WorldWideScience

Sample records for sunphotometer csphot principal

  1. Cimel Sunphotometer (CSPHOT) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, L

    2011-01-17

    The Cimel sunphotometer (CSPHOT) is a multi-channel, automatic sun-and-sky scanning radiometer that measures the direct solar irradiance and sky radiance at the Earth’s surface. Measurements are taken at pre-determined discrete wavelengths in the visible and near-IR parts of the spectrum to determine atmospheric transmission and scattering properties. This instrument is weather-proof and requires little maintenance during periods of adverse weather conditions. It takes measurements only during daylight hours (sun above horizon).

  2. High Precision Sunphotometer using Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) Camera Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, J.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; Chang, C. S.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Pistone, K.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Fahey, L.

    2016-12-01

    High Precision Sunphotometer using Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) Camera TrackingThe NASA Ames Sun-photometer-Satellite Group, DOE, PNNL Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, and NASA Goddard's AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) team recently collaborated on the development of a new airborne sunphotometry instrument that provides information on gases and aerosols extending far beyond what can be derived from discrete-channel direct-beam measurements, while preserving or enhancing many of the desirable AATS features (e.g., compactness, versatility, automation, reliability). The enhanced instrument combines the sun-tracking ability of the current 14-Channel NASA Ames AATS-14 with the sky-scanning ability of the ground-based AERONET Sun/sky photometers, while extending both AATS-14 and AERONET capabilities by providing full spectral information from the UV (350 nm) to the SWIR (1,700 nm). Strengths of this measurement approach include many more wavelengths (isolated from gas absorption features) that may be used to characterize aerosols and detailed (oversampled) measurements of the absorption features of specific gas constituents. The Sky Scanning Sun Tracking Airborne Radiometer (3STAR) replicates the radiometer functionality of the AATS-14 instrument but incorporates modern COTS technologies for all instruments subsystems. A 19-channel radiometer bundle design is borrowed from a commercial water column radiance instrument manufactured by Biospherical Instruments of San Diego California (ref, Morrow and Hooker)) and developed using NASA funds under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. The 3STAR design also incorporates the latest in robotic motor technology embodied in Rotary actuators from Oriental motor Corp. having better than 15 arc seconds of positioning accuracy. Control system was designed, tested and simulated using a Hybrid-Dynamical modeling methodology. The design also replaces the classic quadrant detector tracking sensor with a

  3. Intercomparison between aerosol optical properties by a PREDE skyradiometer and CIMEL sunphotometer over Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Che

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the aerosol optical and physical properties simultaneously measured by a SKYNET PREDE skyradiometer and AERONET/PHOTONS CIMEL sunphotometer at a location in Beijing, China. Aerosol optical properties (AOP including the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, Angstrom exponent (α, volume size distribution, single scattering albedo (ω and the complex refractive index were compared. The difference between the two types of instruments was less than 1.3% for the AOD and less than 4% for the single scattering albedo below the wavelength of 670 nm. There is a difference between the volume size distribution patterns derived from two instruments, which is probably due to difference of measurement protocols and inversion algorithms for the respective instruments.

    AOP under three distinct weather conditions (background, haze, and dust days over Beijing were compared by using the retrieved skyradiometer and sunphotometer data combined with MODIS satellite results, pyranometer measurements, PM10 measurements, and backtrajectory analysis. The results show that the significant difference of AOP under background, haze, and dust days over Beijing is probably due to different aerosol components under distinct weather conditions.

  4. Comparison of Aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from AERONET sunphotometer and Lidar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khor, Wei Ying; Hee, Wan Shen; Tan, Fuyi; Lim, Hwee San; Jafri, Mohamad Zubir Mat; Holben, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is the measure of aerosols distributed within a column of air from the instrument or Earth's surface to the top of the atmosphere. In this paper, we compared the AOD measured by the Raymetrics Lidar system and AERONET sunphotometer. A total of 6 days data which was collected by both instruments were compiled and compared. Generally, AOD value calculated from Lidar data are higher than that calculated from AERONET data. Differences and similarities in the AOD data trend were observed and the corresponding explanations were done. Level 1.5 data of AERONET is estimated to have an accuracy of ±0.03, thus the Lidar data should follow the trend of the AERONET. But in this regards, this study was conducted less than one month and was very difficult to justify the differences and similarities between AOD measured by the Raymetrics Lidar system and AERONET sunphotometer. So further studies for an extended period will be needed and performed with more comprehensive LIDAR measurements. The slope of the best-fit straight line for the data points between the AOD values retrieved from LIDAR and the AERONET measurements is the closest to unity and the coefficient of determination is high (above 0. 6692). Factors which affect AOD data were discussed. As a conclusion, the trends of the AOD of both systems are similar. Yet due to some external factors, the trend will be slightly different

  5. Hand-Held Sunphotometers for High School Student Construction and Measuring Aerosol Optical Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonor, Linda; Baldwin, C.; Craig, R.; Johnson, L. P.

    2000-01-01

    Science education is taking the teaching of science from a traditional (lecture) approach to a multidimensional sense-making approach which allows teachers to support students by providing exploratory experiences. Using projects is one way of providing students with opportunities to observe and participate in sense-making activity. We created a learning environment that fostered inquiry-based learning. Students were engaged in a variety of Inquiry activities that enabled them to work in cooperative planning teams where respect for each other was encouraged and their ability to grasp, transform and transfer information was enhanced. Summer, 1998: An air pollution workshop was conducted for high school students in the Medgar Evers College/Middle College High School Liberty Partnership Summer Program. Students learned the basics of meteorology: structure and composition of the atmosphere and the processes that cause weather. The highlight of this workshop was the building of hand-held sunphotometers, which measure the intensity of the sunlight striking the Earth. Summer, 1999: high school students conducted a research project which measured the mass and size of ambient particulates and enhanced our ability to observe through land based measurements changes in the optical depth of ambient aerosols over Brooklyn. Students used hand held Sunphotometers to collect data over a two week period and entered it into the NASA GISS database by way of the internet.

  6. Intercomparison of Aerosol Optical Depth from Brewer Ozone spectrophotometers and CIMEL sunphotometers measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cheymol

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Langley plot method applied on the Brewer Ozone measurements can provide accurate Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD in the UV-B. We present seven intercomparisons between AOD retrieved from Brewer Ozone measurements at 320 nm and AOD measured by CIMEL sunphotometer at 340 nm or 440 nm (shifted to 320 nm in using the Angström's law, which are stored in the international AERONET database. Only the intercomparisons between co-located instruments can be used to validate the Langley Plot Method applied to the Brewer measurements: in this case, all the correlation coefficients are above 0.82. If the instruments are not at the same site, the correlation between the AOD retrieved by both instruments is much lower. In applying the Angström's law the intercomparison is improved compared to previous study.

  7. Analysis of shipboard aerosol optical thickness measurements from multiple sunphotometers aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the Aerosol Characterization Experiment - Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Mark A.; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Frouin, Robert; Bartholomew, Mary Jane; Reynolds, R. Michael; Pietras, Christophe; Fargion, Giulietta; Quinn, Patricia; Thieuleux, Francois

    2005-01-01

    Marine sunphotometer measurements collected aboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown during the Aerosol Characterization Experiment - Asia (ACE-Asia) are used to evaluate the ability of complementary instrumentation to obtain the best possible estimates of aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent from ships at sea. A wide range of aerosol conditions, including clean maritime conditions and highly polluted coastal environments, were encountered during the ACE-Asia cruise. The results of this study suggest that shipboard hand-held sunphotometers and fast-rotating shadow-band radiometers (FRSRs) yield similar measurements and uncertainties if proper measurement protocols are used and if the instruments are properly calibrated. The automated FRSR has significantly better temporal resolution (2 min) than the hand-held sunphotometers when standard measurement protocols are used, so it more faithfully represents the variability of the local aerosol structure in polluted regions. Conversely, results suggest that the hand-held sunphotometers may perform better in clean, maritime air masses for unknown reasons. Results also show that the statistical distribution of the Angstrom exponent measurements is different when the distributions from hand-held sunphotometers are compared with those from the FRSR and that the differences may arise from a combination of factors

  8. Development of a Low Cost Microcontroller-Enabled Handheld Sunphotometer and Comparison with NASA AERONET and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krintz, I. A.; Ruble, W.; Sherman, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite-based measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD), such as those made by NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the TERRA and AQUA spacecraft, are often used in studies of aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) on regional to global scales due to daily near-global coverage. However, these measurements require validation by ground-based instrumentation, which is limited due to the cost of research-grade instrumentation. Furthermore, satellite-based AOD agreement with "ground-truth" instruments is weaker over mountainous regions (Levy et al., 2010). To aid in satellite validation, a low cost handheld sunphotometer has been developed which will be suitable for deployment to multiple sites to form a citizen science network as part of an upcoming proposal. A microcontroller, along with temperature and pressure sensors, has been included in this design to ease the process of taking measurements and transferring data for processing. Although LED-based sunphotometers have been used for a number of years (Brooks and Mims, 2001), this design uses filtered photodiodes which appear to have less of a temperature dependence. The interface has been designed to be intuitive to citizen scientists of all ages, nationalities, and backgrounds, so that deployment to primary schools and international sites will be as seamless as possible. Presented here is the instrument design, as well as initial results of a comparison with NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and MODIS-measured AOD. Future revisions to the instrument design, such as incorporation of surface-mount devices to cut down on circuit board size, will allow for an even smaller and more cost effective solution suitable for a global sunphotometer network.

  9. Principal Ports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Principal Ports are defined by port limits or US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) projects, these exclude non-USACE projects not authorized for publication. The...

  10. Principal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal

  11. Application of the Garrlic Algorithm for the Characterization of Dust and Marine Particles Utilizing the Lidar-Sunphotometer Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsekeri Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of studying the vertical distribution of aerosol plumes is prominent in regional and climate studies. The new Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data algorithm (GARRLiC provides this opportunity combining active and passive ground-based remote sensing from lidar and sunphotometer measurements. Here, we utilize GARRLiC capabilities for the characterization of Saharan dust and marine particles at the Eastern Mediterranean region during the Characterization of Aerosol mixtures of Dust And Marine origin Experiment (CHARADMExp. Two different case studies are presented, a dust-dominated case which we managed to characterize successfully in terms of the particle microphysical properties and their vertical distribution and a case of two separate layers of marine and dust particles for which the characterization proved to be more challenging.

  12. Evaluation of VIIRS, GOCI, and MODIS Collection 6 AOD retrievals against ground sunphotometer observations over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Q.; Zhang, H.; Choi, M.; Li, S.; Kondragunta, S.; Kim, J.; Holben, B.; Levy, R. C.; Liu, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Persistent high aerosol loadings together with extremely high population densities have raised serious air quality and public health concerns in many urban centers in East Asia. However, ground-based air quality monitoring is relatively limited in this area. Recently, satellite-retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at high resolution has become a powerful tool to characterize aerosol patterns in space and time. Using ground AOD observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-Asia Campaign, as well as from handheld sunphotometers, we evaluated emerging aerosol products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) aboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite (COMS), and Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (Collection 6) in East Asia in 2012 and 2013. In the case study in Beijing, when compared with AOD observations from handheld sunphotometers, 51 % of VIIRS Environmental Data Record (EDR) AOD, 37 % of GOCI AOD, 33 % of VIIRS Intermediate Product (IP) AOD, 26 % of Terra MODIS C6 3 km AOD, and 16 % of Aqua MODIS C6 3 km AOD fell within the reference expected error (EE) envelope (±0.05 ± 0.15 AOD). Comparing against AERONET AOD over the Japan-South Korea region, 64 % of EDR, 37 % of IP, 61 % of GOCI, 39 % of Terra MODIS, and 56 % of Aqua MODIS C6 3 km AOD fell within the EE. In general, satellite aerosol products performed better in tracking the day-to-day variability than tracking the spatial variability at high resolutions. The VIIRS EDR and GOCI products provided the most accurate AOD retrievals, while VIIRS IP and MODIS C6 3 km products had positive biases.

  13. Evaluation of VIIRS, GOCI, and MODIS Collection 6 AOD Retrievals Against Ground Sunphotometer Observations Over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Q.; Zhang, H.; Choi, M.; Li, S.; Kondragunta, S.; Kim, J.; Holben, B.; Levy, R. C.; Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent high aerosol loadings together with extremely high population densities have raised serious air quality and public health concerns in many urban centers in East Asia. However, ground-based air quality monitoring is relatively limited in this area. Recently, satellite-retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at high resolution has become a powerful tool to characterize aerosol patterns in space and time. Using ground AOD observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-Asia Campaign, as well as from handheld sunphotometers, we evaluated emerging aerosol products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) aboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite (COMS), and Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (Collection 6) in East Asia in 2012 and 2013. In the case study in Beijing, when compared with AOD observations from handheld sunphotometers, 51% of VIIRS Environmental Data Record (EDR) AOD, 37% of GOCI AOD, 33% of VIIRS Intermediate Product (IP) AOD, 26% of Terra MODIS C6 3km AOD, and 16% of Aqua MODIS C6 3km AOD fell within the reference expected error (EE) envelope (+/-0.05/+/- 0.15 AOD). Comparing against AERONET AOD over the JapanSouth Korea region, 64% of EDR, 37% of IP, 61% of GOCI, 39% of Terra MODIS, and 56% of Aqua MODIS C6 3km AOD fell within the EE. In general, satellite aerosol products performed better in tracking the day-to-day variability than tracking the spatial variability at high resolutions. The VIIRS EDR and GOCI products provided the most accurate AOD retrievals, while VIIRS IP and MODIS C6 3km products had positive biases.

  14. The Potential of The Synergy of Sunphotometer and Lidar Data to Validate Vertical Profiles of The Aerosol Mass Concentration Estimated by An Air Quality Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomos N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of the aerosol mass concentration derived by the Lidar/Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC, that uses combined sunphotometer and lidar data, were used in order to validate the aerosol mass concentration profiles estimated by the air quality model CAMx. Lidar and CIMEL measurements performed at the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece (40.5N, 22.9E from the period 2013-2014 were used in this study.

  15. Evaluation of VIIRS, GOCI, and MODIS Collection 6 AOD retrievals against ground sunphotometer observations over East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Persistent high aerosol loadings together with extremely high population densities have raised serious air quality and public health concerns in many urban centers in East Asia. However, ground-based air quality monitoring is relatively limited in this area. Recently, satellite-retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD at high resolution has become a powerful tool to characterize aerosol patterns in space and time. Using ground AOD observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET and the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON-Asia Campaign, as well as from handheld sunphotometers, we evaluated emerging aerosol products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP, the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI aboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite (COMS, and Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS (Collection 6 in East Asia in 2012 and 2013. In the case study in Beijing, when compared with AOD observations from handheld sunphotometers, 51 % of VIIRS Environmental Data Record (EDR AOD, 37 % of GOCI AOD, 33 % of VIIRS Intermediate Product (IP AOD, 26 % of Terra MODIS C6 3 km AOD, and 16 % of Aqua MODIS C6 3 km AOD fell within the reference expected error (EE envelope (±0.05 ± 0.15 AOD. Comparing against AERONET AOD over the Japan–South Korea region, 64 % of EDR, 37 % of IP, 61 % of GOCI, 39 % of Terra MODIS, and 56 % of Aqua MODIS C6 3 km AOD fell within the EE. In general, satellite aerosol products performed better in tracking the day-to-day variability than tracking the spatial variability at high resolutions. The VIIRS EDR and GOCI products provided the most accurate AOD retrievals, while VIIRS IP and MODIS C6 3 km products had positive biases.

  16. Redesigning Principal Internships: Practicing Principals' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anast-May, Linda; Buckner, Barbara; Geer, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Internship programs too often do not provide the types of experiences that effectively bridge the gap between theory and practice and prepare school leaders who are capable of leading and transforming schools. To help address this problem, the current study is directed at providing insight into practicing principals' views of the types of…

  17. What Motivates Principals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, Ron

    1973-01-01

    Achievement and recognition were mentioned as factors appearing with greater frequency in principal's job satisfactions; school district policy and interpersonal relations were mentioned as job dissatisfactions. (Editor)

  18. Principal Ports and Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Principal Port file contains USACE port codes, geographic locations (longitude, latitude), names, and commodity tonnage summaries (total tons, domestic, foreign,...

  19. Principal Ports and Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Principal Port file contains USACE port codes, geographic locations (longitude, latitude), names, and commodity tonnage summaries (total tons, domestic, foreign,...

  20. Principals' Perceptions of Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…

  1. Renewing the Principal Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Brenda J.

    2015-01-01

    The work principals do has always mattered, but as the demands of the job increase, it matters even more. Perhaps once they could maintain safety and order and call it a day, but no longer. Successful principals today must also lead instruction and nurture a productive learning community for students, teachers, and staff. They set the tone for the…

  2. In-situ, sunphotometer and Raman lidar observations of aerosol transport events in the western Mediterranean during the June 2013 ChArMEx campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totems, Julien; Sicard, Michael; Bertolin, Santi; Boytard, Mai-Lan; Chazette, Patrick; Comeron, Adolfo; Dulac, Francois; Hassanzadeh, Sahar; Lange, Diego; Marnas, Fabien; Munoz, Constantino; Shang, Xiaoxia

    2014-05-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of aerosol observations performed in June 2013 in the western Mediterranean at two stations set up in Barcelona and Menorca (Spain) in the framework of the ChArMEx (Chemistry Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) project. The Barcelona station was equipped with the following fixed instruments belonging to the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC): an AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sun-photometer, an MPL (Micro Pulse Lidar) lidar and the UPC multi-wavelength lidar. The MPL lidar works at 532 nm and has a depolarization channel, while the UPC lidar works at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, and also includes two N2- (at 387 and 607 nm) and one H2O-Raman (at 407 nm) channels. The MPL system works continuously 24 hour/day. The UPC system was operated on alert in coordination with the research aircrafts plans involved in the campaign. In Cap d'en Font, Menorca, the mobile laboratory of the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement hosted an automated (AERONET) and a manual (Microtops) 5-lambda sunphotometer, a 3-lambda nephelometer, a 7-lambda aethalometer, as well as the LSCE Water vapor Aerosol LIdar (WALI). This mini Raman lidar, first developed and validated for the HyMEX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment) campaign in 2012, works at 355 nm for eye safety and is designed with a short overlap distance (the lower troposphere. It includes depolarization, N2- and H2O-Raman channels. H2O observations have been calibrated on-site by different methods and show good agreement with balloon measurements. Observations at Cap d'en Font were quasi-continuous from June 10th to July 3rd, 2013. The lidar data at both stations helped direct the research aircrafts and balloon launches to interesting plumes of particles in real time for in-situ measurements. Among some light pollution background from the European continent, a typical Saharan dust event and an unusual American dust/biomass burning event are highlighted in our

  3. Retrievals of aerosol optical depth and Angström exponent from ground-based Sun-photometer data of Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Santo V; Chew, Boon N; Liew, Soo C

    2009-03-10

    The role of aerosols in climate and climate change is one of the factors that is least understood at the present. Aerosols' direct interaction with solar radiation is a well understood mechanism that affects Earth's net radiative forcing. However, quantifying its magnitude is more problematic because of the temporal and spatial variability of aerosol particles. To enhance our understanding of the radiative effects of aerosols on the global climate, Singapore has joined the AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) worldwide network by contributing ground-based direct Sun measurements performed by means of a multiwavelength Sun-photometer instrument. Data are collected on an hourly basis, then are uploaded to be fully screened and quality assured by AERONET. We use a one year data record (level 1.5/2.0) of measured columnar atmospheric optical depth, spanning from November 2006 to October 2007, to study the monthly and seasonal variability of the aerosol optical depth and the Angström exponent. We performed independent retrievals of these parameters (aerosol optical depth and Angström exponent) by using the photometer's six available bands covering the near-UV to near-IR (380-1080 nm). As a validation, our independent retrievals were compared with AERONET 1.5/2.0 level direct Sun product.

  4. Comparison of the Changes in the Visible and Infrared Irradiance Observed by the SunPhotometers on EURECA to the UARS Total Solar and UV Irradiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Judit

    1995-01-01

    Solar irradiance in the near-UV (335 nm), visible (500 nm) and infrared (778 nm) spectral bands has been measured by the SunPhotometers developed at the World Radiation Center, Davos, Switzerland on board the European Retrievable Carrier between August 1992 and May 1993. Study of the variations in the visible and infrared irradiance is important for both solar and atmospheric physics. The purpose of this paper is to examine the temporal variations observed in the visible and infrared spectral bands after eliminating the trend in the data mainly related to instrument degradation. The effect of active regions in these spectral irradiances is clearly resolved. Variations in the visible and infrared irradiances are compared to total solar irradiance observed by the SOVA2 radiometer on the EURECA platform and by the ACRIMII radiometer on UARS as well as to UV observations of the UARS and NOAA9 satellites. The space-borne spectral irradiance observations are compared to the photometric sunspot deficit and CaII K irradiance measured at the San Fernando Observatory, California State University at Northridge in order to study the effect of active regions in detail.

  5. Multiscale principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinduko, A A; Gorban, A N

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is an important tool in exploring data. The conventional approach to PCA leads to a solution which favours the structures with large variances. This is sensitive to outliers and could obfuscate interesting underlying structures. One of the equivalent definitions of PCA is that it seeks the subspaces that maximize the sum of squared pairwise distances between data projections. This definition opens up more flexibility in the analysis of principal components which is useful in enhancing PCA. In this paper we introduce scales into PCA by maximizing only the sum of pairwise distances between projections for pairs of datapoints with distances within a chosen interval of values [l,u]. The resulting principal component decompositions in Multiscale PCA depend on point (l,u) on the plane and for each point we define projectors onto principal components. Cluster analysis of these projectors reveals the structures in the data at various scales. Each structure is described by the eigenvectors at the medoid point of the cluster which represent the structure. We also use the distortion of projections as a criterion for choosing an appropriate scale especially for data with outliers. This method was tested on both artificial distribution of data and real data. For data with multiscale structures, the method was able to reveal the different structures of the data and also to reduce the effect of outliers in the principal component analysis

  6. Principal noncommutative torus bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Echterhoff, Siegfried; Nest, Ryszard; Oyono-Oyono, Herve

    2008-01-01

    of bivariant K-theory (denoted RKK-theory) due to Kasparov. Using earlier results of Echterhoff and Williams, we shall give a complete classification of principal non-commutative torus bundles up to equivariant Morita equivalence. We then study these bundles as topological fibrations (forgetting the group...

  7. The Principal as CEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollar, Charlie

    2004-01-01

    They may never grace the pages of The Wall Street Journal or Fortune magazine, but they might possibly be the most important CEOs in our country. They are elementary school principals. Each of them typically serves the learning needs of 350-400 clients (students) while overseeing a multimillion-dollar facility staffed by 20-25 teachers and 10-15…

  8. Euler principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liwicki, Stephan; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is perhaps the most prominent learning tool for dimensionality reduction in pattern recognition and computer vision. However, the ℓ 2-norm employed by standard PCA is not robust to outliers. In this paper, we propose a kernel PCA method for fast and robust PCA,

  9. A comparison of the physical properties of desert dust retrieved from the sunphotometer observation of major events in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The objective of this work is to assess the variability of the size-distribution, real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the refractive index, asymmetry parameter (g), and single scattering albedo (SSA) of desert dust events observed in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula areas. For this we use the level-2 inversions of 14 AERONET sunphotometers representative of the area of study. In the dataset, the dust-dominated events are discriminated on the basis of their large optical depth and low (<. 0.3) Ångström exponent (α) calculated between 440. nm and 870. nm. In all the volume size-distributions a coarse mode (CM) of particles is observed but a fine mode (FM) of particles with radii. <. 0.2. μm is also present. The volume fraction represented by the FM is lower (3%) during the most intense dust storms than during moderate ones (12%). The inter-site variability of the characteristics of the CM-dominated situations is found to be non-significant and at 440, 675, 870, and 1020. nm a common set of values can be adopted for n (1.54 ± 0.03, 1.53 ± 0.02, 1.50 ± 0.02, 1.48 ± 0.02), k (0.0037 ± 0.0007, 0.0012 ± 0.0002, 0.0011 ± 0.0002, 0.0012 ± 0.0002), g (0.77 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01, 0.73 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01), and the SSA (0.90 ± 0.02, 0.97 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01). However; during the less intense dust-events the growing influence of the FM leads to regional differentiation of the dust properties and 2 main areas can be distinguished: 1) the relatively clean central Sahara/Sahel, and 2) the more polluted continuum constituted by the Mediterranean coast and the Arabian Peninsula.

  10. A comparison of the physical properties of desert dust retrieved from the sunphotometer observation of major events in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Mohamed; Alfaro, Sté phane C.; El Metwally, Mossad

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The objective of this work is to assess the variability of the size-distribution, real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the refractive index, asymmetry parameter (g), and single scattering albedo (SSA) of desert dust events observed in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula areas. For this we use the level-2 inversions of 14 AERONET sunphotometers representative of the area of study. In the dataset, the dust-dominated events are discriminated on the basis of their large optical depth and low (<. 0.3) Ångström exponent (α) calculated between 440. nm and 870. nm. In all the volume size-distributions a coarse mode (CM) of particles is observed but a fine mode (FM) of particles with radii. <. 0.2. μm is also present. The volume fraction represented by the FM is lower (3%) during the most intense dust storms than during moderate ones (12%). The inter-site variability of the characteristics of the CM-dominated situations is found to be non-significant and at 440, 675, 870, and 1020. nm a common set of values can be adopted for n (1.54 ± 0.03, 1.53 ± 0.02, 1.50 ± 0.02, 1.48 ± 0.02), k (0.0037 ± 0.0007, 0.0012 ± 0.0002, 0.0011 ± 0.0002, 0.0012 ± 0.0002), g (0.77 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01, 0.73 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01), and the SSA (0.90 ± 0.02, 0.97 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01). However; during the less intense dust-events the growing influence of the FM leads to regional differentiation of the dust properties and 2 main areas can be distinguished: 1) the relatively clean central Sahara/Sahel, and 2) the more polluted continuum constituted by the Mediterranean coast and the Arabian Peninsula.

  11. Column Aerosol Optical Properties and Aerosol Radiative Forcing During a Serious Haze-Fog Month over North China Plain in 2013 Based on Ground-Based Sunphotometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, H.; Xia, X.; Zhu, J.; Li, Z.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, Brent N.; Goloub, P.; Chen, H.; Estelles, V.; Cuevas-Agullo, E.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, North China Plain experienced several serious haze events. Cimel sunphotometer measurements at seven sites over rural, suburban and urban regions of North China Plain from 1 to 30 January 2013 were used to further our understanding of spatial-temporal variation of aerosol optical parameters and aerosol radiative forcing (ARF). It was found that Aerosol Optical Depth at 500 nm (AOD500nm) during non-pollution periods at all stations was lower than 0.30 and increased significantly to greater than 1.00 as pollution events developed. The Angstrom exponent (Alpha) was larger than 0.80 for all stations most of the time. AOD500nm averages increased from north to south during both polluted and non-polluted periods on the three urban sites in Beijing. The fine mode AOD during pollution periods is about a factor of 2.5 times larger than that during the non-pollution period at urban sites but a factor of 5.0 at suburban and rural sites. The fine mode fraction of AOD675nm was higher than 80% for all sites during January 2013. The absorption AOD675nm at rural sites was only about 0.01 during pollution periods, while 0.03-0.07 and 0.01-0.03 during pollution and non-pollution periods at other sites, respectively. Single scattering albedo varied between 0.87 and 0.95 during January 2013 over North China Plain. The size distribution showed an obvious tri-peak pattern during the most serious period. The fine mode effective radius in the pollution period was about 0.01-0.08 microns larger than during nonpollution periods, while the coarse mode radius in pollution periods was about 0.06-0.38 microns less than that during nonpollution periods. The total, fine and coarse mode particle volumes varied by about 0.06-0.34 cu microns, 0.03-0.23 cu microns, and 0.03-0.10 cu microns, respectively, throughout January 2013. During the most intense period (1-16 January), ARF at the surface exceeded -50W/sq m, -180W/sq m, and -200W/sq m at rural, suburban, and urban sites

  12. Visible Leading: Principal Academy Connects and Empowers Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Jennifer; Rozzelle, Jan; Ball, Rachel; Fahey, John

    2015-01-01

    The School-University Research Network (SURN) Principal Academy at the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, has a mission to build a leadership development program that increases principals' instructional knowledge and develops mentor principals to sustain the program. The academy is designed to connect and empower principals…

  13. Principals' Salaries, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Willa D.; Licciardi, Chris

    2008-01-01

    How do salaries of elementary and middle school principals compare with those of other administrators and classroom teachers? Are increases in salaries of principals keeping pace with increases in salaries of classroom teachers? And how have principals' salaries fared over the years when the cost of living is taken into account? There are reliable…

  14. Principals Who Think Like Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Being a principal is a complex job, requiring quick, on-the-job learning. But many principals already have deep experience in a role at the very essence of the principalship. They know how to teach. In interviews with principals, Fahey and his colleagues learned that thinking like a teacher was key to their work. Part of thinking the way a teacher…

  15. School Principals' Emotional Coping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…

  16. Legal Problems of the Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph D.; And Others

    The three talks included here treat aspects of the law--tort liability, student records, and the age of majority--as they relate to the principal. Specifically, the talk on torts deals with the consequences of principal negligence in the event of injuries to students. Assurance is given that a reasonable and prudent principal will have a minimum…

  17. RE Rooted in Principal's Biography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, Ina; Bakker, C.

    2017-01-01

    Critical incidents in the biography of principals appear to be steering in their innovative way of constructing InterReligious Education in their schools. In this contribution, the authors present the biographical narratives of 4 principals: 1 principal introducing interreligious education in a

  18. The Future of Principal Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Matthew; Ross, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The need to improve the quality of principal evaluation systems is long overdue. Although states and districts generally require principal evaluations, research and experience tell that many state and district evaluations do not reflect current standards and practices for principals, and that evaluation is not systematically administered. When…

  19. Principal stratification in causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangakis, Constantine E; Rubin, Donald B

    2002-03-01

    Many scientific problems require that treatment comparisons be adjusted for posttreatment variables, but the estimands underlying standard methods are not causal effects. To address this deficiency, we propose a general framework for comparing treatments adjusting for posttreatment variables that yields principal effects based on principal stratification. Principal stratification with respect to a posttreatment variable is a cross-classification of subjects defined by the joint potential values of that posttreatment variable tinder each of the treatments being compared. Principal effects are causal effects within a principal stratum. The key property of principal strata is that they are not affected by treatment assignment and therefore can be used just as any pretreatment covariate. such as age category. As a result, the central property of our principal effects is that they are always causal effects and do not suffer from the complications of standard posttreatment-adjusted estimands. We discuss briefly that such principal causal effects are the link between three recent applications with adjustment for posttreatment variables: (i) treatment noncompliance, (ii) missing outcomes (dropout) following treatment noncompliance. and (iii) censoring by death. We then attack the problem of surrogate or biomarker endpoints, where we show, using principal causal effects, that all current definitions of surrogacy, even when perfectly true, do not generally have the desired interpretation as causal effects of treatment on outcome. We go on to forrmulate estimands based on principal stratification and principal causal effects and show their superiority.

  20. Le principe roman

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Fasciné par la figure du physicien allemand Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976), fondateur de la mécanique quantique, inventeur du célèbre "principe d'incertitude" et Prix Nobel de physique en 1932, un jeune aspirant-philosophe désenchanté s'efforce, à l'aube du XXIe siècle, de considérer l'incomplétude de sa propre existence à l'aune des travaux et de la destinée de cet exceptionnel homme de sciences qui incarne pour lui la rencontre du langage scientifique et de la poésie, lesquels, chacun à leur manière, en ouvrant la voie au scandale de l'inédit, dessillent les yeux sur le monde pour en révéler la mystérieuse beauté que ne cessent de confisquer le matérialisme à l'œuvre dans l'Histoire des hommes.

  1. Principal oscillation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, H. von; Buerger, G.; Storch, J.S. von

    1993-01-01

    The Principal Oscillation Pattern (POP) analysis is a technique which is used to simultaneously infer the characteristic patterns and time scales of a vector time series. The POPs may be seen as the normal modes of a linearized system whose system matrix is estimated from data. The concept of POP analysis is reviewed. Examples are used to illustrate the potential of the POP technique. The best defined POPs of tropospheric day-to-day variability coincide with the most unstable modes derived from linearized theory. POPs can be derived even from a space-time subset of data. POPs are successful in identifying two independent modes with similar time scales in the same data set. The POP method can also produce forecasts which may potentially be used as a reference for other forecast models. The conventional POP analysis technique has been generalized in various ways. In the cyclostationary POP analysis, the estimated system matrix is allowed to vary deterministically with an externally forced cycle. In the complex POP analysis not only the state of the system but also its ''momentum'' is modeled. Associated correlation patterns are a useful tool to describe the appearance of a signal previously identified by a POP analysis in other parameters. (orig.)

  2. Portraits of Principal Practice: Time Allocation and School Principal Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, James; Camburn, Eric M.; Spillane, James P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how school principals in urban settings distributed their time working on critical school functions. We also examined who principals worked with and how their time allocation patterns varied by school contextual characteristics. Research Method/Approach: The study was conducted in an urban school…

  3. School Principals' Sources of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Arland Early

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what sources of professional knowledge are available to principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district. Qualitative research methods were applied to gain an understanding of what sources of knowledge are used by school principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district and the barriers they face…

  4. Innovation Management Perceptions of Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, Asli Agiroglu

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine the perceptions of principals about innovation management and to investigate whether there is a significant difference in this perception according to various parameters. In the study, descriptive research model is used and universe is consisted from principals who participated in "Acquiring Formation Course…

  5. What Do Effective Principals Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written during the past decade about the changing role of the principal and the shift in emphasis from manager to instructional leader. Anyone in education, and especially principals themselves, could develop a mental list of responsibilities that fit within each of these realms. But research makes it clear that both those aspects of…

  6. Time Management for New Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Becoming a principal is a milestone in an educator's professional life. The principalship is an opportunity to provide leadership that will afford students opportunities to thrive in a nurturing and supportive environment. Despite the continuously expanding demands of being a new principal, effective time management will enable an individual to be…

  7. Bureaucratic Control and Principal Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, Robert; And Others

    The purposes of this study were to determine the manner in which the imposition of increased bureaucratic control over principals influenced their allocation of time to tasks and to investigate principals' perceptions of the changes in their roles brought about by this increased control. The specific bureaucratic control system whose effects were…

  8. relationship between principals' management approaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from a sample of. 211 teachers, 28 principals and 22 chairpersons of parent- teachers association. Data were ..... their role expectation in discipline management. Data from the 20 ...

  9. Principals, agents and research programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Shove

    2003-01-01

    Research programmes appear to represent one of the more powerful instruments through which research funders (principals) steer and shape what researchers (agents) do. The fact that agents navigate between different sources and styles of programme funding and that they use programmes to their own ends is readily accommodated within principal-agent theory with the help of concepts such as shirking and defection. Taking a different route, I use three examples of research programming (by the UK, ...

  10. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauberg, Soren

    2016-09-01

    Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimizes a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend to imply that the methods only work well when the manifold is mostly flat within the support of the generating distribution. We argue that instead of generalizing linear Euclidean models, it is more fruitful to generalize non-linear Euclidean models. Specifically, we extend the classic Principal Curves from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls of traditional geodesic approaches. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the Riemannian principal curves on several manifolds and datasets.

  11. The Principal and the Law. Elementary Principal Series No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doverspike, David E.; Cone, W. Henry

    Developments over the past 25 years in school-related legal issues in elementary schools have significantly changed the principal's role. In 1975, a decision of the U.S. Supreme Court established three due-process guidelines for short-term suspension. The decision requires student notification of charges, explanation of evidence, and an informal…

  12. Surface analysis the principal techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vickerman, John C

    2009-01-01

    This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they c

  13. Principal bundles the classical case

    CERN Document Server

    Sontz, Stephen Bruce

    2015-01-01

    This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles.  While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.

  14. School Uniforms: Guidelines for Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Nathan L.

    2001-01-01

    Principals desiring to develop a school-uniform policy should involve parents, teachers, community leaders, and student representatives; beware restrictions on religious and political expression; provide flexibility and assistance for low-income families; implement a pilot program; align the policy with school-safety issues; and consider legal…

  15. The Principal and Tort Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph D.

    The emphasis of this chapter is on the tort liability of principals, especially their commission of unintentional torts or torts resulting from negligent conduct. A tort is defined as a wrongful act, not including a breach of contract or trust, which results in injury to another's person, property, or reputation and for which the injured party is…

  16. Teachers' Perspectives on Principal Mistreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blase, Joseph; Blase, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Although there is some important scholarly work on the problem of workplace mistreatment/abuse, theoretical or empirical work on abusive school principals is nonexistent. Symbolic interactionism was the theoretical structure for the present study. This perspective on social research is founded on three primary assumptions: (1) individuals act…

  17. Principal minors and rhombus tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, Richard; Pemantle, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The algebraic relations between the principal minors of a generic n × n matrix are somewhat mysterious, see e.g. Lin and Sturmfels (2009 J. Algebra 322 4121–31). We show, however, that by adding in certain almost principal minors, the ideal of relations is generated by translations of a single relation, the so-called hexahedron relation, which is a composition of six cluster mutations. We give in particular a Laurent-polynomial parameterization of the space of n × n matrices, whose parameters consist of certain principal and almost principal minors. The parameters naturally live on vertices and faces of the tiles in a rhombus tiling of a convex 2n-gon. A matrix is associated to an equivalence class of tilings, all related to each other by Yang–Baxter-like transformations. By specializing the initial data we can similarly parameterize the space of Hermitian symmetric matrices over R,C or H the quaternions. Moreover by further specialization we can parametrize the space of positive definite matrices over these rings. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras mathematical physics’. (paper)

  18. Developing Principal Instructional Leadership through Collaborative Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Mariah Bahar

    2010-01-01

    This study examines what occurs when principals of urban schools meet together to learn and improve their instructional leadership in collaborative principal networks designed to support, sustain, and provide ongoing principal capacity building. Principal leadership is considered second only to teaching in its ability to improve schools, yet few…

  19. 31 CFR 19.995 - Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant with management or supervisory... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal. 19.995 Section 19.995...

  20. 22 CFR 208.995 - Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal. 208.995 Section 208.995 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant with management or supervisory responsibilities related to a...

  1. 29 CFR 1471.995 - Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant with management or... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal. 1471.995 Section 1471.995 Labor Regulations...

  2. 21 CFR 1404.995 - Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal. 1404.995 Section 1404.995 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant with management or supervisory responsibilities related to a...

  3. 22 CFR 1006.995 - Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Principal. 1006.995 Section 1006.995 Foreign... § 1006.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant with management or supervisory responsibilities related to a...

  4. 2 CFR 180.995 - Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Principal. 180.995 Section 180.995 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... § 180.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator...

  5. 34 CFR 85.995 - Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal. 85.995 Section 85.995 Education Office of...) Definitions § 85.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant with management or supervisory responsibilities related to a...

  6. 22 CFR 1508.995 - Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Principal. 1508.995 Section 1508.995 Foreign...) Definitions § 1508.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant with management or supervisory responsibilities related to a...

  7. Principal chiral model on superspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitev, V.; Schomerus, V.; Quella, T.

    2008-09-01

    We investigate the spectrum of the principal chiral model (PCM) on odd-dimensional superspheres as a function of the curvature radius R. For volume-filling branes on S 3 vertical stroke 2 , we compute the exact boundary spectrum as a function of R. The extension to higher dimensional superspheres is discussed, but not carried out in detail. Our results provide very convincing evidence in favor of the strong-weak coupling duality between supersphere PCMs and OSP(2S+2 vertical stroke 2S) Gross-Neveu models that was recently conjectured by Candu and Saleur. (orig.)

  8. Interpretable functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenhua; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2016-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). The intervals where the values of FPCs are significant are interpreted as where sample curves have major variations. However, these intervals are often hard for naïve users to identify, because of the vague definition of "significant values". In this article, we develop a novel penalty-based method to derive FPCs that are only nonzero precisely in the intervals where the values of FPCs are significant, whence the derived FPCs possess better interpretability than the FPCs derived from existing methods. To compute the proposed FPCs, we devise an efficient algorithm based on projection deflation techniques. We show that the proposed interpretable FPCs are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal under mild conditions. Simulation studies confirm that with a competitive performance in explaining variations of sample curves, the proposed FPCs are more interpretable than the traditional counterparts. This advantage is demonstrated by analyzing two real datasets, namely, electroencephalography data and Canadian weather data. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  9. Female Traditional Principals and Co-Principals: Experiences of Role Conflict and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Ellen Wexler; Kelber, Sheryl Talcott

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a secondary analysis of survey data focusing on role conflict and job satisfaction of 102 female principals. Data were collected from 51 female traditional principals and 51 female co-principals. By examining the traditional and co-principal leadership models as experienced by female principals, this paper addresses the impact…

  10. On Bayesian Principal Component Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Quinn, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 9 (2007), s. 4101-4123 ISSN 0167-9473 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Principal component analysis ( PCA ) * Variational bayes (VB) * von-Mises–Fisher distribution Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.029, year: 2007 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V8V-4MYD60N-6&_user=10&_coverDate=05%2F15%2F2007&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=b8ea629d48df926fe18f9e5724c9003a

  11. Principals: Learn P.R. Survival Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reep, Beverly B.

    1988-01-01

    School building level public relations depends on the principal or vice principal. Strategies designed to enhance school public relations programs include linking school and community, working with the press, and keeping morale high inside the school. (MLF)

  12. Principals as Assessment Leaders in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renihan, Patrick; Noonan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a study of rural school principals' assessment leadership roles and the impact of rural context on their work. The study involved three focus groups of principals serving small rural schools of varied size and grade configuration in three systems. Principals viewed assessment as a matter of teacher accountability and as a…

  13. Principal Stability and the Rural Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendola, Andrew; Fuller, Edward J.

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the unique features of the rural school context and how these features are associated with the stability of principals in these schools. Given the small but growing literature on the characteristics of rural principals, this study presents an exploratory analysis of principal stability across schools located in different…

  14. New Principal Coaching as a Safety Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celoria, Davide; Roberson, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    This study examines new principal coaching as an induction process and explores the emotional dimensions of educational leadership. Twelve principal coaches and new principals--six of each--participated in this qualitative study that employed emergent coding (Creswell, 2008; Denzin, 2005; Glaser & Strauss, 1998; Spradley, 1979). The major…

  15. 12 CFR 561.39 - Principal office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Principal office. 561.39 Section 561.39 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.39 Principal office. The term principal office means the home...

  16. The Principal as Academician: The Renewed Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Brenda, Ed.

    This collection of essays was written by principals who participated in the 1986-87 Humanities Seminar sponsored by the Principals' Institute of Georgia State University. The focus was "The Evolution of Intellectual Leadership." The roles of the principal as philosopher, historian, ethnician, writer and team member are examined through…

  17. Principal-Counselor Collaboration and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Wendy D.; Remley, Theodore P.; Range, Lillian M.

    2017-01-01

    Examining whether principal-counselor collaboration and school climate were related, researchers sent 4,193 surveys to high school counselors in the United States and received 419 responses. As principal-counselor collaboration increased, there were increases in counselors viewing the principal as supportive, the teachers as regarding one another…

  18. Modelling Monthly Mental Sickness Cases Using Principal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methodology was principal component analysis (PCA) using data obtained from the hospital to estimate regression coefficients and parameters. It was found that the principal component regression model that was derived was good predictive tool. The principal component regression model obtained was okay and this ...

  19. Principals' Collaborative Roles as Leaders for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Margaret; Gray, Susan; Jeurissen, Maree

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on data from three multicultural New Zealand primary schools to reconceptualize principals' roles as leaders for learning. In doing so, the writers build on Sinnema and Robinson's (2012) article on goal setting in principal evaluation. Sinnema and Robinson found that even principals hand-picked for their experience fell short on…

  20. Perceptions of Beginning Public School Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes a study to determine principal's perceptions of their competency in primary responsibility areas and their greatest challenges and frustrations. Beginning principals are challenged by delegating responsibilities and becoming familiar with the principal's role, the local school, and school operations. Their major frustrations are role…

  1. Teacher Supervision Practices and Principals' Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Daniel; Bouchamma, Yamina

    2015-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to determine the individual and collective teacher supervision practices of school principals and vice-principals in Québec (n = 39) who participated in a research-action study on pedagogical supervision. These practices were then analyzed in terms of the principals' sociodemographic and socioprofessional characteristics…

  2. Leadership Coaching for Principals: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Donald; Cavazos, Blanca

    2017-01-01

    Surveys were sent to a large representative sample of public school principals in the United States asking if they had received leadership coaching. Comparison of responses to actual numbers of principals indicates that the sample represents the first national study of principal leadership coaching. Results indicate that approximately 50% of all…

  3. 41 CFR 105-68.995 - Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal. 105-68.995 Section 105-68.995 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.995 Principal. Principal means— (a...

  4. A principal-agent Model of corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    1997-01-01

    One of the new avenues in the study of political corruption is that of neo-institutional economics, of which the principal-agent theory is a part. In this article a principal-agent model of corruption is presented, in which there are two principals (one of which is corrupting), and one agent (who is

  5. Principal component regression analysis with SPSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R X; Kuang, J; Gong, Q; Hou, X L

    2003-06-01

    The paper introduces all indices of multicollinearity diagnoses, the basic principle of principal component regression and determination of 'best' equation method. The paper uses an example to describe how to do principal component regression analysis with SPSS 10.0: including all calculating processes of the principal component regression and all operations of linear regression, factor analysis, descriptives, compute variable and bivariate correlations procedures in SPSS 10.0. The principal component regression analysis can be used to overcome disturbance of the multicollinearity. The simplified, speeded up and accurate statistical effect is reached through the principal component regression analysis with SPSS.

  6. Teaching Principal Components Using Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Peter H; Arias, Andrea L; Fulton, Lawrence V

    2017-01-01

    Introducing principal components (PCs) to students is difficult. First, the matrix algebra and mathematical maximization lemmas are daunting, especially for students in the social and behavioral sciences. Second, the standard motivation involving variance maximization subject to unit length constraint does not directly connect to the "variance explained" interpretation. Third, the unit length and uncorrelatedness constraints of the standard motivation do not allow re-scaling or oblique rotations, which are common in practice. Instead, we propose to motivate the subject in terms of optimizing (weighted) average proportions of variance explained in the original variables; this approach may be more intuitive, and hence easier to understand because it links directly to the familiar "R-squared" statistic. It also removes the need for unit length and uncorrelatedness constraints, provides a direct interpretation of "variance explained," and provides a direct answer to the question of whether to use covariance-based or correlation-based PCs. Furthermore, the presentation can be made without matrix algebra or optimization proofs. Modern tools from data science, including heat maps and text mining, provide further help in the interpretation and application of PCs; examples are given. Together, these techniques may be used to revise currently used methods for teaching and learning PCs in the behavioral sciences.

  7. Direct radiative forcing of urban aerosols over Pretoria (25.75°S, 28.28°E) using AERONET Sunphotometer data: first scientific results and environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Ayodele Joseph; Kumar, Kanike Raghavendra; Sivakumar, Venkataraman; Griffith, Derek

    2014-12-01

    The present study uses the data collected from Cimel Sunphotometer of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) for the period from January to December, 2012 over an urban site, Pretoria (PTR; 25.75°S, 28.28°E, 1449 m above sea level), South Africa. We found that monthly mean aerosol optical depth (AOD, τ(a)) exhibits two maxima that occurred in summer (February) and winter (August) having values of 0.36 ± 0.19 and 0.25 ± 0.14, respectively, high-to-moderate values in spring and thereafter, decreases from autumn with a minima in early winter (June) 0.12 ± 0.07. The Angstrom exponents (α440-870) likewise, have its peak in summer (January) 1.70 ± 0.21 and lowest in early winter (June) 1.38 ± 0.26, while the columnar water vapor (CWV) followed AOD pattern with high values (summer) at the beginning of the year (February, 2.10 ± 0.37 cm) and low values (winter) in the middle of the year (July, 0.66 ± 0.21 cm). The volume size distribution (VSD) in the fine-mode is higher in the summer and spring seasons, whereas in the coarse mode the VSD is higher in the winter and lower in the summer due to the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles. The single scattering albedo (SSA) ranged from 0.85 to 0.96 at 440 nm over PTR for the entire study period. The averaged aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) computed using SBDART model at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) was -8.78 ± 3.1 W/m², while at the surface it was -25.69 ± 8.1 W/m² leading to an atmospheric forcing of +16.91 ± 6.8 W/m², indicating significant heating of the atmosphere with a mean of 0.47K/day. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Reduction of symplectic principal R-bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacirasella, Ignazio; Marrero, Juan Carlos; Padrón, Edith

    2012-01-01

    We describe a reduction process for symplectic principal R-bundles in the presence of a momentum map. These types of structures play an important role in the geometric formulation of non-autonomous Hamiltonian systems. We apply this procedure to the standard symplectic principal R-bundle associated with a fibration π:M→R. Moreover, we show a reduction process for non-autonomous Hamiltonian systems on symplectic principal R-bundles. We apply these reduction processes to several examples. (paper)

  9. New pulser for principal PO power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudert, G.

    1984-01-01

    The pulser of the principal power of the PS is the unit that makes it possible to generate the reference function of the voltage of the principal magnet. This function depends on time and on the magnetic field of the magnet. It also generates various synchronization and reference pulses

  10. Principals: Human Capital Managers at Every School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Being a principal is more than just being an instructional leader. Principals also must manage their schools' teaching talent in a strategic way so that it is linked to school instructional improvement strategies, to the competencies needed to enact the strategies, and to success in boosting student learning. Teacher acquisition and performance…

  11. Constructing principals' professional identities through life stories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Life History approach was used to collect data from six ... experience as the most significant leadership factors that influence principals' ... ranging from their entry into the teaching profession to their appointment as ..... teachers. I think I learnt from my principal to be strict but accommodating ..... Teachers College Press.

  12. Integrating Technology: The Principals' Role and Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Lucas J.; Chung, Chia-Jung

    2015-01-01

    There are many factors that influence technology integration in the classroom such as teacher willingness, availability of hardware, and professional development of staff. Taking into account these elements, this paper describes research on technology integration with a focus on principals' attitudes. The role of the principal in classroom…

  13. Building Leadership Capacity to Support Principal Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Karen Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study applies transformational leadership theory practices, specifically inspiring a shared vision, modeling the way and enabling others to act to examine the purposeful ways in which principals work to build the next generation of teacher leaders in response to the dearth of K-12 principals. The purpose of this study was to discover how one…

  14. Deformation quantization of principal fibre bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.

    2007-01-01

    Deformation quantization is an algebraic but still geometrical way to define noncommutative spacetimes. In order to investigate corresponding gauge theories on such spaces, the geometrical formulation in terms of principal fibre bundles yields the appropriate framework. In this talk I will explain what should be understood by a deformation quantization of principal fibre bundles and how associated vector bundles arise in this context. (author)

  15. Primary School Principals' Self-Monitoring Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, Necdet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify primary school principals' self-monitoring skills. The study adopted the general survey model and its population comprised primary school principals serving in the city of Diyarbakir, Turkey, while 292 of these constituted the sample. Self-Monitoring Scale was used as the data collection instrument. In…

  16. Revising the Role of Principal Supervisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In Washington, D.C., and Tulsa, Okla., districts whose efforts are supported by the Wallace Foundation, principal supervisors concentrate on bolstering their principals' work to improve instruction, as opposed to focusing on the managerial or operational aspects of running a school. Supervisors oversee fewer schools, which enables them to provide…

  17. An Examination of Principal Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengilly, Michelle M.

    2010-01-01

    As education continues to succumb to deficits in budgets and increasingly high levels of student performance to meet the federal and state mandates, the quest to sustain and retain successful principals is imperative. The National Association of School Boards (1999) portrays effective principals as "linchpins" of school improvement and…

  18. Do Principals Fire the Worst Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    This article takes advantage of a unique policy change to examine how principals make decisions regarding teacher dismissal. In 2004, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and Chicago Teachers Union signed a new collective bargaining agreement that gave principals the flexibility to dismiss probationary teachers for any reason and without the…

  19. Artful Dodges Principals Use to Beat Bureaucracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficklen, Ellen

    1982-01-01

    A study of Chicago (Illinois) principals revealed many ways principals practiced "creative insubordination"--avoiding following instructions but still getting things done. Among the dodges are deliberately missing deadlines, following orders literally, ignoring channels to procure teachers or materials, and using community members to…

  20. Women principals' reflections of curriculum management challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports the reflections of grade 6 rural primary principals in Mpumalanga province. A qualitative method of inquiry was used in this article, where data were collected using individual interviews with three principals and focus group discussions with the school management teams (SMTs) of three primary schools.

  1. The Succession of a School Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauske, Janice R.; Ogawa, Rodney T.

    Applying theory from organizational and cultural perspectives to succession of principals, this study observes and records the language and culture of a small suburban elementary school. The study's procedures included analyses of shared organizational understandings as well as identification of the principal's influence on the school. Analyses of…

  2. Principals' Perceptions of School Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert C.; Chan, Tak Cheung; Patterson, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate school principals' perceptions on school public relations in five areas: community demographics, parental involvement, internal and external communications, school council issues, and community resources. Findings indicated that principals' concerns were as follows: rapid population growth, change of…

  3. Should Principals Know More about Law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Tyrus L.

    2013-01-01

    Educational law is a critical piece of the education conundrum. Principals reference law books on a daily basis in order to address the wide range of complex problems in the school system. A principal's knowledge of law issues and legal decision-making are essential to provide effective feedback for a successful school.

  4. How Not to Prepare School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephen H.; Leon, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Instead of focusing on how principals should be trained, an contrarian view is offered, grounded upon theoretical perspectives of experiential learning, and in particular, upon the theory of andragogy. A brief parable of the DoNoHarm School of Medicine is used as a descriptive analog for many principal preparation programs in America. The…

  5. Social Media Strategies for School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dan; McLeod, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe, analyze, and interpret the experiences of school principals who use multiple social media tools with stakeholders as part of their comprehensive communications practices. Additionally, it examined why school principals have chosen to communicate with their stakeholders through social media.…

  6. New Principals' Perspectives of Their Multifaceted Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilucci, James L.; Denti, Lou; Guaglianone, Curtis L.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes Symbolic Interactionism to explore perspectives of neophyte principals. Findings explain how these perspectives are modified through complex interactions throughout the school year, and they also suggest preparation programs can help new principals most effectively by teaching "soft" skills such as active listening…

  7. The Principal's Guide to Grant Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, David G.

    This book provides principals of public and private elementary and middle schools with a step-by-step approach for developing a system that empowers faculty, staff, and the school community in attracting grant funds. Following the introduction, chapter 1 discusses the principal's role in supporting grantseeking. Chapter 2 describes how to…

  8. Preparing Principals as Instructional Leaders: Perceptions of University Faculty, Expert Principals, and Expert Teacher Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor Backor, Karen; Gordon, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Although research has established links between the principal's instructional leadership and student achievement, there is considerable concern in the literature concerning the capacity of principal preparation programs to prepare instructional leaders. This study interviewed educational leadership faculty as well as expert principals and teacher…

  9. Exploring the Impact of Applicants' Gender and Religion on Principals' Screening Decisions for Assistant Principal Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    In this experimental study, a national random sample of high school principals (stratified by gender) were asked to evaluate hypothetical applicants whose resumes varied by religion (Jewish, Catholic, nondenominational) and gender (male, female) for employment as assistant principals. Results reveal that male principals rate all applicants higher…

  10. Principal Self-Efficacy and Work Engagement: Assessing a Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2011-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work…

  11. Principal Time Management Skills: Explaining Patterns in Principals' Time Use, Job Stress, and Perceived Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Jason A.; Loeb, Susanna; Mitani, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Time demands faced by school principals make principals' work increasingly difficult. Research outside education suggests that effective time management skills may help principals meet job demands, reduce job stress, and improve their performance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate these hypotheses. Design/methodology/approach:…

  12. Comparative Analysis of Principals' Management Strategies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was recommended among others that principals of secondary schools should adopt all the management strategies in this study as this will improve school administration and consequently students‟ academic performance. Keywords: Management Strategies; Secondary Schools; Administrative Effectiveness ...

  13. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    probe into the spatial controlling processes of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis (PCA). ... topography, soil type, depth of water levels, and water usage. Thus, the ... of effective sites for infiltration of recharge water.

  14. The Relationship between Principals' Managerial Approaches and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Egerton University, P. O. Box 16568, NAKURU KENYA bosirej@yahoo.com ... teacher and parental input while it was negatively correlated with the level of .... principal's attitude, gender qualifications, and leadership experience (Green,. 1999 ...

  15. First-Year Principal Encounters Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retelle, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    A 1st-year principal encounters homonegativity and an ethical dilemma when she attempts to terminate a teacher because of the teacher's inadequate and ineffective teaching. The teacher responds by threatening to "out" Ms. L. to the parents.

  16. Integrating Data Transformation in Principal Components Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Maadooliat, Mehdi; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Hu, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular dimension reduction method to reduce the complexity and obtain the informative aspects of high-dimensional datasets. When the data distribution is skewed, data transformation is commonly used prior

  17. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis ... anthropogenic (agricultural activities and domestic wastewaters), and marine ... The PC scores reflect the change of groundwater quality of geogenic origin ...

  18. Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  19. Promoting principals' managerial involvement in instructional improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillat, A

    1994-01-01

    Studies of school leadership suggest that visiting classrooms, emphasizing achievement and training, and supporting teachers are important indicators of the effectiveness of school principals. The utility of a behavior-analytic program to support the enhancement of these behaviors in 2 school principals and the impact of their involvement upon teachers' and students' performances in three classes were examined in two experiments, one at an elementary school and another at a secondary school. Treatment conditions consisted of helping the principal or teacher to schedule his or her time and to use goal setting, feedback, and praise. A withdrawal design (Experiment 1) and a multiple baseline across classrooms (Experiment 2) showed that the principal's and teacher's rates of praise, feedback, and goal setting increased during the intervention, and were associated with improvements in the academic performance of the students. In the future, school psychologists might analyze the impact of involving themselves in supporting the principal's involvement in improving students' and teachers' performances or in playing a similar leadership role themselves.

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Traditional and Alternative Principal Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, Summer; Peltier-Glaze, Bernnell M.; Haynes, Ingrid; Davis, Delilah; Skelton, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effectiveness on increasing student achievement of principals trained in a traditional principal preparation program and those trained in an alternate route principal preparation program within the same Mississippi university. Sixty-six Mississippi principals and assistant principals participated in the study. Of…

  1. Riccati transformations and principal solutions of discrete linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbrandt, C.D.; Hooker, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Consider a second-order linear matrix difference equation. A definition of principal and anti-principal, or recessive and dominant, solutions of the equation are given and the existence of principal and anti-principal solutions and the essential uniqueness of principal solutions is proven

  2. Principals, Trust, and Cultivating Vibrant Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Tschannen-Moran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although principals are ultimately held accountable to student learning in their buildings, the most consistent research results have suggested that their impact on student achievement is largely indirect. Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi proposed four paths through which this indirect influence would flow, and the purpose of this special issue is to examine in greater depth these mediating variables. Among mediating variables, we assert that trust is key. In this paper, we explore the evidence that points to the role that faculty trust in the principal plays in student learning and how principals can cultivate trust by attending to the five facets of trust, as well as the correlates of trust that mediate student learning, including academic press, collective teacher efficacy, and teacher professionalism. We argue that trust plays a role in each of the four paths identified by Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi. Finally, we explore possible new directions for future research.

  3. Principal component regression for crop yield estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayana, T M V

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the estimation of crop yield in Central Gujarat, especially with regard to the development of Multiple Regression Models and Principal Component Regression (PCR) models using climatological parameters as independent variables and crop yield as a dependent variable. It subsequently compares the multiple linear regression (MLR) and PCR results, and discusses the significance of PCR for crop yield estimation. In this context, the book also covers Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a statistical procedure used to reduce a number of correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components (PC). This book will be helpful to the students and researchers, starting their works on climate and agriculture, mainly focussing on estimation models. The flow of chapters takes the readers in a smooth path, in understanding climate and weather and impact of climate change, and gradually proceeds towards downscaling techniques and then finally towards development of ...

  4. Geometry of Quantum Principal Bundles. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdevic, M.

    1996-01-01

    A theory of principal bundles possessing quantum structure groups and classical base manifolds is presented. Structural analysis of such quantum principal bundles is performed. A differential calculus is constructed, combining differential forms on the base manifold with an appropriate differential calculus on the structure quantum group. Relations between the calculus on the group and the calculus on the bundle are investigated. A concept of (pseudo)tensoriality is formulated. The formalism of connections is developed. In particular, operators of horizontal projection, covariant derivative and curvature are constructed and analyzed. Generalizations of the first Structure Equation and of the Bianchi identity are found. Illustrative examples are presented. (orig.)

  5. Constrained principal component analysis and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Takane, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    In multivariate data analysis, regression techniques predict one set of variables from another while principal component analysis (PCA) finds a subspace of minimal dimensionality that captures the largest variability in the data. How can regression analysis and PCA be combined in a beneficial way? Why and when is it a good idea to combine them? What kind of benefits are we getting from them? Addressing these questions, Constrained Principal Component Analysis and Related Techniques shows how constrained PCA (CPCA) offers a unified framework for these approaches.The book begins with four concre

  6. The Deputy Principal Instructional Leadership Role and Professional Learning: Perceptions of Secondary Principals, Deputies and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Ann; Odhiambo, George

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study examining the perceptions of secondary principals, deputies and teachers, of deputy principal (DP) instructional leadership (IL), as well as deputies' professional learning (PL) needs. Framed within an interpretivist approach, the specific objectives of this study were: to explore the…

  7. Statewide Data on Supply and Demand of Principals after Policy Changes to Principal Preparation in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Alicia; Hunt, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that principals have a powerful impact on school improvement and student learning. Principals play a vital role in recruiting, developing, and retaining effective teachers; creating a school-wide culture of learning; and implementing a continuous improvement plan aimed at increasing student achievement. Leithwood, Louis,…

  8. Principal Self-Efficacy, Teacher Perceptions of Principal Performance, and Teacher Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Molly Lynn

    2016-01-01

    In public schools, the principal's role is of paramount importance in influencing teachers to excel and to keep their job satisfaction high. The self-efficacy of leaders is an important characteristic of leadership, but this issue has not been extensively explored in school principals. Using internet-based questionnaires, this study obtained…

  9. Andragogical Practices of School Principals in Developing the Leadership Capacities of Assistant Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Luther

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to assess school principals' perspectives of the extent to which they apply the principles of andragogy to the professional development of assistant principals in their schools. This study was conducted in school districts that constitute a RESA area in a southeastern state. The schools in these…

  10. What Principals Should Know About Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Describes what principals should know about recent research findings on food allergies (peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat) that can produce severe or life-threatening reactions in children. Asserts that every school should have trained staff and written procedures for reacting quickly to allergic reactions. (PKP)

  11. A Principal's Guide to Children's Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…

  12. Assessment of School Principals' Reassignment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin-Nartgün, Senay; Ekinci, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify administrators' views related to the assessment of school principals' reassignment in educational organizations. The study utilized qualitative research design and the study group composed of 8 school administrators selected via simple sampling who were employed in the Bolu central district in 2014-2015 academic year.…

  13. An Exploration of Principal Instructional Technology Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, LaTricia Walker

    2013-01-01

    Nationwide the demand for schools to incorporate technology into their educational programs is great. In response, North Carolina developed the IMPACT model in 2003 to provide a comprehensive model for technology integration in the state. The model is aligned to national educational technology standards for teachers, students, and principals.…

  14. Principals' Leadership Styles and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    Many schools struggle to meet No Child Left Behind's stringent adequate yearly progress standards, although the benchmark has stimulated national creativity and reform. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of principals' leadership styles, curriculum reform, and student achievement to ascertain possible factors to improve…

  15. How To Select a Good Assistant Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    Notes that a well-structured job profile and interview can provide insight into the key qualities of an effective assistant principal. These include organizational skills, basic accounting knowledge, interpersonal skills, dependability, strong work ethic, effective problem-solving skills, leadership skills, written communication skills,…

  16. Principals' Transformational Leadership in School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingxiu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to contribute experience and ideas of the transformational leadership, not only for the principal want to improve leadership himself (herself), but also for the school at critical period of improvement, through summarizing forming process and the problem during the course and key factors that affect the course.…

  17. Imprecise Beliefs in a Principal Agent Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigotti, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a principal-agent model where the agent has multiple, or imprecise, beliefs. We model this situation formally by assuming the agent's preferences are incomplete. One can interpret this multiplicity as an agent's limited knowledge of the surrounding environment. In this setting,

  18. Bootstrap confidence intervals for principal response curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Marieke E.; Ter Braak, Cajo J. F.

    2008-01-01

    The principal response curve (PRC) model is of use to analyse multivariate data resulting from experiments involving repeated sampling in time. The time-dependent treatment effects are represented by PRCs, which are functional in nature. The sample PRCs can be estimated using a raw approach, or the

  19. Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Principal Response Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.E.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The principal response curve (PRC) model is of use to analyse multivariate data resulting from experiments involving repeated sampling in time. The time-dependent treatment effects are represented by PRCs, which are functional in nature. The sample PRCs can be estimated using a raw approach, or the

  20. Islamitisch financieren tussen principes en realiteit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, W.G.

    2009-01-01

    ‘De financiële crisis zou niet hebben plaatsgevonden, als de wereld de principes van islamitisch bankieren en financieren zou hebben aangenomen.’ Dat was één van de kenmerkende reacties van de kant van de islamitische bankiers, in de laatste maanden van 2008. Toen begon de wereldwijde financiële

  1. Dealing with Crises: One Principal's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Charles F.

    1986-01-01

    The principal of Concord High School (New Hampshire) recounts the 1985-86 school year's four crises--the visits of teacher-astronaut Christa McAuliffe and Secretary of Education William Bennett, the shooting of a former student, and the Challenger space shuttle explosion. The greatest challenge was resuming the normal schedule and fielding media…

  2. Principal Pressure in the Middle of Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrington, Mary Lynne; Larsen, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    When a new superintendent is hired, Tom Thompson, middle school principal, is squeezed between complying with the demands of the district and cultivating a positive culture in his school. He wrestles with the stress of facing tough leadership choices that take a toll on his physical and mental health. Tom realizes that a career-ending move might…

  3. The Relationship between Principals' Managerial Approaches and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students' discipline is critical to the attainment of positive school outcomes. This paper presents and discusses findings of a study on the relationship between principals' management approaches and the level of student discipline in selected public secondary schools in Kenya. The premise of the study was that the level of ...

  4. Primary School Principals' Experiences with Smartphone Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Rahman; Aktay, Sayim

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are not just pieces of hardware, they at same time also dip into software features such as communication systems. The aim of this study is to examine primary school principals' experiences with smart phone applications. Shedding light on this subject means that this research is qualitative. Criterion sampling has been intentionally…

  5. Principal normal indicatrices of closed space curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A theorem due to J. Weiner, which is also proven by B. Solomon, implies that a principal normal indicatrix of a closed space curve with nonvanishing curvature has integrated geodesic curvature zero and contains no subarc with integrated geodesic curvature pi. We prove that the inverse problem alw...

  6. Summer Principals'/Directors' Orientation Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Robert L.; Garcia, Richard L.

    Intended to provide current or potential project principals/directors with the basic knowledge, skills, abilities, and sensitivities needed to manage a summer migrant school project in the local educational setting, this module provides instruction in the project management areas of planning, preparation, control, and termination. The module…

  7. Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis for Metabolomic Data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nyamundanda, Gift

    2010-11-23

    Abstract Background Data from metabolomic studies are typically complex and high-dimensional. Principal component analysis (PCA) is currently the most widely used statistical technique for analyzing metabolomic data. However, PCA is limited by the fact that it is not based on a statistical model. Results Here, probabilistic principal component analysis (PPCA) which addresses some of the limitations of PCA, is reviewed and extended. A novel extension of PPCA, called probabilistic principal component and covariates analysis (PPCCA), is introduced which provides a flexible approach to jointly model metabolomic data and additional covariate information. The use of a mixture of PPCA models for discovering the number of inherent groups in metabolomic data is demonstrated. The jackknife technique is employed to construct confidence intervals for estimated model parameters throughout. The optimal number of principal components is determined through the use of the Bayesian Information Criterion model selection tool, which is modified to address the high dimensionality of the data. Conclusions The methods presented are illustrated through an application to metabolomic data sets. Jointly modeling metabolomic data and covariates was successfully achieved and has the potential to provide deeper insight to the underlying data structure. Examination of confidence intervals for the model parameters, such as loadings, allows for principled and clear interpretation of the underlying data structure. A software package called MetabolAnalyze, freely available through the R statistical software, has been developed to facilitate implementation of the presented methods in the metabolomics field.

  8. Principals in Partnership with Math Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Catherine Miles; Davenport, Linda Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    One of the most promising developments in math education is the fact that many districts are hiring math coaches--also called math resource teachers, math facilitators, math lead teachers, or math specialists--to assist elementary-level teachers with math instruction. What must not be lost, however, is that principals play an essential role in…

  9. Experimental and principal component analysis of waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study is aimed at determining through principal component analysis the most important variables affecting bacterial degradation in ponds. Data were collected from literature. In addition, samples were also collected from the waste stabilization ponds at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka and analyzed to ...

  10. Principal Component Analysis as an Efficient Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses the principal component analysis (PCA) to examine the possibility of using few explanatory variables (X's) to explain the variation in Y. It applied PCA to assess the performance of students in Abia State Polytechnic, Aba, Nigeria. This was done by estimating the coefficients of eight explanatory variables in a ...

  11. Principal component analysis of psoriasis lesions images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A set of RGB images of psoriasis lesions is used. By visual examination of these images, there seem to be no common pattern that could be used to find and align the lesions within and between sessions. It is expected that the principal components of the original images could be useful during future...

  12. The Principal as Professional Development Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Phyllis H.; Speck, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    Individual teachers have the greatest effect on student performance. Principals, as professional development leaders, are in the best position to provide teachers with the professional development strategies they need to improve skills and raise student achievement. This book guides readers through a step-by-step process to formulate, implement,…

  13. Burnout And Lifestyle Of Principals And Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Lavrenčič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: What kind of lifestyle do the principals and entrepreneurs lead? Does the lifestyle of principals and entrepreneurs influence burnout? Purpose: To find out, based on the results of a questionnaire, what kind of lifestyle both researched groups lead. Does lifestyle have an influence on the occurrence of the phenomenon of burnout. Method: We used the method of data collection by questionnaire. Acquired data were analyzed using SPSS, descriptive and inference statistics. Results: Results showed, that both groups lead a similar lifestyle and that lifestyle influences burnout with principals, as well as entrepreneurs. Organization: School principals and entrepreneurs are the heads of individual organizations or companies, the goal of which is success. To be successful in their work, they must adapt their lifestyle, which can be healthy or unhealthy. If their lifestyle is unhealthy, it can lead to burnout. Society: With results of the questionnaire we would like to answer the question about the lifestyle of both groups and its influence on the occurrence of burnout. Originality: The study of lifestyle and the occurrence of burnout in these two groups is the first study in this area. Limitations/Future Research: In continuation, research groups could be submitted to the research fields of effort physiology and tracking of certain haematological parameters, such as cholesterol, blood sugar and stress hormones - adrenaline, noradrenalin, cortisol. Thus, we could carry out an even more in depth research of the connection between lifestyle and burnout.

  14. Principal Connection / Amazon and the Whole Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent controversy over Amazon's culture has strong implications for the whole child approach, and it offers powerful lessons for principals. A significant difference between the culture of so many businesses today and the culture at good schools is that in good schools, the welfare of the employees is very important. Student success is the…

  15. The Gender of Secondary School Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuso, Carl; Shakeshaft, Charol

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to understand why so few of the secondary school principals in New York State are women. Results suggest two possible causes: either sufficient women candidates do not apply for the positions, or sex discrimination still exists. (KH)

  16. Principal components analysis in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Castelló, Adela

    2017-09-01

    In multivariate analysis, independent variables are usually correlated to each other which can introduce multicollinearity in the regression models. One approach to solve this problem is to apply principal components analysis (PCA) over these variables. This method uses orthogonal transformation to represent sets of potentially correlated variables with principal components (PC) that are linearly uncorrelated. PCs are ordered so that the first PC has the largest possible variance and only some components are selected to represent the correlated variables. As a result, the dimension of the variable space is reduced. This tutorial illustrates how to perform PCA in R environment, the example is a simulated dataset in which two PCs are responsible for the majority of the variance in the data. Furthermore, the visualization of PCA is highlighted.

  17. A Genealogical Interpretation of Principal Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVean, Gil

    2009-01-01

    Principal components analysis, PCA, is a statistical method commonly used in population genetics to identify structure in the distribution of genetic variation across geographical location and ethnic background. However, while the method is often used to inform about historical demographic processes, little is known about the relationship between fundamental demographic parameters and the projection of samples onto the primary axes. Here I show that for SNP data the projection of samples onto the principal components can be obtained directly from considering the average coalescent times between pairs of haploid genomes. The result provides a framework for interpreting PCA projections in terms of underlying processes, including migration, geographical isolation, and admixture. I also demonstrate a link between PCA and Wright's fst and show that SNP ascertainment has a largely simple and predictable effect on the projection of samples. Using examples from human genetics, I discuss the application of these results to empirical data and the implications for inference. PMID:19834557

  18. PCA: Principal Component Analysis for spectra modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Peter D.; Oliver, Seb; Farrah, Duncan; Wang, Lingyu; Efstathiou, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The mid-infrared spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) contain a variety of spectral features that can be used as diagnostics to characterize the spectra. However, such diagnostics are biased by our prior prejudices on the origin of the features. Moreover, by using only part of the spectrum they do not utilize the full information content of the spectra. Blind statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) consider the whole spectrum, find correlated features and separate them out into distinct components. This code, written in IDL, classifies principal components of IRS spectra to define a new classification scheme using 5D Gaussian mixtures modelling. The five PCs and average spectra for the four classifications to classify objects are made available with the code.

  19. COPD phenotype description using principal components analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Kay; Smith, Jacky; Kolsum, Umme

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway inflammation in COPD can be measured using biomarkers such as induced sputum and Fe(NO). This study set out to explore the heterogeneity of COPD using biomarkers of airway and systemic inflammation and pulmonary function by principal components analysis (PCA). SUBJECTS...... AND METHODS: In 127 COPD patients (mean FEV1 61%), pulmonary function, Fe(NO), plasma CRP and TNF-alpha, sputum differential cell counts and sputum IL8 (pg/ml) were measured. Principal components analysis as well as multivariate analysis was performed. RESULTS: PCA identified four main components (% variance...... associations between the variables within components 1 and 2. CONCLUSION: COPD is a multi dimensional disease. Unrelated components of disease were identified, including neutrophilic airway inflammation which was associated with systemic inflammation, and sputum eosinophils which were related to increased Fe...

  20. Executive Compensation and Principal-Agent Theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Garen, John E

    1994-01-01

    The empirical literature on executive compensation generally fails to specify a model of executive pay on which to base hypotheses regarding its determinants. In contrast, this paper analyzes a simple principal-agent model to determine how well it explains variations in CEO incentive pay and salaries. Many findings are consistent with the basic intuition of principle-agent models that compensation is structured to trade off incentives with insurance. However, statistical significance for some...

  1. Resonant Homoclinic Flips Bifurcation in Principal Eigendirections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiansi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A codimension-4 homoclinic bifurcation with one orbit flip and one inclination flip at principal eigenvalue direction resonance is considered. By introducing a local active coordinate system in some small neighborhood of homoclinic orbit, we get the Poincaré return map and the bifurcation equation. A detailed investigation produces the number and the existence of 1-homoclinic orbit, 1-periodic orbit, and double 1-periodic orbits. We also locate their bifurcation surfaces in certain regions.

  2. Principal bundles on the projective line

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    LetX be a complete nonsingular curve over the algebraic closurek ofk andGa reductive group over k. Let E → X be a principal G-bundle on X. E is said to be semistable if, for every reduction of structure group EP ⊂ E to a maximal parabolic subgroup P of G, we have degree EP (p) ≤ 0, where p is the Lie algebra of P and EP ...

  3. Interplay between tilted and principal axis rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Pradip; Roy, Santosh; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2014-01-01

    At IUAC-INGA, our group has studied four neutron rich nuclei of mass-110 region, namely 109,110 Ag and 108,110 Cd. These nuclei provide the unique platform to study the interplay between Tilted and Principal axis rotation since these are moderately deformed and at the same time, shears structures are present at higher spins. The salient features of the high spin behaviors of these nuclei will be discussed which are the signatures of this interplay

  4. Interplay between tilted and principal axis rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Pradip [Ananda Mohan College, 102/1 Raja Rammohan Sarani, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Roy, Santosh; Chattopadhyay, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2014-08-14

    At IUAC-INGA, our group has studied four neutron rich nuclei of mass-110 region, namely {sup 109,110}Ag and {sup 108,110}Cd. These nuclei provide the unique platform to study the interplay between Tilted and Principal axis rotation since these are moderately deformed and at the same time, shears structures are present at higher spins. The salient features of the high spin behaviors of these nuclei will be discussed which are the signatures of this interplay.

  5. Multilevel sparse functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chongzhi; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Jank, Wolfgang S

    2014-01-29

    We consider analysis of sparsely sampled multilevel functional data, where the basic observational unit is a function and data have a natural hierarchy of basic units. An example is when functions are recorded at multiple visits for each subject. Multilevel functional principal component analysis (MFPCA; Di et al. 2009) was proposed for such data when functions are densely recorded. Here we consider the case when functions are sparsely sampled and may contain only a few observations per function. We exploit the multilevel structure of covariance operators and achieve data reduction by principal component decompositions at both between and within subject levels. We address inherent methodological differences in the sparse sampling context to: 1) estimate the covariance operators; 2) estimate the functional principal component scores; 3) predict the underlying curves. Through simulations the proposed method is able to discover dominating modes of variations and reconstruct underlying curves well even in sparse settings. Our approach is illustrated by two applications, the Sleep Heart Health Study and eBay auctions.

  6. A principal components model of soundscape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Östen; Nilsson, Mats E; Berglund, Birgitta

    2010-11-01

    There is a need for a model that identifies underlying dimensions of soundscape perception, and which may guide measurement and improvement of soundscape quality. With the purpose to develop such a model, a listening experiment was conducted. One hundred listeners measured 50 excerpts of binaural recordings of urban outdoor soundscapes on 116 attribute scales. The average attribute scale values were subjected to principal components analysis, resulting in three components: Pleasantness, eventfulness, and familiarity, explaining 50, 18 and 6% of the total variance, respectively. The principal-component scores were correlated with physical soundscape properties, including categories of dominant sounds and acoustic variables. Soundscape excerpts dominated by technological sounds were found to be unpleasant, whereas soundscape excerpts dominated by natural sounds were pleasant, and soundscape excerpts dominated by human sounds were eventful. These relationships remained after controlling for the overall soundscape loudness (Zwicker's N(10)), which shows that 'informational' properties are substantial contributors to the perception of soundscape. The proposed principal components model provides a framework for future soundscape research and practice. In particular, it suggests which basic dimensions are necessary to measure, how to measure them by a defined set of attribute scales, and how to promote high-quality soundscapes.

  7. The Interdependence of Principal School Leadership and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehner, David; Ryan, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This review illuminated principal school leadership as a variable that impacted achievement. The principal as school leader and manager was explored because these roles were thought to impact student achievement both directly and indirectly. Specific principal leadership behaviors and principal effectiveness were explored as variables potentially…

  8. Negligence--When Is the Principal Liable? A Legal Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph D., Ed.

    Negligence, a tort liability, is defined, discussed, and reviewed in relation to several court decisions involving school principals. The history of liability suits against school principals suggests that a reasonable, prudent principal can avoid legal problems. Ten guidelines are presented to assist principals in avoiding charges of negligence.…

  9. Management Of Indiscipline Among Teachers By Principals Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared the management of indiscipline among teachers by public and private school principals in Akwa Ibom State. The sample comprised four hundred and fifty (450) principals/vice principals randomly selected from a population of one thousand, four hundred and twenty eight (1,428) principals. The null ...

  10. Anglo-American views of Gavrilo Princip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovich Slobodan G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with Western (Anglo-American views on the Sarajevo assassination/attentat and Gavrilo Princip. Articles on the assassination and Princip in two leading quality dailies (The Times and The New York Times have particularly been analysed as well as the views of leading historians and journalists who covered the subject including: R. G. D. Laffan, R. W. Seton-Watson, Winston Churchill, Sidney Fay, Bernadotte Schmitt, Rebecca West, A. J. P. Taylor, Vladimir Dedijer, Christopher Clark and Tim Butcher. In the West, the original general condemnation of the assassination and its main culprits was challenged when Rebecca West published her famous travelogue on Yugoslavia in 1941. Another Brit, the remarkable historian A. J. P. Taylor, had a much more positive view on the Sarajevo conspirators and blamed Germany and Austria-Hungary for the outbreak of the Great War. A turning point in Anglo-American perceptions was the publication of Vladimir Dedijer’s monumental book The Road to Sarajevo (1966, which humanised the main conspirators, a process initiated by R. West. Dedijer’s book was translated from English into all major Western languages and had an immediate impact on the understanding of the Sarajevo assassination. The rise of national antagonisms in Bosnia gradually alienated Princip from Bosnian Muslims and Croats, a process that began in the 1980s and was completed during the wars of the Yugoslav succession. Although all available sources clearly show that Princip, an ethnic Serb, gradually developed a broader Serbo-Croat and Yugoslav identity, he was ethnified and seen exclusively as a Serb by Bosnian Croats and Bosniaks and Western journalists in the 1990s. In the past century imagining Princip in Serbia and the West involved a whole spectrum of views. In interwar Anglo-American perceptions he was a fanatic and lunatic. He became humanised by Rebecca West (1941, A. J. P. Taylor showed understanding for his act (1956, he was fully

  11. Principal Investigator-in-a-Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Human performance in orbit is currently limited by several factors beyond the intrinsic awkwardness of motor control in weightlessness. Cognitive functioning can be affected by such factors as cumulative sleep loss, stress and the psychological effects of long-duration small-group isolation. When an astronaut operates a scientific experiment, the performance decrement associated with such factors can lead to lost or poor quality data and even the total loss of a scientific objective, at great cost to the sponsors and to the dismay of the Principal Investigator. In long-duration flights, as anticipated on the International Space Station and on any planetary exploration, the experimental model is further complicated by long delays between training and experiment, and the large number of experiments each crew member must perform. Although no documented studies have been published on the subject, astronauts report that an unusually large number of simple errors are made in space. Whether a result of the effects of microgravity, accumulated fatigue, stress or other factors, this pattern of increased error supports the need for a computerized decision-making aid for astronauts performing experiments. Artificial intelligence and expert systems might serve as powerful tools for assisting experiments in space. Those conducting space experiments typically need assistance exactly when the planned checklist does not apply. Expert systems, which use bits of human knowledge and human methods to respond appropriately to unusual situations, have a flexibility that is highly desirable in circumstances where an invariably predictable course of action/response does not exist. Frequently the human expert on the ground is unavailable, lacking the latest information, or not consulted by the astronaut conducting the experiment. In response to these issues, we have developed "Principal Investigator-in-a-Box," or [PI], to capture the reasoning process of the real expert, the Principal

  12. An Investigation of Teacher, Principal, and Superintendent Perceptions on the Ability of the National Framework for Principal Evaluations to Measure Principals' Leadership Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Lori D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the perceptions of effective principals' leadership competencies; determine if the perceptions of teachers, principals, and superintendents aligned with the proposed National Framework for Principal Evaluations initiative. This study examined the six domains of leadership outlined by the…

  13. Do Qualification, Experience and Age Matter for Principals Leadership Styles?

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Javed Sawati; Saeed Anwar; Muhammad Iqbal Majoka

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of present study was to find out the prevalent leadership styles of principals in government schools of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and to find relationship of leadership styles with qualifications, age and experience of the principals. On the basis of analyzed data, four major leadership styles of the principals were identified as Eclectic, Democratic, Autocratic, and Free-rein. However, a small proportion of the principal had no dominant leadership style. This study shows that princip...

  14. Trust Me, Principal, or Burn Out! The Relationship between Principals' Burnout and Trust in Students and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Niyazi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the primary school principals' views on trust in students and parents and also, to explore the relationships between principals' levels of professional burnout and their trust in students and parents. To this end, Principal Trust Survey and Friedman Principal Burnout scales were administered on 119…

  15. Radar fall detection using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokanovic, Branka; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries in people aged 65 years and older. Radar has the potential to become one of the leading technologies for fall detection, thereby enabling the elderly to live independently. Existing techniques for fall detection using radar are based on manual feature extraction and require significant parameter tuning in order to provide successful detections. In this paper, we employ principal component analysis for fall detection, wherein eigen images of observed motions are employed for classification. Using real data, we demonstrate that the PCA based technique provides performance improvement over the conventional feature extraction methods.

  16. Principal forensic physicians as educational supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Margaret M

    2009-10-01

    This research project was performed to assist the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine (FFLM) with the development of a training programme for Principal Forensic Physicians (PFPs) (Since this research was performed the Metropolitan Police Service have dispensed with the services of the Principal Forensic Physicians so currently (as of January 2009) there is no supervision of newly appointed FMEs or the development training of doctors working in London nor any audit or appraisal reviews.) to fulfil their role as educational supervisors. PFPs working in London were surveyed by questionnaire to identify the extent of their knowledge with regard to their role in the development training of all forensic physicians (FPs) in their group, the induction of assistant FPs and their perceptions of their own training needs with regard to their educational role. A focus group was held at the FFLM annual conference to discuss areas of interest that arose from the preliminary results of the questionnaire. There is a clear need for the FFLM to set up a training programme for educational supervisors in clinical forensic medicine, especially with regard to appraisal. 2009 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine.

  17. Integrating Data Transformation in Principal Components Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Maadooliat, Mehdi

    2015-01-02

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular dimension reduction method to reduce the complexity and obtain the informative aspects of high-dimensional datasets. When the data distribution is skewed, data transformation is commonly used prior to applying PCA. Such transformation is usually obtained from previous studies, prior knowledge, or trial-and-error. In this work, we develop a model-based method that integrates data transformation in PCA and finds an appropriate data transformation using the maximum profile likelihood. Extensions of the method to handle functional data and missing values are also developed. Several numerical algorithms are provided for efficient computation. The proposed method is illustrated using simulated and real-world data examples.

  18. Reinvention and the Principal-Agent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ramón Gil García

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe una interesante polémica en el sector público, derivada de las tensiones existentes entre desempeño y flexibilidad administrativa por un lado, y rendición de cuentas y control, por el otro. El propósito de este artículo es discutir la utilidad del modelo agente principal para un mejor entendimiento de las tensiones entre desempeño y rendición de cuentas, así como analizar las similitudes y contradicciones de esta perspectiva teórica en comparación con el movimiento de “reinvención del gobierno” de la década de los noventa en Estados Unidos.

  19. Nonlinear principal component analysis and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Yuichi; Makino, Naomichi

    2016-01-01

    This book expounds the principle and related applications of nonlinear principal component analysis (PCA), which is useful method to analyze mixed measurement levels data. In the part dealing with the principle, after a brief introduction of ordinary PCA, a PCA for categorical data (nominal and ordinal) is introduced as nonlinear PCA, in which an optimal scaling technique is used to quantify the categorical variables. The alternating least squares (ALS) is the main algorithm in the method. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), a special case of nonlinear PCA, is also introduced. All formulations in these methods are integrated in the same manner as matrix operations. Because any measurement levels data can be treated consistently as numerical data and ALS is a very powerful tool for estimations, the methods can be utilized in a variety of fields such as biometrics, econometrics, psychometrics, and sociology. In the applications part of the book, four applications are introduced: variable selection for mixed...

  20. Teacher and Principal Perceptions of How Principal Transformational and Instructional Leadership Behaviors Relate to Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Because of public concern over the effectiveness of our schools, a new evaluation system was put in place to hold principals and teachers directly accountable for student academic achievement. Part of this evaluation included student performance on state assessments. The purpose of this qualitative study sought to examine how the transformation…

  1. The Networked Principal: Examining Principals' Social Relationships and Transformational Leadership in School and District Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: While in everyday practice, school leaders are often involved in social relationships with a variety of stakeholders both within and outside their own schools, studies on school leaders' networks often focus either on networks within or outside schools. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which principals occupy…

  2. Principals' Perceived Supervisory Behaviors Regarding Marginal Teachers in Two States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Bret; Hewitt, Paul; Young, Suzie

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study used an online survey to determine how principals in two states viewed the supervision of marginal teachers. Principals ranked their own evaluation of the teacher as the most important factor when identifying marginal teachers and relied on informal methods to diagnose marginal teaching. Female principals rated a majority of…

  3. District Leadership for Effective Principal Evaluation and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Steven M.; Arrigoni, Jessica; Clifford, Matthew; Yoder, Maureen; Milanowski, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Research demonstrating principals' impact on student learning outcomes has fueled the shift from principals as facilities managers to an emphasis on instructional leadership (Hallinger & Heck, 1996; Leithwood, Louis, Anderson, & Wahlstrom, 2004; Marzano, Waters, & McNulty, 2005). Principals are under increasing pressure to carry out…

  4. Principal Leadership for Technology-enhanced Learning in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Libby F.; Bowyer, Jane B.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2008-02-01

    Reforms such as technology-enhanced instruction require principal leadership. Yet, many principals report that they need help to guide implementation of science and technology reforms. We identify strategies for helping principals provide this leadership. A two-phase design is employed. In the first phase we elicit principals' varied ideas about the Technology-enhanced Learning in Science (TELS) curriculum materials being implemented by teachers in their schools, and in the second phase we engage principals in a leadership workshop designed based on the ideas they generated. Analysis uses an emergent coding scheme to categorize principals' ideas, and a knowledge integration framework to capture the development of these ideas. The analysis suggests that principals frame their thinking about the implementation of TELS in terms of: principal leadership, curriculum, educational policy, teacher learning, student outcomes and financial resources. They seek to improve their own knowledge to support this reform. The principals organize their ideas around individual school goals and current political issues. Principals prefer professional development activities that engage them in reviewing curricula and student work with other principals. Based on the analysis, this study offers guidelines for creating learning opportunities that enhance principals' leadership abilities in technology and science reform.

  5. Contemporary Challenges and Changes: Principals' Leadership Practices in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michelle; Adams, Donnie; Joo, Mabel Tan Hwee; Muniandy, Vasu; Perera, Corinne Jaqueline; Harris, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the findings from a contemporary study of principals' leadership practices in Malaysia as part of the 7 System Leadership Study. Recent policy developments within Malaysia have increased principals' accountability and have underlined the importance of the role of the principals in transforming school performance and student…

  6. Common Core Implementation Decisions Made by Principals in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Alexis Cienfuegos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the decisions elementary principals have made during the Common Core State Standards reform. Specifically, (a) what decisions principals have made to support Common Core implementation, (b) what strategies elementary principals have employed to communicate with stakeholders about Common Core State…

  7. Job Satisfaction of Elementary Principals in Large Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine job satisfaction levels of elementary principals in "major urban" districts in Texas and to identify strategies these principals used to cope with the demands of the position. Additionally, the project sought to find structures and supports needed to attract and retain principals in the…

  8. Taking a Distributed Perspective to the School Principal's Workday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, James P.; Camburn, Eric M.; Pareja, Amber Stitziel

    2007-01-01

    Focusing on the school principal's day-to-day work, we examine who leads curriculum and instruction- and administration-related activities when the school principal is not leading but participating in the activity. We also explore the prevalence of coperformance of management and leadership activities in the school principal's workday. Looking…

  9. Aerobic Physical Activity and the Leadership of Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Kari

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore if there was a connection between regular aerobic physical activity and the stress and energy levels of principals as they reported it. To begin the research, the current aerobic physical activity level of principals was discovered. Additionally, the energy and stress levels of the principals who do engage…

  10. Principal Preparation in Special Education: Building an Inclusive Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofreiter, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The importance of principal preparation in special education has increased since the Education for All Handicapped Children Act was passed in 1975. There are significant financial reasons for preparing principals in the area of special education. Recent research also shows that all children learn better in an inclusive environment. Principals who…

  11. How the Principalship Has Changed: Lessons from Principals' Life Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Dale L.

    1995-01-01

    The life stories of (North Carolina) principals in a graduate education class reveal vast changes over the past 20 years. "Good ol' boy" superintendents and principals have been replaced by self-interested political "sharks" concerned more with image than substance. Fortunately, principals with resiliency, caring values, and…

  12. Principal Turnover: Upheaval and Uncertainty in Charter Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yongmei; Sun, Min; Rorrer, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Informed by literature on labor market and school choice, this study aims to examine the dynamics of principal career movements in charter schools by comparing principal turnover rates and patterns between charter schools and traditional public schools. Research Methods/Approach: This study uses longitudinal data on Utah principals and…

  13. A Review of the Literature on Principal Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass Rangel, Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Among the many challenges facing public schools are high levels of principal turnover. Given the important role that principals play and are expected to play in the improvement process, concerns about principal turnover have resulted in a growing body of research on its causes and consequences. The purpose of this review is to take stock of what…

  14. Principal Holistic Judgments and High-Stakes Evaluations of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek C.; Dadey, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Results from a sample of 1,013 Georgia principals who rated 12,617 teachers are used to compare holistic and analytic principal judgments with indicators of student growth central to the state's teacher evaluation system. Holistic principal judgments were compared to mean student growth percentiles (MGPs) and analytic judgments from a formal…

  15. Urban School Principals and Their Role as Multicultural Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Mary E.; Enomoto, Ernestine K.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of urban school principals as multicultural leaders. Using cross-case analysis, the authors describe what 6 practicing principals do in regard to multicultural leadership. The findings suggest that although multicultural preparation was lacking for these principals, some did engage in work that promoted diversity in…

  16. School Restructuring and the Dilemmas of Principals' Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Louden, William

    2000-01-01

    The complexity of principals' work may be characterized according to three dilemmas: accountability, autonomy, and efficiency. Narrative vignettes of 74 Australian principals revealed that principals were fair and inclusive. When faced with restructuring dilemmas, however, they favored strong over shared leadership, efficiency over collaboration,…

  17. Importance of an Effective Principal-Counselor Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, LaWanda; Grace, Ronald; King, Gwendolyn

    2014-01-01

    An effective relationship between the principal and school counselor is essential when improving student achievement. To have an effective relationship, there must be communication, trust and respect, leadership, and collaborative planning between the principal and school counselor (College Board, 2011). Principals and school counselors are both…

  18. Honouring Roles: The Story of a Principal and a Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    The importance of the teacher-student relationship in educational practice is well established, as is the idea of principal leadership in relationship to staff. Even though principal leadership is regarded as a factor in student success, the principal's effect is usually assumed to take place via the teaching staff. There is an absence of research…

  19. Leadership Behaviors and Its Relation with Principals' Management Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdinezhad, Vali; Sardarzahi, Zaid

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the leadership behaviors reported by principals and observed by teachers and its relationship with management experience of principals. A quantitative method was used in this study. The target population included all principals and teachers of guidance schools and high schools in the Dashtiari District, Iran. A sample…

  20. Use of Sparse Principal Component Analysis (SPCA) for Fault Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajjar, Shriram; Kulahci, Murat; Palazoglu, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) has been widely used for data dimension reduction and process fault detection. However, interpreting the principal components and the outcomes of PCA-based monitoring techniques is a challenging task since each principal component is a linear combination of the ...

  1. Subjective performance evaluations and reciprocity in principal-agent relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    2014-01-01

    . In contrast to existing models of reciprocity, we find that agents tend to sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if agents' pay-offs are independent of it. In turn, principals provide more positive feedback (relative to their actual performance assessment......We conduct a laboratory experiment with agents working on, and principals benefiting from, a real effort task in which the agents' performance can only be evaluated subjectively. Principals give subjective performance feedback to agents, and agents have an opportunity to sanction principals...... of the agent) if this does not affect their pay-off....

  2. Measuring Principal Performance: How Rigorous Are Commonly Used Principal Performance Assessment Instruments? A Quality School Leadership Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Christopher; Clifford, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This brief reviews the publicly available principal assessments and points superintendents and policy makers toward strong instruments to measure principal performance. Specifically, the measures included in this review are expressly intended to evaluate principal performance and have varying degrees of publicly available evidence of psychometric…

  3. Record of principal work activities/deliverables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    Over the five year period of performance, thirteen task assignments were issued by the DOE to ARINC Research. During the two year base period seven tasks were assigned. Two task assignments were issued for each of the three consecutive one year option periods. Associated with all task assignments were multiple subtasks, some of which required significant effort. These subtasks are appropriately cited in this report under their respective task assignments as principal work activities or deliverables. The technical and management support provided to the DOE under this contract focused on two general areas: (1) appraisal activities and (2) non-appraisal activities. Support to appraisals included planning, document review, developing lines-of-inquiry, interviewing, data collection, report writing, and follow-up. Such work was executed both on-site at the DOE facility under review and off-site. Non-appraisal support was varied and included such areas as document review, data base development, technical assessments. statistical analysis, policy analysis, reliability engineering, and workshop and conference planning and execution

  4. Principal spectra describing magnetooptic permittivity tensor in cubic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrlová, Jana [Nanotechnology Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Legut, Dominik [IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Veis, Martin [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague, 121 16 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Pištora, Jaromír [Nanotechnology Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Hamrle, Jaroslav, E-mail: jaroslav.hamrle@vsb.cz [IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague, 121 16 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    We provide unified phenomenological description of magnetooptic effects being linear and quadratic in magnetization. The description is based on few principal spectra, describing elements of permittivity tensor up to the second order in magnetization. Each permittivity tensor element for any magnetization direction and any sample surface orientation is simply determined by weighted summation of the principal spectra, where weights are given by crystallographic and magnetization orientations. The number of principal spectra depends on the symmetry of the crystal. In cubic crystals owning point symmetry we need only four principal spectra. Here, the principal spectra are expressed by ab initio calculations for bcc Fe, fcc Co and fcc Ni in optical range as well as in hard and soft x-ray energy range, i.e. at the 2p- and 3p-edges. We also express principal spectra analytically using modified Kubo formula.

  5. Computing Cumulative Interest and Principal Paid For a Calendar Year

    OpenAIRE

    John O. MASON

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how easy it is use Microsoft Excel’s CUMPRINC and CUMIPMT functions to compute principal and interest paid for an entire year, even though the payments were made monthly. The CUMPRINC function computes the principal paid by a series of loan payments; the CUMIPMT function computes the interest paid. These two functions provide an alternative to preparing a monthly loan amortization schedule and adding up the amounts of monthly interest paid and principal paid for the ye...

  6. Principal succession: The socialisation of a primary school principal in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertruida M. Steyn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focussed on the socialisation of a new principal in a South African primary school with a strong Christian culture. He was appointed when the predecessor retired after more than two decades. The conceptual framework focuses on the three phases of socialisation: professional socialisation, organisational socialisation and occupational identity, which are used to interpret the study. A qualitative study, which occurred during two phases, investigated the phenomenon, principal succession, in the particular school. The data collection methods included a number of interviews with the principal, a focus group interview with staff members who experienced the previous principal’s leadership practice, and individual interviews with staff members. The following categories emerged from the data analysis: Recalling the previous principal: ‘One sees Mr X [the predecessor] everywhere’; Entry and orientation: ‘I found it intimidating initially’; and Immersion and reshaping: ‘Reins that previously were a bit slack, he is now pulling tight’.Die sosialisering van ’n primêre skoolhoof in Suid-Afrika. Hierdie studie het gefokus op die sosialisering van ’n nuwe skoolhoof in ’n Suid-Afrikaanse primêre skool met ’n sterk Christelike kultuur. Hy is aangestel toe sy voorganger ná meer as twee dekades afgetree het. Die konseptuele raamwerk, wat gebruik is om die bevindinge te interpreteer, het op die drie fases van sosialisering gefokus, naamlik professionele sosialisering, organisatoriese sosialisering en beroepsidentiteit. ’n Kwalitatiewe ondersoek na die skoolhoofopvolgingverskynsel in die bepaalde skool is in twee fases gedoen. Die data-insamelingsmetodes het ’n aantal onderhoude met die skoolhoof, ’n fokusgroeponderhoud met personeellede wat ook onder leierskap van die vorige skoolhoof gewerk het en individuele onderhoude met personeellede ingesluit. Tydens die data-analise het die volgende kategorieë na vore gekom

  7. Mapping ash properties using principal components analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric; Cerda, Artemi; Ubeda, Xavier; Novara, Agata; Francos, Marcos; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesus; Bogunovic, Igor; Khaledian, Yones

    2017-04-01

    In post-fire environments ash has important benefits for soils, such as protection and source of nutrients, crucial for vegetation recuperation (Jordan et al., 2016; Pereira et al., 2015a; 2016a,b). The thickness and distribution of ash are fundamental aspects for soil protection (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Pereira et al., 2015b) and the severity at which was produced is important for the type and amount of elements that is released in soil solution (Bodi et al., 2014). Ash is very mobile material, and it is important were it will be deposited. Until the first rainfalls are is very mobile. After it, bind in the soil surface and is harder to erode. Mapping ash properties in the immediate period after fire is complex, since it is constantly moving (Pereira et al., 2015b). However, is an important task, since according the amount and type of ash produced we can identify the degree of soil protection and the nutrients that will be dissolved. The objective of this work is to apply to map ash properties (CaCO3, pH, and select extractable elements) using a principal component analysis (PCA) in the immediate period after the fire. Four days after the fire we established a grid in a 9x27 m area and took ash samples every 3 meters for a total of 40 sampling points (Pereira et al., 2017). The PCA identified 5 different factors. Factor 1 identified high loadings in electrical conductivity, calcium, and magnesium and negative with aluminum and iron, while Factor 3 had high positive loadings in total phosphorous and silica. Factor 3 showed high positive loadings in sodium and potassium, factor 4 high negative loadings in CaCO3 and pH, and factor 5 high loadings in sodium and potassium. The experimental variograms of the extracted factors showed that the Gaussian model was the most precise to model factor 1, the linear to model factor 2 and the wave hole effect to model factor 3, 4 and 5. The maps produced confirm the patternd observed in the experimental variograms. Factor 1 and 2

  8. Incremental Tensor Principal Component Analysis for Handwritten Digit Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the shortcomings of traditional dimensionality reduction algorithms, incremental tensor principal component analysis (ITPCA based on updated-SVD technique algorithm is proposed in this paper. This paper proves the relationship between PCA, 2DPCA, MPCA, and the graph embedding framework theoretically and derives the incremental learning procedure to add single sample and multiple samples in detail. The experiments on handwritten digit recognition have demonstrated that ITPCA has achieved better recognition performance than that of vector-based principal component analysis (PCA, incremental principal component analysis (IPCA, and multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA algorithms. At the same time, ITPCA also has lower time and space complexity.

  9. The Relationship of Principal Conflict Management Style and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Miriam Miley

    2013-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods design, this study examined conflict management styles of elementary school principals in South Carolina and the relationship of conflict management style and school climate. The Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II, Form B, which identifies five styles of managing conflict, was used to determine principal conflict…

  10. Identifying and Addressing Themes of Job Dissatisfaction for Secondary Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, David; Grundmeyer, Trent; Yankey, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Secondary principals serve in important roles that are complex, high-stress, and include demanding job responsibilities. Key stakeholders such as superintendents, school board members, and legislators must understand the challenges facing secondary principals in order to address the current themes of job dissatisfaction. Using new survey data…

  11. From Redistribution to Recognition: How School Principals Perceive Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Where there are people, there is social in/justice. Using Nancy Fraser's framework, this qualitative research examines how school principals perceive social justice in schools. Twenty-one elementary and secondary school principals were interviewed in the Greater Toronto Area. The study provides some empirical evidence on the ways social…

  12. Becoming a Principal in Indonesia: Possibility, Pitfalls and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumintono, Bambang; Sheyoputri, Elslee Y. A.; Jiang, Na; Misbach, Ifa H.; Jumintono

    2015-01-01

    The preparation and development of school leaders is now considered to be fundamental to school and system improvement. In the pursuit of educational change and reform, the leadership of the principal is deemed to be of critical importance. This qualitative study is part of a large scale research project that is exploring principal preparation and…

  13. Leadership Styles of Principals and Job Performance of Staff in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leadership Styles of Principals and Job Performance of Staff in Secondary Schools in Delta State of Nigeria. ... recommended that principals should adopt the democratic leadership style to boost better job performance among staff and in essence enhance administrative effectiveness and students‟ academic performance.

  14. Location and characterisation of pollution sites by principal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Location and characterisation of pollution sites by principal component analysis of trace contaminants in a slightly polluted seasonal river: a case study of the Arenales River (Salta, Argentina) ... Keywords: trace element contamination, water quality, principal component analysis, Arenales River, Salta, Argentina ...

  15. Principals' Perception of Educational Inputs and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated principals' perception of the relationship between educational inputs and academic performance of students in public junior secondary schools (JSS) in the Central Senatorial District of Delta State, Nigeria. The population was all the 173 public JSS and their principals from which a sample of twenty ...

  16. An Introductory Application of Principal Components to Cricket Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manage, Ananda B. W.; Scariano, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis is widely used in applied multivariate data analysis, and this article shows how to motivate student interest in this topic using cricket sports data. Here, principal component analysis is successfully used to rank the cricket batsmen and bowlers who played in the 2012 Indian Premier League (IPL) competition. In…

  17. Discretion in Student Discipline: Insight into Elementary Principals' Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Nora M.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists that examines the exercise of discretion by principals in their disciplinary decision making. This study sought to understand the application of values by principals as they engage in student disciplinary decision making within legally fixed parameters of their administrative discretion. This qualitative methodology used…

  18. Career Paths in Educational Leadership: Examining Principals' Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parylo, Oksana; Zepeda, Sally J.; Bengtson, Ed

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzes the career path narratives of active principals. Structural narrative analysis was supplemented with sociolinguistic theory and thematic narrative analysis to discern the similarities and differences, as well as the patterns in the language used by participating principals. Thematic analysis found four major themes…

  19. Two Charter School Principals' Engagement in Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Sulentic Dowell, Margaret-Mary

    2014-01-01

    This comparative case (Merriam, 2009) study explored two charter school principals' engagement in instructional leadership. Analysis of three data sources--interviews, observations, and documents--revealed that principals were almost exclusively focused on state accountability and possessed limited knowledge of pedagogical practices. In…

  20. Are Teacher and Principal Candidates Prepared to Address Student Cyberbullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Bonner, Jessica L.; Styron, Jennifer L.; Bridgeforth, James; Martin, Cecelia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the preparation of teacher and principal candidates to address problems created in K-12 settings as a result of cyberbullying. Participants included teacher and principal preparation students. Findings indicated that respondents were familiar with the most common forms of cyberbullying and its impact on…

  1. Principals' Leadership Styles and ESL Teachers' Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, K. A'jaydin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine principals' leadership styles and how and what extent it impacted teachers' job satisfaction. Principals' leadership styles were examined by middle and high school teachers' perceptions. This study drew from 10 middle and 10 high schools in a large school district located in Texas. Participants…

  2. 3D face recognition with asymptotic cones based principal curvatures

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Yinhang; Sun, Xiang; Huang, Di; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Wang, Yunhong; Chen, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The classical curvatures of smooth surfaces (Gaussian, mean and principal curvatures) have been widely used in 3D face recognition (FR). However, facial surfaces resulting from 3D sensors are discrete meshes. In this paper, we present a general framework and define three principal curvatures on discrete surfaces for the purpose of 3D FR. These principal curvatures are derived from the construction of asymptotic cones associated to any Borel subset of the discrete surface. They describe the local geometry of the underlying mesh. First two of them correspond to the classical principal curvatures in the smooth case. We isolate the third principal curvature that carries out meaningful geometric shape information. The three principal curvatures in different Borel subsets scales give multi-scale local facial surface descriptors. We combine the proposed principal curvatures with the LNP-based facial descriptor and SRC for recognition. The identification and verification experiments demonstrate the practicability and accuracy of the third principal curvature and the fusion of multi-scale Borel subset descriptors on 3D face from FRGC v2.0.

  3. 40 CFR 14.12 - Principal types of unallowable claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal types of unallowable claims... PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 14.12 Principal types of unallowable claims. Claims that ordinarily will not be... valid appraisal or authentication with the carrier prior to shipment of the item; (d) Loss of bankbooks...

  4. High School Principals and the High School Journalism Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jane W.

    A study asked selected high school principals to respond to statements about the value of high school journalism to the high school student and about the rights and responsibilities of the high school journalist. These responses were then checked against such information as whether or not the high school principal had worked on a high school…

  5. The Principal-Agent model and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delreux, Tom; Adriaensen, J.

    2017-01-01

    This book assesses the use and limitations of the principal-agent model in a context of increasingly complex political systems such as the European Union. Whilst a number of conceptual, theoretical and methodological challenges need to be addressed, the authors show that the principal-agent model

  6. Implications for Research: Preparing Principals for Leadership Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Shirley M.; Thurber, John C.

    Recent research has shown that, to exercise more effective leadership, principals need to match their behaviors with the appropriate needs and concerns of teachers. Concepts and tools from work done by the Research on Concerns-Based Adoption Project at the Austin campus of the University of Texas were employed to provide principals in the Palm…

  7. Teacher Contract Non-Renewal: What Matters to Principals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Andy; Packard, Abbot; Dam, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the relationship between teacher dispositions, subject content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and reasons that school principals recommend non-renewal of teachers' contracts. Nearly 2,000 school principals in 13 states completed an emailed survey. In deciding whether to non-renew a teacher contract,…

  8. Defamation of and by Principals. A Legal Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    Defamation is a common-law claim for liability that encompasses "libel," which is the written form, and "slander," which is the oral form. School principals can be plaintiffs or defendants in defamation suits. Relevant case law provides illustrations of the various elements of defamation for both roles of the principal. Court…

  9. The Job Realities of Beginning and Experienced Assistant Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Bruce G.; Shoho, Alan R.; Oleszewski, Ashley M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of a cross section of new and experienced assistant principals regarding the realities of their jobs. Findings indicated that their challenges pertain to workload and task management, conflicts with adults and students, and curriculum and instruction issues. Novice and experienced assistant principals' responses…

  10. The experiences of female principals on curriculum leadership in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and Behaviour ... women have managed curriculum implementation in secondary schools in order to inform both policy makers, school principals and scholars of gender studies about good practices from ... The study found that: One, these principals possessed social skills, such as warmth and strong relationships.

  11. Principal Concerns: Iowa May Face Statewide Demand. Data Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArmond, Michael; Ouijdani, Monica

    2012-01-01

    When people talk about human capital or talent in public education, they generally focus on teachers, not principals. That's a mistake. School districts and states generally don't take a strategic approach toward managing their principal workforce. Often, they lack even the most basic information about who is leading their schools: Where do most…

  12. The Motivating Language of Principals: A Sequential Transformative Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, William Tobias

    2012-01-01

    This study implemented a Sequential Transformative Mixed Methods design with teachers (as recipients) and principals (to give voice) in the examination of principal talk in two different school accountability contexts (Continuously Improving and Continuously Zigzag) using the conceptual framework of Motivating Language Theory. In phase one,…

  13. Principals' Opinions of Organisational Justice in Elementary Schools in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Inayet; Karaman-Kepenekci, Yasemin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose--This study aims to present the opinions of public elementary school principals in Turkey about the current organisational justice practices among teachers from the distributive, procedural, interactional, and rectificatory dimensions. Design/methodology/approach--The opinions of 11 public elementary school principals in Ankara about…

  14. A Review of Singapore Principals' Leadership Qualities, Styles, and Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, David Foo Seong; Nguyen, Dong Thanh; Wong, Benjamin Koon Siak; Choy, William Kim Weng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a review of empirical studies on principal leadership in Singapore. It seeks to provide a general picture of Singapore principals' leadership qualities, styles, and roles. Design/methodology/approach: This is a systematic review of empirical studies, using a "bounded" approach with a focus…

  15. 3D face recognition with asymptotic cones based principal curvatures

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Yinhang

    2015-05-01

    The classical curvatures of smooth surfaces (Gaussian, mean and principal curvatures) have been widely used in 3D face recognition (FR). However, facial surfaces resulting from 3D sensors are discrete meshes. In this paper, we present a general framework and define three principal curvatures on discrete surfaces for the purpose of 3D FR. These principal curvatures are derived from the construction of asymptotic cones associated to any Borel subset of the discrete surface. They describe the local geometry of the underlying mesh. First two of them correspond to the classical principal curvatures in the smooth case. We isolate the third principal curvature that carries out meaningful geometric shape information. The three principal curvatures in different Borel subsets scales give multi-scale local facial surface descriptors. We combine the proposed principal curvatures with the LNP-based facial descriptor and SRC for recognition. The identification and verification experiments demonstrate the practicability and accuracy of the third principal curvature and the fusion of multi-scale Borel subset descriptors on 3D face from FRGC v2.0.

  16. Ecstasy of Emptiness? Reflections of a Retired School Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzara, Judith R.

    2001-01-01

    A retired elementary principal who was actively tied to her community for decades explains how to put a positive spin on retirement. New retirees should treasure their gifts and talents, develop new ones, take advantage of travel opportunities, mentor a new principal, and/or go back to college. (MLH)

  17. The DRE-Principal Partnership: Making It Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Barbara; Elliott, Karen

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the roles of the director of religious education (DRE) and the school principal at Catholic schools, viewing them as complimentary rather than competitive. Provides examples of positive cooperation between the principal and DRE at Most Pure Heart of Mary Parish, in Shelby, Ohio. (KP)

  18. Preschool Principal's Curriculum Leadership Indicators: A Taiwan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Fen; Lee, John Chi-Kin

    2013-01-01

    The role of a principal's curriculum leadership has become an educational issue in Taiwan's early childhood education. This study represents a pioneering attempt in adopting a target school interview, fuzzy Delphi, and analytic hierarchy process for constructing preschool principal's curriculum leadership indicators. Fifteen experts and…

  19. Invisible Barriers: The Loneliness of School Principals at Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychological insight is the notion that all participants agreed on and emphasised when asked to offer a definition of loneliness at schools. Participants also agreed on the fact that the organisational climate at Turkish schools represented the most significant reason for principals' loneliness at work. The school principals that ...

  20. Emerging Technology Trends and Ethical Practices for the School Principal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Virginia E.

    2010-01-01

    What is the school principal's role in ensuring ethical technology use while promoting the use of wireless and advanced technologies in instruction? The rapid advances in technology in only the past 5 years, including the increase in laptops and smart phones, have transformed both educational practices and the role of the school principal as…

  1. School Principals' Technology Leadership Competency and Technology Coordinatorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoglu, Koksal

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the primary and high school principals' competency in technology leadership and so to define implications for advanced competency. The population of the study was formed by 134 school principals in Maltepe and Kadikoy districts in Istanbul. On account of the fact that population was reachable, no specific…

  2. Principal Preservice Education for Leadership in Inclusive Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Principal leadership has been identified as the key to successful implementation of inclusive education for students with disabilities. Prospective principals require knowledge, skills, and dispositions to equip them to work with key stakeholders to initiate and sustain inclusive practices within their schools. The purpose of this action research…

  3. Empowering Teachers: Characteristics, Strategies, and Practices of Successful Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Cailin Patrice

    2012-01-01

    This study implemented an exploratory mixed-methods design to better understand how the characteristics of a principal, specifically the strategies, behaviors, and actions, lead to the perception of empowerment as perceived by the teachers themselves. An expert panel identified three "highly successful" principals assigned to elementary…

  4. The Relationship between Principals' Transformational Leadership Behaviors and School Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, David A.

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study looks at the relationship between a principals' transformational leadership behaviors and the culture of their school. The goal of the study is to determine if transformational leadership qualities have a positive impact on the culture present in a school. Congruency between the views of a principal and their staff will…

  5. "Mujeres" in the Principal's Office: Latina School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Morse, Sylvia; Murakami, Elizabeth T.; Byrne-Jiménez, Mónica; Hernandez, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a national survey of Latina/o principals and assistant principals conducted by the National Latina/o Leadership Project and focuses on the women participants. Included is a description of Latinas' leadership experiences, their career paths, and the influence of racial/ethnic identity on their leadership practice. The…

  6. Financial accountability: the principal or the school governing body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Schools Act 84 of 1996 prescribes how a school should manage its funds. It also provides guidelines for the school governing body and the principal on their roles and responsibilities in managing the finances of the school. However, there are school governing bodies and principals that have little knowledge of the ...

  7. Investing in Leadership: The District's Role in Managing Principal Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascall, Blair; Leithwood, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of research into the impact of principal turnover on schools, and the ability of schools to mitigate the negative effects of frequent turnover by distributing leadership in the schools. The findings from this qualitative and quantitative analysis show that rapid principal turnover does indeed have a negative…

  8. On the principal state method for runlength limited sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjalkens, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a detailed result on Franaszek's (1968) principal state method for the generation of run-length constrained codes. The authors show that, whenever the constraints k and d satisfy k 2d>0, the set of "principal states" is s0, s1, ···, sk-1. Thus there is no need for Franaszek's search

  9. High School Principals as Leaders: Styles and Sources of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Papantoniou, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of leadership (style adopted, sources of power exercised and factors affecting leadership) of high school principals in Greece. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 235 school principals were surveyed using questionnaires. These questionnaires assessed how often they adopted…

  10. Rural Rides in Queensland: Travels with Novice Teaching Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Simon; Stevens, Elizabeth; Wildy, Helen

    2006-01-01

    This article is concerned with the nature of novice teaching principals' interactions in Queensland rural communities. Stories selected from case accounts are used to provide insights into the teaching principals' interrelationship with the community. The article concludes with a discussion of some implications for practice suggested by these…

  11. Principals' Perceptions of Their Knowledge in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Maria Banda; Guerra, Federico R., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    With the "Every Student Succeeds Act" continuing to legislate accountability for special education and Hispanic students, the appropriate content in principal preparation programs relevant to successful leadership of special education programs is vital. This mixed methods study analyzed the survey responses of 84 principals in South…

  12. Principals' Perceptions of Needs in Hispanic Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Maria B.; Guerra, Federico, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed methods study used a survey by Frost and Kersten to answer the following questions: (a) Do principals of predominantly Hispanic schools perceive themselves as having adequate knowledge in special education? (b) Which areas are these principals most involved in with special education teachers? (c) What suggestions do these principals…

  13. Principals' and Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Itay; Zamir, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to determine whether, in schools that practice inclusion, there is a correlation between the attitudes of school principals and teachers in their schools, towards inclusion of student with special needs. For this purpose, 38 schools were sampled in each of which the school principal and five teachers who work with…

  14. Teacher-Principal Race and Teacher Satisfaction over Time, Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viano, Samantha L.; Hunter, Seth B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to replicate prior findings on teacher-principal race congruence and teacher job satisfaction and extend the literature by investigating trends over time and if the relationship between race congruence and teacher job satisfaction differs by principal race and region. Design/methodology/approach: The study…

  15. 75 FR 82236 - Principal Trades with Certain Advisory Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... 3235-AJ96 Principal Trades with Certain Advisory Clients AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission... certain of their advisory clients. The amendment extends the date on which rule 206(3)- 3T will sunset... a principal capacity in transactions with certain of their advisory clients.\\1\\ In December 2009, we...

  16. The Technology Principal: To Be or Not to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Anika Ball; Patravanich, Supawaree

    2014-01-01

    This case provides principal licensure candidates a strategic perspective on leading and managing educational technology initiatives. It presents issues related to vision setting, planning, implementation, organizational structure, and decision making. The case narrative is presented from the perspective of a principal, but it can also be used to…

  17. Measuring School Principals' Support for ICT Integration in Palermo, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzi, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    School principals play an important role in managing media and technology integration into school teaching since they can foster the use of information communication technologies (ICT) at a strategic level, even supporting the introduction of media literacy education activities into teaching. Starting from a review on the role of principals'…

  18. Empowering principals to lead and manage public schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, education systems have been affected by radical social, political and economic changes. Although school principals play a pivotal role in improving student learning and attaining educational outcomes, they work under strenuous conditions to deal with multifaceted transformational issues. Principals experience ...

  19. The Principal's Role in Site-Based Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, William R.

    1993-01-01

    In existing school-based management models, the principal's role ranges from chairing the local council to being a coach/facilitator. With teachers and parents assuming greater control over governance, curriculum, and budgeting, paranoid principals may establish more formal bargaining relationships with district boards. Caution is advised, because…

  20. Honouring Roles: The Story of a Principal and a Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Cranston

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the teacher-student relationship in educational practice is well established, as is the idea of principal leadership in relationship to staff. Even though principal leadership is regarded as a factor in student success, the principal’s effect is usually assumed to take place via the teaching staff. There is an absence of research about the “lived experience” of direct principal-student relationships that shed lights on the ways in which these relationships play a role in student success and principal transformation. This paper presents two narratives written about a particular set of principal-student interactions experienced by the researcher (principal and participant (student.  The analysis uses a narrative inquiry approach to explore both the individual and collective meanings of this principal-student relationship. The stories and their derived meanings have the potential to enliven and  influence educational practice as they explore the subtleties of the principal-student relationship.

  1. Calibrating One's Moral Compass: How Principal Preparation Shapes School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Donald E.; Derrington, Mary Lynne

    2012-01-01

    No textbook that an aspiring principal encounters in preparing for the role of school leader discusses what steps to follow when a member--or members--of the school staff challenge standards of professional judgment and moral rectitude. Instead, the most reliable guide at the principal's disposal may be the "moral compass" upon which the…

  2. Examining Teachers' Motivation Level According to School Principals' Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…

  3. Principals' Perceptions of Public Schools' Professional Development Changes during NCLB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated public school principals' reports of professional development implementation at the school level while working in different state- and local-level contexts (state accountability level, geographic locations, socioeconomic status, demographics, and grade levels). I attempted to measure principals' reported changes in levels…

  4. Importing a Culture of Success Via a Strong Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavis, Charles A.; Vinson, David; Fox, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Examines how a new principal at a historically low-performing high school brought about changes in the school culture and in student achievement. Describes how the principal emphasized achievement at the highest levels through heroes and heroines, rites and rituals, stories, governance and leadership, symbols, enforcing expectations, and serving…

  5. Latina/o School Principals: Identity, Leadership and Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Elizabeth T.; Hernandez, Frank; Mendez-Morse, Sylvia; Byrne-Jimenez, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to further define and inform about the influence of Latina/o principals in schools as an alternative to traditional forms of leadership. The principals' Latina/o identity, their leadership styles and advocacy towards the improvement of student achievement were examined. This research focused on three questions: (a) How did…

  6. Social Media Arrive in School; Principals Look at Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Social media have the potential to improve educational opportunities for high school students, but also present legal and policy challenges for public school principals. Those were among opinions expressed in the 2010 Principals' Partnership Poll. The most frequently-cited request by the 306 respondents was help in integrating social media into…

  7. School Principals' Authentic Leadership and Teachers' Psychological Capital: Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Feng-I

    2016-01-01

    This study examined teachers' perceptions of principals' authentic leadership and the relationship of authentic leadership to teachers' psychological capital in Taiwan. A total of 1,429 elementary and secondary school teachers were surveyed. The results showed that teachers perceived their principals' authentic leadership as moderate and that the…

  8. The Development of Faith Leadership in Novice Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckhoff, Barbara Stacy

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Catholic School Principal Support Program (CSPSP), a mentoring program for first and second-year Catholic school principals in a large urban diocese, and identifies key challenges, impacts and influences on decision-making. Ten school leaders describe their work and provide the lens by which they reflect on their role as…

  9. Collusion and Renegotiation in a Principal-Supervisor-Agent Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strausz, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a principal-agent relationship with a supervisor who has information about the agent. The agent and the supervisor have the possibility to collude and misinform the principal. From the literature we know that there exists an optimal contract which excludes collusion in

  10. Delegation of Monitoring in a Principal-Agent Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strausz, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper studies a principal-agent relationship with moral hazard in which the principal or the supervisor can monitor the agent's hidden action by using identical monitoring technologies. The paper shows that delegation of monitoring to the supervisor is profitable because of two effects. With

  11. Relationship between Implicit Leadership and Proactive Behaviors of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinkilic-Kara, Sultan-Bilge; Zafer-Gunes, Demet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to define the school principals' implicit leadership theory and to reveal its relationship with the proactive behavior. The study is conducted in Bagcilar and Basaksehir districts in Istanbul and the target population of the research is 153 school principals working in state elementary schools, middle schools and high…

  12. Primary School Principals' Job Satisfaction and Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors associated with occupational stress and job satisfaction among Irish primary school principals. A principal's job has become increasingly demanding and complex in recent decades. However, there is little current research into their levels of stress and job satisfaction, particularly…

  13. The Leadership Roles of a Principal in Improving School Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanuddin Burhanuddin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the leadership roles and practices of the principal in improving school effectiveness. This descriptive study involved the principal , counselor, and 11 teachers from the Tonsley Park Primary School in South Australia. The findings showed that all respondents generally regarded team leader as the most important role, while supervisor was rated as the least important. Of the 20 tasks observed, generally revealed that a principal should work cooperatively with staff to ensure more effective use of their skills. While, the task of a principal in making decisions on staff development programs was not necessarily expected by the practicing teachers. All respondents considered organization coordination as the most important area within which a principal should provide more leadership, while curriculum or instructional improvement and innovation was regarded as the least important

  14. Female Principals in Education: Breaking the Glass Ceiling in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Javier Diez Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Abstract Spanish schools are characterised by having a high proportion of female staff. However, statistics show that a proportionately higher number of men hold leadership positions. The aim of this study was to analyse the reasons why this is so, and to determine the motivations and barriers that women encounter in attaining and exercising these positions of greater responsibility and power. Questionnaires were administered to 2,022 female teachers, 430 female principals and 322 male principals. In addition, semi-structured interviews were held with 60 female principals, 14 focus group discussions were held with female principals and 16 autobiographical narratives were compiled with female principals and school inspectors. The reasons identified were related to structural aspects linked to the patriarchal worldview that is still dominant in our society and culture. Nevertheless, we also found motivations among women for attaining and exercising leadership roles.

  15. Triangulating Principal Effectiveness: How Perspectives of Parents, Teachers, and Assistant Principals Identify the Central Importance of Managerial Skills. Working Paper 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Jason A.; Loeb, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    While the importance of effective principals is undisputed, few studies have addressed what specific skills principals need to promote school success. This study draws on unique data combining survey responses from principals, assistant principals, teachers and parents with rich administrative data to identify which principal skills matter most…

  16. The Effects of Reform in Principal Selection on Leadership Behavior of General and Vocational High School Principals in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsi-Chi; Lee, Ming-Chao; Tu, Ya-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deregulation has formed the primary core of education reform in Taiwan in the past decade. The principal selection system was one of the specific recommendations in the deregulation of education. The method of designation of senior high school principals has changed from being "appointed" to being "selected." The issue as to…

  17. Whose Perception of Principal Instructional Leadership? Principal-Teacher Perceptual (Dis)agreement and Its Influence on Teacher Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo-Ho; Ham, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    This study examines teacher collaboration across three Asia-Pacific countries (Australia, Malaysia, and South Korea), focusing on the possibility that principal-teacher perceptual disagreement regarding principal instructional leadership performance may impede progress toward a school organizational condition conducive to collaborative teacher…

  18. Perceptions of Kentucky High School Principals and Superintendents on the Role of the Superintendent Influencing Principal Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Charles L., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study surveyed the promotion of instructional leadership of high school principals by superintendents, as perceived by self and the principals they supervise. The two-phased study included an initial questionnaire administered to both study groups and comparisons of responses analyzed. All superintendents (N = 173), except the…

  19. Looked after or Left Behind: The Effectiveness of Principal Preparation Programs as Perceived by Generation Y Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledge, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    This research study intended to discover the perceptions of 10 Illinois Generation Y novice high school principals pertaining to the effectiveness of their principal preparation programs in terms of how well it prepared them to lead in the first three years of their principalship, and what subsequent professional development they deemed necessary…

  20. Reel Principals: A Descriptive Content Analysis of the Images of School Principals Depicted in Movies from 1997-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfrom, Katy J.

    2010-01-01

    According to Glanz's early research, school principals have been depicted as autocrats, bureaucrats, buffoons, and/or villains in movies from 1950 to 1996. The purpose of this study was to determine if these stereotypical characterizations of school principals have continued in films from 1997-2009, or if more favorable images have emerged that…

  1. Role Perceptions and Job Stress among Special Education School Principals: Do They Differ from Principals of Regular Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziel, Haim Henry; Cohen-Azaria, Yael; Ermenc, Klara Skubic

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare principals' perceptions of their leadership roles in regular (Dovno, 1999) versus special education (Zaretzky, Faircloth & Moreau, 2005) schools, and how these perceptions affect feelings of job stress (Friedman, 2001; Margalit, 1999). We predicted that regular school principals would differ in…

  2. Measuring Principals' Effectiveness: Results from New Jersey's First Year of Statewide Principal Evaluation. REL 2016-156

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Mariesa; Ross, Christine

    2016-01-01

    States and districts across the country are implementing new principal evaluation systems that include measures of the quality of principals' school leadership practices and measures of student achievement growth. Because these evaluation systems will be used for high-stakes decisions, it is important that the component measures of the evaluation…

  3. Stepping stones: Principal career paths and school outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béteille, Tara; Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna

    2012-07-01

    More than one out of every five principals leaves their school each year. In some cases, these career changes are driven by the choices of district leadership. In other cases, principals initiate the move, often demonstrating preferences to work in schools with higher achieving students from more advantaged socioeconomic backgrounds. Principals often use schools with many poor or low-achieving students as stepping stones to what they view as more desirable assignments. We use longitudinal data from one large urban school district to study the relationship between principal turnover and school outcomes. We find that principal turnover is, on average, detrimental to school performance. Frequent turnover of school leadership results in lower teacher retention and lower student achievement gains. Leadership changes are particularly harmful for high poverty schools, low-achieving schools, and schools with many inexperienced teachers. These schools not only suffer from high rates of principal turnover but are also unable to attract experienced successors. The negative effect of leadership changes can be mitigated when vacancies are filled by individuals with prior experience leading other schools. However, the majority of new principals in high poverty and low-performing schools lack prior leadership experience and leave when more attractive positions become available in other schools. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. COMPETENCE OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS REGARDING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökmen DAĞLI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the manner of school principals regarding knowledge managementin primary school education. The research is a subjective one conducted in general scanning method. Personal informationform and five-likert scale are the main means in which data was collected. During the data collection stage, school principalswere requested to provide information about the way in which they obtain, share, process, evaluate knowledge, take decisionand analyze problems within the scope of knowledge management. In the virtue of the data acquired, the research shows that;the school principals obtain knowledge by attending meetings with teachers, making personal observation, their personalexperience and online resources. Regarding the sharing of knowledge, the research shows the principals always shareknowledge with their assistant principals and teachers; in using of knowledge, decision making and analyzing problemsresearch also shows that principals take decisions in co-operation with assistant principals and teachers. Last but not least,research shows that in storing the knowledge principals mainly use computers and traditional filing techniques. Seminarsshould be organized periodically by specialists with respect to acquiring, sharing, using and also filling knowledge followingdecision-making in order for school administrators to keep abreast of the latest developments in knowledge management

  5. Principal Components as a Data Reduction and Noise Reduction Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of principal components as a pipeline data reduction technique for thematic mapper data was assessed and principal components analysis and its transformation as a noise reduction technique was examined. Two primary factors were considered: (1) how might data reduction and noise reduction using the principal components transformation affect the extraction of accurate spectral classifications; and (2) what are the real savings in terms of computer processing and storage costs of using reduced data over the full 7-band TM complement. An area in central Pennsylvania was chosen for a study area. The image data for the project were collected using the Earth Resources Laboratory's thematic mapper simulator (TMS) instrument.

  6. Empowering principals to lead and manage public schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mestry, Rajkumar

    preparing principals for the educational demands of life and work in the 21st century (Bush, 2005; Russell &. Cranston, 2012). .... the heart of raising standards of teaching, learning ..... the school to work as a collaborative structure … it.

  7. Longitudinal functional principal component modelling via Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, Josue G.; Liang, Faming; Zhou, Lan; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    model averaging using a Bayesian formulation. A relatively straightforward reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo formulation has poor mixing properties and in simulated data often becomes trapped at the wrong number of principal components. In order

  8. Principal Component Analysis: Most Favourite Tool in Chemometrics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL ARTICLE. Principal ... Chemometrics is a discipline that combines mathematics, statis- ... workers have used PCA for air quality monitoring [8]. ..... J S Verbeke, Handbook of Chemometrics and Qualimetrics, Elsevier, New York,.

  9. Principals' perceptions of the motivation potential of performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article explores the proposed performance agreement and its potential influence on principals' motivation to improve their own, and therefore also the ... performance agreements; performance management; power; school leadership;

  10. A Tannakian approach to dimensional reduction of principal bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Cónsul, Luis; Biswas, Indranil; García-Prada, Oscar

    2017-08-01

    Let P be a parabolic subgroup of a connected simply connected complex semisimple Lie group G. Given a compact Kähler manifold X, the dimensional reduction of G-equivariant holomorphic vector bundles over X × G / P was carried out in Álvarez-Cónsul and García-Prada (2003). This raises the question of dimensional reduction of holomorphic principal bundles over X × G / P. The method of Álvarez-Cónsul and García-Prada (2003) is special to vector bundles; it does not generalize to principal bundles. In this paper, we adapt to equivariant principal bundles the Tannakian approach of Nori, to describe the dimensional reduction of G-equivariant principal bundles over X × G / P, and to establish a Hitchin-Kobayashi type correspondence. In order to be able to apply the Tannakian theory, we need to assume that X is a complex projective manifold.

  11. Invisible Barriers: The Loneliness of School Principals at Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    x

    2016-11-10

    Nov 10, 2016 ... Department of Educational Administration, College of Education, Yildiz Technical ... The participants of the study consisted of seven elementary school principals. ..... Technical University to conduct this study, and was.

  12. Empowering principals to lead and manage public schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mestry, Rajkumar

    education challenges and obstacles facing them. ... with the hope of generating a highly skilled labour force and high proportion of employment. .... head teachers and deputy principals are normally ... A Changing Profile of School Leadership:.

  13. Rational, Bureaucratic, Collegial, and Political Views of the Principal's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergiovanni, Thomas

    1979-01-01

    Understanding of four basic organization management models--the rational model, the mechanistic model, the collegial/organic model, and the political theory/bargaining model--can aid school principals in critically assessing their own administrative styles. (LH)

  14. Homework in the Foundation Phase: Perceptions of principals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of this instructional role played by principals, determining their perceptions on homework is ... other words, teachers use it to determine whether .... was adamant that there is no disadvantage to .... supervise homework in the medium of English.

  15. Principal-vector-directed fringe-tracking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihui; Guo, Hongwei

    2014-11-01

    Fringe tracking is one of the most straightforward techniques for analyzing a single fringe pattern. This work presents a principal-vector-directed fringe-tracking technique. It uses Gaussian derivatives for estimating fringe gradients and uses hysteresis thresholding for segmenting singular points, thus improving the principal component analysis method. Using it allows us to estimate the principal vectors of fringes from a pattern with high noise. The fringe-tracking procedure is directed by these principal vectors, so that erroneous results induced by noise and other error-inducing factors are avoided. At the same time, the singular point regions of the fringe pattern are identified automatically. Using them allows us to determine paths through which the "seed" point for each fringe skeleton is easy to find, thus alleviating the computational burden in processing the fringe pattern. The results of a numerical simulation and experiment demonstrate this method to be valid.

  16. Nonparametric inference in nonlinear principal components analysis : exploration and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linting, Mariëlle

    2007-01-01

    In the social and behavioral sciences, data sets often do not meet the assumptions of traditional analysis methods. Therefore, nonlinear alternatives to traditional methods have been developed. This thesis starts with a didactic discussion of nonlinear principal components analysis (NLPCA),

  17. Invisible Barriers: The Loneliness of School Principals at Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    x

    2016-11-10

    Nov 10, 2016 ... Keywords: barriers; loneliness at work; school principals; Turkish elementary ... competencies as they face the challenges of their position (Howard & Mallory, 2008). ..... of the participants was female and six of them were.

  18. The perceptions of teachers and school principals of each other's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of teachers and school principals of each other's disposition ... implementing educational reform that has been designed without their participation. ... school-based management has recently emerged as the instrument to ...

  19. The Principals' and Teacher Counsellors' Perception of the Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    guidance and counselling services in all the 45 public secondary schools in. Laikipia District as perceived by school principals and teacher counsellors. ... the teacher counsellors and students' attitudes on delivery of guidance and counselling ...

  20. Assessment of drinking water quality using principal component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of drinking water quality using principal component analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis: a case study at water treatment plants, ... water and to detect the source of pollution for the most revealing parameters.

  1. Water quality of the Chhoti Gandak River using principal component ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ; therefore water samples were collected to analyse its quality along the entire length of Chhoti Gandak. River. The principal components of water quality are controlled by lithology, gentle slope gradient, poor drainage, long residence of water, ...

  2. African-American Female Students and STEM: Principals' Leadership Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Kristin Morgan

    As the U.S. becomes more diverse, school leaders, major corporations, and areas of national defense continue to investigate science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education issues. African-American female students have historically been underrepresented in STEM fields, yet educational leadership research, examining this population is limited. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how principals support African-American female students in schools with a STEM program. The Critical Race Theory (CRT)was used as a theoretical framework to highlight the inadequacies to support educational inequalities. The application of the CRT in this study is due to the embedded inequality practices within the educational system, that have resulted in the underrepresentation of African-American female students in STEM. To complement CRT, the transformative leadership model was also utilized to examine the emancipatory leadership practices principals utilized. These theories framed the context of this study by recognizing the need to address how support is actualized to African-American female students in STEM by their principals. A case study approach was an appropriate method to answer the two research questions, 1) How do principals feel they support African-American female students in their STEM programs? and 2) What practices do principals engage in that support underrepresented students in STEM? This approach intended to uncover how a principal leads a multifaceted population of underrepresented students in STEM programs. Two principals of STEM schools, where more than 50% of the population were African-American, were interviewed and observed completing daily operations at community-wide events. The STEM Coordinators and a teacher were also interviewed, and test scores were examined to provide further information about the STEM program, and public records were obtained to analyze the principals' means of communication. I found that principals supported

  3. Implementing Comprehensive School Health in Alberta, Canada: the principal's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Erica; McLeod, Nicole; Montemurro, Genevieve; Veugelers, Paul J; Gleddie, Doug; Storey, Kate E

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive School Health (CSH) is an internationally recognized framework that moves beyond the individual to holistically address school health, leading to the development of health-enhancing behaviors while also improving educational outcomes. Previous research has suggested that principal support for CSH implementation is essential, but this role has yet to be explored. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to examine the role of the principal in the implementation of a CSH project aimed at creating a healthy school culture. This research was guided by the grounded ethnography method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with APPLE School principals (n = 29) to qualitatively explore their role in creating a healthy school culture. A model consisting of five major themes emerged, suggesting that the principal played a fluid role throughout the CSH implementation process. Principals (i) primed the cultural change; (ii) communicated the project's importance to others; (iii) negotiated concerns and collaboratively planned; (iv) held others accountable to the change, while enabling them to take ownership and (v) played an underlying supportive role, providing positive recognition and establishing ongoing commitment. This research provides recommendations to help establish effective leadership practices in schools, conducive to creating a healthy school culture. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Longitudinal functional principal component modelling via Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, Josue G.

    2010-06-01

    The authors consider the analysis of hierarchical longitudinal functional data based upon a functional principal components approach. In contrast to standard frequentist approaches to selecting the number of principal components, the authors do model averaging using a Bayesian formulation. A relatively straightforward reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo formulation has poor mixing properties and in simulated data often becomes trapped at the wrong number of principal components. In order to overcome this, the authors show how to apply Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) to this problem, a method that has the potential to explore the entire space and does not become trapped in local extrema. The combination of reversible jump methods and SAMC in hierarchical longitudinal functional data is simplified by a polar coordinate representation of the principal components. The approach is easy to implement and does well in simulated data in determining the distribution of the number of principal components, and in terms of its frequentist estimation properties. Empirical applications are also presented.

  5. What Effective Principals Do to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Elizabeth Anne

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this mixed method study were to (a) Examine the relationships among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership, and student achievement; (b) examine the differences among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership and student achievement; and (c) investigate what effective principals do to improve…

  6. Fuzzy Genetic Algorithm Based on Principal Operation and Inequity Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fachao; Jin, Chenxia

    In this paper, starting from the structure of fuzzy information, by distinguishing principal indexes and assistant indexes, give comparison of fuzzy information on synthesizing effect and operation of fuzzy optimization on principal indexes transformation, further, propose axiom system of fuzzy inequity degree from essence of constraint, and give an instructive metric method; Then, combining genetic algorithm, give fuzzy optimization methods based on principal operation and inequity degree (denoted by BPO&ID-FGA, for short); Finally, consider its convergence using Markov chain theory and analyze its performance through an example. All these indicate, BPO&ID-FGA can not only effectively merge decision consciousness into the optimization process, but possess better global convergence, so it can be applied to many fuzzy optimization problems.

  7. The Role of School Principals in Shaping Children's Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Yair; Oreg, Shaul

    2016-12-01

    Instilling values in children is among the cornerstones of every society. There is wide agreement that beyond academic teaching, schools play an important role in shaping schoolchildren's character, imparting in them values such as curiosity, achievement, benevolence, and citizenship. Despite the importance of this topic, we know very little about whether and how schools affect children's values. In this large-scale longitudinal study, we examined school principals' roles in the development of children's values. We hypothesized that relationships exist between principals' values and changes in children's values through the mediating effect of the school climate. To test our predictions, we collected data from 252 school principals, 3,658 teachers, and 49,401 schoolchildren. A multilevel structural-equation-modeling analysis yielded overall support for our hypotheses. These findings contribute to understanding the development of children's values and the far-reaching impact of leaders' values. They also demonstrate effects of schools on children beyond those on academic achievement.

  8. Focal points and principal solutions of linear Hamiltonian systems revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šepitka, Peter; Šimon Hilscher, Roman

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we present a novel view on the principal (and antiprincipal) solutions of linear Hamiltonian systems, as well as on the focal points of their conjoined bases. We present a new and unified theory of principal (and antiprincipal) solutions at a finite point and at infinity, and apply it to obtain new representation of the multiplicities of right and left proper focal points of conjoined bases. We show that these multiplicities can be characterized by the abnormality of the system in a neighborhood of the given point and by the rank of the associated T-matrix from the theory of principal (and antiprincipal) solutions. We also derive some additional important results concerning the representation of T-matrices and associated normalized conjoined bases. The results in this paper are new even for completely controllable linear Hamiltonian systems. We also discuss other potential applications of our main results, in particular in the singular Sturmian theory.

  9. Sparse logistic principal components analysis for binary data

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seokho

    2010-09-01

    We develop a new principal components analysis (PCA) type dimension reduction method for binary data. Different from the standard PCA which is defined on the observed data, the proposed PCA is defined on the logit transform of the success probabilities of the binary observations. Sparsity is introduced to the principal component (PC) loading vectors for enhanced interpretability and more stable extraction of the principal components. Our sparse PCA is formulated as solving an optimization problem with a criterion function motivated from a penalized Bernoulli likelihood. A Majorization-Minimization algorithm is developed to efficiently solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed sparse logistic PCA method is illustrated by application to a single nucleotide polymorphism data set and a simulation study. © Institute ol Mathematical Statistics, 2010.

  10. Constructing principals' professional identities through life stories: an exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Mpungose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adopting a humanistic perspective to the study of leadership, I discuss and describe how school principals adapt to their new roles, owing to the new education policies and educational restructuring within the South African Department of Education. The Life History approach was used to collect data from six selected school principals in KwaZulu-Natal. On the basis of the analysis of data, I conclude that leaders create their provisional selves and construct their professional identities from their personal and professional knowledge. Provisional selves, in this context, are temporary solutions principals use to close the gap between their current capacities and self-concepts, and the ideas they hold about what attitudes and behaviours are expected in their new roles.

  11. Optimal interface between principal deterrent systems and material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deiermann, P.J.; Opelka, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find an optimal blend between three safeguards systems for special nuclear material (SNM), the material accounting system and the physical security and material control systems. The latter two are denoted as principal deterrent systems. The optimization methodology employed is a two-stage decision algorithm, first an explicit maximization of expected diverter benefits and subsequently a minimization of expected defender costs for changes in material accounting procedures and incremental improvements in the principal deterrent systems. The probability of diverter success function dependent upon the principal deterrents and material accounting system variables is developed. Within the range of certainty of the model, existing material accounting, material control and physical security practices are justified

  12. Le principe non bis in idem et le droit communautaire

    OpenAIRE

    Hedabou, Aziz

    2018-01-01

    Le principe non bis in idem est une garantie fondamentale qui interdit que les mêmes faits soit poursuivi et puni deux fois. Il est reconnu par tous les droits internes et “appartient aux droit universel des nations”. Dès lors, sa lettre et son esprit ne sont plus cantonnés au droit interne et ont tendance à s’internationaliser. En droit communautaire, l’étude du principe non bis in idem peut être envisagée sous trois angles différents. D’abord en droit pénal international unilatéral où chaqu...

  13. Price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanouilides, C.; Fousekis, P.; Grigoriadis, V.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the degree and the structure of price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets (Spain, Italy and Greece). To this end, it utilizes monthly olive oil price data and the statistical tool of copulas. The empirical results suggest that prices are likely to boom together but not to crash together; this is especially true for the prices of the two most important players, Italy (importer) and Spain (exporter). The finding of asymmetric price co-movements implies that the three principal spatial olive oil markets in the EU cannot be thought of as one great pool. (Author)

  14. Sparse Principal Component Analysis in Medical Shape Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a widely used tool in medical image analysis for data reduction, model building, and data understanding and exploration. While PCA is a holistic approach where each new variable is a linear combination of all original variables, sparse PCA (SPCA) aims...... analysis in medicine. Results for three different data sets are given in relation to standard PCA and sparse PCA by simple thresholding of sufficiently small loadings. Focus is on a recent algorithm for computing sparse principal components, but a review of other approaches is supplied as well. The SPCA...

  15. Restriction Theorem for Principal bundles in Arbitrary Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurjar, Sudarshan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to prove two basic restriction theorem for principal bundles on smooth projective varieties in arbitrary characteristic generalizing the analogues theorems of Mehta-Ramanathan for vector bundles. More precisely, let G be a reductive algebraic group over an algebraically...... closed field k and let X be a smooth, projective variety over k together with a very ample line bundle O(1). The main result of the paper is that if E is a semistable (resp. stable) principal G-bundle on X w.r.t O(1), then the restriction of E to a general, high multi-degree, complete-intersection curve...

  16. Public Relations for Principals. "A Guidebook for the Pennsylvania Administrator."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania School Boards Association, Inc., Harrisburg.

    This report discusses what makes news, what people want to read, and how to write news releases or other informative bulletins and brochures. Also included are a description of principal-reporter-editor relations, some layout and typography data, and photography instructions. (JF)

  17. Characteristics of Teachers Nominated for an Accelerated Principal Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Steve J.; Reyes-Guerra, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the initial evaluation results of a new accelerated, job-embedded principal preparation program funded by a Race to the Top Grant (U.S. Department of Education, 2012a) in Florida. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, and chi-square analyses were used to describe the characteristics of a group of potential applicants nominated to…

  18. Increasing Principal Effectiveness: A Strategic Investment for ESEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for American Progress, 2011

    2011-01-01

    School principals are second only to teachers among school-based factors that influence student achievement and they are critical to attracting and retaining effective teachers and other school staff. Yet in the past, federal policymakers haven't given school leadership much attention. This reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education…

  19. Global Social Issues in the Curriculum: Perspectives of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovska, Venka; Prøsch, Åsa Kremer

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss principals' perspectives on the priority given to the place in the curriculum of and the supporting practices related to health and sustainability education in schools in Denmark (for pupils aged 6-16). The study is situated within the discourses about critical health and sustainability education and treats the two…

  20. Principal leadership and its impact on student discipline in Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that principals frequently or sometimes involve other stakeholders, particularly teachers, students and to some extent parents, in the management of their schools They communicate clearly to students but frequently retain the final authority over most issues. The study found the existence of a significant ...

  1. Influence of Principals' Administrative Style on the Job Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to evaluate the administrative style of secondary school principals in relation to teachers' job performance in Cross River State, Nigeria. A total of four hundred (400) teachers and one thousand two hundred (1200) students were randomly sampled for the study, using Ex-post facto research design with ...

  2. Principals' and Teachers' Practices about Parent Involvement in Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdener, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    Parent involvement has an influence on children's educational engagement for all school levels. The objective of this study was to examine public school principals' and teachers' practices for improving parent involvement in schooling. This study used a mixed method to identify the school administrators' and teachers' perceptions about parent…

  3. Exploring Principals' Instructional Leadership Practices in Malaysia: Insights and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alma; Jones, Michelle; Cheah, Kenny Soon Lee; Devadason, Edward; Adams, Donnie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the findings from a small-scale, exploratory, study of principals' instructional leadership practice in Malaysian primary schools. The dimensions and functions of instructional leadership, explicitly explored in this study, are those outlined in the Hallinger and Murphy's (1985) model.…

  4. Principals' Perceptions of Instructional Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabham, Carla E.

    2017-01-01

    Instructional leadership is an important aspect of student achievement and the overall success of schools. Principals, as instructional leaders, need continual reflection on their competency. Job-embedded professional development (JEPD) for teachers is implemented and monitored by instructional leaders. The purpose of this case study was to…

  5. Perspectives on Principal Instructional Leadership in Vietnam: A Preliminary Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinger, Philip; Walker, Allan; Nguyen, Dao Thi Hong; Truong, Thang; Nguyen, Thi Thinh

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Worldwide interest in principal instructional leadership has led to global dissemination of related research findings despite their concentration in a limited set of western cultural contexts. An urgent challenge in educational leadership and management lies in expanding the range of national settings for investigations of instructional…

  6. Instructional Leadership: How Principals Conceptualize Their Roles as School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Caryn D.

    2017-01-01

    Several research studies in education have shown there is a strong correlation between K-12 school principals, instructional leadership, and student achievement (Liethwood, Seashore-Louis, Anderson, & Wahlstrom, 2004; Waters, Marzano, & McNulty, 2003). Research has further revealed that, second only to the classroom teacher, principals…

  7. The Scope of Principal Efforts to Improve Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Henry; Supovitz, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have used many angles and perspectives to investigate how principals enact instructional leadership in schools. Most research has emphasized the practices of school leaders, although investigations of leadership styles and leadership processes are also present in the literature. In this study, the authors take a different approach by…

  8. The Impact of Principal Instructional Leadership Practices on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Kristen Kendrick

    2011-01-01

    The problem addressed in this cross-sectional, quantitative study was a continual stagnation in student achievement in one U.S. state, which is critical to stakeholders responsible for increasing student advancement in college and the 21st century workforce. Specifically, the objective was to identify the relationship between principal-perceived…

  9. Transformational Leadership and Globalization: Attitudes of School Principals in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaeedi, Farraj; Male, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    The study explores the attitudes of a sample of school principals in a Kuwaiti local authority towards the need for transformational leadership, the use of its behaviours, whether these school leaders are ready to behave in diverse ways or whether there are barriers that prevent them from acting in such a manner. The findings of this study…

  10. Questions of Ethics and Loyalty: An Assistant Principal's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by real-life events, this case describes the dilemma of a novice assistant principal who must balance her role as an administrator at her high school campus where a cousin's son, Eddie, recently enrolled and is proving to be disruptive the first month of school. Troubled by questions of ethics and loyalty, the issue is complicated after…

  11. Hidden symmetries of the Principal Chiral Model unveiled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devchand, C.; Schiff, J.

    1996-12-01

    By relating the two-dimensional U(N) Principal Chiral Model to a Simple linear system we obtain a free-field parametrization of solutions. Obvious symmetry transformations on the free-field data give symmetries of the model. In this way all known 'hidden symmetries' and Baecklund transformations, as well as a host of new symmetries, arise. (author). 21 refs

  12. Values and Assumptions in Contestation over School Councils Selecting Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, R. J. S.

    1983-01-01

    Many of the arguments in the Victoria Department of Education, Australia, against the involvement of school councils in the selection of principals are based on careerism, opportunism, and protectionism. To move away from the lock-step adherence to the values that lead to accession by seniority requires the application of democratic methods.…

  13. School Reform and the Emotional Demands of Principals: Lorna's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Martin; Niesche, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The issue of emotions in school leadership is one that has received increasing attention in recent years. In this paper we present a case study of the emotional demands upon one principal as she undertakes a programme of school reform. This case study works against the common discourse of "emotional maturity" inherent in an individual…

  14. The Principal and "The Prince": Machiavelli and School Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Fenwick W.

    1992-01-01

    Because most people will resist law and reason (government), power must be rendered in someone else's name to make ruling palatable. Executives, including principals, represent the law. To enforce a given law, executives must often exceed their base of authority to act decisively--despite recent rhetoric about staff empowerment and site-based…

  15. Coaching Teachers: An Important Principal Role. Research into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    A principal's most important role is instructional leader. There is a growing recognition of the importance of working with teachers, serving as a mentor and coach. Coaching has emerged as one of the more effective professional development options for adult learners. It is an important tool because it is an investment in human capital and in the…

  16. The analysis of multivariate group differences using common principal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechger, T.M.; Blanca, M.J.; Maris, G.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is simple to determine whether multivariate group differences are statistically significant or not, such differences are often difficult to interpret. This article is about common principal components analysis as a tool for the exploratory investigation of multivariate group differences

  17. Improved forecasting with leading indicators: the principal covariate index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new method of leading index construction that combines the need for data compression with the objective of forecasting. This so-called principal covariate index is constructed to forecast growth rates of the Composite Coincident Index. The forecast performance is compared

  18. The Challenge of Educating Principals: Linking Course Content to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ärlestig, Helene

    2012-01-01

    Effective integration of learning and practice continues to remain a challenge in leadership preparation. This paper describes a learning module used in a course within the Swedish National Principal Training Program and how it attempts to bridge learning with practice. In this course, each participant conducted a study in a school with the…

  19. Principal permeability determination from multiple horizontal well tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economides, M. [Texas A and M Univ., TX (United States); Munoz, A.; Ehlig-Economides, C.

    1998-12-31

    A method for obtaining principal permeability magnitudes and direction that requires only the linear flow regime from transient tests in three horizontal wells oriented in three distinct and arbitrary directions, is described. Well design optimization strategies require knowledge of both the principal permeability orientation as well as the horizontal permeability magnitudes. When the degree of horizontal permeability anisotropy (i.e. permeability in the bedding plane with respect to direction) is significant, the productivity of a long horizontal well will depend greatly on its direction, especially when the well is first brought into production. Productivities have been found to deviate substantially among wells in the same reservoir and this deviation has been attributed to differences in well orientation. In view of this fact, measuring permeability anisotropy becomes a compelling necessity. The success of the proposed method is illustrated by a case study in which the principal permeability magnitudes and direction from three wells were used to predict the productivity of a fourth well within 10 per cent. Use of the computed principal permeabilities from the case study, it was possible to forecast the cumulative production to show the significance of well trajectory optimization on the discounted cash flow and the net present value. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Perceptions of Prospective Teachers about School Principals: Prejudice or Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Figen Çam

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal prospective teachers' thoughts and observations about school principals. In the study, the qualitative and quantitative research methods were used together. In quantitative research method, a questionnaire was developed and survey research was conducted with the help of this questionnaire. In the qualitative…

  1. 19 CFR 113.33 - Corporations as principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... president, treasurer, or secretary of the corporation. The officer's signature shall be prima facie evidence... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corporations as principals. 113.33 Section 113.33 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  2. Teacher and Administrator Views on School Principals' Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argon, Turkan

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to identify teacher and administrator views regarding primary school principals' accountability. The case study model, a qualitative research method, was adopted in the study using the holistic single-case design. The working group was composed of a total of 56 individuals, 42 teachers and 14 administrators (11 principals…

  3. Principal efforts in improving the understanding of Climate impact of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Principal efforts in improving the understanding of Climate impact of aerosols -. New and enhanced satellite borne sensors. Focused field experiments. Establishment and enhancement of ground based networks. Development and deployment of new and enhanced ...

  4. The light-cone gauge and the principal value prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, B.M.; Suzuki, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    The principal value prescription is used to treat the unphysical pole (K.n) -1 in the basic one-loop light-cone integral. It is shown that the prescription is well suited to such a task, contrary to what has been previously thought till now. (author) [pt

  5. Principal Component Analysis: Most Favourite Tool in Chemometrics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Principal component analysis (PCA) is the most commonlyused chemometric technique. It is an unsupervised patternrecognition technique. PCA has found applications in chemistry,biology, medicine and economics. The present work attemptsto understand how PCA work and how can we interpretits results.

  6. Bearing the Burden of Desegregation. Black Principals and "Brown"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Carol

    2006-01-01

    "Brown" had a tragic consequence: the displacement, dismissal, and demotion of thousands of African American educators, in particular principals, in the South. Although the lack of diversity in today's teaching force has multiple origins, a reexamination of one of its roots deepens our understanding of the past, illuminates the present,…

  7. Novice rural principals' successful leadership practices in financial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Educational Studies, School of Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa ... These principals began a trajectory of overt training in financial management to ensure ... management challenges emanate from, among other things, school governors' .... the school as an institution of teaching and learning.

  8. 40 CFR 264.342 - Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) in the waste feed must be treated to the extent required by... organic constituents in the waste and on their concentration or mass in the waste feed, considering the... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE...

  9. Scalable Robust Principal Component Analysis Using Grassmann Averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Feragen, Aasa; Enficiaud, Raffi

    2016-01-01

    In large datasets, manual data verification is impossible, and we must expect the number of outliers to increase with data size. While principal component analysis (PCA) can reduce data size, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can arbitrarily corrupt the results. Unfortu...

  10. How Principals and Peers Influence Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supovitz, Jonathan; Sirinides, Philip; May, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of principal leadership and peer teacher influence on teachers' instructional practice and student learning. Using teacher survey and student achievement data from a mid-sized urban southeastern school district in the United States in 2006-2007, the study employs multilevel structural equation modeling to examine…

  11. Examining the Relationship between Principal Leadership and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the relationship between transformative school principal leadership and school climate. The population of this study consisted of two middle schools with grades ranging from six through eight and one high school with grades ranging from nine through twelve. These schools are within the state of…

  12. Principal Component Surface (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas inside Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). It was...

  13. Principal Component Surface (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas inside Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). It was...

  14. 26 CFR 1.446-3 - Notional principal contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... payments. (5) Caps and floors that are significantly in-the-money. [Reserved] (6) Examples. (h) Termination... principal contract for a taxable year is included in or deducted from gross income for that taxable year... payment (as defined in paragraph (h) of this section). Examples of nonperiodic payments are the premium...

  15. Social Intelligence of Principals and Its Relationship with Creative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriemeen, Hani; Hajaia, Sulaiman

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the level of the social intelligence among the male and female principals in Tafila Governorate from the teachers views and its relationship with creative behavior. The sample consisted of 190 male and female teachers chosen randomly. For achieving the goals of the study, the researchers developed two instruments,…

  16. School Principals in Spain: An Unstable Professional Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritacco Real, Maximiliano; Bolívar Botía, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    The article proposes an emerging approach in research on school leadership, within the framework of the "International Successful School Principalship Project (ISSPP)", where one of the three key research strands is "Principals' identities". It formulates, first, the theoretical framework for the professional identity from a…

  17. Principal Component Analysis of Body Measurements In Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to explore the relationship among body measurements in 3 strains of broilers chicken (Arbor Acre, Marshal and Ross) using principal component analysis with the view of identifying those components that define body conformation in broilers. A total of 180 birds were used, 60 per strain.

  18. Schematic Harder–Narasimhan stratification for families of principal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 3. Schematic Harder–Narasimhan Stratification for Families of Principal Bundles ... Author Affiliations. Sudarshan Gurjar1 Nitin Nitsure1. School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India ...

  19. The kinds of knowledge principals use: Implications for training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Lazaridou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about how school principals operate pertains mainly to the actions of principals. However, the kinds of knowledge that the principalship demands have not been isolated as clearly, more often than not being conflated with actions. As principals’ duties become more complex, it becomes more important to ground specific practices in robust knowledge of relevant theoretical principles. One aspect of the principal’s job where this is particularly germane is the resolution of unfamiliar, complex, unstructured challenges. This paper presents findings from research into how principals think when dealing with problematic situations, in particular the types of knowledge they use. Four broad categories of knowledge were identified and, within those, twelve specific types. The research lends credence to the oral report or think-aloud method for making thinking processes available for analysis, and the findings indicate how the content of preparation programs may be adjusted to better qualify principals for the contemporary demands of their work. A prime recommendation is the inclusion of opportunities for the development of tacit knowledge.

  20. Negligence: What Principals Need to Know about Avoiding Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMitchell, Todd A.

    2006-01-01

    A science teacher forgets to remind her students to wear their safety goggles during a chemistry experiment and one student is injured when the caustic chemicals he is working with splash into his eyes. A teacher is late for recess duty and a student falls from the swings and is injured. A principal sends one teacher and one student teacher on a…

  1. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  2. The influence of principal managerial task performance on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor performance of managerial tasks culminates declining staff productivity and thus deteriorating students academic performance. Secondary school students performance in most public examinations are not satisfactory in most states in Nigeria. Hence, this study investigate the extent to which secondary school principal ...

  3. Rural Principal Attitudes toward Poverty and the Poor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholson, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    This study used Yun and Weaver's (2010) Attitudes toward Poverty Short Form (ATP-SF) of twenty-one items on a Likert-type scale to determine the poverty attitudes of 309 principals in a rural Appalachian state in the United States. The study compared the poverty attitudes from the ATP-SF scaled score as a dependent variable to the following…

  4. The Relationship among Principal Mentoring and Job Satisfaction and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington-Bass, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Principal turnover, especially in the most challenging schools, continues be a major problem within the reform movement to improve student performance in public education (Béteille, Kalogrides, & Loeb, 2012; Conley & Cooper, 2011; Hull, 2012). Dwindling financial resources, increased accountability measures, and the increased complexity of…

  5. Catholic School Principal Job Satisfaction: Keys to Retention and Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Jennifer; Brock, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a study on principal retention in New South Wales, Australia. Factors in job retention included economic security, role enjoyment, and the opportunity to contribute. Disincentives to the principalship included lack of support from the employing authority, inadequate pay, isolation, growing responsibilities, difficult parents,…

  6. Rural Principal Leadership Skill Proficiency and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Pam; Erwin, Sue; Gentry, Jim; Cauble, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Because of the importance of developing highly skilled rural school leaders, statewide assessments of 259 rural Texas public school administrators were analyzed to determine principal confidence levels in leadership skill domains identified by the National Policy Board of Educational Administration (NPBEA). Important findings indicate differences…

  7. Urban Principal Leadership Skill Proficiency and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Pam; Erwin, Sue; Gentry, Jim; Cauble, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Because of the importance of developing highly skilled urban school leaders, statewide assessments of 248 urban Texas public school administrators were analyzed to determine principal confidence levels in leadership skill domains identified by the National Policy Board of Educational Administration (NPBEA). Important findings indicate differences…

  8. Pennsylvania Principals' Perceptions of Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfrom, Sean E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine Pennsylvania principals' perceptions and understanding of the physical and psychosocial impact of childhood obesity, whether they believe schools should be addressing the issue, who they feel should be leading efforts within schools, what actions they believe are taking place to address the issue within…

  9. An Exploration of Two Female Principals' Leadership in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wanjuan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore two dimensions of leadership practices (i.e. teaching and learning and sources of power) used by two exemplary principals in mainland China against a background of education reform and to identify how broader contextual factors have shaped these two dimensions of their leadership.…

  10. Entrepreneurialism for Canadian Principals: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelleyann; Webber, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the various elements of Canadian educational entrepreneurialism as manifested yesterday, today, and tomorrow and in relation to the social and political influences of the time. This discussion is informed by the findings of the International Study of the Preparation of Principals (ISPP) and represents an expansion of the…

  11. Principals and the Politics of Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Governments hold principals accountable for leading and managing significant change for school improvement, primarily demonstrated through enhanced student test results. Research evidence suggests, however, that schools are slow to change, that many individuals are resistant to major change and that school reforms are often cursory or short lived.…

  12. Urban School Principals and the "No Child Left Behind" Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Mary E.; Canfield-Davis, Kathy; Anderson, Keith LeMar

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated how six practicing school principals responded to the requirements of the No Child Left Behind law (United States Congress Public Law 107-110, 2002, January, No Child Left Behind Act, http://www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/107-110.pdf ) in light of the multicultural leadership demands presented by an urban…

  13. Principals on L-Plates: Rear View Mirror Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Clarke, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to contribute to the literature on beginning the principalship by identifying and illustrating key challenges that novice principals encounter in their first year for which they would benefit from improved preparation. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a synthesis of a decade of research focusing on the principal…

  14. Influence of principals' leadership style and teachers' attitude to work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a serious concern about the spate of indiscipline among youths in recent times, especially those in secondary schools. This study sets out to assess how the leadership style of principals and teachers' attitude to works influence discipline among secondary schools students in Akamkpa Local Government Area ...

  15. Learners' and teachers' perceptions of principals' leadership in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As ex officio members of School Governing Bodies (SGBs) and professional managers of schools, principals should play a pivotal role in providing transformative leadership for social justice in these schools. The purpose of this study was to examine, through a social justice framework, how teachers and learners who are ...

  16. Incremental principal component pursuit for video background modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez-Valderrama, Paul A.; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-03-14

    An incremental Principal Component Pursuit (PCP) algorithm for video background modeling that is able to process one frame at a time while adapting to changes in background, with a computational complexity that allows for real-time processing, having a low memory footprint and is robust to translational and rotational jitter.

  17. The Unsung Role of the Career Assistant Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine

    Common views of the assistant principal (AP) as the "Marine Corps sergeant type" with nowhere better to be are outdated. Career APs have diverse roles in school administration, often including, but not limited to, discipline. Many career APs find rewards in working with children and put high value on having a balanced personal life. Two…

  18. Dimensionality reduction of collective motion by principal manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajamannage, Kelum; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio; Bollt, Erik M.

    2015-01-01

    While the existence of low-dimensional embedding manifolds has been shown in patterns of collective motion, the current battery of nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods is not amenable to the analysis of such manifolds. This is mainly due to the necessary spectral decomposition step, which limits control over the mapping from the original high-dimensional space to the embedding space. Here, we propose an alternative approach that demands a two-dimensional embedding which topologically summarizes the high-dimensional data. In this sense, our approach is closely related to the construction of one-dimensional principal curves that minimize orthogonal error to data points subject to smoothness constraints. Specifically, we construct a two-dimensional principal manifold directly in the high-dimensional space using cubic smoothing splines, and define the embedding coordinates in terms of geodesic distances. Thus, the mapping from the high-dimensional data to the manifold is defined in terms of local coordinates. Through representative examples, we show that compared to existing nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods, the principal manifold retains the original structure even in noisy and sparse datasets. The principal manifold finding algorithm is applied to configurations obtained from a dynamical system of multiple agents simulating a complex maneuver called predator mobbing, and the resulting two-dimensional embedding is compared with that of a well-established nonlinear dimensionality reduction method.

  19. Inadvertent Exemplars: Life History Portraits of Two Socially Just Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This study creates life history portraits of two White middle-class native-English-speaking principals demonstrating commitments to social justice in their work in public elementary schools serving disproportionately high populations of students who are marginalized by poverty, race, and linguistic heritage. Through self-reported life histories of…

  20. Primary Principals' Leadership Styles, School Organizational Health and Workplace Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemaloglu, Necati

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the relationships between leadership styles of primary school principals and organizational health and bullying. Design/methodology/approach: Two hypotheses were formulated in relation to the research. Three instruments were used--a multi-level questionnaire for measuring leadership, an…

  1. The Abusive School Principal: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Corene

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s there has been increased public interest, debate and research on workplace bullying. Little research has, however, been done on the abuse of educators or on the bullies per se. The aim of this paper is to expand the body of knowledge on workplace bullying by shedding light on the character of a bullying school principal. In 2008 I…

  2. The High School Dropout Problem: Perspectives of Teachers and Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeland, John M.; Dilulio, John J., Jr.; Balfanz, Robert

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the views of teachers and administrators on the high school dropout problem, focus groups and nationally representative surveys were conducted of high school teachers and principals. A focus group of superintendents and school board members was also included. To help interpret the results, the authors convened a colloquium…

  3. The Social Intelligence of Principals: Links to Teachers' Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Despite multiple efforts to reform 21st education to better meet the needs of all students, school improvement successes have been sporadic and debatable. Research suggests that significant improvement lies within the purview of teachers and principals, and this current research provided the underpinnings for the study. Based on neuroscience…

  4. Conseiller principal, Affaires publiques (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résumé des fonctions Le conseiller principal, Affaires publiques agit à titre de chef des communications pour un portefeuille de clients attribué en vue d'offrir des services de communications intégrés. Plus particulièrement, le conseiller se penche sur les besoins relatifs aux communications, fournit des conseils, assure une ...

  5. Sustainable School Improvement: Suburban Elementary Principals' Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alison J.

    2017-01-01

    The increase of intense pressures to ensure long-term education reforms have created a challenge for school leaders as they direct and nurture the abilities of others. The purpose of this research was to understand and describe suburban elementary principals' practices and perceptions as change leaders related to capacity building through the…

  6. Effects of Support on Stress and Burnout in School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausaert, Simon; Froehlich, Dominik E.; Devos, Christelle; Riley, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Background: More than ever before, school principals are dealing with stress and burnout, resulting from increasing role demands and decreasing decision latitude and autonomy. Following the Demand-Support-Constraints model, reasons for stress and burnout can be found in the lack of social support in the environment. Purpose: This longitudinal…

  7. Group-wise Principal Component Analysis for Exploratory Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, J.; Rodriquez-Gomez, Rafael A.; Saccenti, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new framework for matrix factorization based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) where sparsity is imposed. The structure to impose sparsity is defined in terms of groups of correlated variables found in correlation matrices or maps. The framework is based on three new

  8. One Principal's Approach to Hiring Staff for Athletic Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Marion

    1990-01-01

    The principal at a Catholic coeducational preparatory high school describes her perfect coach as a gentleman or gentlewoman dedicated to truth and capable of inspiring respect and building self-esteem. The coach should be compassionate and encouraging, model concern and caring, and work untiringly to teach the life-long benefits of participation…

  9. When Will Principals Have No Need to Worry about Publications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Molly J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a midwestern high school's serious student publications program. Over the past 20 years, students here have published major stories on incest, homosexuality, teen pregnancy, cheating, divorce, fatal illness, and other topics without prepublication scrutiny by the principal. Recommendations are provided to ensure fair coverage, relevant…

  10. Education Policy Mediation: Principals' Work with Mandated Literacy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Barbara; Cormack, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Mandated literacy assessment is now a ubiquitous practice in many western educational systems. While educational researchers, principals, teachers and education unions continue to offer vociferous resistance in some nations, in others it is now commonplace in the educational landscape and built into the rhythms of the school year. This paper is…

  11. PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER PERCEPTIONS OF SCHOOL FACULTY MEETINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMIDON, EDMUND; BLUMBERG, ARTHUR

    THE EFFECTS OF FACULTY MEETINGS ON TEACHER MORALE WERE INVESTIGATED VIA A SIX-ITEM QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONDED TO BY 40 ELEMENTARY AND 49 SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS ENROLLED IN GROUP DYNAMICS WORK AT ONE UNIVERSITY AND BY 74 ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS SELECTED AT RANDOM FROM A STATE EDUCATIONAL DIRECTORY. RESPONSES WERE ON A NINE-STEP,…

  12. Superintendents' Perceptions of Online Education for Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, David

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of online educational leadership programs has led many aspiring principal candidates to complete their entire degree or licensure program online. While the online education is convenient and flexible for the learner, there is sparse research to determine the acceptability of online degrees in educational leadership, especially…

  13. Principal component analysis of image gradient orientations for face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    We introduce the notion of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of image gradient orientations. As image data is typically noisy, but noise is substantially different from Gaussian, traditional PCA of pixel intensities very often fails to estimate reliably the low-dimensional subspace of a given data

  14. Efficacy of the Principal Components Analysis Techniques Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Second, the paper reports results of principal components analysis after the artificial data were submitted to three commonly used procedures; scree plot, Kaiser rule, and modified Horn's parallel analysis, and demonstrate the pedagogical utility of using artificial data in teaching advanced quantitative concepts. The results ...

  15. Performing the Principal: School Leadership, Masculinity and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Judith; Arnold, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In western democracies, the critiques of managerialism in school leadership are increasingly common. Feminist researchers have suggested that this recent orientation fits more easily with traditional male leadership than with that of their female counterparts. However, not all men principals are happy with the managerialist turn either. This study…

  16. 31 CFR 515.404 - Transactions between principal and agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions between principal and agent. 515.404 Section 515.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... transaction were in no way affiliated or associated with each other. ...

  17. 31 CFR 500.404 - Transactions between principal and agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions between principal and agent. 500.404 Section 500.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... transaction were in no way affiliated or associated with each other. ...

  18. School Principals' Leadership Skills: Measurement Equivalence across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da'as, Rima'a

    2017-01-01

    Despite substantial interest and research in measuring leader's skills, little is known about the measurement equivalence and mean differences in the scores measuring principals' skills (cognitive, interpersonal, strategic) across cultures (collectivism versus individualism). The aim of the present study was to assess measurement…

  19. Examining the Planning and Management of Principal Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Sally J.; Bengtson, Ed; Parylo, Oksana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine principal succession planning and management by analyzing current practices of handling school leader succession in four Georgia school systems. Design/methodology/approach: Looking through the lens of organizational leadership succession theory, the practices of school systems as they experienced…

  20. The principal radionuclides in high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyanto

    1998-01-01

    The principal radionuclides in high level radioactive waste management. The selection of the principal radionuclides in the high level waste (HLW) management was developed in order to improve the disposal scenario of HLW. In this study the unified criteria for selection of the principal radionuclides were proposed as; (1) the value of hazard index estimated by annual limit of intake (ALI) for long-term tendency,(2) the relative dose factor related to adsorbed migration rate transferred by ground water, and (3) heat generation in the repository. From this study it can be concluded that the principal radionuclides in the HLW management were minor actinide (MA=Np, Am, Cm, etc), Tc, I, Cs and Sr, based on the unified basic criteria introduced in this study. The remaining short-lived fission product (SLFPs), after the selected nuclides are removed, should be immobilized and solidified in a glass matrix. Potential risk due to the remaining SLFPs can be lower than that of uranium ore after about 300 year. (author)

  1. Principal Instructional Leadership Behaviors: Teacher vs. Self-Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, D. Keith; Anast-May, Linda; O'Neal, Marcia; Dozier, Randy

    2016-01-01

    In response to ever-increasing accountability of school principals to demonstrate higher levels of student achievement, instructional leadership continues to be an important focus among educational researchers. In this paper, researchers briefly review the literature base regarding instructional leadership, then present the conceptual framework…

  2. An Analysis of Instructional Facilitators' Relationships with Teachers and Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Bret G.; Pijanowski, John C.; Duncan, Heather; Scherz, Susan; Hvidston, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the perspectives of Wyoming instructional facilitators, concerning three coaching constructs--namely, their instructional leadership roles, teachers' instructional practices, and the support that they receive from principals and teachers. Findings suggest that instructional facilitators were positive about their instructional…

  3. The Leadership Behaviour of the School Principal: An Exploratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the leadership behaviour of the school principal at five special schools in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. A quantitative survey was conducted involving 50 teachers (11 male; 39 female) across the five schools. The Likert-scale survey questionnaire used in the study comprised 37 items categorised ...

  4. Principal Component Clustering Approach to Teaching Quality Discriminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Sidong; Xia, Haibo; Yin, Yubo; Zhai, Zhansheng; Shang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Teaching quality is the lifeline of the higher education. Many universities have made some effective achievement about evaluating the teaching quality. In this paper, we establish the Students' evaluation of teaching (SET) discriminant analysis model and algorithm based on principal component clustering analysis. Additionally, we classify the SET…

  5. Study of Characters in Story of School Principal (Modir Madrese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadamzli Sarrami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is concluded from the story that the reader to be briefed on the writer that he is fully aware of the education system process, furthermore it signifies that the inefficiency and distortion virtually experienced in the field of education affect the life cycle of the author as well.  Modir Madrese or School Principal is a fiction composed by Jalale Aleahmad a writer with genre of third person addressee, he narrates the biography of a teacher that he got tired of his job therefore he got his mind to assume the post of school principal, he reached to the favorite post by bribery as a result the previous teacher turned to school principal, the school situated at the slope of mountain.  The principal encountered with seven teachers, a janitor and 235 student who were mostly poor, geographical status, hygienic Services, yard, pond and school insufficient facilities which outlined as major shortcomings in the story.  Cognizance of students` parents, local council and establishment of school and home association, pornographies carried by a student, injury of 4th grade class teacher by car of an American citizen, jail of 3 grade class teacher due to sympathy toward socialists, appearing the accountant of education dept at the school asking for bribery and finally sexual scandal by 5th grade student counted as the major parts of the story , the whole incidences forced the principal to resign.  The current story represented in three perspectives like prose, simplicity and motive.  Motive signifies the text of story in social style it means realism fad while the prose depicts soft and colloquial by contribution of simile, explanations, proverbs and folkloric idioms, the stressed discourses, sarcasms and mockery including intensive and expressive prose manifested by representation of samples drawn out from the text.  The prominent part of the criticism revealed by analysis of story characters, as a result criticism of individual characters

  6. Study of Characters in Story of School Principal (Modir Madrese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadamzli Sarrami

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract It is concluded from the story that the reader to be briefed on the writer that he is fully aware of the education system process, furthermore it signifies that the inefficiency and distortion virtually experienced in the field of education affect the life cycle of the author as well.  Modir Madrese or School Principal is a fiction composed by Jalale Aleahmad a writer with genre of third person addressee, he narrates the biography of a teacher that he got tired of his job therefore he got his mind to assume the post of school principal, he reached to the favorite post by bribery as a result the previous teacher turned to school principal, the school situated at the slope of mountain.  The principal encountered with seven teachers, a janitor and 235 student who were mostly poor, geographical status, hygienic Services, yard, pond and school insufficient facilities which outlined as major shortcomings in the story.  Cognizance of students` parents, local council and establishment of school and home association, pornographies carried by a student, injury of 4th grade class teacher by car of an American citizen, jail of 3 grade class teacher due to sympathy toward socialists, appearing the accountant of education dept at the school asking for bribery and finally sexual scandal by 5th grade student counted as the major parts of the story , the whole incidences forced the principal to resign.  The current story represented in three perspectives like prose, simplicity and motive.  Motive signifies the text of story in social style it means realism fad while the prose depicts soft and colloquial by contribution of simile, explanations, proverbs and folkloric idioms, the stressed discourses, sarcasms and mockery including intensive and expressive prose manifested by representation of samples drawn out from the text.  The prominent part of the criticism revealed by analysis of story characters, as a result criticism of

  7. Study of Characters in Story of School Principal (Modir Madrese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Ghadamzli Sarrami , Mohammad Moghiseh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is concluded from the story that the reader to be briefed on the writer that he is fully aware of the education system process, furthermore it signifies that the inefficiency and distortion virtually experienced in the field of education affect the life cycle of the author as well. Modir Madrese or School Principal is a fiction composed by Jalale Aleahmad a writer with genre of third person addressee, he narrates the biography of a teacher that he got tired of his job therefore he got his mind to assume the post of school principal, he reached to the favorite post by bribery as a result the previous teacher turned to school principal, the school situated at the slope of mountain. The principal encountered with seven teachers, a janitor and 235 student who were mostly poor, geographical status, hygienic Services, yard, pond and school insufficient facilities which outlined as major shortcomings in the story. Cognizance of students` parents, local council and establishment of school and home association, pornographies carried by a student, injury of 4th grade class teacher by car of an American citizen, jail of 3 grade class teacher due to sympathy toward socialists, appearing the accountant of education dept at the school asking for bribery and finally sexual scandal by 5th grade student counted as the major parts of the story , the whole incidences forced the principal to resign. The current story represented in three perspectives like prose, simplicity and motive. Motive signifies the text of story in social style it means realism fad while the prose depicts soft and colloquial by contribution of simile, explanations, proverbs and folkloric idioms, the stressed discourses, sarcasms and mockery including intensive and expressive prose manifested by representation of samples drawn out from the text. The prominent part of the criticism revealed by analysis of story characters, as a result criticism of individual characters demonstrate symbol of

  8. PEMBUATAN PERANGKAT LUNAK PENGENALAN WAJAH MENGGUNAKAN PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Gunadi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is one of many important researches, and today, many applications have implemented it. Through development of techniques like Principal Components Analysis (PCA, computers can now outperform human in many face recognition tasks, particularly those in which large database of faces must be searched. Principal Components Analysis was used to reduce facial image dimension into fewer variables, which are easier to observe and handle. Those variables then fed into artificial neural networks using backpropagation method to recognise the given facial image. The test results show that PCA can provide high face recognition accuracy. For the training faces, a correct identification of 100% could be obtained. From some of network combinations that have been tested, a best average correct identification of 91,11% could be obtained for the test faces while the worst average result is 46,67 % correct identification Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pengenalan wajah manusia merupakan salah satu bidang penelitian yang penting, dan dewasa ini banyak aplikasi yang dapat menerapkannya. Melalui pengembangan suatu teknik seperti Principal Components Analysis (PCA, komputer sekarang dapat melebihi kemampuan otak manusia dalam berbagai tugas pengenalan wajah, terutama tugas-tugas yang membutuhkan pencarian pada database wajah yang besar. Principal Components Analysis digunakan untuk mereduksi dimensi gambar wajah sehingga menghasilkan variabel yang lebih sedikit yang lebih mudah untuk diobsevasi dan ditangani. Hasil yang diperoleh kemudian akan dimasukkan ke suatu jaringan saraf tiruan dengan metode Backpropagation untuk mengenali gambar wajah yang telah diinputkan ke dalam sistem. Hasil pengujian sistem menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan PCA untuk pengenalan wajah dapat memberikan tingkat akurasi yang cukup tinggi. Untuk gambar wajah yang diikutsertakankan dalam latihan, dapat diperoleh 100% identifikasi yang benar. Dari beberapa kombinasi jaringan yang

  9. What Are the Different Types of Principals across the United States? A Latent Class Analysis of Principal Perception of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urick, Angela; Bowers, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effective styles of principal leadership can help address multiple issues in struggling schools, such as low student achievement and high rates of teacher attrition. Although the literature has nominated certain "idealized" leadership styles as being more or less effective, such as transformational, instructional, and shared…

  10. Instructional Leadership Behaviors in Principals Who Attended an Assistant Principals' Academy: Self-Reports and Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, D. Keith; Anast-May, Linda; O'Neal, Marcia; Lee, H. T.; Shores, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Focus on the development of instructional leadership skills for school principals in the U.S. continues to be at the forefront of educational research and reform in response to the increased call for accountability. In this article we review relevant literature regarding instructional leadership from a historical perspective, then present a…

  11. Effective Principals, Effective Schools: Arriving at Site-Based Decision-Making with Successful Principals and Teacher Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Gregory Stewart; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper reviews research on principals' and teachers' roles in site-based decision making (SBDM). Research examining teacher participation in SBDM is reviewed, finding that higher quality teaching behaviors and higher student academic attainment resulted from teacher participation. The review focuses on steps in implementing SBDM, means for…

  12. Principals' and Teachers' Perceptions of Efforts by Principals to Improve Teaching and Learning in Turkish Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellibas, Mehmet Sükrü

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research on instructional leadership has largely concerned itself with developing concrete instructional leadership models and investigating the association of such leadership practices with teaching and learning. Yet there is little research on how the internal school community reacts to the notion of principals influencing classroom…

  13. Principal Component Analysis - A Powerful Tool in Computing Marketing Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about an instrumental research regarding a powerful multivariate data analysis method which can be used by the researchers in order to obtain valuable information for decision makers that need to solve the marketing problem a company face with. The literature stresses the need to avoid the multicollinearity phenomenon in multivariate analysis and the features of Principal Component Analysis (PCA in reducing the number of variables that could be correlated with each other to a small number of principal components that are uncorrelated. In this respect, the paper presents step-by-step the process of applying the PCA in marketing research when we use a large number of variables that naturally are collinear.

  14. Aeromagnetic Compensation Algorithm Based on Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilin Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromagnetic exploration is an important exploration method in geophysics. The data is typically measured by optically pumped magnetometer mounted on an aircraft. But any aircraft produces significant levels of magnetic interference. Therefore, aeromagnetic compensation is important in aeromagnetic exploration. However, multicollinearity of the aeromagnetic compensation model degrades the performance of the compensation. To address this issue, a novel aeromagnetic compensation method based on principal component analysis is proposed. Using the algorithm, the correlation in the feature matrix is eliminated and the principal components are using to construct the hyperplane to compensate the platform-generated magnetic fields. The algorithm was tested using a helicopter, and the obtained improvement ratio is 9.86. The compensated quality is almost the same or slightly better than the ridge regression. The validity of the proposed method was experimentally demonstrated.

  15. Fast principal component analysis for stacking seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Bai, Min

    2018-04-01

    Stacking seismic data plays an indispensable role in many steps of the seismic data processing and imaging workflow. Optimal stacking of seismic data can help mitigate seismic noise and enhance the principal components to a great extent. Traditional average-based seismic stacking methods cannot obtain optimal performance when the ambient noise is extremely strong. We propose a principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm for stacking seismic data without being sensitive to noise level. Considering the computational bottleneck of the classic PCA algorithm in processing massive seismic data, we propose an efficient PCA algorithm to make the proposed method readily applicable for industrial applications. Two numerically designed examples and one real seismic data are used to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  16. The Principals and Practice of Distributed High Throughput Computing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The potential of Distributed Processing Systems to deliver computing capabilities with qualities ranging from high availability and reliability to easy expansion in functionality and capacity were recognized and formalized in the 1970’s. For more three decade these principals Distributed Computing guided the development of the HTCondor resource and job management system. The widely adopted suite of software tools offered by HTCondor are based on novel distributed computing technologies and are driven by the evolving needs of High Throughput scientific applications. We will review the principals that underpin our work, the distributed computing frameworks and technologies we developed and the lessons we learned from delivering effective and dependable software tools in an ever changing landscape computing technologies and needs that range today from a desktop computer to tens of thousands of cores offered by commercial clouds. About the speaker Miron Livny received a B.Sc. degree in Physics and Mat...

  17. Fault Localization for Synchrophasor Data using Kernel Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN, R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA of Phasor Measurement Units (PMU data, a nonlinear method is proposed for fault location in complex power systems. Resorting to the scaling factor, the derivative for a polynomial kernel is obtained. Then, the contribution of each variable to the T2 statistic is derived to determine whether a bus is the fault component. Compared to the previous Principal Component Analysis (PCA based methods, the novel version can combat the characteristic of strong nonlinearity, and provide the precise identification of fault location. Computer simulations are conducted to demonstrate the improved performance in recognizing the fault component and evaluating its propagation across the system based on the proposed method.

  18. ISCO and Principal Null Congruences in Extremal Kerr Spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2012-01-01

    The effective potential in universal like coordinates(U, V, θ, φ), which are smooth across the event horizon is derived and investigated the ISCO(Innermost Stable Circular Orbits) explicitly in these coordinates for extremal Kerr spacetime. Extremization of the effective potential for timelike circular orbit shows that the existence of a stable circular geodesics in the extremal spacetime for direct orbit, precisely on the event horizon in terms of the radial coordinate which coincides with the principal null geodesic congruences of the event horizon. These null geodesic congruences mold themselves to the spacetime curvature in such a way that Weyl conformal tensor and its dual are vanished, that is why they are in-fact doubly degenerate principal null congruences.

  19. Principal Curves for Statistical Divergences and an Application to Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia P. Rodrigues

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for the beta pricing model under the consideration of non-Gaussian returns by means of a generalization of the mean-variance model and the use of principal curves to define a divergence model for the optimization of the pricing model. We rely on the q-exponential model so consider the properties of the divergences which are used to describe the statistical model and fully characterize the behavior of the assets. We derive the minimum divergence portfolio, which generalizes the Markowitz’s (mean-divergence approach and relying on the information geometrical aspects of the distributions the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM is then derived under the geometrical characterization of the distributions which model the data, all by the consideration of principal curves approach. We discuss the possibility of integration of our model into an adaptive procedure that can be used for the search of optimum points on finance applications.

  20. Principal parameters of classical multiply charged ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, H.; Wolf, B.H.

    1974-01-01

    A review is given of the operational principles of classical multiply charged ion sources (operating sources for intense beams of multiply charged ions using discharge plasmas; MCIS). The fractional rates of creation of multiply charged ions in MCIS plasmas cannot be deduced from the discharge parameters in a simple manner; they depend essentially on three principal parameters, the density and energy distribution of the ionizing electrons, and the confinement time of ions in the ionization space. Simple discharge models were used to find relations between principal parameters, and results of model calculations are compared to actually measured charge state density distributions of extracted ions. Details of processes which determine the energy distribution of ionizing electrons (heating effects), confinement times of ions (instabilities), and some technical aspects of classical MCIS (cathodes, surface processes, conditioning, life time) are discussed

  1. The earth's equatorial principal axes and moments of inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. S.; Chao, B. F.

    1991-01-01

    The earth's equatorial principal moments of inertia are given as A and B, where A is less than B, and the corresponding principal axes are given as a and b. Explicit formulas are derived for determining the orientation of a and b axes and the difference B - A using C(22) and S(22), the two gravitational harmonic coefficients of degree 2 and order 2. For the earth, the a axis lies along the (14.93 deg W, 165.07 deg E) diameter, and the b axis lies perpendicular to it along the (75.07 deg E, 104.93 deg W) diameter. The difference B - A is 7.260 x 10 to the -6th MR2. These quantities for other planets are contrasted, and geophysical implications are discussed.

  2. Conseiller principal en communications (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résumé des fonctions Le conseiller principal en communications est chargé de la gestion des relations publiques de telecentre.org. Il est également responsable de l'élaboration et de la gestion des principales stratégies de communication et de mise en commun des connaissances, de même que des grandes stratégies ...

  3. School choice : challenge to Sharpeville public primary school principals

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ed. This qualitative phenomenological study focuses on school choice as challenge to principals of Sharpeville public primary schools. Different aspects of these choices are explored. School choice is an important component of parental involvement in the education of their children. Parents and learners tend to be open about their right through the support of the Schools Act 84 of 1996. You may not discriminate on the basis of race trough the language policy at your school. This means th...

  4. The Atiyah bundle and connections on a principal bundle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    be the fiber bundle constructed as in (1.1) for the universal principal G-bundle. In a work in progress, we hope to show that the universal G-connection can be realized as a fiber bundle over C(EG). Turning this ... a G-invariant vector field on EG|U . In other words, we get a bijective linear map between. A(EG)(U) (the space of ...

  5. Research on Air Quality Evaluation based on Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Wang, Zilin; Guo, Min; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Huan

    2018-01-01

    Economic growth has led to environmental capacity decline and the deterioration of air quality. Air quality evaluation as a fundamental of environmental monitoring and air pollution control has become increasingly important. Based on the principal component analysis (PCA), this paper evaluates the air quality of a large city in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area in recent 10 years and identifies influencing factors, in order to provide reference to air quality management and air pollution control.

  6. The interconnectedness of ageing:does the convoy principal apply?

    OpenAIRE

    Saffrey, Jill; Brown, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the content: The convoy principal states that any system is only as functional as its ‘slowest’ unit. As organisms are made up of interconnected networks of physiological systems, it is possible that this principle applies to the biology of ageing. Often biogerontology will focus either on organismal ageing (mechanisms associated with increased longevity of a lower model organism for example), ageing of an individual organ system (such as the cardiovascular/musculoskel...

  7. Evaluation of Principal Performance in Public and Private Sector Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Iram; Cheema, Khaliq Ur Rehman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the performance in context of student learning of principals in public sector and private sector schools. For this purpose five main domains were used as variables are: 1) teaching, learning and professional growth, 2) Inter-personal and inter-professional relationship and collaboration, 3) Parent and faculty involvement in decision making, 4) Vision and values, 5) Innovation and change. The population for this study was selected randomly. The target sa...

  8. Principes redditionnels à l'intention des organismes de recherche ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les chercheurs se pencheront sur les principes éthiques qui sous-tendent le cadre redditionnel dans différents contextes et cultures et réévalueront les outils et normes de recherche existants à la lumière du cadre. Le projet aura pour extrants un recueil de bonnes pratiques en matière de recherche et un manuel sur ...

  9. Palm-vein classification based on principal orientation features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujia Zhou

    Full Text Available Personal recognition using palm-vein patterns has emerged as a promising alternative for human recognition because of its uniqueness, stability, live body identification, flexibility, and difficulty to cheat. With the expanding application of palm-vein pattern recognition, the corresponding growth of the database has resulted in a long response time. To shorten the response time of identification, this paper proposes a simple and useful classification for palm-vein identification based on principal direction features. In the registration process, the Gaussian-Radon transform is adopted to extract the orientation matrix and then compute the principal direction of a palm-vein image based on the orientation matrix. The database can be classified into six bins based on the value of the principal direction. In the identification process, the principal direction of the test sample is first extracted to ascertain the corresponding bin. One-by-one matching with the training samples is then performed in the bin. To improve recognition efficiency while maintaining better recognition accuracy, two neighborhood bins of the corresponding bin are continuously searched to identify the input palm-vein image. Evaluation experiments are conducted on three different databases, namely, PolyU, CASIA, and the database of this study. Experimental results show that the searching range of one test sample in PolyU, CASIA and our database by the proposed method for palm-vein identification can be reduced to 14.29%, 14.50%, and 14.28%, with retrieval accuracy of 96.67%, 96.00%, and 97.71%, respectively. With 10,000 training samples in the database, the execution time of the identification process by the traditional method is 18.56 s, while that by the proposed approach is 3.16 s. The experimental results confirm that the proposed approach is more efficient than the traditional method, especially for a large database.

  10. Principal viewpoint on nuclear energy development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadao Kijima

    1996-01-01

    A great deal of electricity demand in Japan is covered by Light Water Reactors. Besides the description of potential role of uranium as an energy resource, plutonium is regarded as an important one. Principal viewpoint for utilization of plutonium is presented taking into account non-proliferation aspects. Fast Breeder Reactors being suitable for utilization of plutonium are considered as a very important option that should not be abandoned in spite of difficulties in their development

  11. Fire experiences: principal lessons learned, application in PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoemacker, M.

    1984-01-01

    The article reviews the principal design rules to be borne in mind for PWR nuclear units installation. These rule takes into account: the specific character of materials involved (safety aspect for nuclear construction), experience acquired as a result of fires in EDF production units, and the results obtained from tests carried out by the EDF at Fort de Chelles between 1980 and 1982, especially in the field of PVC cables [fr

  12. EXAFS and principal component analysis : a new shell game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, S.

    1998-01-01

    The use of principal component (factor) analysis in the analysis EXAFS spectra is described. The components derived from EXAFS spectra share mathematical properties with the original spectra. As a result, the abstract components can be analyzed using standard EXAFS methodology to yield the bond distances and other coordination parameters. The number of components that must be analyzed is usually less than the number of original spectra. The method is demonstrated using a series of spectra from aqueous solutions of uranyl ions

  13. Extraction of Independent Structural Images for Principal Component Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Gavrilov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermography is a powerful tool for non-destructive testing of a wide range of materials. Thermography has a number of approaches differing in both experiment setup and the way the collected data are processed. Among such approaches is the Principal Component Thermography (PCT method, which is based on the statistical processing of raw thermal images collected by thermal camera. The processed images (principal components or empirical orthogonal functions form an orthonormal basis, and often look like a superposition of all possible structural features found in the object under inspection—i.e., surface heating non-uniformity, internal defects and material structure. At the same time, from practical point of view it is desirable to have images representing independent structural features. The work presented in this paper proposes an approach for separation of independent image patterns (archetypes from a set of principal component images. The approach is demonstrated in the application of inspection of composite materials as well as the non-invasive analysis of works of art.

  14. Selecting the Number of Principal Components in Functional Data

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yehua

    2013-12-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) has become the most widely used dimension reduction tool for functional data analysis. We consider functional data measured at random, subject-specific time points, contaminated with measurement error, allowing for both sparse and dense functional data, and propose novel information criteria to select the number of principal component in such data. We propose a Bayesian information criterion based on marginal modeling that can consistently select the number of principal components for both sparse and dense functional data. For dense functional data, we also develop an Akaike information criterion based on the expected Kullback-Leibler information under a Gaussian assumption. In connecting with the time series literature, we also consider a class of information criteria proposed for factor analysis of multivariate time series and show that they are still consistent for dense functional data, if a prescribed undersmoothing scheme is undertaken in the FPCA algorithm. We perform intensive simulation studies and show that the proposed information criteria vastly outperform existing methods for this type of data. Surprisingly, our empirical evidence shows that our information criteria proposed for dense functional data also perform well for sparse functional data. An empirical example using colon carcinogenesis data is also provided to illustrate the results. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  15. School Principals' Perceptions of Ethically Just Responses to a Student Sexting Vignette: Severity of Administrator Response, Principal Personality, and Offender Gender and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study was designed to determine how principals perceived the ethicality of sanctions for students engaged in sexting behavior relative to the race/ethnicity and gender of the student. Personality traits of the principals were surveyed to determine if Openness and/or Conscientiousness would predict principal response. Sexting is…

  16. Learning Leaders: How Do Award-Winning Principals Learn and Grow? Are There Commonalities in the Professional Development Practices of NAESP/NASSP Award-Winning Principals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The role a principal plays in school improvement has evolved over time. The transition from principal as manager to principal as instructional leader began with and was driven in large part by the effective schools movement of the 1970's and 1980's (Hallinger, 2003; Zigarelli, 1996). Since the inception of NCLB in 2001, the leader's role in…

  17. An Assessment of the Perceived Instructional Leadership Behaviors of Assistant Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ronald E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the role of the assistant principal is perceived to include instructional leadership behaviors. Specifically, this study compared the perceptions of instructional leadership practices of elementary, middle, and high school assistant principals from the perspectives of assistant principals, principals, and…

  18. Leading Learning: First-Year Principals' Reflections on Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Ann; Ovando, Martha N.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the instructional leadership perceptions of four first-year principals. Findings illuminate five themes drawn from the data: definitions of instructional leadership, challenges that first-year principals faced, how these principals addressed these challenges, how the novice principals plan to enact their…

  19. 26 CFR 301.6226(a)-1 - Principal place of business of partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal place of business of partnership. 301... Principal place of business of partnership. (a) In general. The principal place of a partnership's business... partnership items may be filed is its principal place of business as of the date the petition is filed. (b...

  20. The Impact of Pay Satisfaction and School Achievement on High School Principals' Turnover Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Henry

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a principal supply shortage crisis has emerged in the USA. This problem has been exacerbated by an increase in principal departures, which has been found to be negatively related to school outcomes. While research exists on several determinants of principal turnover, any examination of the relationship between principals'…

  1. Principal Perceptions of the Effectiveness of University Educational Leadership Preparation and Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Arvin D.

    2016-01-01

    Principals and assistant principals currently serving in Florida and Georgia school districts were surveyed about their perceptions of university educational leadership preparation and professional learning. The results revealed that many principals and assistant principals agreed that university educational leadership preparation programs…

  2. Leadership Standards in Action: The School Principal as Servant-Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Cade

    2011-01-01

    "Leadership Standards In Action: The School Principal as Servant-Leader" is a powerful resource for aspiring principals, practicing principals, district leadership, and university faculty. The book responsibly unpacks the metaphor of principal as servant leader to the school's people and purpose. As a framework, the six ISLLC Standards of…

  3. Twins and Kindergarten Separation: Divergent Beliefs of Principals, Teachers, Parents, and Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lynn Melby

    2015-01-01

    Should principals enforce mandatory separation of twins in kindergarten? Do school separation beliefs of principals differ from those of teachers, parents of twins, and twins themselves? This survey questioned 131 elementary principals, 54 kindergarten teachers, 201 parents of twins, and 112 twins. A majority of principals (71%) believed that…

  4. Perceptions of School Principals on Participation in Professional Learning Communities as Job-Embedded Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudioso, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    Perceptions of School Principals on Participation in Professional Learning Communities as Job-Embedded Learning Jennifer Gaudioso Principal Professional Learning Communities (PPLCs) have emerged as a vehicle for professional development of principals, but there is little research on how principals experience PPLCs or how districts can support…

  5. Generalized principal resonance in oscillatory systems of second order; Resonancia principal generalizada en sistemas oscilatorios de segundo orden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Aguirre, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Oaxaca (Mexico); Alexandrov, V. V. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    This paper will describe the generalized principal resonance of systems as described by the second order of ordinary differential equations and proved by the Pontriaguin maximal principle to coincide with the lengthened solution of an external problem of the same system. The results are verified in special cases of general resonance and parametric resonance for the Mathieu equation. [Spanish] En el presente articulo se estudia la resonancia principal generalizada para sistemas descritos por ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias de segundo orden y se demuestra con ayuda del principio del maximo de Pontriaguin, la coincidencia de esta con la solucion prolongada de un problema extremal para el mismo sistema. Ademas se verifican estos resultados en los casos particulares de resonancia general y resonancia parametrica para la ecuacion de Mathieu.

  6. The Relationship Among Principal Preparation Programs, Professional Development, and Instructional Leadership Efficacy  

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas III, Harry R.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a qualitative analysis of principals' perceptions of the relationship among principal preparation programs, professional development and instructional leadership confidence in one urban school division in Virginia. Levine (2005) argued that the principal has a salient effect on the instructional programs within schools, and the preparation and professional development of the principal affects the degree to which they maintain and improve instruction. To examine principal p...

  7. [School principals--too ill for healthy schools?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A; Weltle, D; Lederer, P

    2004-03-01

    School principals on the one hand play an important role in maintaining the performance and health of teachers, but on the other hand often feel over-burdened themselves and suffer from illnesses which not only impair their health-promoting function, but also lead to limitations in their fitness for the occupation. The aim of our study was therefore, using objective parameters and larger numbers of cases, to obtain a differentiated insight into the type and extent of morbidity spectrum and the health-related early retirement of school principals. In a prospective total assessment (the whole of Bavaria in the period 1997-1999), all the reports about the premature unfitness for work of school directors were evaluated. The analysis included for example socio-demographic/occupational factors, diagnoses, assessment of performance and rehabilitation. The answers given in a standardised, anonymous questionnaire provided the database. Evaluation was carried out by means of descriptive statistics. The median age of the 408 school principals included in the evaluation (heads and vice-heads, 30% of whom were women) was 58 (min: 41 years old, max: 64 years old). The most frequent workplaces were primary schools (38%) and secondary schools (25%). 84% (n=342) of the headmasters were assessed to be unfit for work. The main reasons for early retirement were psychic/psychosomatic illnesses (F-ICD 10) which made up 45% of the cases. The relative frequency was higher in women than in men. Depressive disorders and exhaustion syndromes (burnout) dominated among the psychiatric diagnoses (proportion: 57%). The most frequent somatic diseases were cardio-vascular diseases (I-ICD10) in 19% of cases, then muscular/skeletal diseases (M-ICD10) in 10% and malignant tumours (C-ICD 10) in 9% of cases. Cardio-vascular diseases, in particular arterial hypertonia and ischaemic heart disease, were, in addition, found in headmasters significantly more frequently than in teachers without a leadership

  8. Quality Aware Compression of Electrocardiogram Using Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajarshi

    2016-05-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) compression finds wide application in various patient monitoring purposes. Quality control in ECG compression ensures reconstruction quality and its clinical acceptance for diagnostic decision making. In this paper, a quality aware compression method of single lead ECG is described using principal component analysis (PCA). After pre-processing, beat extraction and PCA decomposition, two independent quality criteria, namely, bit rate control (BRC) or error control (EC) criteria were set to select optimal principal components, eigenvectors and their quantization level to achieve desired bit rate or error measure. The selected principal components and eigenvectors were finally compressed using a modified delta and Huffman encoder. The algorithms were validated with 32 sets of MIT Arrhythmia data and 60 normal and 30 sets of diagnostic ECG data from PTB Diagnostic ECG data ptbdb, all at 1 kHz sampling. For BRC with a CR threshold of 40, an average Compression Ratio (CR), percentage root mean squared difference normalized (PRDN) and maximum absolute error (MAE) of 50.74, 16.22 and 0.243 mV respectively were obtained. For EC with an upper limit of 5 % PRDN and 0.1 mV MAE, the average CR, PRDN and MAE of 9.48, 4.13 and 0.049 mV respectively were obtained. For mitdb data 117, the reconstruction quality could be preserved up to CR of 68.96 by extending the BRC threshold. The proposed method yields better results than recently published works on quality controlled ECG compression.

  9. Principal Component Analysis Based Measure of Structural Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shiguo; Zhang, Wenqing; Yang, Huijie

    2013-02-01

    Based upon principal component analysis, a new measure called compressibility coefficient is proposed to evaluate structural holes in networks. This measure incorporates a new effect from identical patterns in networks. It is found that compressibility coefficient for Watts-Strogatz small-world networks increases monotonically with the rewiring probability and saturates to that for the corresponding shuffled networks. While compressibility coefficient for extended Barabasi-Albert scale-free networks decreases monotonically with the preferential effect and is significantly large compared with that for corresponding shuffled networks. This measure is helpful in diverse research fields to evaluate global efficiency of networks.

  10. Current aspects of the principal of protecting employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal of protecting employees is traditionally present in labor law. Particular categories of employees, also traditionally, enjoy special protection (young people, women, the disabled. However, the issue of protection of moral integrity of the employees has only recently been addressed. That makes the general principle of the protection of employees in labor relations very current, and it is from that perspective that this paper points out to certain standards of protection of employees in light of international, European and domestic law.

  11. PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS (PCA DAN APLIKASINYA DENGAN SPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermita Bus Umar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available PCA (Principal Component Analysis are statistical techniques applied to a single set of variables when the researcher is interested in discovering which variables in the setform coherent subset that are relativity independent of one another.Variables that are correlated with one another but largely independent of other subset of variables are combined into factors. The Coals of PCA to which each variables is explained by each dimension. Step in PCA include selecting and mean measuring a set of variables, preparing the correlation matrix, extracting a set offactors from the correlation matrixs. Rotating the factor to increase interpretabilitv and interpreting the result.

  12. Da Livio a Machiavelli. Annibale e Scipione in "Principe", XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Marchand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the classical tradition (and especially in Livy’s work, Hannibal and Scipio are described as two generals who have confronted each other in a titanic struggle with alternate fortunes for the control of the Mediterranean. Focusing on the superiority of cruelty over pity for the safety of the state, in the seventeenth chapter of Il Principe Machiavelli contrasts the greater efficiency of Hannibal’s cruelty with Scipio’s mildness. This article examines the techniques of shifting, coagulation, and relocation adopted by Machiavelli in his approach to three passages from the Livian text which constitute the source of the chapter.

  13. Efficient training of multilayer perceptrons using principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzmann, Christoph; Urbanczik, Robert; Biehl, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A training algorithm for multilayer perceptrons is discussed and studied in detail, which relates to the technique of principal component analysis. The latter is performed with respect to a correlation matrix computed from the example inputs and their target outputs. Typical properties of the training procedure are investigated by means of a statistical physics analysis in models of learning regression and classification tasks. We demonstrate that the procedure requires by far fewer examples for good generalization than traditional online training. For networks with a large number of hidden units we derive the training prescription which achieves, within our model, the optimal generalization behavior

  14. Modelo de costos para bases de datos en memoria principal

    OpenAIRE

    Martí, José Luis; Brand, Horst H. von

    2002-01-01

    El modelo de costos de un optimizador de consultas es un componente esencial de cualquier sistema administrador de bases de datos y, en especial, para un sistema basado en la memoria principal, en el cual los factores de costos son mucho más, en número y complejidad, que aquéllos usados por los tradicionales sistemas basados en el disco. El presente trabajo ejemplifica una propuesta destinada a plantear un modelo de costos para tal entorno, la que se basa en expresiones genéricas construidas ...

  15. The Profile of Intrapreneurship Leadership of Vocational High School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husaini Usman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the School Integrated Development (SID in the Vocational High School (VHS is quite ideal, but much of its succes depends on the activity in the VHS itself. The implementation of the SID in the VHS Bandung demonstrates the leadership style that tends to be authoritarian does not represent the intrapreneurship leadership characteristics. This conclusion shows 21 characteristics of intrapreneurship leadership with an acronym of Teknik. The training materials for candidates of VHS principals should include intrapreneurship leadership concept based on belief and piety, and science, technology, and art as one of its main subject matters

  16. Surrogate Endpoint Evaluation: Principal Stratification Criteria and the Prentice Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Peter B; Gabriel, Erin E; Huang, Ying; Chan, Ivan S F

    2015-09-01

    A common problem of interest within a randomized clinical trial is the evaluation of an inexpensive response endpoint as a valid surrogate endpoint for a clinical endpoint, where a chief purpose of a valid surrogate is to provide a way to make correct inferences on clinical treatment effects in future studies without needing to collect the clinical endpoint data. Within the principal stratification framework for addressing this problem based on data from a single randomized clinical efficacy trial, a variety of definitions and criteria for a good surrogate endpoint have been proposed, all based on or closely related to the "principal effects" or "causal effect predictiveness (CEP)" surface. We discuss CEP-based criteria for a useful surrogate endpoint, including (1) the meaning and relative importance of proposed criteria including average causal necessity (ACN), average causal sufficiency (ACS), and large clinical effect modification; (2) the relationship between these criteria and the Prentice definition of a valid surrogate endpoint; and (3) the relationship between these criteria and the consistency criterion (i.e., assurance against the "surrogate paradox"). This includes the result that ACN plus a strong version of ACS generally do not imply the Prentice definition nor the consistency criterion, but they do have these implications in special cases. Moreover, the converse does not hold except in a special case with a binary candidate surrogate. The results highlight that assumptions about the treatment effect on the clinical endpoint before the candidate surrogate is measured are influential for the ability to draw conclusions about the Prentice definition or consistency. In addition, we emphasize that in some scenarios that occur commonly in practice, the principal strata sub-populations for inference are identifiable from the observable data, in which cases the principal stratification framework has relatively high utility for the purpose of effect

  17. APPLICATION OF PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS TO RELAXOGRAPHIC IMAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STOYANOVA, R.S.; OCHS, M.F.; BROWN, T.R.; ROONEY, W.D.; LI, X.; LEE, J.H.; SPRINGER, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    Standard analysis methods for processing inversion recovery MR images traditionally have used single pixel techniques. In these techniques each pixel is independently fit to an exponential recovery, and spatial correlations in the data set are ignored. By analyzing the image as a complete dataset, improved error analysis and automatic segmentation can be achieved. Here, the authors apply principal component analysis (PCA) to a series of relaxographic images. This procedure decomposes the 3-dimensional data set into three separate images and corresponding recovery times. They attribute the 3 images to be spatial representations of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) content

  18. Principal modes of rupture encountered in expertise of advanced components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, A.A.; Bougault, A.

    1986-10-01

    Failure of many metallic components investigated can be classified into two categories: intergranular or transgranular according to their principal mode of rupture. Intergranular ruptures are often provoked by segregation of impurities at the grain boundaries. Three examples are cited where this phenomenon occured, one of them is a steel (A 508 cl 3) used for PWR vessel. Intergranular failures are in general induced by fatigue in the advanced components operating under thermal or load transients. One example concerning a sodium mixer which was subjected to thermal loadings is presented. Examples of stress corrosion and intergranular sensitization failures are cited. These examples show the importance of fractography for the determination of rupture causes [fr

  19. Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis Using Strong Tracking Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyzes the problem of blind source separation (BSS) based on the nonlinear principal component analysis (NPCA) criterion. An adaptive strong tracking filter (STF) based algorithm was developed, which is immune to system model mismatches. Simulations demonstrate that the algorithm converges quickly and has satisfactory steady-state accuracy. The Kalman filtering algorithm and the recursive leastsquares type algorithm are shown to be special cases of the STF algorithm. Since the forgetting factor is adaptively updated by adjustment of the Kalman gain, the STF scheme provides more powerful tracking capability than the Kalman filtering algorithm and recursive least-squares algorithm.

  20. Principal results of 'DEWAM' project implementation, Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechaev, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    This overview summarizes the key results of the four-year project 'Decontamination and Waste Management in the Course of Research Reactors Decommissioning' carried out within the framework of the IAEA's CRP 'Decommissioning Techniques for Research Reactors'. The project included two principal components: (1) info-analytical studies and development of a database system, and (2) research and development in the areas of decontamination and waste management technologies applicable to decommissioning. Details of the work are expounded in 29 publications and annual Progress Reports; the results of the study are used in corresponding university courses; and innovative technologies for radwaste processing and environmental restoration are planned to be introduced into practice. (author)

  1. Two correlated quasiparticles states in the principal series approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukelsky, J.; Dussel, G.G.; Sofia, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The principal series approximation is extended to the description of two correlated quasiparticles states, enabling a treatment of these states that takes into account the coupling among the two particle Green's function and the particle-hole one. This description is related to a random phase approximation treatment of collective states in open shell nuclei that includes simultaneously the particle-particle and particle-hole versions of the nuclear residual Hamiltonian. Using separable interactions it is found that the inclusion of the particle-particle part of the Hamiltonians greatly changes the properties of the 2 + states in the Sn isotopes

  2. Application of principal component and factor analyses in electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siuda, R.; Balcerowska, G.

    1998-01-01

    Fundamentals of two methods, taken from multivariate analysis and known as principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), are presented. Both methods are well known in chemometrics. Since 1979, when application of the methods to electron spectroscopy was reported for the first time, they became to be more and more popular in different branches of electron spectroscopy. The paper presents examples of standard applications of the method of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Advantages one can take from application of the methods, their potentialities as well as their limitations are pointed out. (author)

  3. The exact mass-gaps of the principal chiral models

    CERN Document Server

    Hollowood, Timothy J

    1994-01-01

    An exact expression for the mass-gap, the ratio of the physical particle mass to the $\\Lambda$-parameter, is found for the principal chiral sigma models associated to all the classical Lie algebras. The calculation is based on a comparison of the free-energy in the presence of a source coupling to a conserved charge of the theory computed in two ways: via the thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz from the exact scattering matrix and directly in perturbation theory. The calculation provides a non-trivial test of the form of the exact scattering matrix.

  4. Surrogate Endpoint Evaluation: Principal Stratification Criteria and the Prentice Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Peter B.; Gabriel, Erin E.; Huang, Ying; Chan, Ivan S.F.

    2015-01-01

    A common problem of interest within a randomized clinical trial is the evaluation of an inexpensive response endpoint as a valid surrogate endpoint for a clinical endpoint, where a chief purpose of a valid surrogate is to provide a way to make correct inferences on clinical treatment effects in future studies without needing to collect the clinical endpoint data. Within the principal stratification framework for addressing this problem based on data from a single randomized clinical efficacy trial, a variety of definitions and criteria for a good surrogate endpoint have been proposed, all based on or closely related to the “principal effects” or “causal effect predictiveness (CEP)” surface. We discuss CEP-based criteria for a useful surrogate endpoint, including (1) the meaning and relative importance of proposed criteria including average causal necessity (ACN), average causal sufficiency (ACS), and large clinical effect modification; (2) the relationship between these criteria and the Prentice definition of a valid surrogate endpoint; and (3) the relationship between these criteria and the consistency criterion (i.e., assurance against the “surrogate paradox”). This includes the result that ACN plus a strong version of ACS generally do not imply the Prentice definition nor the consistency criterion, but they do have these implications in special cases. Moreover, the converse does not hold except in a special case with a binary candidate surrogate. The results highlight that assumptions about the treatment effect on the clinical endpoint before the candidate surrogate is measured are influential for the ability to draw conclusions about the Prentice definition or consistency. In addition, we emphasize that in some scenarios that occur commonly in practice, the principal strata sub-populations for inference are identifiable from the observable data, in which cases the principal stratification framework has relatively high utility for the purpose of

  5. Principal and secondary luminescence lifetime components in annealed natural quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chithambo, M.L.; Ogundare, F.O.; Feathers, J.

    2008-01-01

    Time-resolved luminescence spectra from quartz can be separated into components with distinct principal and secondary lifetimes depending on certain combinations of annealing and measurement temperature. The influence of annealing on properties of the lifetimes related to irradiation dose and temperature of measurement has been investigated in sedimentary quartz annealed at various temperatures up to 900 deg. C. Time-resolved luminescence for use in the analysis was pulse stimulated from samples at 470 nm between 20 and 200 deg. C. Luminescence lifetimes decrease with measurement temperature due to increasing thermal effect on the associated luminescence with an activation energy of thermal quenching equal to 0.68±0.01eV for the secondary lifetime but only qualitatively so for the principal lifetime component. Concerning the influence of annealing temperature, luminescence lifetimes measured at 20 deg. C are constant at about 33μs for annealing temperatures up to 600 0 C but decrease to about 29μs when the annealing temperature is increased to 900 deg. C. In addition, it was found that lifetime components in samples annealed at 800 deg. C are independent of radiation dose in the range 85-1340 Gy investigated. The dependence of lifetimes on both the annealing temperature and magnitude of radiation dose is described as being due to the increasing importance of a particular recombination centre in the luminescence emission process as a result of dynamic hole transfer between non-radiative and radiative luminescence centres

  6. Environmental forensic principals for sources allocation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, G.; Martin, E.; Sandau, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are organic compounds which include only carbon and hydrogen with a fused ring structure containing at least two six-sided benzene rings but may also contain additional fused rings that are not six-sided. The environmental forensic principals for sources allocation of PAHs were examined in this presentation. Specifically, the presentation addressed the structure and physiochemical properties of PAHs; sources and sinks; fate and behaviour; analytical techniques; conventional source identification techniques; and toxic equivalent fingerprinting. It presented a case study where residents had been allegedly exposed to dioxins, PAHs and metals released from a railroad tie treatment plant. The classification of PAHs is governed by thermodynamic properties such as biogenic, petrogenic, and pyrogenic properties. A number of techniques were completed, including chemical fingerprinting; molecular diagnostic ratios; cluster analysis; principal component analysis; and TEF fingerprinting. These techniques have shown that suspected impacted sites do not all share similar PAH signatures indicating the potential for various sources. Several sites shared similar signatures to background locations. tabs., figs

  7. Large Covariance Estimation by Thresholding Principal Orthogonal Complements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Mincheva, Martina

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of a high-dimensional covariance with a conditional sparsity structure and fast-diverging eigenvalues. By assuming sparse error covariance matrix in an approximate factor model, we allow for the presence of some cross-sectional correlation even after taking out common but unobservable factors. We introduce the Principal Orthogonal complEment Thresholding (POET) method to explore such an approximate factor structure with sparsity. The POET estimator includes the sample covariance matrix, the factor-based covariance matrix (Fan, Fan, and Lv, 2008), the thresholding estimator (Bickel and Levina, 2008) and the adaptive thresholding estimator (Cai and Liu, 2011) as specific examples. We provide mathematical insights when the factor analysis is approximately the same as the principal component analysis for high-dimensional data. The rates of convergence of the sparse residual covariance matrix and the conditional sparse covariance matrix are studied under various norms. It is shown that the impact of estimating the unknown factors vanishes as the dimensionality increases. The uniform rates of convergence for the unobserved factors and their factor loadings are derived. The asymptotic results are also verified by extensive simulation studies. Finally, a real data application on portfolio allocation is presented. PMID:24348088

  8. Fast grasping of unknown objects using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qujiang; Chen, Guangming; Wisse, Martijn

    2017-09-01

    Fast grasping of unknown objects has crucial impact on the efficiency of robot manipulation especially subjected to unfamiliar environments. In order to accelerate grasping speed of unknown objects, principal component analysis is utilized to direct the grasping process. In particular, a single-view partial point cloud is constructed and grasp candidates are allocated along the principal axis. Force balance optimization is employed to analyze possible graspable areas. The obtained graspable area with the minimal resultant force is the best zone for the final grasping execution. It is shown that an unknown object can be more quickly grasped provided that the component analysis principle axis is determined using single-view partial point cloud. To cope with the grasp uncertainty, robot motion is assisted to obtain a new viewpoint. Virtual exploration and experimental tests are carried out to verify this fast gasping algorithm. Both simulation and experimental tests demonstrated excellent performances based on the results of grasping a series of unknown objects. To minimize the grasping uncertainty, the merits of the robot hardware with two 3D cameras can be utilized to suffice the partial point cloud. As a result of utilizing the robot hardware, the grasping reliance is highly enhanced. Therefore, this research demonstrates practical significance for increasing grasping speed and thus increasing robot efficiency under unpredictable environments.

  9. Functional Principal Components Analysis of Shanghai Stock Exchange 50 Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to explore the principle components of Shanghai stock exchange 50 index by means of functional principal component analysis (FPCA. Functional data analysis (FDA deals with random variables (or process with realizations in the smooth functional space. One of the most popular FDA techniques is functional principal component analysis, which was introduced for the statistical analysis of a set of financial time series from an explorative point of view. FPCA is the functional analogue of the well-known dimension reduction technique in the multivariate statistical analysis, searching for linear transformations of the random vector with the maximal variance. In this paper, we studied the monthly return volatility of Shanghai stock exchange 50 index (SSE50. Using FPCA to reduce dimension to a finite level, we extracted the most significant components of the data and some relevant statistical features of such related datasets. The calculated results show that regarding the samples as random functions is rational. Compared with the ordinary principle component analysis, FPCA can solve the problem of different dimensions in the samples. And FPCA is a convenient approach to extract the main variance factors.

  10. Multistage principal component analysis based method for abdominal ECG decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrolis, Robertas; Krisciukaitis, Algimantas; Gintautas, Vladas

    2015-01-01

    Reflection of fetal heart electrical activity is present in registered abdominal ECG signals. However this signal component has noticeably less energy than concurrent signals, especially maternal ECG. Therefore traditionally recommended independent component analysis, fails to separate these two ECG signals. Multistage principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed for step-by-step extraction of abdominal ECG signal components. Truncated representation and subsequent subtraction of cardio cycles of maternal ECG are the first steps. The energy of fetal ECG component then becomes comparable or even exceeds energy of other components in the remaining signal. Second stage PCA concentrates energy of the sought signal in one principal component assuring its maximal amplitude regardless to the orientation of the fetus in multilead recordings. Third stage PCA is performed on signal excerpts representing detected fetal heart beats in aim to perform their truncated representation reconstructing their shape for further analysis. The algorithm was tested with PhysioNet Challenge 2013 signals and signals recorded in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Results of our method in PhysioNet Challenge 2013 on open data set were: average score: 341.503 bpm 2 and 32.81 ms. (paper)

  11. APPRIS 2017: principal isoforms for multiple gene sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rivas, Juan; Di Domenico, Tomás; Vázquez, Jesús; Valencia, Alfonso

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The APPRIS database (http://appris-tools.org) uses protein structural and functional features and information from cross-species conservation to annotate splice isoforms in protein-coding genes. APPRIS selects a single protein isoform, the ‘principal’ isoform, as the reference for each gene based on these annotations. A single main splice isoform reflects the biological reality for most protein coding genes and APPRIS principal isoforms are the best predictors of these main proteins isoforms. Here, we present the updates to the database, new developments that include the addition of three new species (chimpanzee, Drosophila melangaster and Caenorhabditis elegans), the expansion of APPRIS to cover the RefSeq gene set and the UniProtKB proteome for six species and refinements in the core methods that make up the annotation pipeline. In addition APPRIS now provides a measure of reliability for individual principal isoforms and updates with each release of the GENCODE/Ensembl and RefSeq reference sets. The individual GENCODE/Ensembl, RefSeq and UniProtKB reference gene sets for six organisms have been merged to produce common sets of splice variants. PMID:29069475

  12. Surrogacy assessment using principal stratification and a Gaussian copula model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Asc; Taylor, Jmg; Elliott, M R

    2017-02-01

    In clinical trials, a surrogate outcome ( S) can be measured before the outcome of interest ( T) and may provide early information regarding the treatment ( Z) effect on T. Many methods of surrogacy validation rely on models for the conditional distribution of T given Z and S. However, S is a post-randomization variable, and unobserved, simultaneous predictors of S and T may exist, resulting in a non-causal interpretation. Frangakis and Rubin developed the concept of principal surrogacy, stratifying on the joint distribution of the surrogate marker under treatment and control to assess the association between the causal effects of treatment on the marker and the causal effects of treatment on the clinical outcome. Working within the principal surrogacy framework, we address the scenario of an ordinal categorical variable as a surrogate for a censored failure time true endpoint. A Gaussian copula model is used to model the joint distribution of the potential outcomes of T, given the potential outcomes of S. Because the proposed model cannot be fully identified from the data, we use a Bayesian estimation approach with prior distributions consistent with reasonable assumptions in the surrogacy assessment setting. The method is applied to data from a colorectal cancer clinical trial, previously analyzed by Burzykowski et al.

  13. Sparse principal component analysis in medical shape modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Stegmann, Mikkel B.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2006-03-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a widely used tool in medical image analysis for data reduction, model building, and data understanding and exploration. While PCA is a holistic approach where each new variable is a linear combination of all original variables, sparse PCA (SPCA) aims at producing easily interpreted models through sparse loadings, i.e. each new variable is a linear combination of a subset of the original variables. One of the aims of using SPCA is the possible separation of the results into isolated and easily identifiable effects. This article introduces SPCA for shape analysis in medicine. Results for three different data sets are given in relation to standard PCA and sparse PCA by simple thresholding of small loadings. Focus is on a recent algorithm for computing sparse principal components, but a review of other approaches is supplied as well. The SPCA algorithm has been implemented using Matlab and is available for download. The general behavior of the algorithm is investigated, and strengths and weaknesses are discussed. The original report on the SPCA algorithm argues that the ordering of modes is not an issue. We disagree on this point and propose several approaches to establish sensible orderings. A method that orders modes by decreasing variance and maximizes the sum of variances for all modes is presented and investigated in detail.

  14. Characteristic gene selection via weighting principal components by singular values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Xing Liu

    Full Text Available Conventional gene selection methods based on principal component analysis (PCA use only the first principal component (PC of PCA or sparse PCA to select characteristic genes. These methods indeed assume that the first PC plays a dominant role in gene selection. However, in a number of cases this assumption is not satisfied, so the conventional PCA-based methods usually provide poor selection results. In order to improve the performance of the PCA-based gene selection method, we put forward the gene selection method via weighting PCs by singular values (WPCS. Because different PCs have different importance, the singular values are exploited as the weights to represent the influence on gene selection of different PCs. The ROC curves and AUC statistics on artificial data show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, experimental results on real gene expression data sets show that our method can extract more characteristic genes in response to abiotic stresses than conventional gene selection methods.

  15. Nonlinear Process Fault Diagnosis Based on Serial Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaogang; Tian, Xuemin; Chen, Sheng; Harris, Chris J

    2018-03-01

    Many industrial processes contain both linear and nonlinear parts, and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), widely used in nonlinear process monitoring, may not offer the most effective means for dealing with these nonlinear processes. This paper proposes a new hybrid linear-nonlinear statistical modeling approach for nonlinear process monitoring by closely integrating linear principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear KPCA using a serial model structure, which we refer to as serial PCA (SPCA). Specifically, PCA is first applied to extract PCs as linear features, and to decompose the data into the PC subspace and residual subspace (RS). Then, KPCA is performed in the RS to extract the nonlinear PCs as nonlinear features. Two monitoring statistics are constructed for fault detection, based on both the linear and nonlinear features extracted by the proposed SPCA. To effectively perform fault identification after a fault is detected, an SPCA similarity factor method is built for fault recognition, which fuses both the linear and nonlinear features. Unlike PCA and KPCA, the proposed method takes into account both linear and nonlinear PCs simultaneously, and therefore, it can better exploit the underlying process's structure to enhance fault diagnosis performance. Two case studies involving a simulated nonlinear process and the benchmark Tennessee Eastman process demonstrate that the proposed SPCA approach is more effective than the existing state-of-the-art approach based on KPCA alone, in terms of nonlinear process fault detection and identification.

  16. Source Signals Separation and Reconstruction Following Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For separation and reconstruction of source signals from observed signals problem, the physical significance of blind source separation modal and independent component analysis is not very clear, and its solution is not unique. Aiming at these disadvantages, a new linear and instantaneous mixing model and a novel source signals separation reconstruction solving method from observed signals based on principal component analysis (PCA are put forward. Assumption of this new model is statistically unrelated rather than independent of source signals, which is different from the traditional blind source separation model. A one-to-one relationship between linear and instantaneous mixing matrix of new model and linear compound matrix of PCA, and a one-to-one relationship between unrelated source signals and principal components are demonstrated using the concept of linear separation matrix and unrelated of source signals. Based on this theoretical link, source signals separation and reconstruction problem is changed into PCA of observed signals then. The theoretical derivation and numerical simulation results show that, in despite of Gauss measurement noise, wave form and amplitude information of unrelated source signal can be separated and reconstructed by PCA when linear mixing matrix is column orthogonal and normalized; only wave form information of unrelated source signal can be separated and reconstructed by PCA when linear mixing matrix is column orthogonal but not normalized, unrelated source signal cannot be separated and reconstructed by PCA when mixing matrix is not column orthogonal or linear.

  17. Large Covariance Estimation by Thresholding Principal Orthogonal Complements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Mincheva, Martina

    2013-09-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of a high-dimensional covariance with a conditional sparsity structure and fast-diverging eigenvalues. By assuming sparse error covariance matrix in an approximate factor model, we allow for the presence of some cross-sectional correlation even after taking out common but unobservable factors. We introduce the Principal Orthogonal complEment Thresholding (POET) method to explore such an approximate factor structure with sparsity. The POET estimator includes the sample covariance matrix, the factor-based covariance matrix (Fan, Fan, and Lv, 2008), the thresholding estimator (Bickel and Levina, 2008) and the adaptive thresholding estimator (Cai and Liu, 2011) as specific examples. We provide mathematical insights when the factor analysis is approximately the same as the principal component analysis for high-dimensional data. The rates of convergence of the sparse residual covariance matrix and the conditional sparse covariance matrix are studied under various norms. It is shown that the impact of estimating the unknown factors vanishes as the dimensionality increases. The uniform rates of convergence for the unobserved factors and their factor loadings are derived. The asymptotic results are also verified by extensive simulation studies. Finally, a real data application on portfolio allocation is presented.

  18. Disposal criticality analysis methodology's principal isotope burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, T.W.; Thomas, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the burnup credit aspects of the United States Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project's methodology for performing criticality analyses for commercial light-water-reactor fuel. The disposal burnup credit methodology uses a 'principal isotope' model, which takes credit for the reduced reactivity associated with the build-up of the primary principal actinides and fission products in irradiated fuel. Burnup credit is important to the disposal criticality analysis methodology and to the design of commercial fuel waste packages. The burnup credit methodology developed for disposal of irradiated commercial nuclear fuel can also be applied to storage and transportation of irradiated commercial nuclear fuel. For all applications a series of loading curves are developed using a best estimate methodology and depending on the application, an additional administrative safety margin may be applied. The burnup credit methodology better represents the 'true' reactivity of the irradiated fuel configuration, and hence the real safety margin, than do evaluations using the 'fresh fuel' assumption. (author)

  19. Principals' reports of adults' alcohol use in Australian secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bernadette M; Kippen, Rebecca; Buykx, Penny; Munro, Geoffrey; McBride, Nyanda; Wiggers, John

    2016-02-29

    Schools provide opportunities for parents and the wider community to connect and support the physical and emotional wellbeing of their children. Schools therefore have the potential to play a role in the socialisation of alcohol use through school policies and practices regarding consumption of alcohol by adults at school events in the presence of children. This survey was undertaken to a) compare the extent to which alcohol is used at secondary school events, when children are present, in the states of New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria (VIC), Australia; b) describe principals' level of agreement with these practices; c) their awareness of state policies on this issue; and d) the predictors of such events. A random sample of secondary schools, stratified to represent metropolitan and non-metropolitan schools were invited to participate. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were conducted with p values schools consented to participate in the study. Fifteen percent of participating NSW schools and 57% of VIC schools held at least one event in which alcohol was consumed by adults in the presence of children in the year before the survey. Of the 100 reported events, 78% were Year 12 graduation dinners, and 18% were debutante balls. Compared to NSW principals, VIC principals were significantly more likely to agree with the use of alcohol at these events; significantly less likely to be aware of their state education department policy on this issue; have a policy at their own school or support policy that prohibits alcohol use at such events; and less likely to report having enough information to make decisions about this. There is a growing focus on adults' use of alcohol at school events when children are present. Schools can play an important role in educating and socialising children about alcohol via both the curriculum and policies regarding adults' alcohol use at school events. Findings from this study suggest education department and school-based policies that

  20. Acute abdomen. Diagnostic radiology according to principal signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestin, G.P.

    1994-01-01

    The acute abdomen is a frequent and very often dangerous syndrome which requires sophisticated diagnostic evaluation. A decisive factor determining the following case history is efficient and exact diagnosis, calling for experienced clinical and diagnostic experts for efficient application of available methods, and correct interpretation of findings. The book offers: 1. Practice-oriented diagnostic strategies, based on 13 principal signs and constellations derived from clinical experience, presented in each chapter as a combination of - suitable differential diagnostic procedures and methods,- exhaustive description of the clinical signs and diagnostic findings specific of the various symptoms,- algorithmic presentations. 2. A special chapter on the pediatric acute abdomen. 3. The most important findings shown in more than 250 original pictures. 4. A graphical design and presentation of the information which permits quick access to the important content. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Principal agent relationships and the efficiency of hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Martijn; Van Merode, Frits; Groot, Wim

    2010-06-01

    The efficiency of hospitals is an important political issue and has been the subject of a number of studies. Most studies find evidence for inefficiency but provide no theoretical explanations for differences in efficiency. This study used principal agent theory to explain differences in efficiency between hospitals. Two agency issues are examined: (1) quality of care in the relationship between hospital and patient, and (2) internal organisation, i.e. the relationship between the hospital and its main departments. It was found that efficiency and quality go together. This implies that the potential harmful information asymmetry between hospitals and patients does not appear to be a major problem, because increasing efficiency does not seem to reduce quality. Further, we find no relationship between the efficiency of departments and the efficiency of the entire hospital. The interest of hospital departments is currently not in line with the interests of the entire hospital.

  2. Redox Conditions in Selected Principal Aquifers of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P.B.; Cowdery, T.K.; Chapelle, F.H.; Jurgens, B.C.

    2009-01-01

    Reduction/oxidation (redox) processes affect the quality of groundwater in all aquifer systems. Redox processes can alternately mobilize or immobilize potentially toxic metals associated with naturally occurring aquifer materials, contribute to the degradation or preservation of anthropogenic contami-nants, and generate undesirable byproducts, such as dissolved manganese (Mn2+), ferrous iron (Fe2+), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and methane (CH4). Determining the kinds of redox processes that occur in an aquifer system, documenting their spatial distribution, and understanding how they affect concentrations of natural or anthropogenic contaminants are central to assessing and predicting the chemical quality of groundwater. This Fact Sheet extends the analysis of U.S. Geological Survey authors to additional principal aquifer systems by applying a framework developed by the USGS to a larger set of water-quality data from the USGS national water databases. For a detailed explanation, see the 'Introduction' in the Fact Sheet.

  3. Recursive Principal Components Analysis Using Eigenvector Matrix Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Erdogmus

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Principal components analysis is an important and well-studied subject in statistics and signal processing. The literature has an abundance of algorithms for solving this problem, where most of these algorithms could be grouped into one of the following three approaches: adaptation based on Hebbian updates and deflation, optimization of a second-order statistical criterion (like reconstruction error or output variance, and fixed point update rules with deflation. In this paper, we take a completely different approach that avoids deflation and the optimization of a cost function using gradients. The proposed method updates the eigenvector and eigenvalue matrices simultaneously with every new sample such that the estimates approximately track their true values as would be calculated from the current sample estimate of the data covariance matrix. The performance of this algorithm is compared with that of traditional methods like Sanger's rule and APEX, as well as a structurally similar matrix perturbation-based method.

  4. Social inequality and the principal-agent problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Barkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social inequality has a lot of reasons. One of them is managerial. Managerial duties are paid so high that it set the stage for discontent not only within individual organizations, but also entire countries. The principles (the people in the state and shareholders in the corporation because the specific structure of their competencies can’t totally control agents (officials and managers. As to agents, the moral imperative to act for the good of the social system and reputation considerations (to be remembered as a good ruler or a genius manager can easily rejected when there is an opportunity to make millions dollars without special efforts. As a result hundreds thousands of people across the globe in the corporate and government structures are enriched through specific solutions to the principal-agent problem, and social inequality becomes an integral inevitable part of the modern economy.

  5. Principal considerations in large energy-storage capacitor banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, E.L.

    1976-01-01

    Capacitor banks storing one or more megajoules and costing more than one million dollars have unique problems not often found in smaller systems. Two large banks, Scyllac at Los Alamos and Shiva at Livermore, are used as models of large, complex systems. Scyllac is a 10-MJ, 60-kV theta-pinch system while Shiva is a 20-MJ, 20-kV energy system for laser flash lamps. A number of design principles are emphasized for expediting the design and construction of large banks. The sensitive features of the charge system, the storage system layout, the switching system, the transmission system, and the design of the principal bank components are presented. Project management and planning must involve a PERT chart with certain common features for all the activities. The importance of the budget is emphasized

  6. Preliminary study of soil permeability properties using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, M.; Sudriani, Y.; Rustini, H. A.

    2018-02-01

    Soil permeability measurement is undoubtedly important in carrying out soil-water research such as rainfall-runoff modelling, irrigation water distribution systems, etc. It is also known that acquiring reliable soil permeability data is rather laborious, time-consuming, and costly. Therefore, it is desirable to develop the prediction model. Several studies of empirical equations for predicting permeability have been undertaken by many researchers. These studies derived the models from areas which soil characteristics are different from Indonesian soil, which suggest a possibility that these permeability models are site-specific. The purpose of this study is to identify which soil parameters correspond strongly to soil permeability and propose a preliminary model for permeability prediction. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to 16 parameters analysed from 37 sites consist of 91 samples obtained from Batanghari Watershed. Findings indicated five variables that have strong correlation with soil permeability, and we recommend a preliminary permeability model, which is potential for further development.

  7. Economía institucional, corriente principal y heterodoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Salazar, Óscar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa los diferentes enfoques analíticos de las instituciones en teoría e historia económica. La primera parte muestra cómo se aproximó la corriente principal a esta temática y la influencia de esta nueva visión sobre la New Economic History. La segunda parte analiza algunas corrientes heterodoxas, como la teoría de las convenciones, la escuela de la regulación y los desarrollos recientes en sociología económica ligados a los trabajos de Mark Granovetter y Pierre Bordieu. En historia, estos desarrollos se apoyan en la escuela de Annales y en las formulaciones de Marx y los economistas postkeynesianos.

  8. Nuclear reaction analysis of hydrogen in materials: Principals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanford, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis for hydrogen in materials is difficult by most traditional analytic methods. Because hydrogen has no Auger transitions, no X-ray transitions, does not neutron activate, and does not backscatter ions, it is invisible in analytical methods based on these effects. In addition, since hydrogen is a universal contaminant in vacuum systems, techniques based on mass spectrometry are difficult unless extreme measures are taken to reduce hydrogen backgrounds. Because of this situation, methods have been developed for analyzing for hydrogen in solid materials based on nuclear reactions between bombarding ions and hydrogen atoms (protons) in the samples. The nuclear reaction methods are now practiced at laboratories around the world. The basic principals of nuclear reaction analysis will be briefly presented. This method will be illustrated by applications to problems ranging from basic physics, to geology, to materials science, and to art history and archeology

  9. Development of motion image prediction method using principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhatkuli, Ritu Bhusal; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Kawai, Masaki; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Kamiaka, Kazuma

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory motion can induce the limit in the accuracy of area irradiated during lung cancer radiation therapy. Many methods have been introduced to minimize the impact of healthy tissue irradiation due to the lung tumor motion. The purpose of this research is to develop an algorithm for the improvement of image guided radiation therapy by the prediction of motion images. We predict the motion images by using principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-channel singular spectral analysis (MSSA) method. The images/movies were successfully predicted and verified using the developed algorithm. With the proposed prediction method it is possible to forecast the tumor images over the next breathing period. The implementation of this method in real time is believed to be significant for higher level of tumor tracking including the detection of sudden abdominal changes during radiation therapy. (author)

  10. Demixed principal component analysis of neural population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, Dmitry; Brendel, Wieland; Constantinidis, Christos; Feierstein, Claudia E; Kepecs, Adam; Mainen, Zachary F; Qi, Xue-Lian; Romo, Ranulfo; Uchida, Naoshige; Machens, Christian K

    2016-04-12

    Neurons in higher cortical areas, such as the prefrontal cortex, are often tuned to a variety of sensory and motor variables, and are therefore said to display mixed selectivity. This complexity of single neuron responses can obscure what information these areas represent and how it is represented. Here we demonstrate the advantages of a new dimensionality reduction technique, demixed principal component analysis (dPCA), that decomposes population activity into a few components. In addition to systematically capturing the majority of the variance of the data, dPCA also exposes the dependence of the neural representation on task parameters such as stimuli, decisions, or rewards. To illustrate our method we reanalyze population data from four datasets comprising different species, different cortical areas and different experimental tasks. In each case, dPCA provides a concise way of visualizing the data that summarizes the task-dependent features of the population response in a single figure.

  11. Principal Component Analysis for Normal-Distribution-Valued Symbolic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiwen; Chen, Meiling; Shi, Xiaojun; Li, Nan

    2016-02-01

    This paper puts forward a new approach to principal component analysis (PCA) for normal-distribution-valued symbolic data, which has a vast potential of applications in the economic and management field. We derive a full set of numerical characteristics and variance-covariance structure for such data, which forms the foundation for our analytical PCA approach. Our approach is able to use all of the variance information in the original data than the prevailing representative-type approach in the literature which only uses centers, vertices, etc. The paper also provides an accurate approach to constructing the observations in a PC space based on the linear additivity property of normal distribution. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by simulated numerical experiments. At last, our method is applied to explain the puzzle of risk-return tradeoff in China's stock market.

  12. Water reuse systems: A review of the principal components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, G.; Gray, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Principal components of water reuse systems include ammonia removal, disease control, temperature control, aeration, and particulate filtration. Effective ammonia removal techniques include air stripping, ion exchange, and biofiltration. Selection of a particular technique largely depends on site-specific requirements (e.g., space, existing water quality, and fish densities). Disease control, although often overlooked, is a major problem in reuse systems. Pathogens can be controlled most effectively with ultraviolet radiation, ozone, or chlorine. Simple and inexpensive methods are available to increase oxygen concentration and eliminate gas supersaturation, these include commercial aerators, air injectors, and packed columns. Temperature control is a major advantage of reuse systems, but the equipment required can be expensive, particularly if water temperature must be rigidly controlled and ambient air temperature fluctuates. Filtration can be readily accomplished with a hydrocyclone or sand filter that increases overall system efficiency. Based on criteria of adaptability, efficiency, and reasonable cost, we recommend components for a small water reuse system.

  13. Spall behaviour of single crystal aluminium at three principal orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, G. D.; Chapman, D. J.; Whiteman, G.; Stirk, S. M.; Millett, J. C. F.; Johnson, S.

    2017-10-01

    A series of plate impact experiments have been conducted to study the spall strength of the three principal crystallographic orientations of single crystal aluminium ([100], [110] and, [111]) and ultra-pure polycrystalline aluminium. The samples have been shock loaded at two impact stresses (4 GPa and 10 GPa). Significant differences have been observed in the elastic behaviour, the pullback velocities, and the general shape of the wave profiles, which can be accounted for by considerations of the microscale homogeneity, the dislocation density, and the absence of grain boundaries in the single crystal materials. The data have shown that there is a consistent order of spall strength measured for the four sample materials. The [111] orientation has the largest spall strength and elastic limit, followed closely by [110], [100], and then the polycrystalline material. This order is consistent with both quasi-static data and geometrical consideration of Schmid factors.

  14. Iris recognition based on robust principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Pradeep; He, Xiao Hai; Yang, Shuai; Wu, Xiao Hong

    2014-11-01

    Iris images acquired under different conditions often suffer from blur, occlusion due to eyelids and eyelashes, specular reflection, and other artifacts. Existing iris recognition systems do not perform well on these types of images. To overcome these problems, we propose an iris recognition method based on robust principal component analysis. The proposed method decomposes all training images into a low-rank matrix and a sparse error matrix, where the low-rank matrix is used for feature extraction. The sparsity concentration index approach is then applied to validate the recognition result. Experimental results using CASIA V4 and IIT Delhi V1iris image databases showed that the proposed method achieved competitive performances in both recognition accuracy and computational efficiency.

  15. The Associate Principal Astronomer for AI Management of Automatic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Gregory W.

    1998-01-01

    This research program in scheduling and management of automatic telescopes had the following objectives: 1. To field test the 1993 Automatic Telescope Instruction Set (ATIS93) programming language, which was specifically developed to allow real-time control of an automatic telescope via an artificial intelligence scheduler running on a remote computer. 2. To develop and test the procedures for two-way communication between a telescope controller and remote scheduler via the Internet. 3. To test various concepts in Al scheduling being developed at NASA Ames Research Center on an automatic telescope operated by Tennessee State University at the Fairborn Observatory site in southern Arizona. and 4. To develop a prototype software package, dubbed the Associate Principal Astronomer, for the efficient scheduling and management of automatic telescopes.

  16. Principal scientific and technical results. Scientific report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    On January, 1, 1994, the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres has developed a new organization to carry out its scientific research in applied geosciences. With the exception of cartography and geologic synthesis which are dependent on the Direction of the National Geologic Service, a research management has been created with 90 engineers-searchers and 20 technicians for the execution of the research program. This report comprises two parts. The first part is a summary of the objectives and principal results for each research project of 1994, and the second part is a more detailed presentation of the main results for about a third of the projects. (J.S.). 568 refs., 54 figs., 2 tabs., 3 photos

  17. Principal component analysis of FDG PET in amnestic MCI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobili, Flavio; Girtler, Nicola; Brugnolo, Andrea; Dessi, Barbara; Rodriguez, Guido; Salmaso, Dario; Morbelli, Silvia; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Larsson, Stig A.; Pagani, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the combined accuracy of episodic memory performance and 18 F-FDG PET in identifying patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) converting to Alzheimer's disease (AD), aMCI non-converters, and controls. Thirty-three patients with aMCI and 15 controls (CTR) were followed up for a mean of 21 months. Eleven patients developed AD (MCI/AD) and 22 remained with aMCI (MCI/MCI). 18 F-FDG PET volumetric regions of interest underwent principal component analysis (PCA) that identified 12 principal components (PC), expressed by coarse component scores (CCS). Discriminant analysis was performed using the significant PCs and episodic memory scores. PCA highlighted relative hypometabolism in PC5, including bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole, and in PC7, including the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, both in MCI/MCI and MCI/AD vs CTR. PC5 itself plus PC12, including the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC: BAs 44, 45, 46, 47), were significantly different between MCI/AD and MCI/MCI. By a three-group discriminant analysis, CTR were more accurately identified by PET-CCS + delayed recall score (100%), MCI/MCI by PET-CCS + either immediate or delayed recall scores (91%), while MCI/AD was identified by PET-CCS alone (82%). PET increased by 25% the correct allocations achieved by memory scores, while memory scores increased by 15% the correct allocations achieved by PET. Combining memory performance and 18 F-FDG PET yielded a higher accuracy than each single tool in identifying CTR and MCI/MCI. The PC containing bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole was the hallmark of MCI/MCI patients, while the PC including the left LFC was the hallmark of conversion to AD. (orig.)

  18. Principal components′ analysis of multifocal electroretinogram in retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Maiti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To determine waveforms of multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP contributing significantly to the overall retinal response by using principal components′ analysis. Settings and Design: Prospective, non-randomized, single-visit, observational, case-control study from a single tertiary ophthalmic center. Materials and Methods: Patients with various forms of RP underwent mfERG testing for a period of one year. The first-order kernel responses of RP cases were compared with concurrently recruited healthy controls. Statistical Analysis Used: Parametric data was analyzed using the unpaired t test for differences between the implicit time and amplitudes of cases and controls. Principal components′ analysis was done for each implicit time and amplitude in cases with RP using the Varimax rotation method. Results: From March 2006 to March 2007, 24 cases with typical RP (56%, 47 eyes were included in the final analysis. Their mean age was 33.7 years (19-69 ± 15.5 years. Comparison of latencies and amplitudes among RP cases with log MAR acuity ≤ 0.18 and those > 0.18, revealed significant difference in the implicit time (P1 in Ring 2 only (P=0.028. Two components (predominently from Ring 1 and 2 each contributing 66.8% and 88.8% of the total variance in the data for latencies and amplitudes respectively, were seen. Conclusions : The first two rings of the mfERG contributed to the variance of waveforms in RP, irrespective of the visual acuity and poor visual field results.

  19. Principal semantic components of language and the measurement of meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonovich, Alexei V; Samsonovic, Alexei V; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2010-06-11

    Metric systems for semantics, or semantic cognitive maps, are allocations of words or other representations in a metric space based on their meaning. Existing methods for semantic mapping, such as Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation, are based on paradigms involving dissimilarity metrics. They typically do not take into account relations of antonymy and yield a large number of domain-specific semantic dimensions. Here, using a novel self-organization approach, we construct a low-dimensional, context-independent semantic map of natural language that represents simultaneously synonymy and antonymy. Emergent semantics of the map principal components are clearly identifiable: the first three correspond to the meanings of "good/bad" (valence), "calm/excited" (arousal), and "open/closed" (freedom), respectively. The semantic map is sufficiently robust to allow the automated extraction of synonyms and antonyms not originally in the dictionaries used to construct the map and to predict connotation from their coordinates. The map geometric characteristics include a limited number ( approximately 4) of statistically significant dimensions, a bimodal distribution of the first component, increasing kurtosis of subsequent (unimodal) components, and a U-shaped maximum-spread planar projection. Both the semantic content and the main geometric features of the map are consistent between dictionaries (Microsoft Word and Princeton's WordNet), among Western languages (English, French, German, and Spanish), and with previously established psychometric measures. By defining the semantics of its dimensions, the constructed map provides a foundational metric system for the quantitative analysis of word meaning. Language can be viewed as a cumulative product of human experiences. Therefore, the extracted principal semantic dimensions may be useful to characterize the general semantic dimensions of the content of mental states. This is a fundamental step toward a

  20. Principal component analysis of FDG PET in amnestic MCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobili, Flavio; Girtler, Nicola; Brugnolo, Andrea; Dessi, Barbara; Rodriguez, Guido [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Endocrinological and Medical Sciences, Genoa (Italy); S. Martino Hospital, Alzheimer Evaluation Unit, Genoa (Italy); S. Martino Hospital, Head-Neck Department, Genoa (Italy); Salmaso, Dario [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Padua (Italy); Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Imaging Diagnostics, Genoa (Italy); Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Pagani, Marco [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Padua (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-12-15

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the combined accuracy of episodic memory performance and {sup 18}F-FDG PET in identifying patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) converting to Alzheimer's disease (AD), aMCI non-converters, and controls. Thirty-three patients with aMCI and 15 controls (CTR) were followed up for a mean of 21 months. Eleven patients developed AD (MCI/AD) and 22 remained with aMCI (MCI/MCI). {sup 18}F-FDG PET volumetric regions of interest underwent principal component analysis (PCA) that identified 12 principal components (PC), expressed by coarse component scores (CCS). Discriminant analysis was performed using the significant PCs and episodic memory scores. PCA highlighted relative hypometabolism in PC5, including bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole, and in PC7, including the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, both in MCI/MCI and MCI/AD vs CTR. PC5 itself plus PC12, including the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC: BAs 44, 45, 46, 47), were significantly different between MCI/AD and MCI/MCI. By a three-group discriminant analysis, CTR were more accurately identified by PET-CCS + delayed recall score (100%), MCI/MCI by PET-CCS + either immediate or delayed recall scores (91%), while MCI/AD was identified by PET-CCS alone (82%). PET increased by 25% the correct allocations achieved by memory scores, while memory scores increased by 15% the correct allocations achieved by PET. Combining memory performance and {sup 18}F-FDG PET yielded a higher accuracy than each single tool in identifying CTR and MCI/MCI. The PC containing bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole was the hallmark of MCI/MCI patients, while the PC including the left LFC was the hallmark of conversion to AD. (orig.)