WorldWideScience

Sample records for sunrise breakfast scenario

  1. Orbital Sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The STS-68 crew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour told a post-flight audience at JSC that this sunrise was one of the most scenic sunrises/ sunsets witnessed during the week and a half long Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-2) mission. Jutting clouds, back-lit by the dawn colors, are sandwiched between the blue airglow and the silhouetted horizon of Earth.

  2. Sunrise on Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casto, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Sunrise Museum's Science Hall in Charleston, WV, offers 30 hands-on exhibits that introduce children to science. Museum programs use a 9-foot soft-sculptured, unzippable doll to teach children about nutrition and basic anatomy and recruit representatives from local businesses and industry to conduct weekend science workshops. (LP)

  3. Sunrise Mission Highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Riethmüller, Tino L

    2015-01-01

    Solar activity is controlled by the magnetic field, which also causes the variability of the solar irradiance that in turn is thought to influence the climate on Earth. The magnetic field manifests itself in the form of structures of different sizes, starting with sunspots (10-50 Mm) down to the smallest known magnetic features that often have spatial extents of 100 km or less. The study of the fine scale structure of the Sun's magnetic field has been hampered by the limited spatial resolution of the available observations. This has recently changed thanks to new space and ground-based telescopes. A significant step forward has been taken by the Sunrise observatory, built around the largest solar telescope to leave the ground, and containing two science instruments. Sunrise had two successful long-duration science flights on a stratospheric balloon in June 2009 (solar activity minimum) and in June 2013 (at a high activity level) and a number of scientific results have been obtained that have greatly advanced ...

  4. [Sunrise gold foil jacket crown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecardonnel, A

    1989-09-01

    This technique permits the preparation of ceramic jacket crowns made on Sunrise laminated precious metal alloy. The Sunrise foil is gold-colored, made of 99% of precious metals and is 50 microns thick. The die is prepared in order to display a moderate and regular undercut beyond the cervical limit. The margin will be underlined with a red pencil. The Sunrise foil is cut according to predetermined templates. Then the foil is applied without burnishing, according to the technique of jacket crowns on platinum foil only by finger pressure. The double folding on closure is preferably done distally or mesially. Then, the metal base is disinserted, sandblasted with 100 microns aluminum oxide, replaced on its die, and placed in a rubber casing before being placed in the isostatic press, to be subjected to a pressure of 2,000 TSI (14 kg par cm2). Sunrise's orange color reinforces rather subtetly the overall color, making these reconstructions particularly esthetic. The color of the Sunrise metal does not require, therefore a too thick opaque. Any ceramic intended to be fired on a metal base, may be used in respecting its firing protocol. Sunrise, as any other technique of this type, require a careful preparation with a shoulder that has a rounded gingivoaxial line angle. Bridges may be built on the "thimbles" crowns, fitted on Sunrise cores, the pontics being made as a ceramo-metal framework.

  5. Forgotten Sunrise "Forgotten Sunrise. Behind The Abysmal Sky / Forever Sleeping Greystones". "The Moments When God Was Wrong" / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Forgotten Sunrise. Behind The Abysmal Sky / Forever Sleeping Greystones. [Tallinn] : Nailboard, 2009. Forgotten Sunrise. The Moments When God Was Wrong. [Tallinn] : Forgotten Sunrise, 2009. Uutest heliplaatidest

  6. Forgotten Sunrise "Forgotten Sunrise. Behind The Abysmal Sky / Forever Sleeping Greystones". "The Moments When God Was Wrong" / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Forgotten Sunrise. Behind The Abysmal Sky / Forever Sleeping Greystones. [Tallinn] : Nailboard, 2009. Forgotten Sunrise. The Moments When God Was Wrong. [Tallinn] : Forgotten Sunrise, 2009. Uutest heliplaatidest

  7. Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Soba, Marta; Maas, Rob

    2015-01-01

    We cannot predict the future with certainty, but we know that it is influenced by our current actions, and that these in turn are influenced by our expectations. This is why future scenarios have existed from the dawn of civilization and have been used for developing military, political and economic

  8. Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to give a synthetic presentation of hte well-known scenario method. Different schools and traditions will be shortly presented. In addition guidelines for hte use of this method will be discussed. Finally, applications will also be outlined as well as some critic...

  9. Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao M. Goncalves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Personal information is increasingly gathered and used for providing services tailored to user preferences, but the datasets used to provide such functionality can represent serious privacy threats if not appropriately protected. Work in privacy-preserving data publishing targeted privacy guarantees that protect against record re-identification, by making records indistinguishable, or sensitive attribute value disclosure, by introducing diversity or noise in the sensitive values. However, most approaches fail in the high-dimensional case, and the ones that don't introduce a utility cost incompatible with tailored recommendation scenarios. This paper aims at a sensible trade-off between privacy and the benefits of tailored recommendations, in the context of privacy-preserving data publishing. We empirically demonstrate that significant privacy improvements can be achieved at a utility cost compatible with tailored recommendation scenarios, using a simple partition-based sanitization method.

  10. Breakfast frequency among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab

    2016-01-01

    , quality of family communication and family support. Further, analyses suggested that the associations were more pronounced among girls, immigrants and adolescents from other family structure than traditional. The study highlights the importance of the family setting in promoting regular breakfast......OBJECTIVE: To investigate (i) associations between adolescents' frequency of breakfast and family functioning (close relations to parents, quality of family communication and family support) and (ii) if any observed associations between breakfast frequency and family functioning vary...... (n 3054) from a random sample of forty-one schools. RESULTS: Nearly one-quarter of the adolescents had low breakfast frequency. Low breakfast frequency was associated with low family functioning measured by three dimensions. The OR (95 % CI) of low breakfast frequency was 1·81 (1·40, 2...

  11. Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Affinita, Antonio; Catalani, Loredana; Cecchetto, Giovanna; De Lorenzo, Gianfranco; Dilillo, Dario; Donegani, Giorgio; Fransos, Lucia; Lucidi, Fabio; Mameli, Chiara; Manna, Elisa; Marconi, Paolo; Mele, Giuseppe; Minestroni, Laura; Montanari, Massimo; Morcellini, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this...

  12. Breakfast and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, S

    2001-12-01

    Evidence suggests that the effect of fasting on performance is not uniform, but it is dependent on the basal nutritional status of the subject. Breakfast consumption has a short-term effect in improving selected learning skills, especially work memory. School breakfast programmes have a positive effect on the nutritional status of children, on school attendance and probably on dropout rates. The effect of breakfast consumption on school performance depends on the interaction between the programme, student characteristics (malnutrition) and school organisation. Unless the school setting guarantees a minimum quality standard, the benefits of breakfast consumption will not be evident in performance in complex areas like language or maths.

  13. Sunrise deploys mobile network for CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Sunrise, the alternative telecoms provider in Switzerland, is finalizing the installation of a mobile network comprising about forty sites located around the new particle accelerator at CERN (1 paragraph)

  14. Sunrise over Mars - electronic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Caption: 'Taken during the Viking Orbiter 1's 40th revolution of Mars, this electronically transmitted image shows sunrise over the tributary canyons of a high plateau region. The white areas are bright clouds of water ice.' As the sun rises over Noctis Labryinthus (the labyrinth of the night), bright clouds of water ice can be observed in and around the tributary canyons of this high plateau region of Mars. This color composite image, reconstructed from three individual black and white frames taken through violet, green, and orange filters, vividly shows the distribution of the clouds against the rust colored background of this Martian desert. The picture was reconstructed by JPL's Image Processing Laboratory using in-flight calibration data to correct the color balance. Scientists have puzzled why the clouds cling to the canyon areas and, only in certain areas, spill over onto the plateau surface. One possibility is that water which condensed during the previous afternoon in shaded eastern-facing slopes of the canyon floor is vaporized as the early morning sun falls on those same slopes. The area covered is about 10,000 square kilometers (4000 square miles), centered at 9 degrees South, 95 degrees West, and the large partial crater at lower right is Oudemans. The picture was taken on Viking Orbiter 1's 40th revolution of the planet. Photograph and caption published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (pages 108-109), by James Schultz.

  15. Martian Sunrise at Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A Martian sunrise was captured in this Viking 2 Lander picture taken June 14, 1978, at the spacecraft's Utopia Planitia landing site. The data composing this image were acquired just as the Sun peaked over the horizon on the Lander's 631st sol (Martian solar day). Pictures taken at dawn (or dusk) are quite dark except where the sky is brightened above the Sun's position. The glow in the sky results as light from the Sun is scattered and preferentially absorbed by tiny particles of dust and ice in the atmosphere. When the Viking cameras are calibrated for darker scenes, the 'sky glow' tends to saturate their sensitivity and produce the bright regions seen here. The 'banding' and color separation effects are also artifacts, rather than real features, and are introduced because the cameras are not able to record continuous gradations of light. The cameras must represent such gradations in steps (bands) of brightness and color, and the process sometimes produces some 'false' colors within the bands. The scattering of light closest to the Sun's position tends to enhance blue wavelengths. The narrowing sky glow nearer the horizon above the Sun's position occurs as a result of light extinction. At that elevation, the optical path of sunlight through the atmosphere is at its longest penetration angle, and a substantial portion of the light is simply prevented from reaching the cameras by the dust, ice particles and other material in its way.NASA's Langley Research Center was the primary and extended mission manager; JPL assumed management for continued mission operations.

  16. The sunrise integral and elliptic polylogarithms

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Luise; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We summarize recent computations with a class of elliptic generalizations of polylogarithms, arising from the massive sunrise integral. For the case of arbitrary masses we obtain results in two and four space-time dimensions. The iterated integral structure of our functions allows us to furthermore compute the equal mass case to arbitrary order.

  17. Sunrise, Earth Limb, SW Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The colors of this sunrise/sunset scene provide insights into the relative density of the Earth's atmosphere (15.5S, 158.5E). This scene captures the silhouette of several thunderstorms with their cirrus anvil tops spreading out against the tropopause - the top of the lowest layer of atmosphere, the troposphere which is also the most dense and refracts light at the red end of the spectrum while the blues refract in the stratosphere, the highest layer.

  18. Universal free school breakfast: a qualitative model for breakfast behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eHarvey-Golding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the provision of school breakfast has increased significantly in the UK. However, research examining the effectiveness of school breakfast is still within relative stages of infancy, and findings to date have been rather mixed. Moreover, previous evaluations of school breakfast schemes have been predominantly quantitative in their methodologies. Presently there are few qualitative studies examining the subjective perceptions and experiences of stakeholders, and thereby an absence of knowledge regarding the sociocultural impacts of school breakfast. The purpose of this study was to investigate the beliefs, views and attitudes, and breakfast consumption behaviors, among key stakeholders, served by a council-wide universal free school breakfast initiative, within the North West of England, UK. A sample of children, parents and school staff were recruited from three primary schools, participating in the universal free school breakfast scheme, to partake in semi-structured interviews and small focus groups. A Grounded Theory analysis of the data collected identified a theoretical model of breakfast behaviors, underpinned by the subjective perceptions and experiences of these key stakeholders. The model comprises of three domains relating to breakfast behaviors, and the internal and external factors that are perceived to influence breakfast behaviors, among children, parents and school staff. Findings were validated using triangulation methods, member checks and inter-rater reliability measures. In presenting this theoretically grounded model for breakfast behaviors, this paper provides a unique qualitative insight into the breakfast consumption behaviors and barriers to breakfast consumption, within a socioeconomically deprived community, participating in a universal free school breakfast intervention program.

  19. What Time Is Sunrise? Revisiting the Refraction Component of Sunrise/set Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa; Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Hilton, James Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Algorithms that predict sunrise and sunset times currently have an error of one to four minutes at mid-latitudes (0° - 55° N/S) due to limitations in the atmospheric models they incorporate. At higher latitudes, slight changes in refraction can cause significant discrepancies, even including difficulties determining when the Sun appears to rise or set. While different components of refraction are known, how they affect predictions of sunrise/set has not yet been quantified. A better understanding of the contributions from temperature profile, pressure, humidity, and aerosols could significantly improve the standard prediction. We present a sunrise/set calculator that interchanges the refraction component by varying the refraction model. We then compare these predictions with data sets of observed rise/set times to create a better model. Sunrise/set times and meteorological data from multiple locations will be necessary for a thorough investigation of the problem. While there are a few data sets available, we will also begin collecting this data using smartphones as part of a citizen science project. The mobile application for this project will be available in the Google Play store. Data analysis will lead to more complete models that will provide more accurate rise/set times for the benefit of astronomers, navigators, and outdoorsmen everywhere.

  20. SUNRISE WORLD WAR英雄谭

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    SUNRISE WORLD WAR》是一款集合了历代 SUNRISE 作品的 S·RPG 类游戏(下面简称 SWW),今年暑假就会登场与我们见面。相信所有机战游戏迷们对于制作厂商 BANPRESTO 这个名字一定不会陌生吧,本作将继续由其顶头公司 BANDAI 亲自出马制作,游戏来到第三集,在阵容和系统上再现突破。紧张的故事剧情和多部精彩动画中的主人公使游戏更为引人。而且在游戏剧情介绍后还会有全作品登场表,相信这是所有动画和机战迷们不可错过的—项。

  1. The sunrise amplitude equation applied to an Egyptian temple

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    An equation, fundamental for solar energy applications, can be used to determine the sunrise amplitude at given latitude. It is therefore suitable for being applied to archaeoastronomical calculations concerning the orientation of towns, worship places and buildings. Here it is discussed the case of the Great Temple of Amarna, Egypt, oriented toward the sunrise on the winter solstice.

  2. Lectures on configuration space methods for sunrise-type diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Groote, S

    2003-01-01

    In this lecture series I will give a fundamental insight into configuration space techniques which are of help to calculate a broad class of Feynman diagrams, the sunrise-type diagrams. Applications are shown along with basic concepts and techniques.

  3. Recording A Sunrise: A Citizen Science Project to Enhance Sunrise/set Prediction Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Bartlett, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones, with their ever increasing capabilities, are becoming quite instrumental for data acquisition in a number of fields. Understanding refraction and how it affects what we see on the horizon is no exception. Current algorithms that predict sunrise and sunset times have an error of one to four minutes at mid-latitudes (0° - 55° N/S) due to limitations in the atmospheric models they incorporate. At higher latitudes, slight changes in refraction can cause significant discrepancies, even including difficulties determining when the Sun appears to rise or set. A thorough investigation of the problem requires a substantial data set of observed rise/set times and corresponding meteorological data from around the world, which is currently lacking. We have developed a mobile application so that this data can be taken using smartphones as part of a citizen science project. The app allows the viewer to submit a video of sunrise/set and attaches geographic location along with meteorological data taken from a local weather station. The project will help increase scientific awareness in the public by allowing members of the community to participate in the data-taking process, and give them a greater awareness of the scientific significance of phenomenon they witness every day. The data from the observations will lead to more complete rise/set models that will provide more accurate times to the benefit of astronomers, navigators, and outdoorsmen. The app will be available on the Google Play Store.

  4. School Breakfast Program and School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Alan; And Others

    Children who participate in the School Breakfast Program show significant improvement in academic performance and tardiness rates, and a trend toward improvement in absenteeism. The School Breakfast Program was created by Congress in 1966 to provide a breakfast on school days for low income children who would otherwise have none. Children…

  5. Breakfast Blitz: An Innovative Nutrition Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towery, Pamela C.; Nix, Elizabeth S.; Norman, Bilinda

    2014-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity are major problems in the United States, with important consequences for our nation's health and economy. Breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day, yet children, adolescents, and adults skip breakfast on a routine basis. This habit of breakfast skipping is related to weight gain, higher body…

  6. 21 CFR 163.112 - Breakfast cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chocolate, milk, or butter; or (4) Salt. (c) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “breakfast cocoa”, or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breakfast cocoa. 163.112 Section 163.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.112 Breakfast cocoa....

  7. 9 CFR 319.143 - Breakfast sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Breakfast sausage. 319.143 Section 319... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.143 Breakfast sausage. “Breakfast sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh and/or frozen meat; or fresh...

  8. Breakfast Blitz: An Innovative Nutrition Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towery, Pamela C.; Nix, Elizabeth S.; Norman, Bilinda

    2014-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity are major problems in the United States, with important consequences for our nation's health and economy. Breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day, yet children, adolescents, and adults skip breakfast on a routine basis. This habit of breakfast skipping is related to weight gain, higher body…

  9. The Effects of Breakfast and Breakfast Composition on Cognition in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Champ, Claire L; Dye, Louise

    2016-05-01

    Breakfast is thought to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, breakfast is the most frequently skipped meal, especially among adolescents. The aim of the current article was to systematically review the evidence from intervention studies for the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in children and adolescents. The effects of breakfast were evaluated by cognitive domain and breakfast manipulation. A total of 45 studies reported in 43 articles were included in the review. Most studies considered the acute effect of a single breakfast (n = 34). The acute studies looked at breakfast compared with no breakfast (n = 24) and/or comparisons of breakfast type (n = 15). The effects of chronic school breakfast program interventions were evaluated in 11 studies. The findings suggest that breakfast consumption relative to fasting has a short-term (same morning) positive domain-specific effect on cognition. Tasks requiring attention, executive function, and memory were facilitated more reliably by breakfast consumption relative to fasting, with effects more apparent in undernourished children. Firm conclusions cannot be made about the acute effects of breakfast composition and the effects of chronic breakfast interventions because there are too few studies and these largely report inconsistent findings. This review also highlights methodologic limitations of the existing research. These include a lack of research on adolescents, few naturalistic breakfast manipulations or testing environments, small samples, and insensitive cognitive tests.

  10. Breakfast Composition in Junior High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Devi; Aly Diana; Setiawan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a time of rapid development that requires higher nutrient intake levels than in adulthood. However the habit of skipping breakfast has become very popular among adolescents. Skipping breakfast has negative effects such as difficulty in concentrating, growth impairment and decrease academic performance. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the breakfast composisition of early adolescents in Jatinangor, Sumedang, Indonesia. Methods: A cross sectional st...

  11. Electrodynamics of the equatorial F-region ionosphere during pre-sunrise period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Prabhakaran Nayar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrodynamics of the pre-sunrise equatorial F-region is investigated using HF Doppler radar and digital ionosonde. The observations are limited to those days for which the radar probing frequency is below the foF2 value. The ionosphere observation using HF Doppler radar exhibit interesting features during pre-sunrise period similar to the post sunset pre-reversal enhancement. The most striking feature observed during pre-sunrise period is the sudden downward excursion in the vertical drift around local sunrise followed by an upward turning. Pre-sunrise observations of vertical plasma drift and the sunrise downward excursion followed by an upward turning after the ground sunrise related to the zonal electric field at the equatorial F-region are the most significant results not reported earlier.

  12. True Color of Mars - Pathfinder Sol 39 Sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Sunrise, sol 39. This true color, pre-sunrise image (approximately 0530LST) is composed of six images extending 30 o in azimuth and 45 o in elevation and shows the brownish gray predawn sky. A description of the techniques used to generate this color image from IMP data can be found in Maki et al., 1999. Note: a calibrated output device is required accurately reproduce the correct colors.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal investigator.

  13. The two-loop sunrise integral and elliptic polylogarithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Luise; Weinzierl, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Bogner, Christian [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In this talk, we present a solution for the two-loop sunrise integral with arbitrary masses around two and four space-time dimensions in terms of a generalised elliptic version of the multiple polylogarithms. Furthermore we investigate the elliptic polylogarithms appearing in higher orders in the dimensional regularisation ε of the two-dimensional equal mass solution. Around two space-time dimensions the solution consists of a sum of three elliptic dilogarithms where the arguments have a nice geometric interpretation as intersection points of the integration region and an elliptic curve associated to the sunrise integral. Around four space-time dimensions the sunrise integral can be expressed with the ε{sup 0}- and ε{sup 1}-solution around two dimensions, mass derivatives thereof and simpler terms. Considering higher orders of the two-dimensional equal mass solution we find certain generalisations of the elliptic polylogarithms appearing in the ε{sup 0}- and ε{sup 1}-solutions around two and four space-time dimensions. We show that these higher order-solutions can be found by iterative integration within this class of functions.

  14. Crispy in the french breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Drouard

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Bien qu’il y ait eu du croquant et du croustillant dans l’alimentation des Français avant l’époque contemporaine (pain, gâteaux, fruits frais ou secs sa place a augmenté récemment à la suite des changements intervenus dans le petit déjeuner. Le but de cet article est d’analyser historiquement la pénétration et la diffusion du croquant et du croustillant dans le petit déjeuner français. Celle ci s’est faite d’abord dans les villes sous l’influence de modèles étrangers et principalement Anglo-Saxons qui font une place importante au croustillant. Les partisans des nouveaux petits déjeuners à base de lait, de céréales et de fruits ne cherchaient pas seulement à promouvoir le végétarisme mais aussi à lutter contre la « dégénérescence » qui menaçait à leurs yeux la société moderne. Après avoir rappelé la naissance du petit déjeuner français, on étudiera le rôle des modèles étrangers dans l’évolution de la consommation d’aliments croustillants.Though crispy items were present in French food before the contemporary period (what with bread, cakes, fresh or dried fruits, they have recently played a more important part as breakfast underwent a series of changes. The aim of this article is to make an historical analysis of the emergence and spread of crispy food in the French breakfast. The influence of foreign and more especially Anglo-Saxon models contributed to increasing its importance. Those who advocated these new breakfasts at the beginning of the XXth century were convinced to fight also against “degeneracy” which they thought was a threat to modern society. I shall first briefly explain how the French breakfast was born, then I shall focus on the influence and impact of foreign models.

  15. Breakfast Composition in Junior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Devi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a time of rapid development that requires higher nutrient intake levels than in adulthood. However the habit of skipping breakfast has become very popular among adolescents. Skipping breakfast has negative effects such as difficulty in concentrating, growth impairment and decrease academic performance. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the breakfast composisition of early adolescents in Jatinangor, Sumedang, Indonesia. Methods: A cross sectional study with non-probability sampling method, was conducted in a junior high school Jatinangor during the month of July 2013. Ninety six participants were included in this study. All the participants underwent an interview about the food intake for breakfast in seven days using eating pattern recall guidelines. Results: Overall, 37% of the respondents skipped breakfast. The mean of total calories among the adolescents who consumed breakfast was 286.06 (187.89 kcal. The amount of carbohydrate, fat and protein consumed was 29.23 (19.93 gram, 13.93 (13.29 gram and 8.78 (6.11 gram accordingly. The main reason for adolescent to skip breakfast was lack of time. Conclusions: Majority of the respondents have their breakfast before they go to school. Overall, the total calories comsumed is sufficient however the amount of protein consumed is low.

  16. Breakfast benefits for children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    This literature review aimed to give some insight in the benefits of breakfast for children and adolescents, with a focus on overweight, food intake and cognition. In addition, we explored the magnitude of skipping breakfast in the Netherlands and factors associated with this behaviour.

  17. Adolescent Breakfast Skipping: An Australian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Mary E.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on the findings of an Australian survey of adolescents concerning the extent of skipping breakfast. Finds that skippers are more likely to be dissatisfied with their body shape and to be on a diet to lose weight. Findings suggest that skipping breakfast is a matter of individual choice rather than a result of poverty. (Author/GCP)

  18. Impact of breakfast on daily energy intake - an analysis of absolute versus relative breakfast calories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagenpfeil Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The role of breakfast energy in total daily energy intake is a matter of debate. Acute feeding experiments demonstrated that high breakfast energy leads to greater overall intake supported by cross-sectional data of a free-living population. On the other hand, a large intraindividual analysis has indicated that a high proportion of breakfast to overall intake is associated with lower daily energy intake. To evaluate these apparently contradictory results in greater detail both ways of analysis were applied to the same data set of dietary records. Methods On an intraindividual basis total daily energy intake was related to the absolute values of breakfast energy intake or to the ratio of breakfast to overall intake, respectively. Food intake of 280 obese and 100 normal weight subjects was analyzed who recorded over 10 (obese or 14 (normal weight consecutive days, respectively. Results Increasing breakfast energy was associated with greater overall intake in normal weight and obese subjects. The increasing ratio of breakfast to total daily energy intake was associated with a significant reduction of overall intake on days where post-breakfast energy was significantly reduced. Correlational and multiple regression analysis support the concept that absolute breakfast calories have the strongest influence on daily energy intake. Conclusion Reduced breakfast energy intake is associated with lower total daily intake. The influence of the ratio of breakfast to overall energy intake largely depends on the post-breakfast rather than breakfast intake pattern. Therefore, overweight and obese subjects should consider the reduction of breakfast calories as a simple option to improve their daily energy balance.

  19. The Relation between Breakfast Skipping and School Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Breakfast skipping is common in adolescents, but research on the effects of breakfast skipping on school performance is scarce. This current cross-sectional survey study of 605 adolescents aged 11-18 years investigated whether adolescents who habitually skip breakfast have lower end-of-term grades than adolescents who eat breakfast daily.…

  20. Nutritional Intervention and Breakfast Behavior of Kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing GAO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine the effect of nutritional education on children’s breakfast patternsMethods: A kindergarten based nutrition intervention was started in September 2001 among 8 kindergartens in Hefei with a total of 2,012 children aged 4-6 years and their parent pairs.Results: Monthly nutrition education sessions were held over two semesters in kindergartens part of the intervention arm.  The approach in education and the content of other activities were uniform across all the kindergartens. A validated questionnaire was used to record breakfast behavior over 7 days including at least one weekend. The parents recorded the children’s breakfast pattern (frequency, time, and food selection at baseline, middle, and end of the study. After intervention, there were significant differences at the final stage, but none at the baseline before intervention. There were changes not only in breakfast frequency, but also in the breakfast selectionConclusion: The breakfast pattern of Chinese children can be modified through nutrition education after a long term intervention. Keywords: Breakfast, Children, Intervention, China

  1. Sunrise coal, an innovative New Indiana player continues to grow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-07-15

    Sunrise Coal LLC's Carliste (Indiana) underground mine began development in 2006. Today, the room and pillar operation has grown to a 3 million tpy four unit continuous miner mine. Its coal has low (0.06%) chlorine level and is now being purchased to blend down high chlorine in Illinois Basin coal. The article describes the mining operation and equipment traces the growth of the company, founded in the 1970s by Row and Steve Laswell, emphasizing its focus on employee safety. 5 photos.

  2. Breakfast: a good habit, not a repetitive custom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, M; Verduci, E; Scaglioni, S; Salvatici, E; Bonza, M; Riva, E; Agostoni, C

    2008-01-01

    In developed countries, obesity is the most frequent nutritional disorder, and overweight and obesity prevalences have increased whilst physical activity and breakfast consumption have declined. There is growing scientific interest in the possible role of breakfast in weight control and in factors such as appetite control, dietary quality and reduced risk for chronic diseases. The current article reviews the literature and discusses how the breakfast 'environment' and the composition of breakfast meals might be improved, particularly in children, so as to maintain the breakfast eating habit throughout life. Recommendations are proposed to encourage children to keep eating breakfast and the nutritional composition of the 'American breakfast' and two types of Mediterranean 'cereal breakfasts' are compared. We also propose a new breakfast type for children and adolescents that is based on chocolate hazelnut spread within a mixed breakfast type in order to reinforce positive experiences.

  3. Sunrise alarm clock for the hearing impaired - biomed 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follum, James D; Catchpole, Jennifer M

    2011-01-01

    The Sunrise Alarm Clock is a device designed to be more effective than standard alarm clocks and more pleasant than specialty devices in waking the hearing impaired. This is accomplished with the inclusion of visual, physical, and audio alarms. The visual alarm stimulus is created by manipulating the light output of a bedside lamp to mimic the sunrise. This is achieved by varying the duty cycle of a pulse width modulated signal supplied through a standard three-prong receptacle located on the side of the alarm clock. Physical alarms are in the form of wristbands containing vibrating motors. Finally, audio alarms are provided with both volume and pitch control to match the user’s specific needs. The entire system is designed with two users in mind by providing two independently controlled receptacles, wristbands, and audio systems. At the conclusion of development, a nearly fully functional prototype has been produced. The prototype’s audio and physical alarm system along with one visual alarm are fully functional. Shortcomings include poor timekeeping accuracy and problems clearly displaying the time. Even so, this development in sleep technology is capable of performing its task and waking its user with all three alarm systems.

  4. Impact of Breakfast Skipping and Breakfast Choice on the Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Australian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Fayet-Moore; Jean Kim; Nilani Sritharan; Peter Petocz

    2016-01-01

    Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal) on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2–16 years; n = 4487) to identify (a) breakfast skippers and (b) breakfast consumers, with br...

  5. School Breakfast Program and School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1989-01-01

    The effects of participation in the school breakfast program by low income children on academic achievement and rates of absence and tardiness are reported from the Department of Pediatrics, Boston City Hospital, Boston, MA.

  6. School Breakfast Scorecard, 2003: Thirteenth Annual Status Report on the School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Nicole; Parker, Lynn; Weill, Jim; Vuong, Bi; Hess, Doug; Weinstein-Tull, Justin; Putney, Wanda

    The School Breakfast Program provides breakfast to millions of children from low-income families who otherwise might go hungry in the morning and be less ready to learn. This report is the thirteenth from the Food Research and Action Center (FRAC) to examine the program, its benefits, and the performance of the nation and of each state in reaching…

  7. School Breakfast Scorecord, 2002. Twelfth Annual Status Report on the School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Doug; Woo, Nicole; Phelps, Anne; Parker, Lynn; Weill, Jim

    The School Breakfast Program provides breakfast to millions of children from low-income families who otherwise might go hungry in the morning and be less ready to learn. This report is the eleventh from the Food Research and Action Center (FRAC) to examine the program, its benefits, and the performance of the nation and of each state in reaching…

  8. Spectral analysis of red scattered sunlight at sunrise

    CERN Document Server

    Zagury, F; Zagury, Frederic; Fujii, Mitsugu

    2003-01-01

    We analyze and fit visible spectra of a red horizon at sunrise. The shape of the spectra consist of a blue continuum followed by a red bump. The reddest spectra are well fitted by the product of a spectrum of extinguished sunlight (Rayleigh extinction + ozone absorption) and 1/lambda^4. The former is essentially the radiation field in the outer atmosphere, at the scattering volume location; the latter corresponds to Rayleigh scattering by the gas. Moving to higher altitudes, a second component, corresponding to the spectrum of a blue sky, must be added. The spectra we have obtained are similar to spectra of red nebulae, suggesting there may be other explanations than an emission process to the red color of some nebulae.

  9. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin; Maksimovic, Milan; Alibay, Farah; Amiri, Nikta; Bastian, Tim; Cohen, Christina; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward; Reinard, Alysha; Schwadron, Nathan; Cecconi, Baptiste; Hallinan, Gregg; Hegedus, Alex; Krupar, Vratislav; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 RS. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (ν ≳ 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (≲ 3RS). The state-of-the-art for tracking such emission from space is defined by single antennas (Wind/WAVES, Stereo/SWAVES), in which the tracking is accomplished by assuming a frequency-to-density mapping; there has been some success in triangulating the emission between the spacecraft, but considerable uncertainties remain. We describe the Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) mission concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  10. Skipping breakfast, sedentarism and overweight in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo-Vázquez, Isaac; Busto-Zapico, Raquel; Errasti-Pérez, José Manuel; Peña-Suárez, Elsa

    2016-10-01

    To show by use of path analysis how in children of 9 and 10 years of age the known relationship between breakfast and high body mass index (BMI) is mediated by sedentary leisure time activities. A random sample of 291 9-year-old and 10-year-old school children from the Principality of Asturias (Spain) was taken. A transversal design was used, their weight and height were measured and an individual standardized interview was carried out in which they were asked about their breakfast habits and the time they spent each week on sedentary leisure activities. Using path analysis, a model was tested in which breakfast habits and leisure time were the independent variables and the BMI was the dependent variable. The results showed that there was an inverse correlation between number of breakfasts and BMI and a direct correlation between the time spent on sedentary leisure activities and BMI. Path analysis showed that the relationship between the frequency with which breakfast was eaten and BMI was mediated by the time spent on sedentary leisure activities. The above appears to confirm the direct role played by failing to have breakfast in the pandemic of obesity as this habit tends to increase children's BMI. This relationship is, however, mediated by sedentary leisure. According to the data compiled, being overweight in children can only be prevented by modifying not just one of the habits that have been associated with it, but rather the whole group of habits as these appear to make up an obesogenic cluster in which sedentary leisure and not having breakfast are included.

  11. Diet, breakfast, and academic performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, R E; Hall, S; Green, H; Korzec-Ramirez, D; Patton, K; Pagano, M E; Murphy, J M

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether nutrient intake and academic and psychosocial functioning improve after the start of a universal-free school breakfast program (USBP). Information was gathered from 97 inner city students prior to the start of a USBP and again after the program had been in place for 6 months. Students who had total energy intakes of nutritional risk. Prior to the USBP, 33% of all study children were classified as being at nutritional risk. Children who were at nutritional risk had significantly poorer attendance, punctuality, and grades at school, more behavior problems, and were less likely to eat breakfast at school than children who were not at nutritional risk. Six months after the start of the free school breakfast programs, students who decreased their nutritional risk showed significantly greater: improvements in attendance and school breakfast participation, decreases in hunger, and improvements in math grades and behavior than children who did not decrease their nutritional risk. Participation in a school breakfast program enhanced daily nutrient intake and improvements in nutrient intake were associated with significant improvements in student academic performance and psychosocial functioning and decreases in hunger. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Different Psychosocial Factors Are Associated With Different Intention and Self-Efficacy Toward Eating Breakfast Among Japanese Breakfast Skippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Makiko; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Imai, Eri; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2017-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 7593 adults to clarify lifestyle and psychosocial characteristics of breakfast skippers with different intention and self-efficacy toward eating breakfast. Data were obtained from Japan's national survey in 2009. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the characteristics of each breakfast skipper (having intention and self-efficacy toward eating breakfast [IS], having intention but not self-efficacy [INS], and not having intention to eat breakfast [NI]) compared with breakfast eaters. IS men were less likely to demonstrate understanding of healthy eating. INS and NI men were more likely to eat alone. INS and NI women were less likely to demonstrate understanding of healthy eating. NI men and women were less likely to report weight management behavior. Current smoking and being sleep-deprived were commonly associated with breakfast skipping in both sexes. Our results suggested the need for approaches considering type of breakfast skippers (eg, different intention and self-efficacy).

  13. School Breakfast Score Card 1991-1992. (Second Edition.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingling-Clemmons, Michele A.; Kittlaus, Ann K.

    The School Breakfast Program supplies federal funds to schools and residential child care institutions that provide breakfasts to children. This status report compares the performance of each state to the performance of other states and of the nation as a whole in school breakfast participation. The first section examines overall outcomes, taking…

  14. Breakfast and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of breakfast consumption among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which skipping breakfast adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to increase breakfast consumption. Methods: Literature review. Results: On any given day a…

  15. Increased Breakfast Frequency and Nutritional Quality among Schoolchildren after a National Breakfast Promotion Campaign in Australia between 2000 and 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Wagstaff, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    This national study examined student breakfast consumption and nutritional quality of breakfast in 2000 and 2006 by gender, school grade, school socioeconomic status (SES) and weight status after the implementation of a national breakfast promotion campaign. Participants were 4237 schoolchildren in grades 2-12 from 32 schools in 2000 and 5645…

  16. Impact of Breakfast Skipping and Breakfast Choice on the Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Fayet-Moore

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2–16 years; n = 4487 to identify (a breakfast skippers and (b breakfast consumers, with breakfast consumers further sub-divided into (i non-cereal and (ii cereal consumers. Only 4% skipped breakfast and 59% of skippers were 14–16 years. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher intakes of calcium and folate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat than breakfast skippers. Cereal consumers were more likely to meet targets and consume significantly higher fibre, calcium, iron, had significantly higher intakes of folate, total sugars and carbohydrate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat and sodium than non-cereal consumers. The prevalence of overweight was lower among breakfast consumers compared to skippers, and among cereal consumers compared to-cereal consumers (p < 0.001, while no significant differences were observed for mean body mass index (BMI, BMI z-score, waist circumference and physical activity level across the categories. Breakfast and particularly breakfast cereal consumption contributes important nutrients to children’s diets.

  17. Impact of Breakfast Skipping and Breakfast Choice on the Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Kim, Jean; Sritharan, Nilani; Petocz, Peter

    2016-08-10

    Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal) on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2-16 years; n = 4487) to identify (a) breakfast skippers and (b) breakfast consumers, with breakfast consumers further sub-divided into (i) non-cereal and (ii) cereal consumers. Only 4% skipped breakfast and 59% of skippers were 14-16 years. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher intakes of calcium and folate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat than breakfast skippers. Cereal consumers were more likely to meet targets and consume significantly higher fibre, calcium, iron, had significantly higher intakes of folate, total sugars and carbohydrate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat and sodium than non-cereal consumers. The prevalence of overweight was lower among breakfast consumers compared to skippers, and among cereal consumers compared to-cereal consumers (p Breakfast and particularly breakfast cereal consumption contributes important nutrients to children's diets.

  18. STS-56 Earth observation of a Canadian sunrise taken aboard Discovery, OV-103

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is of a Canadian sunrise. Low clouds on the eastern horizon are blocking most of the direct sunlight as the sun climbs over the northern Atlantic in this Canadian sunrise scene. Bright yellow colors are sun rays which penetrate through the cloud-free areas while the reds in the scene are primarily illuminated clouds in the troposphere.

  19. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick N. Tanguay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acquired brain injury (ABI often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients’ difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we examined the usefulness of a computerized meal preparation task (the Breakfast Task; Craik & Bialystok, 2006 as an indicator of real life meal preparation skills. Twenty-two ABI patients and 22 age-matched controls completed the Breakfast Task and the Rehabilitation Activities of Daily Living Survey (RADLS; Salmon, 2003. Patients also prepared actual meals, and were rated by members of the clinical team. As expected, the ABI patients had significant difficulty on all aspects of the Breakfast Task (failing to have all their foods ready at the same time, over- and under-cooking foods, setting fewer places at the table, and so on relative to controls. Surprisingly, however, patients’ Breakfast Task performance was not correlated with their in vivo meal preparation. These results indicate caution when endeavoring to replace traditional evaluation methods with computerized tasks for the sake of expediency.

  20. Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly R

    2013-07-02

    The objective was to examine the effect of consuming breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Participants who habitually ate breakfast and those who skipped breakfast were recruited for two studies. Using a randomized crossover design, the first study examined the effect of having participants consume either (a) no breakfast, (b) a high carbohydrate breakfast (335 kcals), or (c) a high fiber breakfast (360 kcals) on three occasions and measured ad libitum intake at lunch. The second study again used a randomized crossover design but with a larger, normal carbohydrate breakfast consumed ad libtum. Intake averaged 624 kcals and subsequent food intake was measured throughout the day. Participants ate only foods served from the Cornell Human Metabolic Research Unit where all foods were weighed before and after consumption. In the first study, neither eating breakfast nor the kind of breakfast consumed had an effect on the amount consumed at lunch despite a reduction in hunger ratings. In the second study, intake at lunch as well as hunger ratings were significantly increased after skipping breakfast (by 144 kcal), leaving a net caloric deficit of 408 kcal by the end of the day. These data are consistent with published literature demonstrating that skipping a meal does not result in accurate energy compensation at subsequent meals and suggests that skipping breakfast may be an effective means to reduce daily energy intake in some adults.

  1. Nutrient Intake, Diet Quality, and Weight Measures in Breakfast Patterns Consumed by Children Compared with Breakfast Skippers: NHANES 2001-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Carol E. O'Neil; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni III, Victor L.

    2015-01-01

    Most studies showing that children consuming breakfast have better nutrient intakes, diet quality, and lower weight than breakfast skippers have the incorrect premise that breakfast meals are homogeneous. The purpose of this study was to classify breakfast meals into patterns and determine the association of the breakfast patterns with daily and breakfast nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight. Data from children (2-18 years of age; N = 14,200) participating in the National Health and ...

  2. Breakfast Macronutrient Composition Influences Thermic Effect of Feeding and Fat Oxidation in Young Women Who Habitually Skip Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Brianna L; Dunn, Amy; Johnson, Dallas; Adams, J D; Baum, Jamie I

    2016-08-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine if breakfast macronutrient composition improved thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and appetite after a one-week adaptation in young women who habitually skip breakfast. A randomized, controlled study was conducted in females (24.1 ± 2 years), who skip breakfast (≥5 times/week). Participants were placed into one of three groups for eight days (n = 8 per group): breakfast skipping (SKP; no breakfast), carbohydrate (CHO; 351 kcal; 59 g CHO, 10 g PRO, 8 g fat) or protein (PRO; 350 kcal; 39 g CHO, 30 g PRO, 8 g fat). On days 1 (D1) and 8 (D8), TEF, substrate oxidation, appetite and blood glucose were measured. PRO had higher (p breakfast on appetite response. In addition, CHO had a significant increase (p breakfast for 8 days increased TEF compared to CHO and SKP, while consumption of CHO for one week increased PP hunger response.

  3. Sunrise-driven movements of dust on the Moon: Apollo 12 Ground-truth measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brian J.; Hollick, Monique

    2015-12-01

    The first sunrise after Apollo 12 astronauts left the Moon caused dust storms across the site where rocket exhausts had disrupted about 2000 kg of smooth fine dust. The next few sunrises started progressively weaker dust storms, and the Eastern horizon brightened, adding to direct sunlight for half an hour. These Ground truth measurements were made 100 cm above the surface by the 270 g Apollo 12 Dust Detector Experiment we invented in 1966. Dust deposited on the horizontal solar cell during two lunar days after the first sunrise was almost 30% of the total it then measured over 6 years. The vertical east-facing solar cell measured horizon brightening on 14 of the first 17 lunations, with none detected on the following 61 Lunar Days. Based on over 2 million such measurements we propose a new qualitative model of sunrise-driven transport of individual dust particles freed by Apollo 12 activities from strong particle-to-particle cohesive forces. Each sunrise caused sudden surface charging which, during the first few hours, freshly mobilised and lofted the dust remaining free, microscopically smoothing the disrupted local areas. Evidence of reliability of measurements includes consistency among all 6 sensors in measurements throughout an eclipse. We caution Google Lunar XPrize competitors and others planning missions to the Moon and large airless asteroids that, after a spacecraft lands, dust hazards may occur after each of the first few sunrises. Mechanical problems in its first such period stranded Chinese lunar rover Yutu in 2014, although we would not claim yet that the causes were dust. On the other hand, sunrise-driven microscopic smoothing of disturbed areas may offer regular natural mitigations of dust consequences of mining lunar resources and reduce fears that many expeditions might cause excessive fine dust globally around the Moon.

  4. Breakfast and the achievement gap among urban minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    To outline the prevalence and disparities of breakfast consumption among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which skipping breakfast adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to increase breakfast consumption. Literature review. On any given day a substantial proportion of American youth do not eat breakfast. On an average day, less than half (∼46%) of children participating in free or reduced-price lunch also participated in the School Breakfast Program for which they were also eligible. In a large study of 9-year-olds, 77% of White girls and 57% of Black girls consumed breakfast on all 3 days assessed; by age 19, the respective rates were 32% and 22%. Neuroscience research has identified the processes by which dietary behavior influences neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity, both of which influence cognitive functions. Participation in School Breakfast Programs has also been associated with reduced absenteeism. Universal School Breakfast Programs and allowing youth to eat breakfast in the classroom (vs cafeteria) are approaches that have been shown to increase participation. Skipping breakfast is highly and disproportionately prevalent among school-aged urban minority youth, has a negative impact on academic achievement by adversely affecting cognition and absenteeism, and effective practices are available for schools to address this problem. Despite wide availability, the majority of American youth do not participate in School Breakfast Programs. High-quality universal breakfast programs that allow students to eat breakfast in the classroom are especially needed for youth who are not likely to get good nutrition the rest of the day. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  5. Does breakfast make a difference in school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, E

    1995-10-01

    This article reviews selectively the literature on the effects of breakfast on cognition and school performance. The focus is on studies published in refereed journals after 1978 that tested those effects on well-nourished and nutritionally at-risk children. In at-risk subjects (defined by clinical history and anthropometry), a morning and overnight fast had adverse effects on cognition, particularly the speed of information retrieval in working memory. Contradictions in the data from different studies prevent definitive conclusions on whether well-nourished children experience similar functional deficits. Nonetheless, available information suggests that brain function is sensitive to short-term variations in the availability of nutrient supplies. Moreover, well-conducted evaluations suggest that the availability of feeding programs in public schools throughout the academic year increases the probability that children will eat breakfast and improve their educational status.

  6. Undergraduate Breakfast, Career Workshop, and Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate students can enjoy a hearty breakfast and learn about how to prepare for a wide variety of careers in physics outside of academia. Topics of this interactive workshop will include planning and self-assessment, inventorying transferable skills, finding out more about career opportunities, and successfully applying for jobs. Immediately following the workshop, top presenters from the Undergraduate Research/SPS sessions will be recognized. All presenters in the undergraduate sessions will receive certificates acknowledging their scientific accomplishments.

  7. The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, Emily J; Dawson, John; Alcorn, Amy

    2014-01-01

    effectiveness of a recommendation to eat or skip breakfast on weight loss in adults trying to lose weight in a free-living setting. DESIGN: We conducted a multisite, 16-wk, 3-parallel-arm randomized controlled trial in otherwise healthy overweight and obese adults [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) between 25 and 40......] aged 20-65 y. Our primary outcome was weight change. We compared weight change in a control group with weight loss in experimental groups told to eat breakfast or to skip breakfast [no breakfast (NB)]. Randomization was stratified by prerandomization breakfast eating habits. A total of 309 participants...... were randomly assigned.RESULTS: A total of 283 of the 309 participants who were randomly assigned completed the intervention. Treatment assignment did not have a significant effect on weight loss, and there was no interaction between initial breakfast eating status and treatment. Among skippers, mean...

  8. Interval between insulin injection and breakfast in diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Sackey, A H; Jefferson, I G

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between the insulin-breakfast interval, postprandial increase in blood glucose, and glycaemic control was studied in 58 children with diabetes. Patients recorded insulin-breakfast intervals in a home diary over a seven day period, and during a 24 hour period at the weekend provided eight serial capillary dried blood spots for glucose analysis. The highest mean blood glucose value occurred two hours after breakfast and showed a significant correlation with fructosamine concent...

  9. Refining Sunrise/set Prediction Models by Accounting for the Effects of Refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa; Bartlett, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Current atmospheric models used to predict the times of sunrise and sunset have an error of one to four minutes at mid-latitudes (0° - 55° N/S). At higher latitudes, slight changes in refraction may cause significant discrepancies, including determining even whether the Sun appears to rise or set. While different components of refraction are known, how they affect predictions of sunrise/set has not yet been quantified. A better understanding of the contributions from temperature profile, pressure, humidity, and aerosols, could significantly improve the standard prediction. Because sunrise/set times and meteorological data from multiple locations will be necessary for a thorough investigation of the problem, we will collect this data using smartphones as part of a citizen science project. This analysis will lead to more complete models that will provide more accurate times for navigators and outdoorsman alike.

  10. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ostachowska-Gasior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI, and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland. The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life.

  11. An examination of the demographic predictors of adolescent breakfast consumption, content, and context

    OpenAIRE

    Mullan, Barbara; Wong, Cara; Kothe, Emily; O’Moore, Kathleen; Pickles, Kristen; Sainsbury, Kirby

    2014-01-01

    Background Breakfast consumption is important to health; however, adolescents often skip breakfast, and an increased understanding of the breakfast consumption patterns of adolescents is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of breakfast eating, including the content and context, in an adolescent sample from Australia and England. Methods Four-hundred and eighty-one students completed an online questionnaire measuring breakfast skipping, and breakfast content (what ...

  12. The combination of daily breakfast consumption and optimal breakfast choices in childhood is an important public health message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsou, Stalo; Briassoulis, George; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Savva, Savvas C; Solea, Tonia; Hebestreit, Antje; Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Kourides, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony; Tornaritis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of breakfast consumption with children's diet quality and cardiometabolic risk factors. Study sample consisted of 1558 children aged 4-8 years from Cyprus. Breakfast frequency was assessed through a parental questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, blood lipid profile and blood pressure were examined in relation to breakfast frequency consumption. Habitual breakfast consumers' daily nutrient intake was assessed through a 24-Hour Dietary Recall, according to their breakfast choices. Girls who have breakfast on a daily basis had lower mean BMI and BMI z-score; they were also less likely of having abnormal levels of serum triglycerides, atheromatic index (total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio) and diastolic blood pressure after controlling for several confounding factors. Within regular breakfast consumers, of both boys and girls, those having ready to eat cereals had a superior nutrient intake profile. Daily breakfast consumption along with good breakfast choices is an important public health message for Cypriot children.

  13. The Effect of Providing Breakfast in Class on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imberman, Scott A.; Kugler, Adriana D.

    2014-01-01

    Many schools have recently experimented with moving breakfast from the cafeteria to the classroom. We examine whether such a program increases achievement, grades, and attendance rates. We exploit quasi-random timing of program implementation that allows for a difference-in-differences identification strategy. We find that providing breakfast in…

  14. Educational Impact of a School Breakfast Programme in Rural Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; Chinen, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data from an evaluation of the educational impact of a school breakfast program implemented in rural schools in Peru. The results showed positive effects on school attendance and dropout rates, and a differential effect of the breakfast program on multiple-grade and full-grade schools. Particularly in multiple-grade…

  15. Free Student Breakfasts: Surest Way to Raise Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmelynski, Carol

    2007-01-01

    According to James Weill, president of the Food Research and Action Center (FRAC), breakfast is not the solution to the problems in America's schools, but it is the fastest, easiest, cheapest way of boosting school performance. According to FRAC, the federal breakfast program run by the Agricultural Department reached a record 7.7 million…

  16. Breakfast consumption and depressive mood: A focus on socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ah; Park, Eun-Cheol; Ju, Yeong Jun; Lee, Tae Hoon; Han, Euna; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2017-04-08

    Skipping breakfast can be potentially harmful because breakfast consumption is considered one of the important health-related behaviors that benefit physical and mental health. As the rate of depression has increased recently, we investigated the association between the frequency of eating breakfast and depression in adults. We obtained the data from the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey; a total of 207,710 survey participants aged 20 years or over were studied. Participants were categorized into three groups by the frequency of breakfast consumption as follows: "seldom," "sometimes," and "always." We performed a multiple logistic regression to investigate the association between breakfast consumption and depressive mood. Subgroup analyses were conducted by stratifying socioeconomic variables controlling for variables known to be associated with depressive symptoms. Participants who had breakfast seldom or sometimes had higher depressive symptoms than those who always ate breakfast ("seldom": OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.36-1.52; "sometimes": OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.23-1.40). Subgroup analyses showed that this association was more marked in those who were 80 years or older, those who had low household income, or those with elementary school education level or less. The result of this study suggests that lack of breakfast consumption is associated with depression among adults with different socioeconomic factors.

  17. Is breakfast the most important meal of the day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, James A; Chowdhury, Enhad A; Gonzalez, Javier T; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan

    2016-11-01

    The Bath Breakfast Project is a series of randomised controlled trials exploring the effects of extended morning fasting on energy balance and health. These trials were categorically not designed to answer whether or not breakfast is the most important meal of the day. However, this review will philosophise about the meaning of that question and about what questions we should be asking to better understand the effects of breakfast, before summarising how individual components of energy balance and health respond to breakfast v. fasting in lean and obese adults. Current evidence does not support a clear effect of regularly consuming or skipping breakfast on body mass/composition, metabolic rate or diet-induced thermogenesis. Findings regarding energy intake are variable, although the balance of evidence indicates some degree of compensatory feeding later in the day such that overall energy intake is either unaffected or slightly lower when breakfast is omitted from the diet. However, even if net energy intake is reduced, extended morning fasting may not result in expected weight loss due to compensatory adjustments in physical activity thermogenesis. Specifically, we report that both lean and obese adults expended less energy during the morning when remaining in the fasted state than when consuming a prescribed breakfast. Further research is required to examine whether particular health markers may be responsive to breakfast-induced responses of individual components of energy balance irrespective of their net effect on energy balance and therefore body mass.

  18. The Russian Federation and the Arctic Sunrise Case: Hot Pursuit and Other Issues under the LOSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, A.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090439309

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Sunrise case was brought unilaterally by the Netherlands against the Russian Federation under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on October 4, 2013 after the Russian Federation had boarded the vessel and arrested it and its crew. The article discusses the subsequent

  19. The Sunrise project: An R&D project for a national information infrastructure prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juhnyoung

    1995-02-01

    Sunrise is a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) project started in October 1993. It is intended to a prototype National Information Infrastructure (NII) development project. A main focus of Sunrise is to tie together enabling technologies (networking, object-oriented distributed computing, graphical interfaces, security, multimedia technologies, and data mining technologies) with several specific applications. A diverse set of application areas was chosen to ensure that the solutions developed in the project are as generic as possible. Some of the application areas are materials modeling, medical records and image analysis, transportation simulations, and education. This paper provides a description of Sunrise and a view of the architecture and objectives of this evolving project. The primary objectives of Sunrise are three-fold: (1) To develop common information-enabling tools for advanced scientific research and its applications to industry; (2) To enhance the capabilities of important research programs at the Laboratory; and (3) To define a new way of collaboration between computer science and industrially relevant research.

  20. Breakfast skipping and proposed effects of breakfast on obesity: A school based study in adolescents in Aligarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafis Faizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breakfast is one of the most integral components of an individual′s diet, despite that breakfast skipping is widely prevalent. Proposed effects of breakfast on obesity (PEBO have corroborative evidences from different countries, especially, regarding the effects of breakfast skipping on obesity. Habits and lifestyle factors like breakfast skipping maybe formed, changed or strengthened in the tender age of adolescence and can also serve as an early warning system of threats that may engulf larger populations. The study objectives were to find out the frequency of breakfast skipping in adolescents and PEBO, including associations with body mass index (BMI status. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted in all the 13-15 years students who fulfilled the inclusion criteria in the schools affiliated to Aligarh Muslim University. The study was based on a pretested and validated questionnaire and the nutritional status/anthropometric records were measured by the now recommended World Health Organization multicentric growth reference standards 2007. Result and Conclusion: A total of 1416 students were studied, out of which frequency of breakfast consumption was found to be <2 times/week in 6. 21% of the study population, 3-5 times/week in 27.54% and 6-7 times/week in 66.24%. As far as PEBO is concerned, a decreased frequency of breakfast was found to have an association with obesity and overweight as well. Further, an association of breakfast skipping on the BMI Z scores was also found to be significant on analysis of variance and post-hoc tests. The high prevalence of breakfast skipping in India and PEBO is a big cause of concern for multiple reasons, and an intervention is urged.

  1. Scenario planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    In facing future developments in health care, scenario planning offers a complementary approach to traditional strategic planning. Whereas traditional strategic planning typically consists of predicting the future at a single point on a chosen time horizon and mapping the preferred plans to address such a future, scenario planning creates stories about multiple likely potential futures on a given time horizon and maps the preferred plans to address the multiple described potential futures. Each scenario is purposefully different and specifically not a consensus worst-case, average, or best-case forecast; nor is scenario planning a process in probabilistic prediction. Scenario planning focuses on high-impact, uncertain driving forces that in the authors' example affect the field of radiology. Uncertainty is the key concept as these forces are mapped onto axes of uncertainty, the poles of which have opposed effects on radiology. One chosen axis was "market focus," with poles of centralized health care (government control) vs a decentralized private market. Another axis was "radiology's business model," with one pole being a unified, single specialty vs a splintered, disaggregated subspecialty. The third axis was "technology and science," with one pole representing technology enabling to radiology vs technology threatening to radiology. Selected poles of these axes were then combined to create 3 scenarios. One scenario, termed "entrepreneurialism," consisted of a decentralized private market, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. A second scenario, termed "socialized medicine," had a centralized market focus, a unified specialty business model, and enabling technology and science. A third scenario, termed "freefall," had a centralized market focus, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. These scenarios provide a range of futures that ultimately allow the identification of defined "signposts" that can

  2. Breakfast habits of adolescents in for South African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A R; Walker, B F; Jones, J; Ncongwane, J

    1982-10-01

    Breakfast habits by using questionnaires, were established in a total of 4717 South African pupils of 16 to 18 yr. In the groups of rural and urban Black, Indian, European-African-Malay, and white pupils studied, respective proportions who had no solid breakfast (both sexes combined) were approximately 21, 19, 13, 13, and 14%. Proportions who had only porridge or bread (or toast) plus drink were 77, 73, 61, 71, and 56%. Such breakfast provided ranges of means of 223 to 345 kcal, 9 to 14 g protein, 7 to 18 g fat, 51 to 185 mg calcium, and 3.2 to 5.1 mg iron. Proportions who had a cooked breakfast (including egg, meat, fish), eaten with or without a cereal food, were 1, 4, 17, 8, and 29%. Such meals contributed means of 495 to 704 kcal, 11 to 26 g protein, 24 to 39 g fat, 110 to 225 mg calcium, and 3.9 to 5.5 mg iron. In the South African groups studied, the issue of breakfast or no breakfast had no clear-cut bearing on weight, height, class position, or frequency of absence from school. The degree by which, in a given community, nutrition in general and breakfast in particular, regulates health and/or academic performance, needs proper research in prospective studies.

  3. Scenario? Guilty!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1992-01-01

    Robert Campbell categorizes the word "scenario" as a buzzword, identifies four major uses within HCI and suggests that we adopt new terms differentiating these four uses of the word. My first reaction to reading the article was definitely positive, but rereading it gave me enough second thoughts ...... to warrant a response. I should probably confess that I searched my latest paper for the word "scenario" and found eight occurrences, none of which fell in the categories described by Campbell....

  4. A Tale of Two Emergences: Sunrise II Observations of Emergence Sites in a Solar Active Region

    CERN Document Server

    Centeno, Rebecca; Iniesta, Jose Carlos Del Toro; Solanki, Sami K; Barthol, Peter; Gandorfer, Achim; Gizon, Laurent; Hirzberger, Johann; Riethmuller, Tino L; van Noort, Michiel; Suarez, David Orozco; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pillet, Valentin Martinez; Knolker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In June 2013, the two scientific instruments onboard the second Sunrise mission witnessed, in detail, a small-scale magnetic flux emergence event as part of the birth of an active region. The Imaging Magnetograph Experiment (IMaX) recorded two small (~5 arcsec) emerging flux patches in the polarized filtergrams of a photospheric Fe I spectral line. Meanwhile, the Sunrise Filter Imager (SuFI) captured the highly dynamic chromospheric response to the magnetic fields pushing their way through the lower solar atmosphere. The serendipitous capture of this event offers a closer look at the inner workings of active region emergence sites. In particular, it reveals in meticulous detail how the rising magnetic fields interact with the granulation as they push through the Sun's surface, dragging photospheric plasma in their upward travel. The plasma that is burdening the rising field slides along the field lines, creating fast downflowing channels at the footpoints. The weight of this material anchors this field to the...

  5. Morphological Properties of Slender Ca ii H Fibrils Observed by Sunrise II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafeira, R.; Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Jafarzadeh, S.; van Noort, M.; Barthol, P.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Knölker, M.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Schmidt, W.

    2017-03-01

    We use seeing-free high spatial resolution Ca ii H data obtained by the Sunrise observatory to determine properties of slender fibrils in the lower solar chromosphere. In this work we use intensity images taken with the SuFI instrument in the Ca ii H line during the second scientific flight of the Sunrise observatory to identify and track elongated bright structures. After identification, we analyze theses structures to extract their morphological properties. We identify 598 slender Ca ii H fibrils (SCFs) with an average width of around 180 km, length between 500 and 4000 km, average lifetime of ≈400 s, and average curvature of 0.002 arcsec‑1. The maximum lifetime of the SCFs within our time series of 57 minutes is ≈2000 s. We discuss similarities and differences of the SCFs with other small-scale, chromospheric structures such as spicules of type I and II, or Ca ii K fibrils.

  6. Morphological properties of slender Ca II H fibrils observed by SUNRISE II

    CERN Document Server

    Gafeira, R; Solanki, Sami K; Jafarzadeh, Shahin; Van Noort, M; Barthol, P; Rodriguez, J Blanco; Iniesta, J C del Toro; Gandorfer, A; Gizon, L; Hirzberger, J; Knolker, M; Suarez, D Orozco; Riethmüller, T L; Schmidt, W

    2016-01-01

    We use seeing-free high spatial resolution Ca II H data obtained by the SUNRISE observatory to determine properties of slender fibrils in the lower solar chromosphere. In this work we use intensity images taken with the SUFI instrument in the Ca II H line during the second scientific flight of the SUNRISE observatory to identify and track elongated bright structures. After the identification, we analyze theses structures in order to extract their morphological properties. We identify 598 slender Ca II H fibrils (SCFs) with an average width of around 180 km, a length between 500 km and 4000 km, an average lifetime of ~400 s, and an average curvature of 0.002 arcsec^-1. The maximum lifetime of the SCFs within our time series of 57 minutes is ~2000 s. We discuss similarities and differences of the SCFs with other small-scale, chromospheric structures such as spicules of type I and II, or Ca II K fibrils.

  7. Effects of eating breakfast compared with skipping breakfast on ratings of appetite and intake at subsequent meals in 8- to 10-y-old children123

    OpenAIRE

    Kral, Tanja VE; Whiteford, Linda M; Heo, Moonseong; Faith, Myles S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cross-sectional data indicate an inverse relation between breakfast consumption and child weight. It has been suggested that skipping breakfast may adversely affect appetite in children, which could lead to overeating later in the day.

  8. Sunrise and Sunset Azimuths in the Planning of Ancient Chinese Towns

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In the planning of some Chinese towns we can see an evident orientation with the cardinal direction north-south. However, other features reveal a possible orientation with the directions of sunrise and sunset on solstices too, as in the case of Shangdu (Xanadu), the summer capital of Kublai Khan. Here we discuss some other examples of a possible solar orientation in the planning of ancient towns. We will analyse the plans of Xi'an, Khanbalik and Dali

  9. A possible role of sunrise/sunset azimuth in the planning of ancient Chinese towns

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    In the planning of some Chinese towns we can see an evident orientation with the cardinal north-south direction. However, other features reveal a possible orientation with the sunrise/sunset azimuth on solstices too, as in the case of Shangdu (Xanadu), the summer capital of Kublai Khan. Here we discuss some other examples of a possible solar orientation in the planning of ancient towns. We will analyze the plans of Xi'an, Khanbalik and Dali.

  10. Estimation of the magnetic flux emergence rate in the quiet Sun from Sunrise data

    CERN Document Server

    Smitha, H N; Solanki, S K; Riethmueller, T

    2016-01-01

    The small-scale internetwork (IN) features are thought to be the major source of fresh magnetic flux in the quiet Sun. During its first science flight in 2009, the balloon-borne observatory Sunrise captured images of the magnetic fields in the quiet Sun at a high spatial resolution. Using these data we measure the rate at which the IN features bring magnetic flux to the solar surface. In a previous paper it was found that the lowest magnetic flux in small-scale features detected using the Sunrise observations is 9 x 10^14 Mx. This is nearly an order of magnitude smaller than the smallest fluxes of features detected in observations from Hinode satellite. In this paper, we compute the flux emergence rate (FER) by accounting for such small fluxes, which was not possible before Sunrise. By tracking the features with fluxes in the range 10^15-10^18 Mx, we measure an FER of 1100 Mx cm^-2 day^-1. The smaller features with fluxes less than or equal to 10^16 Mx are found to be the dominant contributors to the solar ma...

  11. Observational Accuracy of Sunrise and Sunset Times in the Sixth Century China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Li

    2006-01-01

    The Daye Calendar was compiled in AD 597 in the Sui Dynasty. We investigate the records of sunrise and sunset times on the 24 solar-term days in the calendar. By converting the ancient Chinese time units, Chen, Ke and Fen to hour, minute and second, and carrying out a comparison between the ancient records and values computed with modern astronomical theory, we find that the accuracy of solar measurements in the Sui period is remarkably high:for sunrise times, the average absolute deviation is 3.63 min (this value can be further reduced to 3.03 min when erroneous data are excluded), and for sunset times it is 3.48 min. We also find that the observed sunrise and sunset times are strictly symmetrically distributed with respect to both the Winter Solstice and the Summer Solstice, with their deviations showing a similar symmetrical distribution as well. We give a discussion on the date of observation, the feature of the data, and possible reasons of the deviation.

  12. Kaks kanget: Forgotten Sunrise ning Tharaphitha enne ja nüüd / Anders Melts, Ants Lill ; intervjueerinud Mart Kalvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Melts, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Küsimustele vastavad dark-elektro-bändi Forgotten Sunrise laulja Anders Melts ja pagan-metal-bändi Tharaphita laulja-kitarrist Ants Lill. Ansamblitest ja nende esimestest heliplaatidest, mis üllitati hiljuti uuesti plaadifirma Nailboard Records poolt: Tharaphita albumi "Raev" digipack-CD, millele on lisatud 1996. aastal ilmunud neljalooline demosalvestis "Kui varjud põlevad" ja Forgotten Sunrise demo "Behind The Abysmal Sky" (1993) ja minialbumi "Forever Sleeping Greystones" (1994) lood

  13. Kaks kanget: Forgotten Sunrise ning Tharaphitha enne ja nüüd / Anders Melts, Ants Lill ; intervjueerinud Mart Kalvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Melts, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Küsimustele vastavad dark-elektro-bändi Forgotten Sunrise laulja Anders Melts ja pagan-metal-bändi Tharaphita laulja-kitarrist Ants Lill. Ansamblitest ja nende esimestest heliplaatidest, mis üllitati hiljuti uuesti plaadifirma Nailboard Records poolt: Tharaphita albumi "Raev" digipack-CD, millele on lisatud 1996. aastal ilmunud neljalooline demosalvestis "Kui varjud põlevad" ja Forgotten Sunrise demo "Behind The Abysmal Sky" (1993) ja minialbumi "Forever Sleeping Greystones" (1994) lood

  14. The effect of health education programs for parents about breakfast on students' breakfast and their academic achievement in the north of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mariam M. Kawafheh; Falastine R. Hamdan; Shalabia El-Sayed Abozeid; Hani Nawafleh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breakfast is often said to be the most important meal of the day, there is a significant evidence of positive academic effects due to breakfast consumption. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine whether the health education intervention about breakfast for parents leads to improvement in students' breakfast intake and their academic achievements, it also aims at investigating the effect of students' gender and class on their performance. Methods: The sample of the st...

  15. The study on Young Children's breakfast and the life rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    戸井田, 英子; 加藤, 麻樹; 村澤, 初子

    2009-01-01

    Young chi ldren need wel balanced breakfast, with staple food, main dish, side dish for the physical and mental development. Previous study has shown that young children have habit to take breakfast, however the combination of menu have to be improved. In this study, we investigates young children's breakfast tendency mainly from view point of the life rhythm, lifestyle patterns and appetite. The purpose of this study is to clear the cause of the difference of combination of the menu. A ques...

  16. Breakfast patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Korean diet, including breakfast, is becoming more Western, which could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to assess whether breakfast patterns are associated with risk for metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. The study subjects (n = 371; 103 men, 268 women) were employees of Jaesang Hospital in Korea and their acquaintances, and all subjects were between 30 and 50 years old. The data collected from each subject included anthropometric measurements, three-day food intake...

  17. Scenario analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.; Braat, L.C.; Lei, G.; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Liu, J.; Jiang, L.; Fan, Z.; Liu, W.; He, H.; Sun, X.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of the scenario analysis of China’s ecosystems focusing on forest, grassland, and wetland ecosystems. The analysis was undertaken using Conversion of Land Use Change and its Effects (CLUE) modeling and an ecosystem service matrix (as explained below) complemented by

  18. The effect of breakfast on appetite regulation, energy balance and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; James, Lewis J

    2016-08-01

    The belief that breakfast is the most important meal of day has been derived from cross-sectional studies that have associated breakfast consumption with a lower BMI. This suggests that breakfast omission either leads to an increase in energy intake or a reduction in energy expenditure over the remainder of the day, resulting in a state of positive energy balance. However, observational studies do not imply causality. A number of intervention studies have been conducted, enabling more precise determination of breakfast manipulation on indices of energy balance. This review will examine the results from these studies in adults, attempting to identify causal links between breakfast and energy balance, as well as determining whether consumption of breakfast influences exercise performance. Despite the associations in the literature, intervention studies have generally found a reduction in total daily energy intake when breakfast is omitted from the daily meal pattern. Moreover, whilst consumption of breakfast supresses appetite during the morning, this effect appears to be transient as the first meal consumed after breakfast seems to offset appetite to a similar extent, independent of breakfast. Whether breakfast affects energy expenditure is less clear. Whilst breakfast does not seem to affect basal metabolism, breakfast omission may reduce free-living physical activity and endurance exercise performance throughout the day. In conclusion, the available research suggests breakfast omission may influence energy expenditure more strongly than energy intake. Longer term intervention studies are required to confirm this relationship, and determine the impact of these variables on weight management.

  19. A microsatellite library for Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo Marcadores microssatélites para Carica papaya L. cv. Sunrise solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Correa Santos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In experimental areas of the Education and Researches Ilha Solteira and Jaboticabal UNESP/Campus farms were selected and tagged 20 hermaphrodite plants and 20 feminine of cultivar Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 and Baixinho of Santa Amália.The seeds origined of the selected fruits were cropped to be analysed the self-pollination efficiency and frequency of the sex in the progenies. After that, samples of the young leaf of the matrix plants were colected for the extration of the DNA. It was built five library enriched of microsatellite sequencies, using probes (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8.It was possible the development of the primers only in the library that has utilized the probe (TCA10. This probe allowed the design of 32 primer pairs. From these, 31 presented pattern of unique band in agarose Metaphor and in acrilamide. For primer S36 were observed 2 bands, but with no polymorphism to differentiation in the sexual form at papaya tree culture. However, these primers can be tested, in the futures, in the investigation of the others features in segregated populations of this specie and the related species, germoplasm analysis, cultivars identification, parent evolution and molecular markers for the assisted plant breeding programs.Em áreas experimentais das Fazendas de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP/Campus de Ilha Solteira e Jaboticabal foram selecionadas e marcadas 20 plantas hermafroditas e 20 femininas dos cultivares Sunrise Solo, Improved Sunrise Solo cv.72/12 e Baixinho de Santa Amália. As sementes provenientes dos frutos selecionados foram plantadas para analisar-se a eficiência da autofecundação e a freqüência dos sexos nas progênies. Posteriormente, amostras de tecido foliar jovem das plantas matrizes foram coletadas para a extração de DNA. Foram construídas cinco bibliotecas enriquecidas de seqüências microsatélites, utilizando-se as sondas (TCA10, (TC13, (GATA4, (CAC10 e (TGAG8. Foi possível o

  20. The addition of a protein-rich breakfast and its effects on acute appetite control and food intake in 'breakfast-skipping' adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, H J; Racki, E M

    2010-07-01

    Breakfast skipping (BS) is closely associated with overeating (in the evening), weight gain and obesity. It is unclear whether the addition of breakfast, with emphasis on dietary protein, leads to better appetite and energy intake regulation in adolescents. The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of addition of a normal-protein (PN) breakfast vs protein-rich (PR) breakfast on appetite and food intake in 'breakfast-skipping' adolescents. A total of 13 adolescents (age 14.3+/-0.3 years; body mass index percentile 79+/-4 percentile; skipped breakfast 5+/-1 x per week) randomly completed 3 testing days that included a PN (18+/-1 g protein), PR (48+/-2 g protein) or BS. Breakfast was 24% of estimated daily energy needs. Appetite, satiety and hormonal responses were collected over 5 h followed by an ad libitum lunch and 24-h food intake assessments. Perceived appetite was not different following PN vs BS; PR led to greater reductions vs BS (Pintake was not different following PN vs BS; PR led to fewer kcal consumed vs BS (Pfood intake was not different among treatments. Breakfast led to increased satiety through increased fullness and PYY concentrations in 'breakfast skipping' adolescents. A breakfast rich in dietary protein provides additional benefits through reductions in appetite and energy intake. These findings suggest that the addition of a protein-rich breakfast might be an effective strategy to improve appetite control in young people.

  1. Association of breakfast skipping with visceral fat and insulin indices in overweight Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Katharine E; Ventura, Emily E; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Weigensberg, Marc J; Goran, Michael I; Davis, Jaimie N

    2009-08-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between breakfast consumption and specific adiposity or insulin dynamics measures in children. The goal of this study is to determine whether breakfast consumption is associated with adiposity, specifically intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), and insulin dynamics in overweight Latino youth. Participants were a cross-sectional sample of 93 overweight (> or =85th percentile BMI) Latino youth (10-17 years) with a positive family history of type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-h recalls, IAAT, and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin dynamics by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal modeling. Participants were divided into three breakfast consumption categories: those who reported not eating breakfast on either day (breakfast skippers; n = 20), those who reported eating breakfast on one of two days (occasional breakfast eaters; n = 39) and those who ate breakfast on both days (breakfast eaters; n = 34). Using analyses of covariance, breakfast omission was associated with increased IAAT (P = 0.003) independent of age, Tanner, sex, total body fat, total body lean tissue mass, and daily energy intake. There were no significant differences in any other adiposity measure or in insulin dynamics between breakfast categories. Eating breakfast is associated with lower visceral adiposity in overweight Latino youth. Interventions focused on increasing breakfast consumption are warranted.

  2. A systematic review of the effect of breakfast on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyland, Alexa; Dye, Louise; Lawton, Clare L

    2009-12-01

    Breakfast is recommended as part of a healthy diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, BMI and lifestyle. Breakfast is also widely promoted to improve cognitive function and academic performance, leading to the provision of breakfast initiatives by public health bodies. Despite this positive and intuitive perception of cognitive benefits, there has been no systematic review of the evidence. Systematic review methodology was employed to evaluate the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in well-nourished children and nutritionally at-risk or stunted children. Acute experimental studies, school feeding programmes and studies of habitual breakfast intake are reviewed. Comparisons of breakfast v. no breakfast and breakfasts differing in energy and macronutrient composition are discussed. Included are forty-five studies described in forty-one papers published between 1950 and 2008. The evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is more beneficial than skipping breakfast, but this effect is more apparent in children whose nutritional status is compromised. There is a lack of research comparing breakfast type, precluding recommendations for the size and composition of an optimal breakfast for children's cognitive function. Few studies examined adolescents. Studies of school breakfast programmes suggest that such interventions can have positive effects on academic performance, but this may be in part explained by the increased school attendance that programmes encourage. The present systematic review considers methodological issues in this field and makes recommendations for future research design and policy priorities.

  3. Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Pereira, Mark A; Girard, Beverly L; Adams, Judi; Metzl, Jordan D

    2005-05-01

    Breakfast has been labeled the most important meal of the day, but are there data to support this claim? We summarized the results of 47 studies examining the association of breakfast consumption with nutritional adequacy (nine studies), body weight (16 studies), and academic performance (22 studies) in children and adolescents. Breakfast skipping is highly prevalent in the United States and Europe (10% to 30%), depending on age group, population, and definition. Although the quality of breakfast was variable within and between studies, children who reported eating breakfast on a consistent basis tended to have superior nutritional profiles than their breakfast-skipping peers. Breakfast eaters generally consumed more daily calories yet were less likely to be overweight, although not all studies associated breakfast skipping with overweight. Evidence suggests that breakfast consumption may improve cognitive function related to memory, test grades, and school attendance. Breakfast as part of a healthful diet and lifestyle can positively impact children's health and well-being. Parents should be encouraged to provide breakfast for their children or explore the availability of a school breakfast program. We advocate consumption of a healthful breakfast on a daily basis consisting of a variety of foods, especially high-fiber and nutrient-rich whole grains, fruits, and dairy products.

  4. Breakfast habits of 1,202 northern Italian children admitted to a summer sport school. Breakfast skipping is associated with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanelli, Maurizio; Iovane, Brunella; Bernardini, Anna; Chiari, Giovanni; Errico, Maria Katrin; Gelmetti, Chiara; Corchia, Matteo; Ruggerini, Anna; Volta, Elio; Rossetti, Stefano

    2005-09-01

    Very little is known about the differences in breakfast of children performing physical activity in the morning. This paper analyzed the breakfast habits of 747 boys and 455 girls, distributed in 2 homogeneous age groups, 6-10 and 11-14 year-old, participating in a Summer Sport School. Children were asked whether, when, where, how and with whom they consumed breakfast; who prepared meals; what they ate and drank; what they did during breakfast. Weight, height and BMI were recorded. Seventy-eight percent of children usually had breakfast, but 22% reported skipping breakfast. In the non-breakfast consumer subjects, 27.5% were overweight and 9.6% obese vs 9.1 and 4.5% respectively in breakfast eaters. Bakery products (76%) and milk (71%) were the most frequently consumed foods. Only 15% of parents encouraged their children to consume additional foods at breakfast before exercising, and 42% of children believed that this extra nutrition was unnecessary. In 80% of cases, the chief decision-maker for breakfast was the mother, the father played little part (1%). During breakfast, 48% of children ate and drank in silence, 26% played with brothers and sisters, 18% watched television and only 8% talked with parents. A high prevalence of over-weight and obesity was found among non-breakfast consumer children. Breakfast omission in children exercising conflicts with their increased energy requirements and may be connected to the trend of parents and children to under-estimate the importance of breakfast for nutritional balance and for environment promotion of physical performance.

  5. Skipping breakfast reduces energy intake and physical activity in healthy women who are habitual breakfast eaters: A randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Eiichi; Hatamoto, Yoichi; Yonekura, Satomi; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-03-09

    Many epidemiological studies indicate a positive relationship between skipping breakfast (SB) and obesity. However, it is unclear whether SB affects energy intake and physical activity during the day. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of SB on energy intake and physical activity under free-living conditions. The present study used a randomized, crossover trial design comparing eating breakfast (EB) and SB days. Twenty lean, healthy women 21-25years old who were habitual breakfast eaters (≥5daysperweek) took part in this study. On EB days, participants were provided a standard breakfast (542kcal). The meals and physical activity after breakfast were under free-living conditions. The meals consisted of foods available at supermarkets, restaurants, and convenience stores. Dietary intake was evaluated by adding values from food labels. Physical activity was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Energy intake at lunch was significantly increased after SB compared with EB (+131±188kcal; p=0.0057). Total energy intake per day was significantly lower after SB compared with EB (-262±428kcal, p=0.013). Physical activity energy expenditure was slightly lower after SB compared with EB (-41±75kcal in the morning, p=0.024; -56±129kcalperday, p=0.064). Step counts and time spent physically active over the whole day were not significantly different between conditions. Skipping breakfast reduced energy intake during the day and morning physical activity in healthy women who were habitual breakfast eaters. The decreased energy expenditure related to physical activity after SB did not exceed the decreased energy intake.

  6. Breakfast Macronutrient Composition Influences Thermic Effect of Feeding and Fat Oxidation in Young Women Who Habitually Skip Breakfast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Brianna L.; Dunn, Amy; Johnson, Dallas; Adams, J. D.; Baum, Jamie I.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if breakfast macronutrient composition improved thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and appetite after a one-week adaptation in young women who habitually skip breakfast. A randomized, controlled study was conducted in females (24.1 ± 2 years), who skip breakfast (≥5 times/week). Participants were placed into one of three groups for eight days (n = 8 per group): breakfast skipping (SKP; no breakfast), carbohydrate (CHO; 351 kcal; 59 g CHO, 10 g PRO, 8 g fat) or protein (PRO; 350 kcal; 39 g CHO, 30 g PRO, 8 g fat). On days 1 (D1) and 8 (D8), TEF, substrate oxidation, appetite and blood glucose were measured. PRO had higher (p < 0.05) TEF compared to SKP and CHO on D1 and D8, with PRO having 29% higher TEF than CHO on D8. On D1, PRO had 30.6% higher fat oxidation than CHO and on D8, PRO had 40.6% higher fat oxidation than CHO. SKP had higher (p < 0.05) fat oxidation on D1 and D8 compared to PRO and CHO. There was an interaction (p < 0.0001) of time and breakfast on appetite response. In addition, CHO had a significant increase (p < 0.05) in PP hunger response on D8 vs. D1. CHO and PRO had similar PP (postprandial) glucose responses on D1 and D8. Consumption of PRO breakfast for 8 days increased TEF compared to CHO and SKP, while consumption of CHO for one week increased PP hunger response. PMID:27517958

  7. Breakfast Macronutrient Composition Influences Thermic Effect of Feeding and Fat Oxidation in Young Women Who Habitually Skip Breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna L. Neumann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if breakfast macronutrient composition improved thermic effect of feeding (TEF and appetite after a one-week adaptation in young women who habitually skip breakfast. A randomized, controlled study was conducted in females (24.1 ± 2 years, who skip breakfast (≥5 times/week. Participants were placed into one of three groups for eight days (n = 8 per group: breakfast skipping (SKP; no breakfast, carbohydrate (CHO; 351 kcal; 59 g CHO, 10 g PRO, 8 g fat or protein (PRO; 350 kcal; 39 g CHO, 30 g PRO, 8 g fat. On days 1 (D1 and 8 (D8, TEF, substrate oxidation, appetite and blood glucose were measured. PRO had higher (p < 0.05 TEF compared to SKP and CHO on D1 and D8, with PRO having 29% higher TEF than CHO on D8. On D1, PRO had 30.6% higher fat oxidation than CHO and on D8, PRO had 40.6% higher fat oxidation than CHO. SKP had higher (p < 0.05 fat oxidation on D1 and D8 compared to PRO and CHO. There was an interaction (p < 0.0001 of time and breakfast on appetite response. In addition, CHO had a significant increase (p < 0.05 in PP hunger response on D8 vs. D1. CHO and PRO had similar PP (postprandial glucose responses on D1 and D8. Consumption of PRO breakfast for 8 days increased TEF compared to CHO and SKP, while consumption of CHO for one week increased PP hunger response.

  8. [PHARMACEUTICAL CARE FOR HEALTHY BREAKFAST PROMOTION IN COMMUNITY PHARMACIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Rives, Fátima; Morales Marin, Fatima; Marín Rives, Luz Virtudes; Gastelurrutia Garralda, Miguel Ángel

    2015-09-01

    a healthy breakfast is the one that includes a balanced portion of every nutrient qualitatively and quantitatively. Although it should supply the 20-25% calories of the day, it is usually insufficient or even absent. to study the food habits of schoolchildren and to participate in a health educational intervention of a Pharmaceutical Care Program with them. only the 36.6% of students have a healthy breakfast every day. The health education achieves favorable changes in the behavior and opinions of the schoolchildren participating. the percentage of students that have C group food is higher than in other studies. We can consider the fact that the School is located in a rural area with many vegetable gardens, and that can help students to eat more fruits. Another remarkable data is that the percentage of alumni that achieve a healthy breakfast is also higher than in other researchers. the breakfast of students of Fifth and Six Degree of Primary School is imbalanced. Health education by an educative and practical intervention benefits positive changes in the students' breakfast. It supports the effort of promoting Heath Education in Primary Schools. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic and environmental factors in breakfast eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Viken, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Rose, Richard J

    2004-09-01

    Despite many studies on the prevalence of breakfast eating, we know little about factors that determine breakfast eating patterns. Our aim was to find out to which extent breakfast eating frequency is influenced by genetic and environmental factors using twin and twin-family models in a population sample of 16-year-old twins (n = 5250) and their parents (n = 4663). In common effects sex-limitation models, additive genetic effects explained 41% (95% CI: 21-63%) of the variance in breakfast eating in girls and 66% (95% CI: 47-79%) in boys, and common environmental effects 45% (95% CI: 23-62%) in girls and 14% (95% CI: 5-29%) in boys. Of twin-family models, phenotypic assortment models fitted the data best. Heritability estimates increased somewhat (72%, 95% CI: 46-98% in girls and 63%, 95% CI: 38-89%) in boys. Common family environment remained substantial in both sexes. Cultural transmission was nonsignificant. The relative influence of genetic and family factors on adolescent breakfast eating frequency differs by sex and is generation-specific.

  10. Dynamic oxidation of gaseous mercury in the Arctic troposphere at polar sunrise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Steve E; Brooks, Steve; Lin, C J

    2002-01-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) is a globally distributed air toxin with a long atmospheric residence time. Any process that reduces its atmospheric lifetime increases its potential accumulation in the biosphere. Our data from Barrow, AK, at 71 degrees N show that rapid, photochemically driven...... oxidation of boundary-layer Hg0 after polar sunrise, probably by reactive halogens, creates a rapidly depositing species of oxidized gaseous mercury in the remote Arctic troposphere at concentrations in excess of 900 pg m(-3). This mercury accumulates in the snowpack during polar spring at an accelerated...

  11. Precise numerical evaluation of the two loop sunrise graph Master Integrals in the equal mass case

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzorini, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    We present a double precision routine in Fortran for the precise and fast numerical evaluation of the two Master Integrals (MIs) of the equal mass two-loop sunrise graph for arbitrary momentum transfer in d=2 and d=4 dimensions. The routine implements the accelerated power series expansions obtained by solving the corresponding differential equations for the MIs at their singular points. With a maximum of 22 terms for the worst case expansion a relative precision of better than a part in 10^{15} is achieved for arbitrary real values of the momentum transfer.

  12. An examination of the demographic predictors of adolescent breakfast consumption, content, and context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mullan, Barbara; Wong, Cara; Kothe, Emily; O'Moore, Kathleen; Pickles, Kristen; Sainsbury, Kirby

    2014-01-01

    ... (who they ate with, involvement in preparation). Logistic regression was conducted to investigate the predictors of skipping breakfast, breakfast context, and consumption of the ten most commonly consumed foods...

  13. Breakfast frequency and quality may affect glycemia and appetite in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mark A; Erickson, Elizabeth; McKee, Patricia; Schrankler, Karilyn; Raatz, Susan K; Lytle, Leslie A; Pellegrini, Anthony D

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies of breakfast frequency in children and adults suggest an inverse (protective) association between the frequency of eating breakfast and the risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. More prospective studies with stronger designs are needed, as are experimental studies on this topic. In addition, above and beyond breakfast frequency, the roles of dietary quality and composition need to be studied in the context of eating or skipping breakfast. Experimental studies are also necessary to rigorously test causality and biological mechanisms. Therefore, we conducted 2 pilot experimental studies to examine some of the effects of breakfast skipping and breakfast composition on blood glucose and appetite in children and adults. Our results suggest that breakfast frequency and quality may be related in causal ways to appetite controls and blood sugar control, supporting the hypothesis that the breakfast meal and its quality may have important causal implications for the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  14. Skipping breakfast adversely affects menstrual disorders in young college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Tomoko; Sato, Natsuyo; Awaji, Hiroyo; Sakamoto, Hiroko; Nakata, Rieko

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we conducted a questionnaire survey to examine the relationship between dietary habits and menstrual disorders in young women. Subjects were recruited from 315 college students and were classified as: Group I, eating breakfast; Group II, skipping breakfast; Group III, not eating fast foods; Group IV, eating fast foods; Group V, not eating processed foods; and Group VI, eating processed foods. The intensity of dysmenorrhea was scored using three grades. All participants were further divided into groups based on having regular or irregular menstruation, having premenstrual symptoms or not, and self-perception of good or poor general health. General health was poor in Groups II and VI, and dysmenorrhea scores were high in Groups II, IV and VI. The incidence of irregular menses was also high in Group II. However, there was no apparent relation between premenstrual symptoms and dietary habits. These findings suggest that skipping breakfast adversely affects menstrual disorders in young college students.

  15. The effects of breakfast on behaviour and academic performance in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphus, K; Lawton, CL; Dye, L.

    2013-01-01

    Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behaviour, cognitive and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic perf...

  16. The effects of breakfast on behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L.; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic perf...

  17. Psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical, and nutritional proposals about how to encourage eating a healthy breakfast

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, Chiara; Galli, Erica; Dilillo, Dario; Alemanno, Alberto; Catalani, Loredana; Cau, Silvia; Fransos, Lucia; Lucidi, Fabio; Macrì, Agostino; Marconi, Paolo; Mostaccio, Alessandro; Presti, Giovambattista; Rovera, Giuseppe; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Rubeo, Mariagrazia

    2014-01-01

    Background Even if more and more evidences have highlighted the importance of breakfast in the growth and development of children, from 10 to 30% of US and European children and adolescents regularly skip breakfast. Thus, there is still a lot to be done before breakfast becomes a daily habit. The aim of this paper is to try and understand how it is possible to overcome the real or imaginary difficulties associated with skipping breakfast by psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical and nutrition...

  18. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)

    OpenAIRE

    Keiko Asao; Amandine Sambira Marekani; Jessica VanCleave; Amy E. Rothberg

    2016-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food...

  19. Lifestyle and socioeconomic correlates of breakfast skipping in Hong Kong primary 4 schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Tin, SPP; Ho, SY; Mak, KH; Wan, KL; Lam, Th

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although breakfast is associated with different benefits, breakfast skipping is increasingly common among children. This study aimed to identify lifestyle and socioeconomic correlates of breakfast skipping in Hong Kong schoolchildren. Methods: 68 606 primary 4 participants of the Department of Health Student Health Service in 1998-2000 reported breakfast habit and other lifestyle characteristics using a standardized questionnaire. Height and weight were measured by trained SHS nurs...

  20. Breakfast habits and factors influencing food choices at breakfast in relation to socio-demographic and family factors among European adolescents. The HELENA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Lena; Vereecken, Carine A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Patterson, Emma; Gilbert, Chantal C; Catasta, Giovina; Díaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; González Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; Hegyi, Adrienn; Lehoux, Claire; Mouratidou, Theodora; Widham, Kurt; Aström, Annika; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Breakfast consumption has been shown to be an important indicator of a healthy lifestyle. Little is known however about factors influencing breakfast consumption and food choices at breakfast in adolescents. The aim of the present study was therefore to describe breakfast habits, and factors influencing food choices at breakfast within the framework of the EU-funded HELENA Study, in 3528 adolescents from ten European cities. Additionally, socio-demographic differences in breakfast habits and in influencing factors were investigated. Half of the adolescents (and fewer girls than boys) indicated being regular breakfast consumers. Girls with mothers with a high level of education, boys from 'traditional' families and boys who perceived low family affluence were positively associated with breakfast consumption. Boys whose parents gave encouragement and girls whose peers ate healthily were more likely to be regular breakfast consumers. 'Hunger', 'taste', 'health concerns' and 'parents or guardian' were the most important influences on the adolescents' food choices at breakfast. Adolescents from southern Europe and girls reported to be more influenced by personal and socio-environmental factors. Socio-demographic differences, in particular regional and gender differences, need to be considered in discussions surrounding the development of nutritional intervention programs intended for adolescents.

  1. Can the provision of breakfast benefit school performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2005-06-01

    Studies of an association between school performance (enrollment, attendance, achievement, classroom behavior, and school drop-out) and nutritional status are discussed and the evidence of an effect of school meals evaluated. Many studies have shown associations between hunger, poor dietary intakes, stunting, underweight, and poor school performance after controlling for socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains possible that unmeasured socioeconomic variables could explain the relationship. Rigorous short-term studies of missing breakfast have generally found detrimental effects on children's cognition whereas studies of providing breakfast have shown benefits particularly in malnourished children. Classroom conditions may modify the effects of breakfast on behavior. There are extremely few longer term studies of the effects of giving school meals. Nearly all involved breakfast and very few had randomized controlled designs. Studies comparing participants with non-participants or comparing matched schools have found benefits (but bias due to self-selection) of receiving breakfast; inadequate matching of schools also remains possible. One longer term randomized controlled trial found benefits associated with attendance and arithmetic performance. In conclusion, most studies of giving breakfast have found benefits to school performance but many had serious design problems, were short-term, and were not conducted in the poorest countries. In order to advise policy makers correctly, there is an urgent need to run long-term randomized controlled trials of giving school meals in poor countries and to determine the effects of age and nutrition status of the children, the quality of the school, and the timing of the meal. The special needs of orphans should also be considered.

  2. Irregular breakfast eating and health status among adolescents in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Yeu-Sheng

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular breakfast eating (RBE is an important contributor to a healthy lifestyle and health status. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the relationships among irregular breakfast eating (IRBE, health status, and health promoting behavior (HPB for Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to investigate a cluster sample of 1609 (7th -12th grade adolescents located in the metropolitan Tao-Yuan area during the 2005 academic year. The main variables comprised breakfast eating pattern, body weight, and health promoting behaviors. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Results A total of 1609 participants were studied, 64.1% in junior high school and 35.9% in high school, boys (47.1% and girls (52.9% ranging in age from 12–20 years. Of the total participant population, 28.8% were overweight and nearly one quarter (23.6% reported eating breakfast irregularly during schooldays. The findings indicated that adolescents with RBE had a lower risk of overweight (OR for IRBE vs. RBE = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.04, and that the odds of becoming overweight were 51% greater for IRBE than for RBE even after controlling for demographical and HPB variables. IRBE also was a strong indicator for HPB. However, the profile of the high-risk IRBE group was predominantly junior high schoolchildren and/or children living without both parents. Conclusion This study provides valuable information about irregular breakfast eating among adolescents, which is associated with being overweight and with a low frequency of health promoting behavior. School and family health promotion strategies should be used to encourage all adolescents to eat breakfast regularly.

  3. Health, behavioral, cognitive, and social correlates of breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend breakfast skipping was defined as eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk, additional associations were found for having lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition knowledge.

  4. Children's Perceptions of Parental Attitude Affecting Breakfast Skipping in Primary Sixth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tereza Sy; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Griffiths, Sian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Breakfast skipping is an international public health concern. This study investigated the prevalence of breakfast skipping among primary sixth-grade students in Hong Kong and the impact of students' perceptions of parental attitudes on breakfast skipping. Methods: A total of 426 students aged 10-14 years in 4 local schools participated…

  5. Skipping breakfast is associated with diet quality and metabolic syndrome risk factors of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chanyang; Noh, Hwayoung; Kang, Yun-Sook; Sim, Hea Jin; Baik, Hyun Wook; Song, Won O; Yoon, Jihyun; Park, Young-Hee; Joung, Hyojee

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of skipping breakfast on diet quality and metabolic disease risk factors in healthy Korean adults. Subjects included 415 employees (118 men, 297 women; 30-50 years old) of Jaesang Hospital in Korea and their acquaintances. Data collected from each subject included anthropometric measurements, 3-day dietary intake, blood pressure, and blood analyses. The subjects were classified into three groups based on the number of days they skipped breakfast: 'Regular breakfast eater', 'Often breakfast eater', or 'Rare breakfast eater'. Participants in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed less rice, potatoes, kimchi, vegetables, fish and shellfish, milk and dairy products, and sweets than did participants in the other two groups (P for trend breakfast eater' group consumed less daily energy, fat, dietary fiber, calcium, and potassium than did participants in the other groups (P for trend breakfast eater' group than in the other groups (P for trend breakfast eater' group consumed more energy from fat compared with the other two groups (P breakfast eater' group than in the other two groups (P breakfast eater' group (OR, 0.3 [0.1-1.0], P for trend = 0.0232). We conclude that eating breakfast regularly enhances diet quality, but may increase the risk of elevated serum triglycerides.

  6. A Tale of Two Emergences: Sunrise II Observations of Emergence Sites in a Solar Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, R.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; van Noort, M.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Knölker, M.

    2017-03-01

    In 2013 June, the two scientific instruments on board the second Sunrise mission witnessed, in detail, a small-scale magnetic flux emergence event as part of the birth of an active region. The Imaging Magnetograph Experiment (IMaX) recorded two small (∼ 5\\prime\\prime ) emerging flux patches in the polarized filtergrams of a photospheric Fe i spectral line. Meanwhile, the Sunrise Filter Imager (SuFI) captured the highly dynamic chromospheric response to the magnetic fields pushing their way through the lower solar atmosphere. The serendipitous capture of this event offers a closer look at the inner workings of active region emergence sites. In particular, it reveals in meticulous detail how the rising magnetic fields interact with the granulation as they push through the Sun’s surface, dragging photospheric plasma in their upward travel. The plasma that is burdening the rising field slides along the field lines, creating fast downflowing channels at the footpoints. The weight of this material anchors this field to the surface at semi-regular spatial intervals, shaping it in an undulatory fashion. Finally, magnetic reconnection enables the field to release itself from its photospheric anchors, allowing it to continue its voyage up to higher layers. This process releases energy that lights up the arch-filament systems and heats the surrounding chromosphere.

  7. Life cycle assessment of waste prevention in the delivery of pasta, breakfast cereals, and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Giovanni; Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Waste prevention is the top priority of the European waste management strategy. In fact, as indicated in the latest Waste Framework Directive, the best option to deal with waste is not to generate it at all. In this framework, the distribution of loose dry food products through self-dispensing systems (so-called "loose distribution") is being considered worldwide as a practice to reduce the generation of packaging waste. This life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluates the environmental convenience of the loose distribution of dry pasta, breakfast cereals, and rice, in comparison with the traditional method of distribution. For each product, several baseline scenarios based on single-use packaging were compared with different waste prevention scenarios in which the product is distributed loose. The comparison addressed waste generation, 13 impact categories on the environment and human health, and the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) indicator. The results are significantly different for the 3 products. The loose distribution of pasta allows a 50% waste reduction and a decrease in the potential impacts only when compared with single-use cartonboard boxes. Conversely, when the comparison is made with single-use polypropylene bags, the loose distribution can even cause an increase in waste generation (up to 15%) and in the potential life cycle impacts. For breakfast cereals, the loose distribution allows a significant reduction in both the amount of waste (up to 84%) and the potential impacts, compared to the sale of traditional single-use bag-in-box packages. Finally, the loose distribution of rice permits a reduction in both waste generation (up to 86%) and most of the potential impacts. In particular, the impact reduction is higher when the reference single-use packaging that is replaced includes a cartonboard box. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:445-458. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. Nutrient Intake, Diet Quality, and Weight Measures in Breakfast Patterns Consumed by Children Compared with Breakfast Skippers: NHANES 2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol E. O'Neil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Most studies showing that children consuming breakfast have better nutrient intakes, diet quality, and lower weight than breakfast skippers have the incorrect premise that breakfast meals are homogeneous. The purpose of this study was to classify breakfast meals into patterns and determine the association of the breakfast patterns with daily and breakfast nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight. Data from children (2-18 years of age; N = 14,200 participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 were used. Intake was determined from one day 24-hour dietary recalls. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Body mass index (BMI z-scores were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [~19% of population], explaining 63% of the variance in energy from breakfast, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare outcome variables of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The p value was Bonferroni corrected (< 0.05/12 = < 0.0042. Consumers of the Eggs/Grain/Meat, Poultry, Fish (MPF/Fruit Juice (FJ and MPF/Grain/FJ patterns showed higher daily intakes of saturated fats, solid fats, and sodium and lower daily intakes of added sugars than breakfast skippers. Consumers of most breakfast patterns showed higher daily intakes of some nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium; however, those consuming the Grain or MPF/Grain/FJ pattern did not. Consumers of the Grain/Lower Fat Milk (LFM/Sweets/FJ, Presweetened (PS Ready-to-eat Cereal (RTEC/LFM, RTEC/LFM, Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ, and Whole Fruit patterns had higher total HEI-2005 scores than breakfast skippers; those consuming the MPF/Grain/FJ pattern had lower diet quality than breakfast skippers. Consumption of the Grain/LFM/Sweets/FJ, PSRTEC/whole milk, Soft Drinks/FJ/Grain/Potatoes, RTEC/whole milk, and Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ patterns was associated

  9. A high-protein breakfast prevents body fat gain, through reductions in daily intake and hunger, in "Breakfast skipping" adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Hoertel, Heather A; Douglas, Steve M; Higgins, Kelly A; Shafer, Rebecca S

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the daily consumption of normal-protein (NP) vs. high-protein (HP) breakfast meals improves appetite control, food intake, and body composition in "breakfast skipping" young people with overweight/obesity. Fifty-seven adolescents (age: 19 ± 1 years; BMI: 29.7 ± 4.6 kg m(-2)) completed a 12-week randomized controlled trial in which the adolescents consumed either a 1,464 kJ NP breakfast (13 g protein) or a HP breakfast (35 g protein) or continued to skip breakfast (CON). Pre- and post-study appetite, food intake, body weight, and body composition were assessed. Time-by-group interactions (P fat mass, daily intake, and perceived hunger. Specifically, HP prevented fat mass gains over the 12 weeks (-0.4 ± 0.5 kg) vs. CON (+1.6 ± 0.9 kg; P = 0.02), whereas NP did not (+0.3 ± 0.5 kg). HP led to reductions in daily intake (-1,724 ± 954 kJ) vs. CON (+1,556 ± 745 kJ; P = 0.03), whereas NP did not (+494 ± 213 kJ). Lastly, only the HP group experienced reductions in daily hunger vs. CON (P fat gain, voluntary reductions in daily intake, and reductions in daily hunger in breakfast skipping adolescents with overweight/obesity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  10. Online Ephemerides – the Equation of Time and True Solar Time, Sunrise and Sunset and the Corresponding Azimuths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Tomac

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the Croatian web page Online ephemerides with its applications for calculating and visualising the equation of time and the analemma, converting zone time (zone or civil time into true solar time (the time shown by sundials and calculating the time of sunrise and sunset and the corresponding azimuths. The calculated values for the equation of time, ephemeris transit and the true solar time of ±4 seconds, sunrise and sunset times of ±30 seconds and the azimuth of ±30” must meet the accuracy needed by both amateur and professional astronomers. The web applications described are also adapted for smart phones.

  11. Breakfast Dietary Patterns among Mexican Children Are Related to Total-Day Diet Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Hopkins, Sinead; Eldridge, Alison L; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-03-01

    Background: Mexico has experienced shifts in food availability and consumption patterns over the past few decades from traditional diets to those containing more high-energy density foods, resulting in the development of unhealthful dietary patterns among children and adults. However, to our knowledge it is not known whether breakfast consumption patterns contribute to the overall daily diet of Mexican children.Objective: We examined total-day diet among breakfast consumers compared with breakfast skippers, identified and investigated breakfast dietary patterns in relation to energy and nutrient intakes at breakfast and across the day, and examined these patterns in relation to sociodemographic characteristics.Methods: With the use of nationally representative dietary data (one 24-h recall) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, 3760 children aged 4-13 y were categorized into mutually exclusive breakfast patterns with the use of cluster analysis. The association between breakfast patterns and breakfast skippers with dietary intake at breakfast and for the total day was investigated with the use of multivariate linear regression.Results: Most children (83%) consumed breakfast. Six breakfast dietary patterns were identified (milk and sweetened breads, tortillas and beans, sweetened beverages, sandwiches and quesadillas, eggs, and cereal and milk) and reflected both traditional and more Westernized dietary patterns. Sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed across all patterns. Compared with all breakfast dietary patterns, breakfast skippers had the lowest intake of several nutrients of public health concern. Nutrients to limit that were high at breakfast tended to be high for the total day and vice versa for nutrients to encourage.Conclusions: There was not a single pattern that complied perfectly with the Mexican School Breakfast Guidelines, but changes such as increasing dietary fiber by encouraging more whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and

  12. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. NHANES 1999-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight /obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. Three breakfast groups were identified (breakfast skippers, ready-to-eat-cereal ...

  13. Sunrise as a tourist attraction in the context of tourist motivation theory: a case study of the peak of Babia Góra (Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocior Ewelina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourist ascents of mountain peaks before sunrise are increasingly popular. Babia Góra (Western Carpathians is a peak on the Polish-Slovak border frequently visited by a great number of tourists at sunrise. The main objective of our research, based on the case study of Babia Gora, was to answer a more general question whether the sunrise can be considered a tourist attraction. The research included the observation and description of every sunrise at summer holiday weekends during 2012 from the peak of Babia Góra as well as the collection of data on the number of tourists and weather conditions. Survey interviews, using questionnaire, with randomly selected hikers present on the peak of Babia Góra at sunrise (269 were conducted. The investigation showed that during summer holiday sunrises there were a maximum of 130 people on the summit of Babia Góra at the same time. Most of the surveyed people (84% agreed that the opportunity to observe the sunrise was one of the pull factors for them. This confirms the hypothesis that sunrise constitutes a tourist attraction.

  14. Building Nutrition Skills with the Breakfast Cafe Webquest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the nutrition component of a Home and Career Skills curriculum at Hommocks Middle School (Larchmont, NY) that includes the Breakfast Cafe Webquest, which encourages 7th graders to increase the amounts of fruits and vegetables in their diets as well as reduce serving sizes. Using this Webquest, students "help the Breakfast…

  15. Speciation of chromium in bread and breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathebula, Mpho Wendy; Mandiwana, Khakhathi; Panichev, Nikolas

    2017-02-15

    Bread and breakfast cereals are a major constituents of the human diet, yet their Cr(VI) content is not known. Chromium(VI) was determined in these products by high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (HR-CS AAS) after leaching Cr(VI) with 0.10molL(-1) Na2CO3. The results showed that 33-73% of total Cr (58.17±5.12μgkg(-1)-156.1±6.66μgkg(-1)) in bread exist as Cr(VI) and the highest total Cr content was found in brown bread. It was shown that Cr(III) is oxidized to Cr(VI) during toasting of bread. Chromium(VI) content in breakfast cereals ranged between 20.4±4μgkg(-1) and 470.4±68μgkg(-1). Therefore, it can be concluded that bread and breakfast cereals contains Cr(VI) which does not exceed maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 0.003mgkg(-1)bw(-1)day(-1) through daily consumption of half a bowl (65g) of breakfast cereal and four slices of toasted (122g) or untoasted bread (160g). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: Screening for gestational diabetes was performed in the High-Risk Antenatal Clinic at Tygerberg Academic ... on the changing diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes.1–4 ... (quantity and type) is the main determining factor of the post- .... In a 'designed' breakfast with 75 g of carbohydrate, the fat should.

  17. Breathe Fresh Morning:China-Columbia Business Breakfast Meeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On February 16, the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) and the National Business Association of Columbia (ANDI) jointly hosted the China-Columbia Business Breakfast Meeting in Bogota, capital city of Columbia. Chinese Vice Presi-dent Xi Jinping who was on an official visit to Columbia and Columbian Vice President Francisco Santos attended the event.

  18. Food for Thought: Expanding School Breakfast to NJ Students. [Updated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advocates for Children of New Jersey, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Often, school districts are reluctant to adopt innovative approaches to serving children breakfast in school because of logistical concerns that are easily overcome. Districts that adopt these more innovative approaches report significant increases in participation rates and improvement in student behavior and performance. This report provides…

  19. Predictors of Adolescent Breakfast Consumption: Longitudinal Findings from Project EAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of breakfast consumption among adolescents. Methods: Five-year longitudinal study Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Baseline surveys were completed in Minneapolis-St. Paul schools and by mail at follow-up by youth (n = 800) transitioning from middle to high school. Linear regression models examined associations…

  20. Building Nutrition Skills with the Breakfast Cafe Webquest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the nutrition component of a Home and Career Skills curriculum at Hommocks Middle School (Larchmont, NY) that includes the Breakfast Cafe Webquest, which encourages 7th graders to increase the amounts of fruits and vegetables in their diets as well as reduce serving sizes. Using this Webquest, students "help the Breakfast…

  1. The relation between breakfast skipping and school performance in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Boschloo, A., Ouwehand, C., Dekker, S., Lee, N., De Groot, R., Krabbendam, L., & Jolles, J. (2012). The relation between breakfast skipping and school performance in adolescents. Mind, Brain, and Education, 6(2), 81-88. doi:10.1111/j.1751-228x.2012.01138.x

  2. Breakfast Skipping, Extreme Commutes, and the Sex Composition at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Bhashkar; Seeskin, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has shown that environmental exposures in the period around conception can affect the sex ratio at birth through selective attrition that favors the survival of female conceptuses. Glucose availability is considered a key indicator of the fetal environment, and its absence as a result of meal skipping may inhibit male survival. We hypothesize that breakfast skipping during pregnancy may lead to a reduction in the fraction of male births. Using time use data from the United States we show that women with commute times of 90 minutes or longer are 20 percentage points more likely to skip breakfast. Using U.S. census data we show that women with commute times of 90 minutes or longer are 1.2 percentage points less likely to have a male child under the age of 2. Under some assumptions, this implies that routinely skipping breakfast around the time of conception leads to a 6 percentage point reduction in the probability of a male child. Skipping breakfast during pregnancy may therefore constitute a poor environment for fetal health more generally.

  3. Applying an extended theory of planned behaviour to predict breakfast consumption in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, S; Davies, E L; Ryan, L; Clegg, M E

    2017-05-01

    Breakfast skipping increases during adolescence and is associated with lower levels of physical activity and weight gain. Theory-based interventions promoting breakfast consumption in adolescents report mixed findings, potentially because of limited research identifying which determinants to target. This study aimed to: (i) utilise the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify the relative contribution of attitudes (affective, cognitive and behavioural) to predict intention to eat breakfast and breakfast consumption in adolescents and (ii) determine whether demographic factors moderate the relationship between TPB variables, intention and behaviour. Questionnaires were completed by 434 students (mean 14±0.9 years) measuring breakfast consumption (0-2, 3-6 or 7 days), physical activity levels and TPB measures. Data were analysed by breakfast frequency and demographics using hierarchical and multinomial regression analyses. Breakfast was consumed everyday by 57% of students, with boys more likely to eat a regular breakfast, report higher activity levels and report more positive attitudes towards breakfast than girls (Pbehaviours (Pbehaviour relationship for girls. Findings confirm that the TPB is a successful model for predicting breakfast intentions and behaviours in adolescents. The potential for a direct effect of attitudes on behaviours should be considered in the implementation and design of breakfast interventions.

  4. Lifestyle and socioeconomic correlates of breakfast skipping in Hong Kong primary 4 schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, Sze Pui Pamela; Ho, Sai Yin; Mak, Kwok Hang; Wan, Ka Leung; Lam, Tai Hing

    2011-01-01

    Although breakfast is associated with different benefits, breakfast skipping is increasingly common among children. This study aimed to identify lifestyle and socioeconomic correlates of breakfast skipping in Hong Kong schoolchildren. 68,606 primary 4 participants of the Department of Health Student Health Service in 1998-2000 reported breakfast habit and other lifestyle characteristics using a standardized questionnaire. Height and weight were measured by trained SHS nurses. Socioeconomic data were reported by parents. In cross-sectional analysis, multivariate logistic regression was used to identify lifestyle and socioeconomic correlates of breakfast skipping. 3,598 subjects (5.2%) usually skipped breakfast. Breakfast skipping was associated with being overweight (Odds ratio=1.59, 95% CI: 1.46 to 1.73) and obese (2.06, 1.80 to 2.36), and unhealthy dietary habits including more frequent junk food (1.23, 1.14 to 1.33) but less frequent fruit/vegetable (1.23, 1.13 to 1.34) and milk (1.98, 1.80 to 2.16) intake. Breakfast skippers tended to skip lunch, do less extra-curricular physical activity, watch more television and have less educated parents. Breakfast skipping was significantly related to various health-compromising lifestyle characteristics and lower parental education. Breakfast habit can be a potential lifestyle indicator. Education programmes aimed at specific target groups should encourage regular breakfast consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Socioeconomic status and dietary habits as predictors of home breakfast skipping in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hamid Hussein, Rania Abd

    2014-08-01

    Breakfast skipping is prevalent among adolescents and young women, and deprives the body of important nutrients. This study was conducted to assess the correlation between breakfast eating and sociodemographic and lifestyle criteria. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a convenient sample of 400 female students selected from the female sector of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Home breakfast habit and other lifestyle characteristics were studied using a standardized questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between home breakfast habit and different predictors. Home breakfast skippers constituted 71.75% of the whole sample. Breakfast eaters had a significantly higher BMI compared with breakfast skippers (22.66±4.88 vs. 21.58±4.09 in home breakfast skippers; P=0.025). Irrespective of other sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, fathers' education lower than university level negatively predicted home breakfast eating [Exp B=0.40, confidence interval (CI)=0.21-0.77], and being employed positively predicted breakfast eating (Exp B=2.31, CI=1.04-5.15). Likewise, consuming less amount of junk food and fewer soft drinks (Exp B=2.57, CI=1.54-4.28, and Exp B=2.59, CI=1.39-4.81, respectively) and consuming more milk and dairy products (Exp B=1.91, CI=1.16-3.15) correlated positively with home breakfast eating. Breakfast skipping was prevalent among adolescents and young women in the studied sample. Unhealthy dietary habits, father's education lower than university level, and father being unemployed positively predicted breakfast skipping of daughters at home. This implies that breakfast eating can be encouraged by approaching parents in addition to their daughters.

  6. Comparison of solar photospheric bright points between SUNRISE observations and MHD simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Riethmüller, T L; Berdyugina, S V; Schüssler, M; Pillet, V Mart\\'\\inez; Feller, A; Gandorfer, A; Hirzberger, J

    2014-01-01

    Bright points (BPs) in the solar photosphere are radiative signatures of magnetic elements described by slender flux tubes located in the darker intergranular lanes. They contribute to the ultraviolet (UV) flux variations over the solar cycle and hence may influence the Earth's climate. Here we combine high-resolution UV and spectro-polarimetric observations of BPs by the SUNRISE observatory with 3D radiation MHD simulations. Full spectral line syntheses are performed with the MHD data and a careful degradation is applied to take into account all relevant instrumental effects of the observations. It is demonstrated that the MHD simulations reproduce the measured distributions of intensity at multiple wavelengths, line-of-sight velocity, spectral line width, and polarization degree rather well. Furthermore, the properties of observed BPs are compared with synthetic ones. These match also relatively well, except that the observations display a tail of large and strongly polarized BPs not found in the simulation...

  7. F-15B ACTIVE with thrust vectoring nozzles on test stand at sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This November 13, 1995, photograph of the F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, shows the aircraft on a test stand at sunrise. Not shown in this photograph are the aircraft's two new Pratt & Whitney nozzles that can turn up to 20 degrees in any direction. These nozzles give the aircraft thrust control in the pitch (up and down) and yaw (left and right) directions. This will reduce drag and increase fuel economy or range as compared with conventional aerodynamic controls, which increase the retarding forces (drag) acting upon the aircraft. These tests could result in significant performance increases for military and commercial aircraft. The research program is the product of a collaborative effort by NASA, the Air Force's Wright Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace. The aircraft was originally built as an F-15B (Serial #71-0290).

  8. Supersonic Magnetic Upflows in Granular Cells Observed with Sunrise/IMaX

    CERN Document Server

    Borrero, J M; Schlichenmaier, R; Solanki, S K; Bonet, J A; Iniesta, J C del Toro; Schmidt, W; Barthol, P; Gandorfer, A; Domingo, V; Knoelker, M

    2010-01-01

    Using the IMaX instrument on-board the Sunrise stratospheric balloon-telescope we have detected extremely shifted polarization signals around the Fe I 5250.217 {\\AA} spectral line within granules in the solar photosphere. We interpret the velocities associated with these events as corresponding to supersonic and magnetic upflows. In addition, they are also related to the appearance of opposite polarities and highly inclined magnetic fields. This suggests that they are produced by the reconnection of emerging magnetic loops through granular upflows. The events occupy an average area of 0.046 arcsec$^2$ and last for about 80 seconds, with larger events having longer lifetimes. These supersonic events occur at a rate of $1.3\\times10^{-5}$ occurrences per second per arcsec$^{2}$.

  9. Statistical evolution of quiet-Sun small scale magnetic features using Sunrise observations

    CERN Document Server

    Anusha, L S; Hirzberger, Johann; Feller, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of small magnetic features in quiet regions of the Sun provides a unique window to probing solar magneto-convection. Here we analyze small scale magnetic features in the quiet Sun, using the high resolution, seeing-free observations from the Sunrise balloon borne solar observatory. Our aim is to understand the contribution of different physical processes, such as splitting, merging, emergence and cancellation of magnetic fields to the rearrangement, addition and removal of magnetic flux in the photosphere. We employ a statistical approach for the analysis and the evolution studies are carried out using a feature tracking technique. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the feature tracking algorithm that we have newly developed and we present the results of a statistical study of several physical quantities. The results on the fractions of the flux in the emergence, appearance, splitting, merging, disappearance and cancellation qualitatively agrees with other recent studies. To summ...

  10. Response of Cassava canopy to mid-day pseudo sunrise induced by solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, R; Murthy, B S

    2013-07-01

    Variations in CO(2) concentration over a cassava canopy were measured during a solar eclipse at Thiruvananthapuram, India. The analysis presented attempts to differentiate between the eclipse effect and the possible effect of thick clouds, taking CO(2) as a proxy for photosynthesis. CO(2) and water vapor were measured at a rate of 10 Hz, and radiation at 1 Hz, together with other meteorological parameters. A rapid reduction in CO(2) observed post-peak eclipse, due apparently to intense photosynthesis, appears similar to what happens at daybreak/post-sunrise. The increase in CO(2) (4 ppm) during peak eclipse, with radiation levels falling below the photosynthesis cut-off for cassava, indicates domination of respiration due to the light-limiting conditions.

  11. High-frequency oscillations in small magnetic elements observed with Sunrise/SuFI

    CERN Document Server

    Jafarzadeh, Shahin; Stangalini, M; Steiner, O; Cameron, R H; Danilovic, S

    2016-01-01

    We characterize waves in small magnetic elements and investigate their propagation in the lower solar atmosphere from observations at high spatial and temporal resolution. We use the wavelet transform to analyze oscillations of both horizontal displacement and intensity in magnetic bright points found in the 300 nm and the Ca II H 396.8 nm passbands of the filter imager on board the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. Phase differences between the oscillations at the two atmospheric layers corresponding to the two passbands reveal upward propagating waves at high-frequencies (up to 30 mHz). Weak signatures of standing as well as downward propagating waves are also obtained. Both compressible and incompressible (kink) waves are found in the small-scale magnetic features. The two types of waves have different, although overlapping, period distributions. Two independent estimates give a height difference of approximately 450+-100 km between the two atmospheric layers sampled by the employed spectral bands. ...

  12. Response of Cassava canopy to mid-day pseudo sunrise induced by solar eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, R.; Murthy, B. S.

    2013-07-01

    Variations in CO2 concentration over a cassava canopy were measured during a solar eclipse at Thiruvananthapuram, India. The analysis presented attempts to differentiate between the eclipse effect and the possible effect of thick clouds, taking CO2 as a proxy for photosynthesis. CO2 and water vapor were measured at a rate of 10 Hz, and radiation at 1 Hz, together with other meteorological parameters. A rapid reduction in CO2 observed post-peak eclipse, due apparently to intense photosynthesis, appears similar to what happens at daybreak/post-sunrise. The increase in CO2 (4 ppm) during peak eclipse, with radiation levels falling below the photosynthesis cut-off for cassava, indicates domination of respiration due to the light-limiting conditions.

  13. The effects of season, daylight saving and time of sunrise on serum cortisol in a large population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlow, Narelle C; Brown, Suzanne; Wardrop, Robert; Henley, David

    2014-03-01

    Cortisol is critical for maintenance of health and homeostasis and factors affecting cortisol levels are of clinical importance. There is conflicting information about the effects of season on morning cortisol and little information on the effects of sunlight on population cortisol assessment. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in median serum cortisol occurred in a population in conjunction with changing seasons, daylight saving time (DST) or time of sunrise. We analysed serum cortisol results (n = 27,569) from a single large laboratory over a 13-year period. Subjects with confounding medications or medical conditions were excluded and data analysed in 15-minute intervals. We assessed the influence of traditional seasons, seasons determined by equinox/solstice, DST and time of sunrise on median cortisol. The median time of cortisol collection did not vary significantly between seasons. Using traditional seasons, median cortisol was lowest in summer (386 nmol/L) and spring (384 nmol/L) with higher cortisol in autumn (406 nmol/L) and winter (414 nmol/L). Median cortisol was lowest in the summer solstice quarter with significant comparative increases in the spring equinox quarter (3.1%), the autumn equinox quarter (4.5%) and the winter solstice quarter (8.6%). When cortisol was modelled against time, with adjustment for actual sunrise time on day of collection, for each hour delay in sunrise there was a 4.8% increase in median cortisol (95% CI: 3.9-5.7%). In modelling to explain the variation in cortisol over the morning, sunrise time was better than season in explaining seasonal effects. A subtle cyclic pattern in median cortisol also occurred throughout the months of the year. A 3-year trial of DST allowed comparison of cortisol in DST and non DST periods, when clock time differed by one hour. There was modest evidence of a difference in acrophase between DST and non DST cortisol (p = 0.038), with DST peak cortisol estimated to

  14. Performance of a five category front-of-pack labelling system - the 5-colour nutrition label - to differentiate nutritional quality of breakfast cereals in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Hercberg, Serge

    2015-02-25

    Breakfast cereals exhibit a wide variability in nutritional quality, and differences are not easily grasped by consumers. A simplified nutritional information system might contribute to help consumers make healthier food choices. A five-category colour label based on the Food Standards Agency Nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been proposed in France to be implemented on the front-of-pack of foods (the five-colour nutrition label - 5-CNL). Objectives were to evaluate the ability of the 5-CNL to discriminate nutritional quality between types of breakfast cereals, within a category and in equivalent products, as well as its ability to change through product reformulation. Nutritional information was collected through an Internet and supermarket research for N = 433 breakfast cereals (N = 380 complete data included in the analyses). Breakfast cereals were categorized according to common attributes in terms of processing and/or ingredients used. The FSA score and 5-CNL category allocation were computed for each cereal. Nutrient content and FSA score were compared across types of cereals. Distribution within the 5-CNL categories was assessed across types of cereals and for equivalent products. Impact of reformulation (reduction of 5 and 10% in simple sugar, saturated fat and sodium) on the 5-CNL category allocation was compared to original allocation with Bapkhar's tests of homogeneity of marginal distribution. Variability in nutritional quality of breakfast cereals was high, as reflected by the FSA score (range -7- 22 for a theoretical range of -15-40) and the 5-CNL (all five categories represented). The 5-CNL allowed for discrimination across types of cereals, within categories of breakfast cereals and for equivalent products (at least 3 categories of the 5-CNL represented). Reformulation scenarios allowed for significant change in 5-CNL allocation: 5% reduction in sugar lead to a modification of the label for 4.21% of products while a reduction of 10

  15. The Type of Fat Ingested at Breakfast Influences the Plasma Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Morillas-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess whether the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk variables in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease, a longitudinal, randomized, and crossover study was carried out with postmenopausal women at risk of CVD. They were randomly assigned to eat each type of breakfast during one month: 6 study periods (breakfast with the same composition plus butter/margarine/virgin olive oil separated by two washout periods. On the first and last days of each study period, weight, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index were recorded in fasting conditions and a blood sample was collected to measure plasma lipid profile. When comparing final values to baseline values, we only found out statistically significant differences on plasma lipid profiles. Butter-based breakfast increased total cholesterol and HDL, while margarine-based breakfast decreased total cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL. After the olive oil-based breakfast intake, a tendency towards a decrease of total cholesterol and LDL levels and an increase of HDL levels was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in triglycerides levels, BMI, and arterial pressure in any breakfast type. The margarine-based breakfast was the only one which significantly increased the percentage of volunteers with optimal lipid profiles. The polyunsaturated fat at breakfast has improved the plasma lipid profile in the analyzed sample population, suggesting that PUFA-based breakfast can be advisable in women at risk of CVD.

  16. Evaluating the relationship between breakfast pattern and short-term memory in junior high school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, A; Sohrabi, Z; Eftekhari, M H

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between breakfast pattern and short-term memory in guidance-school students. Memory improves for subjects who have eaten breakfast. It appears that breakfast consumption influences cognition via several mechanisms. What children eat for breakfast before going to school is very important. A total of 150 junior high school girls were taken from a subject pool in four schools in Shiraz (capital of the Fars Province in Iran). They filled out the socio-economic questionnaires as well as food frequency questionnaires for breakfast and provided two-three day breakfast records in two different seasons and their short-term memories were evaluated by Weksler test socio-economic conditions and dietary intakes were analyzed. The results of the study showed that there was no correlation between parents job, students mean age and their school grades with their memory scores. Dietary analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between local soup consumption in breakfast and memory scores. Food record analysis showed no correlation between fat, cholesterol, protein, vitamin B6, B12, calorie and iodine intake in breakfast and memory scores, but there was a positive correlation between carbohydrate, iron and vitamin B3 intake in breakfast and memory scores, similarly there was a positive correlation between B12 intake in the breakfast and students' average school grades during the year.

  17. Do breakfast skipping and breakfast type affect energy intake, nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality in young adults? NHANES 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed on energy/nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality using a cross-sectional design. The setting was The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002. The sub...

  18. Skipping breakfast leads to weight loss but also elevated cholesterol compared with consuming daily breakfasts of oat porridge or frosted cornflakes in overweight individuals: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geliebter, Allan; Astbury, Nerys M; Aviram-Friedman, Roni; Yahav, Eric; Hashim, Sami

    2014-01-01

    Eating breakfast may reduce appetite, body weight and CVD risk factors, but the breakfast type that produces the greatest health benefits remains unclear. We compared the effects of consuming a high-fibre breakfast, a non-fibre breakfast, or no-breakfast control on body weight, CVD risk factors and appetite. A total of thirty-six overweight participants (eighteen men and eighteen women) (mean age 33·9 (sd 7·5) years, mean BMI 32·8 (sd 4·7) kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to consume oat porridge (n = 12), frosted cornflakes (n = 12) or a water control (n = 12) breakfast daily for 4 weeks. Appetite ratings were collected on the first day and weekly thereafter. Before and after the intervention, body weight, composition, blood pressure and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured and a fasting blood sample was collected. Across the 4 weeks, fullness was higher and hunger was lower in the oat porridge group compared with the control group (P skipping breakfast led to weight loss, it also resulted in increased total cholesterol concentrations compared with eating either oat porridge or frosted cornflakes for breakfast.

  19. Study on Earth Radiation Budget mission scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlhopolsky, R.; Hollmann, R.; Mueller, J.; Stuhlmann, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this study is to study optimized satellite configurations for observation of the radiation balance of the earth. We present a literature survey of earth radiation budget missions and instruments. We develop a parametric tool to simulate realistic multiple satellite mission scenarios. This tool is a modular computer program which models satellite orbits and scanning operation. We use Meteosat data sampled at three hour intervals as a database to simulate atmospheric scenes. Input variables are satellite equatorial crossing time and instrument characteristics. Regional, zonal and global monthly averages of shortwave and longwave fluxes for an ideal observing system and several realistic satellite scenarios are produced. Comparisons show that the three satellite combinations which have equatorial crossing times at midmorning, noon and midafternoon provide the best shortwave monitoring. Crossing times near sunrise and sunset should be avoided for the shortwave. Longwave diurnal models are necessary over and surfaces and cloudy regions, if there are only two measurements made during daylight hours. We have found in the shortwave inversion comparison that at least 15% of the monthly regional errors can be attributed to the shortwave anisotropic models used. (orig.) 68 refs.

  20. Breakfast-Skipping and Selecting Low-Nutritional-Quality Foods for Breakfast Are Common among Low-Income Urban Children, Regardless of Food Security Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Holly; Davey, Adam; Fisher, Jennifer O; Polonsky, Heather; Sherman, Sandra; Abel, Michelle L; Dale, Lauren C; Foster, Gary D; Bauer, Katherine W

    2016-03-01

    Universal access to the School Breakfast Program (SBP) is intended to help low-income and food-insecure students overcome barriers to eating breakfast. However, SBP participation is often still low despite universal access. Further information is needed with regard to these children's breakfast behaviors, and in particular breakfast behaviors among youth from food-insecure families, to inform effective breakfast interventions. The objective of this study was to examine breakfast behaviors among a large sample of urban students with universal access to the SBP and to identify differences in breakfast behaviors among children from food-secure compared with food-insecure households. A cross-sectional study of 821 fourth- through sixth-grade students and their parents from 16 schools was conducted. Students reported the foods/drinks selected and location of obtaining food/drink on the morning of data collection, parents reported household food security status using the 6-item Food Security Survey Module, and the school district provided SBP participation data during the fall semester of 2013. Multivariable linear regression models accounting for school-level clustering were used to examine differences in breakfast behaviors across 3 levels of household food security: food secure, low food secure, and very low food secure. Students participated in the SBP 31.2% of possible days, with 13% never participating in the SBP. One-fifth (19.4%) of students purchased something from a corner store for breakfast, and 16.9% skipped breakfast. Forty-six percent of students were food insecure; few differences in breakfast behaviors were observed across levels of food security. Despite universal access to the SBP, participation in the SBP is low. Breakfast skipping and selection of foods of low nutritional quality in the morning are common, regardless of household food security status. Additional novel implementation of the SBP and addressing students' breakfast preferences may be

  1. Children’s breakfast habit related to their perception towards parent’s breakfast habits (study in Sedayu District, Bantul Regency*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winda Irwanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Breakfast plays an important role in ensuring the good health and wellbeing of an individual, especially children. Evidence suggests that breakfast consumption may improve cognitive function related to memory, exam test score and the level of school attendance.Objectives: To determine the breakfast habits and its risk factors in elementary school children in Bantul.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in four elementary schools in the District Sedayu, Bantul with 126 children as subjects. Breakfast habits investigated by interviews to the children.Results: This study showed that there were 33% of children had no breakfast daily, or had skipped breakfast at least once in a week. The major reasons of children skipping breakfast were not having enough time (38.1%, not hungry (30.9% and no food available in the morning at home (16.7%. A total of 15.9% mothers and 23% fathers were not breakfast daily according to their children. Breakfast habits of children significantly associated with the children’s perception towards parent’s breakfast habits.Conclusions: Breakfast habits of children significantly associated with the children’s perception towards parent’s breakfast habits.KEYWORDS: breakfast habit, children perception, parent’s breakfast habitABSTRAKLatar belakang: Sarapan memiliki peran dalam menjaga kesehatan dan kebahagiaan seseorang, termasuk anak. Penelitian terdahulu membuktikan bahwa sarapan mampu meningkatkan fungsi kognitif yang berhubungan dengan kemampuan mengingat, nilai ujian, dan tingkat kehadiran di sekolah.Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui kebiasaan sarapan anak sekolah dasar di Kabupaten Bantul, dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya.Metode: Studi cross-sectional ini dilaksanakan di 4 sekolah dasar di Wilayah Kecamatan Sedayu, Kabupaten Bantul, dengan jumlah subjek sebanyak 126 anak. Kebiasaan sarapan diketahui dari wawancara dengan anak.Hasil: Hasil menunjukkan bahwa sebesar 33

  2. The Impact of a Two-Year School Breakfast Program for Preschool-Aged Children on Their Nutrient Intake and Pre-Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Worobey, Harriet S.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined nutritional differences between home breakfasts and breakfasts served at preschool following School Breakfast Program guidelines and evaluated nutritional impact of program participation on 4-year olds' preacademic performance. Results indicated that breakfast intake was altered under school breakfast conditions. Performance…

  3. Neural responses to visual food stimuli after a normal vs. higher protein breakfast in breakfast-skipping teens: a pilot fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Lepping, Rebecca J; Savage, Cary R; Harris, Corey T

    2011-10-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) pilot study identified whether breakfast consumption would alter the neural activity in brain regions associated with food motivation and reward in overweight "breakfast skipping" (BS) adolescent girls and examined whether increased protein at breakfast would lead to additional alterations. Ten girls (Age: 15 ± 1 years; BMI percentile 93 ± 1%; BS 5 ± 1×/week) completed 3 testing days. Following the BS day, the participants were provided with, in randomized order, normal protein (NP; 18 ± 1 g protein) or higher protein (HP; 50 ± 1 g protein) breakfast meals to consume at home for 6 days. On day 7 of each pattern, the participants came to the laboratory to consume their respective breakfast followed by appetite questionnaires and an fMRI brain scan to identify brain activation responses to viewing food vs. nonfood images prior to lunch. Breakfast consumption led to enduring (i.e., 3-h post breakfast) reductions in neural activation in the hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate, and parahippocampus vs. BS. HP led to enduring reductions in insula and middle prefrontal cortex activation vs. NP. Hippocampal, amygdala, cingulate, and insular activations were correlated with appetite and inversely correlated with satiety. In summary, the addition of breakfast led to alterations in brain activation in regions previously associated with food motivation and reward with additional alterations following the higher-protein breakfast. These data suggest that increased dietary protein at breakfast might be a beneficial strategy to reduce reward-driven eating behavior in overweight teen girls. Due to the small sample size, caution is warranted when interpreting these preliminary findings.

  4. The two-loop sunrise integral around four space-time dimensions and generalisations of the Clausen and Glaisher functions towards the elliptic case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Luise; Bogner, Christian; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    We present the result for the finite part of the two-loop sunrise integral with unequal masses in four space-time dimensions in terms of the O ( ɛ0) -part and the O ( ɛ1) -part of the sunrise integral around two space-time dimensions. The latter two integrals are given in terms of elliptic generalisations of Clausen and Glaisher functions. Interesting aspects of the result for the O ( ɛ1 ) -part of the sunrise integral around two space-time dimensions are the occurrence of depth two elliptic objects and the weights of the individual terms.

  5. The two-loop sunrise integral around four space-time dimensions and generalisations of the Clausen and Glaisher functions towards the elliptic case

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Luise; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We present the result for the finite part of the two-loop sunrise integral with unequal masses in four space-time dimensions in terms of the ${\\mathcal O}(\\varepsilon^0)$-part and the ${\\mathcal O}(\\varepsilon^1)$-part of the sunrise integral around two space-time dimensions. The latter two integrals are given in terms of elliptic generalisations of Clausen and Glaisher functions. Interesting aspects of the result for the ${\\mathcal O}(\\varepsilon^1)$-part of the sunrise integral around two space-time dimensions are the occurrence of depth two elliptic objects and the weights of the individual terms.

  6. Assessment of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Rabbani, Tehmeena; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Jinap, S

    2014-08-15

    Aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) were analysed in 237 breakfast cereal samples collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. According to the results, 41% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 16% and 8% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 48% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 30% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The results have shown that 53% samples of breakfast cereals were found contaminated with ZEN and 8% samples were found to be above the permissible limit of EU. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in semolina i.e. 3.60 and 4.55 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly, semolina was the highest contaminated breakfast cereal for OTA (3.90 μg/kg), while cornflakes (brand B) was found highest contaminated with ZEN (13.45 μg/kg). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Omission of breakfast and risk of gastric cancer in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdalet-Olmedo, Monserrat; Sampieri, Clara Luz; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Montero-L de Guevara, Hilda; Machorro-Castaño, Alvaro Manuel; León-Córdoba, Kenneth

    2012-11-15

    To investigate factors associated with gastric cancer (GC) in the Mexican population using a validated questionnaire. We designed and validated in Spanish a Questionnaire to Find Factors Associated with Diseases of the Digestive Tract using GC as a model. A cross-sectional study using 49 subjects, with confirmed histopathological GC diagnosis, and 162 individuals without GC participated. Odds ratio and 95% CIs were estimated in univariate and multivariate analysis adjusted for possible confounding factors. In order to match age groups, a multivariate sub-analysis was performed in subjects ≥ 39 years of age and in females and males separately. In the univariate analysis, we found an association between GC and education to primary level or below, low socioeconomic status, the use of dental prostheses, omission of breakfast, consumption of very hot food and drink, addition of salt to prepared foods, consumption of salt-preserved foods and the pattern of alcohol consumption. We found protection against GC associated with the use of mouthwash, food refrigeration and regular consumption of fruit and vegetables. In the multivariate sub-analysis with subjects of ≥ 39 years, the omission of breakfast was identified as a risk factor for GC. Our study suggests an association between the omission of breakfast and the failure to refrigerate food with GC in the Mexican population.

  8. Omission of breakfast and risk of gastric cancer in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdalet-Olmedo, Monserrat; Sampieri, Clara Luz; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Montero-L de Guevara, Hilda; Machorro-Castaño, Álvaro Manuel; León-Córdoba, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate factors associated with gastric cancer (GC) in the Mexican population using a validated questionnaire. METHODS: We designed and validated in Spanish a Questionnaire to Find Factors Associated with Diseases of the Digestive Tract using GC as a model. A cross-sectional study using 49 subjects, with confirmed histopathological GC diagnosis, and 162 individuals without GC participated. Odds ratio and 95% CIs were estimated in univariate and multivariate analysis adjusted for possible confounding factors. In order to match age groups, a multivariate sub-analysis was performed in subjects ≥ 39 years of age and in females and males separately. RESULTS: In the univariate analysis, we found an association between GC and education to primary level or below, low socioeconomic status, the use of dental prostheses, omission of breakfast, consumption of very hot food and drink, addition of salt to prepared foods, consumption of salt-preserved foods and the pattern of alcohol consumption. We found protection against GC associated with the use of mouthwash, food refrigeration and regular consumption of fruit and vegetables. In the multivariate sub-analysis with subjects of ≥ 39 years, the omission of breakfast was identified as a risk factor for GC. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests an association between the omission of breakfast and the failure to refrigerate food with GC in the Mexican population. PMID:23444276

  9. Differences in breakfast habits between institutionalized and independent elderly Spanish people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, M R; Ortega, R M; López-Sobaler, A M; Quintas, M E; Zamora, M J; Andrés, P; Encinas-Sotillos, A

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was made into the breakfast habits of 150 elderly people between 65 and 95 years of age. The food intake of 58 institutionalized subjects was followed by means of "precise individual weighing of food". The food intake of 92 subjects living independently was followed using a prospective method involving the keeping of a "weighed food record". For all subjects the study lasted 5 consecutive days including a Sunday. Institutionalized subjects spent more time at breakfast (p energy expenditure). The breakfasts of institutionalized subjects contained a greater percentage of their total daily intake of carbohydrates (P magnesium (p < 0.05 in women). Given the importance of breakfast in the maintenance of a satisfactory nutritive condition, these results suggest that both qualitative and quantitative improvements of elderly people's breakfasts are required. Residing at an old people's home seems to improve the quality of breakfast consumed, especially for elderly women.

  10. Symposium overview: Do we all eat breakfast and is it important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Marcello; Agostoni, Carlo; Shamir, Raanan

    2010-02-01

    Besides genetic and environmental factors, the breakfast meal and the frequency in which it is eaten may influence appetite control, dietary intake and composition, and chronic disease risk. Breakfast skipping may lead to up-regulation of appetite, possibly leading to weight gain over time and deleterious changes in risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Breakfast skipping has also been linked to poorer overall diet quality. Regular breakfast consumption, on the other hand, may reduce the risk of chronic diseases due to the potential impact on the composition of the overall diet, and is also associated with improved learning abilities and better school performance in children. Considering the trend to skip, or to have nutritionally inadequate breakfast, suggestions to promote and support breakfast in children and adolescents will be considered.

  11. The effects of breakfast on behaviour and academic performance in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie eAdolphus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behaviour, cognitive and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behaviour is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950-2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behaviour and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behaviour in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality and SBPs have a positive effect on children’s academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behaviour in class.

  12. The relationship between habitual breakfast consumption frequency and academic performance in British adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphus, K; Lawton, CL; Dye, L.

    2015-01-01

    Breakfast has been shown to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, there is a paucity of studies which examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and academic performance and a complete absence of studies in UK school children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between habitual breakfast consumption frequency and Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) performance, a reasoning test routinely used in UK schools. Adole...

  13. The effects of breakfast on behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Breakfast consumption is associated with positive outcomes for diet quality, micronutrient intake, weight status and lifestyle factors. Breakfast has been suggested to positively affect learning in children in terms of behavior, cognitive, and school performance. However, these assertions are largely based on evidence which demonstrates acute effects of breakfast on cognitive performance. Less research which examines the effects of breakfast on the ecologically valid outcomes of academic performance or in-class behavior is available. The literature was searched for articles published between 1950-2013 indexed in Ovid MEDLINE, Pubmed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE databases, and PsychINFO. Thirty-six articles examining the effects of breakfast on in-class behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents were included. The effects of breakfast in different populations were considered, including undernourished or well-nourished children and adolescents from differing socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. The habitual and acute effects of breakfast and the effects of school breakfast programs (SBPs) were considered. The evidence indicated a mainly positive effect of breakfast on on-task behavior in the classroom. There was suggestive evidence that habitual breakfast (frequency and quality) and SBPs have a positive effect on children's academic performance with clearest effects on mathematic and arithmetic grades in undernourished children. Increased frequency of habitual breakfast was consistently positively associated with academic performance. Some evidence suggested that quality of habitual breakfast, in terms of providing a greater variety of food groups and adequate energy, was positively related to school performance. However, these associations can be attributed, in part, to confounders such as SES and to methodological weaknesses such as the subjective nature of the observations of behavior in class.

  14. The Effect of Breakfast and Snack Consumption on Children's Cognitive Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ingwersen, Jeanet

    2011-01-01

    The current thesis aimed to investigate the effects of breakfast and snack on children’s cognitive performance. Chapter 1 presents an overview of cognitive development followed by a review of previous literature investigating the effects of breakfast and snack consumption on cognitive performance. An overview of glycaemic index (GI) is then provided and linked to breakfast and snack intake.\\ud \\ud Chapter 2 set out to investigate the effects of a mid-morning snack on attention and memory in c...

  15. The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents' cognitive performance and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Russo, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we ...

  16. Habit of Eating Breakfast Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tae Sic; Kim, Jai Soon; Hwang, Yoo Jung; Park, Yon Chul

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between skipping breakfast and cardio-metabolic syndrome is well known. However, there are very few Korean studies about the habit of eating breakfast and hypertension. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the habit of eating breakfast and hypertension in a healthy Korean population. Methods Participants in the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) were enrolled for this study. Medical history, including hy...

  17. Relationship between Breakfast Consumption and Self-Efficacy, outcome Expectations, Evaluation and Knowledge in Elementary Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Sadr Hashemi; Raheleh Soltani; Akbar Hassanzadeh; Ahmad Ali Eslami

    2017-01-01

    Background: The breakfast is the most important meal of the day that its regular consumption is effective on individuals' physical, psychological and social health. Given the high prevalence of irregular consumption of breakfast among students, this study has been designed to investigate breakfast consumption behavior and its related factors within social cognitive theory framework.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 360 primary school students female (52.3%) ...

  18. Relationship between Breakfast Consumption and Self-Efficacy, outcome Expectations, Evaluation and Knowledge in Elementary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadr Hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The breakfast is the most important meal of the day that its regular consumption is effective on individuals' physical, psychological and social health. Given the high prevalence of irregular consumption of breakfast among students, this study has been designed to investigate breakfast consumption behavior and its related factors within social cognitive theory framework.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 360 primary school students female (52.3% and 154 male (47.7% who were out schools of Isfahan using cluster-random sampling The data were collected in a self-reporting form by researcher made questionnaire with a significant reliability and validity The data were analyzed by SPSS software using independent t-test, one way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis.Results: The average breakfast consumption (in a week score of 2.4 with a standard deviation of 1.7. The 10.5% of students were eating breakfast every day. There was a significant relationship between breakfast consumption and self-efficacy, outcome expectation and outcome evaluation. There was an inverse relationship between students' age, and economic situation and breakfast consumption. The results of multiple regression test showed that there is a significant relationship between self-efficacy (0.145 beta, type of school (0.631 beta, and student age (0.402 beta and having breakfast and it predicted 24.3% of breakfast consumption variance.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that eating breakfast is not desirable in students. Self-efficacy is a predictor of breakfast consumption in students. Therefore, educational intervention seems necessary to increase self-efficacy and breakfast consumption rate.

  19. Factors associated with skipping breakfast among Inner Mongolia Medical students in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Juan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies on the breakfast consumption habits of medical students in China have been carried out. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of skipping breakfast and factors associated with skipping breakfast among medical students in Inner Mongolia of China, and to assist in the design of interventions to improve breakfast consumption habits of medical college students in this region. Methods From December 2010 to January 2011 a cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical students in the Inner Mongolia Medical College using a self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of skipping breakfast in relation to lifestyle habits was described and factors associated with breakfast consumption were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The overall prevalence of skipping breakfast was 41.7% and 23.5% for males and females, respectively. The Faculty of Medicine Information Management had the highest breakfast skipping prevalence. Logistic regression models found that the main factors associated with breakfast consumption habits among medical students were gender, class years of education, monthly expenses, faculty, appetite, sleeping quality, and the learning process; monthly expenses, sleeping quality, and the learning process showed a dose-dependent relationship. Conclusions Breakfast consumption was associated with many factors, most importantly monthly expenses, sleeping quality and the learning process. The prevalence of skipping breakfast is significantly higher compared recently reported figures for medical students in western countries and other areas of China. Improvement of breakfast education should be considered for students in which higher monthly expenses, poor sleeping quality, or a laborious learning process have been identified.

  20. The relationship between breakfast skipping, chronotype, and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutrakul, Sirimon; Hood, Megan M; Crowley, Stephanie J; Morgan, Mary K; Teodori, Marsha; Knutson, Kristen L

    2014-02-01

    Breakfast skipping is associated with obesity and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Later chronotypes, individuals who have a preference for later bed and wake times, often skip breakfast. The aim of the study was to explore the relationships among breakfast skipping, chronotype, and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. We collected sleep timing and 24-h dietary recall from 194 non-shift-working type 2 diabetes patients who were being followed in outpatient clinics. Mid-sleep time on free days (MSF) was used as an indicator of chronotype. Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) values were obtained from medical records. Hierarchical linear regression analyses controlling for demographic, sleep, and dietary variables were computed to determine whether breakfast skipping was associated with HbA1C. Additional regression analyses were performed to test if this association was mediated by chronotype. There were 22 participants (11.3%) who self-reported missing breakfast. Breakfast skippers had significantly higher HbA1C levels, higher body mass indices (BMI), and later MSF than breakfast eaters. Breakfast skipping was significantly associated with higher HbA1C values (B = 0.108, p = 0.01), even after adjusting for age, sex, race, BMI, number of diabetes complications, insulin use, depressive symptoms, perceived sleep debt, and percentage of daily caloric intake at dinner. The relationship between breakfast skipping and HbA1C was partially mediated by chronotype. In summary, breakfast skipping is associated with a later chronotype. Later chronotype and breakfast skipping both contribute to poorer glycemic control, as indicated by higher HbA1C levels. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine whether behavioral interventions targeting breakfast eating or sleep timing may improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  1. BREAKFAST HABIT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG SUBURBAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ayu Widyanti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Academic performance is affected by a numbers of factors. Age, gender, nutritional status, and breakfast habits are some factors that have relation with academic performance. Nutritional statues among school children still to be concerned. Breakfast habit is important thing to do before school to maintain enough calories to study and work well. The aim of this study was to determine the association of breakfast habits and academic performance especially in suburban elementary school children. An analytic cross sectional study conducted in children aged 6-12 years who studied at SD 1 Taro, Gianyar regency, Bali. There were 178 students participated in this study. We found 3 factors associated with academic performance i.e. breakfast, gender, and age with OR=2.56 (95% CI 1.16 to 5.66, P=0.02; OR=0.32 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.70, P=0.04; OR=6.52 (95% CI 2.73 to 15.53, P<0.0001, respectively. We conclude there was an association between breakfast habits and academic performance. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. 10 Healthy Breakfast and Lunch Tips | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Remember that nutrition is an important factor in academic performance. Studies have shown that children who eat healthful, balanced breakfasts and lunches are more alert throughout the school ...

  3. Breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee: effects on working memory, attention, mood, and cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A P; Clark, R; Gallagher, J

    1999-08-01

    This study examined the effects of breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee on working memory, attention, mood, and cardiovascular function. One hundred and forty-four volunteers (72 male, 72 female, mean age 21 years) were assigned to one of the groups formed by combining breakfast (cereal versus no breakfast) and caffeine (caffeinated versus decaffeinated coffee) conditions. The volunteers completed a baseline session between 0800 and 0845 h. The breakfast/caffeine administration took place between 0845 and 0915 h. They then completed another test session (starting at 0945) and had a coffee break at 1045, followed by a final session starting at 1145. The results showed that those who consumed breakfast cereal had a more positive mood at the start of the test sessions, performed better on a spatial memory task, and felt calmer at the end of the test session than those in the no breakfast condition. Ingestion of caffeine had no effect on initial mood or working memory, but it did improve encoding of new information and counteracted the fatigue that developed over the test session. Caffeine increased blood pressure and pulse rate, whereas breakfast cereal consumption only had an effect on pulse. Overall, these results confirm previous findings on the effects of breakfast and caffeine, and demonstrate distinct profiles for two common examples of early-morning food and drink, breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee.

  4. Family correlates of breakfast consumption among children and adolescents. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Biddle, Stuart J H; Gorely, Trish

    2009-02-01

    Regular breakfast consumption can have a multitude of positive health benefits, yet young people are more likely to skip breakfast than any other meal. Given the evidence that dietary behaviours established in childhood and adolescence track into adulthood along with evidence that breakfast skipping increases with age, identifying correlates of children's and adolescent's breakfast behaviours is imperative. The family environment is an important influence on the dietary behaviours of young people, and therefore we systematically reviewed the literature on family correlates of children and adolescent's breakfast consumption. From the 24 papers reviewed, 6 studied children and 19 studied adolescents. Few studies have examined the same specific family correlates of breakfast consumption, limiting the possibilities of drawing strong or consistent conclusions. Research in this area is relatively new and this review has identified areas for further investigation. Parental breakfast eating and living in two-parent families were the correlates supported by the greatest amount of evidence in association with adolescent's breakfast consumption. The results suggest that parents should be encouraged to be positive role models to their children by targeting their own dietary behaviours and that family structure should be considered when designing programmes to promote healthy breakfast behaviours.

  5. Breakfast skipping and body mass index among adolescents in Greece: whether an association exists depends on how breakfast skipping is defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialektakou, Kiranni D; Vranas, Peter B M

    2008-09-01

    Many studies have found an association between breakfast skipping and either body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) or overweight/obesity among adolescents, but several studies have found no association. This cross-sectional study investigated the hypothesis that this discrepancy is partly due to three differences in methodology. First, some studies have examined BMI, but other studies have examined overweight/obesity. Second, some studies have controlled for potential confounders, but other studies have not. Third, different studies have used different definitions of breakfast skipping. This study examined both the relationship between breakfast skipping and BMI and the relationship between breakfast skipping and overweight/obesity, compared unadjusted results with results adjusted for potential confounders, and compared results for 24 definitions of breakfast skipping. The sample consisted of 811 students at high schools in Piraeus, Greece, who completed a questionnaire and had their height and weight measured. The results supported this hypothesis. First, fewer breakfast-skipping variables were associated with BMI than with overweight/obesity. Second, fewer associations were found when controlling than when not controlling for potential confounders. Third, fewer associations were found for variables corresponding to some definitions of breakfast skipping than for variables corresponding to other definitions.

  6. Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Brian Hunt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra / Neeme Järvi. Deutsche Grammophon 453 426-2; 70:37 DDD

  7. Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Brian Hunt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra / Neeme Järvi. Deutsche Grammophon 453 426-2; 70:37 DDD

  8. Transverse oscillations in slender Ca II H fibrils observed with Sunrise/SuFI

    CERN Document Server

    Jafarzadeh, Shahin; Gafeira, R; van Noort, M; Barthol, P; Rodriguez, J Blanco; Iniesta, J C del Toro; Gandorfer, A; Gizon, L; Hirzberger, J; Knoelker, M; Suarez, D Orozco; Riethmueller, T L; Schmidt, W

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of transverse oscillations in slender Ca II H fibrils (SCFs) in the lower solar chromosphere. We use a 1-hour long time series of high (spatial and temporal) resolution, seeing-free observations in a 0.11 nm wide passband covering the line core of Ca II H 396.9 nm from the second flight of the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. The entire field of view, spanning the polarity inversion line of an active region close to the solar disk center, is covered with bright, thin, and very dynamic fine structures. Our analysis reveals the prevalence of transverse waves in SCFs with median amplitudes and periods on the order of 2.4+-0.8 km/s and 83+-29 s, respectively (with standard deviations given as uncertainties). We find that the transverse waves often propagate along (parts of) the SCFs with median phase speeds of 9+-14 km/s. While the propagation is only in one direction along the axis in some of the SCFs, propagating waves in both directions, as well as standing waves are also observ...

  9. Automatic Method for Identifying Photospheric Bright Points and Granules Observed by Sunrise

    CERN Document Server

    Javaherian, Mohsen; Amiri, Ali; Ziaei, Shervin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose methods for the automatic detection of photospheric features (bright points and granules) from ultra-violet (UV) radiation, using a feature-based classifier. The methods use quiet-Sun observations at 214 nm and 525 nm images taken by Sunrise on 9 June 2009. The function of region growing and mean shift procedure are applied to segment the bright points (BPs) and granules, respectively. Zernike moments of each region are computed. The Zernike moments of BPs, granules, and other features are distinctive enough to be separated using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The size distribution of BPs can be fitted with a power-law slope -1.5. The peak value of granule sizes is found to be about 0.5 arcsec^2. The mean value of the filling factor of BPs is 0.01, and for granules it is 0.51. There is a critical scale for granules so that small granules with sizes smaller than 2.5 arcsec^2 cover a wide range of brightness, while the brightness of large granules approaches unity. The mean...

  10. SUNRISE/IMaX observations of convectively driven vortex flows in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bonet, J A; Sánchez Almeida, J; Palacios, J; Martínez Pillet, V; Solanki, S K; del Toro Iniesta, J C; Domingo, V; Berkefeld, T; Schmidt, W; Gandorfer, A; Barthol, P; Knölker, M

    2010-01-01

    We characterize the observational properties of the convectively driven vortex flows recently discovered on the quiet Sun, using magnetograms, Dopplergrams and images obtained with the 1-m balloon-borne Sunrise telescope. By visual inspection of time series, we find some 3.1e-3 vortices/(Mm^2 min), which is a factor of 1.7 larger than previous estimates. The mean duration of the individual events turns out to be 7.9 min, with a standard deviation of 3.2 min. In addition, we find several events appearing at the same locations along the duration of the time series (31.6 min). Such recurrent vortices show up in the proper motion flow field map averaged over the time series. The typical vertical vorticities are <= 6e-3 1/sec, which corresponds to a period of rotation of some 35 min. The vortices show a preferred counterclockwise sense of rotation, which we conjecture may have to do with the preferred vorticity impinged by the solar differential rotation.

  11. Absorbing aerosols: are they causing a delayed sunrise? A comparison between plain and plateau IGB stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Lipi

    2016-07-01

    Current study tries to compare black carbon radiative effects at densely populated plain station Varanasi and lesser populated plateau station Ranchi with large forest cover but with numerous open coal mines. While average black carbon mass density (BC) reduced from February to March at Ranchi following an increase in convective instability, it was observed to increase by 150% from Feb to March at Varanasi, as transport from NE forest fires increases. It is observed that absorption due to black carbon of non-fossil fuel origin is prevalent throughout the day at Varanasi, while this contribution is most significant during post sunset hours at Ranchi. Radiative forcing, estimated hourly using chemical model (to derive BC-aod ) and radiative transfer model, indicated that at least 5% of the incoming radiation is always cut-off during any time of the day at Varanasi while this is about 4% at Ranchi. BC effectively causes a delayed sunrise by reducing the incoming radiation at plains of IGB by around 25% which may be crucial for bionetwork.

  12. Structure and Dynamics of Isolated Internetwork Ca II H Bright Points Observed by Sunrise

    CERN Document Server

    Jafarzadeh, S; Feller, A; Lagg, A; Pietarila, A; Danilovic, S; Riethmüller, T L; Pillet, V Martínez

    2012-01-01

    We aim to improve our picture of the low chromosphere in the quiet-Sun internetwork by investigating the intensity, horizontal velocity, size and lifetime variations of small bright points (BPs; diameter smaller than 0.3 arcsec) observed in the Ca II H 3968 {\\AA} passband along with their magnetic field parameters, derived from photospheric magnetograms. Several high-quality time series of disc-centre, quiet-Sun observations from the Sunrise balloon-borne solar telescope, with spatial resolution of around 100 km on the solar surface, have been analysed to study the dynamics of BPs observed in the Ca II H passband and their dependence on the photospheric vector magnetogram signal. Parameters such as horizontal velocity, diameter, intensity and lifetime histograms of the isolated internetwork and magnetic Ca II H BPs were determined. Mean values were found to be 2.2 km/s, 0.2 arcsec (150 km), 1.48 average Ca II H quiet-Sun and 673 sec, respectively. Interestingly, the brightness and the horizontal velocity of B...

  13. Detection of vortex tubes in solar granulation from observations with Sunrise

    CERN Document Server

    Steiner, O; Gonzalez, N Bello; Nutto, Ch; Rezaei, R; Pillet, V Martinez; Navarro, J A Bonet; Iniesta, J C del Toro; Domingo, V; Solanki, S K; Knolker, M; Schmidt, W; Barthol, P; Gandorfer, A

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated a time series of continuum intensity maps and corresponding Dopplergrams of granulation in a very quiet solar region at the disk center, recorded with the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) on board the balloon-borne solar observatory Sunrise. We find that granules frequently show substructure in the form of lanes composed of a leading bright rim and a trailing dark edge, which move together from the boundary of a granule into the granule itself. We find strikingly similar events in synthesized intensity maps from an ab initio numerical simulation of solar surface convection. From cross sections through the computational domain of the simulation, we conclude that these `granular lanes' are the visible signature of (horizontally oriented) vortex tubes. The characteristic optical appearance of vortex tubes at the solar surface is explained. We propose that the observed vortex tubes may represent only the large-scale end of a hierarchy of vortex tubes existing near the solar surface.

  14. High-frequency Oscillations in Small Magnetic Elements Observed with Sunrise/SuFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, S.; Solanki, S. K.; Stangalini, M.; Steiner, O.; Cameron, R. H.; Danilovic, S.

    2017-04-01

    We characterize waves in small magnetic elements and investigate their propagation in the lower solar atmosphere from observations at high spatial and temporal resolution. We use the wavelet transform to analyze oscillations of both horizontal displacement and intensity in magnetic bright points found in the 300 nm and the Ca ii H 396.8 nm passbands of the filter imager on board the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. Phase differences between the oscillations at the two atmospheric layers corresponding to the two passbands reveal upward propagating waves at high frequencies (up to 30 mHz). Weak signatures of standing as well as downward propagating waves are also obtained. Both compressible and incompressible (kink) waves are found in the small-scale magnetic features. The two types of waves have different, though overlapping, period distributions. Two independent estimates give a height difference of approximately 450 ± 100 km between the two atmospheric layers sampled by the employed spectral bands. This value, together with the determined short travel times of the transverse and longitudinal waves provide us with phase speeds of 29 ± 2 km s‑1 and 31 ± 2 km s‑1, respectively. We speculate that these phase speeds may not reflect the true propagation speeds of the waves. Thus, effects such as the refraction of fast longitudinal waves may contribute to an overestimate of the phase speed.

  15. IHY-IPY conference report from Polar Gateways Arctic Circle Sunrise 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John; Kauristie, Kirsti; Weatherwax, Allan; Thompson, Barbara; Sheehan, Glenn; Smith, Roger; Sandahl, Ingrid

    Polar, heliophysical, and planetary science topics related to the International Heliophysical and Polar Years 2007-2009 were addressed during this unique circumpolar conference hosted January 23-29, 2008 at the new Barrow Arctic Research Center of the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium in Barrow, Alaska. Science presentations spanned the solar system from the polar Sun and heliospheric environment to Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the Kuiper Belt, and the solar wind termination shock now crossed by both Voyager spacecraft. Many of the science presentations were made remotely via video conference or teleconference from Sweden, Norway, Russia, Canada, Antarctica, and the United States, spanning up to thirteen time zones (Alaska to Russia) at various times during the conference. U.S. remote contributions came from the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, the University of California at Berkeley, the University of Arizona, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Convening during the first week of 2008 Arctic sunrise at Barrow, this conference served as a prelude that year to international Sun-Earth Day celebrations for IHY, while also commemorating Barrow scientific and native cultural support for the first International Polar Year 1882-1883. Extensive educational outreach activities were conducted with the local Barrow and Alaska North Slope communities and through the NASA Digital Learning Network live from the "top of the world" at Barrow. The conference proceedings are Internet accessible via the home page at http://polargateways2008.org/.

  16. Odin/OSIRIS observations of stratospheric NO3 through sunrise and sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Haley

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The nitrate radical (NO3 has been detected in visible limb-scattered spectra measured by the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS on-board the Odin satellite when observing at large solar zenith angles (91–97°. Apparent slant column densities of NO3 at tangent heights between 10 and 45 km are derived via spectral fitting in the 610–680 nm window. Using observations from multiple scans spanning solar zenith angles of 91–97°, the rapid evolution of NO3 through sunrise and sunset can be traced. Slant column densities are found to be generally consistent with those simulated using a radiative transfer model with coupled photochemistry. In addition, a strong dependence of NO3 with temperature is observed. These results indicate that our current knowledge of NO3 photochemistry is generally consistent with OSIRIS observations to within the limitations of the radiative transfer modeling. Furthermore, they reveal that OSIRIS possesses signal-to-noise sufficient to make useful measurements of scattered sunlight out to solar zenith angles of 91–97° and suggest the possibility of retrieving profile information for NO3 and other species at large solar zenith angles.

  17. Odin/OSIRIS observations of stratospheric NO3 through sunrise and sunset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Haley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The nitrate radical (NO3 has been detected in visible limb-scattered spectra measured by the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS on-board the Odin satellite when observing at large solar zenith angles (91–97°. Apparent slant column densities of NO3 at tangent heights between 10 and 45 km are derived via spectral fitting in the 590–680 nm window. Using observations from multiple scans spanning solar zenith angles of 91–97°, the rapid evolution of NO3 through sunrise and sunset can be traced. Slant column densities are found to be consistent with those simulated using a radiative transfer model with coupled photochemistry. In addition, a strong dependence of NO3 with temperature is observed. These results indicate that OSIRIS possesses signal-to-noise sufficient to make useful measurements of scattered sunlight out to solar zenith angles of 96–97° and suggests the possibility of retrieving profile information for NO3 and other species at large solar zenith angles.

  18. Breakfast consumption and exercise interact to affect cognitive performance and mood later in the day. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, R C; Gonzalez, J T; Kennedy, D O; Haskell, C F; Stevenson, E J

    2013-09-01

    The current study assessed the interactive effect of breakfast and exercise on cognition and mood. Twelve active males completed four trials; no breakfast-rest, breakfast-rest, no breakfast-exercise or breakfast-exercise in a randomized, cross-over design. The trials consisted of; breakfast or fast, a 2h rest, exercise (treadmill run) or equivalent rest, a chocolate milk drink, a 90 min rest and an ad libitum lunch. Cognitive performance and mood were recorded frequently throughout each trial. Data was analysed as pre-exercise/rest, during and immediately post exercise/rest and post-drink. No effects were found prior to consumption of the drink. Post-drink, fasting before exercise increased mental fatigue compared to consuming breakfast before exercise and fasting before rest. Tension increased when breakfast was consumed at rest and when exercise was undertaken fasted compared to omitting breakfast before rest. Breakfast before rest decreased rapid visual information processing task speed and impaired Stroop performance. Breakfast omission improved Four Choice Reaction Time performance. To conclude, breakfast before exercise appeared beneficial for post-exercise mood even when a post-exercise snack was consumed. Exercise reversed post-breakfast cognitive impairment in active males.

  19. Hot-Jupiter Breakfasts Realign Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    the star (where they have periods of ~2 days) and get stranded as the gas disk evaporates around them. Tidal interactions can cause these planets to become ingested by the host star within 1 Gyr. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the authors model these star-planet tidal interactions and evolve a total of 10^6 systems: half with hot (Teff = 6400 K), main-sequence hosts, and half with cool (Teff = 5500 K), solar-type hosts. The initial obliquities — the angle between the stellar spin and the planets' orbital angular momentum vectors — are randomly distributed between 0° and 180°. The authors find that early stellar ingestion of planets might be very common: to match observations, roughly half of all stellar hosts must ingest an HJ early in their lifetimes! This scenario results in a good match with observational data: about 50% of cool hosts' spins become roughly aligned with the orbital plane of their planets after they absorb the orbital angular momentum of the HJ they ingest. Hot stars, on the other hand, generally retain their random distributions of obliquity, because their angular momentum is typically higher than the orbital angular momentum of the ingested planet. Citation: Titos Matsakos and Arieh Königl 2015, ApJ, 809, L20. doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/809/2/L20

  20. Height-dependent sunrise and sunset: Effects and implications of the varying times of occurrence for local ionospheric processes and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Tobias G. W.; Stankov, Stanimir M.

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that the sunrise and sunset periods are of particular importance to ionospheric research and modelling because of the rapid changes in the ionospheric plasma density, temperature, and dynamics. In particular, the sharp increase in the ionisation following sunrise results in a quick increase in the ionospheric peak density, NmF2 , and a decrease in the peak height, hmF2 . Changes in plasma temperature, scale height and transport processes add further complexity which makes it difficult to investigate and model the ionospheric behaviour during this transitional period from night to day. One of the aspects contributing to this difficulty is that not all ionospheric altitudes are exposed to the first sunlight of the day at the same time. During sunrise, the upper part of the ionosphere is illuminated prior to the lower part which is still in the dark. The boundary between sunlit and dark regions moves downwards until it reaches the surface of the Earth, which is commonly taken as the moment of sunrise at certain geographical coordinates. This means that the sunrise at surface level does not occur until after the entire ionosphere has been illuminated. During sunset, the same process happens in reverse order. This paper addresses the issue of these altitude-dependent times of sunrise and sunset and reports on our study of some of the effects on the diurnal variations in the ionospheric characteristics.

  1. Experimental manipulation of breakfast in normal and overweight/obese participants is associated with changes to nutrient and energy intake consumption patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Sue; Huber, Jörg W; Halsey, Lewis G; Horabady-Farahani, Yasmin; Ijadi, Mehrnaz; Smith, Tina

    2014-06-22

    The effect of breakfast and breakfast omission on daily food intake in normal and overweight participants was investigated. 37 participants were recruited for this experimental study and assigned to one of four groups on the basis of their body mass index (BMI) (normal weight BMI 25 kg/m(2)) and breakfast habits (breakfast eater or breakfast omitter). All participants were requested to eat breakfast for an entire week, and then following a washout period, omit breakfast for an entire week, or vice versa. Seven-day food diaries reporting what was consumed and the timing of consumption were completed for each breakfast condition. Overall more energy was consumed during the breakfast than the no breakfast week. The present study revealed significant effects of timing on energy intakes; more energy was consumed during the afternoon in the no breakfast week compared to the breakfast week. Overweight participants consumed greater amounts of energy than normal weight participants in the early evening. Breakfast omitters consumed more than did breakfast eaters later in the evening. All groups consumed significantly less energy, carbohydrate and fibre in the no breakfast week; however, overweight participants increased their sugar intakes. Consumption of the micronutrients iron and folate was reduced in the no breakfast week. The findings highlight that the timing of food intake and habitual breakfast eating behaviour are important factors when investigating why breakfast consumption may be associated with BMI.

  2. Why Eating Breakfast Is Important for Optimising Human Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Farshchi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast consumption appears to have declined in the last decades and eating breakfast, especially cereal, is associated with a lower risk of obesity. Serum cholesterol concentration is reported to be lower in adults eating breakfast (EB and higher among those not. No study, to our knowledge, has investigated the effect of skipping breakfast (SB on various aspect of energy metabolism. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of EB or SB on adult energy, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. 10 healthy women (BMI: 23.2, SD: 1.4 were recruited after giving informed consent. Each subject participated in a randomised crossover trial which encompassed two 14-day intervention periods; EB in one of them and SB in the other with a 2-wk wash out period between. In EB, subjects were asked to consume a pack of whole grain cereal (Kellogg’s, UK, 45 g with 200 ml semi-skimmed milk between 07:00-08:00 and eat a chocolate bar (Nestle, 48g. at 10.30-11.00. Then, they consumed 4 further meals of similar content to usual in the rest of the day at predetermined times every day for 2 wk. In SB, subjects consumed the chocolate at 10.30-11.00, and then had the cereal and semi-skimmed milk at 12.00-12.30. Then, they consumed 4 further meals of similar content to usual as for EB. Subjects consumed their normal diet for a 2-wk washout period between the two intervention periods. Subjects recorded their food intake on 3 days during each intervention, and came to the laboratory after an overnight fast at the start and end of each intervention period and their weight and anthropometric variables were measured. Blood samples were taken for glucose, lipids and insulin before and for 3 hr after a test meal (milk shake containing 30 kJ/kg, 50% CHO. Resting metabolic rate (RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry before and after the test meal. Repeated-measures ANOVA, and paired t.test were used for the statistical comparisons. SB was associated with higher fasting total (3.4±0

  3. Breakfast skipping is associated with cyberbullying and school bullying victimization:a school-based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Farrow, Claire V.; Shi, Yuanfeng F.

    2014-01-01

    Breakfast skipping is a health concern that has well-known negative consequences physically and psychologically. It is therefore important to understand why children skip breakfast. The purpose of this study was to establish whether the experience of bullying and cyberbullying impacts upon breakfast skipping and to further evaluate whether the inability for youths to cope with bullying victimization affects their mental health (depression), and in turn predicts breakfast skipping. Data were o...

  4. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%–12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles. PMID:26927164

  5. Breakfast barriers and opportunities for children living in a Dutch disadvantaged neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Vrijhof, Milou; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore parents', children's, and experts' beliefs and experiences about breakfast motivation, opportunity, and ability and elicit their thoughts on effective interventions to encourage healthy breakfast consumption. The setting was a disadvantaged neighbourhood

  6. Breakfast barriers and opportunities for children living in a Dutch disadvantaged neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van Ellen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Vrijhof, Milou; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore parents', children's, and experts' beliefs and experiences about breakfast motivation, opportunity, and ability and elicit their thoughts on effective interventions to encourage healthy breakfast consumption. The setting was a disadvantaged neighbourhood

  7. Descriptive study about nutritious habits on breakfast and lunch of Viladecans (Barcelona adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Adela Amat Huerta

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Feeding during childhood and preadolescence has a great importance on the adult projection quality of life. Breakfast is all a food, very necessary for the physical and intellectual development of children, but it is the ingestion that is most omitted. It has much more importance of what we give him. Objectives: To know the nourishing habits in breakfast and lunch in the preadolescence. Design: An observational, descriptive study was chosen, with a study sample of 270 scholars aged between 9 and 13.Results: We could observe that 73% of the study participants have breakfast every day and 4,1% of them never have breakfast. Among these that never have breakfast, there are more girls (5’4%. The reason for not having breakfast is the lack of time (48.2%, and for not having lunch the lack of hunger (24.1%. The most frequent foods on breakfast are milk (82,2% and cocoa (54,8%, and sandwiches on lunch. Conclusions: Girls represent the group that less have breakfast every day. There are few of them who follow the basic triad: milk, cereal, and fruit.

  8. Prevalence and Socio-demographic Determinants of Breakfast Consumption Intention among Elementary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast consumption is a favorable habit and positively impacts nutritional balance, physical growth, school performance and learning during childhood. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to breakfast consumption based on the theory of planned behavior. This cross-sectional study conducted in Shadegan city, the southwest of Iran, among a total of 384 elementary students, were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire including the theory of planned behavior constructs. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using t-test, orrelations, and regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. The mean age of respondents was 10.46 years [95% CI: 10.31, 10.60], ranged from 7 to 12 years. About, 44.7% of participants reported every day eat breakfast. We found correlation significant between age and breakfast eating behavior (p=0.004 & r=-0.171. In addition, our result indicated eating breakfast behaviors among girl student was a significant more than the boy students (p=0.022 & t=-2.298. Linear regression analysis was performed to explain the variation of eating breakfast behaviors. TPB variables accounted for 50% of the variation of the eating breakfast behaviors. In addition, subjective norms and intention were the best predictors for eating breakfast behaviors.

  9. Exploring Milk and Yogurt Selection in an Urban Universal School Breakfast Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Elizabeth; Kwon, Sockju

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore milk and yogurt selection among students participating in a School Breakfast Program. Methods: Researchers observed breakfast selection of milk, juice and yogurt in six elementary and four secondary schools. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression to…

  10. Does Eating Breakfast Affect the Performance of College Students on Biology Exams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gregory W.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the breakfast eating habits of 1,259 college students over an eleven year period to determine if eating breakfast had an impact upon their grade on a General Biology exam. The study determined that there was a significant difference in the performance on the exam with a higher percent of the participants, who had eaten…

  11. Exploring Strategies to Promote Middle School Student Participation in the School Breakfast Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Deborah I.; Watson, Kathleen B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Providing a school breakfast to students may be a practical intervention that improves energy balance, nutrient intake, and school academic achievement variables. This purpose of this pilot study was to identify the ecological factors influencing middle school student school breakfast participation and possible strategies to…

  12. Breakfast Intake and Composition Is Associated with Superior Academic Achievement in Elementary Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Schubert, Matthew M; Lee, Jaehoon; Willis, Erik A; Sullivan, Debra K; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether breakfast consumption or content affects academic achievement measured by standardized tests. Baseline data were collected in fall of 2011 from 698 students (50.5% female, age = 7.5 ± 0.6 years) living in the state of Kansas. Academic achievement was assessed using 3 components from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-III). Prior to taking the WIAT-III, participants completed a breakfast recall of all foods and drinks consumed that morning, which was analyzed using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R). WIAT-III scores were compared between breakfast and non-breakfast consumers in a sample (n = 162) matched for age, sex, race, education level of both parents, household income, body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular fitness, and Pearson correlations were calculated from all breakfast eaters (n = 617) between test performance and components of the breakfast. When compared to non-breakfast consumers, the breakfast consumers had significantly higher scores in all 3 WIAT-III components (all p performance in elementary school students.

  13. Breakfast and Learning in Children. Symposium Proceedings (Washington, DC, April 22, 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services (USDA), Washington, DC. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.

    Noting that many schools do not participate in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's School Breakfast Program despite evidence that poor nutrition affects children's school attendance and performance, this document presents the proceedings of a 1999 symposium on links between breakfast and school performance and the implications for public policy.…

  14. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion.

  15. Skipping breakfast is associated with reproductive dysfunction in post-adolescent female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Tomoko; Nakata, Rieko

    2010-12-01

    Although increasing attention has been paid to the adverse effects of skipping breakfast on quality of life, there are very few reports concerning the relationship between skipping breakfast and reproductive function. Therefore, we examined this issue by conducting a questionnaire survey of female college students aged from 18 to 20 years old. The 5 annual surveys of questionnaire demonstrated that the severity of dysmenorrhea was significantly higher in the population that skipped breakfast. The incidence of irregular menses was also higher in the population that skipped breakfast, although there was no difference in the incidence of premenstrual symptoms. The group that skipped breakfast showed a tendency to suffer from constipation. In addition, despite no difference in body mass index, there was a significantly higher incidence of a self-perception of poor general health among the group that skipped breakfast. These findings suggest that skipping breakfast is associated with menstrual disorders, and affects the physical condition of female college students who are undergoing post-adolescent maturation. Since these menstrual disorders may influence the quality of life of young women not only in the present but also in the future, skipping breakfast should be re-evaluated from the perspective of future reproductive function.

  16. Skipping breakfast is associated with lower physical activity energy expenditure in young healthy women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: According to recent NHANES data, the prevalence of breakfast consumption has decreased in adults from 89% to 82% between 1971 and 2002. Skipping breakfast has been negatively correlated with physical activity but positively correlated with body weight and risk factors associated with obes...

  17. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E

    2016-02-25

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%-12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles.

  18. Breakfast is associated with the metabolic syndrome and school performance among Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chia-Yi; Huang, Yi-Chen; Lo, Yuan-Ting C; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2015-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with adverse child health profiles including obesity, higher blood pressure, higher serum cholesterol, and poor cognitive function. We aimed to explore the association between breakfast with school performance and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Taiwanese children. Participants were enrolled from the representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (2001-2002). Diet, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were assessed in 1287 boys and 1114 girls. Their school and social performances were examined using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance questionnaire. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the risk of MetS and also the association between breakfast consumption frequency and school or social performance. When breakfast consumption was regular, overall dietary quality was better. Children who consumed breakfast daily exhibited lower risks of high blood pressure (OR=0.37, 95% CI=0.19-0.71) and of MetS (OR=0.22, 95% CI=0.09-0.51) compared with children who consumed breakfast 0-4 times per week. Furthermore, children who consumed breakfast daily exhibited a higher overall competence (OC) score (β=0.71, pbreakfast daily is associated with better school performance, a lower risk of high blood pressure, and MetS independent of overall dietary quality. Thus, breakfast on school days is a factor in school performance and health.

  19. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Asao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%–12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles.

  20. Effect of breakfast skipping on diurnal variation of energy metabolism and blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Fumi; Ogata, Hitomi; Omi, Naomi; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Yamaguchi, Sachiko; Hibi, Masanobu; Tokuyama, Kumpei

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest an association between breakfast skipping and body weight gain, insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. Time when meal is consumed affects postprandial increase in energy expenditure and blood glucose, and breakfast skipping may reduce 24 h energy expenditure and elevate blood glucose level. The present study evaluated the effect of breakfast skipping on diurnal variation of energy metabolism and blood glucose. The skipped breakfast was compensated by following big meals at lunch and supper. In a randomized repeated-measure design with or without breakfast, eight males stayed twice in a room-size respiratory chamber. Blood glucose was recorded with a continuous glucose monitoring system. Breakfast skipping did not affect 24 h energy expenditure, fat oxidation and thermic effect of food, but increased overall 24 h average of blood glucose (83 ± 3 vs 89 ± 2 mg/dl, P breakfast skipping. These observations suggest that changes in glucose homeostasis precede that of energy balance, in the potential sequence caused by breakfast skipping, if this dietary habit has any effect on energy balance.:

  1. Factors associated with irregular breakfast consumption among high school students in a Japanese community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Shino; Oogushi, Kazuhiro; Ogata, Hiromitsu; Nakai, Hiromitsu

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the associations between the characteristics of high school students and irregular breakfast consumption and explored the association with knowledge regarding diet and dietary education in a community in Japan. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted in 2007 among all the high school students in the second grade in Imari, Saga. Data for 318 male and 292 female students were analyzed. Irregular breakfast consumption was defined as consuming breakfast three times or less in a week. The associations between the characteristics of students and irregular breakfast consumption were assessed using logistic regression with adjustments for sex and school. Among male students, a strong association between the consumption of juice or pop and irregular breakfast consumption was observed (OR comparing ">=2 servings" vs "rarely"=8.97, 95% CI=2.99-26.9). The associations with wake times and bed times were strong among male students, and the association with regular bowel movements was strong among female students. Students who had knowledge of regional agricultural and livestock products were more likely to consume breakfast regularly, and this association was significant among female students (OR=2.89, 95% CI=1.23-6.82). Significant associations were also observed with the consumption of snacks, and traditional greeting before meals. Several characteristics, including specific knowledge, were associated with the irregular consumption of breakfast. The results are of interest to policy makers, nutrition specialists, and educators working to enhance regular breakfast consumption among students.

  2. Global effects on Ionospheric Weather over the Indian subcontinent at Sunrise and Sunset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Tamal; Chakrabarti, S. K.; Pal, S.

    2010-10-01

    Study of Very Low Frequency (VLF) electromagnetic wave is very important for knowing the behavior of the Ionospheric layers due to Sunrise-Sunset, Earthquakes, Solar flares, Solar eclipses and other terrestrial and extra terrestrial radiations. We study the properties of the variation of the VLF signal strength theoretically all over Indian sub-continent. As an example, we concentrate on the VLF signal transmitted by Indian Naval Transmitter VTX at Vijayanarayanam (Latitude 08°23', Longitude 77°45') near the southern tip of Indian subcontinent. As has been noticed, several receiving stations placed during the VLF campaign in all over India, the VLF signal strength varies significantly with place and time. To understand the diurnal and seasonal variation of the received signal, a complete knowledge of physics of intensity distribution of the VLF signal is essential. The spatial variation of VLF signal plays an important role in selecting future VLF stations. In the wave-hop theoretical model presented here, horizontally stratified ionospheric layers have been considered. The VLF wave emitted by the transmitter has both the ground wave and the sky wave components. The ground wave attenuates during propagation. The sky wave component experiences reflections by the ionosphere on its way to the receiver and its attenuation depends on the degree of ionization. Intensity variation occurs at a given receiver location for interference among singly and multiply reflected waves. This has been simulated considering some simplified and justifiable assumptions. This spatial variation wave-hop theoretical model developed here has been compared with LWPC code generated results.

  3. MEASURING COLOR HUE IN ‘SUNRISE SOLO’ PAPAYA USING A FLATBED SCANNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THIAGO DE PAULA OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Color hue is a variable frequently used postharvest to assess the physiological maturity of various fruits. In general, mean color hue is quantified by visual techniques, but this method, based on human grading, is tedious and may be erroneous. The color of fruit peel is frequently determined at four points randomly distributed on the equatorial region of a fruit, but this practice can lead to biased results because these points represent the equatorial region only and not the total area of the fruit peel. Consequently, this bias is not due to equipment measurement errors, but to the bias in the sampling process of the points on the fruit epidermis. An alternative to such methods is the digital image which provides information about all regions of the fruit peel, and results in a more accurate mean hue. However, this technique requires calibration to correct the values of luminance, hue and intensity obtained through the scanner. This calibration can be performed from color patterns such that each pattern is assessed by means of a scanner and a colorimeter. Thus, an experiment was conducted using 297 color patterns based on the Munssel color chart for plant tissue. The results showed that the scanner could be used as a device for color assessment where the determination coefficients were above 0.9 for all color components. Next, a second experiment was conducted in order to compare the scanner and colorimeter methodologies. For this, we used a papaya fruit, cv. Sunrise Solo, which was assessed by these two devices for a period of 19 days. The results showed that the image analysis measures have a different mean hue when compared with the mean hue obtained by the method using a colorimeter. Therefore, it is recommended that digital image analysis be used for the evaluation of the hue of fruit peel color when fruit presents non-uniform coloration.

  4. The Effect of Breakfast in the Classroom on Obesity and Academic Performance: Evidence from New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Sean P.; Elbel, Brian; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Participation in the federally subsidized school breakfast program often falls well below its lunchtime counterpart. To increase take-up, many districts have implemented Breakfast in the Classroom (BIC), offering breakfast directly to students at the start of the school day. Beyond increasing participation, advocates claim BIC improves academic…

  5. The Relationship between Habitual Breakfast Consumption Frequency and Academic Performance in British Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Dye, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Breakfast has been shown to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, there is a paucity of studies which examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and academic performance and a complete absence of studies in UK school children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between habitual breakfast consumption frequency and Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) performance, a reasoning test routinely used in UK schools. Adolescents aged 11-13 years (n = 292; males: 53.8%) completed a questionnaire to report usual weekly breakfast intake frequency. Breakfast was subjectively defined by the participants. Habitual weekly breakfast consumption frequency was categorized as rare (0-2 days), occasional (3-4 days), or frequent (5-7 days). Participants' CAT performance was used as a proxy measure of academic performance. The CAT has three components: verbal, non-verbal, and quantitative reasoning. Normative standard age scores (SAS) for verbal, non-verbal, quantitative reasoning, and overall mean SAS were obtained from school records and hierarchical linear regression models were applied, adjusting for the confounders: gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, English as an Additional Language, and body mass index. Habitual breakfast consumption frequency did not significantly predict any CAT SAS in all models (crude and adjusted). However, methodological considerations which could account for this disagreement with previous research, were identified. These included the isolation of school-day breakfast consumption, use of a standard definition of breakfast, and measurement of actual academic performance. The findings of the current study suggest more comprehensive ways in which future studies might investigate the relationship between habitual breakfast consumption and academic performance.

  6. The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents' cognitive performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyter, Margaret A; Russo, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we focused on adolescents who habitually skip breakfast. Cognitive load was modulated by varying the level of difficulty of a series of cognitive tasks tapping memory, attention, and executive functions. Mood measured with Bond-Lader scales (1974) as well as measures of thirst, hunger, and satiety were recorded at each test session both at baseline and after the completion of each test battery. Forty adolescents (mean age = 14:2) participated in this within-subjects design study. According to treatment, all participants were tested before and after the intake of a low Glycaemic index breakfast (i.e., a 35 g portion of AllBran and 125 ml semi-skimmed milk) and before and after no breakfast consumption. Assessment time had two levels: 8.00 am (baseline) and 10.45 am. The orders of cognitive load tasks were counterbalanced. Overall it appeared that following breakfast participants felt more alert, satiated, and content. Following breakfast consumption, there was evidence for improved cognitive performance across the school morning compared to breakfast omission in some tasks (e.g., Hard Word Recall, Serial 3's and Serial 7's). However, whilst participants performance on the hard version of each cognitive task was significantly poorer compared to the corresponding easy version, there was limited evidence to support the hypothesis that the effect of breakfast was greater in the more demanding versions of the tasks.

  7. The relationship between habitual breakfast consumption frequency and academic performance in British adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie eAdolphus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast has been shown to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, there is a paucity of studies which examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and academic performance and a complete absence of studies in UK school children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between habitual breakfast consumption frequency and Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT performance, a reasoning test routinely used in UK schools. Adolescents aged 11-13 years (n=292; males: 53.8% completed a questionnaire to report usual weekly breakfast intake frequency. Breakfast was subjectively defined by the participants. Habitual weekly breakfast consumption frequency was categorized as rare (0-2 days, occasional (3-4 days or frequent (5-7 days. Participants’ CAT performance was used as a proxy measure of academic performance. The CAT has three components: verbal, non-verbal and quantitative reasoning. Normative standard age scores (SAS for verbal, nonverbal, quantitative reasoning and overall mean SAS were obtained from school records and hierarchical linear regression models were applied, adjusting for the confounders: gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, English as an Additional Language and body mass index. Habitual breakfast consumption frequency did not significantly predict any CAT SAS in all models (crude and adjusted. However, methodological considerations which could account for this disagreement with previous research were identified. These included the isolation of school-day breakfast consumption, use of a standard definition of breakfast, and measurement of actual academic performance. The findings of the current study suggest more comprehensive ways in which future studies might investigate the relationship between habitual breakfast consumption and academic performance.

  8. The effect of breakfast composition and energy contribution on cognitive and academic performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edefonti, Valeria; Rosato, Valentina; Parpinel, Maria; Nebbia, Gabriella; Fiorica, Lorenzo; Fossali, Emilio; Ferraroni, Monica; Decarli, Adriano; Agostoni, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    Most studies that assess the effects of breakfast on subsequent mental abilities compared performance in subjects who had or had not consumed this meal. However, characteristics of breakfast itself may induce metabolic and hormonal alterations of the gastrointestinal tract and potentially modify cognitive performance. Moreover, as far as the evidence on the positive effects of having breakfast is becoming more robust, interest may shift to the specific characteristics of an adequate breakfast. The objective was to summarize existing evidence on the role of nutrient composition or energy intake at breakfast on the accomplishment of school-related tasks and cognition. We conducted a systematic review of the literature through the PubMed database. From the literature search, we identified 102 articles, 15 of which met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 3 studies provided information on the relation between cognitive and academic performance and energy intake at breakfast, 11 provided the same information for the macronutrient composition of breakfast, and 1 investigated both the aspects. Eleven studies considered breakfast meals differing in glycemic index/load. Selected studies were generally carried out in well-nourished children and adults of both sexes from general education. They were mostly experimental studies of short duration and had a limited number of subjects. Cognitive and academic performance was investigated by looking at multiple domains, including memory, attention, reasoning, learning, and verbal and math abilities, with a variety of test batteries scheduled at different time points in the morning. Breakfast options differed in terms of included foods and place and time of administration. There is insufficient quantity and consistency among studies to draw firm conclusions. However, whereas the hypothesis of a better and more sustained performance with a breakfast providing >20% daily energy intake still needs substantiation, there does appear to be

  9. The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents’ cognitive performance and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Anne Defeyter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we focused on adolescents who habitually skip breakfast. Cognitive load was modulated by varying the level of difficulty of a series of cognitive tasks tapping memory, attention and executive functions. Mood measured with Bond-Lader scales (1974 as well as measures of thirst, hunger and satiety were recorded at each test session both at baseline and after the completion of each test battery. Forty adolescents (mean age = 14:2 participated in this within-subjects design study. According to treatment, all participants were tested before and after the intake of a low Glycaemic index breakfast (i.e. a 35g portion of AllBran and 125ml semi-skimmed milk and before and after no breakfast consumption. Assessment time had two levels: 8.00am (baseline and 10.45am. The orders of cognitive load tasks were counterbalanced. Overall it appeared that following breakfast participants felt more alert, satiated and content. Following breakfast consumption, there was evidence for improved cognitive performance across the school morning compared to breakfast omission in some tasks (e.g. Hard Word Recall, Serial 3’s and Serial 7’s. However, whilst participants performance on the hard version of each cognitive task was significantly poorer compared to the corresponding easy version, there was limited evidence to support the hypothesis that the effect of breakfast was greater in the more demanding versions of the tasks.

  10. Quantification of sugars in breakfast cereals using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutounji, Michelle R; Van Leeuwen, Matthew P; Oliver, James D; Shrestha, Ashok K; Castignolles, Patrice; Gaborieau, Marianne

    2015-05-18

    About 80% of the Australian population consumes breakfast cereal (BC) at least five days a week. With high prevalence rates of obesity and other diet-related diseases, improved methods for monitoring sugar levels in breakfast cereals would be useful in nutrition research. The heterogeneity of the complex matrix of BCs can make carbohydrate analysis challenging or necessitate tedious sample preparation leading to potential sugar loss or starch degradation into sugars. A recently established, simple and robust free solution capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was used in a new application to 13 BCs (in Australia) and compared with several established methods for quantification of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates identified in BCs by CE included sucrose, maltose, glucose and fructose. The CE method is simple requiring no sample preparation or derivatization and carbohydrates are detected by direct UV detection. CE was shown to be a more robust and accurate method for measuring carbohydrates than Fehling method, DNS (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid) assay and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography).

  11. Exposure scenarios for workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Northage, C.; Money, C.

    2007-01-01

    The new European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals) requires the development of Exposure Scenarios describing the conditions and risk management measures needed for the safe use of chemicals. Such Exposure Scenarios should integrate con

  12. Participatory Scenario Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the paradigm, framework and a guideline how to use scenario methods in a workshop......The paper describes the paradigm, framework and a guideline how to use scenario methods in a workshop...

  13. Exposure scenarios for workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Northage, C.; Money, C.

    2007-01-01

    The new European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals) requires the development of Exposure Scenarios describing the conditions and risk management measures needed for the safe use of chemicals. Such Exposure Scenarios should integrate

  14. Time of sunrise and hours with daylight may have an effect on the seasonality and diurnal variation of heart attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jozsef Bodis; Miklos Koppan; Imre Boncz; Ildiko Kriszbacher

    2009-01-01

    Background The time of onset of myocardial infarction shows seasonal and daily variation. We aimed to investigate whether the number of hours with daylight has an effect on the seasonal variation of heart attack, and whether the time of sunrise has an effect on the diurnal rhythm of myocardial infarction.Methods We carried out a retrospective database study covering all patients admitted to any acute care hospital with the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in Hungary between January 2004 and December 2005 (n=32 329). Data were collected from the National Health Insurance Fund Administration (OEP) according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD 121,122) and National Meteorology Service (OMSZ). In case of patients who occurred in the database several times the events have been considered as a separate case.Results With consideration to seasonal variation, the peak period of heart attack was found in the spring, with the lowest number of events in the summer. The number of hours with daylight showed a weak negative correlation with the occurrence of myocardial infarction (r=-0.108, P <0.05). With respect to diumal variation, the peak period of daily events was between 6-12 in the morning (35.57%). We have found a positive correlation between the time of sunrise and sunset and the occurrence of myocardial infarction (P<0.01).Conclusion Based on our findings, the number of hours with daylight and the time of sunrise may be connected with the chances of having heart attack; however other factors, such as high blood pressure, diabetes or smoking may also have an influence.

  15. Differential equations and dispersion relations for Feynman amplitudes. The two-loop massive sunrise and the kite integral

    CERN Document Server

    Remiddi, Ettore

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the study of the imaginary part and of the corresponding dispersion relations of Feynman graph amplitudes within the differential equations method can provide a powerful tool for the solution of the equations, especially in the massive case. The main features of the approach are illustrated by discussing the simple cases of the 1-loop self-mass and of a particular vertex amplitude, and then used for the evaluation of the two-loop massive sunrise and the QED kite graph (the problem studied by Sabry in 1962), up to first order in the (d-4) expansion.

  16. Differential equations and dispersion relations for Feynman amplitudes. The two-loop massive sunrise and the kite integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remiddi, Ettore; Tancredi, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    It is shown that the study of the imaginary part and of the corresponding dispersion relations of Feynman graph amplitudes within the differential equations method can provide a powerful tool for the solution of the equations, especially in the massive case. The main features of the approach are illustrated by discussing the simple cases of the 1-loop self-mass and of a particular vertex amplitude, and then used for the evaluation of the two-loop massive sunrise and the QED kite graph (the problem studied by Sabry in 1962), up to first order in the (d - 4) expansion.

  17. An Analysis of Speech and Thought Presentation in“A Sunrise on the Veld”from Stylistics Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文燕

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of speech and thought presentation in“A Sunrise on the Veld”is made from stylistic perspective in this essay. Through analysis of different kinds of speech and thought presentation, the psychological changes of the protegonist is ex-plored. The analysis reveals the stylistic effect of the alternation of speech and thought presentation. The use of alternation of speech and thought presentation contributes a lot to the success of this novel. This method of Stylistic analysis provides the read-ers a new perspective of appreciating the novel.

  18. Ready-to-eat cereal breakfasts are associated with improved nutrient intake and dietary adequacy but not body mass index in black adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to determine whether nutrient intake, dietary adequacy, and weight status were associated with type of breakfast consumption: skipping breakfast, consuming ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) at breakfast, or consuming other types of foods at breakfast. Data from black adolescents ...

  19. Polar Gateways Arctic Circle Sunrise 2008 Conference at the Top of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Kauristie, Kirsti; Weatherwax, Allan T.; Sandahl, Ingrid; Ostgaard, Nikolai; Sheehan, Glenn W.; Smith, Roger W.; Lewis, Elaine M.; Cline, Troy D.; Haines-Stiles, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    The Polar Gateways conference was hosted during January 23-29, 2008, the first week of polar sunrise at Barrow, Alaska, at the new Barrow Arctic Research Center of the Barrow Arctic Science consortium (BASC). The dawn week of polar day, the highly variable low temperatures, and the ice-covered shore tundra and adjacent sea ice conditions provided an appropriate locale for a conference dedicated in the spirit of the International Polar and Heliophysical Years 2007-2009 to the educational exploration of polar and icy world science of Earth and the solar system. The many scientific, educational, and cultural interactions with the local community of four thousand residents, sixty percent native Inupiat Eskimo, further provided an unforgettable experience of what life might be someday be like on other remote polar and icy worlds to be explored and eventually inhabited. Over one hundred active participants, more than half participating remotely, contributed science presentations and educational activities during this unique circumpolar and very "green" conference. Most remote contributions came via videoconference from the Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) at Kisuna, Sweden, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar Facility at Spitzbergen, Norway, the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley, and the University of Arizona. A few contributors participated via teleconference, including one from the Polar Geophysical Institute at Apatity in Russia. These active contributions spanned up to thirteen time zones (Alaska to Russia) at various tirnes during the conference. Primary videoconferencing support between Barrow and other sites was ably provided by the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, and local operators at each remote site collectively made this conference possible. Science presentations spanned the solar system from the polar Sun and heliospheric environment to Earth, Moon

  20. Polar Gateways Arctic Circle Sunrise 2008 Conference at the Top of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.; Kauristie, K.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Sheehan, G. W.; Smith, R. W.; Cline, T. D.; Lewis, E. M.; Haines-Stiles, G.

    2008-12-01

    The Polar Gateways conference was hosted during January 23-29, 2008, the first week of polar sunrise at Barrow, Alaska, at the new Barrow Arctic Research Center of the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium (BASC). The dawn week of polar day, the highly variable low temperatures, and the ice-covered shore tundra and adjacent sea ice conditions provided an appropriate locale for a conference dedicated in the spirit of the International Polar and Heliophysical Years 2007-2009 to the educational exploration of polar and icy world science of Earth and the solar system. The many scientific, educational, and cultural interactions with the local community of four thousand residents, sixty percent native Inupiat Eskimo, further provided an unforgettable experience of what life might be someday be like on other remote polar and icy worlds to be explored and eventually inhabited. Over one hundred active participants, more than half participating remotely, contributed science presentations and educational activities during this unique circumpolar and very "green" conference. Most remote contributions came via videoconference from the Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) at Kiruna, Sweden, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar Facility at Spitzbergen, Norway, the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley, and the University of Arizona. A few contributors participated via teleconference, including one from the Polar Geophysical Institute at Apatity in Russia. These active contributions spanned up to thirteen time zones (Alaska to Russia) at various times during the conference. Primary videoconferencing support between Barrow and other sites was ably provided by the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, and local operators at each remote site collectively made this conference possible. Science presentations spanned the solar system from the polar Sun and heliospheric environment to Earth, Moon

  1. Effects of breakfast with different calorigenic amounts on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Su-xia(黄素霞); FU Yun-xing(傅运兴); WANG Hui-ming(王慧铭); GIANG Sylvia

    2003-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between breakfast and serum glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations in order to establish a model breakfast appropriate for Chinese. Twenty-four volunteers were randomly assigned to four study groups: high carbohydrate breakfast, high fat and protein breakfast, the typical breakfast and fasting. Each subject had serum and urine samples collected while fasting and at 1,2 and 3.5 hours following the meal. The concentration of serum glucose, insulin and glucagon was measured. The levels of serum glucose in group A,B and C differed significantly at 1 and 2 hour after meal compared to those at fasting (P<0.05). The serum glucose in group A increased insignificantly after meal. The serum insulin levels were in group A,B and C significant different compared with control group(P<0.05).Those peaked at 1 hour after meal ,with group C rising the furthest. Compared with the fasting group, the serum glucagons rose and maintained the increase after breakfast in group A,B and C (P<0.05).The data suggested that various diets with different calorigenic amounts increased hormone concentration to various extents. We found that a breakfast rich in carbohydrates could maintain proper blood glucose level.

  2. Breakfast and Snacks: Associations with Cognitive Failures, Minor Injuries, Accidents and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Chaplin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of breakfast has proved more difficult and it is still unclear what impact breakfast has on real-life performance. The present study provided initial information on associations between breakfast consumption and cognitive failures and accidents. A second aim was to examine associations between consumption of snacks which are often perceived as being unhealthy (chocolate, crisps and biscuits. A sample of over 800 nurses took part in the study. The results showed that frequency of breakfast consumption (varied breakfasts: 62% cereal was associated with lower stress, fewer cognitive failures, injuries and accidents at work. In contrast, snacking on crisps, chocolate and biscuits was associated with higher stress, more cognitive failures and more injuries outside of work. Further research requires intervention studies to provide a clearer profile of causality and underlying mechanisms.

  3. Breakfast habits and heath perceptions in South-eastern Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriano-Ayala Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal aims of this study are to describe breakfast consumption patterns of south-eastern Spanish adolescents, examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and feelings of well-being and fitness and compare breakfast behaviour between men and women to identify if there is a gender gap. Design: A cross-sectional research with cluster sampling in two primary schools and seven secondary schools. The instrument used was a modified version of the Kidscreen-27 questionnaire. Sample: 2,125 students aged between 10 and 19 years old from different nationalities, mainly Romanian, Moroccan and Spanish. Results: The study identifies some youngsters who skip breakfast and no have no food intake over the course of the morning. About 35% of the teenagers skip daily breakfast before they leave for school, and a worrying 1,8% do not eat any food during the whole morning. Questionnaire outcomes also expresses that the amount of biscuits ingested increased as the number of times that adolescents have breakfast at home decreases. There are significant gender differences, women it less foods than men. Differences are especially significant in case of milk, bread or cereals and butter or oil. Finally, chisquare contrast analysis show students that have breakfast before leaving to school perceive better feelings about how well and fit they are than those student who do not have breakfast daily. Conclusions. Findings supports the need for further enhance health education programs focused on breakfast habits, especially with women. This study is part of the project “Education for Cross-cultural Health in Immigrant and Native Adolescents from Almeria: Analysis and intervention for optimization and improvement” supported by the National R+D Plan of the Ministry of Economy and Finance (Ref: EDU2011-26887

  4. More than just a meal: Breakfast club attendance and children’s social relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret (Greta Anne Defeyter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of school food have been widely promoted in recent years while the social opportunities that surround eating occasions at school have received little attention. Breakfast clubs, which take place at the start of the school day, offer a unique opportunity for children to consume a breakfast meal on their school premises in the company of their peers. Alternatively, after school clubs, which take place on school premises at the end of the school day, whilst also providing children with social opportunities tend to focus on sports engagement and skill development. The aim of the current paper is to investigate whether attendance at breakfast clubs and after school clubs has an impact on children’s friendship quality and experiences of peer victimization. Breakfast club attendees, after-school club attendees and non-attendees completed the Friendship Qualities Scale (FQS and the Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale (MPVS at two time points. Time 1 data were collected two months after the introduction of school clubs. Time 2 data were then collected on the same measures again six months later. Results of the analyses of Time 1 data showed no significant differences between groups on any of the measures at Time 1. However, at Time 2 breakfast club attendees showed improved levels of friendship quality compared to the other two groups. Moreover, analysis of the MPVS data at Time 2 showed that children who attended breakfast club or after school club experienced a decline in victimization across time. The current findings suggest that breakfast club attendance facilitates the quality of children’s relationships with their best friend over time. Additionally, attendance at a breakfast or after school club was associated with a reduction in victimization over time. The results have implications for utilization of breakfast and after school clubs to aid children’s social relationships in school over time.

  5. Effects of cereal bars for breakfast and mid-morning snacks on mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Wilds, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of consuming cereal bars, given either for breakfast or a mid-morning snack, on mood and memory. Thirty-two volunteers (16 males, 16 females; mean age, 20 years 9 months) were randomly assigned to one of four groups formed by combining breakfast (cereal bar versus no breakfast) and snack (cereal bar versus no snack) conditions. A baseline session was completed at 08:30 h followed by breakfast at 9:00 h, another test at 10:00 h, followed by a mid-morning snack and then a final test at 12:00 h. In each session, volunteers rated their mood and carried out four memory tasks: free recall; recognition memory; a verbal reasoning task; and a semantic processing task. The results showed that volunteers who consumed a cereal bar for breakfast felt more alert, happy and sociable and less anxious. In addition, they also recalled more words in a free recall task. When the cereal bar was consumed as a mid-morning snack, alertness and hedonic tone increased, especially in the group who received no breakfast. The group who had no breakfast reported reduced anxiety after consumption of the snack. Recall was also improved after the snack. These findings show that consuming cereal bars in the early and mid-morning leads to beneficial behavioural effects. The results confirm earlier research on effects of breakfast and extend our knowledge of effects of snacks. Consumption of cereal bars may have important practical applications especially in situations where preparation of breakfast is difficult.

  6. Breakfast Skipping and Its Associated Factors among Undergraduates in a Public University in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, F M; Johari, S; Ismail, Y; Mahad, R; Tie, F H; Wan Ismail, Wm A

    2009-09-01

    An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in a public university in Kuala Lumpur among a random sample of 2665 undergraduates. The objective was to study the prevalence of breakfast skipping and its associated factors. Data collection was conducted via a self-administered pre-tested questionnaire. There were 43.5% male respondents, with Malays being the majority (58.3%). The prevalence of breakfast skipping was 29.2 (95% CI: 27.3 - 30.3)%. The factors significantly associated with breakfast skipping (pskipping dinner. As the respondents' age increased, their risk of breakfast skipping was lower (OR: 0.95; 0.89 - 0.99). Malays (OR: 1.94; 1.48 - 2.54), Indians (OR: 1.70; 1.08 - 2.66), and students from the Sabah and Sarawak indigenous communities (OR: 2.13; 1.37 - 3.33) were more likely to skip breakfast compared to their Chinese counterparts. Respondents who stayed in their own houses were also less likely to skip breakfast compared to those staying in hostel with meals catered (OR: 2.32; 1.39 - 3.84), hostel with cafeteria (OR: 2.92; 1.74 - 4.91) or in rented houses (OR: 2.08; 1.25 - 3.46). Respondents majoring in Arts and Economics had 1.40 (1.07 - 1.82) times risk of breakfast skipping compared to those majoring in Life Sciences. Those who skipped dinner too had twice the odds (1.47 - 2.77) of breakfast skipping. In conclusion the prevalence of breakfast skipping among the undergraduates of this university was moderately high. Health awareness campaigns or introduction of healthy eating guidelines should be initiated for the undergraduates as well as food caterers in campus. The policy and pricing of catered food in campus should also be reviewed.

  7. Effect of rye bread breakfasts on subjective hunger and satiety: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Roger

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies report that dietary fibre from different sources promotes the feeling of satiety and suppresses hunger. However, results for cereal fibre from rye are essentially lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate subjective appetite during 8 h after intake of iso-caloric rye bread breakfasts varying in rye dietary fibre composition and content. Methods The study was divided into two parts. The first part (n = 16 compared the satiating effect of iso-caloric bread breakfasts including different milling fractions of rye (bran, intermediate fraction (B4 and sifted flour. The second part (n = 16 investigated the dose-response effect of rye bran and intermediate rye fraction, each providing 5 or 8 g of dietary fibre per iso-caloric bread breakfast. Both study parts used a wheat bread breakfast as reference and a randomised, within-subject comparison design. Appetite (hunger, satiety and desire to eat was rated regularly from just before breakfast at 08:00 until 16:00. Amount, type and timing of food and drink intake were standardised during the study period. Results The Milling fractions study showed that each of the rye breakfasts resulted in a suppressed appetite during the time period before lunch (08:30–12:00 compared with the wheat reference bread breakfast. At a comparison between the rye bread breakfasts the one with rye bran induced the strongest effect on satiety. In the afternoon the effect from all three rye bread breakfasts could still be seen as a decreased hunger and desire to eat compared to the wheat reference bread breakfast. In the Dose-response study both levels of rye bran and the lower level of intermediate rye fraction resulted in an increased satiety before lunch compared with the wheat reference bread breakfast. Neither the variation in composition between the milling fractions nor the different doses resulted in significant differences in any of the appetite ratings when compared

  8. Breakfast is associated with enhanced cognitive function in schoolchildren. An internet based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, Keith A; Pincock, Claire; Scholey, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    In this study, 1386 children aged between 6 and 16years, from schools throughout the UK, logged on to a web site before lunch during Farmhouse Breakfast Week 2004. They answered a number of questions concerning their food and drink consumption that day and performed cognitive tests of attention and episodic memory. Children who had had breakfast showed superior performance on tests of attention and memory, confirming a previous laboratory based study using the same cognitive tests. This study adds weight to the growing body of literature indicating that breakfast plays a positive role in maintaining cognitive function during the morning.

  9. "GIOCAMPUS" - An effective school-based intervention for breakfast promotion and overweight risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanelli, Maurizio; Monti, Giorgia; Volta, Elio; Finestrella, Viviana; Gkliati, Dimitra; Cangelosi, Marta; Caragnulo, Roberto; Vitale, Marco; Ingrosso, Lisa; Scazzina, Francesca

    2014-01-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a campaign promoting breakfast in primary school-children from the city of Parma, Italy, where 22 % of peer school-children had reported in 2005 to  skip breakfast. Two groups of children were interviewed by a multiple choice questionnaire on their breakfast habits. Group 1 counted only the children who  underwent the intensive campaign (n. 341), and  Group 2 a number of matched peers who did not attend any breakfast-promoting program (n. 291). Children who did not eat breakfast were found to be more numerous in Group 2 (17.5 %) than in  Group 1 (8.0 %; p=0.0001). In the Group 2 the percentage of  overweight (18.4 %) was higher compared to Group 1 patients (11.7 %; p=0.022). No significant difference in obesity percentage (8.9 vs 5.0 %; p=0.071).  Seventy five percent of children in Group I and the 25% of children in Group 2 (p=0.031) had one or two parents who had reported to skip routinely breakfast. Children with one or both parents used to skip breakfast had a greater odds ratio of 3.04  and  3 respectively of skipping breakfast compared to the children  with parents who had regularly  breakfast (p=0.0002). Compared to the children tested in 2005,  children admitted to   the Giocampus program showed: a significant decrease in breakfasting (22 vs 8 %; p=0.0001), a significant decrease in overweight (18.5 vs 11.7 %; p=0.003) but not in obesity (7.5 vs 5.0 %; p=0.138) status; a significant increase in consumption of cereals (p=0.0001) and fruit (p=0.0001). In conclusion, an intensive breakfast-centred strategy seems to be effective in breakfast promotion and in overweight risk decrease.

  10. Quality effects of using organogels in breakfast sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, S; Wood, J; Marangoni, A

    2016-12-01

    Organogels made with canola oil, ethyl cellulose (EC; 8, 10, 12 and 14%), and sorbitan monostearate (SMS; 1.5, 3.0%) were used to replace pork fat in breakfast sausages. Some of the formulations with SMS matched the objective hardness (texture analyzer) of the pork fat control; however, sensory hardness was not so easily matched. Using canola oil by itself resulted in lower objective and subjective hardness values than the control. Sensory cohesiveness was not affected by the replacements, but springiness was lower in the treatments without SMS and some of the high EC treatments with SMS. Lightness of organogel treatments was lower than the control, but redness and yellowness values were not affected. Sensory juiciness and oiliness were in general lower in the organogel treatments. Overall, the study demonstrates the potential for the use of organogels in coarse ground meat products, as a means of improving the nutritional profile by replacing saturated fat with mono and poly unsaturated oils.

  11. Longitudinal and seasonal variations in the occurrence of sunrise undulation at the dip equator: A study using Trivandrum and Jicamarca Digital Ionosonde and Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambili, K. M.; St-Maurice, Jean-Pierre; Choudhary, Raj Kumar

    At night, the absence of photo ionization in combination with sustained downward plasma motion means that the F region can be severely depleted at the magnetic equator at the end of the night. As a result, there can be, at sunrise, a sudden upward jump in altitude of the F region peak which is then followed by a quick descent in association with the downward motion of the photo ionization production peak. This constitutes what has been described as the equatorial sunrise undulation. Its anecdotal existence has been reported over Jicamarca (120 S, 76.90 W, 1.70 S dip-latitude) while it has been seen repeatedly over Trivandrum (8.470 N, 76.920 E, 0.170 S dip latitude), India, particularly during equinox conditions. Seasonal variations in the occurrence of sunrise undulation in the F-region peak height (hmF2) at two longitudinally separated geomagnetic equatorial stations, namely Jicamarca and Trivandrum are being presented. Measurements from Digital ionosondes, located at these two stations, have been used in this study. A fast descends in hmF2 after the local F region sunrise was quite visible at both the stations. The frequency of occurrence of sunrise undulation at Trivandrum, however, was high compared to the same at Jicamarca. There were noticeable differences in the seasonal occurrence of sunrise undulation at the two places. While it was observed throughout the year at Trivandrum, there was a distinct seasonal preference of occurrence at Jicamarca, at least in the year 2010, a low solar active period. Its frequency of occurrence at Jicamarca was high during winter (June) solstice, low during equinox (March) and had almost negligible occurrence during summer solstice (December). We show that (1) plasma density during sunrise at Jicamarca on average was twice as much as at Trivandrum, and (2) average height of hmF2 during night at Jicamarca was higher (~100km ) during equinox and solstice months compared to the same at Trivandrum. Our results suggest that the

  12. Vertical Mixing and Chemistry Over an Arid Urban Site: First Results from Skyscraper Observations Made During the Phoenix Sunrise Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Carl M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stutz, Jochen (California, Univ Of - Los Ange); Spicer, Chester W.(UNKNOWN); Doran, J Christopher (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Fast, Jerome D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wang, Shuhui (California, Univ Of - Los Ange)

    2002-01-17

    We report here on combined meteorological and chemical trace-gas observations made from two levels of a skyscraper in downtown Phoenix, Arizona. These observations were made as part the U.S. Department of Energy's Phoenix Sunrise Campaign in June 2001. The motivation for this campaign developed from studies in other urban areas that found peak ozone values above the surface layer appeared to play an important role in governing the surface ozone concentrations in the early morning. The first examination of the data here suggests (a) the vertical extent of the boundary layer before sunrise is below 200 m and the concentrations of trace gases are very sensitive to the stability of the atmosphere, as shown by the observed gradients. Capturing these processes with an air quality model will require a very high degree of vertical resolution. (b) Typically at night, and sometimes during the day, we would see lower concentrations of ozone at the ground, as expected from the titration of O3 with N O. On June 26 this difference throughout much of the day was of order 10 to 15 ppb. It is not clear if this is a local effect associated with street canyons, or representative of what actually occurs over the entire city and environs. (c) DOAS observations highlight the relationship between the gradient structure of reactive trace gases and meteorology at night.

  13. Fresh and evolutionary-type field-aligned irregularities generated near sunrise terminator due to overshielding electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulasi Ram, S.; Ajith, K. K.; Yamamoto, M.; Otsuka, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Niranjan, K.; Gurubaran, S.

    2015-07-01

    The unusual evolution of fresh and intense field-aligned irregularities (FAI) near sunrise terminator which further sustained for more than 90 min of postsunrise period was observed by Equatorial Atmosphere Radar at Kototabang during a minor geomagnetic storm period. These FAI echoes were initially observed around 250-350 km altitudes, growing upward under eastward polarization electric fields indicating the plasma bubbles that are fully depleted along the flux tube. The background low-latitude F layer dynamics that lead to the development of these dawn time FAI have been investigated from two ionosondes at near magnetic conjugate low-latitude locations. A minor geomagnetic storm was in progress which did not appear to cause any large electric field perturbations at preceding postsunset to midnight period over Indonesian sector. However, the prompt penetration of overshielding electric fields associated with sudden northward turning of interplanetary magnetic field Bz caused spectacular ascent of F layer and development of fresh, intense, and upward evolutionary plasma bubbles near sunrise terminator.

  14. Review of Climate Scenarios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Concept and application requirements of climate scenarios were introduced briefly,meanwhile,progresses on theoretical and applied aspects of climate scenarios creation techniques were discussed systematically.Two methods on predicted regional climate changing scenarios,elevating the spatial resolution output and downscaling method,could retrieve the insufficiencies respectively.And the statistical-dynamical downscaling method will be an important developing trend in the developing of downscaling techniques.

  15. Back-to-School Health Tips: Breakfast & Lunch | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Back-to-School Health Tips: Breakfast & Lunch Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents Remember that nutrition is an important factor in academic performance. Studies have shown that children who eat healthful, ...

  16. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaito Iwayama

    2015-12-01

    Interpretation: Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation.

  17. Eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable intake and their relation with happiness in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesani, Azadeh; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar; Javadi, Maryam; Esfeh, Jabiz Modaresi; Fakhari, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Nutrition plays a major role in physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between happiness and fruit and vegetable intake as well as eating breakfast in students. In this cross-sectional web-based study, all students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in Iran who attended course classes were invited to participate in the study. Five hundred forty-one students filled out the web-based questionnaire which included questions related to measurement of happiness, breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption and socio-economic and demographic information. Analysis of covariance was used to assess the relationship between happiness and breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption by adjustments for covariates. Measure of happiness was positively associated with eating breakfast, number of meals eaten daily and the amount of fruit and vegetable consumption (P values were happiness score. Healthier behavior pattern was associated with higher happiness scores among medical students.

  18. Research on Strategies for Breakfast Nutrition Dietary of the Students Majoring in Sports Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Jia

    2015-01-01

    ... the suggestions for improving breakfast nutrition dietary of the sports training major students, since the reasonable diet can not only promote the students' physical health, but also can enhance...

  19. School-based intervention to promote eating daily and healthy breakfast: a survey and a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilat-Adar, S; Koren-Morag, N; Siman-Tov, M; Livne, I; Altmen, H

    2011-02-01

    The recent rapid increase in childhood obesity rates suggests that a consideration of the role of the schools in addressing this problem is necessary. 'Fits me' program functions to promote eating daily and healthy breakfast among elementary school children. Separate children groups were sampled each year by clusters from seven regions around Israel. They filled a self-administered questionnaire at the beginning of 2003, before the program started, and in 2003-2005, after the program. A separate sample was collected in 2006 in a case-control structure. The answer to the question: 'what do you eat for breakfast?' considered as a healthy breakfast if it included one of the following food items: A sandwich (not including chocolate, jam or butter), cereals, vegetable, fruit, egg and dairy product. As compared with 2003 before the program, more children reported eating daily breakfast over the years (51-65% before and until 2005, respectively, P for trendeating a healthy breakfast, in 2006 in the intervention (n=417) vs controls (n=572), adjusted for sex and age were OR=1.53 (95% CI: 1.15-2.04). However, only a third of 75% of the children who ate a healthy breakfast in the intervention group estimated that they were eating a healthy breakfast. After implementation an educational program to promote daily and healthy breakfast eating, the goal of a healthier breakfast was achieved. However, one should strive to define an exact definition of a healthy breakfast.

  20. Food scenarios 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a future study of the food sector. Two scenarios have been developed using a combination of: 1) a summary of the relevant scientific knowledge, 2) systematic scenario writing, 3) an expert-based Delphi technique, and 4) an expert seminar assessment. The two...... scenarios present possible futures at global, national (Denmark) and regional (Zealand, Denmark) levels. The main scenario is called ‘Food for ordinary days and celebrations’ (a combination of ‘High-technological food production − The functional society’ and ‘High-gastronomic food − The experience society...

  1. Breakfast skipping is associated with cyberbullying and school bullying victimization. A school-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Farrow, Claire V; Shi, Yuanfeng F

    2014-08-01

    Breakfast skipping is a health concern that has well-known negative consequences physically and psychologically. It is therefore important to understand why children skip breakfast. The purpose of this study was to establish whether the experience of bullying and cyberbullying impacts upon breakfast skipping and to further evaluate whether the inability for youths to cope with bullying victimization affects their mental health (depression), and in turn predicts breakfast skipping. Data were obtained from the Eastern Ontario 2011 Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, a cross-sectional regional school-based survey of middle and high school students (11-20 years old) across the five counties of Eastern Ontario, Canada (N = 3035). Self-reported data about children's experiences of bullying victimization, breakfast eating habits, socio-economical status, depression, and other risk behaviours were analysed. Approximately half of the participants (50.4%) reported not eating breakfast on a regular basis: 26.3% and 24.1% reported often (usually eat breakfast three times or more per week) and frequent (usually eat breakfast twice a week or less) breakfast skipping behaviour, respectively. Victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying presented greater likelihood of often (adjusted relative risk ratio (RR) = 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-2.06) and frequent (RR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.28-3.03) breakfast skipping. Mediation analysis further showed that depression fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and frequent breakfast skipping. Moreover, depression partially mediated the associations between both cyberbullying and school bullying with frequent breakfast skipping. These findings highlight the potential interrelationships between cyberbullying, school bullying and depression in predicting unhealthy breakfast skipping behaviour in children.

  2. Association between Frequency of Breakfast Consumption and Academic Performance in Healthy Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Wi-Young so

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine whether the frequency of breakfast consumption was related to academic performance in healthy Korean adolescents. Methods: We analyzed data from the seventh Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2011, in which 75,643 adolescents from school grades 7–12 participated. We assessed the association between the frequency of breakfast consumption (per week) and academic performance using multivariate logistic regression analysis a...

  3. Research on young children's breakfast and lifestyle patterns (schedule, meal partner, appetite)

    OpenAIRE

    戸井田, 英子; 野池, 裕子; 林, 恵里; 加藤, 麻樹; 村澤, 初子

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship among young children's breakfast grouping from view point of combination of the menu and lifestyle patterns (schedule, meal partner, television, appetite). A questionnaire survey was conducted with a total of 118 parents of the children aged 3-6 attending 2 nursery schools in Nagano city. The results show that many children have with their mother. Most of them take 30 minutes for starting breakfast after getting up. 56% children took well balanced br...

  4. Breakfast and fast food consumption are associated with selected biomarkers in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Marlatt, Kara L.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Dengel, Donald R.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Skipping breakfast and consuming fast food are related to the risk of obesity and are common adolescent behaviors. The relationship between these behaviors and biomarkers related to diabetes and CVD is understudied in this population. Methods: Data are from a study of the etiologic factors related to obesity risk in adolescents. Breakfast and fast food consumption were assessed using a self-report survey. Anthropometrics, fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model asse...

  5. Association of Breakfast Skipping With Visceral Fat and Insulin Indices in Overweight Latino Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Katharine E; Ventura, Emily E.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Goran, Michael I.; Davis, Jaimie N.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between breakfast consumption and specific adiposity or insulin dynamics measures in children. The goal of this study is to determine whether breakfast consumption is associated with adiposity, specifically intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), and insulin dynamics in overweight Latino youth. Participants were a cross-sectional sample of 93 overweight (≥85th percentile BMI) Latino youth (10–17 years) with a positive family history of type 2 diab...

  6. Association between breakfast consumption and educational outcomes in 9–11-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Littlecott, Hannah J; Moore, Graham F; Moore, Laurence; Lyons, Ronan A.; Murphy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Breakfast consumption has been consistently associated with health outcomes and cognitive functioning in schoolchildren. Evidence of direct links with educational outcomes remains equivocal. We aimed to examine the link between breakfast consumption in 9–11-year-old children and educational outcomes obtained 6–18 months later.\\ud Design Data on individual-level free school meal entitlement and educational outcomes (Statutory Assessment Tests (SATs) at Key Stage 2) were obtained via ...

  7. Relationships between bullying victimization psychological distress and breakfast skipping among boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Willmore, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to further explore the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. Compared to the previous study, we have used a larger and representative sample of middle and high school students, examined the effect of gender, different forms (physical, verbal, theft/vandalism and cyber) and severity of bullying on breakfast eating behaviour. Data from students (2286 boys and 2859 girls) aged 11 to 19 years (mean ± SD age: 14.6 ± 1.9 years) from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) were analysed using self-reports of being bullied, diet, psychological distress, demographics, socio-economic status, weight status, and substance use. Results revealed greater odds of breakfast skipping in girl victims of physical, verbal, and cyber bullying, and in boy victims of verbal and cyber bullying. There was a dose-response relationship between experience of both school and cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping behaviour for both genders. Mediation analysis indicated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between both verbal and physical bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in girls, and partially mediated the relationship between verbal bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in boys. Psychological distress also partially mediated the link between cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in both boys and girls. These results corroborate previous findings on the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. The strong and consistent associations with different forms of bullying victimization, the dose-response relationship, and the mediating role of psychological distress suggest a causal relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Female breakfast skippers display a disrupted cortisol rhythm and elevated blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbracht, Megan; Keim, Nancy L; Forester, Shavawn; Widaman, Adrianne; Laugero, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Chronic stress and over-activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may link breakfast skipping and poor cardiometabolic health. Missing the first major meal of the day in rodents prolongs elevated circulating corticosterone at a time when it's normally decreasing. To extend these findings to humans, we hypothesized that habitual breakfast skippers would display a similar pattern of circulating cortisol and alterations in meal and stress-induced cortisol reactions. Normal weight to obese women aged 18-45 years old who were strictly defined as either breakfast skippers (n=30) or breakfast eaters (n=35) were invited to participate in our study. Normal breakfast habits were maintained for the entire study period and each participant attended 4 lab visits. Over the first 2 lab visits, body composition, fasting clinical chemistries, and self-reports of chronic stress were assessed. On each of 2 additional days (lab visits 3 and 4), salivary free cortisol was measured at home upon waking and at bedtime, and in the lab in response to a standard lunch, ad libitum afternoon snack buffet, and stress and control (relaxation) tasks. The order of the control and stress test visits was randomized. While body weight, body composition, HOMA-IR, total and HDL cholesterol did not statistically differ (p>0.05), both diastolic and systolic blood pressure was elevated (pbreakfast skipper group. Compared to the breakfast eaters and on the control task visit only, breakfast skippers had higher circulating cortisol from arrival to midafternoon (pbreakfast skippers. Self-reports of chronic stress did not differ between the groups. These data indicate that habitually skipping breakfast is associated with stress-independent over-activity in the HPA axis which, if prolonged, may increase risk (e.g., hypertension) for cardiometabolic disease in some people.

  9. Characterization of Breakfast Cereals Available in the Mexican Market: Sodium and Sugar Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Claudia; Rincon-Gallardo Patiño, Sofia; Tolentino-Mayo, Lizbeth; Carriedo, Angela; Barquera, Simón

    2017-08-16

    Preschool Mexican children consume 7% of their total energy intake from processed breakfast cereals. This study characterized the nutritional quality and labelling (claims and Guideline Daily Amount (GDA)) of the packaged breakfast cereals available in the Mexican market. Photographs of all breakfast cereals available in the 9 main food retail chains in the country were taken. The nutrition quality of cereals was assessed using the United Kingdom Nutrient Profiling Model (UKNPM). Claims were classified using the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) taxonomy and the GDA was defined according to the Mexican regulation, NOM-051. Overall, a total of 371 different breakfast cereals were analysed. The nutritional profile showed that 68.7% were classified as "less healthy". GDAs and claims were displayed more frequently on the "less healthy" cereals. Breakfast cereals within the "less healthy" category had significantly higher content of energy, sugar and sodium (p < 0.001). Most of the claims were displayed in the "less healthy" cereals (n = 313). This study has shown that there is a lack of consistency between the labelling on the front of the pack and the nutritional quality of breakfast cereals.

  10. Benefits of breakfast meals and pattern of consumption on satiety-related sensations in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Cristiana; Riso, Patrizia; Brusamolino, Antonella; Porrini, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects on satiety-related sensations of seven isoenergetic cereal-based breakfasts and two fruit products (salad and juice) consumed within breakfast or as a midmorning snack. Nine healthy women participated to 11 sessions following a randomized repeated-measures design. Subjects were asked to consume seven breakfasts consisting of a standard beverage and a different cereal-based product, and also fruit salad or apricot juice consumed within breakfast or as a midmorning snack. Satiety, desire-to-eat and perceived characteristics of products consumed were monitored on Visual Analog Scales from 8:30 am until lunch. Ratings registered and areas under the curve of sensations were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA. All breakfast meals maintained the satiety-related sensations at lunch time higher than basal values. The best satiety control was obtained when the fruit salad was consumed as a midmorning snack. Consequently, regular consumption of breakfast and of whole fruit as midmorning snack may be a valid strategy to achieve appetite control.

  11. Scenarios for nature development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    A procedure in backcasting scenarios is presented. Two case-studies differing in scale illustrate the differences in ecological contribution to plan design and to plan evaluation. Scenarios for nature development are presented for both case-studies, based on ecological objectives and spatial strateg

  12. Nuclear Security Futures Scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Warren, Drake Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the scenarios used in strategic futures workshops conducted at Sandia on September 21 and 29, 2016. The workshops, designed and facilitated by analysts in Center 100, used scenarios to enable thought leaders to think collectively about the changing aspects of global nuclear security and the potential implications for the US Government and Sandia National Laboratories.

  13. Learning Through Scenario Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balarezo, Jose

    This project investigates the uses and effects of scenario planning in companies operating in highly uncertain and dynamic environments. Whereas previous research on scenario planning has fallen short of providing sufficient evidence of its mechanisms and effects on individual or organizational...... level variables, this research corrects this void by investigating the dynamics of organizational learning through the lenses of a corporate scenario planning process. This enhances our scientific understanding of the role that scenario planning might play in the context of organizational learning...... and counterintuitive ways in which an organization uses scenario planning in balancing the tension between exploration and exploitation. Moreover, this research proposes two novel mechanisms designed to enhance learning flows. At the core of this dissertation are four papers which in combination solidify our...

  14. Integrative Scenario Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg A. Priess

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Scenarios are employed to address a large number of future environmental and socioeconomic challenges. We present a conceptual framework for the development of scenarios to integrate the objectives of different stakeholder groups. Based on the framework, land-use scenarios were developed to provide a common base for further research. At the same time, these scenarios assisted regional stakeholders to bring forward their concerns and arrive at a shared understanding of challenges between scientific and regional stakeholders, which allowed them to eventually support regional decision making. The focus on the integration of views and knowledge domains of different stakeholder groups, such as scientists and practitioners, required rigorous and repeated measures of quality control. The application of the integrative concept provided products for both stakeholder groups, and the process of scenario development facilitated cooperation and learning within both the scientist and practitioner groups as well as between the two groups.

  15. Beneficial effects of a higher-protein breakfast on the appetitive, hormonal, and neural signals controlling energy intake regulation in overweight/obese, “breakfast-skipping,” late-adolescent girls 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Leidy, Heather J; Ortinau, Laura C.; Douglas, Steve M; Hoertel, Heather A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breakfast skipping is a common dietary habit practiced among adolescents and is strongly associated with obesity. Objective: The objective was to examine whether a high-protein (HP) compared with a normal-protein (NP) breakfast leads to daily improvements in appetite, satiety, food motivation and reward, and evening snacking in overweight or obese breakfast-skipping girls. Design: A randomized crossover design was incorporated in which 20 girls [mean ± SEM age: 19 ± 1 y; body mass...

  16. Emissão de etileno e de CO2 em mamão 'Sunrise Solo' e 'Golden' Emission of ethilene and CO2 in 'Sunrise Solo' and 'Golden' papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos José de Oliveira Fonseca

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de mamoeiro 'Sunrise Solo' e 'Golden' foram armazenados a 10º C e a 25º C e monitorados diariamente quanto às emissões de CO2 e de C2H4, observando-se a evolução do índice de cor de casca. A não-alteração do índice de cor de casca, ao longo dos 20 dias de conservação a 10º C, refletiu a influência da refrigeração na retenção do metabolismo dos mamões. Houve dois incrementos da respiração e da emissão de etileno, no quarto dia e entre o oitavo e o nono dia, nos frutos armazenados a 25º C. A temperatura de 10º C deteve a respiração climatérica do mamão e a emissão de etileno, comprovando que o seu metabolismo se reduz, permitindo que os frutos apresentem aspecto imaturo após 20 dias de armazenamento.Papaya fruits of Sunrise Solo and Golden cultivars were stored at 10ºC and 25ºC. They were daily evaluated on C2H4 and CO2 production rates, by observing the peel color index increasing. The non increasing of the peel color index, during the 20 days of stored, was influenced by the appropriate refrigeration temperature whose inhibit papayas metabolism. It was noticed in the fourth and between the eighth and ninth day an increasing on respiration and ethylene rates, in the fruits stored at 25ºC. The refrigeration decreased the respiration rate and papayas ethylene production, showing a metabolism reduction allowing fruits to present unripe appearance, even after 20 days of storage.

  17. Methodological Challenges in Studies Examining the Effects of Breakfast on Cognitive Performance and Appetite in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphus, K; Bellissimo, N; Lawton, CL; Ford, NA; Rains, TM; Totosy de Zepetnek, J; Dye, L

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This re...

  18. The combined unhealthy behaviors of breakfast skipping and smoking are associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Midori; Muto, Takashi; Minakawa, Toshihiro; Shibata, Toshie

    2009-08-01

    Skipping breakfast has been considered a representative unhealthy behavior, but there is little information about the combined effects of breakfast skipping and other unhealthy health habits, especially smoking. First this cross-sectional study investigated unhealthy behaviors among breakfast skippers, and then examined the impact of the combined association of skipping breakfast and smoking on health. A total of 1,200 adults living in one Japanese community were sent questionnaires to elicit data on age, gender, breakfast-eating frequency, and other lifestyle habits. A total 603 of people returned their questionnaires (response rate: 50.3%), and 493 (230 men and 263 women) questionnaires were considered appropriate for analysis. Smoking rate in men (mean age, 53.7 years) and women (mean age, 50.4 years) was 41.3%, and 9.5%, respectively. Skipping breakfast was more prevalent in people under age 50 years (p breakfast skipping (3.10, 95%CI 1.50-6.39). Other factors included, age younger than 50 years (3.04, 95%CI 1.31-7.06) and poor sleeping quality (2.06, 95%CI 1.00-4.25). After examining the combined impact of skipping breakfast and smoking, the highest odds ratio for a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was found among those who smoked and skipped breakfast (4.68, 95% CI: 1.46-15.05). Moreover, skipping breakfast among non-smokers showed a high association with perceived stress (2.83, 95% CI: 1.05-7.61). In conclusion, the combined unhealthy behaviors of skipping breakfast and smoking are associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

  19. The IMaX polarimeter for the solar telescope SUNRISE of the NASA long duration balloon program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Herrero, A.; Martínez-Pillet, V.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.

    2010-06-01

    On June 8th 2009 the SUNRISE mission was successfully launched. This mission consisted of a 1m aperture solar telescope on board of a stratospheric balloon within the Long Duration Balloon NASA program. The flight followed the foreseen circumpolar trajectory over the Artic and the duration was 5 days and 17 hours. One of the two postfocal instruments onboard was IMaX, the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment. This instrument is a solar magnetograph which is a diffraction limited imager capable to resolve 100 km on the solar surface, and simultaneously a high sensitivity polarimeter (Aeroespacial field and it is an important precedent for future space missions such as Solar Orbiter from ESA. Among these novel technologies the utilization of Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders (LCVRs) as polarization modulators and a LiNbO3 etalon as tunable spectral filter are remarkable. Currently the data obtained is being analyzed and the preliminary results show unprecedented information about the solar dynamics.

  20. Exposure scenarios for workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Hans; Northage, Christine; Money, Chris

    2007-12-01

    The new European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals) requires the development of Exposure Scenarios describing the conditions and risk management measures needed for the safe use of chemicals. Such Exposure Scenarios should integrate considerations of both human health and the environment. Specific aspects are relevant for worker exposure. Gathering information on the uses of the chemical is an important step in developing an Exposure Scenario. In-house information at manufacturers is an important source. Downstream users can contribute information through direct contact or through their associations. Relatively simple approaches (Tier 1 tools, such as the ECETOC Targeted Risk Assessment and the model EASE) can be used to develop broad Exposure Scenarios that cover many use situations. These approaches rely on the categorisation of just a few determinants, including only a small number of risk management measures. Such approaches have a limited discriminatory power and are rather conservative. When the hazard of the substance or the complexity of the exposure situation require a more in-depth approach, further development of the Exposure Scenarios with Tier 2 approaches is needed. Measured data sets of worker exposure are very valuable in a Tier 2 approach. Some downstream user associations have attempted to build Exposure Scenarios based on measured data sets. Generic Tier 2 tools for developing Exposure Scenarios do not exist yet. To enable efficient development of the worker exposure part of Exposure Scenarios a further development of Tier 1 and Tier 2 tools is needed. Special attention should be given to user friendliness and to the validity (boundaries) of the approaches. The development of standard worker exposure descriptions or full Exposure Scenarios by downstream user branches in cooperation with manufacturers and importers is recommended.

  1. Skipping breakfast and overweight in 2- and 5-year-old Dutch children-the GECKO Drenthe cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpers, L K; de Pijper, J J; Sauer, P J J; Stolk, R P; Corpeleijn, E

    2014-04-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with higher BMI in children aged 5 years and older. However, not much is known about this association in younger children. In the Dutch GECKO Drenthe birth cohort we examined the association between breakfast skipping and objectively measured overweight at the age of 2 (n=1488) and 5 (n=1366) years. At 2 years, 124 (8.3%) children were overweight and 44 (3.0%) did not eat breakfast daily. At 5 years, 180 (13.2%) children were overweight and 73 (5.3%) did not eat breakfast daily. Children belonging to families of non-Dutch origin, those with lower educated parents and those with single parents skipped breakfast more often. Breakfast skipping in 2- and 5-year-olds is rare in the Netherlands. We found no association between skipping breakfast and overweight, neither at age 2 (odds ratio (OR): 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61-5.64)) nor at age 5 (OR: 0.46 (95% CI: 0.19-1.11)). Also the type of breakfast was not related to overweight at 5 years. An explanation for this finding might be that skipping breakfast is not (yet) an issue in these children.

  2. The Effect of Providing Breakfast on Student Performance: Evidence from an In-Class Breakfast Program. NBER Working Paper No. 17720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imberman, Scott A.; Kugler, Adriana D.

    2012-01-01

    In response to low take-up, many public schools have experimented with moving breakfast from the cafeteria to the classroom. We examine whether such a program increases performance as measured by standardized test scores, grades and attendance rates. We exploit quasi-random timing of program implementation that allows for a…

  3. Effect of Sugar versus Mixed Breakfast on Metabolic and Neurofunctional Responses in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Codella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2 ± 0.4 kg/m2; 27 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SEM underwent 50 g OGTT (A and 3 breakfasts (B1: milk and cereals; B2: milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream to assess plasma glucose-, insulin-, and ghrelin excursions. An electroencephalography was performed before and 100 min after consumption of each load to measure the latency of frontal P300 evoked potentials as index of cognitive performance. Breakfasts B1 and B2 exhibited significantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses as compared to A. Breakfast B3 exhibited significantly lower glycemic, but not insulinemic response, as compared to A. Final plasma ghrelin inhibition was more pronounced, albeit not significantly, in all breakfasts with respect to A. P300 latency tended to decrease following each of the three breakfasts, but B3 was the only breakfast capable to elicit a statistically significant reduction in P300 latency with respect to A (p<0.01, suggesting ameliorated cognitive performance. Such amelioration was correlated with the 2-hour final inhibition of plasma ghrelin concentration (r=0.61, p=0.01.

  4. Nutritional quality, labelling and promotion of breakfast cereals on the New Zealand market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Anandita; Eyles, Helen; Rayner, Mike; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Swinburn, Boyd; Lonsdale-Cooper, Emily; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2014-10-01

    Breakfast cereals substantially contribute to daily energy and nutrient intakes among children. In New Zealand, new regulations are being implemented to restrict nutrition and health claims to products that meet certain 'healthy' criteria. This study investigated the difference in nutritional quality, labelling and promotion between 'healthy' and 'less healthy' breakfast cereals, and between breakfast cereals intended for children compared with other breakfast cereals on the New Zealand market. The cross-sectional data collection involved taking pictures of the nutrition information panel (NIP) and front-of pack (FoP) for all breakfast cereals (n = 247) at two major supermarkets in Auckland in 2013. A nutrient profiling tool was used to classify products into 'healthy'/'less healthy'. In total 26% of cereals did not meet the 'healthy' criteria. 'Less healthy' cereals were significantly higher in energy density, sugar and sodium content and lower in protein and fibre content compared with 'healthy' cereals. Significantly more nutrition claims (75%) and health claims (89%) featured on 'healthy' compared with 'less healthy' cereals. On the 'less healthy' cereals, nutrition claims (65%) were more predominant than health claims (17%). Of the 52 products displaying promotional characters, 48% were for 'cereals for kids', and of those, 72% featured on 'less healthy' cereals. In conclusion, most breakfast cereals met the 'healthy' criteria; however, 'cereals for kids' were 'less healthy' and displayed more promotional characters than other cereal categories. Policy recommendations include: food composition targets set or endorsed by government, strengthening and enforcing current regulations on health and nutrition claims, considering the application of nutrient profiling for nutrition claims in addition to health claims, introducing an interpretative FoP labelling system and restricting the use of promotional characters on 'less healthy' breakfast cereals.

  5. Does Skipping Breakfast and Being Overweight Influence Academic Achievement Among Korean Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang Wha; Park, Jong-Hyock

    2016-08-01

    Health status and health behaviors are associated with academic achievement in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether skipping breakfast and being overweight are related to academic achievement of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data on a sample of 1,652 high-school seniors (942 males and 710 females) drawn from the 2004 Korea Education Employment Panel were analyzed. A higher proportion of males (15.3%) than females (6.1%) was overweight (p < 0.001); 37% of males and 41% of females reported skipping breakfast. Overall test scores were significantly higher for females than males (p < 0.05), and in language and foreign language subjects. However, both males and females who reported skipping breakfast had significantly lower scores in language, mathematics, and foreign language than those who did not report skipping breakfast. Overweight males had a lower probability than normal-weight males of having the highest language scores (OR = 0.52, p < 0.05), but there was no difference among females. Females who skipped breakfast had a lower probability of having the highest scores in language (OR = 0.41, p < 0.05), mathematics (OR = 0.24, p < 0.01), or foreign language (OR = 0.18, p < 0.01), while males had a lower probability of having the highest scores in language only (OR = 0.46, p < 0.05). Skipping breakfast and being overweight are associated with poor academic achievement in Korean adolescents. Eating breakfast and weight control is being discussed as the overlooked factors that may influence better academic achievement.

  6. Rye kernel breakfast increases satiety in the afternoon - an effect of food structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredriksson Helena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure of whole grain cereals is maintained to varying degrees during processing and preparation of foods. Food structure can influence metabolism, including perceived hunger and satiety. A diet that enhances satiety per calorie may help to prevent excessive calorie intake. The objective of this work was to compare subjective appetite ratings after consumption of intact and milled rye kernels. Methods Two studies were performed using a randomized, cross-over design. Ratings for appetite (hunger, satiety and desire to eat were registered during an 8-h period after consumption of whole and milled rye kernels prepared as breads (study 1, n = 24 and porridges (study 2, n = 20. Sifted wheat bread was used as reference in both study parts and the products were eaten in iso-caloric portions with standardized additional breakfast foods. Breads and porridges were analyzed to determine whether structure (whole vs. milled kernels effected dietary fibre content and composition after preparation of the products. Statistical evaluation of the appetite ratings after intake of the different breakfasts was done by paired t-tests for morning and afternoon ratings separately, with subjects as random effect and type of breakfast and time points as fixed effects. Results All rye breakfasts resulted in higher satiety ratings in the morning and afternoon compared with the iso-caloric reference breakfast with sifted wheat bread. Rye bread with milled or whole kernels affected appetite equally, so no effect of structure was observed. In contrast, after consumption of the rye kernel breakfast, satiety was increased and hunger suppressed in the afternoon compared with the milled rye kernel porridge breakfast. This effect could be related to structural differences alone, because the products were equal in nutritional content including dietary fibre content and composition. Conclusions The study demonstrates that small changes in diet composition

  7. An Analysis on Request Speech Act of Shrimp in Sunrise from the Perspective of Speech Act Metonymy%《日出》中“小东西”请求言语行为的转喻分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明艳; 阮礼斌

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to apply Speech act metonymy proposed by Thornburg Panther to analysis the speech act of request in the drama Sunrise.Based on a brief account of SAM Theory and"Request",we analyze the position of the request utterance in the scenario.We hope that this research could throw some lights on finding communication purpose and the study on character in literature works.%以言语行为转喻理论为基础,从认知和语用结合的角度分析《日出》中"小东西"这一角色的请求言语行为的转喻现象以及会话中所体现的转喻思维中所涉及的认知和语用因素,同时期望为文学作品的研究提供一个新的切入点。

  8. Orange Juice Limits Postprandial Fat Oxidation after Breakfast in Normal-Weight Adolescents and Adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi Dunmeyer; Hamer, Janice; Espinoza, Gracie; Higa, Annie; Ng, Vivian; Tinajero-Deck, Lydia; Havel, Peter J.; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Caloric beverages may promote weight gain by simultaneously increasing total energy intake and limiting fat oxidation. During moderate intensity exercise, caloric beverage intake depresses fat oxidation by 25% or more. This randomized crossover study describes the impact of having a caloric beverage with a typical meal on fat oxidation under resting conditions. On 2 separate days, healthy normal-weight adolescents (n = 7) and adults (n = 10) consumed the same breakfast with either orange juice or drinking water and sat at rest for 3 h after breakfast. The meal paired with orange juice was 882 kJ (210 kcal) higher than the meal paired with drinking water. Both meals contained the same amount of fat (12 g). For both age groups, both meals resulted in a net positive energy balance 150 min after breakfast. Resting fat oxidation 150 min after breakfast was significantly lower after breakfast with orange juice, however. The results suggest that, independent of a state of energy excess, when individuals have a caloric beverage instead of drinking water with a meal, they are less likely to oxidize the amount of fat consumed in the meal before their next meal. PMID:22798004

  9. Chewing gum increases energy expenditure before and after controlled breakfasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresge, Daniel L; Melanson, Kathleen

    2015-04-01

    Chewing has been associated with improved satiation and satiety, but little is known about the metabolic impact of gum chewing. We tested the hypothesis that gum chewing would increase energy expenditure (EE) and reduce respiratory exchange ratio (RER) before and after a controlled test meal. Seventeen males and 13 females (age 21.5 ± 6.6 years, body mass index 23.9 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study in which subjects chewed sugar-free gum for a total of 1 h (3 sessions of 20 min) on the test day (GC) and did not chew gum on a control day (NG). EE and RER were measured by indirect calorimetry after an overnight fast. Subjects consumed a breakfast shake containing 30% of their measured energy needs, and then postprandial EE and RER were measured for 3 h. Blood glucose (GLC) was measured in the fasting and postprandial states at regular intervals. Fasting EE was higher during GC (1.23 ± 0.04 kcal/min; 1 kcal = 4.2 kJ) than during NG (1.17 ± 0.04 kcal/min; p = 0.016). Postprandial EE was also higher during GC (1.46 ± 0.05 kcal/min) than during NG (1.42 ± 0.05 kcal/min; p = 0.037). Fasting and postprandial RER and GLC did not differ between GC and NG. The findings demonstrate that GC is associated with higher fasting and postprandial EE without altering blood glucose or substrate oxidation as measured by RER. These data suggest that gum chewing potentially could influence short-term energy balance in this population; however, longer-term research is needed.

  10. Social inequality in breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency among adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    Abstract Purpose: Regular meal habits facilitate healthy dietary habits and especially low breakfast frequency shows associations with risk of overweight among adolescents. Studies on social inequality in meal frequencies among children and adolescents are limited, and especially studies of lunch...... in School-aged Children in 2010. The study includes schoolchildren in three age groups, 11-, 13-, and 15-year olds from a random sample of schools, participation rate 86.3%, n=4922. Socioeconomic position was measured by parents’ occupational social class. Breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption were...... and evening meals are lacking. The present study aims to investigate the association between socioeconomic position and breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies among adolescents. Methods: Data are from the Danish contribution to the International cross-sectional questionnaire study Health Behavior...

  11. A low glycaemic index breakfast cereal preferentially prevents children's cognitive performance from declining throughout the morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwersen, Jeanet; Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Kennedy, David O; Wesnes, Keith A; Scholey, Andrew B

    2007-07-01

    This study investigated whether the glycaemic index (GI) of breakfast cereal differentially affects children's attention and memory. Using a balanced cross-over design, on two consecutive mornings 64 children aged 6-11 years were given a high GI cereal and a low GI cereal in a counterbalanced order. They performed a series of computerised tests of attention and memory, once prior to breakfast and three times following breakfast at hourly intervals. The results indicate that children's performance declines throughout the morning and that this decline can be significantly reduced following the intake of a low GI cereal as compared with a high GI cereal on measures of accuracy of attention (M=-6.742 and -13.510, respectively, p<0.05) and secondary memory (M=-30.675 and -47.183, respectively, p<0.05).

  12. Social inequality in breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency among adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    high family social class (breakfast: odds ratio (OR) = 2.22, lunch: OR = 1.56, evening meal: OR = 1.80). For all three meal types the odds of low frequency increased gradually by decreasing social class. There were no significant interactions with gender. Conclusion: The results indicate social...... measured by frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted adjusted by age, gender and family structure. Results: Analyses showed that adolescents from low family social class had significantly higher odds of low breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency than adolescents from......Abstract Purpose: Regular meal habits facilitate healthy dietary habits and especially low breakfast frequency shows associations with risk of overweight among adolescents. Studies on social inequality in meal frequencies among children and adolescents are limited, and especially studies of lunch...

  13. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The ai...

  14. Potential Association between Breakfast Skipping and Concomitant Late-Night-Dinner Eating with Metabolic Syndrome and Proteinuria in the Japanese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ayano Kutsuma; Kei Nakajima; Kaname Suwa

    2014-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is considered to be an unhealthy eating habit linked to predispositions to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because eating dinner late at night can elicit subsequent breakfast skipping, we investigated if skipping breakfast concomitant with late-night-dinner eating (LNDE) was associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and proteinuria in the general Japanese population. We examined self-reported habitual breakfast skipping and LNDE, MetS (modified ATP-III criteria), and proteinur...

  15. Skipping breakfast and overweight in 2-and 5-year-old Dutch children-the GECKO Drenthe cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupers, L. K.; de Pijper, J. J.; Sauer, P. J. J.; Stolk, R. P.; Corpeleijn, E.

    2014-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with higher BMI in children aged 5 years and older. However, not much is known about this association in younger children. In the Dutch GECKO Drenthe birth cohort we examined the association between breakfast skipping and objectively measured overweight at the age of

  16. A Comprehensive Review of the Literature on the Effects of Breakfast on Mental Performance and Scholastic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, James P.

    A review of the literature on the effects of breakfast on mental performance and scholastic achievement reveals a dichotomy between the theoretical and the empirical literature. Whereas theoretical considerations maintain that breakfast makes a significant difference in mental performance in the late morning hours, empirical evidence can be…

  17. The Effect of Regular Breakfast on Body Mass Index in 9- to 10-Year-Old Czech Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimesova, Iva; Miklankova, Ludmila; Stelzer, Jiri; Ernest, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Eating habits play a crucial role in weight control management; however, little research has examined whether frequency of breakfast consumption influences body mass index (BMI) in middle childhood. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to (a) determine the relationship between BMI and the frequency of breakfast consumption, (b)…

  18. Postprandial Effects of Breakfast Glycemic Index on Vascular Function among Young Healthy Adults: A Crossover Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial effects of high and low glycemic index (GI breakfasts on vascular function. It was a crossover trial that included 40 young healthy adults (50% women, aged 20–40 years, who were recruited at primary care settings. They consumed three experimental breakfasts in randomized order, each one separated by a 1-week washout period: (1 control conditions (only water; (2 low GI (LGI breakfast (29.4 GI and 1489 KJ energy; and (3 high GI (HGI breakfast (64.0 GI and 1318 KJ energy. Blood samples were collected at 60 and 120 min after each breakfast to determine glucose and insulin levels. Vascular parameters were measured at 15 min intervals. Augmentation index (AIx was studied as a primary outcome. Secondary outcomes comprised glucose, insulin, heart rate (HR and pulse pressures (PPs. We found a trend toward increased AIx, HR and PPs for the HGI versus the LGI breakfast. A significant interaction between the type of breakfast consumed and all measured parameters was identified (p < 0.05 except for central PP. Stratifying data by sex, this interaction remained significant for AIx and augmentation pressure only in males (p < 0.05. In conclusion, breakfast GI could affect postprandial vascular responses in young healthy adults.

  19. [Relation between the breakfast quality and the academic performance in adolescents of Guadalajara (Castilla-La Mancha)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Morales, I; Aguilar Vilas, Ma V; Mateos Vega, C J; Martínez Para, Ma C

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship between the breakfast quality and skipping it on academic performance of a population of adolescents. A nutritional study on the breakfast quality has been performed in a population of adolescents from Guadalajara (467 young people; age: 12-17 years) by means of questionnaires of seven-day consumption frequency. Besides, we have collected socio-demographic data and academic scores of these people. Most of the students interviewed take a deficient breakfast since only 4.88% have a complete breakfast. The girls aged 15-17 years are those taking the poorest quality breakfast since 8.33% of them skip this meal. 68.29% take breakfasts which quality may be improved. The breakfast quality is directly related with the mean score obtained during the course 2003-04. This relationship is not so clear-cut when the different mandatory subjects in the different academic orientations are considered since it depends on the type of subject (comprehension, memory, concentration, physical activity...). The population studied consumes a poor breakfast, which may affect the academic outcomes, especially those for certain subjects.

  20. Skipping breakfast and overweight in 2-and 5-year-old Dutch children-the GECKO Drenthe cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupers, L. K.; de Pijper, J. J.; Sauer, P. J. J.; Stolk, R. P.; Corpeleijn, E.

    Skipping breakfast is associated with higher BMI in children aged 5 years and older. However, not much is known about this association in younger children. In the Dutch GECKO Drenthe birth cohort we examined the association between breakfast skipping and objectively measured overweight at the age of

  1. Energy and macronutrient composition of breakfast affect gastric emptying of lunch and subsequent food intake, satiety and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Miriam; Shafat, Amir

    2010-06-01

    Satiety and food intake are closely related to gastrointestinal transit and specifically gastric emptying. High-fat (HF) meals empty more slowly from the stomach yet are less satiating than isoenergetic low-fat (LF) meals. The current study examines how gastric emptying and satiety at lunch are affected by energy and macronutrient content of breakfast. Nine male volunteers consumed either (1) a HF breakfast, (2) a LF breakfast isoenergetic to HF (LFE) or (3) a LF breakfast of equal mass to HF (LFM). Gastric emptying half time measured using the sodium [(13)C] acetate breath test was delayed after HF compared to LF meals (HF: 102 + or - 11, LFE: 96 + or - 13, LFM: 95 + or - 13 min, mean + or - SD). Fullness increased and desire to eat decreased following the LFE breakfast measured using visual analogue scales. Eating a HF breakfast increased the energy, fat and protein from an ad libitum buffet meal given 4h after lunch. In conclusion, eating a HF breakfast delayed gastric emptying of lunch and increased food intake 7 h later compared to a LFM breakfast. These data suggest both mass and energy content of food regulate subsequent appetite and feeding and demonstrate the hyperphagic effect of a single HF meal.

  2. Examining Variations in Fourth-Grade Children's Participation in School Breakfast and Lunch Programs by Student and Program Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Finney, Christopher J.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Analyses were conducted to examine variations in fourth-grade children's participation in school-breakfast and school-lunch programs by weekday, month, socioeconomic status, absenteeism, gender, and school-breakfast location. Methods: Fourth-grade children were participants in a dietary-reporting validation study during either…

  3. Acarbose reduces the risk of pre-lunch hypoglycemia in elderly people with diabetes eating rice porridge for breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching Jung

    2010-09-01

    To decrease the risk of postprandial hyperglycemia and late hypoglycemia in elderly people with diabetes who eat rice porridge for breakfast, we administered 50mg acarbose to 30 elderly people with type 2 diabetes. The results demonstrated that acarbose could prevent the fluctuations in post-breakfast blood glucose levels.

  4. Methodological Challenges in Studies Examining the Effects of Breakfast on Cognitive Performance and Appetite in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Katie; Bellissimo, Nick; Lawton, Clare L; Ford, Nikki A; Rains, Tia M; Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia; Dye, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This review focuses on the myriad challenges involved in studying children and adolescents specifically. Key methodological challenges and considerations include study design and location, sampling and sample section, choice of objective cognitive tests, choice of objective and subjective appetite measures, merits of providing a fixed breakfast compared with ad libitum, assessment and definition of habitual breakfast consumption, transparency of treatment condition, difficulty of isolating the direct effects of breakfast consumption, untangling acute and chronic effects, and influence of confounding variables. These methodological challenges have hampered a clear substantiation of the potential positive effects of breakfast on cognition and appetite control and contributed to the debate questioning the notion that breakfast is the most important meal of the day.

  5. ONLINE PUBLISHING CURRENT SCENARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to unravel the current scenario in online publishing. Advent of internet has brought with it tremendous changes in the publishing industry. What was hither to an industry dominated by publisher has been thrown open to one and sundry. Online publishing has brought with it a reach which was hitherto never been imagined. In the normal course it would take at least a year to publish a manuscript. Online publishing has managed to bring this time down to a few weeks / at most a month. This article attempts to discusses the positives and perils of online publishing scenario.

  6. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions.......Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  7. High-Protein and High-Dietary Fiber Breakfasts Result in Equal Feelings of Fullness and Better Diet Quality in Low-Income Preschoolers Compared with Their Usual Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Campbell, Wayne W; Mattes, Rickard D; Schwichtenberg, Amy J

    2017-03-01

    Background: In the United States, 17% of children are currently obese. Increasing feelings of fullness may prevent excessive energy intake, lead to better diet quality, and promote long-term maintenance of healthy weight.Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a fullness-rating tool (aim 1) and to determine whether a high-protein (HP), high-fiber (HF), and combined HP and HF (HPHF) breakfast increases preschoolers' feelings of fullness before (pre) and after (post) breakfast and pre-lunch, as well as their diet quality, as measured by using a composite diet quality assessment tool, the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (aim 2).Methods: Children aged 4 and 5 y (n = 41; 22 girls and 19 boys) from local Head Start centers participated in this randomized intervention trial. Sixteen percent of boys and 32% of girls were overweight or obese. After the baseline week, children rotated through four 1-wk periods of consuming ad libitum HP (19-20 g protein), HF (10-11 g fiber), HPHF (19-21 g protein, 10-12 g fiber), or usual (control) breakfasts. Food intake at breakfast was estimated daily, and for breakfast, lunch, and snack on day 3 of each study week Student's t tests and ANOVA were used to determine statistical differences.Results: Children's post-breakfast and pre-lunch fullness ratings were ≥1 point higher than those of pre-breakfast (aim 1). Although children consumed, on average, 65 kcal less energy during the intervention breakfasts (P quality (12%) was calculated for the HP and HF breakfasts (P quality. Serving HP or HF breakfasts may be valuable in improving diet quality without lowering feelings of satiation or satiety. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02122224.

  8. Children’s School-Breakfast Reports and School-Lunch Reports (in 24-hour Dietary Recalls): Conventional and Reporting-Error-Sensitive Measures Show Inconsistent Accuracy Results for Retention Interval and for Breakfast Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Albert F.; Hitchcock, David B.; Royer, Julie A.; Puryear, Megan P.; Collins, Kathleen L.; Smith, Alyssa L.

    2017-01-01

    Validation-study data were analyzed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on accuracy of fourth-grade children’s reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-hour recalls), and accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly-selected fourth-grade children at 10 schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and interviewed under one of eight conditions (two RIs [short (prior-24-hour recall obtained in afternoon); long (previous-day recall obtained in morning)] crossed with four prompts [forward (distant-to-recent), meal-name (breakfast, etc.), open (no instructions), reverse (recent-to-distant)]). Each condition had 60 children (half girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure—report rate—and reporting-error-sensitive measures—correspondence rate and inflation ratio—were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio—but not report rate—showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short than long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select short RIs to maximize accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended. PMID:26865356

  9. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-12-08

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  10. Immigrant families' perceptions on walking to school and school breakfast: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busby Katie

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrant children face an increased risk of being overweight. Little is known about how immigrant families perceive school programs that may help prevent obesity, such as walking to school and school breakfast. Methods Six focus groups (n = 53 were conducted with immigrant parents of school-aged children, two each in three languages: Vietnamese, Spanish, and Somali. A facilitator and translator conducted the focus groups using a script and question guide. Written notes and audio transcripts were recorded in each group. Transcripts were coded for themes by two researchers and findings classified according to an ecological model. Results Participants in each ethnic group held positive beliefs about the benefits of walking and eating breakfast. Barriers to walking to school included fear of children's safety due to stranger abductions, distrust of neighbors, and traffic, and feasibility barriers due to distance to schools, parent work constraints, and large families with multiple children. Barriers to school breakfast participation included concerns children would not eat due to lack of appealing/appropriate foods and missing breakfast due to late bus arrival or lack of reminders. Although some parents acknowledged concerns about child and adult obesity overall, obesity concerns did not seem personally relevant. Conclusion Immigrant parents supported the ideals of walking to school and eating breakfast, but identified barriers to participation in school programs across domains of the ecological model, including community, institution, and built environment factors. Schools and communities serving immigrant families may need to address these barriers in order to engage parents and children in walking and breakfast programs.

  11. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taki

    Full Text Available Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  12. The Effect of Breakfast in the Classroom on Obesity and Academic Performance: Evidence from New York City. Working Paper #04-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Sean P.; Elbel, Brian; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Participation in the federally-subsidized school breakfast program often falls well below its lunchtime counterpart. To increase take-up, many districts have implemented Breakfast in the Classroom (BIC), offering breakfast directly to students at the start of the school day. Beyond increasing participation, advocates claim BIC improves academic…

  13. Associations between breakfast frequency and adiposity indicators in children from 12 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, J K; Gillison, F B; Cumming, S; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Broyles, S T; Champagne, C M; Chaput, J-P; Denstel, K D; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Mire, E F; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Standage, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Reports of inverse associations between breakfast frequency and indices of obesity are predominantly based on samples of children from high-income countries with limited socioeconomic diversity. Using data from the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE), the present study examined associations between breakfast frequency and adiposity in a sample of 9–11-year-old children from 12 countries representing a wide range of geographic and socio-cultural variability. METHODS: Multilevel statistical models were used to examine associations between breakfast frequency (independent variable) and adiposity indicators (dependent variables: body mass index (BMI) z-score and body fat percentage (BF%)), adjusting for age, sex, and parental education in 6941 children from 12 ISCOLE study sites. Associations were also adjusted for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns and sleep time in a sub-sample (n=5710). Where interactions with site were significant, results were stratified by site. RESULTS: Adjusted mean BMI z-score and BF% for frequent breakfast consumers were 0.45 and 20.5%, respectively. Frequent breakfast consumption was associated with lower BMI z-scores compared with occasional (P<0.0001, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.10–0.29) and rare (P<0.0001, 95% CI: 0.18–0.46) consumption, as well as lower BF% compared with occasional (P<0.0001, 95% CI: 0.86–1.99) and rare (P<0.0001, 95% CI: 1.07–2.76). Associations with BMI z-score varied by site (breakfast by site interaction; P=0.033): associations were non-significant in three sites (Australia, Finland and Kenya), and occasional (not rare) consumption was associated with higher BMI z-scores compared with frequent consumption in three sites (Canada, Portugal and South Africa). Sub-sample analyses adjusting for additional covariates showed similar associations between breakfast and adiposity indicators, but lacked site

  14. Effect of a high-protein breakfast on the postprandial ghrelin response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Wendy A M; Lluch, Anne; Stafleu, Annette

    2006-01-01

    -carbohydrate breakfast (HC) through suppression of postprandial ghrelin concentrations or through other physiologic processes. DESIGN: Fifteen healthy men were studied in a single-blind, crossover design. Blood samples and subjective measures of satiety were assessed frequently for 3 h after the consumption of 2......BACKGROUND: The most satiating macronutrient appears to be dietary protein. Few studies have investigated the effects of dietary protein on ghrelin secretion in humans. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate whether a high-protein (HP) breakfast is more satiating than a high...

  15. Crisis and Crisis Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Nordicum-Mediterraneum contains select proceedings from the third meeting of the Nordic Summer University research circle called “Crisis and Crisis Scenarios: Normativity, Possibilities and Dilemmas”, held April 9th — 12th, 2015 at the Lysebu Conference Centre in Oslo, Norway...

  16. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, K.; Jones, Lucile M.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Borrero, J.; Bwarie, J.; Dykstra, D.; Geist, Eric L.; Johnson, L.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Long, K.; Lynett, P.; Miller, K.; Mortensen, Carl E.; Perry, S.; Plumlee, G.; Real, C.; Ritchie, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Thio, H.K.; Wein, Anne; Whitmore, P.; Wilson, R.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ostbo, Bruce I.; Oates, Don

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and several partners operate a program called Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) that produces (among other things) emergency planning scenarios for natural disasters. The scenarios show how science can be used to enhance community resiliency. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario describes potential impacts of a hypothetical, but realistic, tsunami affecting California (as well as the west coast of the United States, Alaska, and Hawaii) for the purpose of informing planning and mitigation decisions by a variety of stakeholders. The scenario begins with an Mw 9.1 earthquake off the Alaska Peninsula. With Pacific basin-wide modeling, we estimate up to 5m waves and 10 m/sec currents would strike California 5 hours later. In marinas and harbors, 13,000 small boats are damaged or sunk (1 in 3) at a cost of $350 million, causing navigation and environmental problems. Damage in the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach amount to $110 million, half of it water damage to vehicles and containerized cargo. Flooding of coastal communities affects 1800 city blocks, resulting in $640 million in damage. The tsunami damages 12 bridge abutments and 16 lane-miles of coastal roadway, costing $85 million to repair. Fire and business interruption losses will substantially add to direct losses. Flooding affects 170,000 residents and workers. A wide range of environmental impacts could occur. An extensive public education and outreach program is underway, as well as an evaluation of the overall effort.

  17. Biomass Scenario Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique, carefully validated, state-of-the-art dynamic model of the domestic biofuels supply chain which explicitly focuses on policy issues, their feasibility, and potential side effects. It integrates resource availability, physical/technological/economic constraints, behavior, and policy. The model uses a system dynamics simulation (not optimization) to model dynamic interactions across the supply chain.

  18. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta;

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  19. The IMaX polarimeter for the solar telescope SUNRISE of the NASA long duration balloon program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available On June 8th 2009 the SUNRISE mission was successfully launched. This mission consisted of a 1m aperture solar telescope on board of a stratospheric balloon within the Long Duration Balloon NASA program. The flight followed the foreseen circumpolar trajectory over the Artic and the duration was 5 days and 17 hours. One of the two postfocal instruments onboard was IMaX, the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment. This instrument is a solar magnetograph which is a diffraction limited imager capable to resolve 100 km on the solar surface, and simultaneously a high sensitivity polarimeter (<10-3 and a high resolution spectrograph (bandwidth <70mÅ. The magnetic vectorial map can be extracted thanks to the well-know Zeeman effect, which takes place in the solar atoms, allowing to relate polarization and spectral measurements to magnetic fields. The technological challenge of the IMaX development has a special relevance due to the utilization of innovative technologies in the Aeroespacial field and it is an important precedent for future space missions such as Solar Orbiter from ESA. Among these novel technologies the utilization of Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders (LCVRs as polarization modulators and a LiNbO3 etalon as tunable spectral filter are remarkable. Currently the data obtained is being analyzed and the preliminary results show unprecedented information about the solar dynamics.

  20. The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Pillet, V Martinez; Alvarez-Herrero, A; Domingo, V; Bonet, J A; Fernandez, L Gonzalez; Jimenez, A Lopez; Pastor, C; Blesa, J L Gasent; Mellado, P; Piqueras, J; Aparicio, B; Balaguer, M; Ballesteros, E; Belenguer, T; Rubio, L R Bellot; Berkefeld, T; Collados, M; Deutsch, W; Feller, A; Girela, F; Grauf, B; Heredero, R L; Herranz, M; Jeronimo, J M; Laguna, H; Meller, R; Menendez, M; Morales, R; Suarez, D Orozco; Ramos, G; Reina, M; Ramos, J L; Rodriguez, P; Sanchez, A; Uribe-Patarroyo, N; Barthol, P; Gandorfer, A; Knoelker, M; Schmidt, W; Solanki, S K; Dominguez, S Vargas

    2010-01-01

    The Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) is a spectropolarimeter built by four institutions in Spain that flew on board the Sunrise balloon-borne telesocope in June 2009 for almost six days over the Arctic Circle. As a polarimeter IMaX uses fast polarization modulation (based on the use of two liquid crystal retarders), real-time image accumulation, and dual beam polarimetry to reach polarization sensitivities of 0.1%. As a spectrograph, the instrument uses a LiNbO3 etalon in double pass and a narrow band pre-filter to achieve a spectral resolution of 85 mAA. IMaX uses the high Zeeman sensitive line of Fe I at 5250.2 AA and observes all four Stokes parameters at various points inside the spectral line. This allows vector magnetograms, Dopplergrams, and intensity frames to be produced that, after reconstruction, reach spatial resolutions in the 0.15-0.18 arcsec range over a 50x50 arcsec FOV. Time cadences vary between ten and 33 seconds, although the shortest one only includes longitudinal polarimetry. The s...

  1. MAGNETO-STATIC MODELING OF THE MIXED PLASMA BETA SOLAR ATMOSPHERE BASED ON SUNRISE/IMaX DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegelmann, T.; Solanki, S. K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Neukirch, T. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Nickeler, D. H. [Astronomical Institute, AV CR, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Pillet, V. Martínez [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Borrero, J. M., E-mail: wiegelmann@mps.mpg.de [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstrasse 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-12-10

    Our aim is to model the three-dimensional magnetic field structure of the upper solar atmosphere, including regions of non-negligible plasma beta. We use high-resolution photospheric magnetic field measurements from SUNRISE/IMaX as the boundary condition for a magneto-static magnetic field model. The high resolution of IMaX allows us to resolve the interface region between the photosphere and corona, but modeling this region is challenging for the following reasons. While the coronal magnetic field is thought to be force-free (the Lorentz force vanishes), this is not the case in the mixed plasma β environment in the photosphere and lower chromosphere. In our model, pressure gradients and gravity forces are self-consistently taken into account and compensate for the non-vanishing Lorentz force. Above a certain height (about 2 Mm) the non-magnetic forces become very weak and consequently the magnetic field becomes almost force-free. Here, we apply a linear approach where the electric current density consists of a superposition of a field-line parallel current and a current perpendicular to the Sun's gravity field. We illustrate the prospects and limitations of this approach and give an outlook for an extension toward a nonlinear model.

  2. Magneto-static modelling of the mixed plasma Beta solar atmosphere based on SUNRISE/IMaX data

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegelmann, T; Nickeler, D H; Solanki, S K; Pillet, V Martinez; Borrero, J M

    2015-01-01

    Our aim is to model the 3D magnetic field structure of the upper solar atmosphere, including regions of non-negligible plasma beta. We use high-resolution photospheric magnetic field measurements from SUNRISE/IMaX as boundary condition for a magneto-static magnetic field model. The high resolution of IMaX allows us to resolve the interface region between photosphere and corona, but modelling this region is challenging for the following reasons. While the coronal magnetic field is thought to be force-free (the Lorentz-force vanishes), this is not the case in the mixed plasma $\\beta$ environment in the photosphere and lower chromosphere. In our model, pressure gradients and gravity forces are taken self-consistently into account and compensate the non-vanishing Lorentz-force. Above a certain height (about 2 Mm) the non-magnetic forces become very weak and consequently the magnetic field becomes almost force-free. Here we apply a linear approach, where the electric current density consists of a superposition of ...

  3. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at 6-Month Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced 6 months apart) to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous 6 months. Demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at 6-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor. PMID:26903914

  4. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at Six-Month Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth eRichards

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced six months apart to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous six months, demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at six-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor.

  5. Demand scenarios, worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Existing methods are inadequate for developing aggregate (regional and global) and long-term (several decades) passenger transport demand scenarios, since they are mainly based on simple extensions of current patterns rather than causal relationships that account for the competition among transport modes (aircraft, automobiles, buses and trains) to provide transport services. The demand scenario presented in this paper is based on two empirically proven invariances of human behavior. First, transport accounts for 10 to 15 percent of household total expenditures for those owning an automobile, and around 5 percent for non-motorized households on average (travel money budget). Second, the mean time spent traveling is approximately one hour per capita per day (travel time budget). These two budgets constraints determine the dynamics of the scenario: rising income increases per capita expenditure on travel which, in turn, increase demand for mobility. Limited travel time constraints travelers to shift to faster transport systems. The scenario is initiated with the first integrated historical data set on traffic volume in 11 world regions and the globe from 1960 to 1990 for all major modes of motorized transport. World average per capita traffic volume, which was 1,800 kilometers in 1960 and 4,2090 in 1990, is estimated to rise to 7,900 kilometers in 2020 - given a modest average increase in Gross World Product of 1.9% per year. Higher economic growth rates in Asian regions result in an increase in regional per capita traffic volume up to a factor of 5.3 from 1990 levels. Modal splits continue shifting to more flexible and faster modes of transport. At one point, passenger cars can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for speed (i.e. rising mobility within a fixed time budget). In North America it is estimated that the absolute traffic volume of automobiles will gradually decline starting in the 2010s. (author) 13 figs., 6 tabs., 35 refs.

  6. 78 FR 39067 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... also demonstrated that excess body weight has negative impacts for obese and overweight children... promoting healthful food and physical activity choices. Upon implementation of the rule, students will have... National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program to make potable water available to children at...

  7. Breakfasts high in protein, fat or carbohydrate: effect on within-day appetite and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, R J; van Wyk, M C; Johnstone, A M; Harbron, C G

    1996-07-01

    To compare the effect of isoenergetically-dense, high-protein (HP), high-fat (HF) or high-carbohydrate (HC) breakfasts (at 08.30) on subjective hunger, fullness and appetite (measured hourly on a 100 mm visual analogue scale), macronutrient balance and ad libitum energy intake (EI), at a test meal (13.30) and throughout the rest of the day (until 23.00). Six men each spent 24 h in a whole-body indirect calorimeter on three separate occasions during which they received breakfasts designed to match 75% of BMR and that comprised, on average 3.1 MJ of protein (HP), carbohydrate (HC) or fat (HF), respectively, the remainder being split between the other two macronutrients. Every item of the ad libitum diet comprised 13% protein, 40% fat and 47% carbohydrate by energy, with an energy density of 550 kJ/100 g. Subjectively-rated pleasantness did not differ between the breakfasts, or any of the subsequent ad libitum meals. Subjective hunger was significantly greater during the hours between breakfast and lunch after the HF (26) treatment relative to the HP (18) or HC (18 mm) meals (P time intake 5 h later, or EI for the rest of the day. A single positive balance of each macronutrient can be buffered by oxidation and storage capacity, without leading to changes in meal-to-meal EI, when subjects feed ad libitum on unfamiliar diets of fixed composition.

  8. Effects of eating frequency, snacking, and breakfast skipping on energy regulation: symposium overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2011-01-01

    The ASN hosted a symposium entitled "Eating Patterns and Energy Balance: A Look at Eating Frequency, Snacking, and Breakfast Omission" at the Experimental Biology 2009 annual meeting on April 19, 2009, in New Orleans, LA. The symposium was chaired by Megan McCrory and co-chaired by Wayne Campbell, both from Purdue University. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts to provide an overview of research on the potential role of eating patterns in the development of overweight and obesity. Studies on eating frequency, snacking, and breakfast skipping were highlighted. In particular, evidence both for and against their roles were discussed, methodological issues that underlie controversies were addressed, and suggested future directions for research were outlined. Appetite regulation and hormonal effects were also reviewed. Megan McCrory introduced the session then discussed studies on eating frequency and energy regulation in free-living adults consuming self-selected diets. Heather Leidy summarized the state of the research on eating frequency and energy regulation in adults from controlled feedings studies. Didier Chapelot discussed various usages of "snack" and argued for a physiological basis to distinguish snacks from meals. Mark Pereira presented information on the effects of breakfast skipping and the macronutrient composition of breakfast in energy regulation and mood. A panel discussion/question and answer session ended the symposium. The symposium was videotaped and can be viewed at www.nutrition.org.

  9. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  10. 78 FR 40625 - Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs; Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... / Monday, July 8, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 RIN 0584-AD59 Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs; Approval of Information Collection Request AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA...

  11. Copper bioavailability from breakfasts containing tea : influence of the addition of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaquero, M.P.; Veldhuizen, M.; Dokkum, W. van; Hamer, C.J.A. van den; Schaafsma, G.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of drinking tea on copper bioavailability is unclear, particularly when tea is consumed with food. A breakfast meal containing white bread, margarine, strawberry jam, cheese and tea, with or without milk, was digested in; vitro and the dialysis of copper investigated. Reference breakfa

  12. Breakfast skippers display a disrupted cortisol rhythm and elevated blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic stress and over-activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may link breakfast skipping and poor cardiometabolic health. Missing the first major meal of the day in rodents prolongs elevated circulating corticosterone at a time when it’s normally decreasing. To extend these fi...

  13. 77 FR 16515 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-School Breakfast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... School Breakfast Program (SBP). The SBP is a nutrition assistance program whose benefit is providing... the reporting and recordkeeping requirements associated with the SBP are currently approved by the....1100 3,515,252 Total Estimated 109,522 294.234035 32,225,100 0.11341037 3,654,661 Recordkeeping...

  14. 78 FR 79567 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 [FNS-2011-0019] RIN 0584-AE09 National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as Required by the...: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of...

  15. Oral Liquid Formulation of Levothyroxine Is Stable in Breakfast Beverages and May Improve Thyroid Patient Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bernareggi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients on treatment with levothyroxine (T4 are informed to take this drug in the morning, at least 30 min before having breakfast. A significant decrease of T4 absorption was reported, in fact, when T4 solid formulations are taken with food or coffee. According to preliminary clinical study reports, administration of T4 oral solution appears to be less sensitive to the effect of breakfast beverages on oral bioavailability. In the present study, stability of T4 oral solution added to breakfast beverages was investigated. A 1 mL ampoule of single-dose Tirosint® oral solution (IBSA Farmaceutici Italia, Lodi, Italy was poured into defined volumes of milk, tea, coffee, and coffee with milk warmed at 50 °C, as well as in orange juice at room temperature. Samples were sequentially collected up to 20 min and analyzed by validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS methods. The results of the study demonstrated that T4 is stable in all beverages after 20 min incubation. Demonstration of T4 stability is a prerequisite for a thorough evaluation of the effect of breakfast beverages on the bioavailability of T4 given as oral solution and for a better understanding of the reasons underlying a decreased T4 bioavailability administered as solid formulations.

  16. Effect of a high-protein breakfast on the postprandial ghrelin response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.A.M.; Lluch, A.; Stafleu, A.; Vinoy, S.; Holst, J.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The most satiating macronutrient appears to be dietary protein. Few studies have investigated the effects of dietary protein on ghrelin secretion in humans. Objective: This study was designed to investigate whether a high-protein (HP) breakfast is more satiating than a high-carbohydrate

  17. Reynolds Highlights Economic Activity, Research Progress at Local Breakfast Briefing | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI is a valuable asset to the Frederick community as a major employer, a purchaser of goods and services, and an educator and mentor for students from elementary through post-graduate school, Craig Reynolds told about 70 people, including many community leaders, at the Fort Detrick Alliance’s quarterly breakfast briefing at Hood College.

  18. A Comparative Study of Breakfast Habits of Romanian and Spanish Adolescents Enrolled in Southern Spain Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Ayala, Encarnación; Cala, Verónica C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Globalization has favored intra-European Commission (EC) and extra-EC migration to Spain. One of the most numerous cultural groups that have settled in the southern Spain is from Romania. Coexistence, especially in schools, has made us become interested in knowing the eating habits at breakfast of Romanian and Spanish populations.…

  19. Interviews with the 2000 CLA Breakfast Speakers: Mary Pope Osborne, Rosemary Wells, and Patricia Reilly Giff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darigan, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Presents three interviews with the 2000 CLA (Children's Literature Assembly) Breakfast Speakers. Discusses how Osborne has written for virtually every genre for all ages and discusses the new Magic Treehouse book. Talks about Wells' two Mother Goose books, McDuff books and books to come. Considers where Giff gets her ideas for books and discusses…

  20. Biscuits, Sausage, Gravy, Milk, and Orange Juice: School Breakfast Environment in 4 Rural Appalachian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Andrea; Haughton, Betsy; Jahns, Lisa; Fitzhugh, Eugene; Jones, Sonya J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the school breakfast environment in rural Appalachian schools to inform school environment intervention and policy change. Methods: A total of 4 rural schools with fourth- and fifth-grade students in East Tennessee were assessed. A cross-sectional descriptive examination of the school food…

  1. Mood and the macro-nutrient composition of breakfast and the mid-day meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David; Brock, Helen

    2010-12-01

    Six hundred and eighty-six individuals were approached at mid-day after they had chosen a meal in a cafeteria. They were asked to rate their mood during the morning and list what they had eaten that morning. Both males and females who had eaten breakfast rather than fasting reported that they had been happier and more relaxed during the morning. The macro-nutrient compositions of breakfast and lunch were calculated and related to mood during the morning. In males, but not females, the consumption of more carbohydrate in the morning was associated with feeling happy rather than sad and relaxed rather than stressed. Further examination demonstrated that in males the amount of fat, protein and total energy consumed was not associated with mood; that is there was a selective relationship between carbohydrate intake and mood. It was not possible to establish whether the nature of breakfast influenced mood or the pre-existing mood influenced the choice of breakfast although both explanations are plausible. In females, however, there was no relationship between carbohydrate intake and mood, possibly a reflection of the smaller amounts consumed. The suggestion that mood during the morning might influence food choice at mid-day was considered but no association was found.

  2. Gastric emptying of a light hospital breakfast. A study using real time ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søreide, E; Hausken, T; Søreide, J A; Steen, P A

    1996-05-01

    While intake of clear fluids 2-3 h before surgery is considered safe as it does not influence gastric content, it is not known if the same applies to a light breakfast meal. We therefore studied gastric emptying of a light breakfast in healthy, female volunteers without evidence of gastrointestinal motility disorders. The test meal consisted of one slice of buttered toast with jam, one cup of coffee without milk or sugar and one glass of pulp-free orange juice taken together with a paracetamol mixture. Using gastric ultrasonography, the stomach was identified without problems in all subjects, and gastric emptying curves using changes in gastric antral area and serum-paracetamol were obtained. Emptying of the fluid phase started immediately after intake of the meal. All subjects had solid particles in the stomach 120 min after the meal, 3 patients were considered empty after 180 min, 6 after 210 min and all after 240 min. The gastric antral area returned to fasting value significantly faster than the disappearance of solid particles; median 150 min versus 210 min; P = 0.01. Our results show that in healthy subjects the stomach cannot be considered empty for solid particles the first 4 h after a light breakfast meal. To secure some safety limits, we suggest a 6-h mandatory preoperative fast after a light breakfast.

  3. Self-Reported Weight Perceptions, Dieting Behavior, and Breakfast Eating among High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullig, Keith; Ubbes, Valerie A.; Pyle, Jennifer; Valois, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among weight perceptions, dieting behavior, and breakfast eating in 4597 public high school adolescents using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were constructed separately for race and gender groups via SUDAAN (Survey Data…

  4. 78 FR 47274 - National School Lunch, Special Milk, and School Breakfast Programs, National Average Payments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service National School Lunch, Special Milk, and School Breakfast Programs, National Average Payments/Maximum Reimbursement Rates Correction In notice document 2013-17990, appearing on...

  5. [Nutritional analysis of breakfast on rising and mid-morning snack in a college population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá Travé, T

    2013-01-01

    To carry out a descriptive study on the breakfast model in a college population and to analyze the energy and nutrients provided, in connection with established nutritional requirements. Registry of food intake for breakfast (on rising and mid-morning snack) of a school day in a sample of 740 college students (286 men and 454 women) with ages ranging 19-24 years. Gender, age, weight, height, and body mass index, and type of residence were collected from each interviewee. Percentages intakes of nutrients have been calculated in proportion to established dietary recommendations (%IR). 93.2% had breakfast on rising and 83.8% took a mid-morning snack daily, and 53.5% do both intakes. The most common foods were dairy products (92.6%), cereals (58.8%) and sweet food (57.9%) at breakfast, and cereals (46.6%), fruits (40.7%) and sausages (34.9%) at mid-morning. The %IR of the calorie intake was 24.4% in males and 24.6% in females (n.s.). The %IR of the cholesterol intake was 38.2% in males and 23.9% in females (p academic performance. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. 7 CFR 220.8 - Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for breakfasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraphs (b), (c), (e)(1), or (h) of this section); (2) Provision of the breakfast energy allowances... analysis. (4) Software elements—(i) The Child Nutrition Database. The nutrient analysis is based on the Child Nutrition Database. This database is part of the software used to do a nutrient analysis....

  7. Relationship between Eating Behavior, Breakfast Consumption, and Obesity among Finnish and Greek Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltsista, Alexandra; Laitinen, Jaana; Sovio, Ulla; Roma, Eleftheria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Ritta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between eating-related behaviors, particularly breakfast consumption, and weight status in Finnish and Greek adolescents. Methods: A total of 6,468 16-year-old Finnish adolescents and 2,842 17- and 18-year-old Greek adolescents, based on the latest follow-up of 2 population-based cohorts, were studied.…

  8. Nutritional Status Associated to Skipping Breakfast in Brazilian Health Service Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-Jorge, Gislaine Cândida; Barcala-Jorge, Antônio Sérgio; Oliveira Dias, Anderson Frederico; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; de Farias Lelis, Deborah; Oliveira Andrade, João Marcus; Claro, Rafael Moreira; de Paula, Alfredo Mauricio Batista; Guimaraes, Andre Luiz Sena; Ferreira, Adaliene Versiane; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that skipping breakfast is associated with an increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In this context, this study evaluated 400 patients from the Brazilian health service who had their nutritional status defined based on the body mass index and were classified as physically active or insufficient active. The energy intake and macronutrients was also assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall where the association of overweight/obesity with the investigated variables was evaluated using chi-square, Student's t test and multivariate analysis (p breakfast (55.8%), and among those, 81.2% were overweight/obese (p breakfast had a higher chance of being overweight compared with those who had this habit (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.40-3.60) and the chance of the physically insufficient active individuals to be overweight/obese was 2.9 times higher when compared to the active individuals (p breakfast consumption may decrease overweight and obesity risk.

  9. Breakfast-skipping in children and young adolescents in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, E.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Spee-Wekke, A. van der; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to provide national figures on the prevalence of breakfast-skipping and the association with sociodemographic variables in 4-15 year old children. Methods: Data of 4,377 children were collected. A food questionnaire (24 h recall) was completed by the paren

  10. Vehicle tracking and classification in challenging scenarios via slice sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Marcos; Unzueta, Luis; Barandiaran, Javier; Cortés, Andoni; Otaegui, Oihana; Sánchez, Pedro

    2011-12-01

    This article introduces a 3D vehicle tracking system in a traffic surveillance environment devised for shadow tolling applications. It has been specially designed to operate in real time with high correct detection and classification rates. The system is capable of providing accurate and robust results in challenging road scenarios, with rain, traffic jams, casted shadows in sunny days at sunrise and sunset times, etc. A Bayesian inference method has been designed to generate estimates of multiple variable objects entering and exiting the scene. This framework allows easily mixing different nature information, gathering in a single step observation models, calibration, motion priors and interaction models. The inference of results is carried out with a novel optimization procedure that generates estimates of the maxima of the posterior distribution combining concepts from Gibbs and slice sampling. Experimental tests have shown excellent results for traffic-flow video surveillance applications that can be used to classify vehicles according to their length, width, and height. Therefore, this vision-based system can be seen as a good substitute to existing inductive loop detectors.

  11. Efeito do recipiente e ambiente de cultivo sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de mamoeiro cv. Sunrise Solo Effect of container and environment on the development of papaya seedlings cv. Sunrise Solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribamar Gusmão Araujo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de três recipientes e três condições ambientais no desenvolvimento de mudas de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. Cv. Sunrise Solo, nas condições de clima tropical da Ilha de São Luís - MA. Os recipientes utilizados foram saco de polietileno preto nas dimensões de 20 x 32 cm e 15 x 20 cm e bandeja de poliestireno de 72 células e como ambientes foram utilizados túnel de plástico, viveiro-telado de sombrite com 50% de sombreamento e a céu aberto. Na avaliação dos caracteres biométricos, foram mensurados a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do caule e o número de folhas. No período de 14-06-2004 a 21-07-2004, foram monitoradas a precipitação, a temperatura e a umidade relativa do ar, com o auxílio de psicrômetros de ventilação natural, em cada um dos ambientes. De acordo com os resultados, concluiu-se que as mudas de mamoeiro produzidas em recipiente de sacos de polietileno 20 x 32 cm foram superiores em todos os caracteres analisados; o recipiente de bandeja de poliestireno mostrou-se inadequado para a produção de mudas; aos 45 dias após a semeadura, o ambiente a céu aberto, mostrou-se mais propício para o desenvolvimento adequado das mudas. Aos 60 dias, as mudas cultivadas sob viveiro telado apresentaram crescimento excessivo e estiolamento.The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of three containers and three environments of cropping on the development of papaya seedlings (Carica papaya L. Cv. Sunrise Solo, at the tropical climate of São Luis Island, State of Maranhão, Brazil. The used containers were black polyethylene bags of 20 x 32 cm and 15 x 20 cm and polystyrene trays of 72 cells and as environment conditions were used plastic house, black-screen house of 50% sunlight and open sky. The data taken and evaluated were plant height, diameter of stem, and leaf number. In the period of June 14th to July 21st 2004 were monitored precipitation, temperature and

  12. Association between Frequency of Breakfast Consumption and Academic Performance in Healthy Korean Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi-Young so

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the frequency of breakfast consumption was related to academic performance in healthy Korean adolescents.Methods: We analyzed data from the seventh Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2011, in which 75,643 adolescents from school grades 7–12 participated. We assessed the association between the frequency of breakfast consumption (per week and academic performance using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for covariates such as age, body mass index, frequency of smoking, frequency of drinking, parents’ education level, family economic status, frequency of vigorous physical activity(PA, frequency of moderate PA, frequency of muscular strength exercises, and level of mental stress.Results: For male adolescents, the odds ratios(ORs for achieving average or higher academic performance according to the breakfast frequency per week were once per week, 1.004(P=0.945; twice per week, 0.915(P=0.153; 3 days per week, 0.928(P=0.237; 4 days per week, 1.087(P=0.176; 5 days per week, 1.258(P<0.001; 6 days per week, 1.473(P<0.001; and every day, 1.700(P<0.001, compared to no breakfast per week. For female adolescents, the ORs for achieving average or higher academic performance according to the breakfast frequency were once per week, 1.068(P=0.320; twice per week, 1.140(P=0.031; 3 days per week, 1.179(P=0.004; 4 days per week, 1.339(P<0.001; 5 days per week, 1.449(P<0.001; 6 days per week, 1.768(P<0.001; and every day, 1.922(P<0.001, compared to no breakfast per week.Conclusion: The frequency of breakfast consumption is positively correlated with academic performance in both male and female healthy adolescents in Korea.

  13. Breakfast quality and its relationship to the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents in Guadalajara (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Morales, I; Aguilar Vilas, Ma V; Mateos Vega, C J; Martínez Para, Ma C

    2011-01-01

    Many young people today skip the first meal of the day in order to lose weight. To study the impact of breakfast quality and skipping breakfast on the BMI and on the prevalence of overweight and obesity. A nutritional study was carried out on a population of 467 secondary school students (12-17 years of age) in Guadalajara, Spain based on seven-day food journal and food frequency questionnaires. Sociodemographic data were also collected. Anthropometric measurements of weight and adiposity (BMI, percentage body fat) were also taken. Boys aged 15-17 ate the highest proportion of full breakfasts (18.18%), compared with 4.34% for girls the same age. Inverse relationships were recorded between breakfast energy intake and the BMI (-0.1132) and between the BMI and calcium, fibre, dairy product, and cereal intake. There was practically no correlation between protein intake and the BMI. Subjects who did not eat dairy products and those who ate cooked breakfasts had the highest BMIs. Skipping breakfast was not an effective way to lose weight, and weight was inversely related to breakfast quality.

  14. The School Breakfast Program strengthens household food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartfeld, Judith S; Ahn, Hong-Min

    2011-03-01

    The School Breakfast Program is an important component of the nutritional safety net and has been linked to positive changes in meal patterns and nutritional outcomes. By offering a breakfast, which for low-income children is available either at no cost or reduced price, the program also has the potential to increase household food security. This study examined the relationship between availability of the School Breakfast Program and household food security among low-income third-grade students by using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort. The primary sample included 3010 students. Availability of school breakfast was assessed by surveys of school administrators. Food security was assessed by parents' reports by using the standard 18-item food security scale and considering 2 different food security thresholds. A probit model was estimated to measure the relationship between school breakfast availability and household food security while controlling for a range of other characteristics. Access to school breakfast reduced the risk of marginal food insecurity but not the risk of food insecurity at the standard threshold. That is, the program appeared beneficial in offsetting food-related concerns among at-risk families, although not necessarily in alleviating food insecurity once hardships had crossed the food insecurity threshold. Increasing the availability of school breakfast may be an effective strategy to maintain food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

  15. The advantages and disadvantages of breakfast clubs according to parents, children and school staff in the North East of England, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Louise Graham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The provision of school breakfast has become increasingly popular in the UK in recent years. However, UK based studies highlighting the views of parents, children and school staff on school breakfast clubs are lacking. The current study set out to address this dearth in the literature by investigating the views of these key user and stakeholder groups on breakfast clubs within the North East of England. Fourteen parents, 21 children and 17 school staff were recruited from 4 primary schools where breakfast clubs were available on site. Parents and school staff took part in semi-structured interviews and children participated in focus groups, through which the advantages and disadvantages of breakfast clubs were discussed. Thematic analysis revealed that breakfast clubs provided children with a settled and enjoyable start to the school day. As well as providing children with a healthy and varied breakfast meal and unique opportunities for social interaction, breakfast clubs were recognized as an integral part of the school system that offered support to parents, particularly those who worked and relied on breakfast clubs as a means of affordable and reliable childcare. The few disadvantages identified related to practical issues such as a lack of adherence to school food standards, breakfast club staff missing class preparation time and concerns that some children were being excluded from participating in breakfast clubs particularly due to costs associated with attendance. The findings are discussed in relation to the School Food Plan and areas for further investigation are proposed.

  16. Potential Association between Breakfast Skipping and Concomitant Late-Night-Dinner Eating with Metabolic Syndrome and Proteinuria in the Japanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayano Kutsuma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skipping breakfast is considered to be an unhealthy eating habit linked to predispositions to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because eating dinner late at night can elicit subsequent breakfast skipping, we investigated if skipping breakfast concomitant with late-night-dinner eating (LNDE was associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS and proteinuria in the general Japanese population. We examined self-reported habitual breakfast skipping and LNDE, MetS (modified ATP-III criteria, and proteinuria in a cross-sectional study of 60,800 Japanese adults aged 20–75 years. A total of 14,068 subjects (23.1% skipped breakfast, of whom approximately half (52.8% skipped breakfast alone (without LNDE. The percentages of subjects who skipped breakfast showed a J-shaped relationship with body mass index (BMI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that skipping breakfast concomitant with LNDE (n = 6,645 was significantly associated with MetS and proteinuria, even after adjusting for relevant confounders (odds ratio (95% CI, 1.17 (1.08–1.28, P=0.0003, and 1.37 (1.24–1.52, P<0.0001, resp.. Skipping breakfast alone and LNDE alone were not associated with MetS and proteinuria, respectively. In conclusion, habitual breakfast skipping concomitant with LNDE may represent poorer eating behavior than skipping breakfast alone, associated with MetS, asymptomatic proteinuria, obesity, and low body weight in the general Japanese population.

  17. Potential Association between Breakfast Skipping and Concomitant Late-Night-Dinner Eating with Metabolic Syndrome and Proteinuria in the Japanese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuma, Ayano; Nakajima, Kei; Suwa, Kaname

    2014-01-01

    Skipping breakfast is considered to be an unhealthy eating habit linked to predispositions to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because eating dinner late at night can elicit subsequent breakfast skipping, we investigated if skipping breakfast concomitant with late-night-dinner eating (LNDE) was associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and proteinuria in the general Japanese population. We examined self-reported habitual breakfast skipping and LNDE, MetS (modified ATP-III criteria), and proteinuria in a cross-sectional study of 60,800 Japanese adults aged 20-75 years. A total of 14,068 subjects (23.1%) skipped breakfast, of whom approximately half (52.8%) skipped breakfast alone (without LNDE). The percentages of subjects who skipped breakfast showed a J-shaped relationship with body mass index (BMI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that skipping breakfast concomitant with LNDE (n = 6,645) was significantly associated with MetS and proteinuria, even after adjusting for relevant confounders (odds ratio (95% CI), 1.17 (1.08-1.28), P = 0.0003, and 1.37 (1.24-1.52), P Skipping breakfast alone and LNDE alone were not associated with MetS and proteinuria, respectively. In conclusion, habitual breakfast skipping concomitant with LNDE may represent poorer eating behavior than skipping breakfast alone, associated with MetS, asymptomatic proteinuria, obesity, and low body weight in the general Japanese population.

  18. Whole grain rye breakfast - sustained satiety during three weeks of regular consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Tillander, Isabella; Andersson, Roger; Olsson, Johan; Fredriksson, Helena; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Åman, Per

    2012-02-01

    Whole grain rye products have previously been shown to increase feelings of satiety for up to 8h after intake under standardized conditions. This study was set out to investigate the sustainability of the satiating effect after regular consumption of breakfast meals with whole grain rye porridge or refined wheat bread. The study was randomized, cross-over and double-blind. Healthy subjects (n=24) were randomly assigned to daily consumption of iso-caloric standardized breakfast meals with whole grain rye porridge or refined wheat bread for two 3-wk phases, separated by a wash out of 3-4weeks. Each intervention phase had 3 scheduled visit days (days 1, 8 and 22) when appetite ratings (hunger, satiety and desire to eat) were registered for 24h at standardized conditions. Orocecal transit time (salicylazosulfapyridine/sulfapyridine method) and breath hydrogen as an indicator of colonic fermentation were measured at day 8 of each 3-wk phase in a subgroup (n=16). To investigate effects of breakfast on free-living food intake, 3-day weighed food diaries were self-registered during both intervention phases. Whole grain rye porridge breakfast resulted in higher ratings of satiety and lower hunger and desire to eat during 4h post consumption compared to refined wheat bread breakfast (pporridge resulted in high levels of breath hydrogen 4-8h after intake, showing extensive colonic fermentation. This was however not related to any changes in appetite during this time-period. There were no significant differences in self-reported macronutrient- and energy intake between diets. This study shows that the satiating effect of rye persists after repeated daily consumption for up to three weeks. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01117363.

  19. Habitual eating of breakfast, consumption frequency of selected food and overweight prevalence in adolescents from various age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüenstel, Justyna Weronika; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wądołowska, Lidia; Słowińska, Małgorzata Anna; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa; Kurp, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    To assess the influence of eating breakfast on the consumption of selected food and overweight prevalence among adolescents from different age groups. The study group consisted of students aged 13-18.9 (n=1700). Their height and weight measurements were used to calculate their body mass index and interpreted according to international standards for adolescents. Food consumption was assessed via the frequency method and involved the consumption of breakfast, dietary "bre and sweetened beverages. We used Block's validated questionnaire to assess the intake of dietary "bre and its sources. Analysis of the results was carried out in three age groups: 13-14.9, 15-16.9 and 17-18.9 years old. We used one-factor logistic regression adjusted by gender. The percentage of adolescents with a regular habit of eating breakfast dropped by 5.7 percentage points when compared to adolescents aged 13-14.9 and 17-18.9 (from 54.2% to 48.5%), which was a phenomenon accompanied by an increase in the percentage of adolescents who ate breakfast irregularly or hardly ever (by 3.7 and 1.9 percentage points, respectively). Eating breakfast infrequently was related to a more frequent consumption of sweetened beverages (the odds ratio: from 2.32 to 2.67 depending on the age group) and a higher prevalence of a "bre-poor diet (from 1.49 to 2.23). Among adolescents aged 13-14.9 who hardly ever ate breakfast, the chance of being overweight increased by 83% in comparison to adolescents with regular habits of eating breakfast. The frequency of eating breakfast decreased with the adolescents' age, especially among girls. Eating breakfast infrequently was associated with unhealthy nutrition, typical examples of which are lower intake of dietary "bre and more frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, and in the youngest group of adolescents caused a higher prevalence of overweight.

  20. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrial, Shreef G. N.; Shakib, Marie-Christine R.; Gabrial, Gamal N.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). AIM: The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat) on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast) and second meal (standardised lunch) in healthy and diabetic subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects and 12 patients with Type 2 DM (not- insulin dependent) were recruited in the study. Subjects were provided with quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals. A standardised lunch was provided 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial blood glucose response after breakfast and the second meal effect was measured in healthy and diabetic subjects. Incremental area under the curve (IAUC) values for glucose was measured in response to the breakfast and lunch. The glycemic index of the 2 pseudocereals-based test breakfasts was determined. A white wheat bread (WWB) was served as a reference breakfast meal. RESULTS: In post-breakfast analyses, healthy subjects showed that buckwheat meal had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P quinoa meal showed no significance. In diabetic subjects, buckwheat and quinoa meals had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P quinoa and buckwheat but not for WWB in all healthy and diabetic subjects and returned to near-fasting baseline levels by 210 min. Post-lunch analyses indicated higher IAUC for the two breakfast types in healthy and diabetic subjects. In addition, the quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals were followed by a significantly flatter blood glucose response to the second meal for the period between 270 and 330 min. At the end of the second meal period, values were below or near-fasting baseline levels in the breakfast period

  1. Crisis and Crisis Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Nordicum-Mediterraneum contains select proceedings from the third meeting of the Nordic Summer University research circle called “Crisis and Crisis Scenarios: Normativity, Possibilities and Dilemmas”, held April 9th — 12th, 2015 at the Lysebu Conference Centre in Oslo, Norway....... The circle’s research program runs from 2014 to 2016 and is aimed at examining the concept of crisis as it is used today in academia and public discussion. In this collection of papers from the symposium we present some of the different ways in which the topic of the study group was addressed....

  2. Making use of scenarios : supporting scenario use in product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anggreeni, Irene

    2010-01-01

    The discipline of Scenario-Based Product Design (SBPD) guides the use of scenarios in a product design process. As concrete narratives, scenarios could facilitate making explicit how users would use the designed product in their activities, allowing usability studies to be an integrated part of the

  3. ILC Operating Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Barklow, T; Fujii, K; Gao, J; List, J; Walker, N; Yokoya, K

    2015-01-01

    The ILC Technical Design Report documents the design for the construction of a linear collider which can be operated at energies up to 500 GeV. This report summarizes the outcome of a study of possible running scenarios, including a realistic estimate of the real time accumulation of integrated luminosity based on ramp-up and upgrade processes. The evolution of the physics outcomes is emphasized, including running initially at 500 GeV, then at 350 GeV and 250 GeV. The running scenarios have been chosen to optimize the Higgs precision measurements and top physics while searching for evidence for signals beyond the standard model, including dark matter. In addition to the certain precision physics on the Higgs and top that is the main focus of this study, there are scientific motivations that indicate the possibility for discoveries of new particles in the upcoming operations of the LHC or the early operation of the ILC. Follow-up studies of such discoveries could alter the plan for the centre-of-mass collision...

  4. A pilot study examining the effects of consuming a high-protein vs normal-protein breakfast on free-living glycemic control in overweight/obese 'breakfast skipping' adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, L B; Reynolds, L J; Douglas, S M; Kearney, M L; Hoertel, H A; Shafer, R S; Thyfault, J P; Leidy, H J

    2015-09-01

    To examine whether the daily consumption of normal-protein (NP) vs higher-protein (HP) breakfasts improve free-living glycemic control in overweight/obese, 'breakfast skipping' adolescents. Twenty-eight healthy, but overweight, teens (age: 19±1 year; BMI: 29.9±0.8 kg m(-2)) completed a 12-week randomized parallel-arm study in which the adolescents consumed either a 350 kcal NP breakfast (13 g protein) or HP breakfast (35 g protein). Pre- and post-study 24-h blood glucose measures were assessed using continuous glucose monitoring. Although no main effects of time or group were detected, time by group interactions were observed. Post hoc pairwise comparisons assessing the post-pre changes revealed that the daily consumption of the HP breakfasts tended to reduce the 24-h glucose variability (s.d.) vs NP (-0.17±0.09 vs +0.09±0.10 s.d.; P=0.06) and tended to reduce the time spent above the high glucose limit (-292±118 vs -24±80 min; P=0.09). The consumption of the HP breakfasts also reduced the 24-h maximal (peak) glucose response (-0.94±0.36 vs +0.30±0.18 mmol l(-1); Pbreakfast, containing 35 g of high-quality protein, has better efficacy at improving free-living glycemic control compared with a NP breakfast in overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, 'breakfast skipping' adolescents.

  5. 40 Years of Shell Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Shell has been using scenario planning for four decades. During that time these scenarios have helped the company and governments across the world to make better strategic choices. Scenarios provide lenses that help see future prospects more clearly, make richer judgments and be more sensitive to uncertainties. Discover how the Shell Scenarios team has helped guide decision makers at major moments in history and get a peek at the team future focus, including the intricate relationship between energy, water and food.

  6. Strategic Scenario Construction Made Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2016-01-01

    insights from the area of strategic forecasting (of which scenario planning is a proper subset) and experiences gained from a recent course in that area to develop a simpler, more direct, hands-on method for scenario construction and to provide several ideas for scenario construction that can be used...

  7. Scenario Planning in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieley, James B.

    1997-01-01

    Proposes scenario planning in preparing for the future of higher education. Delineates a methodology for effective scenario planning: identifying potential future scenarios; examining social, economic, political, environmental, and technological influences; exploring mental models while looking through systems maps, and developing potential…

  8. Biomass Scenario Model Scenario Library: Definitions, Construction, and Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the development of the biofuels industry in the United States is important to policymakers and industry. The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model of the biomass-to-biofuels system that can be used to explore policy effects on biofuels development. Because of the complexity of the model, as well as the wide range of possible future conditions that affect biofuels industry development, we have not developed a single reference case but instead developed a set of specific scenarios that provide various contexts for our analyses. The purpose of this report is to describe the scenarios that comprise the BSM scenario library. At present, we have the following policy-focused scenarios in our library: minimal policies, ethanol-focused policies, equal access to policies, output-focused policies, technological diversity focused, and the point-of-production- focused. This report describes each scenario, its policy settings, and general insights gained through use of the scenarios in analytic studies.

  9. The role of breakfast and a mid-morning snack on the ability of children to concentrate at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David; Jarvis, Megan

    2007-02-28

    The effect on the ability of children to attend to their school work, of the size of breakfast and whether a mid-morning snack had been consumed, was considered. Nine year old children were studied for four days. They reported what they had eaten for breakfast and days when they either had or had not eaten a mid-morning snack were contrasted. For an hour in the late morning, while performing individual work, activity sampling was used to establish the time spent on task. Those who had eaten a small breakfast, on average 61 kcal, spent significantly less time attending to their work than those who had eaten larger meals. The adverse effect of a small breakfast was reversed by the consumption of a mid-morning snack.

  10. A Comparative Study of Breakfast Habits of Romanian and Spanish Adolescents Enrolled in Southern Spain Schools1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriano-Ayala Encarnación

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globalization has favored intra-European Commission (EC and extra-EC migration to Spain. One of the most numerous cultural groups that have settled in the southern Spain is from Romania. Coexistence, especially in schools, has made us become interested in knowing the eating habits at breakfast of Romanian and Spanish populations. Numerous studies show that the food intake at breakfast, mostly made before leaving home, has an incidence on the physic wellbeing of adolescent throughout the day. The processes of acculturation are also inseparable from the eating habits, health and life, that maintain the migrant teenagers. Breakfast is analyzed as one of the habits more associated with diet quality; paradoxically, one of the findings of our study, many adolescents do not take a proper breakfast every day.

  11. The impact of a high versus a low glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal on verbal episodic memory in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Foster, Jonathan K

    2008-10-01

    In this study, healthy adolescents consumed either (i) a low glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal or (ii) a high glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal, before completing a test of verbal episodic memory in which the memory materials were encoded under conditions of divided attention. Analysis of remembering/forgetting indices revealed that the high glycaemic index breakfast group remembered significantly more items relative to the low glycaemic index breakfast group after a long delay. The superior performance observed in the high glycaemic index group, relative to the low glycaemic index group, may be due to the additional glucose availability provided by the high glycaemic index meal at the time of memory encoding. This increased glucose availability may be necessary for effective encoding under dual task conditions.

  12. Does Regular Breakfast Cereal Consumption Help Children and Adolescents Stay Slimmer? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne de la Hunty

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review systematically the evidence on breakfast cereal consumption and obesity in children and adolescents and assess whether the regular consumption of breakfast cereals could help to prevent excessive weight gain. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies relating breakfast cereal consumption to BMI, BMI z-scores and prevalence of obesity as the outcomes. Results: 14 papers met the inclusion criteria. The computed effect size for mean BMI between high consumers and low or non-consumers over all 25 study subgroups was -1.13 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.81, -1.46, p Conclusion: Overall, the evidence reviewed is suggestive that regular consumption of breakfast cereals results in a lower BMI and a reduced likelihood of being overweight in children and adolescents. However, more evidence from long-term trials and investigations into mechanisms is needed to eliminate possible confounding factors and determine causality.

  13. Free breakfasts in schools: design and conduct of a cluster randomised controlled trial of the Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative in Wales [ISRCTN18336527

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Janine

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School-based breakfast provision is increasingly being seen as a means of improving educational performance and dietary behaviour amongst children. Furthermore, recognition is growing that breakfast provision offers potential as a means of addressing social inequalities in these outcomes. At present however, the evidence base on the effectiveness of breakfast provision in bringing about these improvements is limited. Methods/Design This paper describes the research design of a large scale evaluation of the effectiveness of the Welsh Assembly Government's Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative. A cluster randomised trial, with school as the unit of randomisation was used for the outcome evaluation, with a nested qualitative process evaluation. Quantitative outcome measures included dietary habits, attitudes, cognitive function, classroom behaviour, and school attendance. The study recruited 111 primary schools in Wales, of which 56 were randomly assigned to control condition and 55 to intervention. Participants were Year 5 and 6 students (aged 9–11 years in these schools. Data were collected for all 111 schools at each of three time points: baseline, 4 month and 12 month follow-up. This was achieved through a repeated cross-sectional survey of approximately 4350 students on each of these occasions. Of those students in Year 5 at baseline, 1975 provided data at one or both of the follow-ups, forming a nested cohort. The evaluation also included a nested process evaluation, using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and case studies with students, school staff, and local authority scheme coordinators as key informants. Discussion An overview of the methods used for the evaluation is presented, providing an example of the feasibility of conducting robust evaluations of policy initiatives using a randomised trial design with nested process evaluation. Details are provided of response rates and the flow of participants

  14. Breakfast, nutritional status, and socioeconomic outcome measures among primary school students from the City of Salta: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, Susana J; Tempestti, Claudia P

    2017-10-01

    Socioeconomic context and family dynamics are determining factors when considering eating habits and nutritional status among students. It has been demonstrated that skipping breakfast or having a light breakfast has an unfavorable impact on nutritional status. To establish a relationship among breakfast, sociodemographic outcome measures, and nutritional status among students attending public schools in the urban and peri-urban areas of the City of Salta. Descriptive, crosssectional study. Purposive, non-probability sampling of students attending urban and periurban primary schools (aged 9-13, boys and girls). Outcome measures: breakfast at home (habit, "enKid" breakfast quality, frequency, duration), nutritional status (body mass index, Z-score, World Health Organization), and sociodemographic outcome measures (family type, level of education, employment, parents' breakfast habit, commensality). Analysis of frequency, associations, logistic regression, odds ratio, confidence interval, p students were assessed; 49.8% attended urban schools. Overweight or obesity was observed in 46.0%. Also, 55.1% skipped breakfast at home on the day of the assessment; among those who did have breakfast, 79.5% had a poor or very-poor quality meal. Among those who skipped breakfast, 40.7% of the girls and 54.7% of the boys were overweight or obese. A greater socioeconomic vulnerability and a higher percentage of students who attended school without having breakfast were observed in peri-urban schools. Eventually, the probability of skipping breakfast was associated with having a large family, absence of parental breakfast habit, a low level of maternal education, having breakfast alone, and being obese.

  15. Comportamiento de los cultivares de papaya Sunset, Sunrise y de los genotipos Baixinho de Santa Amalia y BH - 65 en la zona sur de la isla de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodríguez Pastor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los antecedentes de la papaya (Carica papaya, L. en Canarias vienen a poner de manifiesto, la viabilidad de este cultivo en invernadero y la posibilidad de su mayor expansión a corto plazo, debido a la introducción a lo largo de los últimos años de cultivares comerciales y de gran calidad, procedentes de Hawaii ('Sunrise' y de Brasil 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' (BSA. En este trabajo se ha estudiado el crecimiento, desarrollo y productividad de los cultivares Sunset, Sunrise, y de los genotipos BH-65 y 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' y las características morfológicas y organolépticas de sus frutos, con el fin de continuar con la selección de aquellos cultivares que mejor se adapten y cumplan con las exigencias mínimas de mercado, que mantengan una buena productividad en aquellas zonas marginales para la platanera y que sirvan de base para futuros programas de mejora. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los mayores porcentajes de floración se obtienen en el mes de Mayo (6 meses después de la plantación en las plantas hermafroditas de todos los cultivares, correspondiendo los mayores porcentajes a 'Sunset' y 'Sunrise' (80 y 90,4%, respectivamente. El número de hojas emitidas mensualmente es semejante en todos los cultivares, entre 7,5 y 7,8. Las plantas femeninas de 'Sunrise' así como las hermafroditas de 'Sunset' tienen mayor diámetro, y además, este último cultivar es más precoz en florecer y sus frutos son de mayor peso y tamaño. Hay que destacar también que en el punto de consumo los frutos del cultivar Sunrise son los que poseen mayor contenido en sólidos solubles totales (10,33 ºBrix. Además, los frutos hermafroditas de 'Sunrise' son los primeros en ser recolectados (422 días desde la plantación. Finalmente, señalar que el cultivar Sunset destaca por ser el más productivo (59,5 kg/pl y por tener mayores rendimientos por hectárea (158,627 kg/ha. No obstante, los genotipos BH-65 y BSA poseen un comportamiento muy

  16. Scenario development methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, J. [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City, Herts (United Kingdom); Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Engineering Geology; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-11-01

    In the period 1981-1994, SKB has studied several methodologies to systematize and visualize all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that can influence a repository for radioactive waste in the future. All the work performed is based on the terminology and basic findings in the joint SKI/SKB work on scenario development presented in the SKB Technical Report 89-35. The methodologies studied are (a) Event tree analysis, (b) Influence diagrams and (c) Rock Engineering Systems (RES) matrices. Each one of the methodologies is explained in this report as well as examples of applications. One chapter is devoted to a comparison between the two most promising methodologies, namely: Influence diagrams and the RES methodology. In conclusion a combination of parts of the Influence diagram and the RES methodology is likely to be a promising approach. 26 refs.

  17. Impact of Breakfast Habits on Education Performance of University Students (A Study Conducted on University of Sargodha, Pakistan)

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem Arshad; Umair Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to find out the breakfast habits on the academic performance of university students. The major objectives of the study were to find out the breakfast habits of students and their academic performance. The nature of the study was quantitative and Population was the students of university of Sargodha both male and female. Malty stage sampling technique was used for the collection of data. A sample of 240 respondents was taken from 16 departments of 7 faculties, w...

  18. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nurul-Fadhilah

    Full Text Available Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2% fell in the normal body mass index (BMI ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50% were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI, BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  19. Effect of breakfast glycemic index on metabolic responses during rest and exercise in overweight and non-overweight adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Tolfrey, Keith; Zakrzewski, Julia Kirstey; Stevenson, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background/Objectives: The metabolic responses to mixed breakfast meals with different glycemic indexes (GI) and their effects on substrate metabolism during exercise in adolescent girls have not been examined. The interaction with weight status also warrants investigation. The present study investigated the effect of mixed breakfast meals containing high GI (HGI) or low GI (LGI) carbohydrates on metabolic responses and fat oxidation during rest and exercise in overweight ...

  20. Engaging Personas and Narrative Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene

    2004-01-01

    design ideas. The concept of engaging personas and narrative scenario explores personas in the light of what what it is to identify with and have empathy with a character. The concept of narrative scenarios views the narrative as aid for exploration of design ideas. Both concepts incorporate a di...... a distinktion between creating, writing and reading. Keywords: personas, scenarios, user-centered design, HCI......design ideas. The concept of engaging personas and narrative scenario explores personas in the light of what what it is to identify with and have empathy with a character. The concept of narrative scenarios views the narrative as aid for exploration of design ideas. Both concepts incorporate...

  1. Atividade da pectinametilesterase e sua relação com a perda de firmeza da polpa de mamão cv. Sunrise Solo e Tainung The pectinmethylesterase activity and its relation with the loss of firmness of the pulp in papaya fruits cv. Sunrise Solo and Tainung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Venturim Fontes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade da pectinametilesterase (PME em mamão (Carica papaya L., cv. Sunrise Solo e Tainung, e relacionar suas alterações com a perda de firmeza da polpa durante o amadurecimento. Os frutos foram coletados diariamente em uma lavoura comercial em Aracruz - ES, e armazenados sob temperatura ambiente (aproximadamente, 25ºC até o período das análises. A perda da firmeza da polpa dos frutos das cultivares iniciou-se no 4º dia após a colheita (DAC; entretanto, a cv. Sunrise Solo apresentou uma redução mais acentuada em relação à cv. Tainung. A atividade da PME na cv. Sunrise Solo foi alta no 1º DAC e reduziu gradativamente até o 4º DAC, quando atingiu seu menor valor. No 5º DAC, a atividade aumentou, permanecendo praticamente inalterada até o 8º DAC. Na cv. Tainung, a atividade aumentou até o 3º DAC e decresceu no 4º DAC. No 5º DAC, sua atividade aumentou novamente, atingindo seu maior valor no 6º DAC. A partir daí, a atividade da enzima reduziu-se significativamente, mantendo o mesmo valor até o último dia de análise (8º DAC. O coeficiente de correlação obtido entre a atividade da PME e a firmeza da polpa dos frutos da cv. Sunrise Solo, após o 4º DAC, foi de R = - 0,84, indicando que, durante esse período, a firmeza da polpa dos frutos diminuiu à medida que a atividade da PME aumentou. Por outro lado, não houve correlação significativa entre essas duas características na cv. Tainung.The objective of this work was to evaluate the pectinmethylesterase (PME activity in papaya (Carica papaya L. fruits cv. Sunrise Solo and Tainung, and to correlate its changes with the pulp firmness loss during fruit ripening. Fruits were collected daily from a commercial farm localized in Aracruz - ES, and stored under room temperature (approximately 25 °C until the period of analysis. The pulp firmness loss of the fruits in both cultivars began at the 4th day after harvest (DAH; however

  2. Breakfast and fast food eating behavior in relation to socio-demographic differences among school adolescents in Sanandaj Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoradi, Foad; Jandaghi, Parisa; Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Javadi, Maryam; Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni

    2017-06-01

    Fast food consumption and skipping breakfast has been increasingly prevalent among high school adolescents in recent years. These unhealthy food habits are considered as risk factors of chronic diseases among adolescents and adults. To determine the consumption amount of fast food, breakfast, and some associated factors in adolescents. In this cross-sectional study in 2015, 553 adolescent students aged 14-18 years were randomly selected among high schools of Sanandaj, Iran. Demographic data and also consumption amount of fast food and breakfast in adolescents in addition to the related factors were studied. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire which its reliability and validity were measured by five experts and analyzed with SPSS-16 by Chi-square test and ANOVA. The results show that 69.8 % of subjects consume fast food at least once a week. Fast food and breakfast consumption is related significantly to subjects' fathers' occupation respectively (p=0.005), (p=0.006). Eating breakfast is significantly higher among boys than girls (pfood consumption are: their own and their families and friends' interest and accompaniment, advertisement, close proximity of school and home to fast food stores. The consumption of fast food is high among Iranian adolescents. It correlates significantly with variables including father's occupation and all of the associated factors. Breakfast consumption correlates significantly with adolescents' age and gender, as well as parents' occupation and educational level.

  3. Associations of Child Temperament with Child Overweight and Breakfast Habits: A Population Study in Five-Year-Olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Steen Skogheim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the associations of child temperament with overweight/obesity and breakfast habits. Participants were 17,409 five-year-olds whose mothers partake in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, and completed a questionnaire at the child’s 5th birthday. Temperament was assessed as externalizing, internalizing and sociable temperament. Breakfast habits differentiated between “every day”, “4 to 6 times a week”, and “0 to 3 times a week”. The child’s weight status was determined by Body Mass Index-percentiles and categorized as normal weight versus overweight/obese. Children with externalizing temperament had higher odds of being overweight and higher odds of not eating breakfast daily. Children high in internalizing temperament had higher odds of not eating breakfast daily, but not of being overweight. Children with average scores of sociability were more prone to being overweight but had normal breakfast habits. All results were adjusted for key confounders. That five-year-olds high in externalizing temperament had a higher risk to be overweight adds important information to the literature. The association of externalizing temperament with child breakfast habits so early in life is intriguing, as parents mostly control eating patterns in children that young. Mechanisms mediating this association should be explored.

  4. [Analysis of knowledge about healthy breakfast and its relation to life style habits and academic performance in compulsory secondary students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Caro, Luis Gonzalo; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; García Preciado, Ventura

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of the study is to analyze whether students of Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) of Badajoz city known foods that are part of a healthy breakfast. It also intends to see the relationship of this knowledge with lifestyle habits and academic performance. A representative sample of 1197 secondary students in the city of Badajoz (Spain) (50.1% female) was calculated their Body Mass Index (BMI) and were asked to fill in a questionnaire, previously validated in a pilot study, which included sociodemographic items as well as others related with life style habits. They were also asked to choose among a series of food, which of them were a part of a healthy breakfast. 49.2% of adolescents know foods which are a part of a healthy breakfast. Very low correlations were obtained between all the variables analyzed and knowledge of foods that make up a healthy breakfast. However, within a few variables are significant differences (P<.05) between subgroups, such as families of students with low cultural level of aided schools, repeaters, without reading habit, passing lot of time with friends, who have been on a diet, make less than 3 meals a day and spend less than 10minutes for breakfast and know the amount of fruit that should be consumed daily. Life style habits of adolescents are not related to the knowledge about the foods that are part of a healthy breakfast. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Meal skipping and variables related to energy balance in adults: a brief review, with emphasis on the breakfast meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Megan A

    2014-07-01

    A popular notion regarding habitual meal skipping is that it leads to weight gain; however, there is little support for this idea in the scientific literature. Here we review the evidence both for and against this notion in adults (≥18 years), with, out of practicality, a primary focus on the breakfast meal. To date, few randomized controlled trials and prospective studies have been conducted on breakfast skipping and energy balance. Three acute feeding studies have been published which show equivocal results and do not strongly support an effect of breakfast skipping on variables related to energy balance. Four longer-term experimental studies lasting 2-3 weeks have been published and are consistent with the acute feeding trials in that breakfast skipping or eating treatments did not materially impact weight change. Four prospective studies in which participants were followed-up for over 3.7-10 years do suggest a potential role of skipping breakfast in weight gain. However, observational studies do not imply causality; therefore, longer term experimental trials are needed before a definitive conclusion can be made concerning the role of breakfast skipping in weight change.

  6. Strategic Scenario Construction Made Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2016-01-01

    insights from the area of strategic forecasting (of which scenario planning is a proper subset) and experiences gained from a recent course in that area to develop a simpler, more direct, hands-on method for scenario construction and to provide several ideas for scenario construction that can be used......Scenario planning is a well-known way to develop corporate strategy by creating multiple images of alternative futures. Yet although scenario planning grew from very hands-on strategy development efforts in the military and from operations research dedicated to solving practical problems, the use...... of scenarios in business has, in many cases, remained a cumbersome affair. Very often a large group of consultants, employees and staff is involved in the development of scenarios and strategies, thus making the whole process expensive in terms of time, money and human resources. In response, this article uses...

  7. The Dynamic Identity: Analysis Of Gender Identity In Breakfast On Pluto By Patrick Mccabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Ayuningtyas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Article focused on gender identity in Breakfast on Pluto by Patrick McCabe. By using Stuart Hall’s concept of identity, the analysis showed that gender identity had the potential to be deconstructed, as shown by the identity transformation done by Patrick Braden. Positioning by other people and his own body happened to be barriers for his identity transformation. However, those barriers basically could not stop Patrick’s transformation to be a woman. Patrick had its own strategies in changing his gender identity, which were gender deconstruction, body decoration, and language. It can be concluded that Breakfast on Pluto offers a discourse of identity that is dynamic. Identity is a becoming process that will happen endlessly in human’s life.

  8. Thyroid Hormone Profile in Patients Ingesting Soft Gel Capsule or Liquid Levothyroxine Formulations with Breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cappelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, it has been shown that liquid L-T4 formulation can be ingested with breakfast. This study looked to extend these findings by investigating whether a soft gel capsule formulation of L-T4 could also be ingested at breakfast time. Methods. 60 patients (18–65 yrs, previously submitted to thyroidectomy for proven benign goitre in stable euthyroidism receiving liquid L-T4 therapy ingested with breakfast, were enrolled. TSH, fT4, and fT3 levels were assessed in all the patients who were switched from liquid L-T4 to a soft gel capsule formulation at the same dosage of L-T4. After 6 months, TSH, fT4, and fT3 levels were determined again. Results. There were no differences in TSH levels, but fT3 and fT4 levels during treatment with the soft gel capsule were significantly lower than those at enrolment with the liquid L-T4 formulation (TSH median (min–max: 1.9 (0.5–4.0 versus 2.2 (0.5–4.5 mIU/L, fT3: 2.5 (2.4–3.1 versus 2.7 (2.4–3.3 pg/mL, p<0.05, and fT4: 9.9 (8.0–13 versus 10.6 (8.6–13.8 pg/mL, p<0.0001. Conclusion. Both liquid and soft gel formulations of L-T4 can be taken with breakfast. However, liquid L-T4 would be the preferred formulation for patients in whom even small changes in fT4 and fT3 levels are to be avoided.

  9. Postpartum Teens’ Breakfast Consumption is Associated with Snack and Beverage Intake and Body Mass Index

    OpenAIRE

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Schwarz, Cynthia; Budd, Elizabeth L.; Yount, Byron W.; Lapka, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Addressing high risk dietary patterns among postpartum teens may help reduce weight retention and prevent intergenerational obesity. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between breakfast consumption and outcomes of snack and beverage intake and body mass index (BMI) among postpartum teens. During 2007–2009, 1,330 postpartum teens across 27 states participated in a cross-sectional, baseline assessment of a group-randomized, nested cohort study. Participants were enroll...

  10. The Value to Consumers of Health Labeling Statements on Breakfast Foods and Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Muth, Mary K.; Zhen, Chen; Taylor, Justin; Cates, Sheryl; Kosa, Katherine M.; Zorn, David; Choiniere, Conrad J.

    2009-01-01

    Food manufacturers have an incentive to include nutrient content claims, health claims, or other types of labeling statements on foods if they believe that consumers will be willing to pay more for products with specific attributes. We estimated semi-log hedonic price regressions for five breakfast bar and cereal product categories using Nielsen ScanTrack scanner data for 2004 and found that labeling statements for these foods are often associated with substantial increases in consumer willin...

  11. Noninvasive analysis of hepatic glycogen kinetics before and after breakfast with deuterated water and acetaminophen

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, John G.; Fagulha, Ana; Barosa, Cristina; Bastos, Margarida; Barros, Luisa; Baptista, Carla; Caldeira, M. Madalena; Carvalheiro, Manuela

    2006-01-01

    The contributions of hepatic glycogenolysis to fasting glucose production and direct pathway to hepatic glycogen synthesis were quantified in eight type 1 diabetic patients and nine healthy control subjects by ingestion of (2)H(2)O and acetaminophen before breakfast followed by analysis of urinary water and acetaminophen glucuronide. After overnight fasting, enrichment of glucuronide position 5 relative to body water (G5/body water) was significantly higher in type 1 diabetic patients compare...

  12. Deleterious effects of omitting breakfast on insulin sensitivity and fasting lipid profiles in healthy lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, Hamid R; Taylor, Moira A; Macdonald, Ian A

    2005-02-01

    Breakfast consumption is recommended, despite inconclusive evidence of health benefits. The study's aim was to ascertain whether eating breakfast (EB) or omitting breakfast (OB) affects energy intake, energy expenditure, and circulating insulin, glucose, and lipid concentrations in healthy women. In a randomized crossover trial, 10 women [x+/-SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 23.2+/-1.4] underwent two 14-d EB or OB interventions separated by a 2-wk interval. In the EB period, subjects consumed breakfast cereal with 2%-fat milk before 0800 and a chocolate-covered cookie between 1030 and 1100. In the OB period, subjects consumed the cookie between 1030 and 1100 and the cereal and milk between 1200 and 1330. Subjects then consumed 4 additional meals with content similar to usual at predetermined times later in the day and recorded food intake on 3 d during each period. Fasting and posttest meal glucose, lipid, and insulin concentrations and resting energy expenditure were measured before and after each period. Reported energy intake was significantly lower in the EB period (P=0.001), and resting energy expenditure did not differ significantly between the 2 periods. OB was associated with significantly higher fasting total and LDL cholesterol than was EB (3.14 and 3.43 mmol/L and 1.55 and 1.82 mmol/L, respectively; P=0.001). The area under the curve of insulin response to the test meal was significantly lower after EB than after OB (P<0.01). OB impairs fasting lipids and postprandial insulin sensitivity and could lead to weight gain if the observed higher energy intake was sustained.

  13. Universal Free School Breakfast: A Qualitative Process Evaluation According to the Perspectives of Senior Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Golding, Louise; Donkin, Lynn Margaret; Defeyter, Margaret Anne

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, the provision of school breakfast has increased significantly in the UK. However, there is an absence of knowledge regarding senior stakeholder views on the processes and potential outcomes on different groups, within the communities served by school breakfast programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the views and experiences of senior level stakeholders and thereby provide an original qualitative contribution to the research. A sample of senior level stakeholders was recruited, including senior officers, directors, and elected members, from within a Local Authority (LA) involved in the leadership, implementation and delivery of a council-wide universal free school breakfast (UFSB) program, and from the senior staff body of mainstream primary and special schools, participating in the program. A grounded theory analysis of the data collected identified issues encountered in the implementation and delivery, and views on the funding and future of a USFB program, in addition to perceived outcomes for children, parents, families, schools, and the wider community. The results refer to both positive and negative issues and implications associated with the program, according to the perspectives of senior level stakeholders. Perceived positive outcomes included benefits to children, families, schools, and the community. For instance, alleviating hunger, improving health outcomes, and conferring financial benefits, with the potential to cumulate in overall improvements in educational, social, and behavioral outcomes. Reported negative implications included the absence of an effective communication strategy in implementing the USFB program; in addition to concerns about the impacts of "double-breakfasting" on obesity levels among children, particularly in less deprived communities. Findings were validated using theoretical sampling and saturation, triangulation methods, member checks, and inter-rater reliability measures. In presenting these

  14. Universal free school breakfast: a qualitative process evaluation according to the perspectives of senior stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Harvey-Golding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the provision of school breakfast has increased significantly in the UK. However, there is an absence of knowledge regarding senior stakeholder views on the processes and potential outcomes on different groups, within the communities served by school breakfast programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the views and experiences of senior level stakeholders and thereby provide an original qualitative contribution to the research. A sample of senior level stakeholders were recruited, including senior officers, directors and elected members, from within a Local Authority (LA involved in the leadership, implementation and delivery of a council-wide universal free school breakfast (USFB program, and from the senior staff body of mainstream primary and special schools, participating in the program. A grounded theory analysis of the data collected identified issues encountered in the implementation and delivery, and views on the funding and future of a USFB program, in addition to perceived outcomes of children, parents, families, schools and the wider community. The results refer to both positive and negative issues and implications associated with the program, according to the perspectives of senior level stakeholders. Perceived positive outcomes included benefits to children, families, schools and the community. For instance, alleviating hunger, improving health outcomes, and conferring financial benefits, with the potential to cumulate in overall improvements in educational, social and behavioral outcomes. Reported negative implications included the absence of an effective communication strategy in implementing the USFB program; in addition to concerns about the impacts of ‘double-breakfasting’ on obesity levels among children, particularly in less deprived communities. Findings were validated using theoretical sampling and saturation, triangulation methods, member checks, and inter-rater reliability measures. In

  15. Development of a scale to measure 9-11-year-olds' attitudes towards breakfast

    OpenAIRE

    Tapper, K.; Murphy, S.; Lynch, R.; Clarke, R.; Moore, G.; Moore, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Development and validation of a questionnaire to measure children's attitudes towards breakfast.\\ud \\ud Design: A pilot study was used to select questionnaire items and assess test–retest reliability. The questionnaire was then administered to a larger sample of children together with a dietary recall questionnaire. Randomly selected subsets of these children also completed a dietary recall interview or their parents were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to their child's ...

  16. Comportamiento de los cultivares de papaya Sunset, Sunrise y de los genotipos Baixinho de Santa Amalia y BH - 65 en la zona sur de la isla de Tenerife Behavior of papaya cultivars Sunset, Sunrise and genotypes of 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' and BH- 65 in the south of Tenerife island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodríguez Pastor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los antecedentes de la papaya (Carica papaya, L. en Canarias vienen a poner de manifiesto, la viabilidad de este cultivo en invernadero y la posibilidad de su mayor expansión a corto plazo, debido a la introducción a lo largo de los últimos años de cultivares comerciales y de gran calidad, procedentes de Hawaii ('Sunrise' y de Brasil 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' (BSA. En este trabajo se ha estudiado el crecimiento, desarrollo y productividad de los cultivares Sunset, Sunrise, y de los genotipos BH-65 y 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' y las características morfológicas y organolépticas de sus frutos, con el fin de continuar con la selección de aquellos cultivares que mejor se adapten y cumplan con las exigencias mínimas de mercado, que mantengan una buena productividad en aquellas zonas marginales para la platanera y que sirvan de base para futuros programas de mejora. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los mayores porcentajes de floración se obtienen en el mes de Mayo (6 meses después de la plantación en las plantas hermafroditas de todos los cultivares, correspondiendo los mayores porcentajes a 'Sunset' y 'Sunrise' (80 y 90,4%, respectivamente. El número de hojas emitidas mensualmente es semejante en todos los cultivares, entre 7,5 y 7,8. Las plantas femeninas de 'Sunrise' así como las hermafroditas de 'Sunset' tienen mayor diámetro, y además, este último cultivar es más precoz en florecer y sus frutos son de mayor peso y tamaño. Hay que destacar también que en el punto de consumo los frutos del cultivar Sunrise son los que poseen mayor contenido en sólidos solubles totales (10,33 ºBrix. Además, los frutos hermafroditas de 'Sunrise' son los primeros en ser recolectados (422 días desde la plantación. Finalmente, señalar que el cultivar Sunset destaca por ser el más productivo (59,5 kg/pl y por tener mayores rendimientos por hectárea (158,627 kg/ha. No obstante, los genotipos BH-65 y BSA poseen un comportamiento muy

  17. Irregular breakfast consumption in adolescence and the family environment: underlying causes by family structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A; Kirby, Joanna

    2012-08-01

    Data from the 2002, 2006 and 2010 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys were analysed using logistic multilevel regression for outcome variable irregular breakfast consumption (IBC). IBC prevalence in Scotland was higher among young people from reconstituted and single parent families, and particularly single father families. Family characteristics, found previously to be associated with breakfast consumption, such as number of siblings, perceived parenting, parental involvement and family affluence, differed by family structure. Family structure inequalities in IBC existed, also after adjustment for year and child's sex, age, grade and ethnicity. Across all family structures, IBC was more prevalent at the older age groups, among those who had difficult communication with their parents, and where household routines were infrequent. Greater number of siblings and lower family affluence were associated with higher odds of IBC in single mother and both parent families, while having a second home was associated with higher odds in reconstituted households. Fair parenting and being close to at least one parent was associated with reduced odds of IBC in single mother households, while being close to all parents was in single father households. In single mother homes, having a working mother was also positively associated with IBC. Family structure differences should be considered when addressing irregular breakfast consumption in adolescence.

  18. Predicting adolescent breakfast consumption in the UK and Australia using an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Barbara; Wong, Cara; Kothe, Emily

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with the addition of risk awareness could predict breakfast consumption in a sample of adolescents from the UK and Australia. It was hypothesised that the TPB variables of attitudes, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control (PBC) would significantly predict intentions, and that inclusion of risk perception would increase the proportion of variance explained. Secondly it was hypothesised that intention and PBC would predict behaviour. Participants were recruited from secondary schools in Australia and the UK. A total of 613 participants completed the study (448 females, 165 males; mean=14years ±1.1). The TPB predicted 42.2% of the variance in intentions to eat breakfast. All variables significantly predicted intention with PBC as the strongest component. The addition of risk made a small but significant contribution to the prediction of intention. Together intention and PBC predicted 57.8% of the variance in breakfast consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. LHC Upgrade Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    The EU CARE-HHH and US-LARP studies for an LHC luminosity upgrade aim at increasing the peak luminosity by a factor of 10, to 1035 cm-2s-1. The luminosity can be raised by rebuilding the interaction regions (IRs) in combination with a consistent change of beam parameters. In addition to advanced low-beta quadrupoles, the upgraded IRs may accommodate other new elements such as slim s.c. dipoles or quadrupoles embedded deep inside the detectors, global low-angle crab cavities, and wire compensators of long-range beam-beam effects. Important constraints on the upgrade path are the maximum acceptable number of detector pile-up events, favoring many closely spaced bunches, and the heat load on the cold-magnet beam screens, pointing towards fewer and more intense bunches. In order to translate the increased peak luminosity into a correspondingly higher integrated luminosity, the upgrade of the LHC ring should be complemented by an upgrade of the injector complex. I will present preferred upgrade scenarios for the L...

  20. Eating breakfast and dinner together as a family: associations with sociodemographic characteristics and implications for diet quality and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; MacLehose, Rich; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Berge, Jerica M; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown that adolescents who frequently share evening meals with their families experience more positive health outcomes, including diets of higher nutritional quality. However, little is known about families eating together at breakfast. This study examined sociodemographic differences in family meal frequencies in a population-based adolescent sample. In addition, this study examined associations of family breakfast meal frequency with dietary quality and weight status. Cross-sectional data from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) included anthropometric assessments and classroom-administered surveys completed in 2009-2010. Participants included 2,793 middle and high school students (53.2% girls, mean age=14.4 years) from Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, public schools. Usual dietary intake was self-reported on a food frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured. Regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, family dinner frequency, family functioning, and family cohesion were used to examine associations of family breakfast frequency with dietary quality and weight status. On average, adolescents reported having family breakfast meals 1.5 times (standard deviation=2.1) and family dinner meals 4.1 times (standard deviation=2.6) in the past week. There were racial/ethnic differences in family breakfast frequency, with the highest frequencies reported by adolescents of black, Hispanic, Native American, and mixed race/ethnicity. Family breakfast frequency was also positively associated with male sex, younger age, and living in a two-parent household. Family breakfast frequency was associated with several markers of better diet quality (such as higher intake of fruit, whole grains, and fiber) and lower risk for overweight/obesity. For example, adolescents who reported seven family breakfasts in the past week consumed an average of 0.37 additional daily fruit servings compared with adolescents who never had a family breakfast meal

  1. Breakfast habits among European adolescents and their association with sociodemographic factors: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study

    OpenAIRE

    Hallström, Lena; Gómez Martínez, Sonia; Sjöström, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe breakfast habits at food group level in European adolescents and to investigate the associations between these habits and sociodemographic factors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Secondary schools from nine European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Breakfast habits were assessed twice using a computer-based 24 h dietary recall. Adolescents who consumed breakfast on at least one recall day were clas...

  2. Family structure and breakfast consumption of 11-15 year old boys and girls in Scotland, 1994-2010: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin Kate A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of breakfast during childhood and adolescence have been reported previously though few studies have considered family structure inequalities in breakfast consumption. The proportion of young people living in non-traditional family types has increased in recent years, strengthening the need to describe and monitor the impact of the changing family unit on adolescent breakfast consumption. This study aimed to describe changes in daily breakfast consumption among adolescents in Scotland between 1994 and 2010, while also considering family structure inequalities, and the degree to which these have changed over time. Methods Data from the 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2010 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC surveys were analysed using logistic multilevel regression models for binary outcome variable daily breakfast consumption. Results Daily breakfast consumption among adolescents increased between 1994 and 2010, although there were differences by age and sex. In fact those aged over 14.5 years saw decreases in breakfast consumption, and girls saw significantly larger increases than boys. Daily breakfast consumption was more prevalent among adolescents from 'both parent' families, with lowest prevalence among those from single parent families. Trends in daily breakfast consumption between 1994 and 2010 also varied by family structure. While prevalence of daily breakfast consumption increased among those living with 'both parents', the largest proportion of the population, prevalence decreased over time among adolescents of single parent families, and particularly among those living with their father. Conclusions Family structure inequalities in daily breakfast consumption increased between 1994 and 2010, while breakfast consumption across the population as a whole increased. As the proportion of young people living in an alternative family structure continues to grow it is important to understand why

  3. Associations between family-related factors, breakfast consumption and BMI among 10- to 12-year-old European children: the cross-sectional ENERGY-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Van Lippevelde

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations of family-related factors with children's breakfast consumption and BMI-z-score and to examine whether children's breakfast consumption mediates associations between family-related factors and children's BMI-z-score. SUBJECTS: Ten- to twelve-year-old children (n = 6374; mean age = 11.6 ± 0.7 years, 53.2% girls, mean BMI-z-score = 0.4 ± 1.2 and one of their parents (n = 6374; mean age = 41.4 ± 5.3 years, 82.7% female, mean BMI = 24.5 ± 4.2 kg/m(2 were recruited from schools in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, and Switzerland. The children self-reported their breakfast frequency per week. The body weight and height of the children were objectively measured. The parents responded to items on family factors related to breakfast (automaticity, availability, encouragement, paying attention, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, parental self-efficacy to address children's nagging, praising, and family breakfast frequency. Mediation analyses were performed using multi-level regression analyses (child-school-country. RESULTS: Three of the eleven family-related variables were significantly associated with children's BMI-z-score. The family breakfast frequency was negatively associated with the BMI-z-score; permissiveness concerning skipping breakfast and negotiating about breakfast were positively associated with the BMI-z-score. Children's breakfast consumption was found to be a mediator of the two associations. All family-related variables except for negotiating, praising and communicating health beliefs, were significantly associated with children's breakfast consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Future breakfast promotion and obesity prevention interventions should focus on family-related factors including the physical home environment and parenting practices. Nevertheless, more longitudinal research and intervention studies to support

  4. Learning from global emissions scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian C.; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2008-10-01

    Scenarios of global greenhouse gas emissions have played a key role in climate change analysis for over twenty years. Currently, several research communities are organizing to undertake a new round of scenario development in the lead-up to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To help inform this process, we assess a number of past efforts to develop and learn from sets of global greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. We conclude that while emissions scenario exercises have likely had substantial benefits for participating modeling teams and produced insights from individual models, learning from the exercises taken as a whole has been more limited. Model comparison exercises have typically focused on the production of large numbers of scenarios while investing little in assessing the results or the production process, perhaps on the assumption that later assessment efforts could play this role. However, much of this assessment potential remains untapped. Efforts such as scenario-related chapters of IPCC reports have been most informative when they have gone to extra lengths to carry out more specific comparison exercises, but in general these assessments do not have the remit or resources to carry out the kind of detailed analysis of scenario results necessary for drawing the most useful conclusions. We recommend that scenario comparison exercises build-in time and resources for assessing scenario results in more detail at the time when they are produced, that these exercises focus on more specific questions to improve the prospects for learning, and that additional scenario assessments are carried out separately from production exercises. We also discuss the obstacles to better assessment that might exist, and how they might be overcome. Finally, we recommend that future work include much greater emphasis on understanding how scenarios are actually used, as a guide to improving scenario production.

  5. The changing nutrition scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gopalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ′Green Revolution fatigue′. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

  6. Regular Breakfast Consumption and its Predictors Based on the Social Cognitive Theory in Female Students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Salimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Despite associating regular breakfast consumption habits with a range of health benefits, the rate of skipping the meal is high. The present study was conducted to determine the factors associated with breakfast consumption among female students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences based on the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 423 female students in different faculties of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Participants were selected through multistage random sampling. The frequency of breakfast consumption and SCT variables, including knowledge, hope, outcome expectancies, observational learning, social support and self-efficacy, was measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed in SPSS-16 using the chi-square test, the correlation test and the linear regression analysis. Results: 24% of the students stated that they always ate breakfast. 10% of the students skipped breakfast. On average, the students ate breakfast 4.2 times a week. Self-efficacy (p<0.001 and social support (p<0.001 were good predictors of breakfast consumption in the students. These two variables were able to predict 64% of the variance in breakfast habits. Conclusion: The results show that self-efficacy and social support should be targeted in the design of interventions intending to increase breakfast consumption among female university students.

  7. Automated Analysis of Infinite Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    The security of a network protocol crucially relies on the scenario in which the protocol is deployed. This paper describes syntactic constructs for modelling network scenarios and presents an automated analysis tool, which can guarantee that security properties hold in all of the (infinitely many......) instances of a scenario. The tool is based on control flow analysis of the process calculus LySa and is applied to the Bauer, Berson, and Feiertag protocol where is reveals a previously undocumented problem, which occurs in some scenarios but not in other....

  8. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of breakfast predict cognitive function and mood in school children: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micha, Renata; Rogers, Peter J; Nelson, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The macronutrient composition of a breakfast that could facilitate performance after an overnight fast remains unclear. As glucose is the brain's major energy source, the interest is in investigating meals differing in their blood glucose-raising potential. Findings vary due to unaccounted differences in glucoregulation, arousal and cortisol secretion. We investigated the effects of meals differing in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) on cognition and mood in school children. A total of seventy-four school children were matched and randomly allocated either to the high-GL or low-GL group. Within each GL group, children received high-GI and low-GI breakfasts. Cognitive function (CF) and mood were measured 95-140 min after breakfast. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, before and after the CF tests. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to identify differences in CF, mood, glucose and cortisol levels between the breakfasts. Low-GI meals predicted feeling more alert and happy, and less nervous and thirsty (P meals predicted feeling more confident, and less sluggish, hungry and thirsty (P meals increased glucose levels 90 min after breakfast, and high-GI meals increased cortisol levels (P meals predicted better declarative-verbal memory (P = 0·03), and high-GI meals better vigilance (P < 0·03); observed GI effects were valid across GL groups. GI effects on cognition appear to be domain specific. On balance, it would appear that the low-GI high-GL breakfast may help to improve learning, and of potential value in informing government education policies relating to dietary recommendations and implementation concerning breakfast.

  9. Scenario Planning and Collection Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesecke, Joan

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the future of library collection development and the need for planning focuses on the technique of scenario planning and discusses the results of scenario planning at the University of NebraskaLincoln that examined collection development and digital information. (LRW)

  10. Fat oxidation during exercise and satiety during recovery are increased following a low-glycemic index breakfast in sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Emma J; Astbury, Nerys M; Simpson, Elizabeth J; Taylor, Moira A; Macdonald, Ian A

    2009-05-01

    Consuming low-glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrates (CHO) before endurance exercise results in increased fat oxidation during exercise in trained men and women. It is not known if this phenomenon occurs during low intensity exercise and in untrained participants. We examined the effects of breakfasts containing high-GI (HGI) or LGI foods on substrate utilization during rest and walking exercise in sedentary women. The metabolic and appetite responses to a standard lunch consumed after exercise were also investigated. Eight healthy sedentary women completed 2 trials. On each occasion, participants were provided with a HGI or LGI breakfast 3 h before walking for 60 min. Following exercise, participants were provided with lunch and remained in the laboratory for a further 2 h. Plasma glucose and serum insulin responses (area under the curve) were higher following the HGI breakfast than following the LGI breakfast (P postprandial period, fat oxidation was suppressed following both breakfasts but remained higher in the LGI trial (P exercise, total fat oxidation was also greater in the LGI trial (P metabolic responses to lunch. Participants reported feeling fuller following lunch in the LGI trial (P exercise and improves satiety during recovery in sedentary females.

  11. Influence of two breakfast meals differing in glycemic load on satiety, hunger, and energy intake in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganji Vijay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycemic load (GL is the product of glycemic index of a food and amount of available carbohydrate in that food divided by 100. GL represents quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrate. Little is known about the role of GL in hunger, satiety, and food intake in preschool children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two breakfast meals differing in GL on hunger, satiety, and subsequent food intake at lunch in preschool children aged 4-6 y. Methods Twenty three subjects consumed low-GL (LGL and high-GL (HGL breakfast meals according to a randomized crossover design followed by an ad libitum lunch 4 h after consumption of breakfast. Children were asked to consume meals until they are full. Each treatment was repeated twice in non-consecutive days and data were averaged. Results Children in LGL group consumed significantly lower amounts of GL, total carbohydrate, energy, energy density, and dietary fiber and higher amounts of protein and fat at the breakfast compared to those in HGL group. Prior to lunch, children were hungrier in the HGL intervention group compared to the LGL intervention group (P Conclusions Decreased hunger in children prior to lunch in LGL group is likely due to higher protein and fat content of LGL breakfast. Diets that are low in GL can be recommended as part of healthy diet for preschool children.

  12. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affenito, Sandra G; Thompson, Douglas R; Barton, Bruce A; Franko, Debra L; Daniels, Stephen R; Obarzanek, Eva; Schreiber, George B; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H

    2005-06-01

    To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal biracial cohort study with annual 3-day food records. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited 2,379 girls (1,166 white and 1,213 African American), aged 9 or 10 years at baseline for an observational study. Retention rates were very high at visits two through four (96%, 94%, and 91%), but declined to a low of 82% at visit seven, and increased to 89% at visit 10. Frequency of breakfast consumption, dietary calcium and fiber, and BMI. Generalized estimation equations methodology was used to examine differences in the frequency of breakfast eating by age and race. Generalized estimation equations analyses were also conducted to test whether breakfast consumption was predictive of intake of dietary calcium and fiber, and BMI, adjusting for potentially confounding effects of site, age, race, parental education, physical activity, and total energy intake. Frequency of breakfast eating declined with age, white girls reported more frequent breakfast consumption than African-American girls, and the racial difference decreased with increasing age. Days eating breakfast were associated with higher calcium and fiber intake in all models, regardless of adjustment variables. Days eating breakfast were predictive of lower BMI in models that adjusted for basic demographics (ie, site, age, and race), but the independent effect of breakfast was no longer significant after parental education, energy intake, and physical activity were added to the model. Dietetics professionals need to promote the importance of consuming breakfast to all children and adolescents, especially African-American girls.

  13. Material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruder barrels and screw elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastio, Michael Joseph, Jr.

    2005-11-01

    Nearly seventy-five years ago, the single screw extruder was introduced as a means to produce metal products. Shortly after that, the extruder found its way into the plastics industry. Today much of the world's polymer industry utilizes extruders to produce items such as soda bottles, PVC piping, and toy figurines. Given the significant economical advantages of extruders over conventional batch flow systems, extruders have also migrated into the food industry. Food applications include the meat, pet food, and cereal industries to name just a few. Cereal manufacturers utilize extruders to produce various forms of Ready-to-Eat (RTE) cereals. These cereals are made from grains such as rice, oats, wheat, and corn. The food industry has been incorrectly viewed as an extruder application requiring only minimal energy control and performance capability. This misconception has resulted in very little research in the area of material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruders. Breakfast cereal extruder barrels and individual screw elements are subjected to the extreme pressures and temperatures required to shear and cook the cereal ingredients, resulting in excessive material wear and catastrophic failure of these components. Therefore, this project focuses on the material wear and failure mode analysis of breakfast cereal extruder barrels and screw elements, modeled as a Discrete Time Markov Chain (DTMC) process in which historical data is used to predict future failures. Such predictive analysis will yield cost savings opportunities by providing insight into extruder maintenance scheduling and interchangeability of screw elements. In this DTMC wear analysis, four states of wear are defined and a probability transition matrix is determined based upon 24,041 hours of operational data. This probability transition matrix is used to predict when an extruder component will move to the next state of wear and/or failure. This information can be used to determine

  14. Chewing gum decreases energy intake at lunch following a controlled breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Kathleen J; Kresge, Daniel L

    2017-11-01

    The impact of chewing gum on fasting appetite or meal intake has not been studied. We tested the hypothesis that chewing gum would decrease lunch intake after a controlled breakfast, and reduce hunger in fasting and fed states. Seventeen males and sixteen females (21.4 ± 6.3y, BMI 23.8 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study in which subjects chewed sugar-free gum a total of 1 h on the test day (GC), and did not chew gum on a control day (NG). The 1 h of gum chewing included 20 min while fasting, and two 20-min sessions between breakfast and lunch. Subjects rated their appetite and mood on visual analog scales. After completing the fasting measures, subjects consumed a breakfast shake containing 30% of their measured resting energy expenditure. Three hours later they consumed an ad libitum lunch with water. Fasting ratings of hunger were lower in GC than NG (t = 2.66, p = 0.01). Subjects consumed significantly less pasta (41 g, 68 kcals, t = 2.32, p = 0.03) during GC than NG. In conclusion, gum chewing decreased fasting hunger ratings and lunch energy consumed. Chewing gum may be a useful tool impacting energy balance in this population. Longer studies, especially in other populations, will be required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Storytelling Permutations in the Performance of Life Narrative Betty Roland's Caviar for Breakfast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Clark

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout her life, Australian storyteller and playwright Betty Roland (1903-1996 was haunted by the lure of travel. Roland's extensive body of work reflects experiences in Joseph Stalin's Soviet Union in the 1930s, the UK in the 1950s and Greece in the 1960s and charts the evolution of a personal and political philosophy marked by world-wide social upheaval. Caviar for Breakfast (1979 revised 1989, the second volume of Roland's autobiographical trilogy, is the subject of this paper. When taken together, the three books provide a fascinating insight into the values and ideas of the mushrooming modern cultures in which Roland travelled, worked and lived. Caviar for Breakfast retraces Roland's adventures in Joseph Stalin's Soviet Union where she spent fifteen months during 1933-34 with her then lover, Guido Baracchi, a wealthy Marxist scholar. The narrative takes its life from the contents of a diary maintained by Roland during that time and her introductory remarks convey the notion that, what follows, is not a literary enterprise of the imagination. The author insists that Caviar for Breakfast is a first-hand account of past realities and not only does her diary hold the ordering of events together, but is the purveyor of truth. The truth status of the diary as a mode of representation is widely accepted in Western culture. This paper argues, however, that it is impossible for any transcription of a life to enjoy a one-to-one ratio with 'what actually happened' as it is for a ghost to re-enter a world which fully resembles the one it left. It is well within the capacity of any imaginative storyteller to construct a counterfeit, or simulated, sense of reality whether or not s/he works with the diary mode of representation.

  16. Sensory characterization of a ready-to-eat sweetpotato breakfast cereal by descriptive analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansby, M. A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    The sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam], an important industry in the United States, has been selected as a candidate crop to be grown on future long-duration space missions by NASA. Raw sweetpotato roots were processed into flour, which was used to formulate ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEBC). Twelve trained panelists evaluated the sensory attributes of the extruded RTEBC using descriptive analysis. The samples were significantly different (Psensory attributes, which could be used to differentiate the appearance, texture, and flavor of sweetpotato RTEBC, were described. The data could be used to optimize the RTEBC and for designing studies to test its consumer acceptance.

  17. A pilot study to expand the school breakfast program in one middle school

    OpenAIRE

    Nanney, Marilyn S.; Olaleye, Temitope M.; Wang, Qi; Motyka, Esther; Klund-Schubert, Julie

    2011-01-01

    School Breakfast Program (SBP) eaters weigh less and have healthier diets than nonSBP eaters. However, SBP is underused nationally, especially among low income youth. To explore the feasibility of expanding access to the SBP to improve participation among sixth grade students in one middle school in Minneapolis, Minnesota. A grab-n-go SBP menu, hallway delivery service and in-classroom eating strategies were implemented and evaluated with a cohort of sixth grade students (n = 239) for 6 weeks...

  18. Product Differentiation and Brand Competition in the Italian Breakfast Cereal Market: a Distance Metric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sckokai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article employs a nation-wide sample of supermarket scanner data to study product and brand competition in the Italian breakfast cereal market. A modified Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS, that includes Distance Metrics (DMs as proposed by Pinkse, Slade and Brett (2002, is estimated to study demand responses, substitution patterns, own-price and cross-price elasticities. Estimation results provide evidence of some degree of brand loyalty, while consumers do not seem loyal to the product type. Elasticity estimates point out the presence of patterns of substitution within products sharing the same brand and similar nutritional characteristics.

  19. Social Foundation of Scenario Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaniol, Matthew Jon; Rowland, Nicholas James

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors establish that models of scenario planning typically involve a series of phases, stages, or steps that imply a sequenced (i.e., linear or chronological) process. Recursive models, in contrast, allow phases to repeat, thus, incorporating iteration. The authors......” phase of a planning process with a non-governmental organization in Denmark. The upshot for facilitators is practical insight into how transition between phases and phase iteration in scenario planning can be identified, leveraged, and, thus, managed. The upshot for scholars is a related insight...... into why scenario planning is a kind of laboratory for futures studies wherein the future is experimented upon....

  20. Social Foundation of Scenario Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaniol, Matthew Jon; Rowland, Nicholas James

    2017-01-01

    from science and technology studies (STS) on knowledge production, the authors explain transition from one phase to the next and iteration between and within phases based on social negotiation. To this end, the authors examine the interplay between the “scenario development” phase and the “scenario use......” phase of a planning process with a non-governmental organization in Denmark. The upshot for facilitators is practical insight into how transition between phases and phase iteration in scenario planning can be identified, leveraged, and, thus, managed. The upshot for scholars is a related insight...

  1. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001, from urban schools (p < 0.001, and academic high schools (p < 0.001. More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors.

  2. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, SG; Thompson, DR; Barton, BA; Franko, DL; Daniels, [No Value; Obarzanek, E; Schreiber, GB; Striegel-Moore, RH

    2005-01-01

    Objective To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Design Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal

  3. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-07-27

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors.

  4. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, SG; Thompson, DR; Barton, BA; Franko, DL; Daniels, [No Value; Obarzanek, E; Schreiber, GB; Striegel-Moore, RH

    Objective To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Design Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal

  5. 'It's just so much waste.' A qualitative investigation of food waste in a universal free School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Djang, Holly Carmichael; Metayer, Nesly; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Economos, Christina D

    2015-06-01

    To understand stakeholders' perspectives on food waste in a universal free School Breakfast Program implementing a Breakfast in the Classroom model. Semi-structured focus groups and interviews were conducted with school district stakeholders. Inductive methods were used to code resulting transcripts, from which themes were identified. The analysis provides a thematic analysis of stakeholders' perspectives on food waste in the School Breakfast Program. Ten elementary schools in a large urban school district implementing a universal free Breakfast in the Classroom model of the US national School Breakfast Program. Elementary-school students (n 85), parents (n 86), teachers (n 44), cafeteria managers (n 10) and school principals (n 10). Stakeholders perceived food waste as a problem and expressed concern regarding the amount of food wasted. Explanations reported for food waste included food-related (palatability and accessibility), child-related (taste preferences and satiation) and programme-related (duration, food service policies, and coordination) factors. Milk and fruit were perceived as foods particularly susceptible to waste. Several food waste mitigation strategies were identified by participants: saving food for later, actively encouraging children's consumption, assisting children with foods during mealtime, increasing staff support, serving smaller portion sizes, and composting and donating uneaten food. Stakeholders recognized food waste as a problem, reported myriad contributing factors, and have considered and employed multiple and diverse mitigation strategies. Changes to the menu and/or implementation logistics, as well as efforts to use leftover food productively, may be possible strategies of reducing waste and improving the School Breakfast Program's economic, environmental and nutritional impact.

  6. Breakfast consumption and CVD risk factors in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Lena; Labayen, Idoia; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Patterson, Emma; Vereecken, Carine A; Breidenassel, Christina; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Manios, Yannis; Mistura, Lorenza; Widhalm, Kurt; Kondaki, Katerina; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael

    2013-07-01

    To examine the association between breakfast consumption and CVD risk factors in European adolescents. Cross-sectional. Breakfast consumption was assessed by the statement ‘I often skip breakfast’ and categorized into ‘consumer’, ‘occasional consumer’ and ‘skipper’. Blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), TAG, insulin and glucose were measured and BMI, TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C and homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated. The European Union-funded HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. European adolescents, aged 12?50–17?49 years, from ten cities within the HELENA study (n 2929, n 925 with blood sample, 53% females). In males, significant differences across breakfast consumption category (‘consumer’, ‘occasional consumer’ and ‘skipper’) were seen for age, BMI, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and LDL-C; in females, for cardiorespiratory fitness, skinfold thickness, BMI, insulin and HOMA-IR. In overweight/obese males significant differences were also seen for TC and LDL-C, whereas no differences were observed in non-overweight males or in females regardless of weight status. Our findings among European adolescents confirm previous data indicating that adolescents who regularly consume breakfast have lower body fat content. The results also show that regular breakfast consumption is associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents, and with a healthier cardiovascular profile, especially in males. Eating breakfast regularly may also negate somewhat the effect of excess adiposity on TC and LDL-C, especially in male adolescents.

  7. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Monika

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES. Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p. More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p. A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6% was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2% or never (22.9% consumed breakfast (p. This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5, 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5 times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image satisfaction; and positive

  8. Earthquake Hazards Program: Earthquake Scenarios

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A scenario represents one realization of a potential future earthquake by assuming a particular magnitude, location, and fault-rupture geometry and estimating...

  9. Scenario Planning as Organizational Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balarezo, Jose; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper identifies four areas in need of future research to enhance our theoretical understanding of scenario planning, and sets the basis for future empirical examination of its effects on individual and organizational level outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This paper organizes...... existing contributions on scenario planning within a new consolidating framework that includes antecedents, processes, and outcomes. The proposed framework allows for integration of the extant literature on scenario planning from a wide variety of fields, including strategic management, finance, human...... resource management, operations management, and psychology. Findings: This study contributes to research by offering a coherent and consistent framework for understanding scenario planning as a dynamic process. As such, it offers future researchers with a systematic way to ascertain where a particular...

  10. Scenarios and activities (Chapter 1)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burns, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The description and quantification of the shale gas-related activities presented in this Chapter informs the assessment of ecological and social risk addressed in other Chapters. For the Exploration Only scenario, activities that will manifest...

  11. Sunset–sunrise difference in solar occultation ozone measurements (SAGE II, HALOE, and ACE–FTS and its relationship to tidal vertical winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sakazaki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a comprehensive investigation of the sunset–sunrise difference (SSD; i.e., the sunset-minus-sunrise value of the ozone mixing ratio in the latitude range of 10° S–10° N. SSD values were determined from solar occultation measurements based on data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE, and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS. The SSD was negative at altitudes of 20–30 km (–0.1 ppmv at 25 km and positive at 30–50 km (+0.2 ppmv at 40–45 km for HALOE and ACE–FTS data. SAGE II data also showed a qualitatively similar result, although the SSD in the upper stratosphere was two times larger than those derived from the other datasets. On the basis of an analysis of data from the Superconducting Submillimeter Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES, and a nudged chemical-transport model (the Specified Dynamics version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model: SD–WACCM, we conclude that the SSD can be explained by diurnal variations in the ozone concentration, particularly those caused by vertical transport by the atmospheric tidal winds. All datasets showed significant seasonal variations in the SSD; the SSD in the upper stratosphere is greatest from December through February, while that in the lower stratosphere reaches a maximum twice: during the periods March–April and September–October. Based on an analysis of SD–WACCM results, we found that these seasonal variations follow those associated with the tidal vertical winds.

  12. The Effect of Breakfast Prior to Morning Exercise on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Appetite Later in the Day in Habitually Active Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, Rachel C; Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal F; Kennedy, David O; Tiplady, Brian; Stevenson, Emma J

    2015-07-14

    Pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females exercising for mood, cognitive and appetite benefits are not well established. Results from an initial field pilot study showed that higher energy intake at breakfast was associated with lower fatigue and higher overall mood and alertness post-exercise (all p exercise, then hourly until lunch (~1240 h), immediately post-lunch and at 1500 and 1900 h via a mobile phone. Breakfast enhanced feelings of relaxation before lunch (p 0.40), though breakfast was detrimental for working memory mid-afternoon (p = 0.019, d = 0.37) and mental fatigue and tension later in the day (all p 0.038). Breakfast was also beneficial for appetite control before lunch irrespective of size (all p 0.43). These data provide information on pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females and suggest that a small breakfast eaten prior to exercise can benefit post-exercise mood and subjective appetite ratings.

  13. A randomized, rater-blinded, crossover study comparing the clinical efficacy of Ritalin(®) LA (methylphenidate) treatment in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder under different breakfast conditions over 2 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Eberhard; Fleischhaker, Christian; Hennighausen, Klaus; Heiser, Philip; Haessler, Frank; Linder, Martin; Stollhoff, Kirsten; Warnke, Andreas; Baier, Monika; Klatt, Jan

    2010-11-01

    Several extended-release methylphenidate medications are available for treatment of children with ADHD. Pharmacokinetic investigations suggest that the serum levels of methylphenidate are partially altered when the medication is taken without breakfast. Clinical data comparing different breakfast situations are missing. In this study, different breakfast compositions and their influence on treatment with Ritalin LA are investigated. A total of 150 patients were enrolled in a rater-blinded, randomized crossover trial that compared a minimal breakfast with a standard breakfast in patients under stable treatment with Ritalin LA. Ratings for clinical efficacy were carried out after 1 week by teachers and parents (FBB-ADHS), as well as physicians (CGI). Additionally, a math test was administered to the patients. Of the total patients, 144 finished the trial with a breakfast compliance of 93%. All of the clinical rating scales showed consistently no difference between the two breakfast conditions. Non-inferiority of minimal breakfast versus standard breakfast was shown to be statistically significant (FBB-AHDS(Teacher): 0.97 with minimal breakfast, 1.01 with standard breakfast, P Ritalin LA is not influenced by breakfast and works independently of food intake.

  14. Le metodologie dello scenario parecipato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2006-01-01

    The article presents paradigm, historical background and framework of participatory scenario planning. In addition an example of the method used in Malaysia is described and the possible strenghts and weaknesses is reflected......The article presents paradigm, historical background and framework of participatory scenario planning. In addition an example of the method used in Malaysia is described and the possible strenghts and weaknesses is reflected...

  15. ANS responses and facial expressions differentiate between the taste of commercial breakfast drinks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René A de Wijk

    Full Text Available The high failure rate of new market introductions, despite initial successful testing with traditional sensory and consumer tests, necessitates the development of other tests. This study explored the ability of selected physiological and behavioral measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS to distinguish between repeated exposures to foods from a single category (breakfast drinks and with similar liking ratings. In this within-subject study 19 healthy young adults sipped from five breakfast drinks, each presented five times, while ANS responses (heart rate, skin conductance response and skin temperature, facial expressions, liking, and intensities were recorded. The results showed that liking was associated with increased heart rate and skin temperature, and more neutral facial expressions. Intensity was associated with reduced heart rate and skin temperature, more neutral expressions and more negative expressions of sadness, anger and surprise. Strongest associations with liking were found after 1 second of tasting, whereas strongest associations with intensity were found after 2 seconds of tasting. Future studies should verify the contribution of the additional information to the prediction of market success.

  16. Skipping breakfast: morningness-eveningness preference is differentially related to state and trait food cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, A; Roeser, K; Randler, C; Kübler, A

    2012-12-01

    Eveningness preference is associated with unhealthy eating behaviors. We measured state and trait food cravings in chronotypes in the morning and in the evening. Less Evening (E)- than Morning (M)-types reported to have had breakfast. Accordingly, hours that had elapsed since the last meal were higher in E- than M-types in the morning, but did not differ between groups in the evening. E-types reported higher anticipation of positive reinforcement that may result from eating than M-types in the morning, but both had the same hunger levels. On a trait level, M-types reported more feelings of guilt for giving into cravings compared to E-types. Results suggest that E-types skip breakfast more often than M-types, but this eating pattern does not inevitably lead to more food cravings in the evening or more pronounced habitual cravings. Furthermore, E-types did not experience more hunger in the morning although they had not been eating for a longer time period. Results support findings about a different lifestyle in E-types compared to M-types.

  17. Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hua Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meals with low glycemic index (GI may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence.

  18. A Tool Kit for Healthy School Meals: Recipes and Training Materials. USDA's New School Lunch and Breakfast Recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This kit contains a recipe book and various separately published materials to train food service staff in implementing the new breakfast and lunch menus from the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). A training manual provides background information on recipe selection, development, and testing; orients staff to the recipe format; explains and…

  19. Four-week low-glycemic index breakfast with a modest amount of soluble fibers in type 2 diabetic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Morvarid; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Vidal, Hubert; Bruzzo, Francoise; Fiquet, Caroline; Wursch, Pierre; Slama, Gerard; Rizkalla, Salwa W

    2002-07-01

    Low-glycemic index diets are associated with a wide range of benefits when followed on a chronic basis. The chronic effects, however, of the substitution of 1 meal per day are not well known in diabetic subjects. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether the chronic use of a low-glycemic index breakfast (low-GIB) rich in low-GI carbohydrates and a modest amount of soluble fibers could have an effect on lipemia at a subsequent lunch, and improve glucose and lipid metabolism in men with type 2 diabetes. A total of 13 men with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated in a double-blind cross-over design to a 4-week daily intake of a low-GI versus a high-GI breakfast separated by a 15-day washout interval. The low-GI breakfast was composed of whole grain bread and muesli containing 3 g beta-glucan from oats. Low-GIB induced lower postprandial plasma glucose peaks than the high-GIB at the beginning (baseline, P glycemic control and induced low plasma cholesterol levels in men with type 2 diabetes. The decrease in plasma cholesterol associated with low-GI breakfast intake may reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular complications in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Regular family breakfast was associated with children's overweight and parental education: Results from the ENERGY cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vik, F.N.; Te Velde, S.J.; Van Lippevelde, W.; Manios, Y.; Kovacs, E.; Jan, N.; Moreno, L.A.; Bringolf-Isler, B.; Brug, J.; Bere, E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study aims to assess (i) the prevalence of having regular family breakfast, lunch, dinner (i.e. 5–7 days/week together with their family) among 10–12 year olds in Europe, (ii) the association between family meals and child weight status, and (iii) potential differences in having

  1. Effect of two breakfasts, different in carbohydrate composition, on hunger and satiety and mood in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Blokdijk, V.M.; Bertina, F.M.; Hopman, W.P.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of simple vs complex carbohydrates (SCHO and CCHO respectively) containing breakfasts on blood parameters, hunger and satiety and mood. DESIGN: A 2-day, open, randomised, cross-over trial. SUBJECTS: A total of 26 male subjects (34±6y; BMI 23.4±2.2 kg m-2). MEASUREMENTS

  2. Breakfast replacement with a low-glycaemic response liquid formula in patients with type 2 diabetes : a randomised clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenvers, Dirk J; Schouten, Lydia J; Jurgens, Jordy; Endert, Erik; Kalsbeek, A.; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Low-glycaemic index diets reduce glycated Hb (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes, but require intensive dietary support. Using a liquid meal replacement with a low glycaemic response (GR) may be an alternative dietary approach. In the present study, we investigated whether breakfast replacement

  3. Eating breakfast enhances the efficiency of neural networks engaged during mental arithmetic in school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are there effects of morning nutrition on brain functions important for learning and performance in children? We used time-frequency analyses of EEG activity recorded while children solved simple math problems to study how brain processes were influenced by eating or skipping breakfast. Participants...

  4. Breakfast skipping as a risk correlate of overweight and obesity in school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-McCormick, Jonas J; Thomas, Jennifer J; Bainivualiku, Asenaca; Khan, A Nisha; Becker, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased globally, and population data suggest that it is also increasing among ethnic Fijian youth. Among numerous behavioural changes contributing to overweight in youth residing in nations undergoing rapid economic and social change, meal skipping has not been examined as a potential risk factor. The study objectives were to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and breakfast skipping and examine their cross-sectional association in a community sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (N=523). We measured height and weight, and assessed dietary patterns, eating pathology, dimensions of acculturation, and other socio-demographic and cultural data by self-report. We observed a high prevalence of both overweight (41%, including 15% who were obese) and breakfast skipping (68%). In addition, in multivariable analyses unadjusted for eating pathology, we found that more frequent breakfast skipping was associated with greater odds of overweight (odds ratio (OR)=1.15, confidence interval (CI)=1.06, 1.26, pbreakfast skipping, eating pathology, and overweight in ethnic Fijian girls, and to identify whether breakfast skipping may be a modifiable risk factor for overweight in this population.

  5. Risk factors for overweight in urban and rural school girls in Iran: skipping breakfast and early menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddah, Mohsen

    2009-08-14

    This study aimed to investigate the predictors of overweight among Iranian 14-17 years adolescent girls in urban and rural areas in Guilan, Iran. Between December 2005 and March 2006 a cross-sectional survey on 2090 high-school girls (1054 in urban and 1036 in rural areas) in Guilan, northern Iran was performed. Data on age, mother's education, age at menarche, physical activity, hours of TV viewing, birth weight, duration of any breast feeding and skipping breakfast were collected using questionnaire and body weight and height of the girls were measured. Logistic regression analysis showed that in urban residents, low age group (14 years) OR=13.9 (1.15-1.61), lower menarcheal age OR=0.76 (0.61-0.95) and skipping breakfast OR=1.96 (1.52-2.35) were independently related to overweight and obesity. In rural residents, low menarcheal age, OR=0.82 (0.69-0.98), skipping breakfast OR=2.23 (1.37-3.65), and high maternal education OR=2.01 (1.62-2.85) were predictors of overweight/obesity. In conclusion, these data indicated that skipping breakfast is a potential risk factor for overweight/obesity in both urban and rural girls. High maternal education as a risk factor for overweight in the rural girls is notable.

  6. Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Li, Chunxiao; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-04

    Meals with low glycemic index (GI) may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI) on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence.

  7. Future scenarios to inspire innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Smedt, Peter; Borch, Kristian; Fuller, Ted

    2013-01-01

    . Due to the social dynamics of innovation, new socio-technical subsystems are emerging, however there is lack of exploitation of novel ideas and sustainable solutions to address these grand challenges. In this paper we argue that issues of how knowledge is represented can have a part in this lack...... the grand challenges. By analyzing several scenario cases, elements of good practices and principles on how to strengthen innovation systems through future scenarios are identified. This is needed because innovation itself needs to be oriented along more sustainable pathways enabling transformations...

  8. NEC-2020 emission reduction scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slentø, Erik; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    The upcoming NEC-2020 EU directive sets up emission ceilings for NOX, SO2, NH3, NMVOC and PM in order to meet the environmental exposure targets of the Thematic Strategy. This report contains an assessment of intermediary emission reduction scenarios for Denmark, computed by the GAINS model 2007......, which serves as the basis for the pending negotiations in EU. The assessment is brought up to date by including a brief evaluation of the new reduction scenarios published in 2008, founding the European Commission NEC-2020 directive proposal....

  9. The Effect of Breakfast Prior to Morning Exercise on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Appetite Later in the Day in Habitually Active Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Veasey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females exercising for mood, cognitive and appetite benefits are not well established. Results from an initial field pilot study showed that higher energy intake at breakfast was associated with lower fatigue and higher overall mood and alertness post-exercise (all p < 0.05. In a follow-up, randomised, controlled trial, 24 active women completed three trials in a balanced, cross-over design. At 0815 h participants completed baseline cognitive tasks, mood and appetite visual analogue scales (VAS and were administered a cereal breakfast (providing 118 or 236 kcal or no breakfast. After 45 min, they completed a 30 min run at 65% heart rate reserve (HRR. Parameters were re-assessed immediately after exercise, then hourly until lunch (~1240 h, immediately post-lunch and at 1500 and 1900 h via a mobile phone. Breakfast enhanced feelings of relaxation before lunch (p < 0.05, d > 0.40, though breakfast was detrimental for working memory mid-afternoon (p = 0.019, d = 0.37 and mental fatigue and tension later in the day (all p < 0.05, d > 0.038. Breakfast was also beneficial for appetite control before lunch irrespective of size (all p < 0.05, d > 0.43. These data provide information on pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females and suggest that a small breakfast eaten prior to exercise can benefit post-exercise mood and subjective appetite ratings.

  10. The Consumption of Breakfast, Fish and/or Caffeine does not Predict Study Progress in Adult Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-10-06

    Consumption of breakfast, fish, or caffeine are each separately often investigated in relation to learning performance in traditional education, but not in distance education (DE). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the relations between the consumption of breakfast, fish, and/or caffeine on the one hand and learning performance on the other are also found in DE students. This population is different from traditional students and characterized by a different profile in terms of age, personal and work responsibilities as well as other demographics. In an observational longitudinal study, the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine of 1157 DE students (18-76 years old, mean 35.8±11.1 years) was used to predict learning performance using multiple regression analysis. In an online digital survey, university students provided information about their consumption of these nutritional measures and on important covariates. Learning performance, measured as study progress (i.e., the number of successfully completed modules), was evaluated objectively after 14 months. Results showed that adding the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine to the covariate model did not fit the data better, χ(2) (3, N = 1155) = 3.287, p = 0.35. This means that neither the consumption of breakfast nor fish nor caffeine predicted study progress in adults participating in DE. This study is important as it is the first to report on these relations in this specific age group and educational setting, which is increasingly important due to the increased preference for this type of education.

  11. The most important meal of the day: why children skip breakfast and what can be done about it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lisa Wilhelm

    2013-09-01

    We all experience that morning rush to get somewhere - to work, to school, or to complete a number of important errands before we reach those final destinations. Many adults skip meals for a variety of reasons. Children and teenagers are no different. Eating behaviors can promote or diminish healthy nutrition. A child consuming breakfast with family members on a regular basis is ideal but not always realistic. More and more children have two working parents who are rushing out to work in the morning, have limited income or a lack of healthy options at home, or possess a lack of education on the benefits of breakfast. Evidence shows that breakfast consumption reduces weight gain by improving satiety and decreasing binge eating later in the day. High-fiber cereals (ie, > 2 g per serving) and whole-grain products improve satiety and decrease binge eating at lunch or after school. The total dietary fiber intake should equal age plus 5 g for young children and up to 14 g/1,000 calories for adolescents. In the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Growth and Health Study, 2,379 white and black females aged 9 to 19 years were followed on an annual basis. The more frequently breakfast was consumed was associated with a higher calcium and fiber intake and, consequently, a lower body mass index. This article focuses on the NHLBI guidelines for cardiovascular risk reduction in children and adolescents, including practical suggestions about breakfast meal planning and food choices. These recommendations offer real-time dietary suggestions and practical advice for patients' families.

  12. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddison Ralph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Methods/Design Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December. The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. Discussion This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Trial Registration Number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry

  13. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Turley, Maria; Gorton, Delvina; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2010-11-29

    Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school) will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December). The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades), sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) - ACTRN12609000854235.

  14. Scenario Based Network Infrastructure Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a method for IT infrastructure planning that take into account very long term developments in usages. The method creates a scenario for a final, time independent stage in the planning process. The method abstracts relevant modelling factors from available information...

  15. Scenario Based Network Infrastructure Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a method for IT infrastructure planning that take into account very long term developments in usages. The method creates a scenario for a final, time independent stage in the planning process. The method abstracts relevant modelling factors from available information...

  16. Program Analysis Scenarios in Rascal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); F. Durán

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRascal is a meta programming language focused on the implementation of domain-specific languages and on the rapid construction of tools for software analysis and software transformation. In this paper we focus on the use of Rascal for software analysis. We illustrate a range of scenarios

  17. Particle production in Ekpyrotic scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hipólito-Ricaldi, W.S. [Physics Department, McGill University,Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo,Rodovia BR 101 Norte, km. 60, Campus de São Mateus, CEP 29932-540,São Mateus, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Brandenberger, Robert [Physics Department, McGill University,Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zürich,CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Ferreira, Elisa G.M.; Graef, L.L. [Physics Department, McGill University,Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2016-11-09

    We consider Parker particle production in the Ekpyrotic scenario (in particular in the New Ekpyrotic model) and show that the density of particles produced by the end of the phase of Ekpyrotic contraction can be sufficient to lead to a hot state of matter after the bounce. Hence, no separate reheating mechanism is necessary.

  18. Scenario Writing: A Therapeutic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Billy D.

    1989-01-01

    Introduces scenario writing as useful therapeutic technique. Presents case study of woman in midst of divorce and custody fight to illustrate context in which technique was applied. Suggests additional applications. Concludes that good response is more likely for clients who possess good writing skills although other clients may use their own…

  19. Sensitivity to change in cognitive performance and mood measures of energy and fatigue in response to differing doses of caffeine or breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridakis, Victor; Herring, Matthew P; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects (N = 18) experiment compared the sensitivity to change of cognitive performance and mood measures of mental energy following consumption of either 100 or 200-mg caffeine or a 440-calorie breakfast. Breakfast and 200-mg caffeine improved mood and cognitive performance. The sensitivity to change of the measures did not differ in response to any treatment (all p values > .05). The mood and cognitive measures of mental energy used here have similar sensitivity to detecting change in response to a moderate dose of caffeine and breakfast consumption.

  20. Trends from 2002 to 2010 in Daily Breakfast Consumption and its Socio-Demographic Correlates in Adolescents across 31 Countries Participating in the HBSC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Niclasen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and children and adolescents can benefit from breakfast consumption in several ways. The purpose of the present study was to describe trends in daily breakfast consumption (DBC) among adolescents across 31 countries participating......) no significant changes were seen. Frequency of DBC among adolescents in European countries and North America showed a more uniform pattern in 2010 as compared to patterns in 2002. DBC increased significantly in only six out of 19 countries from 2002 to 2010. There is need for continued education and campaigns...

  1. Iron bioavailability in humans from breakfasts enriched with iron bis-glycine chelate, phytates and polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layrisse, M; García-Casal, M N; Solano, L; Barón, M A; Arguello, F; Llovera, D; Ramírez, J; Leets, I; Tropper, E

    2000-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the bioavailability of iron amino acid chelate (ferrochel) added to fortify breads prepared from either precooked corn flour or white wheat flour + cheese and margarine compared with the same basal breakfast enriched with either ferrous sulfate or iron-EDTA. The inhibitory effect of phytate and polyphenols on iron absorption from ferrochel was also tested. A total of 74 subjects were studied in five experiments. Iron absorption from ferrochel was about twice the absorption from ferrous sulfate (P: American-type coffee did not modify iron absorption significantly, whereas both espresso-type coffee and tea reduced iron absorption from ferrochel by 50% (P: < 0. 05). Ferrochel partially prevented the inhibitory effect of phytates. Because of its high solubility in aqueous solutions even at pH 6, its low interactions with food and high absorption, ferrochel is a suitable compound for food fortification.

  2. IMPORTANCE OF BREAKFAST IN THE NUTRITIONAL STATE AND INFORMATION PROCESSING IN SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE MARTÍN JOFRÉ,

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of the breakfast meal in children’s nutritional statusand mental processing. Anthropometric measures of 26 children (13 males, 6.3 to 6.9 years old were used to evaluatenutrition levels. Eight tests of the K-ABC Kaufman battery were applied: numbers recall, word order, hand movements,gestalt closure, triangles, analog matrixes, spatial memory and series of photos. The obtained K-ABC averages wereinside normal ranges, with certain dispersion of values and decreased values for some (Z score of hand movements,triangles, numbers recall and sequential processing: -2.30, -1.50, -1.41 y -1.71 respectively. The children that didn’t havebreakfast showed diminished nutritional status and deficiencies in their sequential, simultaneous and compositemental processing.

  3. Nutrition standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    This final rule updates the meal patterns and nutrition standards for the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs to align them with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This rule requires most schools to increase the availability of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free and low-fat fluid milk in school meals; reduce the levels of sodium, saturated fat and trans fat in meals; and meet the nutrition needs of school children within their calorie requirements. These improvements to the school meal programs, largely based on recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, are expected to enhance the diet and health of school children, and help mitigate the childhood obesity trend.

  4. STS-47 Endeavour, OV-105, crew eats preflight breakfast at KSC O and C Bldg

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 crewmembers who will be aboard for Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, second trip into space are about to have a light breakfast prior to the prelaunch suiting up process in the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) Operations and Checkout (O and C) Building. Sitting around table (left to right) are Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis, MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr, Commander Robert L. Gibson, MS Jerome Apt, MS Mae C. Jemison, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri. Mohri represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). STS-47 will be devoted to the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) payload, a joint effort between Japan and the United States. A cake decorated with the STS-47 mission insignia is in the center of the table.

  5. Development of nutritious breakfast sausage%营养早餐肠的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆银胜; 陈彦冰; 施雪; 王雅静; 夏继华; 程榆茗

    2012-01-01

    The soy nutritious breakfast sausage was made of pork, carrot, soy dietary fiber and corn. The optimum formula was determined by the orthogonal experiment. The best combination was as follow: 5% soy protein isolate, 5% soybean dietary fiber, 4% blocks of carrot and 3% corn grain.%以猪肉为原料,添加胡萝卜、大豆膳食纤维、玉米粒等制成营养早餐肠,采用正交实验方式确定优化组合。试验结果表明:大豆分离蛋白5%、大豆膳食纤维5%、胡萝卜块4%、玉米粒3%时营养早餐肠的品质最佳。

  6. Bed, Breakfast and Friendship: Intimacy and Distance in Small-Scale Hospitality Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Hultman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Through an analysis of the narrative of a Bed and Breakfast (B & B and art gal-lery owner, the emergence of intimacy as a commercial value in the hospitality industry is illustrated. This is a formation of economic value where economic ra-tionality as a motive for commercial activity is rejected. Simultaneously though, a different set of market attitudes are performed by hospitality practitioners in the course of everyday interactions with customers, and a tension between emotional, spatial and temporal intimacy and distance is uncovered and discussed. It is con-cluded that commercial friendship is a more complex issue than what has been acknowledged so far in the hospitality literature. A continued discussion of inti-macy in hospitality will therefore affect the cultural understanding of emotions, identity and lifestyle values on the one hand, and business strategy, value creation and markets on the other.

  7. Conservação pós-colheita de mamão 'Sunrise Solo' com uso de quitosana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce de Queiróz Barbosa Galo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O mamão é um fruto de grande importância econômica, social e nutricional. No entanto, apresenta conservação limitada devido à deterioração pós-colheita e ao rápido amadurecimento. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar soluções de quitosana associadas ao glicerol como recobrimento de mamão papaia da cultivar 'Sunrise Solo' para manter a qualidade pós-colheita e prolongar sua vida útil. Os frutos foram lavados em água potável, higienizados em solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 200 mg L-1 por 10 minutos e secos à temperatura ambiente. Os tratamentos consistiram na imersão ou não (controle dos frutos em cinco concentrações (0,25%; 0,50%; 0,75%; 1,0% e 1,25% de quitosana. Decorrida a secagem natural do revestimento, os frutos foram armazenados a 28 ± 3 ºC e 65-70% UR. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualisado, utilizando-se de seis concentrações de quitosana com oito repetições, totalizando 48 frutos. Ao atingir o ponto ótimo para o consumo, avaliaram-se o teor de ácido ascórbico, de sólidos solúveis, da acidez titulável, da firmeza, a perda de massa fresca, o desenvolvimento fúngico e a vida útil. A aplicação de quitosana em mamão 'Sunrise Solo' manteve a firmeza e os teores de sólidos solúveis, de acidez titulável e de ácido ascórbico dos frutos até o ponto considerado ótimo para o consumo, em termos de aparência. A concentração de 1% de quitosana manteve a qualidade e aumentou a vida útil dos frutos em quatro dias. A quitosana inibiu o crescimento de fungos dos gêneros Cladosporium, Aspergillus e Penicillium.

  8. Finite element simulation of the compression behaviour of airy breakfast cereals

    KAUST Repository

    Mamlouk, Hedi

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we are concerned by the fragmentation study of five breakfast cereals from the market exhibiting differences in shape, formulation and texture. The experimental part of the study encompasses compression testing and fragment size evaluation using 2D image analysis. Structural information about the airy structure is then determined using X-ray tomography and related 3D image analysis. The numerical part has the ambition of assessing the fragmentation process using a damage-based mechanical model that simulates solid material rupture events as onset and growth of damage up to brittle failure. The model is based on a finite element scheme in which direct information of the 3D airy structure is encoded in the solid meshing. The force-displacement signature well shows competition between bending and compression driven failure depending on cereal shape. Our results show also large dispersion in the porous structure that affects significantly the result of the fragmentation. The numerical model is able to simulate the result of fragmentation at the cost of identifying two mechanical parameters, namely Young\\'s modulus and critical stress. These two quantities are proved to be product dependent and display a large range of variation. Industrial relevance The design of new food product becomes more and more based on functionality criteria. In a typical chewing process the need to understand the deformation mechanisms leading to fragmentation helps in understanding the role of the structure and, in turn, the processing conditions for building new transformed products. There is an increasing industrial demand in that sense especially knowing that some of the cereal products can be designed to meet these criteria for specific populations (old people with dental problems, infant feeding). Our work is, within this context, an attempt to set a numerical and experimental framework for studying the fragmentation of five selected breakfast cereals from the market.

  9. Child-targeted TV advertising and preschoolers' consumption of high-sugar breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Harris, Jennifer; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013. Parents reported their child's consumption of SBC brands; whether their child had watched any of 11 kids' channels in the past week; their child's TV viewing time; and socio-demographics. Children's exposure to child-targeted SBC TV ads was calculated by combining TV channel and viewing time with advertising data for SBC ads aired on kids' TV channels during the same timeframe. Five hundred forty-eight parents completed surveys; 52.7% had an annual household income of $50,000 or less. Children's mean age was 4.4 years, 51.6% were female, and 72.5% were non-Hispanic white. In the past week, 56.9% (N = 312) of children ate SBCs advertised on kids' channels. Overall, 40.6% of children were exposed to child-targeted SBC TV ads in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the number of SBC brands children consumed was positively associated with their exposure to child-targeted SBC ads. Children consumed 14% (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27) more SBC brands for every 10 SBC ads seen in the past 7 days. Exposure to child-targeted SBC TV advertising is positively associated with SBC brand consumption among preschool-aged children. These findings support recommendations to limit the marketing of high-sugar foods to young children.

  10. Nonlinear force-free field modeling of the solar magnetic carpet and comparison with SDO/HMI and Sunrise/IMAX observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitta, L. P.; Kariyappa, R. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS-58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Solanki, S. K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    In the quiet solar photosphere, the mixed polarity fields form a magnetic carpet that continuously evolves due to dynamical interaction between the convective motions and magnetic field. This interplay is a viable source to heat the solar atmosphere. In this work, we used the line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory, as time-dependent lower boundary conditions, to study the evolution of the coronal magnetic field. We use a magneto-frictional relaxation method, including hyperdiffusion, to produce a time series of three-dimensional nonlinear force-free fields from a sequence of photospheric LOS magnetograms. Vertical flows are added up to a height of 0.7 Mm in the modeling to simulate the non-force-freeness at the photosphere-chromosphere layers. Among the derived quantities, we study the spatial and temporal variations of the energy dissipation rate and energy flux. Our results show that the energy deposited in the solar atmosphere is concentrated within 2 Mm of the photosphere and there is not sufficient energy flux at the base of the corona to cover radiative and conductive losses. Possible reasons and implications are discussed. Better observational constraints of the magnetic field in the chromosphere are crucial to understand the role of the magnetic carpet in coronal heating.

  11. Future Scenarios and Environmental Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kopnina, H.N.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a number of questions about visions of the future and their implications for environmental education (EE). If the future were known, what kind of actions would be needed to maintain the positive aspects and reverse the negative ones? How could these actions be translated into the aims of EE? Three future scenarios are discussed: the limits to growth (the great tragedy and demise); sustainable development and ecological modernization (hope and innovation); and the Anthrop...

  12. Scenarios and Strategies for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    In 2011, IRENA will start developing scenarios and strategies for Africa. This is a pilot study for a project that will ultimately encompass the whole world. The selection of Africa first indicates the priority that the IRENA work programme places on the continent. In the framework of the 2011 IRENA work programme, the analysis of scenarios and strategies will feed into the renewables readiness assessment, which will assess policy priorities and best practices in renewable energy policy-making. This, in turn, will be the basis for financing investment and capacity building activities. Energy policy advice must consider issues, such as the structure of energy supply and demand, the past and future energy trends, renewable energy resources, energy economics and technology access. Scenarios and strategies are key tools for such an analysis. Regional and national differences must be considered and individual sectors and end-use categories further analysed. These include power generation, cooking, heating, industrial process heat, and transport. Urban and rural solutions will be dealt with separately, as well as centralised and decentralised solutions. The analysis will cover issues, such as potentials, technology, supply chains and investment needs.

  13. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Cullis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  14. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian G. CULLIS; Nikos NIKIFORAKIS; Peter FRANKL; Philip BLAKELY; Paul BENNETT; Paul GREENWOOD

    2016-01-01

    The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length-and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  15. Clean energy scenarios for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saddler, H. [Energy Strategies Pty Ltd., Manuka (Australia); Diesendorf, M. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Institute of Environmental Studies; Denniss, R. [Parliament House, Canberra (Australia). Office of Senator Bob Brown

    2007-02-15

    Australia, a major producer and user of coal, has the highest per capita greenhouse gas emissions in the industrialised world. This study investigates whether in theory such a 'fossil-fuel dependent' country could achieve a 50% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions from stationary energy by 2040, compared with its 2001 emissions. To do this scenarios are developed, using a combination of forecasting and backcasting methods, under conditions of continuing economic growth and a restriction to the use of existing commercial technologies with small improvements. The principal scenario achieves the above target by implementing on the demand-side a medium-level of efficient energy use and substantial solar hot water together with a supply side combination of mainly natural gas, bioenergy and wind power. In doing so the scenario also achieves a 78% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity. Within the large uncertainties in future prices, it is possible that the economic savings from efficient energy use could pay for all or a large part of the additional costs of renewable energy. (author)

  16. Scenarios for the LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The projected lifetime of the LHC low-beta quadrupoles, the evolution of the statistical error halving time, and the physics potential all call for an LHC luminosity upgrade by the middle of the coming decade. In the framework of the CARE-HHH network three principal scenarios have been developed for increasing the LHC peak luminosity by more than a factor of 10, to values above 1035 cm−2s−1. All scenarios imply a rebuilding of the high-luminosity interaction regions (IRs) in combination with a consistent change of beam parameters. However, their respective features, bunch structures, IR layouts, merits and challenges, and luminosity variation with β∗ differ substantially. In all scenarios luminosity leveling during a store would be advantageous for the physics experiments. An injector upgrade must complement the upgrade measures in the LHC proper in order to provide the beam intensity and brightness needed as well as to reduce the LHC turnaround time for higher integrated luminosity.

  17. The role of breakfast consumption and participation in extracurricular physical activity in the development of obesity in students from 10 to 12 years old

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ioannou Trifon; Mavrovouniotis Fotios; Mavrovouniotis Argirios; Nikitaras Nikitas; Mavrovounioti Chrysi; Fachantidou-Tsiligiroglou Anna; Deligiannis Asterios

    2016-01-01

      The purpose of the present research was to study the role of breakfast consumption and participation in extracurricular physical activity in the development of obesity in Greek students from 10 to 12 years old...

  18. Association of breakfast consumption with objectively measured and self-reported physical activity, sedentary time and physical fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Labayen, Idoia; González-Gross, Marcela; Moreno, Luis A; Gomez-Martinez, Sonia; Ciarapica, Donatella; Hallström, Lena; Wästlund, Acki; Molnar, Dénes; Gottrand, Frederic; Manios, Yannis; Widhalm, Kurt; Kafatos, Anthony; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Castillo, Manuel J

    2014-10-01

    To examine the association of breakfast consumption with objectively measured and self-reported physical activity, sedentary time and physical fitness. The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Cross-Sectional Study. Breakfast consumption was assessed by two non-consecutive 24 h recalls and by a 'Food Choices and Preferences' questionnaire. Physical activity, sedentary time and physical fitness components (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and speed/agility) were measured and self-reported. Socio-economic status was assessed by questionnaire. Ten European cities. Adolescents (n 2148; aged 12·5-17·5 years). Breakfast consumption was not associated with measured or self-reported physical activity. However, 24 h recall breakfast consumption was related to measured sedentary time in males and females; although results were not confirmed when using other methods to assess breakfast patterns or sedentary time. Breakfast consumption was not related to muscular fitness and speed/agility in males and females. However, male breakfast consumers had higher cardiorespiratory fitness compared with occasional breakfast consumers and breakfast skippers, while no differences were observed in females. Overall, results were consistent using different methods to assess breakfast consumption or cardiorespiratory fitness (all P ≤ 0·005). In addition, both male and female breakfast skippers (assessed by 24 h recall) were less likely to have high measured cardiorespiratory fitness compared with breakfast consumers (OR = 0·33; 95% CI 0·18, 0·59 and OR = 0·56; 95%CI 0·32, 0·98, respectively). Results persisted across methods. Skipping breakfast does not seem to be related to physical activity, sedentary time or muscular fitness and speed/agility as physical fitness components in European adolescents; yet it is associated with both measured and self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness, which extends previous findings.

  19. Comparison of the effects of acute exercise after overnight fasting and breakfast on energy substrate and hormone levels in obese men

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We compared the effects of acute aerobic exercise following overnight fasting and breakfast on energy substrate and hormone levels in obese male college students. [Subjects and Methods] This crossover study recruited 10 obese male college students with a body mass index >25 kg/m2 or >20% body fat. One week post-recruitment, the subjects exercised in the morning after an overnight fast. At 2 weeks, they exercised post-breakfast. Energy substrate (glucose, free fatty acid) and metabol...

  20. Commercial breakfast cereals available in Mexican markets and their contribution in dietary fiber, β-glucans and protein quality by rat bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Villa, María R; Barrón-Hoyos, Jesús M; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J

    2014-09-01

    The beneficial effect of dietary fiber (DF) consumption has long been recognized. The global economy and open market trade policies have increased the availability of food products in Mexican markets, resulting in a wide variety of ready-to-eat commercial breakfast cereals classified as 'high fiber'. This research was aimed to evaluate the total dietary fiber contents, its fractions (soluble and insoluble) and β-glucan in 13 commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals, as well as to evaluate their protein quality by rat bioassays. Commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals had 7.42-39.82% insoluble dietary fiber, 2.53-12.85% soluble dietary fiber, and 0.45-4.96% β-glucan. These ready-to-eat commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals differed significantly in their total dietary fiber, their soluble and insoluble DF fractions, and also in their β-glucan contents. When supplied as experimental diets, in 14-day rat feeding trials, the 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals showed an adverse effect on the % N digestibility but protein utilization, as measured as net protein ratio (NPR), was not significantly affected. The consumption of these commercial breakfast cereals, especially those made of oats as the basic ingredient, is highly recommended, since these products, being a concentrated source of dietary fiber, do not affect their protein quality.

  1. Effects of a viscous-fibre supplemented evening meal and the following un-supplemented breakfast on post-prandial satiety responses in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Mei Kei; Solah, Vicky A; Johnson, Stuart K; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; James, Anthony P; Fenton, Haelee K; Gahler, Roland J; Wood, Simon

    2016-02-01

    The post-prandial satiety response and "second-meal effect" of a viscous fibre supplement PolyGlycopleX(®) (PGX(®)) was evaluated in a single-blind, randomised controlled crossover study of 14 healthy adult women. The two hour post-prandial satiety response, expressed as the area under the curve (AUC) of perceived hunger/fullness score versus post-prandial time, of a standardised evening meal with concurrent intake of either PGX softgel or rice flour softgel (control) was determined. On the following morning, after an overnight fast, the four hour satiety response to a standardised breakfast with no softgel supplementation was assessed. A significantly higher satiety response (AUC) to the standard dinner for the PGX-supplemented dinner compared with the control dinner (p=0.001) was found. No significant difference (p=0.09) was observed in the satiety response (AUC) of the breakfast regardless of which supplemented-dinner had been consumed prior, however the p value indicated a trend towards a higher response to the breakfast following the PGX-supplemented dinner. The fullness scores of the breakfast following the PGX-supplemented dinner at 15, 30, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240min post-prandial were significantly higher than those for the breakfast following the control dinner (p=satiety effects of both the dinner itself and the subsequent un-supplemented breakfast; a "second meal effect" indicting the potential for this fibre supplement to induce extended satiety.

  2. Antioxidative effect of Assam Tea (Camellia sinesis Var. Assamica) extract on rice bran oil and its application in breakfast cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama-Ang, Niramon; Phawatwiangnak, Kamonyanun; Naruenartwongsakul, Srisuwan; Samakradhamrongthai, Rajnibhas

    2017-04-15

    The objectives of this research were to investigate the antioxidant effect of Assam tea extract (ATE) and whether it is fit to utilise ATE by fortification in rice bran breakfast cereal (RBC). The increasing ATE powder from 0.1 to 0.3mg/g affected to be decreased. The ATE powder at 0.3mg/g was proved to have decreased the hexanal content (0.21μg/ml) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (2.56μg/g) within 28days, and provided the highest antioxidant ability (EC50) (2481.44mg/kg). The fortified 0.3mg/g of ATE powder showed that increasing ATE significantly increased the total phenolic content and decreased TBARS and EC50 of breakfast cereal (ppurchase intention at 98.0% and 89.0%, respectively.

  3. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. DESIGN: Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs...... insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects....

  4. Biological effects of the ionizing radiation. Press breakfast; Effets biologiques des rayonnements ionisants. Petit dejeuner de presse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flury-Herard, A. [CEA, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, DSV, 75 - Paris (France); Boiteux, S.; Dutrillaux, B. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, DSV, 92 (France); Toledano, M. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, DSV, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2000-06-01

    This document brings together the subjects discussed during the Press breakfast of 29 june 2000 on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations, with scientists of the CEA and the CNRS. It presents the research programs and provides inquiries on the NDA operating to introduce the NDA damages by ionizing radiations, the possible repairs and the repair efficiency facing the carcinogenesis. Those researches allow the scientists to define laws on radiation protection. (A.L.B.)

  5. Europa Explorer Operational Scenarios Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Robert E.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Clark, Karla B.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, NASA conducted four advanced mission concept studies for outer planets targets: Europa, Ganymede, Titan and Enceladus. The studies were conducted in close cooperation with the planetary science community. Of the four, the Europa Explorer Concept Study focused on refining mission options, science trades and implementation details for a potential flagship mission to Europa in the 2015 timeframe. A science definition team (SDT) was appointed by NASA to guide the study. A JPL-led engineering team worked closely with the science team to address 3 major focus areas: 1) credible cost estimates, 2) rationale and logical discussion of radiation risk and mitigation approaches, and 3) better definition and exploration of science operational scenario trade space. This paper will address the methods and results of the collaborative process used to develop Europa Explorer operations scenarios. Working in concert with the SDT, and in parallel with the SDT's development of a science value matrix, key mission capabilities and constraints were challenged by the science and engineering members of the team. Science goals were advanced and options were considered for observation scenarios. Data collection and return strategies were tested via simulation, and mission performance was estimated and balanced with flight and ground system resources and science priorities. The key to this successful collaboration was a concurrent development environment in which all stakeholders could rapidly assess the feasibility of strategies for their success in the full system context. Issues of science and instrument compatibility, system constraints, and mission opportunities were treated analytically and objectively leading to complementary strategies for observation and data return. Current plans are that this approach, as part of the system engineering process, will continue as the Europa Explorer Concept Study moves toward becoming a development project.

  6. Scenarios for the future; Framtidsscenarier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegermark, H.; Bergmark, M.

    1995-06-01

    This project aims primarily to give a basis for the joint R and D program for the Swedish electric utility industry, in the form of pictures of the future up to 2020. The work was performed during four seminars in a group of managers and R and D planners. The four scenarios differ mainly in the assumptions of high or low economic growth and on market or political rule. Assumptions on essential uncertainties about the future have been combined in a consistent manner, e.g. on the structure of the utility industry, the role of nuclear power, the importance of the greenhouse gas issue, the influence of new technology developments and on changes of values in society. Certain other development appear in all scenarios, e.g. the impact of information technology throughout society, the internationalization of business in general and industrial production in particular, considerations for the environment and care for natural resources. The four scenarios are: `Technology on the throne` (market rule/high growth); `Intense competition` (market rule/low growth); `Monopoly takes over` (political rule/high growth); and `Green local society` (political rule/low growth). Some of the important factors pointed out by the study are: Increased customer mobility between regions and countries; The impact of information technology; Societal value changes; Sustainable development as an important driving force; Structure of the utility industry. Diversifying into new services. New players; Access to knowledge and competence; Ways for handling the greenhouse gas problem; Preparedness for nuclear power phase-out. 12 figs, 6 tabs

  7. Spent fuel receipt scenarios study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballou, L.B.; Montan, D.N.; Revelli, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during the fall of 1988. Subsequently, the scope of work was expanded and additional analyses were conducted in 1989. This report combines the results of the two phases of the activity. This study is a part of a broader effort to investigate the options available to the DOE and the nuclear utilities for selection of spent fuel for acceptance into the Federal Waste Management System for disposal. Each major element of the system has evaluated the effects of various options on its own operations, with the objective of providing the basis for performing system-wide trade-offs and determining an optimum acceptance scenario. Therefore, this study considers different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel by the repository only from the narrow perspective of their effect on the very-near-field temperatures in the repository following permanent closure. This report is organized into three main sections. The balance of this section is devoted to a statement of the study objective, a summary of the assumptions. The second section of the report contains a discussion of the major elements of the study. The third section summarizes the results of the study and draws some conclusions from them. The appendices include copies of the waste acceptance schedule and the existing and projected spent fuel inventory that were used in the study. 10 refs., 27 figs.

  8. Effectiveness of Educational Intervention Based on Theory of Planned Behavior for Increasing Breakfast Consumption among High School Students in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadimanesh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Breakfast, the first meal of the day, provides children and adolescents with adequate nutrients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an educational intervention to increase breakfast consumption among high school students in Hamadan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 140 high school students (70 in the intervention group, 70 in the control group, selected by random sampling method. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire containing items on demographic characteristics, and constructs of the TPB. In both groups, the questionnaires were filled out through interviews before and two months after the intervention. Participants in the intervention group received three sessions of training based on the constructs of the TPB. Data were analyzed in SPSS-19 using inferential statistics, such as the independent t-test, paired t-test and chi-square test. Results: The findings showed that the mean score of the constructs of the TPB (attitude toward the behavior, perceived behavior control and behavioral intention in the intervention group did not significantly change after the intervention. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is necessary that training programs for increasing breakfast consumption be conducted for longer periods and using other theories.

  9. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1-3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fumonisins and trichothecenes showed no health risks to the children population considering individual mycotoxins, while exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suggested a potential health concern for the high percentiles of intake (P90, P95 and P99). The combined exposure to fumonisins and trichothecenes are not expected to be of health concern. The combined margin of exposure (MoET) for the aflatoxins group could constitute a potential health concern and AFB1 was the main contributor for MoET. Legal limits and control strategies regarding the presence of multiple mycotoxins in foodstuffs is an urgent need. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a cumulative risk assessment was performed on multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children.

  10. Effects of waking time and breakfast intake prior to evaluation of psychomotor performance in the early morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougard, Clément; Moussay, Sébastien; Gauthier, Antoine; Espié, Stéphane; Davenne, Damien

    2009-02-01

    Many studies conducted in the field of chronobiology report diurnal fluctuation in cognitive and physical performance that occurs in phase with the body temperature circadian rhythm. Waking time and whether or not breakfast is consumed are currently considered to influence the diurnal fluctuation in data collected in the morning at 06:00 h and evening at 18:00 h. Nineteen male subjects participated in four test sessions to examine if wake-up time (04:00 h or 05:00 h) and eating or not eating breakfast influence psychomotor performance capacity at 06:00 h. All four sessions were separated by >/=36 h and were completed in a counterbalanced order. Each test session comprised sign cancellation, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, simple reaction time, and manual dexterity tests. Most of the results indicate that psychomotor performance when evaluated at 06:00 h under each of the four different study situations (two waking times and two breakfast conditions) is not statistically significantly different. Consequently, previous results that documented diurnal fluctuations in morning and evening performance capacities, with test sessions at 06:00 h, are confirmed. Being less efficient in the early morning than in the afternoon potentially exposes people to elevated risk of accident and injury at this time of the day. Prior waking time and/or consumption of a light meal, plus other countermeasures mentioned in the literature, are insufficient to prevent this risk.

  11. Effects of waking time and breakfast intake prior to evaluation of physical performance in the early morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougard, Clement; Bessot, Nicolas; Moussay, Sebastien; Sesboue, Bruno; Gauthier, Antoine

    2009-02-01

    Diurnal variation in both core body temperature and indicators of physical performance are usually observed when measures are taken at 06:00 and 18:00 h. However, differences have been reported between findings in the literature; this may be in some part due to methodological reasons, such as if the experimenter allowed subjects to eat breakfast before the morning 06:00 h session, or even the waking time of subjects. Eleven diurnally active male subjects participated in four test sessions to examine if the time of morning wakening (04:00 or 05:00 h) and eating or not eating breakfast influence body temperature, flexibility, force production, and aerobic performance at 06:00 h. All four sessions were separated by > or = 36 h and were completed in a counterbalanced order. Each test session comprised a sit-and-reach test, an arm maximal voluntary torque evaluation (isometric, concentric at 1.05 rad.s(-1) and at 4.19 rad.s(-1)), and a 10 min all-out cycle ergometer test. Our results indicate the effects of waking time or food intake depend on the parameter tested. Consequently, we advise researchers to take care in experimental design and to at least standardize the time of awakening and consumption of breakfast.

  12. Breakfast, plasma glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, body mass index and academic performance in children from Extremadura, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Carmona, I; Campillo, C; Pérez, G; Campillo, J E

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional aspects of breakfast, plasma levels of glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, body mass index and academic performance have been studied in urban and rural children (Extremadura, Spain). Representative samples of schoolchildren (3 to 12 years old, random cluster-sampling in schools). Children's mean caloric intake with breakfast was 331 kcal. Rural population ingested more carbohydrates (46,9 +/- 12,3% versus 43,3 +/- 13,2% of the total caloric intake) and fewer lipids (40,5 +/- 11,8% versus 43,9 +/- 12,8% of the total caloric intake) than the urban population. Academic performance was significantly better in the children inhabiting the rural zone than in those of the urban zone. The glycaemia was higher in the urban than in the rural children, and that the contrary was the case for the beta-hydroxybutyrate values. Neither glucose nor beta-hydroxybutyrate levels were correlated with academic performance values. BMI was significantly increased in the urban versus rural children. The present results emphasize the importance of breakfast and life style in the weight and the academic performance of children.

  13. Examining Guidelines for School-Based Breakfast Programs in Canada: A Systematic Review of the Grey Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Katelyn M; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Hanning, Rhona M; Stapleton, Jackie; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-02-01

    School breakfast programs are widespread and serve varying objectives regarding youth health promotion. Evidence-based guidelines for breakfast programs may be important in maximizing their effectiveness related to student outcomes, yet it is unclear what is available in Canada. A systematic review was conducted to identify and compare Canadian guidelines related to breakfast programs. Data sources included grey literature databases, customized search engines, targeted websites, and content expert consultations. Eligible guidelines met the following criteria: government and nongovernment sources at the federal and provincial/territorial levels, current version, and intended for program coordinators. Recommendations for program delivery were extracted, categorized, and mapped onto the 4 environments outlined in the ANGELO framework, and they were classified as "common" or "inconsistent" across guidelines. Fifteen sets of guidelines were included. No guidelines were available from federal or territorial governments and 4 provincial governments. There were few references to peer-reviewed literature within the guidelines and despite many common recommendations for program delivery, conflicting recommendations were also identified. Potential barriers to program participation, including a lack of consideration of allergies and other dietary restrictions, were identified. Future research should identify how guidelines are implemented and evaluate what effect their implementation has on program delivery and student outcomes.

  14. Central Nervous Insulin Administration before Nocturnal Sleep Decreases Breakfast Intake in Healthy Young and Elderly Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, João C. P.; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral insulin acts on the brain to regulate metabolic functions, in particular decreasing food intake and body weight. This concept has been supported by studies in humans relying on the intranasal route of administration, a method that permits the direct permeation of insulin into the CNS without substantial absorption into the blood stream. We investigated if intranasal insulin administration before nocturnal sleep, a period of reduced metabolic activity and largely absent external stimulation, affects food intake and energy turnover on the subsequent morning. Healthy participants who were either young (16 men and 16 women; mean age ± SEM, 23.68 ± 0.40 years, mean BMI ± SEM, 22.83 ± 0.33 kg/m2) or elderly (10 men, 9 women; 70.79 ± 0.81 years, 25.27 ± 0.60 kg/m2) were intranasally administered intranasal insulin (160 IU) or placebo before a night of regular sleep that was polysomnographically recorded. Blood was repeatedly sampled for the determination of circulating glucose, insulin, leptin and total ghrelin. In the morning, energy expenditure was assessed via indirect calorimetry and subjects were offered a large standardized breakfast buffet from which they could eat ad libitum. Insulin compared to placebo reduced breakfast size by around 110 kcal (1,054.43 ± 50.91 vs. 1,162.36 ± 64.69 kcal, p = 0.0095), in particular decreasing carbohydrate intake (502.70 ± 25.97 vs. 589.82 ± 35.03 kcal, p = 0.0080). This effect was not dependent on sex or age (all p > 0.11). Sleep architecture, blood glucose and hormonal parameters as well as energy expenditure were not or only marginally affected. Results show that intranasal insulin administered to healthy young and elderly humans before sleep exerts a delayed inhibitory effect on energy intake that is not compensated for by changes in energy expenditure. While the exact underlying mechanisms cannot be derived from our data, findings indicate a long-lasting catabolic effect of central nervous insulin delivery

  15. Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

  16. Scenario Development for Information Operations (IO) Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-10

    country called DYSLEXIA , whose government has been making threats to invade and appropriate a region of its neighbouring country, ABSTEMIA, which is...Network Measures and Metrics 18 Conclusion Scenarios - Tailoring, Framework, Families of Scenario Experiments - Measures, Humans, Objectives Networks

  17. Polar Gateways Arctic Circle Sunrise Conference 2008, Barrow, Alaska: IHY-IPY Outreach on Exploration of Polar and Icy Worlds in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Kauristie, Kirsti; Weatherwax, Allan T.; Sheehan, Glenn W.; Smith, Roger W.; Sandahl, Ingrid; Ostgaard, Nikolai; Chernouss, Sergey; Thompson, Barbara J.; Peticolas, Laura; Moore, Marla H.; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie K.; Lewis, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    Polar, heliophysical, and planetary science topics related to the International Heliophysical and Polar Years 2007-2009 were addressed during this circumpolar video conference hosted January 23-29, 2808 at the new Barrow Arctic Research Center of the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium in Barrow, Alaska. This conference was planned as an IHY-IPY event science outreach event bringing together scientists and educational specialists for the first week of sunrise at subzero Arctic temperatures in Barrow. Science presentations spanned the solar system from the polar Sun to Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the Kuiper Belt. On-site participants experienced look and feel of icy worlds like Europa and Titan by being in the Barrow tundra and sea ice environment and by going "on the ice" during snowmobile expeditions to the near-shore sea ice environment and to Point Barrow, closest geographic point in the U.S. to the North Pole. Many science presentations were made remotely via video conference or teleconference from Sweden, Norway, Russia, Canada, Antarctica, and the United States, spanning up to thirteen time zones (Alaska to Russia) at various times. Extensive educational outreach activities were conducted with the local Barrow and Alaska North Slope communities and through the NASA Digital Learning Network live from the "top of the world" at Barrow. The Sun- Earth Day team from Goddard, and a videographer from the Passport to Knowledge project, carried out extensive educational interviews with many participants and native Inupiaq Eskimo residents of Barrow. Video and podcast recordings of selected interviews are available at http://sunearthday.nasa.gov/2008/multimedidpodcasts.php. Excerpts from these and other interviews will be included in a new high definition video documentary called "From the Sun to the Stars: The New Science of Heliophysics" from Passport to Knowledge that will later broadcast on NASA TV and other educational networks. Full conference

  18. Scenario Development for the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, M.; Gupta, H.; Stewart, S.; Liu, Y.; Hartmann, H.; Wagener, T.

    2006-12-01

    The primary goal of employing a scenario development approach for the U.S. southwest is to inform regional policy by examining future possibilities related to regional vegetation change, water-leasing, and riparian restoration. This approach is necessary due to a lack of existing explicit water resources application of scenarios to the entire southwest region. A formal approach for scenario development is adopted and applied towards water resources issues within the arid and semi-arid regions of the U.S. southwest following five progressive and reiterative phases: scenario definition, scenario construction, scenario analysis, scenario assessment, and risk management. In the scenario definition phase, the inputs of scientists, modelers, and stakeholders were collected in order to define and construct relevant scenarios to the southwest and its water sustainability needs. From stakeholder-driven scenario workshops and breakout sessions, the three main axes of principal change were identified to be climate change, population development patterns, and quality of information monitoring technology. Based on the extreme and varying conditions of these three main axes, eight scenario narratives were drafted to describe the state of each scenario's respective future and the events which led to it. Events and situations are described within each scenario narrative with respect to key variables; variables that are both important to regional water resources (as distinguished by scientists and modelers), and are good tracking and monitoring indicators of change. The current phase consists of scenario construction, where the drafted scenarios are re-presented to regional scientists and modelers to verify that proper key variables are included (or excluded) from the eight narratives. The next step is to construct the data sets necessary to implement the eight scenarios on the respective computational models of modelers investigating vegetation change, water-leasing, and riparian

  19. The Narrative Aspect of Scenario Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2008-01-01

    The application of narrative scenarios in engineering or socio-technical systems provides an important link between general ideas and specification of technical system requirements. The chapter explores how the narrative approach can enrich the scenario 'skeleton. In addition, criteria are sugges......The application of narrative scenarios in engineering or socio-technical systems provides an important link between general ideas and specification of technical system requirements. The chapter explores how the narrative approach can enrich the scenario 'skeleton. In addition, criteria...

  20. Development and Change through Scenario Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermack, Thomas J.; Walton, John S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of scenario planning as a development and change intervention. To do so, this article provides an overview of scenario planning and an overview of development and change in organizations. The article then builds on the philosophical orientations of development and change through scenario planning introducing the…