaks (i.e., 272 mV) for sunset yellow tartrazine. The peak currents of sunset yellow and tartrazine increased linearly with their concentration in the ranges of 0.02-2.05 μM and 0.02-1.18 μM, respectively. And the detection limit was 6.0 and 8.0 nM for sunset yellow and tartrazine, respectively. This new sensor was applied to determine sunset yellow and tartrazine in several food sample extracts. Results suggested that the proposed sensor was sensitive, rapid and reliable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. NASA rocket launches student project into space

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    A project that began in 2002 will culminate at sunrise on Tuesday, March 15, when a team of Virginia Tech engineering students watch a payload section they designed lift off aboard a sounding rocket from a launch pad at NASA's Wallops Island Flight Facility and travel 59 miles into space.

  12. Are We Looking at the Same Sun? Exploring the Seasons Using Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeff; Crenshaw, Kim; Higdon, Robbie

    2012-01-01

    The seasons are often modeled for students using two spherical objects, one representing the Sun and one representing the Earth. Solely using this model, however, neglects a critical aspect of learning--how students actually see the world. This lesson challenges students to explore seasonal variations as they create and analyze sunrise/sunset…

  13. Greenpeace seisab ametnike kiuste Paldiskis tankeri teel ees / Rasmus Kagge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kagge, Rasmus, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 27. sept. lk. 3. Keskkonnakaitseorganisatsiooni Greenpeace laeva Arctic Sunrise aktivistid takistavad Paldiskis Panama lipu all sõitva tankeri Probo Koala lahkumist, sest laev põhjustas Elevandiluurannikul ja Hollandis mürgiskandaali. Keskkonnaministeerium sai Elevandiluuranniku võimudelt meili, milles nõutakse Probo Koala arestimist

  14. Interactive Metronome Training in Children with Attention Deficit and Developmental Coordination Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosper, Sharon M.; Lee, Gregory P.; Peters, Susan Beth; Bishop, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of Interactive Metronome (Interactive Metronome, Sunrise, Florida, USA) training in a group of children with mixed attentional and motor coordination disorders to further explore which subcomponents of attentional control and motor functioning the training influences. Twelve children who had…

  15. Uudised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Kontsertidest: Ansambel Mr. Lawrence festivalil Rabarock 15.-16. juunil Järvakandis. Briti ansambel Muse 2. juulil Riias. Hollandi electro-industrial'i trio Grendel, elektrogooti ansambel Suicidal Romance, Forgotten Sunrise ja Mythron 3. märtsil Tallinnas klubis "Rockstar's"

  16. "Zeljonõje" hotjat uzakonit porjadok primenenija himikatov / Ksenia Repson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Repson, Ksenia

    2006-01-01

    Keskkonnakaitseorganisatsiooni Greenpeace laeva Arctic Sunrise aktivistid analüüsisid vabatahtlike verd, et leida sealt kahjulikke olmekemikaalide jääke. Projektist REACH, mis on üks abinõudest, millega luua eeliseid rohelisele keemiale ning ka turvalisemale keskkonnale

  17. 78 FR 79478 - Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... Change and Natural Resource Science AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Meeting notice... announce that the Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science will hold a meeting..., National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive...

  18. A network-based distributed, media-rich computing and information environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Sunrise is a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) project started in October 1993. It is intended to be a prototype National Information Infrastructure development project. A main focus of Sunrise is to tie together enabling technologies (networking, object-oriented distributed computing, graphical interfaces, security, multi-media technologies, and data-mining technologies) with several specific applications. A diverse set of application areas was chosen to ensure that the solutions developed in the project are as generic as possible. Some of the application areas are materials modeling, medical records and image analysis, transportation simulations, and K-12 education. This paper provides a description of Sunrise and a view of the architecture and objectives of this evolving project. The primary objectives of Sunrise are three-fold: (1) To develop common information-enabling tools for advanced scientific research and its applications to industry; (2) To enhance the capabilities of important research programs at the Laboratory; (3) To define a new way of collaboration between computer science and industrially-relevant research.

  19. Recovery Act Production of Algal BioCrude Oil from Cement Plant Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Weber; Norman Whitton

    2010-09-30

    The consortium, led by Sunrise Ridge Algae Inc, completed financial, legal, siting, engineering and environmental permitting preparations for a proposed demonstration project that would capture stack gas from an operating cement plant and convert the carbon dioxide to beneficial use as a liquid crude petroleum substitute and a coal substitute, using algae grown in a closed system, then harvested and converted using catalyzed pyrolysis.

  20. 77 FR 41808 - General Dynamics Itronix Corporation, a Subsidiary of General Dynamics Corporation, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,448] General Dynamics Itronix Corporation, a Subsidiary of General Dynamics Corporation, Including Remote Workers Reporting to Sunrise, FL..., 2012, a State Workforce Office requested administrative reconsideration of the negative determination...