WorldWideScience

Sample records for sunni muslim populations

  1. Microsatellite diversity delineates genetic relationships of Shia and Sunni Muslim populations of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Dubey, Bhawna; Ramakodi Meganathan, Poorlin; Noor, Sabahat; Haque, Ikramul

    2009-08-01

    In this study we characterize the genetic diversity and relationships between the Shia and Sunni Muslim populations of North India and geographically targeted neighboring and global populations. We examined a number of parameters of population genetic and forensic interest based on the allele frequencies from 15 autosomal STR loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D19S433, VWA, TPOX, D18S51, D3S1358, THO1, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D5S818, and FGA). All the studied loci were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except loci D18S51 and FGA for both Muslim populations, even after applying the Bonferroni correction. The combined power of exclusion and combined power of discrimination values for all 15 STR loci were 0.9999 and >0.99999, respectively, in both Muslim populations. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.6784 (TPOX) to 0.9027 (FGA) for Shia Muslims and from 0.7152 (CSF1PO) to 0.9120 (D18S51) for Sunni Muslims. The observed heterozygosity (H(o)) ranged from 0.5833 (D18S51) to 0.8595 (VWA) in Shia Muslims and from 0.6818 (CSF1PO) to 0.8333 (D21S11) in Sunni Muslims and was lower than the expected heterozygosity (H(e)) for 11 out of the 15 STRs typed. We analyzed the genetic affinities of the Shia and Sunni Muslim populations with their geographically closest neighboring North Indian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and European populations using distance-based methods, including neighbor-joining trees and multidimensional scaling. In addition, we estimated the genetic contribution of the putative parental populations included in the analysis to the Shia and Sunni Muslim gene pool using admixture analysis. Although we observed a certain degree of genetic contribution from Iran to both Muslim populations, the results of the phylogenetic analyses based on autosomal STRs suggest genetic relatedness with some of the geographically closest neighboring Hindu religious populations.

  2. Inter-religious feelings of Sunni and Alevi Muslim minorities : The role of religious commitment and host national identification

    OpenAIRE

    Martinovic, Borja; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines inter-religious attitudes from the perspective of Muslim minorities living in Western Europe. We examine both Sunni and Alevi Muslims of Turkish origin living in Germany and the Netherlands, and focus on their global feelings towards multiple religious out-groups (Christians, Jews, Muslim out-group, and non-believers). We hypothesize that Sunnis would dislike religious out-groups more than Alevis, and that these group differences in religious out-group feelings can be expl...

  3. Book Review: Schmidt, Garbi (2004) Islam in Urban America: Sunni Muslims in Chicago, Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN-1592132235

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Moussa, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Garbi Schmidt’s Islam in Urban America: Sunni Muslims in Chicago is an invaluable contribution to ethnographic research about Islam and Muslims in the West. It provides an insightful perspective on Muslims’ life in the United States and refutes some of the most common stereotypes about Muslims.

  4. Inter-religious feelings of Sunni and Alevi Muslim minorities : The role of religious commitment and host national identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinovic, Borja; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines inter-religious attitudes from the perspective of Muslim minorities living in Western Europe. We examine both Sunni and Alevi Muslims of Turkish origin living in Germany and the Netherlands, and focus on their global feelings towards multiple religious out-groups (Christians, Jew

  5. Making Muslim babies: IVF and gamete donation in Sunni versus Shi'a Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2006-12-01

    Medical anthropological research on science, biotechnology, and religion has focused on the "local moral worlds" of men and women as they make difficult decisions regarding their health and the beginnings and endings of human life. This paper focuses on the local moral worlds of infertile Muslims as they attempt to make, in the religiously correct fashion, Muslim babies at in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics in Egypt and Lebanon. As early as 1980, authoritative fatwas issued from Egypt's famed Al-Azhar University suggested that IVF and similar technologies are permissible as long as they do not involve any form of third-party donation (of sperm, eggs, embryos, or uteruses). Since the late 1990s, however, divergences in opinion over third-party gamete donation have occurred between Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims, with Iran's leading ayatollah permitting gamete donation under certain conditions. This Iranian fatwa has had profound implications for the country of Lebanon, where a Shi'ite majority also seeks IVF services. Based on three periods of ethnographic research in Egyptian and Lebanese IVF clinics, this paper explores official and unofficial religious discourses surrounding the practice of IVF and third-party donation in the Muslim world, as well as the gender implications of gamete donation for Muslim marriages.

  6. Making muslim babies: Ivf and gamete donation in sunni versus shi’a islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Medical anthropological research on science, biotechnology, and religion has focused on the “local moral worlds” of men and women as they make difficult decisions regarding their health and the beginnings and endings of human life. This paper focuses on the local moral worlds of infertile Muslims as they attempt to make, in the religiously correct fashion, Muslim babies at in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics in Egypt and Lebanon. As early as 1980, authoritative fatwas issued from Egypt’s famed Al-Azhar University suggested that IVF and similar technologies are permissible as long as they do not involve any form of third-party donation (of sperm, eggs, embryos, or uteruses). Since the late 1990s, however, divergences in opinion over third-party gamete donation have occurred between Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims, with Iran’s leading ayatollah permitting gamete donation under certain conditions. This Iranian fatwa has had profound implications for the country of Lebanon, where a Shi’ite majority also seeks IVF services. Based on three periods of ethnographic research in Egyptian and Lebanese IVF clinics, this paper explores official and unofficial religious discourses surrounding the practice of IVF and third-party donation in the Muslim world, as well as the gender implications of gamete donation for Muslim marriages. PMID:17051430

  7. Manifestation of malnutrition among Sunni Muslim Girls of Delhi (6-12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astha Bansal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and undernutrition are the opposite extremes on the scale of adiposity, both of which are the manifestation of malnutrition .Childhood obesity are a global epidemic involving both developed and developing countries. It is a state of over-nutrition with long term complications such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and coronary artery disease and type-2 diabetes. Underweight is the result of under nutrition and conceptualized in term of thinness which is also an important problem among children of developing countries like India, leading to reduction in growth and development of every body organ especially the Central Nervous System. Long term under-nutrition causes failure in linear growth (height of the child. Objective: To assess the nutritional status among Sunni Muslim girls based on recently developed body mass index (BMI cutoff points for children and adolescents. Methods The study subjects were selected form educational institutes of Delhi, India. A total of 370 girls aged 6-12 years were measured and included in the present study. Height and weight were measured and BMI was computed using standard formula. New age and sex specific international cutoff points were utilized to assess nutritional status. Result: In general the mean BMI increased with increasing age. The overall prevalence of thinness, normal weight and overweight were 38.37%, 50% and 11.62% respectively. Present study finds the nutritional stress among girls as evident from the thinness/underweight prevalent among them.

  8. Manifestation of malnutrition among Sunni Muslim Girls of Delhi (6-12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astha Bansal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and undernutrition are the opposite extremes on the scale of adiposity, both of which are the manifestation of malnutrition. Childhood obesity is a global epidemic involving both developed and developing countries. It is a state of over-nutrition with long term complications such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and coronary artery disease and type-2 diabetes. Underweight is the result of under nutrition and conceptualized in term of thinness which is also an important problem among children of developing countries like India, leading to reduction in growth and development of every body organ especially the Central Nervous System. Long term under-nutrition causes failure in linear growth (height of the child. Objective: To assess the nutritional status among Sunni Muslim girls based on recently developed body mass index (BMI cut-off points for children and adolescents. Methods: The study subjects were selected from educational institutes of Delhi, India. A total of 370 girls aged 6-12 years were measured and included in the present study. Height and weight were measured and BMI was computed using standard formula. New age and sex specific international cut-off points were utilized to assess nutritional status. Result: In general, the mean BMI increased with increasing age. The overall prevalence of thinness, normal weight and overweight were 38.37%, 50% and 11.62%, respectively. Present study finds the nutritional stress among girls as evident from the thinness/underweight prevalent among them.

  9. The spring has arrived: traditional wild vegetables gathered by Yarsanis (Ahl-e Haqq and Sunni Muslims in Western Hawraman, SE Kurdistan (Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pieroni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kurdistan represents a crucial region in the Middle East for understanding patterns of human evolution in the use of food plants and especially wild vegetables as well as for assessing the influences of the major, surrounding bio-cultural macro-area. In this research, an ethnobotanical filed study focusing on wild vegetables traditionally gathered and consumed during the spring was conducted in a few villages of the Western Hawraman area, in South Kurdistan (Iraq, both among Sunni Muslims and Yarsanis (Ahl-e Haqq, the latter of which represent followers of a tiny, threatened, ancient monotheistic religion. Through interviews with 25 elderly informants, the folk uses of 34 botanical and mycological taxa were recorded. A few of the recorded species have never, or very rarely, been described in the ethnobotanical literature of the Middle East and for some of them (most notably Allium koelzii, Bongardia chrysogonum, Dorema aucheri, and Johrenia aromatica their sensory chemistry and nutraceutical properties are largely unknown. No differences were found between the folk taxa mentioned by Sunni Muslims and those reported by Yarsanis. The high cultural value and consumption of raw young shoots of Imperata cylindrica should be further investigated considering the history of the development of agriculture in the area, as explanations for the domestication of wild grasses have never considered the hypothesis of gastronomic appreciation of their young aerial parts. Moreover, some of the most mentioned vegetables are also considered food-medicines. A comparison with all the pre-existing food ethnobotanical literature of the Middle East shows that the most culturally salient wild vegetables recorded in the Hawraman area are shared with Arabic, Turkish, Caucasian, and especially Persian food heritages. These findings suggest that investigating the ethnobiology of Kurdistan is more than ever urgent in order to document folk plant uses at a crucial crossroad of

  10. Gene diversity in some Muslim populations of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarzoo, S Shabana; Afzal, Mohammad

    2005-06-01

    North Indian Muslim populations have historical, linguistic, and socioreligious significance to the Indian subcontinent. Although sociocultural and political dimensions of their demography are well documented, no detailed genetic structure of the populations is available. We have undertaken a survey of the gene frequencies of the ABO, Rh, PTC taste ability, sickling, and G6PD systems for different endogamous groups: Sheikh, Syed, Pathan, Ansari, Saifi, and Hindu Bania. All the groups at most loci showed statistically nonsignificant differences, except for ABO and PTC traits, for which interpopulational differences were seen. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.048 to 0.617 among the Sheikh, 0.149 to 0.599 among the Pathan, 0.105 to 0.585 among the Ansari, 0.25 to 0.869 among the Syed, 0.107 to 0.565 among the Saifi, and 0.100 to 0.492 among the Hindu Bania. The average D(ST) and G(ST) values for the five marker loci were 0.0625 +/- 0.098 and 0.1072 +/- 0.041, respectively. A dendrogram was constructed using the UPGMA clustering method. Our results revealed that the Pathan and the Sheikh form one cluster, the Syed and the Hindu Bania form another cluster, and the two clusters join together (the so-called higher caste); also, the Saifi and the Ansari form a separate cluster (lower caste). The results of the genetic distance analysis are useful for understanding the pattern of genetic relationships between different endogamous groups of Muslims.

  11. The Efiect of Northwest the Muslim population in China's Residences by Various Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yiyong

    2009-01-01

    By analyzing geographical conditions,geographical features of the northwest inhabited areas, religious factors simpact on the Muslim population in China Vernacular Architecture as well as Han culture's impact on it,the thesis expounded the unique artistic style of Musl im population in China residential construction.

  12. Hindu-Muslim differentials in fertility and population growth in India: role of proximate variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, K

    1984-09-01

    In India, Hindu and Muslim differentials in fertility were examined using census data and the findings of 11 surveys. An explanation of the fertility differences was offered. The proportion of Muslims in the population increased and the proportion of Hindus decreased, both before and after partition of the country. After partition, and between 1951-71, the proportion of Muslims increased from 9.9%-11.2% while the proportion of Hindus decreased from 84.9%-82.7%. An examination of mortality and migration data suggests that these proportional changes cannot be attributed to differences in migration or mortality; therefore, they must be due to differences in fertility. Census and survey data provide considerable evidence that fertility is higher among Muslims than among Hindus. According to the 1971 census data, the total marital fertility rate for Muslim women was 11% higher in urban areas and 20% higher in rural areas than the rate for Hindus. Even when education was controlled, the Muslim rate remained higher. The findings of 11 demographic surveys consistently revealed higher fertility rates for Muslims compared to Hindus. Several studies demonstrated that these differences narrowed but remained significant when education and socioeconomic factors were controlled. Investigators generally offer 1 of 3 hypotheses to explain the differences. The 1st hypothesis attributes the fertility differences to differences in the background or socioeconomic characteristics of the 2 populations. This explanation is not supported by studies which have introduced socioeconomic controls. The 2nd hypothesis states that minority status itself is a sufficient cause of high fertility. There is considerable evidence with which to refute this hypothesis. For example, in predominantly Muslim countries, Hindu minorities tend to have lower fertility than Muslims. The 3rd hypothesis attributed the fertility differences to religious beliefs concerning reproduction. Both Islam and Hinduism are

  13. Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Muslim populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Haque, Ikramul; Ravesh, Zeinab; Romero, Irene Gallego; Meganathan, Poorlin Ramakodi; Dubey, Bhawna; Khan, Faizan Ahmed; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2010-01-01

    Islam is the second most practiced religion in India, next to Hinduism. It is still unclear whether the spread of Islam in India has been only a cultural transformation or is associated with detectable levels of gene flow. To estimate the contribution of West Asian and Arabian admixture to Indian Muslims, we assessed genetic variation in mtDNA, Y-chromosomal and LCT/MCM6 markers in 472, 431 and 476 samples, respectively, representing six Muslim communities from different geographical regions of India. We found that most of the Indian Muslim populations received their major genetic input from geographically close non-Muslim populations. However, low levels of likely sub-Saharan African, Arabian and West Asian admixture were also observed among Indian Muslims in the form of L0a2a2 mtDNA and E1b1b1a and J*(xJ2) Y-chromosomal lineages. The distinction between Iranian and Arabian sources was difficult to make with mtDNA and the Y chromosome, as the estimates were highly correlated because of similar gene pool compositions in the sources. In contrast, the LCT/MCM6 locus, which shows a clear distinction between the two sources, enabled us to rule out significant gene flow from Arabia. Overall, our results support a model according to which the spread of Islam in India was predominantly cultural conversion associated with minor but still detectable levels of gene flow from outside, primarily from Iran and Central Asia, rather than directly from the Arabian Peninsula. PMID:19809480

  14. Effect of education on marital fertility in four Muslim populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive review of literature using cross national and cross regional studies did not reveal any systematic relationship between edcuation and fertility. This analysis--based on data collected in the mid-70s as part of the World Fertility Survey program in 4 Moslem populations--Bangladesh, Java, Jordan, and Pakistan--shows an inconsistent effect of education on marital fertility. Respondents were currently married and in their 1st marriage. "Level of education" divided women into 3 groups: no education, 1-5 years, and 6+ years. An inverted U-shape relationship between female education and current fertility was noticeable in Bangladesh and Java; an inverse relationship was supported by data from Jordan and Pakistan. Cumulative fertility, after controlling for duration of marriage, was found to be inversely related to 6+ years of education of the women in 3 populations, the exception being Java, where women with 6+ years of education show higher fertility than their counterparts. Analysis of variance showed a significant effect of wife-husband education on number of children ever born in all populations, except Pakistan. Multiple classification analysis did not reveal an appreciable difference in number of children ever born among the wife-husband education groups in Bangladesh, but a significant difference was noticed in Java and Jordan. In Pakistan, the education categories showed similar levels of fertility. The differences in fertility or lack of it by wife-husband level of education in these 4 Moslem populations were, to a large extent, explained by the interplay between the duration of breast feeding and the current use of efficient contraceptive methods.

  15. Isotope analyses to explore diet and mobility in a medieval Muslim population at Tauste (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guede, Iranzu; Ortega, Luis Angel; Zuluaga, Maria Cruz; Alonso-Olazabal, Ainhoa; Murelaga, Xabier; Pina, Miriam; Gutierrez, Francisco Javier; Iacumin, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The Islamic necropolis discovered in Tauste (Zaragoza, Spain) is the only evidence that a large Muslim community lived in the area between the 8th and 10th centuries. A multi-isotope approach has been used to investigate the mobility and diet of this medieval Muslim population living in a shifting frontier region. Thirty-one individuals were analyzed to determine δ15N, δ13C, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr composition. A combination of strontium and oxygen isotope analysis indicated that most individuals were of local origin although three females and two males were non-local. The non-local males would be from a warmer zone whereas two of the females would be from a more mountainous geographical region and the third from a geologically-different area. The extremely high δ15N baseline at Tauste was due to bedrock composition (gypsum and salt). High individual δ15N values were related to the manuring effect and consumption of fish. Adult males were the most privileged members of society in the medieval Muslim world and, as isotope data reflected, consumed more animal proteins than females and young males.

  16. Organ transplantation: A Sunni Islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Albar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the standpoints of Muslim jurists within the Sunni tradition on organ transplantation. Muslim jurists allowed different forms of bone grafts (autograft, allograft and xenograft for widely broken bones. Ibn Sina in 1037 discussed this subject in Al-Kanoon 1000 years ago. In 1959, the Muftis of Egypt and Tunisia allowed, under specific conditions, corneal transplants from dead persons. Thereafter, many fatwas (jurisprudence on organ trans-plantation have been issued from different parts of the Muslim world. In Amman, Jordan, the International Islamic Jurist Council recognized brain-death as a recognized sign of death in Islam in October 1986. This paved the way for organ transplantation from brain-dead persons, which started immediately in Saudi Arabia. In 1990 and 2003, the International Islamic Fiqh Academy (IIFA and the Islamic Fiqh Academy (IFA issued important fatwas on organ transplantation. By the end of 2008, more than 3600 organs were transplanted from brain-dead persons in Saudi Arabia.

  17. Mathematical Modeling and Forecasting Population for Muslim of Rural Region in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul Islam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research the population for Muslim of Rural region in Bangladesh is predicted by using theexponential growth rate method. For this link, the information of data for the Rural M uslim population for maleand female of Bangladesh is obtained from 1991 and 2001 censuses. The predictions are computed in threephases. In the first phase, the predictions are computed using negative exponential growth model estimated bythe Quasi-Newton method using STATISTICA for the years 1991 and 2001. Using the Cross ValidationPredictive Power (CVPP criterion and R2, the shrinkage coefficient (8 is constructed. The shrinkagecoefficient determines the adequacy of the first phase prediction. In the second phase, these predicted valuesare used to estimate the growth rate, for different age groups, by using the exponential growth rate m ethod. Inthe third phase, that is, finally considering the observed population for Muslim of Rural region in Bangladeshfor the Census year 2001 as the base population and using the estimated exponential growth rate, at differentage groups, of the second phase estimation, the predictions of the population of M uslim of Rural region areobtained for the years 2002 through to 2021 employing exponential growth rate method successively 20 times.

  18. The magnitude of reciprocity in chronic pain management: experiences of dispersed ethnic populations of Muslim women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllersdorf, Maria; Zander, Viktoria; Eriksson, Henrik

    2011-12-01

    Dispersed ethnic populations believe their health to be worse than the ethnic majority group in Sweden. Most studies in rehabilitation exclude dispersed ethnic populations who can not read or speak the national language although this group seems to be in need of rehabilitation to a larger extent than privileged majority groups. The aim of the study was to examine the experience of living with musculoskeletal pain and experience of health care among dispersed ethnic populations of Muslim women. The method used was inspired by Grounded Theory in this study. Interviews were made with five first-generation Muslim immigrant women who had come to Sweden via Iraq as refugees. Two interviews were performed with interpreters. A preliminary core category 'The magnitude of reciprocity' based on three categories emerged from the analysis: (1) Impact of pain, (2) Managing pain and (3) Facing health care. Chronic pain limited the informants physically and emotionally, as well as impacting on their everyday life. Informants managed their pain primarily through medicine and physical activity, which gave at least temporary relief. Health care providers were perceived as doing their best but experiences of bad meetings were also witnessed. The factors important in achieving a good meeting in this study appeared to be; time, dialogue, honesty and understanding. Communication skills, feelings of being taken seriously and a sense of security were additional factors. Not being properly examined, or offered optimal treatment, not being believed or understood, were all seen as signs of dismissal within health care. The limitations of this study are primarily concerned with language difficulties resulting in various shortcomings. Reciprocal recognition and support connected to the specific life experiences of women that come with forced resettlement from the Muslim world to the European diaspora is a vital part of a holistic approach to pain management.

  19. Genetic Distance and Genetic Identity between Hindu and Muslim populations of Barak Valley for ABO and Rh genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A genetic study was carried out in two endogamous populations namely Hindus and Muslims in the Barak Valley Zone of Assam in India. Nei�s genetic distance and genetic identity between two populations were calculated on the basis of estimated allele frequencies of ABO and Rh blood group genes. The genetic distance between Hindus and Muslims was 0.12% for ABO gene and 0.10% for Rh gene. The genetic identity between two populations was estimated as 99.88% for ABO gene and 99.90% for Rh gene suggesting very high genetic similarity between these two populations. Observed heterozygosity estimate was higher in Hindus (0.5598 for ABO gene and 0.2822 for Rh gene than Muslims (0.5346 for ABO gene and 0.2408 for Rh gene indicating lesser inbreeding in Hindus than Muslims. Fixation index was lower in Hindus (16.02% for ABO gene and 43.56% for Rh gene than Muslims (19.80% for ABO gene and 51.84% for Rh gene. Panmictic index was higher in Hindus than Muslims for both the genes. Fixation and panmictic indices revealed that during evolutionary process the Hindus maintained more outbreeding feature than the Muslims in the valley. In this study, the concepts of genetic load of a population and genotype fitness were extended to alleles to estimate the magnitude of allele genetic load (GL and allele fitness for 3 alleles in ABO gene and for 2 alleles in Rh gene in two populations. The genetic load for O, A and B alleles were lower in Hindus than Muslims. Similar results for genetic load were found for the alleles of Rh gene in the comparison of two populations. The fitness estimates of O, A and B alleles for ABO gene and D and d alleles for Rh gene were higher in Hindus than Muslims. A population with low allele genetic load (GL and high allele fitness (AF might have greater survival advantage in nature in the absence of heterozygote advantage and higher adaptive value of the allele with increased frequency.

  20. Alcohol intake and its correlates in a transitional predominantly Muslim population in southeastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burazeri, Genc; Kark, Jeremy D

    2010-07-01

    Our aim was to assess alcohol consumption and its correlates in Albania, a predominantly Muslim though largely secular Southeast European republic in transition from rigidly structured socialism to a market-oriented system. A population-based sample of Tirana residents aged 35-74 years was interviewed and examined in 2003-2006 (450 men and 235 women with data on alcohol intake, 65.5% response). Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to assess the association of drinking frequency, quantity and type of drink with socioeconomic, psychosocial and coronary risk characteristics. 30.6% (95%CI=26.3%-34.9%) of men, age-standardized to the 2005 census, and 5.6% (95%CI=2.6%-8.6%) of women reported almost daily intake of alcohol, whereas 17.0% (95%CI=13.4%-20.5%) of men and 46.6% (95%CI=40.2%-53.1%) of women abstained. In men, frequent drinking was positively associated with age and not receiving financial support from close family emigrants, and was strongly inversely related to religious observance in both Muslims and Christians. In women it was associated with smoking and upward social mobility. Alcohol intake was not associated with religious affiliation in either sex. In men, intake of spirits (predominantly raki) and beer were associated with lower socioeconomic indices, smoking and obesity (beer only), whereas wine intake was associated with financial security, being secular, and not smoking. Among men, 11.3% (95%CI=8.3%-14.3%) reported high intakes (> or =210 g of pure alcohol/week) and 6.0% (95%CI=3.8%-8.3%) very high intakes (> or = 420 g/week). High intakes were associated with frequent, rather than episodic, drinking. Our study may be the first to provide information on alcohol intake and its characteristics in an Albanian population sample, one of the few predominantly Muslim countries in Europe. Alcohol consumption in women was extremely low. However, consistent very heavy intake of alcohol appears to be more frequent among Albanian men than in many

  1. Rural-urban differentials in marital fertility in four Muslim populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S

    1985-04-01

    An analysis based on data collected as a part of the World Fertility Survey program in 4 Muslim populations Bangladesh, Java, Jordan and Pakistan does not show a consistent pattern in rural-urban differentials in marital fertility. While no significant diiferential in current fertility by place of current residence is noticeable in Bangladesh and Pakistan, urban women in Jordan showed lower fertility than their rural counterparts. Cumulative fertility, when controlled for duration of marriage, was found to be higher in urban than in rural areas of Bangladesh and Pakistan, but no clear pattern emerged in Jordan. In Java, both current and cumulative fertility were higher in urban than in rural areas; urban women who had spent their childhood and were brought up in the urban environment showed, in most instances, higher fertility than the other residence groups. (author's modified

  2. Winning the Long War: Amplifying Muslim Challenges to al-Qaeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    oppressed, humiliated, and disrespected Muslims and Islam worldwide. Consequently, the major goals of al-Qaeda are to conduct a defensive jihad to...literature, Islamic religion and culture , and Sunni Islam. It is viewed with the highest regard and respect from Muslims. 17 Jarrett M. Brachman and...killed include those invited by Muslim states – such as workers - and tourists who visit Muslim countries. Sayyid Imam explains that a covenant is

  3. Creating Effective Holocaust Education Programmes for Government Schools with Large Muslim Populations in Sydney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, Suzanne D.

    2010-01-01

    Holocaust education can play a role in countering the ongoing problem of prejudice and incitement to hate that can lead to racial tension and violence. This article examines the beliefs of Muslim school children towards Jews in Sydney, Australia. It then discusses efforts to use Holocaust education to combat racist beliefs and hate language, and…

  4. Gene diversity for haptoglobin and transferrin classical markers among Hindu and Muslim populations of Aligarh City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, G; Siddique, Y H; Afzal, M

    2011-06-01

    The present paper reports the distribution of serum protein markers viz. haptoglobin and transferrin in two major groups of Aligarh city of North India. In present study we have undertaken a survey of 538 individuals belonging to eight different populations, four from the Hindu community i.e. Brahmin, Bania, Rajput and Jatav, and the rest four among the Muslim community i.e. Syed, Sheikh, Pathan and Ansari. The heterozygosity ranged from 0.2939 (Ansari) to 0.4873 (Brahmin) for haptoglobin and from 0.000 (Rajput) to 0.1498 (Pathan) for transferrin. The values of D(ST) are 0.4122 and 0.4406, and that of G(ST) are 0.5059 and 0.9726 for haptoglobin and transferrin markers respectively. Through F(ST) test, it has been concluded that there is a high genetic differentiation of populations within Hindu and Muslim groups, though there is absence of any significant differences between these groups.

  5. A Reception of Muslim Images in Magazines: British Residents View the Identities of Muslim Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Rahim Ainurliza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of multi-ethnic Britain, the major concern lies in the diversity and complexity of Muslims living in the West, which somehow is misrepresented in the western media as a frozen, static population, fixed in time and space. This misrepresentation dominates mainstream media through the hegemony of western superiority. The operation and role of Muslim media organisations are still underresearched yet potentially constitute an integral part of accommodating the minority population within the wider society. This paper discusses on the reception of images published in two British Muslim magazines by taking views from Muslims and non-Muslims into account. The results show that both groups recognize the identities of British Muslims via visual representations in the Muslim media and that the representations challenge the mainstream images of Muslims.

  6. Prevalence and Genetic Analysis of Bitter Taste Perception for Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Among Some Muslim Populations of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ruqaiya; Shah, Ahsana; Afzal, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    The ability to taste Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), a bitter organic compound, described as a bimodal autosomal trait is widely used to know the heritable trait in both genetic and anthropological studies. The present study was carried out to analyze the prevalence of PTC taste sensitivity and to determine the gene frequencies among some Muslim populations of Uttar Pradesh, India. This study has some physiological relevance to highlight the adaptability of endogamous groups to behavioral traits in the same place. Unrelated, healthy individuals of both sexes (Male-403, Female-418) belonging to different populations of Uttar Pradesh, India were randomly selected with the age range of 16-45 years observed for phenylthiocarbamide to taste sensitivity. PTC tasting ability was measured by using a serial dilution method of Harris and Kalmus. The phenotypic frequency of tasters was higher as compared to non-tasters, and the same is statistically significant (χ(2)= 11.92, df = 5, P = 0.036). There were more females among tasters (67.94%) than males (64.76%). This observation was statistically significant (χ(2) = 14.79, df = 5, P = 0.011). The frequency of PTC tasters is greater than non-tasters and the females have lower non-taster pheno-types as compared to males. This type of study will provide background information about genetic structure of population and serves as useful interaction of genetics, food preferences and dietary patterns.

  7. Prevalence and Genetic Analysis of Bitter Taste Perception for Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC Among Some Muslim Populations of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaiya Hussain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to taste Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC, a bitter organic compound, described as a bimodal autosomal trait is widely used to know the heritable trait in both genetic and anthropological studies. The present study was carried out to analyze the prevalence of PTC taste sensitivity and to determine the gene frequencies among some Muslim populations of Uttar Pradesh, India. This study has some physiological relevance to highlight the adaptability of endogamous groups to behavioral traits in the same place.Unrelated, healthy individuals of both sexes (Male-403, Female-418 belonging to different populations of Uttar Pradesh, India were randomly selected with the age range of 16-45 years observed for phenylthiocarbamide to taste sensitivity. PTC tasting ability was measured by using a serial dilution method of Harris and Kalmus.The phenotypic frequency of tasters was higher as compared to non-tasters, and the same is statistically significant (χ(2= 11.92, df = 5, P = 0.036. There were more females among tasters (67.94% than males (64.76%. This observation was statistically significant (χ(2 = 14.79, df = 5, P = 0.011.The frequency of PTC tasters is greater than non-tasters and the females have lower non-taster pheno-types as compared to males. This type of study will provide background information about genetic structure of population and serves as useful interaction of genetics, food preferences and dietary patterns.

  8. The Political Economy of Sunni-Shi’ah Conflict in Sampang Madura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masdar Hilmy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many overlooked the fact that politico-economic factors played an important role behind the 2011 and 2012 Sunni-Shi’ah conflict in Sampang Madura. Some, however, argue that the Sunni-Shi’ah conflict was merely driven by theological factors. The major roots of the conflict thus were therefore the internal dimensions of religious beliefs as contained in its doctrines. As a result, the conflict can only be explained in terms of religious and theological framework. This assumption is commonly shared by the majority of Madurese Muslims by arguing that the island of Madura cannot host the believers of non-Sunni. In the aftermath of the conflict, the community of Shi’ah has been forced to seek refuge outside of the land of Madura. By doing so, many observers and the Madurese Muslims tends to have treated political and economic factors as peripheral that exacerbated the escalation of conflict. This article, however, argues vice-versa that it is not theology, but politics and economy, which mainly steered the conflict. Theology played a role in exacerbating the escalation of conflict. During the conflict, religious and theological arguments were deployed as a mobilizing force in order to justify the conflict. Furthermore, the existence of Shi’ah community in Sampang is regarded by the mainstream Sunni community as a threat to their long domination over the socio-political structure in that region. The paper, thus, perceives the conflict as the way the local elites maintain the established mode of production. This paper is qualitative research that employs political-economy as its main approach in analyzing the data. [Para pengamat banyak tidak melihat aktor politik dan ekonomi di balik konflik Sunni dan Syiah 2011 dan 2012 di Sampang Madura. Para peneliti bahkan beranggapan bahwa konflik Sunni-Syiah itu dilatari oleh faktor teologis. Ini artinya bahwa tiap kelompok memegang sistem kepercayaan yang berbeda. Akar utama dari konflik itu pada

  9. Myths and Facts on the Future Number of Muslims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian Arly

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses various estimates of Muslim populations in Europe, showing that the public debate on numbers reflects academia’s difficulties in quantifying the Muslim populations. Projections of growth in the number of Muslims in Europe are exaggerated both in academia and in the public in...

  10. Myths and Facts on the Future Number of Muslims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian Arly

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses various estimates of Muslim populations in Europe, showing that the public debate on numbers reflects academia’s difficulties in quantifying the Muslim populations. Projections of growth in the number of Muslims in Europe are exaggerated both in academia and in the public in...

  11. Literature review of type 2 diabetes mellitus amongminority Muslim populations in Israel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulia Treister-Goltzman; Roni Peleg

    2015-01-01

    This review surveys the literature published on thecharacteristics and implications of pre-diabetes andtype 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for the Arab andBedouin populations of Israel. T2DM is a global healthproblem. The rapid rise in its prevalence in the Araband Bedouin populations in Israel is responsible fortheir lower life expectancy compared to Israeli Jews.The increased prevalence of T2DM corresponds toincreased rates of obesity in these populations. A majorrisk group is adult Arab women aged 55-64 years. Inthis group obesity reaches 70%. There are severalgenetic and nutritional explanations for this increase.We found high hospitalization rates for micro andmacrovascular complications among diabetic patients ofArab and Bedouin origin. Despite the high prevalenceof diabetes and its negative health implications, there isevidence that care and counseling relating to nutrition,physical activity and self-examination of the feet areunsatisfactory. Economic difficulties are frequentlycited as the reason for inadequate medical care. Otherproposed reasons include faith in traditional therapyand misconceptions about drugs and their side effects.In Israel, the quality indicators program is based onone of the world's leading information systems anddeals with the management of chronic diseases suchas diabetes. The program's baseline data pointed tohealth inequality between minority populations andthe general population in several areas, includingmonitoring and control of diabetes. Based on thesedata, a pilot intervention program was planned, aimedat minority populations. This program led to a decreasein inequality and served as the basis for a broader,more comprehensive intervention that has entered theimplementation stage. Interventions that were shownto be effective in other Arabic countries may serveas models for diabetes management in the Arab andBedouin populations in Israel.

  12. A Sunny Boy——Ethan Ruan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成民

    2011-01-01

    He is not perfect. He wasn’t a good student and he is not the most handsome boy around.But Taiwanese actor Ethan Ruan(阮经天)has his own charm (魅力):he is sporty; he is sunny;he works hard.

  13. The inverted Y-chromosome polymorphism in the Gujarati Muslim Indian population of South Africa has a single origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurdle, A; Jenkins, T

    1992-01-01

    Y-specific polymorphisms were studied in Gujarati Muslim Indians possessing a Y-chromosome pericentric inversion [inv(Y)] in an attempt to prove a common genetic origin for the inversion. The p49a/TaqI and p49a/PvuII haplotypes were determined for 9 normal and 8 inv(Y) Gujarati Muslim men. Men with the inversion possessed identical TaqI and PvuII profiles, as opposed to 7 different TaqI and 8 different PvuII haplotypes observed in the 9 normal men. These results provide conclusive evidence for a common genetic origin of the inverted Y chromosome observed in this Gujarati Muslim community.

  14. Pedagogized Muslimness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette

    school post 9-11. Through close readings of what takes place at a classroom level in two Copenhagen schools, Pedagogized Muslimness provides insights into how the Nordic model of comprehensive schooling – in the (post-)welfare state – plays out in daily school life and with what effects. The book...... provides a deeper understanding of how knowledge is produced in school, and how school operates as an arena for the production and distribution of social difference. The good pupil is the pupil that speaks of her/himself, acting as a subject, or who, by confirming the teacher’s organizing of her....../himself, accepts being made into an object upon which knowledge can be generated. Particularly overexposed are the pupils, whom the teachers identify as ‘Muslim’, something which draws on decades of casting this group of children as special objects of – as well as obstacles to – schooling. By the late 1970s...

  15. Making European Muslims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    education, and government policy intersect in the lives of young Muslims and inform their developing religious beliefs and practices. Mark Sedgwick’s introduction provides a framework for theorizing Muslimness in the European context, arguing that Muslim children must navigate different and sometimes......Making European Muslims provides an in-depth examination of what it means to be a young Muslim in Europe today, where the assumptions, values and behavior of the family and those of the majority society do not always coincide. Focusing on the religious socialization of Muslim children at home...

  16. Portraying Islam and Muslims in MEDLINE: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Lance Daniel; de Marrais, Justine; Barnes, Linda L

    2007-12-01

    The growing number and diversity of Muslims in the United States and Western Europe challenge clinicians and researchers to understand this population's perspectives and experiences regarding health and biomedicine. For information about Muslim patient populations, clinicians and researchers routinely consult medical literature. To examine how this literature portrays Muslims, we conducted an ethnographic content analysis of 2342 OVID MEDLINE-indexed abstracts from 1966 through August 2005, derived from a Boolean search for "islam or muslim or muslims." Manifest (explicitly stated) themes included Muslim religious practices, Islamic law and ethics, history of Islamic medicine, public health, social medicine, and cultural competence. Latent (underlying) themes implied that being an observant Muslim poses health risks; Muslims are negatively affected by tradition, and should adopt modernity; and that "Islam" is a problem for biomedical healthcare delivery. A countervailing latent theme implies that being Muslim may promote good health. We discuss ambiguities in uses of the term "Muslim;" implications of Muslim practices for health management and healthcare delivery; and ways in which MEDLINE-indexed literature intersects with orientalist and colonialist discourse about religious Others. Such intersections highlight connections with potential structural inequalities in healthcare delivery to Muslim patients.

  17. Monday Morning Among the Muslims

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ADAM; MOORMAN

    2011-01-01

    Heat,history and culture of the Hui ethnic group—those are the three things first coming to mind when I think of Xi’an,capital city of northwest China’s Shaanxi Province.The Hui people are Xi’an’s native Muslim population

  18. 'Defending our honour': Authenticity and the framing of resistance in the Iraqi Sunni town of Falluja

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.

    2004-01-01

    In April 2004 a revolt broke out against the American occupation in the Iraqi Sunni town of Falluja. Besides a military confrontation, it was also a war of words how to conceptualise the clash of interests and values of the indigenous population in opposition to those of the American occupation. At

  19. Are Muslim countries more prone to violence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Petter Gleditsch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, most armed conflicts have taken place in Muslim countries. Are Muslim countries more war-prone? Not necessarily, if we look at data for the whole period after World War II. But in the post-Cold War era, most wars are civil wars and Muslim countries have a disproportionate share of these. This is not mainly because conflicts among Muslims have increased, but because other conflicts have declined. Muslim countries are also overrepresented among countries with high levels of other forms of internal violence, including non-state conflict, one-sided violence, highly repressive human rights policies, and countries that practice capital punishment. They also have a higher than average participation in interstate conflicts. This is not a “clash of civilizations”—most of the victims are Muslims. We list several hypotheses, apart from religion itself, for why this pattern has emerged, including colonial history, interventions from major powers, and economic and political development. Finally, on a more optimistic note, while many Muslims are exposed to violence, four of the five countries with the largest Muslim populations do not currently experience civil war.

  20. Muslims in Contemporary Russia: Russia’s Domestic Muslim Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Yılmaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Islam and Muslim population is a fact of the Russian Federation. Today, a considerable number of Muslim people live in Russia mainly in Moscow, Volga region and North Caucasia. In addition, there are a large number of Muslim migrants coming mainly from Central Asian countries and North Caucasus in some of the Russian cities. Statistics show that while the general population of Russia has been in decline, that of the Muslims has been steadily increasing. According to some Russian politicians, this situation is an alarming one and poses a threat to the country. Russian government officially supports the traditional (loyal/official Islam represented by Council of Muftis of Russia. On the other hand, unofficial Islam, generally defined in terms of ‘non-traditional’ Salafi practice and movements, is viewed as the most significant threat to the integrity of the Russian state. Although there is a growing sentiment of xenophobia and Islamophobia among ethnic Russians, Russian government and its leaders do not approve this and frequently express their support for traditional Islam by stating that it is an indispensible component of Russian civilization.

  1. Muslims in Contemporary Russia: Russia's Domestic Muslim Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Yilmaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Islam and Muslim population is a fact of the Russian Federation. Today, a considerable number of Muslim people live in Russia mainly in Moscow, Volga region and North Caucasia. In addition, there are a large number of Muslim migrants coming mainly from Central Asian countries and North Caucasus in some of the Russian cities. Statistics show that while the general population of Russia has been in decline, that of the Muslims has been steadily increasing. According to some Russian politicians, this situation is an alarming one and poses a threat to the country. Russian government officially supports the traditional (loyal/official Islam represented by Council of Muftis of Russia. On the other hand, unofficial Islam, generally defined in terms of 'non-traditional' Salafi practice and movements, is viewed as the most significant threat to the integrity of the Russian state. Although there is a growing sentiment of xenophobia and Islamophobia among ethnic Russians, Russian government and its leaders do not approve this and frequently express their support for traditional Islam by stating that it is an indispensible component of Russian civilization.

  2. 1. Fertility differentials by incidence of marriage and their reproductive wastage in a Muslim population from rural north-east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Haloi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available :The study strives to assess the fertility differentials by women's present age, influence of incidence of marriage (whether once or more than once married /consanguineous or non-consanguineous marriage, their reproductive wastage and the effect of socio-economic factors on reproductive wastage of women in a rural Muslim population of North-East India. Data for the present study were collected on 1034 married women (15-49 years through structured schedule by cross sectional method and then presented in terms of percentage, mean, and standard error. Student's t-test and ANOVA test were also applied to see the significant difference. The multiple regression analysis was used to predict whether or not reproductive wastage depends on some other independent variables. . The present study reveals that mean live births (fertility are directly proportional to the advancement of age of women, which is probably due to the fact that higher number of pregnancies in older women results from a lack of education and antenatal care leading to concomitant miscarriages and stillbirths. Marriage among the Assamese Muslims was found to be very 'stable' as only 12 females (1.17% of all married individuals reportedly changed their mates. There are 23.73% women, whose marriage is consanguineous while 77.27% women have non-consanguineous marriage. In the former group, 38 (3.7% women have given birth to physically deformed children while not a single case of physically deformed children was reported among the mothers of the latter group. The frequency of reproductive wastage, of all the pregnancies considered in this study, was found to be 14.32%. Further the study shows that women's age, maternal education, type of family, household income and antenatal care are important factors in regulating the fertility and reproductive wastage of a population.

  3. Muslimness and prayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present an analysis of school children's practice of Muslimness in and around school. Based on qualitative interviews with Muslim school children about their everyday life and the practice of religiosity it is shown in which ways Muslimness plays into subjectivity...... and processes of becoming. The act of prayer (salat) is used as a point of departure in understanding how it is possible to position oneself as a Muslim in regard to secular and religious discourses present in school and society. The analysis shows how religiosity is intrinsically linked to subjectivity...

  4. Tracing the historical and ideological roots of ISIS: Shi’ite or Sunni?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makrum Makrum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a comprehensive study of ISIS (the Islamic States of Iraq and Syiria by examining both their historical and ideological roots, Shi’ite or Sunni – including their patterns and terror motives and also by mapping their doctrinal understanding that they adopt. The data stem from various studies, books and news that are widely spread in mass media by literature study (library research. This study was inspired by the emergence of ISIS which in recent years has shocked the world for their savagery and ferocity in committing the murder. Moreover, their leader (Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi has declared himself as the caliph and called on Muslims worldwide to join them. That issue has been a controversy across the Muslim world; many Muslim groups accepted and joined the ISIS, while others rejected its presence. Based on these library research results, it can be inferred that, historically ISIS has existed since 2004 and the origin of ISIS cannot be separated from the existence of Tawhid wa alJihad. In terms of doctrine, the concept of shared leadership of ISIS tends to lead to Sunnis, although al-Baghdadi himself does not meet the criteria to be appointed as caliph. Personally, al-Baghdadi does not posses the leadership capacity required as a caliph, based on one of the caliph’s criteria, that is ‘adalah (justice that he does not have. Artikel ini, dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, mengkaji akar sejarah dan ideologi ISIS, Syi’ah atau Sunni –termasuk di dalamnya pola dan motif teror–, kemudian memetakan paham doktrinal yang mereka anut agar diperoleh kajian yang komprehensif tentang ISIS. Data diperoleh dari studi kepustakaan (library research yang berasal dari berbagai hasil penelitian, buku, dan berita-berita di media massa. Penulisannya terinspirasi oleh kemunculan ISIS yang pada beberapa tahun terakhir telah menghebohkan masyarakat dunia, karena kebiadaban dan keganasannya dalam melakukan pembunuhan. Selain dari itu

  5. Muslim refugees in Southeast Asia, the Malaysian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorall, R F

    1988-01-01

    This article surveys the arrivals of Muslim refugees from countries in Southeast Asia who have not only come to Malaysia for political refuge, but who have also stayed on, in many instances integrating into the local Muslim community. The author concludes that Burmese, Thai, and Filipino Muslim refugee-cum-migrants, and the estimated 500,000 illegal Indonesian migrant workers in East and Peninsular Malaysia make the presence of economic migrants in Malaysia's towns and rural sectors a far more pressing concern to Malaysians than that posed by the arrival of genuine political refugees. Only the Indonesians present in Malaysia are consistently termed by all parties as illegal migrants and some of them have been subjected to well-publicized deportation by the Malaysian immigration authorities. Sympathy for fellow-Muslims in distress explains Malaysia's open-door policy to Muslim refugees. The Koran specifically enjoins Muslims to assist Muslim refugees who have been persecuted by others. However, the necessity to maintain regional political and military alliances, principally as a bulwark against Communism, and the Malay--Non-Malay, Muslim--Non-Muslim dichotomy in Malaysia which almost evenly divides Malaysia's 16 million population into mutually antagonistic halves, results in any overt public policy in favor of Malays and Muslims to be immediately denounced by the other half of the population as a move against the Non-Malays and Non-Muslims. Without political and media attention, the refugees live wherever they can find work, as do hundreds of thousands of mainly Indonesian illegal migrant workers. They surreptitiously get their children admitted to public schools, and through bribery, can even get Malaysian identification papers. Malaysia is a relatively tranquil haven for Malaysia's Muslim refugees compared to their homelands, but their continued stay remains dependent on the ever-present struggle for more equitable sharing of political and economic power between

  6. Health disparities between Muslim and non-Muslim countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, J A; Khan, U R; Azam, I; Nasrullah, M; Pasha, O; Malik, M; Ghaffar, A

    2011-09-01

    We examined differences in health indicators and associated factors across countries according to the proportion of the population who are Muslim. Of 190 UN countries, 48 were classified as Muslim-majority countries (MMC) and 142 as non-MMC. Data on 41 potential determinants of health were obtained from 10 different data sources, and 4 primary outcome measures (male and female life expectancy, maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate) were analysed. Annual per capita expenditure on health in MMC was one-fifth that of non-MMC. Maternal mortality and infant mortality rates were twice as high in MMC as non-MMC. Adult literacy rate was significantly higher for non-MMC. Four significant predictors explained 52%-72% of the differences in health outcomes between the 2 groups: gross national income, literacy rate, access to clean water and level of corruption.

  7. Contraception and Sexual and Reproductive Awareness Among Ghanaian Muslim Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibrail Bin Yusuf

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ghana, a lower-middle income country that is still grappling with fertility and birth rates, initiated family planning for the youth decades ago. This mainly targeted deprived communities, and the Muslim youth were also exposed to contraception. However, contraception awareness among the Muslim youth has had difficulties and repercussions. Against the social and economic challenges facing the Ghanaian Muslim youth, this article evaluates their awareness about contraception focusing on the issues and their ramification with the aim of identifying prospects for development. The findings reveal that awareness is high but not in a positive sense as the general patronage among couples is low, while among the unmarried, the awareness has negatively affected their morality. Among the issues, there is a disconnection between service providers and the community while some Muslims think that contraception can reduce the Muslim population and is un-Islamic. It was argued that contraception is permitted for Muslims provided there is ethical justification and that in view of the social and economic challenges, including school dropouts and Muslim child migration due to the poverty of parents, the Muslim youth must plan their childbirth. Hence, it was recommended that government must tackle the problem of education in Muslim communities. The Ulama should also dialogue with the service providers to create trust between the health providers and the Muslims.

  8. An explicit construction of sunny nonexpansive retractions in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Reich

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An explicit algorithmic scheme for constructing the unique sunny nonexpansive retraction onto the common fixed point set of a nonlinear semigroup of nonexpansive mappings in a Banach space is analyzed and a proof of convergence is given.

  9. Croatian Muslims--immigrant community of indigenous Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulenović, Tarik

    2012-03-01

    Subject of this paper is muslim population in Croatia. Its unique position as community of muslim immigrants with indigenous European origin give us plenty of research opportunities. Long history of contacts between muslims and christians on Croatian-Bosnian border evolved in many ways and resulted with today's reality that muslims are part of Croatian society. In modern age, since austrian occupation of Bosnia in 1878. bosnian muslims came to Croatia as workers, refugees, members of state apparatus, students etc. Their descendants are now Croatian citizens in third and fourth generation. Muslims managed to establish formal islamic community. On the personal level, they mix their feeling of belonging with feeling of origin. They act as equal part of Croatian society on whole range of social levels.

  10. The Specter of Sunni Military Mobilization in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    2013. 41 Syria Regional Refugee Response, UNHCR , accessed November 12, 2013, http://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/regional.php. 16 increasingly...categories of Sunni militants in Lebanon: those with roots in the refugee Palestinian communities, and those with roots in the international Salafi...of civil war in 1975. The roughly 300,000 Palestinians living in refugee camps are overwhelmingly Sunni.3 Since the heyday of the Palestinian

  11. Dissimulation in Sunni Islam and Morisco Taqiyya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart, Devin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an outline of the religious doctrine of taqiyya or dissimulation in Sunni Islam, drawing on Qur’ānic commentaries, hadīth compilations, legal manuals, and ethical treatises. Moriscos and the North African jurists who advised them had access to discussions of taqiyya and the closely connected legal dispensation of coercion (ikrāh through these sources, many of which were wellknown in al-Andalus before the Reconquista, and some of which continued to be popular afterwards. Attention to this material helps one to interpret the 1504 fatwā of Ibn Abī Jum’a al-Wahrānī to the Moriscos and in particular his discussion of blasphemy under coercion.Este trabajo ofrece un resumen de la doctrina religiosa de taqiyya o disimulación en el islam sunní, recurriendo a comentarios del Qur’ān, compendios de ḥadīṯ, obras de ley islámica y tratados de principios éticos. En las fuentes andaluces antes de la conquista cristiana aparecen discusiones acerca del concepto de taqiyya y del de coerción (ikrāh, ambos exenciones legales, y algunas de ellas continuaron estando a disposición de los moriscos y de los juristas norteafricanos que les aconsejaban. El análisis de estos materiales facilita la interpretación de la fatwā que Ibn Abī Ȳum’a al-Wahrānī envió a los moriscos en el ano 1504 y particularmente la comprensión de su tratamiento de la blasfemia bajo coacción.

  12. Living in the hands of God. English Sunni e-fatwas on (non-)voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Branden, Stef; Broeckaert, Bert

    2011-02-01

    Ever since the start of the twentieth century, a growing interest and importance of studying fatwas can be noted, with a focus on Arabic printed fatwas (Wokoeck 2009). The scholarly study of end-of-life ethics in these fatwas is a very recent feature, taking a first start in the 1980s (Anees 1984; Rispler-Chaim 1993). Since the past two decades, we have witnessed the emergence of a multitude of English fatwas that can easily be consulted through the Internet ('e-fatwas'), providing Muslims worldwide with a form of Islamic normative guidance on a huge variety of topics. Although English online fatwas do provide guidance for Muslims and Muslim minorities worldwide on a myriad of topics including end-of-life issues, they have hardly been studied. This study analyses Islamic views on (non-)voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide as expressed in English Sunni fatwas published on independent--i.e. not created by established organisations--Islamic websites. We use Tyan's definition of a fatwa to distinguish between fatwas and other types of texts offering Islamic guidance through the Internet. The study of e-fatwas is framed in the context of Bunt's typology of Cyber Islamic Environments (Bunt 2009) and in the framework of Roy's view on the virtual umma (Roy 2002). '(Non-)voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide' are defined using Broeckaert's conceptual framework on treatment decisions at the end of life (Broeckaert 2008). We analysed 32 English Sunni e-fatwas. All of the e-fatwas discussed here firmly speak out against every form of active termination of life. They often bear the same structure, basing themselves solely on Quranic verses and prophetic traditions, leaving aside classical jurisprudential discussions on the subject. In this respect they share the characteristics central in Roy's typology of the fatwa in the virtual umma. On the level of content, they are in line with the international literature on Islamic end-of-life ethics. English Sunni e-fatwas make

  13. Religion and Relationships in Muslim Families: A Qualitative Examination of Devout Married Muslim Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alghafli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 11 September 2001, Islam has been the center of many debates, discussions, parodies and publications. Many Muslims feel that their religion has been portrayed unfairly in Western media. The topics that seem to generate the most criticism relate to gender roles and the treatment of women, both inside the home and in society. The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceived role of Islam on marital and familial relationships from an insider’s perspective and to present participants’ reflections on sensitive issues, including gender roles, women’s rights and marital unity. Content analysis of in-depth interviews of twenty diverse Shia and Sunni Muslim couples living in the U.S. (n = 40 yielded three emergent themes: (1 Islam as a way of life; (2 Islam as a unifying force; and (3 gender roles and the treatment of women. These data suggest that, as perceived by our religiously involved “insider” participants, Islam influences marriage relationships, unites families and (when understood and lived properly protects women from abuse and oppression.

  14. Prevalence of diabetes and hypertension and association with various risk factors among different Muslim populations of Manipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) are among the most common non-communicable chronic diseases in developed and developing countries around the world. The study reports the prevalence of DM and HT and its influence from its possible risk factors. Methods Individuals of both sexes (Male-1099, Female-669) belonging to six different populations were randomly selected and screened for diabetes and hypertension following from different districts of Manipur, which is a s...

  15. On the Methodology of Research of Sunni-Shiite Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Chikrizova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methodological aspects of analysis of confrontation between two biggest trends in Islam - Sunnism and Shiism. It’s extremely important to study Sunni-Shiite relations on the modern stage because they reflect geopolitical and geostrategic rivalry in the region and change of interstate alliances’ configuration. After “the Arab spring” in the Middle East some conflicts have flared up (Iraq, Syria, Yemen, and one of the reasons of all the conflicts is a confrontation between Sunnis and Shiites. Moreover, some more hot spots are brewing, in which the representatives of two major trends in Islam will face (Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain. In order to find ways to settle these conflicts we need to learn profoundly the origins, nature and characteristics of Sunni-Shiite relations, and it also determines the relevance of this article’s topic. Using comparative method, historicism, problem-chronological method and quantitative methods of analysis, the author indicates six periods of Sunni-Shiite antagonism, during which the contradictions between two trends had gradually shifted from domestic to international level, and then to global level. Comparing foreign policy practice of Sunni and Shiite states at the present stage, the author proves that nowadays the struggle between Sunnis and Shiites for the implementation of models of the Islamic world’s development takes place. These models are global, they are aimed at the unification of the Islamic world. However they are based on completely different visions of this world’s configuration, particularly in the region of the Middle East.

  16. Nutritional status, fertility and factors associated with anaemia: a cross sectional study among a rural population of Muslim women in Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloi, Anjali; Limbu, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to report on the nutritional status of the Assamese Muslim women of Dadara and Agyathuri villages of the Kamrup district in Assam, India on their basis of body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin (hb) content. Cross sectional data on 1034 women belonging to the age group of 19 years and above were collected following internationally accepted standards. The fertility of mothers by BMI range was found to be highest (6.50 (mean) +/- 0.14 (SE) and range being 1-11) amongst underweight mothers. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test of BMI and fertility shows significant relation between different BMI groups withp < 0.01. Highest haemoglobin levels were recorded in the age group of < or = 23 years with a mean of 11.61 +/- 0.06 g/dl, the range being 9.8-13.9 g/dl. Whereas lowest levels of haemoglobin were found in the age groups of 44+ years having a mean value of 10.26 +/- 0.04 g/dl and a range of 9.2-11.8 g/dl. The ANOVA analysis for haemoglobin content and corresponding fertility rates show significant difference between different hemoglobin levels with their live births at p < 0.01. The summary of ANOVA analysis for haemoglobin and BMI range shows the significant difference between groups i.e., normal, overweight and underweight. The t-value and F-ratio is 118.61 and 14068.42, respectively, which is significant at 1% probability. The authors conclude a general trend in the study population of women with high fertility having poor nutritional status. These findings might be important in formulating responsive health policies in an underdeveloped region.

  17. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  18. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  19. Indo-Muslim Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Speziale, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Encyclopaedia Iranica, E. Yarshater, éd., (http://www.iranica.com); Medicine (ṭebb, pezeški) constitutes the scientific field on which the largest corpus of works has been composed in Muslim India. Most of these works were written in Persian, and to a lesser extent in Arabic, and later in Urdu from the Colonial period. Main scholars and authors were often attached to the courts of Indian sultans and many composed medical works for Muslim nobles. Several medical scholars occupied also importan...

  20. Danimarka’da Müslüman Toplumun Entegras-Yon Sürecinde Dinin İşlevi The Function Of Religion In The Integration Proces Of Muslim Population In Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsa KUYUCUOĞLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to conceptualize and theorize integration, religion andintercultural relations, the socio-cultural condition and the function ofreligion in the social integration of the Muslim population in Denmarkare examined in this work.As the relation between minority and majority groups is thefoundation of the theoretical framework, initially, the sociologicalconcepts of integration, assimilation and isolation are analyzed andthereafter the demographic profile of the Muslim population that hasbecome a part of Danish society is investigated. In this context thereason for the Muslim poulation’s concentration in the big cities and thechoice of employment pattern of the first and the second generation areaccounted for.After the emergence of Muslims in Denmark in the late 1960s,there has been an ongoing debate through different periods of time, andthus the integration of the academic discourse and political prac¬ticesgoverning the Muslim population are also discussed. On this basis theintegration process is analyzed from different perspectives: the periodfrom the 1960s and 1970s where the Muslim population endeavored tointegrate into society with slight government involve¬ment, the periodfrom 1980s to 2000s where Muslims faced pressure to assimilate andthe period after 2001 where the Muslim population has been seen asthreat and security problem for the country.Further the main differences of perceiving religion and religiousitybetween different generations and the impact of antimuslim discource isanalyzed. Also the definition of identity by young people is investigated.In this context, the majority population’s attitude towards religion,the perception of Islam and Muslims, the various Muslim generations’inner perceptions of religion and the effect of integrations debates arediscussed. Lastly, several integration solutions on achieving realintegration are purposed. Entegrasyon ve kültürlerarası ilişkilerin kavramsalla

  1. Muslim Children's Other School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Leslie C.

    2012-01-01

    Millions of Muslim children around the world participate in Qur'anic schooling. For some, this is their only formal schooling experience; others attend both Qur'anic school and secular school. Qur'anic schooling emphasizes memorization and reproduction (recitation, reading, and transcription) of Qur'anic texts without comprehension of their…

  2. MUSLIM LIBRARIES IN HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin Laugu

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Secara historis, perpustakaan Islam telah memberikan banyak kontribusi dalam sejarah perkembangan peradaban dan ilmu pengetahuan, khususnya di kalangan ummat Islam. Isu perpustakaan Islam yang sangat menarik dan bahkan kontroversial dalam perjalanan sejarah Islam adalah,  misalnya, eksistensi dan kejayaan perpustakaan Bayt al-Hikma di Baghdad pada abad II Hijriyyah. Selain itu, perlu dicatat bahwa fenomena semacam ini banyak ditemukan dalam literatur-literatur wacana perpustakaan Islam. Isu yang menarik pula adalah kemunculan perpustakaan Muslim telah berbasis dari awal pembentukan masyarakat Islam, misalnya penyediaan koleksi-koleksi al-Quran di masjid dan mushalla serta tempat ibadah lainnya. Tulisan ini mencoba menelusuri dan membangun tipologi perpustakaan Muslim dan menjajaki isu-isu kemunculan dan perkembangan sampai stagnasinya. Wacana pertama yang disodorkan adalah asal-usul perpustakaan Islam, yang bertujuan untuk melihat sejauh mana perpustakaan mengalami perkembangan dan kemajuan dalam masyarakat Islam. Pembahasan selanjutnya mengenai temuan-temuan dari beragam literatur tentang perpustakaan di kalangan masyarakat Islam untuk membangun tipologi perpustakaan Muslim yang dianggap merepresentasikan jenis-jenis perpustakaan Muslim dalam sejarah perkembangan Islam. Terakhir adalah wacana yang mencoba untuk mengeksplorasi proses stagnasi dan bahkan keruntuhan perpustakaan Islam.

  3. Cross-Cultural Obstetric and Gynecologic Care of Muslim Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahawy, Sarrah; Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

    2015-11-01

    With the growing number of Muslim patients in the United States, there is a greater need for obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns) to understand the health care needs and values of this population to optimize patient rapport, provide high-quality reproductive care, and minimize health care disparities. The few studies that have explored Muslim women's health needs in the United States show that among the barriers Muslim women face in accessing health care services is the failure of health care providers to understand and accommodate their beliefs and customs. This article outlines health care practices and cultural competency tools relevant to modern obstetric and gynecologic care of Muslim patients, incorporating emerging data. There is an exploration of the diversity of opinion, practice, and cultural traditions among Muslims, which can be challenging for the ob-gyn who seeks to provide culturally competent care while attempting to avoid relying on cultural or religious stereotypes. This commentary also focuses on issues that might arise in the obstetric and gynecologic care of Muslim women, including the patient-physician relationship, modesty and interactions with male health care providers, sexual health, contraception, abortion, infertility, and intrapartum and postpartum care. Understanding the health care needs and values of Muslims in the United States may give physicians the tools necessary to better deliver high-quality care to this minority population.

  4. PEMIKIRAN ISLAM DALAM PERSPEKTIF SUNNI DAN SYI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Shohibul Itmam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available THE ISLAMIC THINKING IN SUNNI AND SYI’AH PERSPECTIVES. This paper attempts to describe the problems associated with Islam in particular with regard to Sunni and Syi’ah teachings. The number of  streams that developed in Islam today has resulted Islam got claims from various clerical community, such as terrorism and others, resulting in the ruination image of  Islam in the constellation of  the religions of  man. As the flow and the teachings of  the most dominating civilization of  the world religions, Sunni and Syiah, including the Wahhabi, are necessary to clarify the existence or clarified the diversity in the constellation of  Islam, considering the number of streams that are currently claiming truth on themselves. Iran as the country becoming a reference in the world of  developing Syi’ah should be used as a reference in the study of  understanding associated with Sunni and Syi’ah. From this country, the world of  Islam knows the concept ofgoverning “Wilayatul Faqih”. The concept was pioneered by the government of Imam Khomeini who became known after Islamic Revolution in Iran 1979 and continues to be developed up to now. Every year Iran is celebrated with a huge demonstration with the slogan in Persian, “Islam Pyruz ast, ast Nabud Istikbar”, Islam is victorious, crushed the vanity of the islam enemy. keywords: Islam, Sunni, Syi’ah, Perspective, Differences, Similarities. Tulisan ini mencoba mengurai persoalan yang berhubungan dengan Islam secara khusus yang berkaitan dengan ajaran Sunni dan Syi’ah. Banyaknya aliran yang berkembang dalam Islam dewasa ini telah mengakibatkan Islam mendapat klaim dari berbagai komunitas agamawan, seperti teroris dan lainnya, yang mengakibatkan redupnya citra Islam dalam percaturan agama-agama manusia. Sebagai aliran dan ajaran yang paling mendominasi peradaban agama dunia, Sunni dan  Syi’ah,  termasuk  Wahabi,  perlu  memperjelas  eksistensinya atau diperjelas

  5. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency from childhood to adulthood: Insights from a sunny country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimi, Motti; Kremer, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D is known to be a key regulator of bone metabolism and is associated with muscle strength. Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent worldwide. In adults, vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in numerous health conditions including osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Considerable changes have occurred in lifestyles and childhood activities in the past years. Studies have shown that the children population is at high risks of vitamin D deficiency. The objective of this study was to learn about the extent of vitamin D deficiency in children worldwide and especially in sunny country like Israel. In this article we reviewed the extent and severity of vitamin D deficiency worldwide and especially in Israel, through a very comprehensive review of previous reports and research studies done during the last years. We found reports on vitamin D deficiency in children, which was associated with metabolic syndromes and obesity. It was more prevalent in children who spend less time on outdoor activities, in obese children, and in cases when there was imbalance between nutritional intakes and requirements. Vitamin D deficiency is common even in children living in sunny places like Israel. Health professionals should be aware of the fact that although vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the elderly population, it is also common in children, and can be associated with different illnesses. We encourage supplementation of vitamin D to special populations (pregnant and lactating women, infants, and high risk groups). We also encourage implementation of international food fortification programs.

  6. Muslim Legal Norms and the Integration of European Muslims

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Maleiha

    2009-01-01

    MUSMINE - Muslim Minorities in Europe This paper examines the potential for accommodating Muslim legal and ethical norms within European liberal democracies. It focuses on areas of personal life such as family norms and ethics. The main argument of the paper is that in some areas - such as divorce or contract law - there is potential for accommodating Muslim legal and ethical norms within mainstream political and legal institutions. The advantage of this strategy is that it can encourage M...

  7. On the integration of Muslims immigrants in EU countries

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses a new immigration and integration policy towards Muslim population in the leading countries of the European Union, since the former policy of multiculturalism suffered a collapse. The main problem with Muslims is that they have not integrated in political, economic and legal system of the European Union states, but they have, through ghettoization, continued to live according to their Islamic cultural, political and economic patterns, which often included also the radicali...

  8. Islam, medicine, and Arab-Muslim refugee health in America after 9/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Serour, Gamal I

    2011-09-03

    Islam is the world's second largest religion, representing nearly a quarter of the global population. Here, we assess how Islam as a religious system shapes medical practice, and how Muslims view and experience medical care. Islam has generally encouraged the use of science and biomedicine for the alleviation of suffering, with Islamic authorities having a crucial supportive role. Muslim patients are encouraged to seek medical solutions to their health problems. For example, Muslim couples who are infertile throughout the world are permitted to use assisted reproductive technologies. We focus on the USA, assessing how Islamic attitudes toward medicine influence Muslims' engagement with the US health-care system. Nowadays, the Arab-Muslim population is one of the fastest growing ethnic-minority populations in the USA. However, since Sept 11, 2001, Arab-Muslim patients--and particularly the growing Iraqi refugee population--face huge challenges in seeking and receiving medical care, including care that is judged to be religiously appropriate. We assess some of the barriers to care--ie, poverty, language, and discrimination. Arab-Muslim patients' religious concerns also suggest the need for cultural competence and sensitivity on the part of health-care practitioners. Here, we emphasise how Islamic conventions might affect clinical care, and make recommendations to improve health-care access and services for Arab-Muslim refugees and immigrants, and Muslim patients in general.

  9. Hindu-Muslim violence in India: a national- and state-level study

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Christina E.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Hindu-Muslim violence has plagued India for centuries. Deaths caused by Hindu-Muslim violence constitute a small proportion of the Indian population; therefore the historical precedence and incendiary nature of this violence in India is cause for concern. Additionally, because India is geographically positioned between two majority Muslim states, India has a vested interest in addressing its violence problem so that it does not create ...

  10. Muslims in the Netherlands 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieke Maliepaard; Merove Gijsberts

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Moslim in Nederland 2012. This report looks at the way in which Muslim groups in the Netherlands experience and practise their religion. An important characteristic of Muslims in the Netherlands is that, almost without exception, they have a migration ground. What does becoming part

  11. Factors that influence body image representations of black Muslim women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoms-Young, Angela

    2008-06-01

    Research on the body image perceptions of black women is limited. Although previous body image studies have explored the intersection between race and gender, the influence of religion has been neglected. Guided by a grounded theory framework, the focus of this investigation, conducted in Upstate New York, USA, was to examine the role of race and religion in the body image perceptions of 22 African-American Sunni Muslim women. Analysis of individual interviews revealed that, in contrast to using standard medical guidelines, participants' views about their bodies were largely based on positive images of an earlier body size/shape, social and family expectations and contexts, cultural norms and values, and spirituality and religious beliefs. Although the body image perceptions of black Muslim women were similar to those expressed in previous body image studies with black women, participants expressed the importance of highlighting the spiritual versus physical self by adhering to religious guidelines regarding proper dress and appearance. These findings suggest that religion, race, and gender are all important factors to be considered when conducting body image studies with black women.

  12. Crisis of Identity in a Multi-cultural Society: The Case of Muslims in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul Islam

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A great majority of studies on ethnic identity or ethnic separatism indicate that a minority group dealing with severe deprivation becomes more frustrated, more aggressive, and more demanding of autonomy or separation. However, in a multi-cultural society where the people can live with their both separate and co-existing identities, the minority group usually demands for greater rights within societies, not an exit from them. This is the case of the Muslims in Canada who constitute a tiny minority in the Canadian population. Since Canada is a multicultural country, the Muslims have not demanded any kind of autonomy but have demanded rights to preserve Islamic values, and their own distinct identity as Muslims. In this article some basic questions are raised regarding the Canadian Muslims. When and how did the Muslims arrive in Canada? What types of challenges they are facing? How do they meet these challenges? What is the future of Muslims in Canada?

  13. Reflection on teaching effective social work practice for working with Muslim communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Khaja

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In many academic departments like social work, psychology, and psychiatry there is a growing consensus that teachers need to instruct students to be culturally competent especially if they are going to be effective helpers with diverse populations. Multicultural instructional counseling methods are imperative if we are to ensure that our students of counseling are well prepared to work with diverse families, particularly those from Muslim backgrounds. In this narrative the author writes about the challenges of teaching non-Muslim students effective counseling techniques with Muslim families. Culturally innovative teaching methods are illustrated to facilitate students’ learning how to be effective counselors with Muslim communities.

  14. Internal Conflicts in Muslim Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Ali Shah

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of psychological theories and the social dynamics of the society help identify salient attributes and processes relevant to conflict among Muslims. The psychodynamic concept of personality and frustration-aggression hypothesis account for the socialization practices in the Muslim societies, emotional instability, unfavorable evaluation of those holding a different viewpoint and venting out one's aggression on the weaker. The tendency of the Muslims to praise their sect/tribe/religious group leads to a groupthink situation that polarizes intergroup relationships. The acts of categorization in group and out group, as postulated by the social identity theory, contribute towards the distorted perception of each other. The Islamic notions of brotherhood, unity and ethnic identity as means of personal identification and social interaction seems to have been forgotten by the Muslims. Though the Western social-psychological constructs are helpful in understanding the causes of conflict among Muslims, they are not germane to Muslim societies. The group belongingness and group favouritism is not necessarily a tool of discrimination and conflict but is an essential component of one's survival in a collectivist society. The Western theories also do not address the economic and political circumstances responsible for the multitude of conflicts among Muslims.

  15. Religion, Ethnicity, Culture, Way of Life: Jews, Muslims, and Multicultural Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Lewis Z.; Ali, Saba Rasheed; Ackerman, Sandra R.; Dewey, J. Jane H.

    2009-01-01

    Jews and Muslims represent 2 unique cultural groups that have been relatively under-examined by multicultural counseling scholars. In this article, the authors review the recent literature on Jews and Muslims, synthesize and discuss the commonalities across these 2 groups, provide some recommendations for counseling members of these populations,…

  16. "So, You're a Muslim? (Not that There's Anything Wrong with that)": A PETE Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Debra A.

    2011-01-01

    The Arab American/Muslim population is the fastest growing ethnic and religious minority group in the United States. However, due to traditional American religious and cultural influences, the practices employed by physical education teachers often conflict with the family and individual values of the Arab American and Muslim culture. Furthermore,…

  17. [Euthanasia in Muslim law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud

    2007-09-01

    If a physician accepts to conduct an act of euthanasia or assisted suicide, would it be possible for him to be charged with homicide or even, is patient consent or motivation of the physician, susceptible to change the nature of the criminal act? Since the 1990s, a transformation has occurred in the way of dealing with these questions and figures from the world of philosophy, ethics and law can now be found in favor of euthanasia and assisted suicide. In certain countries, legislation has even been modified to follow this pattern. In consequence, besides the philosophical and ethical dimensions of this issue, it has become necessary to reexamine, even to revise, the notion of responsibility concerning euthanasia in Muslim law from new bases constituted by the doctrine of the Ulemas.

  18. Technology in Muslim Moral Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Ebrahim

    2016-04-01

    The article explores the place, role and status of technology in Muslim moral philosophy. Invoking early Muslim encounters with technology the author makes the case why technology is already deeply embedded in contemporary Muslim bioethical thinking. Due to an absence of the philosophical grounding there remains some ambivalence as to why technology is essential to Muslim ethical thinking. Countering the techno-pessimists, the author makes a case in favor of compositional thinking, namely that our thinking itself is altered by our tools and our environment. Compositional thinking opposes the representational mode of thinking that creates a dichotomy between nature versus culture, and technology versus nature. One should, however, anticipate an environment in which technology would be beneficial and not be viewed as potentially harmful.

  19. American Muslims: Living the Dream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-27

    6 See Quintan Wiktorowicz, Radical Islam Rising: Muslim Extremism in the West (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield...the book Quintan Wiktorowicz, Radical Islam Rising: Muslim Extremism in the West. 66 Della Porta and Diani, 16. 24 within the frames aid their...123-125. http://find.galegroup.com/itx/printdoc.do?contentSet=IAC- Documents&docType=IAC&is (accessed February 12, 2008). Wiktorowicz, Quintan

  20. The Sunni Spring: Counter-Attack in the War for Islamic Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    and the Arab Spring is a continuation of this civilizational crisis. To reconcile the rise of exclusivist Sunni Islamism in the Middle East and...variety of subtle differences from Sunni Islam and the Salafist does not fail to notice them. Salafis are exclusivists . Those who do not share their

  1. IMPACT OF WORLD WAR I ON THE MUSLIM POPULATION OF SERBIA (I. Dünya Savaşı'nın Sırbistan'daki Müslüman Nüfusa Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürsoy Şahin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Relying on Ottoman archival documents, this article presents that during World War I the protection of the Muslim population in Serbia could be achieved only with the help of the mediator states who provided communication between the Ottoman Empire and Serbia. After the Ottoman Empire lost large portions of its lands in the Balkans, the protection of the Muslim population in the Balkans emerged as a new problem. The Istanbul Treaty of March 14, 1914 aimed to solve these problems, but the outbreak of WWI made the implementation difficult as the issues could only be discussed indirectly through mediator states. Özet: Osmanlı arşiv belgelerine dayanarak hazırlanan bu makale Birinci Dünya Savaşı’nda Sırbistan’daki Müslüman nüfusun korunmasının Osmanlı Devleti ve Sırbistan arasında aracılık yapan devletler vasıtasıyla sağlanabildiğini ortaya koymaktadır. Osmanlı Devleti’nin Balkan Savaşları sonrasında Balkanlar’da bıraktığı topraklarında kalan Müslüman halkın haklarının korunması yeni bir mesele olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. 14 Mart 1914’te imzalanan İstanbul Anlaşması meseleye çözüm getirmeye çalışmış ancak Birinci Dünya Savaşı’nın çıkması ve Osmanlı-Sırp diplomatik ilişkilerinin kesintiye uğraması ile anlaşmanın uygulanmasında sorunlar yaşanmıştır. Bu sorunlar ancak aracı devletlerin yardımları ile kısmen giderilebilmiştir.

  2. EURISLAM workpackage 6: integrated report on interviews with Muslim leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heelsum, A.; Koomen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives In addition to our target Muslim populations, we aim also to gather information on their community leaders, as well as the policy makers whose policies confront them. We aim through a series of semi-structured interviews to gain information on the position of a variety of community

  3. Understanding and Approaching Muslim Visibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2011-01-01

    of the effects of multiculturalism in larger national debates, a situation affecting research engagement with the community. In the last part of my article I describe my dialogical approaches for engaging with the community, thus situating the article within wider discussions of research self....... Another path, which I pursue here, is to situate the activism of Muslims in the historical fabric of the neighbourhood(s) in which they live, in this case the Copenhagen neighbourhood of Nrrebro. Given that Muslims and others use Nrrebro as they do, this neighbourhood has become a prominent example...

  4. Muslim women and interracial intimacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on media debates about interracial and interethnic marriage practices. In 2012, Danish immigrants and descendants, especially Muslim women, were accused of harming the integration processes as they were not marrying ethnically Danish men. Through analysis of newspaper articles...... and Internet debates the article shows how Muslim women became excluded from the national community in these debates. Drawing upon previous debates about interracial/ethnic relationships, the article illustrates how the contemporary criticism mirrors historical criticism of sexuality. Moreover, the 2012 debate...

  5. The Experiences of Non-Muslim Caucasian Licensed Marriage and Family Therapists Working with South Asian and Middle Eastern Muslim Clients

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the experiences of eight non-Muslim Caucasian Licensed Marriage and Family Therapists working with South Asian and Middle Eastern Muslim clients. Semi-structured interviews were used to examine the challenges and strengths that resulted from ethnic/racial and religious differences with clients of this population, and how the challenges and strengths were managed in therapy. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis and the themes that emerged were o...

  6. Yearbook of Muslims in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Schøler; Akgönül, Samim; Alibašic, Ahmet

    The work is the first of an annual series. It consist of three parts covering the yeat 2008. The first part contains systematically presented data about Muslims in 37 countries of western and central Europe. Part two comprises five research articles which analyse issues that have been significant...

  7. Yearbook of Muslims in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The work is the second of an annual series. It consist of three parts covering the year 2009. The first part contains systematically presented data about Muslims in 46 countries of western and central Europe. Part two comprises five research articles which analyse issues that have been significant...

  8. Reforms in triple talaq in the personal laws of Muslim states and the Pakistani legal system: Continuity versus change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Munir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the reforms carried out in some of the Muslim states regarding the issue of triple divorce in one session. According to a majority of Sunni jurists, pronouncing the word ‘talaq’ three times in succession, equates with three ‘talaqs’. On the contrary, according to Ibn Taimiyah, Ibn al-Qiyam, and the Shi‘a Imamiyah, three pronouncements of the word talaq in one session equals only one talaq. Most Arab, as well as many Muslim states such as Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Sudan, Morocco, Kuwait, Yemen, Afghanistan, Libya, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates, have, while formulating their own laws, followed Ibn Taimiyah’s and Ibn al-Qiyam’s positions on this issue. In this regard, Sri Lanka’s Marriage and Divorce (Muslim Act, 1951, as amended up to 2006, seems to be the most ideal legislation on triple talaq. In Pakistan, the Muslim Family Law Ordinance 1961, has abolished triple talaq, as the procedure laid down in section 7 is largely applicable to one or two pronouncements only and excludes three pronouncements. Furthermore, some portions of section 7 are in clear contravention of the dictates of Islamic law, which adds to this precarious section’s peculiarity. The superior courts in Pakistan and Bangladesh have not been consistent in interpreting the law on this important subject, while on the other hand, some Indian High Courts have treated triple talaq as invalid.

  9. Organ donation in Muslim countries: the case of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Noh, Abdillah; Mohd Satar, Nurulhuda; Chin-Sieng, Chong; Soo-Kun, Lim; Abdullah, Nawi; Kok-Peng, Ng

    2013-12-09

    The aim of this paper is to look into the factors influencing Malaysian Muslims' decision to become deceased organ donors in Malaysia. We approached 900 Malaysian Muslims and 779 participated in our survey, conducted in Kuala Lumpur and its suburb. We examined their willingness to become donors and the willing donors were asked why they did not pledge to become donors. Non-donors were asked why they refuse to become donors. The survey found the main reason for Malaysian Muslims not pledging their organs was due to their lack of information on organ donation and/or their lack of confidence in the government's ability to properly administer organ donation procedures. Another interesting finding is that religion is not a main deterrent to organ donation. The survey suggests that Malaysia can explore many ways to encourage organ donation without having to resort to the highly controversial financial incentive option. A key to Malaysia's success or failure to increase organ donation rate lies in its ability to persuade its Muslim population (its largest population) to donate organs. This can be done by adopting a segmented, focused, and highly localized form of public education and by leveraging on existing networks involving local religious and community leaders as well as government and non-governmental institutions.

  10. Cultural knowledge of non-Muslim nurses working in Saudi Arabian obstetric units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidumo, E M; Ehlers, V J; Hattingh, S P

    2010-09-01

    Culture defines how persons behave towards each other. When nurses and patients belong to different cultures, culture-based misunderstandings could influence the nurse-patient relationships and interactions adversely. The purpose of the study was to determine non-Muslim nurses' knowledge about Muslim traditions pertaining to obstetric units in a Muslim country. A quantitative descriptive research design was adopted. The population comprised 67 nurses, but the accessible population consisted of 52 nurses who were working in the participating hospital's gynaecological wards during the data collection phase. However, only 50 nurses completed questionnaires as two nurses did not want to participate in the study. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 11.5) was used to analyse the data. The research results indicate that non-Muslim nurses lacked knowledge about Muslim practices concerning breastfeeding, Ko'hl, the "evil eye", modesty, medicine and food taboos. If these aspects could be addressed during the recruitment and in-service education of non-Muslim nurses working in Muslim countries, this could enhance the quality of culture-competent nursing care.

  11. Cultural knowledge of non-Muslim nurses working in Saudi Arabian obstetric units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Sidumo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Culture defines how persons behave towards each other. When nurses and patients belong to different cultures, culture-based misunderstandings could influence the nurse-patient relationships and interactions adversely. The purpose of the study was to determine non-Muslim nurses’ knowledge about Muslim traditions pertaining to obstetric units in a Muslim country. A quantitative descriptive research design was adopted. The population comprised 67 nurses, but the accessible population consisted of 52 nurses who were working in the participating hospital’s gynaecological wards during the data collection phase. However, only 50 nurses completed questionnaires as two nurses did not want to participate in the study. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 11.5 was used to analyse the data. The research results indicate that non-Muslim nurses lacked knowledge about Muslim practices concerning breastfeeding, Ko’hl, the “evil eye”, modesty, medicine and food taboos. If these aspects could be addressed during the recruitment and inservice education of non-Muslim nurses working in Muslim countries, this could enhance the quality of culture-competent nursing care.

  12. Cultural knowledge of non-Muslim nurses working in Saudi Arabian obstetric units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Sidumo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture defines how persons behave towards each other. When nurses and patients belong to different cultures, culture-based misunderstandings could influence the nurse-patient relationships and interactions adversely. The purpose of the study was to determine non-Muslim nurses’ knowledge about Muslim traditions pertaining to obstetric units in a Muslim country. A quantitative descriptive research design was adopted. The population comprised 67 nurses, but the accessible population consisted of 52 nurses who were working in the participating hospital’s gynaecological wards during the data collection phase. However, only 50 nurses completed questionnaires as two nurses did not want to participate in the study. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 11.5 was used to analyse the data. The research results indicate that non-Muslim nurses lacked knowledge about Muslim practices concerning breastfeeding, Ko’hl, the “evil eye”, modesty, medicine and food taboos. If these aspects could be addressed during the recruitment and inservice education of non-Muslim nurses working in Muslim countries, this could enhance the quality of culture-competent nursing care.

  13. Hypovitaminosis D in a sunny country: time trends, predictors, and implications for practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoteit, Maha; Al-Shaar, Laila; Yazbeck, Cynthia; Bou Sleiman, Maria; Ghalayini, Tala; Fuleihan, Ghada El-Hajj

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in Lebanese subjects, its robust predictors, evaluate the relationship between 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] and parathyroid hormone levels, and derive desirable vitamin D levels, based on a large hospital laboratory database spanning all age groups. Data from a large representative digitized database of 9147 subjects, mostly outpatients, evaluated between 2000-2004 and 2007-2008, in whom information on age, gender, service, and time of the year, was analyzed. The PTH-25(OH)D relationship was studied in a subset of 657 adult subjects, in whom such data were available. At a 25(OH)D cut-off ofhypovitaminosis D ranged between 58% and 62% in pediatric subjects, 44% and 60% in adults, and 41% and 62% in elderly, in the 2 study periods. At a cut-off Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent in our sunny country, even using a conservative population-derived cut-off of 20 ng/ml, and thus the need for a public health strategy for supplementation.

  14. Ambient bioaerosol particle dynamics observed during haze and sunny days in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kai; Zou, Zhuanglei; Zheng, Yunhao; Li, Jing; Shen, Fangxia; Wu, Chang-Yu; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Yao, Maosheng

    2016-04-15

    The chemical characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM) have been extensively studied; however, little information exists for its biological components (bioaerosol) especially during a haze event in mega cities. Herein, we studied the bioaerosol (fluorescent particle) dynamics on both haze and sunny days in Beijing from Dec. 2013 to March 2014 by employing a widely used real-time bioaerosol sensor-ultraviolet aerodynamic particle spectrometer (UV-APS). Firstly, we studied the fluorescent particle (BioPM) concentration and size distributions during three independent haze and three independent sunny days. Secondly, we investigated BioPM dynamics over a two-week long monitoring period which included consecutive haze days and alternated sunny days. In addition, we analyzed bacterial community structures and endotoxin levels in the air samples using pyrosequencing and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) method, respectively. More than 6-fold higher fluorescent particle concentrations up to 5×10(5)/m(3) with peaks at night or early dawn were detected at the time of haze occurrences than those observed on sunny days. When the haze episode progressed for 3-5days, the BioPM concentrations were observed to decrease to the levels that were typically observed on sunny days. In general, ozone levels were found to be elevated at noon, while BioPM, NOx and relative humidity were reduced. Gene sequence analysis revealed no significant difference in abundances and community structures for top 13 bacterial genera between haze and sunny days, yet about twice higher endotoxin levels (12.4EU/m(3)) were detected on haze days than on sunny days. The results here facilitate a better understanding of atmospheric fluorescent particle dynamics including those under haze events.

  15. Validation of the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale (ISS) with Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R; Zidan, Tarek; Husain, Altaf

    2015-12-01

    This study validates an existing spirituality measure--the intrinsic spirituality scale (ISS)--for use with Muslims in the United States. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with a diverse sample of self-identified Muslims (N = 281). Validity and reliability were assessed along with criterion and concurrent validity. The measurement model fit the data well, normed χ2 = 2.50, CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.07, and SRMR = 0.02. All 6 items that comprise the ISS demonstrated satisfactory levels of validity (λ > .70) and reliability (R2 > .50). The Cronbach's alpha obtained with the present sample was .93. Appropriate correlations with theoretically linked constructs demonstrated criterion and concurrent validity. The results suggest the ISS is a valid measure of spirituality in clinical settings with the rapidly growing Muslim population. The ISS may, for instance, provide an efficient screening tool to identify Muslims that are particularly likely to benefit from spiritually accommodative treatments. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. ORGANIZATION ETHICS REPUTATION AND CUSTOMER LOYALTY: Perception of Muslim Customer Sharia Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaryo SUNARYO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the Indonesian population is Muslim, in which the share of Sharia Banking is only three (3 percent of the total banking market share in the country. This indicates a low participation, possibly leading to a negative perception on ethic reputation and low awareness among the Muslim communities in using sharia banking products and services. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the influence of sharia banking organization ethics reputation on Muslims customer loyalty and to analyze the role of satisfaction as a mediating effect on sharia banking organization ethics reputation on Muslims customer loyalty for the sharia banking products and services. Survey with 315 respondents in the city of Malang, Indonesia was conducted to gather information to further understand the situation, to answer the questions raised and to meet the study objectives. Purposive sampling was used to select the relevant respondents. The Structural Equation Model (SEM is used to analyze the direct and indirect relationship between sharia banking organization ethic reputation, satisfaction and Muslims customer loyalty. The findings of this study showed that all independent variables significantly influenced the dependent variable, both directly and indirectly. Satisfaction as mediating factor has a high positive support to the relationship between organization ethic reputation Muslims customer loyalty. Hence, satisfaction plays an important role to support the perception of ethic reputation of the sharia banking organization in influencing Muslim customer loyalty. In addition, the study also suggests that ethic reputation of an organization also helps in maintaining customer loyalty.

  17. SEMIOTIKA NARATIF GREIMASIAN DALAM IKLAN BUSANA MUSLIM

    OpenAIRE

    Rulli Nasrullah

    2013-01-01

    Muslim Fashion has transformed to be cultural industry profitable financially. The flourish of Muslim fashion producers certainly needs business strategy to promote the products. Advertisement becomes one of promotional tools that can communicate product excellence. Moreover advertisement in mass media gives space for producer to visualize image of product wanted especially when the advertisement is promoted in Muslim mass media. In semiotic tradition, advertisement does not only ...

  18. CHRISTIAN-MUSLIM RELATIONS IN GHANA: A MODEL FOR WORLD DIALOGUE AND PEACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Abdul-Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relations between Christians and Muslims has been a shaky one for centuries. Islam and Christianity are locked up in competing truth claims that has often led its adherents to resort to force to drive home the truth of their claims. In all the continents of the world, wars have been fought between the adherents of these traditions, which curiously are both descended from Abraham. Indeed that is why they are called the Abrahamic faiths. The events of September 11 2001in the United States have further deepened the suspicion between adherents of these two faiths. In the West African country of Nigeria, clashes between Christians and Muslims have become a yearly ritual. Conferences are organised all year round in every part of the world in the name of Muslim-Christian dialogue all in an effort to ensure lasting peace between these faiths. These conferences have hardly yielded their desired results. In Ghana however, Christians and Muslims have lived in absolute peace since the introduction of Christianity and Islam in the fifteenth century. This paper explores Christian-Muslim relations in Ghana and specifically examines why Muslims and Christians have lived in peace for centuries now. The paper concludes that it is the “dialogue of life” that will ensure peace between these two faiths rather than conference meetings and half-hearted handshakes. There are great tensions between and within nations. Religion has often exacerbated these conflicts and tensions rather than ameliorate them. Christians and Muslims constitute nearly half of the population of the world. Therefore whether or not the people of these faiths live together in peace and harmony has serious implications for world peace. In most parts of the world, Muslims and Christians have been at each other’s throat. In the West African nation of Nigeria for example, conflict between Christians and Muslims has become a yearly ritual with its attendant loss of lives and property.

  19. Research and Development in the Muslim Society

    OpenAIRE

    Hikmatullah Babu Sahib

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Despite clear-cut exhortation from the Qur’ān and Sunnah, Muslims are not showing much interest in R&D. Many Muslims are finding comfort in simply importing foreign goods and solutions to enrich their lives. Data analyses show that the Muslim world is far behind other countries in terms of research and development. There exists some misunderstanding in the Muslim mind on the meaning and role of research and development. There is a need for sustained research in all aspects of the so...

  20. Research and Development in the Muslim Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmatullah Babu Sahib

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Despite clear-cut exhortation from the Qur’ān and Sunnah, Muslims are not showing much interest in R&D. Many Muslims are finding comfort in simply importing foreign goods and solutions to enrich their lives. Data analyses show that the Muslim world is far behind other countries in terms of research and development. There exists some misunderstanding in the Muslim mind on the meaning and role of research and development. There is a need for sustained research in all aspects of the society for it to develop as envisaged by Islam.

  1. Majority versus Minority: ‘Governmentality’ and Muslims in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sofie Roald

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the Muslim community in Sweden in view of the majority–minority dynamics with focus on how values, attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the Swedish majority influence Muslim minority communities and how majority society’s approach to Muslims and Islam influences both the relationship Muslims have with non-Muslims and the understandings that Muslims have of Islam.

  2. Framing (implicitly) matters: the role of religion in attitudes toward immigrants and Muslims in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel; Antalíková, Radka

    2014-12-01

    Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified by the participants' religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion, and implicit and explicit prejudice. Both the religious affiliation of the perceiver and the perceived religious affiliation of the target are key factors in social perception.

  3. Muslim and non-Muslim adolescents' reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk

    2008-01-01

    An experimental questionnaire study, conducted in The Netherlands, examined adolescents' reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Muslim minority and non-Muslim majority adolescents (12-18 years) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts. The group membership of participants had a clear effect. Muslim participants were less in favor of freedom of speech if it involved the offending of religious beliefs and were more in favor of Muslim minority rights. There were also cross-group gender differences whereby parental practices that negatively affect females were more strongly rejected by Muslim females than by Muslim males and non-Muslim females and males. The findings are discussed with reference to social-cognitive domain theory and intergroup theories.

  4. Images of the Muslim Woman and the Construction of Muslim Identity. The Essentialist Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Manea

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that much of the postmodern discourse on the Muslim woman and her veil is symptomatic of what I call the “essentialist paradigm”. The world is seen through the prism of a group’s religious/cultural identity and eventually constructs a Muslim identity – and with it an image of the Muslim Woman. The image of the oppressed veiled Muslim Woman and the treatment of a piece of cloth as synonymous with her whole identity and being are products of this paradigm of thought. Using an interdisciplinary approach that combines discourse analysis and a case study of the construction of the British Muslim community, this article argues that the essentialist paradigm ignores the context of its subject matter with all its accompanying power structures, political and social factors, and the roles played by both the state and fundamentalist Islam in constructing a Muslim identity and with it the Muslim Woman and her dress code.

  5. News exposure predicts anti-Muslim prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G.; Osborne, Danny; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    News coverage of Islamic extremism is reigniting debates about the media’s role in promoting prejudice toward Muslims. Psychological theories of media-induced prejudice date to the 1950’s, and find support from controlled experiments. However, national-scale studies of media effects on Muslim prejudice are lacking. Orthogonal research investigating media-induced prejudice toward immigrants has failed to establish any link. Moreover, it has been found that people interpret the news in ways that confirm pre-existing attitudes, suggesting that media induced Muslim prejudice in liberal democracies is unlikely. Here, we test the association between news exposure and anti-Muslim prejudice in a diverse national sample from one of the world’s most tolerant societies, where media effects are least likely to hold (N = 16,584, New Zealand). In support of media-induced Islamophobia, results show that greater news exposure is associated with both increased anger and reduced warmth toward Muslims. Additionally, the relationship between media exposure and anti-Muslim prejudice does not reliably vary with political ideology, supporting claims that it is widespread representations of Muslims in the news, rather than partisan media biases, that drives anti-Muslim prejudice. PMID:28362823

  6. Halal Lifestyle: Understanding Muslim Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Halal Lifestyle: Understanding Muslim Consumers November 25th, 2013 Parallel Session 1C Hall C my talk starts at: 16:15-25:00 my answers start at 42:20 [to questions starting at 36:30] The Global Islamic Economy Summit 2013 was organized by Dubai Chamber of Commerce & Industry and Thomson Reuters, held on 25th-26th November, 2013 at Madinat Jumeirah, Dubai, UAE under the patronage of HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE a...

  7. An Interview with Sunny Hansen: Pioneer and Innovator in Counseling and Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovholt, Thomas S.; Hage, Sally M.; Kachgal, Mera M.; Gama, Elizabeth Pinheiro

    2007-01-01

    During her 45-year career, Sunny Hansen was a pioneer and innovator in counseling and career development. She has lived the holistic life about which she writes and teaches. In this interview, she discussed the major influences on her life, the evolution of her professional career from English and journalism teacher to counselor and counselor…

  8. Multilingual Language and Literacy Practices and Social Identities in Sunni Madrassahs in Mauritius: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owodally, Ambarin Mooznah Auleear

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the connections among multilingual language practices, multilingual literacy practices, and social identities in two Sunni madrassahs in Mauritius. The study is framed by sociolinguistic and poststructuralist perspectives on language and identity, and social practice views of literacy. Data collection and analysis involved…

  9. Sunni Islam: What Students Need to Know. Footnotes. Volume 15, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John

    2010-01-01

    It is the mark of a great world religion to accommodate different outlooks and sensibilities. Quite often, these differences are manifested in terms of formal divisions within the faith. In Islam, the major split is between Sunni and the various forms of Shiism, though other divisions also exist. This essay, excerpted from the book "Divisions…

  10. Muslim patients and health disparities in the UK and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Lance D; Amer, Mona M; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Barnes, Linda L

    2007-10-01

    This article provides a framework for understanding how Muslim identity, and the current social and political contexts in which it is shaped, affects the health of Muslims in the UK and the US, and the quality of health care they receive. Key medical and public health literature that addresses health concerns related to Muslim communities in the UK and the US is reviewed. Few data exist specific to health disparities for Muslim minorities. However, the article focuses on emerging studies concerning the consequences of "Islamophobia" for the physical and mental health and health care of Muslim families and children. We argue that, despite substantive structural differences in the health care systems of the UK and the US, social structural and political forces play similar roles in the health of Muslim children in both countries. Finally, we call for significant cultural and institutional adjustments in health care settings and further research studies to provide specific data to address health disparities for these growing and diverse populations.

  11. Cultural Competence in Counseling the Muslim Patient: Implications for Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, G Hussein

    2015-10-01

    Given the rapidly growing population of Muslims in Western societies, it is imperative to develop a better understanding of the mental health needs and concerns of this community. Muslim religious beliefs have an impact on the mental health of individuals, families and communities. The lack of understanding of the interplay between religious influences on health or sickness behaviors can have a significant effect upon the delivery of nursing practice. The Muslim community is experiencing social exclusion (social exclusion correlates with mental health problems) related to their cultural and religious identity. In addition, the emergence of radical extremism and the resulting media coverage have magnified this problem. Misunderstanding the worldview of the patient can lead to ethical dilemmas, practice problems, and problems in communication. Often, Muslim individuals are stigmatized and families are rejected and isolated for their association with mental health problems, addiction and suicide. There are indicators that Muslims experience mental ill health, but that they either are unidentified by mainstream mental health services or present late to the services. The aims of the paper are to examine the religious and cultural influences on mental health beliefs of Muslims, and provide an understanding of mental health problems, and its implications in counseling and spiritual interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enesekaitsesituatsioonides vahetu sunni kasutamine vanglas. Karistusõiguslik ja haldusõiguslik analüüs / Anneli Soo, Kaidi Tarros

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soo, Anneli, 1984-

    2015-01-01

    Vanglaametniku poolt vahetu sunni kasutamisest enese või teise isiku kaitseks. Vahetu sunni kasutamise nõuetest vangistusõiguses, vanglaamentiku vastutuse välistamise tingimustest karistusseadustiku (KarS) alusel ning distsiplinaarvastutusest ja riigivastutusest. Asjakohasest kohtupraktikast

  13. Enesekaitsesituatsioonides vahetu sunni kasutamine vanglas. Karistusõiguslik ja haldusõiguslik analüüs / Anneli Soo, Kaidi Tarros

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soo, Anneli, 1984-

    2015-01-01

    Vanglaametniku poolt vahetu sunni kasutamisest enese või teise isiku kaitseks. Vahetu sunni kasutamise nõuetest vangistusõiguses, vanglaamentiku vastutuse välistamise tingimustest karistusseadustiku (KarS) alusel ning distsiplinaarvastutusest ja riigivastutusest. Asjakohasest kohtupraktikast

  14. Pathways to healing: curative travel among Muslims and non-Muslims in eastern East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, David

    2014-01-01

    Two areas of therapeutic provision in eastern East Africa are contrasted: a coastal stretch inhabited mainly by Muslims, and a largely non-Muslim hinterland, each with its own healers, medicines, and customary ethic. Spread over both areas are providers of biomedicine associated originally, and to some extent today, with Christianity. Whether or not they also attend biomedical sites, Muslims seek healers in the coastal stretch and non-Muslims usually in the hinterland, each following ethico-religious preferences. However, because people move through the two areas and compare treatments, individuals' journeys can change direction, with non-Muslims sometimes seeking Muslim healers and either of these groups choosing the more dispersed biomedical outlets. The notion of 'pathways' to health thus combines set journeys to areas known for particular healers and a distinctive ethic, with possible detours to alternative sources of therapy, including biomedicine not regarded as governed by the same ethic.

  15. Exploring Support for Terrorism Among Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cherney

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine factors that influence support for terrorism, using the PEW 2010 Global Attitudes Survey. We assess aggregate results, drawing on items fielded to all Muslim respondents to identify broad factors that appear to indicate likely support for suicide terrorism. Results from a logistic regression model suggest that being female, having an educational degree, a commitment to certain Muslim beliefs and values, and being a member of the Shi’a minority might be probable indicators of support for terrorism. Some of the results were also counterintuitive. We consider the implications of our findings for understanding passive and active support for terrorism among Muslim communities.

  16. (MisReading Muslims and Multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kivisto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a review and conceptual reflection on fears about the Muslim pres ence and lack of inclusion into Western European societies and the core features of criticisms of multiculturalism. It does so by first addressing the misreadings of Islam and multiculturalism in influential works by Christopher Caldwell and Paul Scheffer. It then addresses the main points of their critiques by examining the role of the state in Muslim incorporation, framing multicultur alism theoretically in terms of claims-making, and offering evidence of the ways in which Muslim claims-making has occurred.

  17. Immigration and Muslim Immigrants: A Comparative Analysis of European States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha T. Duncan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Immigration policies serve a number of functions for states. Governments may use policies as instruments of foreign policy, economic growth, population growth, and/ or national security. In this post-September 11, 2001 global environment, integration policies have become more assimilationist and immigration restrictions toward nationals from Muslim countries of origin have increased in the name of national security. While this trend is common among many Western states, Britain’s immigration stance toward Muslim migrants remains unchanged. This study examines changes in policies toward immigrants—changes that make these policies de facto immigration policies though they may not have been conceived as such—in the Netherlands, Germany, France, and the absence of this change in the UK. It seeks to answer the question: what explains reforms in the Netherlands, Germany, and France while British immigration policy remained unchanged? In this effort, the article emphasizes the impact of these changes on potential migrants from predominantly Muslim countries of origin. Based on a comparative case study analysis using process tracing, findings indicate that Dutch immigration/integration policy choices influence government policy changes in other West European countries. Through a learning process, governments experiencing similar socio-political challenges observe overlapping societal responses to them and optimize in creating policy alternatives by using short-cuts and adopting policies implemented in comparable states and situations.

  18. Perspectives of Immigrant Muslim Parents: Advocating for Religious Diversity in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Immigration is now the primary source of population growth in Canada. For the year 2006, the Canadian Census reported that almost 20 percent of the population was born outside of Canada (Statistics Canada, 2007). Between the years 1991 and 2001 specifically, the number of non-Christians, such as Muslims, Buddhists, Sikhs, and Hindus, had more than…

  19. Not Eating the Muslim Other: Halal Certification, Scaremongering, and the Racialisation of Muslim Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakira Hussein

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Campaigns against the halal certification of food in Muslim-minority societies reveal the shift in the representation of Muslims from a visible, alien presence to a hidden, covert threat. This paper uses one such campaign in Australia as a point of entry for analysing the ramifications for Muslim identity of this ‘stealth jihad’ discourse. Muslims living in the west are increasingly targeted not for ‘standing out’ as misfits, but for blending in as the invisible enemy. The scare campaign against halal certification closely parallels previous campaigns against kosher certification, highlighting the increasing resemblance between contemporary Islamophobia and historical anti-Semitism.

  20. The relationship between body image and the Muslim religious dress code of South African Indian Muslim female adolescents / Yasmin Seedat

    OpenAIRE

    Seedat, Yasmin

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between body image and the Muslim religious dress code of South African Indian Muslim female adolescents. During the literature search conducted by the researcher no research specifically on body image of female adolescents when wearing the Muslim dress code in South Africa could be found. South African Indian Muslim adolescents are faced with challenges in a changing environment. In the aftermath of 9/11 South African Indian Muslim adolescent females ar...

  1. Book Review: Hoffstaedter, Gerhard, Modern Muslim Identities: ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Warnk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the monograph: Hoffstaedter, Gerhard (2011, Modern Muslim Identities: Negotiating Religion and Ethnicity in Malaysia Copenhagen: NIAS Press (= NIAS Monographs # 119, ISBN 978-87-7694-081-2, 304 pages

  2. Some Lexical Aspects of Cape Muslim Afrikaans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afrikaans and the Islamic religious education system at the Cape in this regard. .... Apart from its acoustic nature and orthoepic practice, Cape Muslim Afrikaans has some ...... Most of the lexicons of Afrikaans are more exclusive than inclusive .

  3. A Model of Spirituality for Ageing Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahjabeen; Khan, Shamsul

    2016-06-01

    Spirituality's influence on general well-being and its association with healthy ageing has been studied extensively. However, a different perspective has to be brought in when dealing with spirituality issues of ageing Muslims. Central to this perspective is the intertwining of religion and spirituality in Islam. This article will contribute to the understanding of the nature of Islamic spirituality and its immense importance in the life of a practicing ageing Muslim. Consequently, it will help care providers to include appropriate spiritual care in the care repertoire of a Muslim care recipient. It is assumed that the framework for a model of spirituality based on Islamic religious beliefs would help contextualise the relationship between spirituality and ageing Muslims. Not only challenges, but also the opportunities that old age provides for charting the spiritual journey have underpinned this model.

  4. Empowering Muslim Women Though Executive Coaching & Mentoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila Grine

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role and effect of executive coaching and mentoring on the empowerment of Muslim women and enhancing their levels of contribution. It further substantiates the manner in which executive coaching can accommodate both the nature and needs of Muslim women while further unleashing her respective talents, creativity and skills. The study further highlights the role and significance of coaching in spheres relevant to family, as well as social and career development. This study highlights the use of the strategic technique for personal and leadership development set to explore talents, leaders and implicit abilities. Moreover, it exhibits the flexibility of self-coaching and its appropriateness for Muslim women, especially concerning self-development, which in turn influences social and institutional development. This inquiry highlights a number of practical results which emphasizes the viability and efficacy of executive coaching on personal and institutional levels as far as the making of better world for Muslim women is concerned.

  5. PERKAWINAN ADAT MUSLIM SUKU DANI DI PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Yelepele

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suku Dani adalah salah suku yang cukup besar di Papua. Sukuini kali pertama ditemukan oleh rombongan ekspedisipimpinan H. A. Lorentz pada 1909. Dalam perkembanganselanjutnya, orang-orang Dani Lembah Baliem mulaiberinteraksi dengan transmigrasi Muslim asal Jawa, Madura,Makasar, Ternate, dan Fak-Fak yang datang bertugas menjadiguru dan tentara. Agama Islam telah membawa perubahanpada masyarakat Muslim Suku Dani. Namun, para warganyahingga kini masih memertahankan adat kebiasaan leluhurmereka. Sebuah Tradisi yang selama ini masih tetap berlakudan dilestarikan dalam adat Muslim Suku Dani adalah praktikperkawinan adat. Penelitian yang menggunakan pendekatankualitatif berjenis etnografi ini menghasilkan temuan bahwadalam perkawinan adat tersebut, masyarakat Muslim sukuDani menggunakan mahar babi sebagai syarat untuk kawin. Disamping itu, mereka melakukan hubungan perkawinanberdasarkan pada sistem kekerabatan yang bersifat eksogami,yakni berasal dari dua belahan (moiety, yaitu wita yang terdiridari 23 buah klen dan waya yang terdiri dari 26 buah klen.

  6. [Human cloning in Muslim and Arab law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, Sami A

    2009-01-01

    Cloning is a modern medical procedure that Muslim religious authorities treat en resorting to the general principles established by classical Muslim law based on the Koran and the Sunnah of Muhhamad as the messenger of God. In this regard, human beings are not capable of deciding what is or what is not lawful without resorting to divine norms. Cloning clashes with several principles. Firstly, the principle of the respect for life in relation to surpernumeraries, but Muslim authors are not in unanimous agreement on the determination of the moment at which life begins. Secondly, is the respect of progeny: cloning could only take place between a married couple. But even if these two principles are respected, cloning poses two major problems: the diversity of species expounded by the Koran and the Sunnah and a lack of interest. Which explains the quasi-unanimous opposition of Muslim writings regarding cloning.

  7. The Mobilisation of Muslim Women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Under the headline of ‘the mobilisation of Muslim women in Denmark', this paper contains a series of introductory considerations as well as a few preliminary findings on the relatively unexplored question of how and why Muslim women in Denmark form organisations, and via their organisations...... immigrant women´s organisations, this paper aims to explore patterns of networking among these women, and the level and nature of their interaction with other organisations and societal institutions....

  8. Socio-economic status of Muslim women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatty, Z

    1994-01-01

    The Indian sociological literature neglects the role of women in social relationships within the family system, their status in society, and the interactions between Indian minorities and the majority community. Indian institutions and cultural norms have perpetuated the role of Indian women as subservient. Orthodox Muslims uphold the low position of women as a symbol of cultural identity. Indian Muslims have tried to prevent conversion and integration of other views, but have failed to eliminate the Hindu influence on the general pattern of living, the system of social stratification, and customs and attitudes regarding women. Muslims hold conformist ideals and beliefs from the Quran and the Hadis. Although Indian women live under the Hindu Code Bill that gives equal rights to women, most Muslim women are restricted under the Muslim Personal Law. Muslims who are ignorant of the Quran are unaware of the allowances in the Shariat for social adjustment, change, and accommodation. In fact, Indian Muslim communities follow four different Shariats: the Hanafi, the Shaafi, the Hambali, and the Maliki. Islamic scholars state that the Shariat is not unchangeable. There is also disparity between the actual practice of polygamy and the Quran's strict provision that all wives must be treated equally. Islamic practices have been manipulated to suit male interests. Indian Muslims are either Ashrafs or nonAshrafs. Ashrafs are the upper social class and are made up of the Sayyads, the Sheikhs, the Mughals, and the Pathans, in descending order of hierarchy. There are differences in the treatment of women within this stratification. For instance, many nonAshraf women do not observe purdah, but the tendency among the Ashraf is to impose purdah.

  9. The Influence of State-Confessional Policy on the Situation of MuslimOrganizations in Western Siberia in 1905 – the beginning of 1917 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr K. Dashkovskiy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the situation of Muslim communities in Western Siberia in the period between the two Russian revolutions (1905 – the beginning of 1917 years in the framework of the government's state-confessional policy. Based on the analysis of archival documents and legal acts the authors conclude that the attitude of the state towards muslims in the Russian empire, despite all political changes, was based on the attempts to consolidate the indigenous component with the Russian ethnos. The events of 1905 year engendered from the muslim population of the country hope to change their situation, and strengthened the desire to religious autonomy. However, the government continues to build its policy so that controlled virtually all spheres of life of the Muslim community. The events of the First Russian revolution contributed to the birth of activity in the muslim world in defending their rights, which led to the manifestation of some exemptions from the state in relation to the Ummah. It was during this period muslims see an opportunity to assert their rights at the legislative level, form their own political movements and are part of the State Duma. Quite noticeable was the participation of Muslims in the Russian army during the First world war. In this regard not by chance that the muslims received the right to perform prayers and approval of the clergy of the muslim faith to the troops. In this case they were equalized in rights with the regimental priests. At the same time, despite the active position of the muslim community, however, by the beginning of 1917 still have quite a lot of unresolved issues and problems related to the device life of the muslim community. One of the most difficult and unsolved problems remained a problem of national education for the aboriginal population professing islam.

  10. Muslim and Non-Muslim Adolescents’ Reasoning About Freedom of Speech and Minority Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk

    2008-01-01

    An experimental questionnaire study, conducted in the Netherlands, examined adolescents’ reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Muslim minority and non-Muslim majority adolescents (12 – 18 years) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts. The group

  11. Muslim and Non-Muslim Adolescents' Reasoning about Freedom of Speech and Minority Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk

    2008-01-01

    An experimental questionnaire study, conducted in the Netherlands, examined adolescents' reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Muslim minority and non-Muslim majority adolescents (12-18 years) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts. The group membership of participants had a clear effect. Muslim…

  12. Muslim and Non-Muslim Adolescents’ Reasoning About Freedom of Speech and Minority Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk

    2008-01-01

    An experimental questionnaire study, conducted in the Netherlands, examined adolescents’ reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Muslim minority and non-Muslim majority adolescents (12 – 18 years) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts. The group members

  13. Muslim and Non-Muslim Adolescents' Reasoning about Freedom of Speech and Minority Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk

    2008-01-01

    An experimental questionnaire study, conducted in the Netherlands, examined adolescents' reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Muslim minority and non-Muslim majority adolescents (12-18 years) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts. The group membership of participants had a clear effect. Muslim…

  14. Disordered eating & cultural diversity: a focus on Arab Muslim women in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinson, Marjorie C; Meir, Adi

    2014-04-01

    A dearth of data concerning eating problems among adult women from minority population groups leaves substantial knowledge gaps and constrains evidence-based interventions. To examine prevalence and predictors of disordered eating behaviors (DEB) among Arab Muslim women in Israel, whose eating behaviors have not been previously examined and to compare with second generation Israeli-born Jews of European heritage. Community-based study includes sub-samples of Arab Muslims and Israeli-born Jews. DEB is assessed with fourteen DSM-IV related symptoms. Hierarchical regressions examine influence of weight, self-criticism and psychological distress on DEB severity. Relatively high prevalence rates emerge for Muslims (27%) and Jews (20%), a nonsignificant difference. In contrast, regressions reveal substantially different predictor patterns. For Arab Muslims, weight has the strongest association; for Jews, weight is not significant while self-criticism is the strongest predictor. Explained variance also differs considerably: 45% for Muslims and 28% for Jews. Surprising similarities and distinct differences underscore complex patterns of eating disturbances across culturally diverse groups. Culturally sensitive interventions are warranted along with more illuminating explanatory paradigms than 'one size fits all.' Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Introduction - The Relation of the Post-Soviet Army to Muslim Minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As the melting pot of the Nation, the Russian army has always been confronted with the issue of ethnic and religious diversity. Depending on the times, it has dealt with it in various ways. What is the relationship today between the post-soviet Russian army and its minorities, the Muslim minorities in particular?The fact that conscription has been maintainedmakes this issue particularly relevant: the Russian army is faced with a strong rise in its Muslim population, along with the virulent pr...

  16. Abortion in Islamic Ethics, and How it is Perceived in Turkey: A Secular, Muslim Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2016-06-30

    Abortion is among the most widely discussed concepts of medical ethics. Since the well-known ethical theories have emerged from Western world, the position of Islamic ethics regarding main issues of medical ethics has been overlooked. Muslims constitute a considerable amount of world population. Turkish Republic is the only Muslim country ruled with secular democracy and one of the three Muslim countries where abortion is legalized. The first aim of this paper is to present discussions on abortion in Islamic ethics in the context of major ethical concepts; the legal status of the fetus, respect for life and the right not to be born. The second aim is to put forth Turkey's present legislation about abortion in the context of Islamic ethical and religious aspects.

  17. Religion and disparities: considering the influences of Islam on the health of American Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Curlin, Farr A

    2013-12-01

    Both theory and data suggest that religions shape the way individuals interpret and seek help for their illnesses. Yet, health disparities research has rarely examined the influence of a shared religion on the health of individuals from distinct minority communities. In this paper, we focus on Islam and American Muslims to outline the ways in which a shared religion may impact the health of a racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse minority community. We use Kleinman's "cultural construction of clinical reality" as a theoretical framework to interpret the extant literature on American Muslim health. We then propose a research agenda that would extend current disparities research to include measures of religiosity, particularly among populations that share a minority religious affiliation. The research we propose would provide a fuller understanding of the relationships between religion and health among Muslim Americans and other minority communities and would thereby undergird efforts to reduce unwarranted health disparities.

  18. Psychological Research with Muslim Americans in the Age of Islamophobia: Trends, Challenges, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Mona M.; Bagasra, Anisah

    2013-01-01

    Like other minority groups in North America, Muslim Americans have been largely ignored in the psychological literature. The overwhelming pressures faced by this group, including surveillance, hate crimes, and institutional discrimination, stimulate an urgent need for psychologists to better understand and ensure the well-being of this population.…

  19. Muslim personal law and the meaning of "law" in the South African and Indian constitutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rautenbach

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Muslim population of South Africa follows a practice which may be referred to as Muslim personal law. Although section 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 108 of 1996 recognises religious freedom and makes provision for the future recognition of other personal law systems, Muslim personal law is, at this stage, not formally recognised in terms of South African law. Since Muslim personal law receives no constitutional recognition the question may be asked whether the 1996 Constitution, and in particular the Bill of Rights as contained in chapter 2 of the 1996 Constitution, is applicable to "non-recognised" Muslim personal law. The answer to this question depends to a large extent on the meaning of "law" as contained in the 1996 Constitution.When the viewpoint of academic writers and the courts are evaluated it seems as if the meaning of law in South Africa is restricted to the common law, customary law and legislation. If such a viewpoint is to be followed, Muslim personal law is excluded from the scrutiny of the Bill of Rights. It is, however, inconceivable that there might be certain areas of "law" that are not subject to the scrutiny of the Bill of Rights. In this note it will be argued that Muslim personal law should be regarded as law in terms of the 1996 Constitution, or in the alternative, that Muslim personal law (or at least Muslim marriages should be recognised in terms of section 15 of the 1996 Constitution.Due to the historical resemblance between South Africa and India the meaning of "law" as contained in the 1996 Constitution will be compared with the meaning of "law" as contained in the Constitution of India. Although the Constitution of India indirectly gives recognition to various personal laws in India, these personal laws are not subject to the provisions of the Constitution of India. Therefore, it would be argued that one should approach the Constitution of India with caution when its provisions are

  20. Book review: Sexuality in Muslim contexts: restrictions and resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    "Sexuality in Muslim Contexts: Restrictions and Resistance." Anissa Helie and Homa Hoodfar (eds). Zed Books. October 2012. --- Using case studies from Pakistan, Iran, Indonesia, China, Bangladesh, Israel and India, Sexuality in Muslim Contexts argues that Muslim religious traditions do not necessarily lead to conservative agendas but can promote emancipatory standpoints. Olivia Mason thinks however you currently understand sexuality in Muslim contexts this book will definitely change it fo...

  1. Sight Restrictions in Maghrib Muslim Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Ben Hamouche

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Sight in Islamic culture is subject to legal restrictions that aim at preserving moral consciousness in Muslim societies. These restrictions have a direct impact on architecture in traditional Muslim cities. Details such as placement of doors and windows, the use of balconies and rooftops, and building heights were shaped by legal reasoning based on sight restrictions. The present study aims at highlighting this legal reasoning system by analyzing legal opinions that were continuously advocated by jurists in response to daily practices, and the legal principles on which these opinions were based. This is expected to contribute in developing a new intellectual discourse on Muslim architecture that could go beyond the present design theories.

  2. African Muslim Youth and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Annette Haaber

    , marked by economic decline and political instability. In Africa a weak or even failed state often means that young people have in reality no access to political, educational or economic positions and resources. In some countries like Nigeria, Ghana and the Ivory Coast the marginalisation of the youth......  Streams of global information create a call for foreign places, same as new ideas of the world tend to enhance people's wish to move across borders to new continents. Such is also the case with young people in an Africa, which has over the last thirty years been going through a development...... is also connected to their religious identity, as Muslims primarily occupy the poor North, whereas Christians live in the resourceful South. In Muslim Africa an Islamic lifestyle and a good reputation have traditionally been followed by high esteem in the local community. Hence, young Muslims often...

  3. Teaching about Islam and Muslims While Countering Cultural Misrepresentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbih, Randa

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary global events of the War on Terror, the War on ISIS, and the United States contentious relationship with Muslim societies make it crucial to teach about Islam and Muslims in school. However, negative representations of Islam and Muslims often impede this process. Overcoming these challenges is critical for the development of…

  4. Muslim monasteries? Some aspects of religious culture in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some preliminary observations on Sufi Muslim shrines or retreats in the Ethiopian Wällo region, places where local Muslim holy men or 'saints' lead the faithful and act as religious mediators and advisors. Some of these retreats of Sufi Muslims have a 'monastic' character, and al

  5. Muslim monasteries? Some aspects of religious culture in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some preliminary observations on Sufi Muslim shrines or retreats in the Ethiopian Wällo region, places where local Muslim holy men or 'saints' lead the faithful and act as religious mediators and advisors. Some of these retreats of Sufi Muslims have a 'monastic' character, and

  6. Quality and Features of Education in the Muslim World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sayyed Farooq; Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; ud-Din, Miraj; Shahzad, Saqib; Ullah, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    The major purpose of this article was to disclose the quality of education in the Muslim world and try to clarify the misperceptions in the West and in the Muslim world about Islamic education. It also tries to highlight the efforts of Islamic scholars in filling the gaps between them. Education in the Muslim world and Islamic education have…

  7. Teaching about Islam and Muslims While Countering Cultural Misrepresentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbih, Randa

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary global events of the War on Terror, the War on ISIS, and the United States contentious relationship with Muslim societies make it crucial to teach about Islam and Muslims in school. However, negative representations of Islam and Muslims often impede this process. Overcoming these challenges is critical for the development of…

  8. Say the Word Islam: School Counselors and Muslim Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Daa'iyah; Rasheed, Sakinah

    2010-01-01

    Two Muslim women who hold Ph.D.'s, a clinical and developmental psychologist and a teacher educator speak personally and professionally about important information school counselors need to know about Islam and providing services to Muslim children. First, the authors draw from personal experiences in parenting Muslim children who have come of age…

  9. Tasawuf Sunni Ala Sirhindi : “Kawin Paksa” Monisme dan Teologi Asy’Ariyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsin Labib

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : The term monism or wahdah al-wujūd has a long story in Islamic Mysticism or Sufism. It is such that is considered to be the soul of Sufism, an sich. It means that without wahdah al-wujūd, there would be no further discussion on Islamic Mysticism. Besides, the theory of wahdah al-wujūd is rooted in Shi’ite Islam, yet never found in the theology of Ash’arian or any other Sunni tradition. It is very important to have an awareness of what the author has termed ‘failed cloning’ between monism in Shi’ite and dualism in Sunni traditions established by Sirhindi. This is an attempt to uncover the weakness and/or weaknesses of Sirhindi’s methodology, that criticized wahdah al-wujūd and his subsequent misunderstanding of it. Moreover, Sirhindi seemed somewhat confused over the disciplines of mysticism, philosophy, theology and jurisprudence in his arguments and accordingly his mystical construction. To criticize wahdah al-wujūd without having a basic understanding of Ibn ‘Arabi’s works is a fault. Moreover, the construction of mystical dimension of wahdah al-wujūd of Ibn ‘Arabi which had staunchly strengthened and defended by Shadruddin Shirazi (Mulla Sadra is very difficult to break through by anyone who does not have basic knowledge of either. Thus, Sirhindi should have learned from him (Mulla Sadra before he criticized Ibn ‘Arabi and his concept wahdah al-wujūd.Keywords :  Tasawuf of Sunni, Sirhindi, Monism, Theology of Asy’AriyahAbstrak : Istilah monisme atau wahdah al-wujūd memiliki kisah yang panjang dalam Mistisisme Islam atau Sufisme. Ia dianggap menjadi jiwa sufisme, an sich, yang berarti bahwa tanpa wahdah al-wujūd, tak akan ada diskusi lebih lanjut mengenai Mistisisme Islam. Selain itu, teori yang berakar dalam tradisi syiah islam, belum pernah ditemukan dalam teologi Asy’ariyah atau dalam tradisi sunni lainnya. Penting untuk memiliki kesadaran terhadap apa yang penulis sebut sebagai

  10. The Face of Digital Literacy for Muslim Teenage Girls: A Comparative Study of Bradford Muslim Girl Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Hardaker, Glenn; Sabki, Aishah Ahmad; Elbeltagi, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper is grounded in a qualitative approach, to call forth the views of Muslim teenage girls on their access and use of learning technologies for inclusive educational practice. The 45 Muslim teenage girls, aged 14-19 years old, from three British Muslim girls schools participated in this empirical study. Semi-structured interviews were used…

  11. ‘Arab Spring’: The Influence of the Muslim Brotherhood and Their Vision of Islamic Finance and State (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidane Meriboute

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This chapter analyses the Muslim Brotherhood movement (Ikhwan al-muslimin in its various guises. Born in the interwar period, this global, proselytising Islamic movement underwent a veritable resurgence, even a resurrection, in Muslim countries from the 1980s onwards. Founded in 1928 by the Egyptian Hassan al-Banna (1906–1949, the recent ‘Arab Spring’ phenomenon has given it fresh momentum. Significantly, the Muslim Brotherhood movement has taken the reins of Egypt, the most populous state in the Arab world. Wherever this movement gains a foothold, it creates its own labour unions, associations of students, doctors and workers, Islamic banking institutions, and so forth. More specifically, the chapter examines the nature of the Islamic state and the key characteristics of the politico-religious doctrine of the Muslim Brotherhood and its various offshoot Islamist parties, both in the Maghreb and elsewhere. The author sheds light on the Muslim Brotherhood’s economic, social and financial vision through an examination of the various techniques they employ with respect to Islamic finance. While the Muslim financial model is driven by considerations of social justice (‘adala ijtima’iya and the rejection of usury (riba, it is nevertheless argued that its emphasis on profit maximisation renders this model’s vision essentially capitalist. The chapter thus calls for a refocusing and adaptation of the approach of Islamic banks in order to make their financing accessible for small projects undertaken by the disenfranchised.

  12. Father Involvement among Malay Muslims in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhari, Rumaya; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Talib, Mansor Abu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study of 989 fathers of school-going children aged 10 through 16 from intact families in rural and urban areas in Selangor, Malaysia. The study aims to explore the factors that affect father involvement among Malay Muslims. Results indicate that fathers' education, marital quality, and number of…

  13. European Liberalism and 'the Muslim Question'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parekh, Bhikhu

    2008-01-01

    A large section of European opinion believes that Muslims present a long term political and cultural threat. Professor Parekh argues that this view is deeply mistaken. There is, nevertheless, a small underclass, mainly young, which is deeply alienated from both their parental and European cultures.

  14.  Muslims on the Political Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian Arly

    2009-01-01

    they were first established.    The aim of this article is to describe and analyze the strategies used by Danish politicians in dealing with the presence of Islam and Muslims in Denmark, illustrated by the debate on the plan for building a mosque in Copenhagen. The analysis of this debate in the Danish...

  15. Shared symbols; Muslims, Marian pilgrimage and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.H.M.; Kühl, M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the trend of secularization, pilgrimages to sacred sites flourish. Most of the pilgrims are women and the reasons for their visits often have to do with the dynamics of women's lives. Some of the pilgrims to sites dedicated to St Mary are Muslims. This is interesting in the present political

  16. The Spanish Inquisition and the Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kılıç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The year 1492 was a turning point in the history of Iberian peninsula. Ferdinand and Isabella, namely the Catholic Monarchs had led the reconquista to a successful end and thus laid the foundation for the emergence of a powerful state. The unification of the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon had been reached with the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella. The military and political struggle for the unity of Spain was completed by the end of the reconquista. They now wanted to reach out to the religious unity. Expulsion of the Jews, namely the problem of the conversos or judeoconversos had been solved. Isabella and Ferdinand hoped that, the Muslims voluntarily adopt the Christian faith and would adjust to their Christian environment. But the conversion campaigns and missionary efforts are run only half-heartedly and therefore remained largely unsuccessful. The Muslims of Andalusia took refuge in the crypto-Islam, that is, they tried in hidden continue to pursue the Islamic religion and outwardly feign assimilation. Task of the Spanish Inquisition was about to verify actual faith of the crypto-Muslims and bring them to justice. The Spanish Inquisition had proceeded very differently on the regional level against the Moriscos. The everyday life of the Moriscos as Christians, with compulsive baptisms and discriminating regulations, was very hard to endure. The purpose of this article is to focus on the unfair practices that the Muslims are faced with and the methods they used to get rid of them.

  17. Formats, fabrics, and fashions: Muslim headscarves revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ünal, R.A.; Moors, A.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the sartorial practices of Dutch-Turkish women who wear Muslim headscarves may be summarized as a shift from sober, religiously inspired forms of dress towards colorful, more fashionable styles. A focus on the materiality of headscarves indicates, however, that the relation between Islam,

  18. Islamophobia and Arab and Muslim Women's Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Povey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to compare women’s activism in Diaspora communities in Muslim majority countries, such as Iran, with some of the experiences of women activists in Western counties such as Australia. This is by no means a definitive account of Arab and Muslim women’s activism in either country but an attempt to raise some questions and provide a framework in order to understand some of the issues facing Arab and Muslim activists today. I believe that it is important to look at these issues in a way that is contextualized in terms of the material circumstances in which women living in Diaspora communities find themselves. In doing so, I hope to reveal the complexity and dynamism of women’s activism and to take on critically, Orientalist, essentialist and racist arguments regarding the nature of Arab and Muslim women’s role in opposing war and neo-liberalism and in the struggle for gender equality. As Edward Said argues, exile forces us to “see things not simply as they are, but as they have come to be that way. Look at situations as contingent, not as inevitable, look at them as a series of historical choices made by men and women, facts of society made by human beings not as natural or God-given, therefore unchangeable, permanent, irreversible.”

  19. Supporting Muslim Patients During Advanced Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Nathan A; Siddiqui, Ejaz A; Koenig, Harold G

    2017-01-01

    Religion is an important part of many patients' cultural perspectives and value systems that influence them during advanced illness and toward the end of life when they directly face mortality. Worldwide violence perpetrated by people identifying as Muslim has been a growing fear for people living in the US and elsewhere. This fear has further increased by the tense rhetoric heard from the recent US presidential campaign and the new presidential administration. For many, this includes fear of all Muslims, the second-largest religious group in the world with 1.6 billion adherents and approximately 3.5 million in the US alone. Patient-centered care requires health professionals to look past news headlines and unchecked social media so they can deliver high-quality care to all patients. This article explores areas of importance in the context of advanced illness for practitioners of Islam. These include the conditions needed for prayer, the roles of medical treatment and religious authority, the importance of modesty, the religious concordance of clinicians, the role of family in medical decision making, advance care planning, and pain and symptom management. Initial recommendations to optimize care for Muslim patients and their families, informed by the described tenets of Muslim faith, are provided for clinicians and health systems administrators. These include Islamic cultural awareness training for staff, assessment of patients and families to determine needs, health education and decision-making outreach, and community health partnerships with local Islamic institutions.

  20. Determinants of Hypovitaminosis D in Pregnant Women and Their Newborns in a Sunny Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aims to assess the factors associated with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD levels in pregnant women and their newborns in a sunny region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Isfahan, Iran. It comprised 100 nulliparous singleton pregnant women, selected by random cluster sampling. Laboratory tests were assessed before delivery in mothers and after delivery in their infants’ umbilical cord blood. The P for trend of variables was assessed across the air quality index (AQI quartiles. The associations of AQI and 25(OHD were assessed by multiple linear regression after adjustment for age, body mass index, and dietary intake. Results. Sera of 98 mothers and an equal number of newborns were analyzed. The median (interquartile range, IQR of serum 25(OHD of mothers and neonates was 15.1(12.6, 18.2 ng/mL in mothers and 15.7(12.0, 18.1 ng/mL in neonates, respectively. AQI had an inverse association with serum 25(OHD (Beta = −0.58, P=0.04. The corresponding figure was also inverse and significant for newborns (Beta (SE= −0.51(0.04, P=0.01. Conclusion. The independent inverse association of 25(OHD with air quality can explain the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women living in this sunny region.

  1. Muslim pilgrimage as education by experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Hedin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Christian tradition, pilgrimage is connected with hardship and sacrifice. It has been used as a penance for penitents. The pilgrimage itself is a kind of sacrifice. The Muslim pilgrimage is different. The atmosphere is serious, but full of confidence. The pilgrimage strengthens faith through the spirit of community with millions of other Muslims, who share the same faith. In that respect it resembles the mass meetings of revivalist Christianity.The pilgrimage means that Muslims are brought together in action, walking, running, praying, throwing pebbles, slaughtering and, most importantly, standing for half a day in the desert. All these experiences are used for education through experience. The pilgrimage is an opportunity to educate the Muslims in religious matters. It is a typical example of ‘learning by doing’. This article elaborates the content of this education as it is performed today. The purpose is twofold: to show how well the pilgrimage is fit for education and to investigate how this opportunity is utilized today. The account is built on contemporary theological literature about Islam. Most of the works are introductions to Islam, written by well-known and esteemed scholars. They are meant to give elementary information about Muslim life. The purpose is not to decide what is right or wrong in the performance, or in the interpretation of the rituals. The purpose is to describe what is taught by the religious leaders today. They seem to regard some traditions as dubious, as they might be perceived as superstitious. They might also have been accused of this by Western scholars. That does not mean that they are superstitious. This article submits a discussion and an analysis of a trend in contemporary Islam.

  2. Health diplomacy: a new approach to the Muslim world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, Mehrunisha; Ali, Raghib; Kerr, David J

    2014-06-13

    Three years ago, the Lancet's frontispiece stated "Health is now the most important foreign policy issue of our time" and last year, the Director-General of WHO, Margaret Chan, in her opening address, to the Executive Board at its 132nd Session said "health diplomacy works". The nascent field of health diplomacy provides a political framework which aims to deliver the dual goals of improved health in target populations and enhanced governmental relations between collaborating countries. Any government that offered tangible health improvement as a component of aid to a nation with whom they wished to develop stronger diplomatic links would have an advantage in developing a deeper relationship with its citizens.Here we suggest several different mechanisms through which such links could be developed or enhanced, including: provision of relevant health solutions, applied research, cultural alignment and the development of collaborative networks. The Islamic tradition promotes the practice of medicine as a service to humanity. Physical and spiritual wellbeing are intimately related in popular Muslim consciousness. Thoughtful Health Diplomacy therefore has the potential to bridge the perceived divides between Western and predominantly Muslim nations.

  3. Moral institutionalization of Sunny Sports%阳光体育运动的道德制度化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晶; 徐勤儿; 佟双艳

    2012-01-01

      The authors clarified concepts such as change of the moral system of Sunny Sports, probed into the ori-enting value, adjusting value and operable value possessed by the moral system of Sunny Sports. On such a basis, the authors analyzed the feasibility and practicability of the moral institutionalization of Sunny Sports from the per-spectives of traditional customs in China, relevant moral systems for school physical education abroad, and realistic needs for developing Sunny Sports, pointed out that the moral institutionalization of Sunny Sports is an important measure for realizing students’ self discipline in sports morals, needed by assuring the effectiveness of college Sunny Sports, and lastly put forward basic ways to the moral institutionalization of Sunny Sports, namely, to estab-lish a good sports moral conception in schools, to form a good sports moral atmosphere;to specify basic principles for the moral institutionalization of Sunny Sports; to perfect school education supervision system, to establish a principal responsibility system.%  对阳光体育运动道德制度变化等概念进行梳理,探讨了阳光体育运动道德制度具有的导向作用、调节作用和可操作性。在此基础上,从我国传统习俗、国外相关的学校体育道德制度和开展阳光体育运动现实需要的角度分析阳光体育运动道德制度化的可行性和实用性,指出阳光体育道德制度化是实现学生主体体育道德自律的重要举措,是保障高校阳光体育运动实效性的需要。最后提出阳光体育运动体育道德制度化的基本路径,即在学校中树立良好的体育道德观念,形成良好的体育道德风气;明确阳光体育运动道德制度化的基本原则;完善学校教育督导制度,建立校长问责机制。

  4. Partition and poliomyelitis: an investigation of the polio disparity affecting Muslims during India's eradication program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid S Hussain

    Full Text Available Significant disparities in the incidence of polio existed during its eradication campaign in India. In 2006, Muslims, who comprise 16% of the population in affected states, comprised 70% of paralytic polio cases. This disparity was initially blamed on the Muslims and a rumor that the vaccination program was a plot to sterilize their children. Using the framework of structural violence, this paper describes how the socio-political and historical context of Muslim populations in India shaped the polio disparity.A qualitative study utilizing methods of rapid ethnography was conducted from May-August 2009 in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Field methods included participant observation of vaccination teams, historical document research, and 107 interviews with both Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI stakeholders and families with vaccine-eligible children. Almost all respondents agreed that Aligarh was a highly segregated city, mostly due to riots after Partition and during the 1990s. Since the formation of segregated neighborhoods, most respondents described that "Muslim areas" had been underdeveloped compared to "Hindu areas," facilitating the physical transmission of poliovirus. Distrust of the government and resistance to vaccination were linked to this disparate development and fears of sterilization influenced by the "Family Planning Program" from 1976-1977.Ethnic violence and social marginalization since the Partition and during the rise of Hindu nationalism led to distrust of the government, the formation of segregated slums, and has made Muslims victims of structural violence. This led to the creation of disease-spreading physical environments, lowered vaccine efficacy, and disproportionately higher levels of resistance to vaccination. The causes of the polio disparity found in this study elucidate the nature of possible other health disparities affecting minorities in India.This study is limited by the manual coding of the

  5. Benevolence for Obedience: Policies on Muslims in Late Imperial and Modern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Frankel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In telling the story of Islam in China, scholars have tended to depict the historical encounter of China’s Muslim population with the social, political and cultural forces of Chinese state and society in terms of either “conflict or concord.” This generalization, which reduces a complex and nuanced history to a simple binary, is flawed not because it is completely untrue, but rather because its truth is incomplete. Chinese Muslims’ responses to the social and cultural context in which they live have been diverse and multifaceted, and the phenomenon of Islam in China is no more a monolith than either of the two great, multifaceted civilizations that lend it its name. In late imperial China, within the same century, albeit at different ends of the Empire, examples of both types of Muslim response to Chinese hegemony were witnessed: intellectual rapprochement and armed rebellion. In between those extremes, however, we see varying degrees of Muslim assimilation to the norms of Chinese society and a variety of positions adopted by the imperium and officialdom vis-à-vis the Empire’s Muslim subjects. In many ways, this pattern is repeated in the People’s Republic of China (PRC today.

  6. Associations Between Religion-Related Factors and Breast Cancer Screening Among American Muslims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I.; Murrar, Sohad; Adviento, Brigid; Liao, Chuanhong; Hosseinian, Zahra; Peek, Monica; Curlin, Farr

    2015-01-01

    American Muslims have low rates of mammography utilization, and research suggests that religious values influence their health-seeking behaviors. We assessed associations between religion-related factors and breast cancer screening in this population. A diverse group of Muslim women were recruited from mosques and Muslim organization sites in Greater Chicago to self-administer a survey incorporating measures of fatalism, religiosity, discrimination, and Islamic modesty. 254 surveys were collected of which 240 met age inclusion criteria (40 years of age or older). Of the 240, 72 respondents were Arab, 71 South Asian, 59 African American, and 38 identified with another ethnicity. 77 % of respondents had at least one mammogram in their lifetime, yet 37 % had not obtained mammography within the past 2 years. In multivariate models, positive religious coping, and perceived religious discrimination in healthcare were negatively associated with having a mammogram in the past 2 years, while having a PCP was positively associated. Ever having a mammogram was positively associated with increasing age and years of US residency, and knowing someone with breast cancer. Promoting biennial mammography among American Muslims may require addressing ideas about religious coping and combating perceived religious discrimination through tailored interventions. PMID:24700026

  7. Sports Activities High Performance Athletes Muslim Women in Indonesia and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, M.; Sultoni, K.; Salamuddin, N.; Taib Harun, Mohd

    2017-03-01

    Participation in sports activities was also influenced by sociological factors. This indirectly allows individuals more adaptable in high performance sports compared with individuals who did not engage in sports activities. This study aims to identify high performance sports athletes Muslim women in Indonesia and Malaysia in the sport. The quantitative approach was carried out by the study population consisted of Muslim women athletes Malaysia and Indonesia, which joined The 3rd Islamic Solidarity Games. The study sample consisted of 58 Malaysia and 57 Indonesia. Descriptive analysis also shows that sports activities like Muslim women athletes in the ranking of badminton (Malaysia 46.5% and Indonesia 38.6%), swimming (Malaysia 33.3% and Indonesia 57.9%), sports (Malaysia 27.5% and Indonesia at 22.8%), and balls volleyball (Malaysia and Indonesia 17.2%, 29.8%). The results of this study can serve as a guide for the government to make sports facilities more attractive community of Muslim women.

  8. Differing estrogen activities in the organic phase of air particulate matter collected during sunny and foggy weather in a Chinese city detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Xie, Ping; Xu, Ying; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    Total air suspended particles (PM 100) collected from an urban location near a traffic line in Wuhan, China, were examined for estrogen using a recombinant yeast bioassay. Wuhan, located at the central part of China, is the fourth biggest city in China with 7 million populations. Today, Wuhan has developed into the biggest city and the largest traveling center of central China, becoming one of the important bases of industry, education and research. Wuhan is right at the confluent point of Yangzi River, the third longest river in the world, and its largest distributary Hanjiang, with mountains and more than 100 lakes in downtown area. Therefore, by its unique landscape, Wuhan has formed clear four seasons with relatively long winter and summer and short spring and autumn. Foggy weather usually happen in early spring. The yeast line used in this assay stably expresses human estrogen receptor-alpha. Weak but clear estrogenic activities were detected in the organic phase of crude extracts of air particle materials (APM) in both sunny and foggy weather by 0.19-0.79 μg E2/g PM 100 which were statistically significantly elevated relative to the blank control responding from 20% to 50% of the maximum E2 response, and the estrogenic activity was much higher in foggy weather than in sunny weather. The estrogenic activities in the sub-fractions from chromatographic separation of APM sampled in foggy days were also determined. The results indicated that the responses of the fractions were obviously higher than the crude extracts. Since there is no other large pollution source nearby, the estrogenic material was most likely from vehicle emissions, house heating sources and oil fumes of house cooking. The GC/MS analysis of the PM 100 collected under foggy weather showed that there were many phenol derivatives, oxy-PAHs and resin acids which have been reported as environmental estrogens. These results of the analysis of estrogenic potency in sunny and foggy weather in a

  9. Tinjauan Perspektif Intelegensia Muslim terhadap Genealogi Kelas Menengah Muslim di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasisto Raharjo Jati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze genealogies of Muslim middle class in Indonesia. It can be traced from three primary sources such as bourgeoisies, pilgrimage trip (h}ajj to Mecca and Medina, and education. These three sources have intertwined each other to build up Muslim middle class in social strata system that branch off in two model; bourguoises class and intellectual class. In this section, bourguoises tends to form trade alliance against Chinese domaniance and western traders who had been given privilieges from colonial regime. Meanwhile, intellectual class had focused to form ideal state for umat in Indonesia. Both classes are united altogether to form Islamic state as ultimate goals. High tension of political constellation in post colonial period had resulted in nationalist group as regulator class in Indonesia. Regarding political negotiation from nationalist, Indonesian Muslim middle class focused to establish Muslim society according to Medinan principles. Modern influence based on western style has affected Islamic values in grass roots level, and this resulted in the rise of modern Muslim society that embraced western style of life.

  10. Memaknai Kelas Menengah Muslim Sebagai Agen Perubahan Sosial Politik Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasisto Raharjo Jati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article aims at analyzing agenda of socio-political changes among Indonesian middle class muslim . Compared with other middle class groups, middle class muslim is a middle class which tends to have political sense toward political changes. It is caused by its political experiences they have got such as alienation, authoritarianism, and inequality. Those ironic experiences make Indonesian middle class become political agent. Political experiences which have happened in middle east such as Turkey, Iran, and Egypt become main preferention to analyze current situation. Therea are two prominent perspectives to see socio-political changes which are addressed to Indonesian middle class muslim:   post Islamism and Islam populism . The first perspective, political changes is synergically based on mutual cooperation between Islam, democracy, and liberalism. On the other hand, the second one, revolusion is placed as  the main strategy of affirmative political change done by middle class. More specifically, Islamist ideology rejects religious modernity and seeks to oppose Islam against secular, pluralistic and liberal understandings of the “emancipated self” and the democratic public sphere. Those both perspectives are then used to analyze case of Indonesian middle class muslims. This article will elaborate more deeply to analyze socio-political changes among Indonesian middle class muslims.الملخص: هذا الكتاب يحصل ليتخذ الفرق فى الثقفة والسياسيّة على الفنّ المتوسط للمسلمين الاندونسي اختلافا بالفنّ المتوسّط الاخرى. الفنّ المتوسط للمسلمين كان فنّا متوسطا سياسيّا على اختلاف السياسيّة. ذالك الفصل يشمل بكون السياسيّة المحصول كمثل رأي الناس. و يشمل ايضا هذا الكتاب يتّخذ على المعاشرة بالمعروف.

  11. Constitutional Struggles in the Muslim World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    About this Course: Learn what motivates the restive Muslim youth from Tunis to Tehran, what political positions Islamists from Mali to Chechnya are fighting for, where the seeming obsession with Islamic law comes from, where the secularists have vanished to, and whether it makes sense to speak......, but been convulsed by internal unrest, economic and social decline. Throughout the Muslim lands, existing constitutional arrangements are being challenged, often very violently. This course is a survey of the constitutional ideas and institutions that have developed since the mid 19th century throughout...... and political developments of the 20th and 21st centuries. Three common themes will characterise the course:  We privilege the study of the legal and social reality and seek to highlight where it is at odds with dogmatic stipulations, be they religious or constitutional.  We seek to illustrate the practical...

  12. This Battlefield Called My Body: Warring over the Muslim Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameelah Medina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This communication centers on the argument that there is an ideological tug-of-war over the Muslim female body. The author discusses how religious and secular patriarchies, as well as feminism all make claims to the bodies of Muslim women and purport to know what is best for her. With particular focus on the headscarf and using comparisons with how non-Muslim women’s bodies are fought over, the author argues that there is a common thread connecting the warring sides as they each employ patriarchal and imperialist views of the Muslim woman that attempt to consume her agency. As the author examines the personal agency and veiling motives of Muslim woman, she counters the idea of Muslim women as passive recipients of mainstream religious and secular narratives imposed upon them by sharing different ways in which they self-author their own narratives in a post-9/11 USA.

  13. SunnyTALEN: a second-generation TALEN system for human genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Bao, Zehua; Xiong, Xiong; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have rapidly emerged as a powerful genome editing tool. The site-specific DNA double-strand breaks generated by TALENs in the human chromosome can induce homologous recombination or non-homologous end joining, resulting in desired genetic modifications. In this study, we report the development of a TALEN variant, SunnyTALEN, with >2.5-fold improved genome editing efficacy in human cells. The corresponding scaffold increases the rate of genetic modification at all the 13 tested loci of human genome and is compatible with heterodimer TALEN architectures. This enhanced and high-efficiency TALEN variant represents a novel second-generation TALEN system and has great potential for biological and therapeutic applications.

  14. A tiny membrane defending 'us' against 'them': Arabic Internet debate about hymenorraphy in Sunni Islamic law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    In the Sunni Arab world, hymen repair has become a subject of considerable controversy due to a public statement of Egypt's Mufti Guma a in 2007. This paper analyses Guma a's position and the ensuing public debate about it as a means to study the larger conceptions of virginity and the hymen in Middle Eastern societies. In line with critical feminist studies it is shown that supporters as well as critics of the operation rely heavily on patriarchal arguments, views and rhetoric. Both share the societal vision that sexuality can only be lived out licitly in the framework of marriage and both agree that this ideal is in crisis. Where the two sides disagree is over the way in which this ideal should be protected, which derives from their conceptualisation of creation in general and female nature in particular. As a result, debate about hymen repair is not only not transforming social structures but is perpetuating them.

  15. PENGEMBANGAN TEORI KEYNESS DALAM JUMLAH KONSUMSI MUSLIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Reza Hermanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to implement the tought of John Maynard Keynes about consumer behavior and also its antithesis. This study takes muslim as a research subject because Islam as a religion own an institution in order to regulate every muslim in doing consume. This research was expected to find out whether  the  development  of  Keynes’s  theory  (thesis  and  antithesis  could  be implemented in muslim community or not. The variables which used in the model are ammount of consumption (Y, income rate (X1, age (X2, religiosity (X3, and distinguishing community (faculty as a dummy. Through multiple regression with dummy variable method, from 60 muslim respondents in two different community, was  found  that  income  rate  (X1  and  age  (X2  was  effected  positively  and significant to ammount of consumption (Y, religiosity (X3 was effected negatively and significant to ammount of consumption (Y, while dummy variable which  is distinguishing community (faculty was not effected significantly to ammount of consumption  (Y.  Therefore  the  dummy  variable  has  dropped  out  from  the research model.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v4i2.2304

  16. [Is there vitamin D deficiency in children in a sunny Mediterranean city?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, A; Espadas Maciá, D; Blanes Segura, S; Sivó Díaz, N; Villalba Martínez, C

    2016-03-01

    Despite the increasing interest in vitamin D functions, new cases of deficiency have been reported in sunny regions where optimal levels are expected. The aim of this study was to analyze 25-hydroxivitamin D levels in children younger than 2 years admitted for acute mild diseases in a tertiary hospital in Valencia and its relationship with factors that can be associated with its deficiency. This one year prospective and observational study was conducted on 169 children admitted for acute mild diseases. 25-hydroxivitamin D levels were analyzed. A standardized physical examination and structured interviews to the parents were performed. Children were classified into two groups, according to 25-hydroxivitamin D levels (cut-off 30 ng/mL). A total of 169 children were included, with a median age of 9 months, being more prevalent Caucasians (75.7%) and youger than one year old (79.3%). Almost one quarter (24.3%) of the children had 25-hydroxivitamin D levels 30 ng/mL were associated with vitamin D prophylaxis during the first year, in children of a Caucasian mother, and those who did not wear a hijab. No statistical differences were found in diet characteristics (P=.65). Prophylaxis was given to 47% of the breastfed children younger than one year. In Valencia, Spain, 25-hydroxivitamin D levels lower than 30 ng/mL were found in a quarter of the children younger than two years. Our results emphasize the importance of vitamin D prophylaxis during the first year of life, even in sunny Mediterranean regions. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Countering Radicalisation of Muslim Community Opinions on the EU Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zięba Aleksandra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores selected factors influencing the process of radicalisation leading to the use of political violence and terror by the Muslim minorities living in the European Union member states. Internal and external catalysts conditioning this process and methods of their analysis have been presented. The second section examines various counter-radicalisation and de-radicalisation efforts of the EU. The authors analysed the multidimensional European Union policy in the area of counteracting radicalisation for empowering the population and member states in preventing the radicalisation and recruitment to terrorism and emphasising the role of social partners and local authorities. Also, the promotion of good practices for combating radicalisation, developed under the auspices of the multidisciplinary Radicalisation Awareness Network (RAN is presented.

  18. From Islamist to Muslim Democrat: The Present Phenomenon of Muslim Politics in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHD IZANI MOHD ZAIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Muslim political rivalry in democracy has triggered the birth of two groups; Islamist and Muslim Democrat. The two groups are competing by using a different approach in getting the support of the people. The Islamist group is championing its Islamic State agenda and the implementation of Shari`a as a political ambition within the framework of democracy while the Muslim Democrat recognises democracy and freedom as the basis of their struggle. Due to a greater development in democracy and a more open political rivalry, the Islamist group that was initially strongly backed by their rigid ideology and approach, has decided to change for a more moderate approach. This can be seen through their political strategy that emphasises on universal issues such as democracy, justice and good governance without rhetorical expressions of Islam and Shari`a. This change from Islamist to that of Muslim Democrat is an exciting development for it shows the transition path and direction of Muslim politics in Malaysia. This paper examines the latest development of the Islamist group, i.e. PAS in political rivalry in Malaysia, particularly in the recent General Election in 2013. This article reveals that due to the changing political landscape and democratization, the Islamist has pragmatically moderated their stance to gain more supports and it has embarked on a new landscape for Muslim political rivalry in Malaysia. Although PAS’s new approach to transform its approach to be more open and democratic is still questionable, this study believes that the participation of the party in democracy is no longer just for the sake of election, on the other hand it should recognise democracy as a political culture that emphasizes justice, freedom and good governance.

  19. Lived Islam: Religious identity with Non-organized Muslim minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeldtoft, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to show how a focus on ‘non-organized’ Muslims in Europe can contribute with insights on the everyday lives and practices of Muslim minorities. The empirical foundation is interviews conducted in Germany and Denmark. I argue that by focusing on institutionalized forms...... of Islam we run the risk of reifying Muslims as being ‘all about Islam’. The article reflects and discusses the benefits of adapting the framework of lived religion methodologically to investigate how Muslim makes sense of Islam on a micro-level. I show how the interviewees in this study have reconfigured...

  20. Danish teacher attitudes towards muslim immigration into danish society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Lotte Rahbek

    2007-01-01

    This proposal highlights the AERA 2007 theme of foreign educational research by seeking to pinpoint potential causes of inter-group conflict among the immigrant Muslim and native communities in Denmark by surveying Danish teacher values. The perceptions Muslim and non-Muslim teachers have about...... and public policy developed. Denmark's localized Muslim immigrant community has leaders who lent support to this effort. Based on a summary of interviews, a validated survey instrument available in English and Danish has been designed and administered via the Internet to all teachers in Denmark in 2007...

  1. Muslim consumption and anti-consumption in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2015-01-01

    effects of the Islamic opposition’s call to boycott US goods in Malaysia in the wake of 9/11 that coincided with a forceful stress on promoting modern halal (in Arabic halal literally means ‘permissible or ‘lawful’) products and services. This article argues that from around that time, Muslim consumption...... the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia (PPIM), which is an organization that protects the interests of Muslim consumers and entrepreneurs, as well as Malay Muslim middle-class informants....

  2. Elections in the Muslim World, 1990-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdul Wahid A. Al-Zandani

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aggregate data analysis of elections held between 1990 and 2002 in the Muslim world show that most of these elections belong to the non-democratic category and these elections were mostly non-competitive. Approximately, 98% of the Muslim world people do not enjoy full political liberty. About 96% of the people in the Muslim world enjoy the right to vote, but their votes hardly result in transfer of power. However, there are four countries in the Muslim world, Bangladesh, Iran, Malaysia and Mali, where elections are relatively free and fair.

  3. Isonymy and repeated pairs of surnames among the Muslims of Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, M; Murry, B; Saraswathy, K N

    2013-08-01

    Surnames have been used for studying population structure in different parts of the globe. The present study is aimed at indirectly estimating the degree of inbreeding from surnames and understanding the influences of the clan-like structure on mate selection among Manipuri Muslims. The proportion of isonymy I was found to be 0.0144. The non-random and random components were -0.0226 and 0.0239, respectively. The total inbreeding coefficient was estimated to be 0.0018. The scores of random pairs (RP) and random repeated pairs (RPr) were 0.026 and 0.010, respectively. The score of RP was higher than the RPr which gives a ratio of 0.38, indicating that Manipuri Muslims have a tendency of acquiring mates from within a given set of surnames while not in favour of isonymy. To conclude, surname/clan is a criterion for mate selection for various reasons among this population.

  4. Rectification And Revival Of Muslim World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M azram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present doldrums position and state of decadence, internal differences, external aggression (geographical and ideological, lack of self-confidence and dependence, illiteracy, political instability, economic disaster, lack of knowledge and wisdom, back benchers in science and technology, education, medicine, trade and business, banking system and defensive incapability of Muslim Ummah prompted me to write this article.  Although most of the Muslim nations got their independence because of their dedicated struggle and historic events and incidents but the old masters remained active for a remote control over the Muslim Ummah.  Their intellectuals and scholars, individually as well as collectively, have propagated and advised their leadership, the tactics and approaches by which Muslim Ummah can again be enslaved.  Writings of S.P. Huntington and F. Fukuyama are clear examples.  They are actively gearing the international institutions so cleverly that Muslim Ummah does not even realize their ill motives and objectives.  They brought their leadership in a confronting position with Muslim Ummah and hence threatening the world peace.  This situation prompted us to look at our principal sources of inspiration, which are, the Qur’an, Sunnah of the Prophet (SAW, and examples of the “enlightened Caliphs” and see if we could work out a seminal guidelines for our rectification  and revival.  We have gathered together some of these impressions; these are all tentative, nothing final about them, but these are here nonetheless. ABSTRAK: Kehadiran situasi kebelungguan dan  keruntuhan, perbezaan dalaman, pencerobohan luar (geografi dan ideologi, kurang keyakinan diri dan pergantungan, buta huruf, ketidakstabilan politik, bencana ekonomi, kekurangan ilmu dan hikmah, ketinggalan dalam sains dan teknologi, pendidikan, perubatan, perdagangan dan perniagaan, sistem perbankan dan ketidakupayaan pertahanan umat Islam mendorong saya untuk menulis

  5. Policing and Muslim Communities in Germany: Structures, Workplace Cultures and the Threat of Islamophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Mescher, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    In recognizing that today most organizations in modern societies have been confronted with the necessity of engaging with the processes of an intercultural interaction, this paper focuses on the police and the role police officers play in shaping the interaction between majority and minority ethnic populations in multi-ethnic societies. Empirical data of 727 serving police officers have been analysed emphasising interactions and contact with as well as attitudes towards Muslim members of soci...

  6. HARMONISASI DAN SINKRONISASI PENGATURAN KELEMBAGAAN SERTIFIKASI HALAL TERKAIT PERLINDUNGAN KONSUMEN MUSLIM INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Suparto, Susilowati; Djanuardi, D; Yuanitasari, Deviana; Suwandono, Agus

    2017-01-01

    AbstractIndonesia is a country with a majority Muslim population is responsible for the comfort and certainty to consume halal products. Halal assurance of any product in Indonesia has been delegated by the State to LPOM MUI. In a further development based on Law No. 33 2014 On Halal Product Guarantee, that the authority for the implementation of halal certification in Indonesia is conducted by BPJPH. The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the arrangement of the halal certif...

  7. The Case of the Disappearing Altar: Mysteries and Consequences of Revitalizing Chinese Muslims in Yunnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Caffrey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article takes the example of a disappeared altar in a Himalayan valley as revelatory of contradictions within the mechanics of a Hui Muslim revitalization project. The community example—a group of historically identifiable Muslims in China—centers on the disappearance of a gifted propitiation altar that once stood as an instantiation of community cohesion among ethnically varied populations in the valley. The investigation examines transformations of modernity and the erosion of the “social glue” that held valley communities together as the disappearance of this gift is revealed to be a telling instance of the large-scale productivities and corrosions effected by China’s contemporary renaissance of reemerging religious movements and community identifications, processes in which Chinese Muslims serve as a potential indicator for a long view of reform contemporary social transformation.

  8. Post-9/11 Arab and Muslim American Community College Students: Ethno-Religious Enclaves and Perceived Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammas, Diane S.

    2009-01-01

    Apart from the widescale media attention that Arabs and Muslims have received in the United States and abroad since 9/11, these two target populations have been largely unexamined at both the two-year and four-year college levels. This study represents a pioneering effort in investigating whether the post-9/11 backlash against Arabs and Muslims…

  9. Psychometric Evaluation of an Arabic Version of the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale in Jordanian Muslim College Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Ahmad S.

    2015-01-01

    A review of the nursing and health-related literature on spirituality revealed that no valid and reliable research tool exists in Arabic for measuring spiritual beliefs and practices for Arab Muslim population. This study translated the Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS) into Arabic and examined the psychometric properties of the…

  10. Social Work and the House of Islam: Orienting Practitioners to the Beliefs and Values of Muslims in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the media attention focused on the Islamic community after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, Muslims remain one of the most misunderstood populations in the United States. Few articles have appeared in the social work literature orienting practitioners to the Islamic community, and much of the…

  11. Highly-Valued Reasons Muslim Caregivers Choose Evangelical Christian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated what were the most highly-valued reasons among Muslim caregivers for sending their children to Lebanese evangelical Christian schools. Muslim caregivers (N = 1,403) from four Lebanese evangelical Christian schools responded to determine what were the most highly-valued reasons for sending their children to an evangelical…

  12. The Puzzle of Muslim Advantage in Child Survival in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhalotra, S.; Valente, C.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2009-01-01

    The socio-economic status of Indian Muslims is, on average, considerably lower than that of upper caste Hindus. Muslims have higher fertility and shorter birth spacing and are a minority group that, it has been argued, have poorer access to public goods. They nevertheless exhibit substantially highe

  13. Muslims in Pre- and Post-9/11 Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Shahid Abdullah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Muslims have never ceased to be important for the West and have been depicted in vilifying and stereotypical manners in western literature and films. However, after the tragic event of 9/11, a dramatic change has been observed in the world’s focus towards Muslims. Although stereotypes and discriminatory actions were nothing new to Muslims, the post-9/11 backlash was absolutely terrible and heartbreaking. People have started to consider Muslims either terrorists or sympathetic to terrorists, and they have been suspected and distrusted. Lots of books, articles and films have depicted Muslims in a derogatory and extreme manner. Pre-9/11 Hollywood movies True Lies and The Siege explicitly show the stereotypical attitude of the West to Muslims while post-9/11 novels like The Reluctant Fundamentalist by Mohsin Hamid and Once in a Promised Land by Laila Halaby depict the plight and predicament of Muslims in America. The article aims to depict the stereotypical, vilifying and antagonistic attitudes of the West to Arabs and Muslims in both pre- and post- 9/11 era. It also aims to prove that the depiction is highly motivated by the media, western authorities and the West’s desire for social, cultural and political dominance over the East. Keywords: Orientalism, Others, Terrorism, Media

  14. Allama Shibli and the early Muslim League: A dissenting voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Islam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The All-India Muslim League (AIML was formed in 1906, with the primary aim to improve the educational and socioeconomic status of Muslims. Allama Shibli Nu‘mani (1857-1914 put forward an argument in support of Muslims recovering from the political stupor into which they had fallen after the British suppression of the 1857 uprising. He encouraged Muslims to participate in democratic politics in India, departing from the educational focus of his mentor, Sir Saiyid Ahmad Khan (1817-1898. Shibli advanced a strong critique of the Muslim League’s limited ambitions in comparison with the Indian National Congress (INC. His critique, notably in ironic and emotive poetry, significantly contributed to the national discussion pertaining to the Muslim League’s reform and restructure. Based on Shibli’s original writings, this paper analyses his critique of the Muslim League and his efforts to overhaul its structure and policies. It examines the response of the Muslim League to these critiques and studies the extent to which its structure and policies changed.

  15. Muslim Women and Islamophobia in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    CHAIB, Fatima Zohra

    2016-01-01

    The principle issues of Islam have a great impact on the British society which had shared a mission of reflecting the realities of feminism before Islam. The manifestation of Islam is also considered as a proof of the best realization in the history of women rights in UK. Thus, this research investigates Muslim woman’s life by showing her social status through time and space and studying her roles in the construction of the society. We tend mainly, to focus on the way she fought for her relig...

  16. Civil Islam atau Uncivil State: Masalah Demokratisasi dalam Masyarakat Muslim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Mujani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hefner, in his book entitled Civil Islam, proposes Indonesia as a relevant case in the debate among students of Muslim society and democracy as to whether Islam is inimical to democracy. He argues that Indonesian Muslims are more likely to support a democratic political system because civil Islam, that is a set of beliefs within the Muslim community that supports the separation of religious and political authority, pluralism and tolerance of fellow (non-Muslim citizens and their beliefs, is persistent. From a political culture approach to democracy, this culture is crucial for the emergence and consolidation of democracy. This book overstates the significance of civil Islam in the case of Indonesia, and cannot explain the fact that democracy is a rare phenomenon in the Muslim world, including in Indonesian history.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v8i2.692

  17. European Muslims, secularism and the legacy of colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir S. Mirtaheri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The question of Muslims and Europe goes back to the earliest contacts between the two well before the Crusades. Despite their diverse historical contexts, however, these "encounters" have always had a dimension of identity and self-perception. Expectedly, therefore, the current presence of a sizable Muslim minority in Europe has raised many questions and concerns. In this regard, this paper identifies two (associated external and internal challenges facing integration of European Muslims into European societies. Externally, Europe has to deal with the legacy of colonialism and the constructed image of apathy, if not arrogance, towards the traditional Muslim World. Internally, certain readings of the notion of secularism have rendered integration of European Muslims difficult. These two challenges have closely interacted with each other during the past decades. The paper will elaborate on both challenges and will suggest that emergence of authentic Euro-Islams seems to be essential in addressing both challenges.

  18. European Muslims, secularism and the legacy of colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Amir Mirtaheri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of Muslims and Europe goes back to the earliest contacts between the two well before the Crusades. Despite their diverse historical contexts, however, these “encounters” have always had a dimension of identity and self-perception. Expectedly, therefore, the current presence of a sizable Muslim minority in Europe has raised many questions and concerns. In this regard, this paper identifies two (associated external and internal challenges facing integration of European Muslims into European societies. Externally, Europe has to deal with the legacy of colonialism and the constructed image of apathy, if not arrogance, towards the traditional Muslim World. Internally, certain readings of the notion of secularism have rendered integration of European Muslims difficult. These two challenges have closely interacted with each other during the past decades. The paper will elaborate on both challenges and will suggest that emergence of authentic Euro-Islams seems to be essential in addressing both challenges.

  19. OSMANLI İMPARATORLUĞU’NDA İSLAMİ PERSPEKTİFİN GAYR-İ MÜSLİMLERE ETKİSİ / ISLAMIC PERSPECIVE’ S EFFECT ON NON MUSLIMS IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mustafa YİĞİTOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    .... The Ottomans had implemented such policies of law and tolerance against the non-Muslim communities with an unsubstantial population that their cultural effect had become noticeable in various continents...

  20. Contraceptive decision making in a sample of Jordanian Muslim women: delineating salient beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbus, K; Kridli, S

    1997-01-01

    In this article, the authors identify attitudes, normative beliefs, and behavioral control beliefs of Muslim Jordanian women with regard to avoiding unplanned pregnancy and using specific contraceptive methods. Based on Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of planned behavior, open-ended questions were used in audio-taped face-to-face interviews with 25 married 19-44-year-old Jordanian Muslim women. A majority of respondents interviewed were currently using an intrauterine device (IUD) for contraception. Few women were using oral contraceptives, condoms, or the rhythm method and none of them reported using foam or a diaphragm. Content analyses of narrative transcriptions suggest the individual's concerns for family and individual well-being, as well as husbands' and families' opinions, may influence women's contraceptive behavior in this population.

  1. The Militarization of Mass Incapacitation and Torture during the Sunni Insurgency and American Occupation of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Hagan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While scholars and journalists have focused important attention on the recent militarization of intensive policing and imprisonment policies in the United States, there is little reciprocal recognition of how militarized versions of these policies were also exported for use in the occupation of Iraq. Intensive policing and imprisonment enabled the American-led and Shia-dominated Iraq Ministries of Defense and Interior along with U.S. forces to play significant roles in the ethnic cleansing and displacement of Arab Sunnis from Baghdad neighborhoods, and in their disproportionate detention in military- and militia-operated facilities, of which the Abu Ghraib prison is only the best known. The failure of American authorities alone and working with Iraq’s government to intervene in stopping the use of police and prisons as places of torture is a violation of U.N.-invoked and U.S.-ratified treaties, and thereby subject to prosecution. Such prosecutions have imported into international law the concept of “joint criminal enterprise” anticipated by the criminologist Donald Cressey and incorporated in the American Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO statutes used to convict organized criminals. We elaborate how the concept of joint criminal enterprise can be used to understand and possibly prosecute a chain of command responsibility for the use of policing and prisons as sites of torture in Iraq. We analyze the previously neglected international consequences of U.S. policing, prison, and mass incapacitation strategies with links to American criminology.

  2. Bony manifestation of rickets in a sunny city - a case report from Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadhosain Afrand

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is disease that occurs in growing bones in which defective mineralization occurs in both the bone and the cartilage of the epiphyseal growth plate, resulting in the retardation of growth and skeletal deformities. Rickets is more common in areas with less sunlight. However, this case report presents a case of the bony manifestation of rickets with the intake of vitamin D supplements in Yazd, a city in central Iran that has sunshine almost every day. A patient was referred to an out-patient general pediatric clinic for deformities of the legs and growth disturbance, with his height far below the normal range. The changes that were most evident in his X-rays were the bowing of the long bones of the legs and forearms and the cupping of the wrist metaphyseal region. In summary, we present a patient with bony manifestation of rickets despite living in a sunny area and taking vitamin D supplements. Thus, it is important to remember that rickets is still a common disease among children in Iran. More studies of this issue should be conducted, including the identification of abnormal cases and rescheduling vitamin D supplementation programs

  3. Bony manifestation of rickets in a sunny city - a case report from Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadhosain Afrand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is disease that occurs in growing bones in which defective mineralization occurs in both the bone and the cartilage of the epiphyseal growth plate, resulting in the retardation of growth and skeletal deformities. Rickets is more common in areas with less sunlight. However, this case report presents a case of the bony manifestation of rickets with the intake of vitamin D supplements in Yazd, a city in central Iran that has sunshine almost every day. A patient was referred to an out-patient general pediatric clinic for deformities of the legs and growth disturbance, with his height far below the normal range. The changes that were most evident in his X-rays were the bowing of the long bones of the legs and forearms and the cupping of the wrist metaphyseal region. In summary, we present a patient with bony manifestation of rickets despite living in a sunny area and taking vitamin D supplements. Thus, it is important to remember that rickets is still a common disease among children in Iran. More studies of this issue should be conducted, including the identification of abnormal cases and rescheduling vitamin D supplementation programs.

  4. THE SUNNI-SHI‘AH CONFLICT AND THE SEARCH FOR PEACE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Agil Siradj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to scrutinize the phenomenon of theological contestation in Indonesia, as represented by the Sunnite and Shi’ite conflict in the region of Sampang, East Java. The conflict has occurred due to Muslims’ inability to withstand the differences among them, so that violence is considered a way of final settlement. In this paper, the author will try, therefore, to analyze theological problems between the Sunnite and the Shi’ite in the region. It has been widely known that the Sunnite and the Shi’ite came out of the basis of similar truth, and, in fact, they share the same spirit of glorifying Islam around the world. In this way, all Muslim communities in the world, including the Sunnite and the Shi’ite, should be able to put their theological differences as God’s graces and the blessing of life, not as the point of conflict and disharmony.

  5. Muslims in America: Identity, Diversity and the Challenge of Understanding. 2001 Carnegie Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Sam

    This paper discusses challenges and opportunities facing Muslims in the United States, where between 5 to 8 million Muslims live (the fastest growing religion in the country). American Muslims face many challenges, and the public has little understanding of the teachings and practice of Islam. Muslims are prone to negative stereotypes, ethnic…

  6. The perceived role of Islam in immigrant Muslim medical practice within the USA: an exploratory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, A I; Shanawani, H; Greenlaw, J; Hamid, H; Aktas, M; Chin, N

    2008-05-01

    Islam and Muslims are underrepresented in the medical literature and the influence of physician's cultural beliefs and religious values upon the clinical encounter has been understudied. To elicit the perceived influence of Islam upon the practice patterns of immigrant Muslim physicians in the USA. Ten face-to-face, in-depth, semistructured interviews with Muslim physicians from various backgrounds and specialties trained outside the USA and practising within the the country. Data were analysed according to the conventions of qualitative research using a modified grounded-theory approach. There were a variety of views on the role of Islam in medical practice. Several themes emerged from our interviews: (1) a trend to view Islam as enhancing virtuous professional behaviour; (2) the perception of Islam as influencing the scope of medical practice through setting boundaries on career choices, defining acceptable medical procedures and shaping social interactions with physician peers; (3) a perceived need for Islamic religious experts within Islamic medical ethical deliberation. This is a pilot study intended to yield themes and hypotheses for further investigation and is not meant to fully characterise Muslim physicians at large. Immigrant Muslim physicians practising within the USA perceive Islam to play a variable role within their clinical practice, from influencing interpersonal relations and character development to affecting specialty choice and procedures performed. Areas of ethical challenges identified include catering to populations with lifestyles at odds with Islamic teachings, end-of-life care and maintaining a faith identity within the culture of medicine. Further study of the interplay between Islam and Muslim medical practice and the manner and degree to which Islamic values and law inform ethical decision-making is needed.

  7. Increased occurrence of anti-AQP4 seropositivity and unique HLA Class II associations with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), among Muslim Arabs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Livnat; Mandel, Micha; Karussis, Dimitrios; Petrou, Panayiota; Miller, Keren; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Karni, Arnon; Paltiel, Ora; Israel, Shoshana; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi

    2016-04-15

    Previous studies have revealed different human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO), further discriminating these two demyelinating pathological conditions. In worldwide analyses, NMO and opticospinal MS are represented at higher proportions among demyelinating conditions in African, East-Asian and Latin American populations. There are currently no data regarding the prevalence of NMO in Middle East Muslims. The population in Israel is diverse in many ways, and includes subpopulations, based on religion and ethnicity; some exhibit genetic homogeneity. In Israel, the incidence of MS is lower in the Muslim population than the Jewish population and Muslims carry different allele frequency distribution of HLA haplotypes. To evaluate the occurrence of anti-AQP4 seropositivity in the Israeli Muslim population among patients with central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating conditions; and to identify the HLA DR and DQ profiles of Muslim Arab Israeli patients with NMO spectrum of diseases (NMOSD). The prevalence of anti-AQP4 seropositivity was analyzed in 342 samples, obtained from patients with various CNS demyelinating conditions and in a validation set of 310 samples. HLA class II alleles (HLA-DRB1 and DQB1) were examined in DNA samples from 35 Israeli Muslim Arabs NMO patients and compared to available data from 74 Israeli Muslim controls. Our data reveal a significantly increased prevalence of anti-AQP4 seropositivity, indicative of NMOSD, in Muslim Arab Israeli patients with initial diagnosis of a CNS demyelinating syndrome. In this population, there was a positive association with the HLA-DRB1*04:04 and HLA-DRB1*10:01 alleles (p=0.03), and a strong negative association with the HLA-DRB1*07 and HLA-DQB1*02:02 alleles (p=0.003, p=0.002). Our findings indicate a possibly increased prevalence of NMOSD in Muslim Arabs in Israel with distinct (positive and negative) HLA associations. Further studies in patients with

  8. Minority Political Representation: Muslim Councilors in Newham and Hackney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Tatari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have long been intrigued by the role of minority elected officials in representing the interests of their communities. There is an on-going debate on whether distinctive minority agendas exist and whether the existence of minority representatives (descriptive representation is a necessary condition to secure the representation of minority interests (substantive representation. This article analyzes original interview data to examine these issues through a case study of Muslim city councilors and the dynamics of local government in the Newham and Hackney Borough Councils of London. It finds that the exceptionally high ethnic diversity of Newham with no dominant ethnic group, the lack of racial or religious divides among neighborhoods, and low racial tensions shapes the political culture of the Council, as well as the Muslim councilors, and yields high responsiveness for all minorities. It also finds that non-Muslim councilors play a significant role in the substantive representation of minority interests, including Muslim interests. In contrast, the case study of the Hackney Council reveals that beyond high party fragmentation, ethnicity and religiosity of the Muslim councilors vary widely and hinder effective representation. In addition, their political incorporation is low, and the leadership positions they hold seem to have symbolic rather than substantive impact. The political behavior and representative styles of Muslim councilors reveal a balancing perspective, whereby they advocate for group interests with a more moderate tone. These factors account for the low government responsiveness to Muslim interests in Hackney.

  9. Prevalence of Red-Green Color Vision Defects among Muslim Males and Females of Manipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsana Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Color blindness is a common X-linked genetic disorder. However, most of color blinds remain undetected due to absence of proper screening. Our study was to determine the prevalence of red-green color vision defects among Manipuri Muslim males and females. The study could help in decreasing birth of children with this disorder as Muslims commonly perform consanguineous marriage among themselves.Methods: Unrelated individuals of both sexes (Male-1352, Female-1302 belonging to six different populations were randomly selected and screened for red-green color vision defects using the Ishihara (pseudo-isochromatic plates test from the area of Imphal East and Imphal west districts of Manipur, which is a small hilly state, situated in the north eastern extreme corner of India sharing an international boundary with Myanmar (Burma.Results: About 8.73% of males and 1.69% of females were found to be color blind. Among six different populations studied the males of Meitei population shows the highest frequency i.e. 14.93% while Naga population shows the least frequency of 3.75%. Among females, Meitei population again shows the highest frequency of 2.5% and least frequency is shown by Mughal and Naga populations 0.00% as not a single female color blind was found.Conclusion: Present study shows higher prevalence rate of color blindness as compared to other reported rates of India. Deuteranomaly cases occur in higher percentage than other types of color blindness. The higher prevalence rate observed in Muslims may be due to the hidden effect of consanguineous marriages.

  10. Prevalence of Red-Green Color Vision Defects among Muslim Males and Females of Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ahsana; Hussain, Ruqaiya; Fareed, Mohd; Afzal, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Color blindness is a common X-linked genetic disorder. However, most of color blinds remain undetected due to absence of proper screening. Our study was to determine the prevalence of red-green color vision defects among Manipuri Muslim males and females. The study could help in decreasing birth of children with this disorder as Muslims commonly perform consanguineous marriage among themselves. Unrelated individuals of both sexes (Male-1352, Female-1302) belonging to six different populations were randomly selected and screened for red-green color vision defects using the Ishihara (pseudo-isochromatic plates) test from the area of Imphal East and Imphal west districts of Manipur, which is a small hilly state, situated in the north eastern extreme corner of India sharing an international boundary with Myanmar (Burma). About 8.73% of males and 1.69% of females were found to be color blind. Among six different populations studied the males of Meitei population shows the highest frequency i.e. 14.93% while Naga population shows the least frequency of 3.75%. Among females, Meitei population again shows the highest frequency of 2.5% and least frequency is shown by Mughal and Naga populations 0.00% as not a single female color blind was found. Present study shows higher prevalence rate of color blindness as compared to other reported rates of India. Deuteranomaly cases occur in higher percentage than other types of color blindness. The higher prevalence rate observed in Muslims may be due to the hidden effect of consanguineous marriages.

  11. Ramadan bazaar and Ramadan buffets: The possible influence on eating behavior and health among Malaysian Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able‐bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right meals to eat during the time of breakfast. Hence, this issue may favor those intended to organize Ramadan Bazaar along the streets and Ramadan buffets in hotels. The implications of these two phenomena which create an abundant food environment may lead to food wasting, binge eating and overeating. However, this may benefit the country’s economy; the Muslims need to be mindful that Ramadan is a month of moderation. Hence, the food carnivals during Ramadan need to be observed wisely for the benefit of the ritual and in point of view of population health.

  12. Ramadan Bazaar and Ramadan Buffets: The Possible Influence on Eating Behavior and Health among Malaysian Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan is one of the special months for Muslims all over the world. During Ramadan, able‐bodied Muslims are abstained from eating, drinking and even smoking from dawn to sunset. In Malaysia, the duration of fasting are normally around 13 hours at any time of the year as it is located near the equator. The altered food intake timing and long period of fasting do influence on eating behavior of fasting individuals. This is especially on those who do not know the right meals to eat during the time of breakfast. Hence, this issue may favor those intended to organize Ramadan Bazaar along the streets and Ramadan buffets in hotels. The implications of these two phenomena which create an abundant food environment may lead to food wasting, binge eating and overeating. However, this may benefit the country’s economy; the Muslims need to be mindful that Ramadan is a month of moderation. Hence, the food carnivals during Ramadan need to be observed wisely for the benefit of the ritual and in point of view of population health.

  13. Exploring the acceptability of human papillomavirus self-sampling among Muslim immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, Aisha K; Vahabi, Mandana; Fardad, Mitra; Raza, Afrah

    2017-01-01

    With appropriate screening (ie, the Papanicolaou [Pap] test), cervical cancer is highly preventable, and high-income countries, including Canada, have observed significant decreases in cervical cancer mortality. However, certain subgroups, including immigrants from countries with large Muslim populations, experience disparities in cervical cancer screening. Little is known about the acceptability of human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling as a screening strategy among Muslim immigrant women in Canada. This study assessed cervical cancer screening practices, knowledge and attitudes, and acceptability of HPV self-sampling among Muslim immigrant women. A convenience sample of 30 women was recruited over a 3-month period (June-August 2015) in the Greater Toronto Area. All women were between 21 and 69 years old, foreign-born, and self-identified as Muslim, and had good knowledge of English. Data were collected through a self-completed questionnaire. More than half of the participants falsely indicated that Pap tests may cause cervical infection, and 46.7% indicated that the test is an intrusion on privacy. The majority of women reported that they would be willing to try HPV self-sampling, and more than half would prefer this method to provider-administered sampling methods. Barriers to self-sampling included confidence in the ability to perform the test and perceived cost, and facilitators included convenience and privacy being preserved. The results demonstrate that HPV self-sampling may provide a favorable alternative model of care to the traditional provider-administered Pap testing. These findings add important information to the literature related to promoting cancer screening among women who are under or never screened for cervical cancer.

  14. ADVERTISEMENT & ISLAM: A MUSLIM WORLD PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Bari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary advertisement practices have created many social and ethical problems due to their materialistic focus. The effect of these problems can also be seen in many Muslim countries including Pakistan in terms of diversion from their cultural and religious values. This paper attempts to integrate the Islamic business ethics in contemporary advertisement practices to find the solution of the ethical dilemma which is created by these materialistic advertisement practices. The focus of Islamic way of business is not just to earn profit but to serve the society. The human welfare is the gist of Islamic business ethics. This paper attempts to evaluate advertisement in terms of Quran and Hadiths of the Holy Prophet (PBUM and discuss unethical aspects of the contemporary advertisement practices.

  15. Muslim learners' religion expression through attire in culturally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BlignautAS

    constitute a religious minority, they develop an interest in secular ... rights of the Muslim learner appeal to a higher author- ...... Individualism, moral autonomy and ... PhD, University of the Free State. .... Unpublished Thesis, University of Preto-.

  16. Prejudice towards Muslims in The Netherlands: testing integrated threat theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco González, Karina; Verkuyten, Maykel; Weesie, Jeroen; Poppe, Edwin

    2008-12-01

    This study uses integrated threat theory to examine Dutch adolescents' (N=1,187) prejudice towards Muslim minorities. One out of two participants was found to have negative feelings towards Muslims. Perceived symbolic and realistic threat and negative stereotypes were examined as mediators between antecedent factors (in-group identification, intergroup contact, and the endorsement of multiculturalism) and prejudice. Based on structural equation modelling, it was found that stereotypes and symbolic threats, but not realistic threats, predicted prejudice towards Muslims. Further, it was found that the effect of in-group identification on prejudice was fully mediated by symbolic threat, the effect of contact was partially mediated by stereotypes, and the effect of the endorsement of multiculturalism was mediated by both symbolic threat and stereotypes. In addition, contact and multiculturalism were directly associated with prejudice towards Muslims. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. 149 Muslim Women and Sharia Implementation in Northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status of Muslim women in the contemporary society has generated a lot of .... education and representation in the traditional leadership, the northern Nigerian ..... (eds) Gender Politics: Women's Writings and Films in. Northern Nigeria ...

  18. 制度化与人性化:社会转型期我国城市穆斯林流动人口管理服务研究%Institutionalization and Hommization:Administrative Service Research on Chinese Urban Floating Muslim Population in the Period of Social Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马冬梅; 李吉和

    2014-01-01

    在我国进入社会转型的快速发展时期,越来越多的穆斯林流动人口进入城市。穆斯林流动人口既有一般流动人口所共同面临的就业、子女教育、住房等基本社会服务需求,也有因民族文化差异而存在的宗教生活、清真食品等特殊的社会服务需求。流入地政府及相关部门应当树立以人为本,服务为先的理念,满足穆斯林流动人口合理的社会服务需求,创新穆斯林流动人口管理服务体制机制,以制度化和人性化的管理服务促进穆斯林流动人口更好地融入城市,构建我国社会转型期和谐的城市民族关系,实现各民族共同发展与繁荣。%During the fast social transformation and development in china, more and more floating Muslim population (FMP)moving into cities.FMP not only has basic social need for services in employment, children’s education, and hous-ing as well as other floating population in common, but also has special social need for services in religious life.Thus, this paper puts forward suggestions for improving the administration and services for FMP.Institutionalized and hommized ad-ministration and services, which can promote FMP integrating into urban life, construct urban harmonious ethnic relation-ship and achieve common prosperity and development of all ethnic groups.

  19. Ceuta, Tangier and El Jadida : Muslim cities “interrupted”

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Colonial history in Atlantic Northern Africa, which corresponds today to the Kingdom of Morocco, has introduced decisive urban factors. Ceuta, Tangier and El Jadida present three different case studies of how the urban morphology has been conducted by the political changes. This paper wishes to analyze the urban strata of these cities in order to point out traces of continuity and rupture between Muslim and Christian rule. Ceuta, once an important Muslim commercial city during medieval ti...

  20. A Decade of Complete Change in a Muslim Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI YI

    2007-01-01

    @@ Talking about changes in the Muslim-inhabited Niu Jie Street of Beijing, every member of the community would be all smiles. "Everything has changed; the mosque, the streetscape and the people, too" they would say. Niu Jie or Ox Street is situated in the Xuanwu District in the southern part of Beijing. The 1.44 square kilometer area is inhabited by 54,000 people, mostly of Muslims.

  1. The Yao Muslims : religion and social change in southern Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Thorold, Alan Peter Hereward

    1995-01-01

    The African Muslim minority in Malawi has been identified with one particular linguistic group, the Yao. The dissertation begins with the problem of their conversion and adherence to Islam in the face of seemingly adverse circumstances. In exploring-solutions to this problem the emergence of a Yao identity is outlined and the politics of conversion are described. The narrative then moves on to the transformations of the Yao Muslims in the hundred years since their convers...

  2. Islam, Cultural Hybridity and Cosmopolitanism: New Muslim Intellectuals on Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carool Kersten

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores those Muslim discourses on the phenomenon of globalization which distinguish themselves by not succumbing to the antagonism guiding Huntington’s ‘clash of civilization’ thesis (1996 or Benjamin Barber’s account of ‘Jihad vs. McWorld’ (1995, either through the ‘blind imitation’(taqlid characterising the unquestioned preservation of the classical Islamic heritage by traditionalist Muslims or through the atavistic return to the supposed pristine Islam of the ‘Pious Ancestors’ (salaf of revivalist (fundamentalist respondents. Combining an intimate familiarity with the heritage of Muslim civilization with a solid knowledge of recent achievements of the Western academe in the human sciences, the ‘new Muslim intellectuals’ disseminating these alternative discourses exhibit a cultural hybridity which enables them to develop a cosmopolitan attitude and competence necessary to transform binary positions into a new synthesis. To illustrate that this new Muslim intellectualism is itself a global phenomenon, the present essay traces these qualities in the work of scholars and thinkers from various parts of the Muslim world, with particular focus on Indonesia.

  3. Organ donation among Malaysian Muslims: the role of mosques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Raja Ariffin, Raja Noriza; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Abdullah, Nawi; Wan Md Adnan, Wan Ahmad Hafiz; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhdi; Che Soh, Mazlan

    2015-04-13

    Malaysia, a country of Muslim majority, is suffering from a severe organ shortage due to the lack of donors. Mosques are the main gateways into the Muslim community. Hence, it is imperative to explore their role in facilitating organ donation. A self-administered survey was conducted between October and December 2013. We distributed 700 pilot-tested questionnaires to 82 mosques in Kuala Lumpur and its suburbs. The respondents were stratified into 2 groups: the mosque committees and the Muslim Jama'ah (individuals who come regularly to mosque for prayer). Data collected from a survey on 653 Malaysian Muslims reveals that the main factors that hamper organ donation-related activities at the mosques in Malaysia are the lack of experts and financial resources. The level of autonomy of the mosque is also another main issue. The respondents believe that talks and dialogues are the best methods for organ donation campaigns at the mosques. Conclusions We argue that if the mosques are to play a role in imparting knowledge on organ donation, there should be ample opportunity for the mosque committee to choose the content of religious talks held in their community. The mosques in Malaysia are not sufficiently facilitated to channel the information on organ donation to the Muslim community. Providing financial support and expert campaigners are expected to increase organ donation-related activities at the mosques and subsequently could increase awareness regarding organ donations among Malaysian Muslims.

  4. Etika Al-Qur’an Terhadap Non-Muslim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harda Armayanto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the ethics toward non-Muslims based on al-Qur’an. Islam as a religion of peace was accused and insulted by the orientalists frequently. These accusations and insulting stated in several articles, journals either in their books. Their books like Islamic Invasion wrote by Robert Morey and Islam Revealed by Anis A Shorrosh are some sample of how the orientalists discredits Islam. Whereas Islam is not like what they accused. On the contrary, Islam has responding their accusations with an elegant and tolerant doctrine. Islam has teaches its peoples to respects another religion’s people, Islam forbids his people to insult other religions, to excoriate their worships or forcing non-Muslims to convert  or believes  to Islam, even  Islam teaches  its  people to acknowledge non-Muslims  as  brother  and  sister.  This  is  Islam’s  admiration  toward  non- Muslims. Surprisingly, these admirations inversely proportional to what non- Muslims did toward Islam and its people. The abuses as what we mention it before, was being happened even until now. Lately, one of  Christian pastor in United State was told his people to burn the Holly Qur’an or as we known about suppression of Rohingya’s Muslims that was did by Myanmar’s Buddhists.

  5. End-of-life care beliefs among Muslim physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Fahad; Kousar, Nadia; Aleem, Sohaib; Khawaja, Owais; Javaid, Asad; Siddiqui, Mohammad Fasih; Holley, Jean L

    2015-06-01

    Physicians' religiosity affects their approach to end-of-life care (EOLC) beliefs. Studies exist about end-of-life care beliefs among physicians of various religions. However, data on Muslim physicians are lacking. This study explores the beliefs centering on aspects of end-of-life care among Muslim physicians in the US and other countries. A 25 item, online survey was created and distributed via Survey Monkey®. The survey was targeted toward Muslim physicians in the US and other countries. A total 461 Muslim physicians responded to our survey. The primary end point was if the Muslim physicians thought that making a patient DO NOT RESUSCITATE (DNR) is allowed in Islam?. Nearly 66.8 % of the respondents replied yes as compared to 7.38 % of the respondents who said no. Country of origin, country of practice, and if physicians had talked about comfort care in the past had the most impact on the yes vs. no response (p=0.0399, p=0.0092 and 0.0023 respectively). Muslim physicians' beliefs on EOLC issues are affected more by the area of practice, country of origin and previous experience in talking about comfort care than the religious beliefs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Ekspresi dan Representasi Budaya Perempuan Muslim Kelas Menengah di Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rofhani Rofhani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses Islamic culture that undergoes shift in meaning as a form of expression and self-representation of Middle Class Muslim Women. Basically, the religious movement of women constitutes a form of identity assertion. The Middle Class Muslim Women unconsciously exhibit new culture, although it must be admitted that not all Middle Class Muslims in Indonesia follow popular lifestyle. Instead, they demonstrate culture different from what of fundamentalist groups with their turban, cloak, and veil of a specific color. Middle Class Muslim Women create an alternative lifestyle which conforms Islamic norms, flexible, not rigid to build Islamic identity. In general, Middle Class Muslim Women in Surabaya have a relatively similar lifestyle. They tend to be rationalistic in understanding religion. They prefer, for example, more scientific materials to enrich their religious knowledge. Although they are rationalistic and follow the values of modernity, they still adhere to normative values of religion. The ethical values or religious norms are their main guideline for behavior including the reason for wearing Muslim clothing and veil.

  7. EFFECT OF MIX MARKETING ON RE–PURCHASE DECISION OF MUSLIM DRESS IN BOGOR (MUSLIM CLOTHING PRODUCT OF KEKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indarto Setiawan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the factors that determines consumers in their purchasing decisions Muslim dress and recommend the proposed marketing mix strategy affects customer satisfaction and loyalty which can have an impact on purchasing decisions / repurchase (repurchase by consumers. The analytical methods used in this study Chi-Square Test, Thurstone Case-V Analysis, Correspondence Analysis, and Structural Equation Model. The results showed the purchasing decisions Muslim clothing there is a relationship between level of education and average revenue / expenditure per month with custom usage Muslim clothing, there are five sequences attribute Muslim clothing that is essential according to the respondents, the underwear model, quality of materials, patterns typical, leisure time used as well as an attractive packaging design. Muslim clothing brand Ke'ke is purchased by consumers because the ads fit the facts, reasonably priced, there are many models of quality koko and containerized, while shortcomings are in the variation of the veil / hijab and less spread of sales outlets. The products are very dominant. They influence purchasing decisions of consumers so that the superiority of the product should be maintained and even improved.Keywords: muslim clothing, the mix marketing, re-purchasing decisions

  8. Innovate Culture of Police Barrack, Cultivate Sunny Attitude%创新警营文化培育阳光心态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红霞

    2012-01-01

    Sunny Policeman" is the core and basis of "Sunny Action". How to become a "Sunny Policeman" with sunny attitude is an important issue for our public security field. So based on practical work in police station, Dunhafang police station of Xinghualing branch,Taiyuan Public Security Bureau did research on it actively, innovated thinking and released a series of new measures which aimed to cultivate policemen' s sunny attitude by culture of police barrack.%在“阳光行动”中,“阳光警察”是核心,是基础,而警察如何具备阳光心态成长为“阳光警察”,是当前我省公安队伍所面临的一个重大课题。为此,太原市公安局杏花岭分局敦化坊派出所积极探索,创新思路,在结合公安派出所工作实际的基础上,因地制宜,推出了一系列创新举措,以特色警营文化来培育民警的阳光心态。

  9. Religiosity, Ethical Judgments and Malaysian Muslim Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnah Muhamad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Culture is often cited as one of the powerful determinants in shaping the personality and behaviour of individuals. Religion, being an important element of culture, is seen as playing an important role in determining how people behave in certain situations. Various authors have suggested religion as an important dimension in Malaysian ethical behaviour studies especially for the Malays. Yet this construct is generally ignored or incorporated into other constructs. This study investigates the influence of religious education on the perceptions of unethical business practices among final year students in one of the local universities in Malaysia. In particular, this study examines the impact of education stream on the level of religious commitment among Malay Muslim students and how these two variables influence their ethical judgment. It was found that the level of religiosity is negative and significantly related to the level of tolerant towards unethical business practices. The findings also establish that more students from the religious education stream are found to be more religious and consequently, are less tolerance towards unethical business practices.

  10. Islam in America: Why U.S. Muslims are Less Likely to Radicalize Than Their European Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    population of refugees started to flow into the country from areas such as, Yugoslavia, Iran and the Arab nations.30 Today, Germany is home to an...situations. In this act, discrimination is defined as both real or assumed in regard to ethnic origin, sex , marital status, physical appearance...Muslims. 108 “World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous People: France,” UNHCR , http

  11. THE ADAPTATION AND COOPERATION OF MINORITY MUSLIMS IN RUSSIAN HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachrizal A. Halim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present essay examines the common approach in reading the relationship between Muslims and Russian society as if they were bound by perpetual conflict. Following this angle, historians argue that the Russians underwent long term conflict with Muslims and claim that the Russians have suffered more than any other people in facing the hostile world of Islam. Some also argue that Muslims were completely subdued by the Russians due to Islam’s incompatibility with the secular and atheist Soviet regime.  A careful survey of literature on the history of Muslims in Russia, however, does not always lead to the conclusion that the two sides were in continuous conflict. In fact, aside from conflict and subjugation, both Russians and the Muslims enjoyed a considerable level of peace and shared a similar attitude of flexibility in mutual cooperation.  Given the extent of flexibility of Muslims in their encounter with the Russians throughout the Czar and the Soviet regimes, I argue that contemporary scholars have scaled down the dynamic of both Russian and Muslims intellectual articulations in relation to modern politics as well as to the internal relationship between the two sides, and that the relationship between them can be written as other than perpetual conflict.[Artikel ini mengulas hubungan Islam dan Rusia yang kerap dijelaskan dalam konteks relasi saling bertentangan. Dari cara pandang demikian, ahli sejarah kerap berpendapat bahwa konflik antara keduanya sudah terjadi lama dan orang Rusia adalah korban paling parah yang diakibatkan kebrutalan Islam. Semantara itu, ahli sejarah lainnya berpendapat bahwa orang Islam jatuh ke tangan kekuasaan Rusia karena Islam tidak mengakui rejim sekuler dan ateis Soviet. Jika literatur mengenai sejarah Islam di Rusia, maka relasi konfliktual antara keduanya tidak sepenuhnya benar. Faktanya, terlepas dari konflik dan penaklukan, baik orang Rusia dan umat Islam dapat hidup secara damai dan fleksibel dalam

  12. Muslim patients and cross-gender interactions in medicine: an Islamic bioethical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Rodriguez del Pozo, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    As physicians encounter an increasingly diverse patient population, socioeconomic circumstances, religious values and cultural practices may present barriers to the delivery of quality care. Increasing cultural competence is often cited as a way to reduce healthcare disparities arising from value and cultural differences between patients and providers. Cultural competence entails not only a knowledge base of cultural practices of disparate patient populations, but also an attitude of adapting one's practice style to meet patient needs and values. Gender roles, relationship dynamics and boundaries are culture specific, and are frequently shaped by religious teachings. Consequently, religion may be conceptualised as a cultural repertoire, or dynamic tool-kit, by which members of a faith adapt and negotiate their identity in multicultural societies. The manner in which Islamic beliefs and values inform Muslim healthcare behaviours is relatively under-investigated. In an effort to explore the impact of Islam on the relationship between patients and providers, we present an Islamic bioethical perspective on cross-gender relations in the patient-doctor relationship. We will begin with a clinical scenario highlighting three areas of gender interaction that bear clinical relevance: dress code, seclusion of members of the opposite sex and physical contact. Next, we provide a brief overview of the foundations of Islamic law and ethical deliberation and then proceed to develop ethicolegal guidelines pertaining to gender relations within the medical context. At the end of this reflection, we offer some practice recommendations that are attuned to the cultural sensitivities of Muslim patient populations.

  13. Academic dishonesty and misconduct: Curbing plagiarism in the Muslim world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Moten

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is the theft of someone’s ideas or language, and is a form of cheating which is morally and ethically unacceptable. This study analyses the nature of plagiarism from an Islamic perspective and its prevalence in institutions of higher learning in the Muslim world, especially among faculty members. It also examines the ways in which universities attempt to minimise or marginalise plagiarism. This study is warranted by the fact that there is relatively very little research on the issue of plagiarism at universities in the Muslim world and that existing research seldom addresses the issue of academics engaged in such unethical practices. Based upon existing surveys, interviews, and documentary sources, the study found that in earlier periods, standards were not inevitably lower than those that exist today and that the scope for condemning plagiarists has always existed. It also found that despite Islam’s loathing, the incidence of plagiarism has grown significantly among Muslim students and faculty members in the Muslim world. The response to plagiarism varies from country to country. Some Muslim countries tolerate plagiarism, while others are taking steps to curb it. Institutions in Malaysia approach the problem of plagiarism as a matter of morality and crime that emphasise the need to develop writing and researching skills. They resort to honour codes, emphasise law and enforcement, and teach ways to write and cite. However, the success of these methods needs to be further probed.

  14. Democracy and democratization in contemporary Muslim societies: A theoretical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahabuddin Ra’ees

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of democracy and democratization on contemporary Muslim societies. The institutional and philosophical approaches to democracy and democratization are inseparable. The paper investigates the relationship between the philosophical dimension of Western democracy and the Muslim philosophy of life and concludes that the democratization of contemporary Muslim societies leads to serious and destabilizing ideological polarization and division of Muslim societies into supporters of secularism and political Islam. The Islamist-secularists relation radicalizes: (1 when the Islamists are prevented from capturing power through democratic institutions and (2 when the advanced Western democratic states cooperate with non-democratic secular elites of Muslim societies. The destabilizing role of democracy can be moderated if the Islamists are engaged in the democratic process, and the debate between the Islamists, the secularists and the West – based on the view that the West should conceive Islam as an alternative weltanschauung [worldview] – focuses on issues that are human properties, irrespective of religion, ethnicity or language. The institutional approach to democracy provides a common ground for cooperation and dialogue between the Islamists, the secularists and the West.

  15. ALTERNATIVE NARRATIVES FOR PREVENTING THE RADICALIZATION OF MUSLIM YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azal Upal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The international jihadist movement has declared war. They have declared war on anybody who does not think and act exactly as they wish they would think and act. We may not like this and wish it would go away, but it’s not going to go away, and the reality is we are going to have to confront it. (Prime Minister Steven Harper, 8 Jan 2015 With an increasing number of Western Muslims falling prey to violent extremist ideologies and joining Jihadi organizations such as Al-Qaida and the ISIS, Western policy makers have been concerned with preventing radicalization of Muslim youth. This has resulted in a number of government sponsored efforts (e.g., MyJihad, Sabahi, and Maghrebia (Briggs and Feve 2013 to counter extremist propaganda by arguing that extremist violent tactics used by Jihadist organizations are not congruent with Islamic tenets of kindness and just war. Despite the expenditure of significant resources since 2001, these efforts have had limited success. This article argues that in order to succeed we need to better understand Muslim core social identity beliefs (i.e., their perception of what it means to be a good Muslim and how these beliefs are connected to Muslims perceptions of Westerners. A better understanding of the interdependent nature and dynamics of these beliefs will allow us to design counter radicalization strategies that have a better chance of success.

  16. Constructing Muslims in France - Discourse, Public Identity, and the Politics of Citizenship

    OpenAIRE

    Fredette, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The standing of French Muslims is undercut by a predominant and persistent elite public discourse that frames Muslims as failed and incomplete French citizens. This situation fosters the very separations, exclusions, and hierarchies it claims to deplore as Muslims face discrimination in education, housing, and employment. In Constructing Muslims in France, Jennifer Fredette provides a deft empirical analysis to show the political diversity and complicated identity politics of this relativ...

  17. Muslims in Australian hospitals: the clash of cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Nooredin; Evans, David; Jones, Tina

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the multicultural nature of Australian society, with a specific focus on the Islamic culture. Islamic principles will be presented and the impact this has on the health-care provision of Muslim people will be explored. This paper highlights issues that Muslim patients face when hospitalized in Australia. Australia has seen a major shift in its society, from English-speaking European to one that boasts enormous cultural diversity. However, this cultural diversity poses a number of challenges for a Western-based health-care service based on differing needs and expectations. This challenge is perhaps most evident during times of illness, when the Muslim patient must attempt to adhere to the principles of their faith in the non-Islamic environment of the Australian hospital. The differences discussed in this paper serve to highlight the importance of having strategies that identify the needs and expectations of culturally diverse consumers of the hospital system.

  18. ILMU PENGETAHUAN DAN PERKEMBANGANNYA: Tantangan Kemajuan dan Kemunduran Dunia Muslim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Hasyim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many history of science writers thought that nowadays science phenomenon achieved by the West without including contribution of some other Moslem countries science. They truly interested with these believed, since the fact that science revolution happen in West Europe. However, labelling all aspect of science invention on the West precisely uncorrect. The fact that some other nation and civilization, such as Greece, China and India strongly and spreadly constribute, direct and indirectly to these science phenomenon. Among nations and it’s contribution to improvement of science which should be countable; is Muslim civilitation with it’s Islam civilitation. Importance of their contribution so that someone surely believed that if Muslim science would be the only trigger of science revolution on the West. Someone also logically believe that revolution of science could be happen among Muslim if only some events would not be happen since it sparge the science development at that time.

  19. Meeting needs of Muslim girls in school sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Tansin; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2013-01-01

    influences on PE experiences include gender stereotypes, cultural and religious orientations and practices, as well as actions and expectations of parents, communities and coaches/teachers. The studies provide insights into the ways participants managed their identities as Muslim girls in different sport......This paper contains a sociocultural analysis of school sport experiences of Muslim girls in two countries with different gender policies in physical education (PE) classes: England and Denmark. In Denmark, PE lessons take place in co-educative classes, in England schools are more diverse......, with predominantly co-educational but also single-sex and faith schools offering different learning contexts. Two case studies from Denmark and England are used to explore the experiences of migrant Muslim girls in these different settings. A social constructionist approach to gender underpins the interpretation...

  20. The Political Economy of English Education in Muslim Bengal: 1871-1912.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Aminur

    1992-01-01

    Examines explanations for lack of progress by Muslims in English education in East Bengal, colonial British India (now Bangladesh). Argues that urban-based, elitist English education failed to provide opportunities to rural Muslim farmers, and that, after the British formulated educational policies meeting Muslim needs, that community responded…

  1. Muslims in Post-War Sri Lanka: An Opportunity Lost for Conflict Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Imtiyaz Abdul Razak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the post-war Sri Lankan conditions among Sri Lanka Muslims, also known as Moors. The article will attempt to argue that state concessions to Muslim political leaders who supported the successive Sri Lanka’s ruling classes from independence through the defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE in 2009, have meant an isolation of the community from the other two main ethnic communities. The concessions that the Muslim community has won actively helped the Muslim community to be proactive in their religious practices and thus paved the way for exclusive social and political choices. The rise of Islamic movements and mosques in the post-1977 period galvanized Muslims. In time this isolation has been reinforced by socio-religious revival among Muslims whose ethnic identity has been constructed along the lines of the Islamic faith by Muslim elites. Despite this revival it has been clear that the Muslim community has been reluctant to use Islamic traditions and principles for peace building, which could have helped to ease tensions, brought about by the 30 year old ethnic conflict. On the other hand this paper will briefly discuss some reactions from the majority Sinhalese to Islamic revival as well as some issues between the Tamils and Muslims and the reintegration of Muslims in the North. Finally, some pragmatic ways to ease tensions between Muslims and non-Muslims in the greater discipline of conflict resolution are explored using traditions within Islam.

  2. The distinction between Islam and Muslims in the Dutch anti-Islamization discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, A.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the distinction, made by Dutch supporters of the anti-Islamization discourse, between Islam and Muslims, allowing them to say that they have a great deal against Islam, but nothing against Muslims. The main objective of this contribution is to analyze the Islam/Muslims distinc

  3. Black Muslim Girls Navigating Multiple Oppositional Binaries through Literacy and Letter Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Sherell A.; Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2017-01-01

    Writing alongside 12 African American Muslim girls, we led a summer literacy program in an effort to understand how Black Muslim adolescent girls write about their identities and ideas. The 4-week literacy program was designed to engage and support Black Muslim girls, aged 12-17 years old, in reading, writing, and understanding the multiple…

  4. U.S. Muslims after 9/11:  Poll Trends 2001-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark McCauley

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The terrorist attacks on September 11th 2001 brought increased attention to Muslims living in the United States. Results from four national polls of Muslim Americans conducted between 2001 and 2007 indicate that Muslim Americans feel increasingly negative about the direction in which America is heading and increasingly see the war on terrorism as a war on Islam.

  5. Islam and Muslims in U.S. Public Schools since September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Liz

    2011-01-01

    While much research has considered the way Muslims are represented in the mass media in recent years, there has been little exploration of the way Muslims and Islam are discussed in U.S. public schools. This article considers how Muslims and Islam are represented in educational standards, textbooks, and supplementary resources, with an eye to the…

  6. Islam, mental health and being a Muslim in the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Ahmed; Carrick, Frederick R; Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    The allegation that, 'Being Muslim means that you cannot be British' is often made. In view of this, we conducted a small survey (n=75) utilising purposive sampling on Muslims residing in the United Kingdom. Participants were recruited in a King's College London Islamic Society event in November 2014 in Guy's Hospital, London. 75/75 (100%) of the participants recruited responded. 69/75 (94%) of respondents either disagreed or strongly disagreed that, 'Being Muslim means that you cannot be British' (75/75 (100%) Muslim participants, 43/75 (57.3%) female participants, 32/75 (42.7%) male participants, mean Age 20.5 years, (Std. Dev. ±2.5)). This paper broadly seeks to answer two related questions. Firstly, 'What is the relationship between Islam and the West?' and secondly, 'What is the relationship between Islam and mental health?' In relation to the former, the rise of radicalization over recent years and the Islamophobia that has ensued have brought Islam and Muslims under intense scrutiny. Hence we feel it is both timely and important to offer a brief background of Islam and its relevance to the Western world. In relation to the latter, for many people religion and mental health are deeply and intimately intertwined. For example, religion can enable a person to develop mental health resilience and Islam has been reported to be a protective factor against suicidal behaviour. We conclude our paper by illustrating how the two questions are interrelated. We do so by offering an autobiographical narrative from a Muslim healthcare professional residing in the UK who developed a mental health problem precipitated by war in the country of his origin. His narrative includes descriptions of the role Islam that played in his recovery as well as his attempts to reconcile seemingly disparate aspects of his identity.

  7. Cosmic Anger Abdus Salam - The First Muslim Nobel Scientist

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Gordon Murray

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a biography of Abdus Salam, the first Muslim to win a Nobel Prize for Science (Physics 1979), who was nevertheless excommunicated and branded as a heretic in his own country. His achievements are often overlooked, even besmirched. Realizing that the whole world had to be his stage, he pioneered the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, a vital focus of Third World science which remains as his monument. A staunch Muslim, he was ashamed of thedecline of science in the heritage of Islam, and struggled doggedly to restore it to its former glory. Undermined by

  8. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljit Nagra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they are increasingly stigmatized for their religion. These findings lead us to problematize the discourse surrounding the ‘failure’ of multiculturalism and to highlight the contradictions within it.

  9. Changes in the timing of sexual initiation among young Muslim and Christian women in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Sohail

    2009-12-01

    Sexual initiation during adolescence has important demographic and health consequences for a population, yet no systematic analysis of changes in the timing of sexual initiation has been conducted in Nigeria. Two rounds of national surveys conducted in 1990 and 2003 were used to examine changes in the timing of sexual initiation among female adolescents in Nigeria. Multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards models was used to assess changes in the risk of sexual initiation and to identify the correlates of first sex. Contrary to what has been reported in several Nigerian studies, there was no decline in age at first sex among Christian adolescents. Age at first sex did not change significantly for Christian adolescents, although premarital sex appears to have increased-primarily due to an increase in the age at marriage. Age at first sex did increase among Muslim women. Premarital sex remained low among Muslim women. A number of socioeconomic variables were associated with the timing of sexual initiation. Weekly exposure to the mass media was associated with earlier sexual initiation. The degree to which an environment was liberal or restrictive was a key determinant of the timing of sexual initiation in Nigeria. The findings also illustrate the important role of socioeconomic factors in determining the timing of sexual initiation in Nigeria. As secondary education increases in Northern Nigeria, additional increases in the age at sexual debut are likely among Muslim women. The study raises concerns about the influence of the mass media on the timing of first sex in Nigeria. The evidence of an absence of changes in the timing of sexual initiation among Christian women in more than a decade implies that programs which aim to delay the timing of sexual initiation in Southern Nigeria may have limited success. With age at marriage already high among Christian women, programs that focus on abstinence until marriage may also be pursuing an approach with

  10. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Wilmington Harbor and Military Ocean Terminal, Sunny Point, North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.A.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, M.E.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (US)

    1993-07-01

    This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the proposed disposal of Wilmington Harbor and Military Ocean Terminal, Sunny Point (MOTSU), North Carolina, sediments in the ocean. The report is divided into five sections. Section 1.0 is the introduction containing a brief overview of the study and the study objectives. Section 2.0 describes the methods and materials used for sample collection, processing, toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, physical/chemical analysis of sediments and tissues, data analysis, and quality assurance procedures. Section 3.0 presents the results of field collections, sediment chemistry, toxicological testing, and tissue chemistry resulting from bioaccumulation exposures. Section 4.0 presents a discussion of the results and summary conclusions concerning the acceptability of the Wilmington Harbor and MOTSU dredged material for ocean disposal. Section 5.0 lists the literature cited in support of this document. A series of appendixes contain detailed data listings.

  11. Muslim Slaves and Freedmen in Medieval Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyer, François

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of slavery in medieval Portugal has focused almost exclusively on the status and fate of the sub-Saharan Africans who started to arrive in the kingdom from 1441 onwards. The work of A. C. de C. M Saunders, A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal 1441-1555 (Cambridge University Press, 1982 has been particularly important in this respect. In stark contrast to this, the fate of the substantial number of Muslim slaves who lived and worked in Portugal during the medieval period has to a large extent been overlooked. Using documentary evidence obtained from the national Portuguese archives, this article proposes to analyse in detail the origins of these slaves, their economic and social role and the laws that were promulgated to control them and their owners. The status of freedmen and manumission practices are also closely studied.

    El estudio de la esclavitud en el Portugal medieval ha sido dominado por estudios sobre los esclavos oriundos del África subsahariana que comenzaron a ser importados en aquel reino desde 1441. La obra de A. C. de C. M. Saunders, A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal 1441-1555 (Cambridge University Press, 1982 ha sido particularmente importante a este respecto. En contraste con esta situación, se sabe relativamente poco de los esclavos musulmanes en el reino medieval de Portugal. Utilizando nuevas fuentes documentales del archivo nacional portugués, este artículo se propone examinar los orígenes de estos esclavos musulmanes y su posición económica y social en el Portugal del medievo, así como las leyes reales que fueron promulgadas para controlar a los esclavos y a sus dueños. La posición social de los libertos y las prácticas de manumisión serán también estudiadas.

  12. Reading the Other and Reading Ourselves: An Interpretive Study of Amazon.com Reviews on Bestsellers about Muslims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angemeer, Alicia Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, Western readers have been turning to bestselling texts written by or about Muslims in their need to learn more about Muslims. These texts promise an insider's view of predominantly Muslim countries and peoples and are informally influencing and educating many Western readers in their perceptions of Muslims because…

  13. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, N.C.; restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Fear River and tributaries... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, N.C.; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of Cape Fear River due west of the main...

  14. Cloudy with a Chance of Sarcasm or Sunny with High Expectations: Using Best Practice Language to Strengthen Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloman, Hal; Yates, Peggy H.

    2013-01-01

    What's the forecast in your classroom? Are you forecasting cloudy with a chance of sarcasm or sunny with high expectations? A teacher's Language of Practice holds the key to creating a climate of mutual respect in our schools. This article will explore the power and promise of "teacher language," and how it can be used to…

  15. The relationship between vitamin D status and muscle strength in young healthy adults from sunny climate countries currently living in the northeast of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, N A; Gray, S R; Fraser, W D; Fielding, S; Macdonald, H M

    2017-04-01

    The current study examined the relationship between vitamin D status and muscle strength in young healthy adults: residents (>6 months) and newcomers (0-3 months), originally from sunny climate countries but currently living in the northeast of Scotland. Our longitudinal data found a positive, albeit small, relationship between vitamin D status and knee extensor isometric strength.

  16. Exploring the acceptability of human papillomavirus self-sampling among Muslim immigrant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofters AK

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aisha K Lofters,1–4 Mandana Vahabi,5,6 Mitra Fardad,7 Afrah Raza8 1Centre for Urban Health Solutions, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, St. Michael’s Hospital, 4Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, 5Faculty of Community Services, Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, 6Graduate Program in Immigration and Settlement Studies, Ryerson University, 7Faculty of Community Service, Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 8University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Background: With appropriate screening (ie, the Papanicolaou [Pap] test, cervical cancer is highly preventable, and high-income countries, including Canada, have observed significant decreases in cervical cancer mortality. However, certain subgroups, including immigrants from countries with large Muslim populations, experience disparities in cervical cancer screening. Little is known about the acceptability of human papillomavirus (HPV self-sampling as a screening strategy among Muslim immigrant women in Canada. This study assessed cervical cancer screening practices, knowledge and attitudes, and acceptability of HPV self-sampling among Muslim immigrant women. Methods: A convenience sample of 30 women was recruited over a 3-month period (June–August 2015 in the Greater Toronto Area. All women were between 21 and 69 years old, foreign-born, and self-identified as Muslim, and had good knowledge of English. Data were collected through a self-completed questionnaire. Results: More than half of the participants falsely indicated that Pap tests may cause cervical infection, and 46.7% indicated that the test is an intrusion on privacy. The majority of women reported that they would be willing to try HPV self-sampling, and more than half would prefer this method to provider-administered sampling methods

  17. Religious Instruction for Turkish Students of Muslim Faith in Bavaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Gerhart

    1989-01-01

    Discusses difficulties of providing religious instruction for Muslim school children in the Federal Republic of Germany. Notes the lack of a united Islamic religious community that could assist in the development and implementation of such an instruction. Explains and analyzes the Bavarian Ministry of Education's guidelines concerning such…

  18. Gender Jihad: Muslim Women, Islamic Jurisprudence, and Women's Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie P. Mejia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Muslim women's rights have been a topic of discussion and debate over the past few decades, and with a good reason. Islamic Law (Shariah is considered by many as patriarchal and particularly oppressive to women, and yet there are also others-Muslim women-who have rigorously defended their religion by claiming that Islam is the guarantor par excellence of women's rights. A big question begs to be answered: is Islam particularly oppressive to women?The Qur'an has addressed women's issues fourteen hundred years ago by creating certain reforms to improve the status of women; however, these reforms do not seem to be practiced in Muslim societies today.1 How is this so? I contend that Islam, as revealed to Muhammad, is not oppressive to women; rather, its interpretation, in so far as it is enacted in the family laws and everyday living, is patriarchal and hence needs to be examined.2 The goal of this work is to discuss what the Qur'an says about certain problems which gravely affect Muslim women, specifically: 1. gender equality 2. polygamy 3. divorce and the concept of nushuz

  19. Muslims in the Netherlands : Tensions and Violent Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Tinka; Bakker, Edwin; Emerson, M.

    2009-01-01

    he release of the anti-Islam movie “Fitna” by the Dutch Member of Parliament Geert Wilders, early 2008, aroused anxious fears of angry responses by Muslims communities. As happened in the Danish cartoon crisis, people expected the movie to trigger violent demonstrations, boycotts, the burning of fla

  20. Muslim women representations in the daily newspaper La Libre Belgique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim MEDDEB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explains the discursive modalities, which offer a media visibility of Muslim women in the daily newspaper La Libre Belgique. The analysis examines the newspaper’s material devices such as the creation of sections, the thematic structures and the reference strategies used in the news articles in order to construct social hierarchies based on religious identity and gender criteria.

  1. Parental religious transmission after migration: The case of Dutch Muslims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maliepaard, M.I.; Lubbers, M.

    2013-01-01

    In a secular host society where Islam is not reinforced outside the family or ethnic community, little is known of the extent to which Muslim immigrants succeed in transmitting their religion to their second-generation children. Parents are generally found to be important religious socialisation age

  2. Young Pakistani Muslim Women's Reflections on Difference, Future, and Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation employs data collected from multiple sites in Southern California over a period of nine months. Several in-depth ethnographic interviews and participant observations were conducted with Pakistani Muslim women (age 17-22) and their parents in an effort to better understand the influence that parents and ethno-religious communities…

  3. Inheritance of religiosity among Muslim immigrants in a secular society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Pol, Jasper; Van Tubergen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of religiosity within Muslim immigrant families who live in the Netherlands, a rather secular society. We studied whether transmission of religiosity within immigrant families is influenced by warm family relations on the one hand, and integrati

  4. Women's employment in Muslim countries: Patterns of diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, C.H.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    With the economic position of women in Muslim countries being a regular focus of public attention and a fiercely debated topic amongst academics, few systematic, detailed descriptions and analyses are available. This book presents a new and nuanced exploration of the topic, introducing a theoretical

  5. Student Teaching at Ground Zero: One Muslim Woman's Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyat, Zareen Niazi

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author, who is a Muslim English teacher shares her teaching experiences after the events of September 11, 2001 and shares her views on Islam. She points out that her appearance and clothing do not represent oppression and restriction but the liberation of her body from the unwanted gazes of those who reduce women from people…

  6. Indonesia’s Muslim Organisations and the Overthrow of Sukarno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Drakeley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of Muslim organisations in the slow overthrow of President Sukarno between 30 September 1965 and 12 March 1967. It argues that their role in the process was far more important than is usually appreciated in the literature. But the primary focus here is on the surprisingly slow and hesitant evolution of the stances taken by Muslim organisations in this period on the question of Sukarno’s presidency, as well as on the one hundred and eighty degree turn that they eventually executed. From almost unqualified support for Sukarno in 1965 Indonesia’s Muslim organisations shifted, at markedly different speeds, to vehement opposition by early 1967. This article traces the shift and seeks to explain the complex of motivations and calculations that produced it and were also responsible for its varying pace. It thereby provides revealing insights into the political thinking and practices of Indonesia’s Muslim organisations in this period of political transformation and flux.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v21i2.1039

  7. Production Systems for the Muslim Goat's Meat Market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute ... This paper investigates economic feasible production systems in agriculture to meet the ... Halal products such as pizzas, sausages and hamburgers, takes place ... Key words: Goat's meat; Norway; Production systems; Halal meat; Muslims; Mountain range pastures;.

  8. The Muslim Brotherhood in America: Orthodox and Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Director, Thomas C. Graves, COL, IN School of Advanced Military Studies ___________________________________ Director, Robert F. Baumann, Ph.D...doctrine after his death. But they have remained the guideposts of Muslim radicals ever since.” Walter Laqueur , Voices of Terror: Manifestos, Writings...Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1955. Laqueur , Walter. Voices of Terror: Manifestos, Writings, and Manuals of Al Qaeda, Hamas, and Other Terrorists

  9. contextualisation of the gospel among muslims1 1. introduction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing from total rejection of any aspect of the Muslim culture and beliefs to full accept- ance of the ... and the acceptance of Scripture as the revelation of God. It is argued ... that a wide variety of meanings, methods, and models are attached to.

  10. Status of Muslim Immigrants' Children with Learning Difficulties in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, M. Naeem; Shabbir, Muhammad; Saeed, Wizra; Mohsin, M. Saleem

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to know the status of Muslim immigrants' children with learning difficulties and importance of parents' involvement for the education whose children are with learning difficulties, and the factors responsible for the learning difficulties among immigrants' children. There were 81 immigrant children with learning…

  11. Making and unmaking Muslim religious authority in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinissen, M.M. van

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I wish to begin addressing a number of questions concerning Muslim religious authority, to which I do not have ready answers myself and which, I believe, have only incidentally been touched upon by earlier research. Given the fact that Islamic knowledge – by which I mean that which Mus

  12. Muslim Egyptian and Lebanese Students' Conceptions of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Wiles, Jason R.; Asghar, Anila; Alters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated distinctions among the diversity of religious traditions represented by Lebanese and Egyptian Muslim high school students regarding their understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and how they relate the science to their religious beliefs. We explored secondary students' conceptions of evolution among…

  13. Muslim Egyptian and Lebanese Students' Conceptions of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Wiles, Jason R.; Asghar, Anila; Alters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated distinctions among the diversity of religious traditions represented by Lebanese and Egyptian Muslim high school students regarding their understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and how they relate the science to their religious beliefs. We explored secondary students' conceptions of evolution among…

  14. Application of Library Management Software in Aligarh Muslim University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mehtab Alam

    2008-01-01

    Sir Syed Ahmad founded the Madrasatul Uloom in a small city named Aligarh in India. The establishment of this institute, which was later known as Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental (MAO) College and has now become Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), marks one of the most important events in the educational and social history of modern India. The Maulana…

  15. Spirituality in the Life and Career of Muslim Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogra, Imran

    2010-01-01

    Using a life history approach, this paper explores spirituality in the life and work of Muslim teachers employed in state schools of England. Background for discussion includes a rationale for the methodology and its advantages. The findings highlight their conceptualisation of God and purpose of life, and draw attention to their views and…

  16. Educating for Sexual Difference? Muslim Teachers' Conversations about Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjakdar, Fida

    2013-01-01

    Homosexuality is widely perceived among many Muslims as a "western disease", a natural outcome of the West's secularity and cultural degeneracy. In spite of the emergence of more liberal attitudes towards sexual differences in modern times, moral issues have not lost their relevance in polemical discourse against homosexuality among many…

  17. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  18. The New Folk Devils: Muslim Boys and Education in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Farzana

    2011-01-01

    Muslim boys, once regarded as passive, hard working and law-abiding, have been recast in the public imagination in recent years. Now the stereotypical image is of volatile, aggressive hotheads who are in danger of being brainwashed into terrorism, or of would-be gangsters who are creating no-go areas in English towns and cities. This timely and…

  19. Towards an Understanding of Muslim American Adolescent High School Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Derek X.; Khan, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    The researchers conducted a grounded theory study to explore the experiences of Muslim American adolescents in high school. Findings indicate that students had to navigate unique challenges because of their religious faith, but those obstacles presented opportunities to confront bias and discrimination. Recommendations for how school counselors…

  20. Negotiating Understanding through the Young Adult Literature of Muslim Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Allison L.; Glasgow, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    Although United States citizens generally pride themselves on their understanding and acceptance of diversity, all too many of them harbor a fear of Muslims, which transformed into widespread bigotry after September 11, 2001. Knowing that young adult literature can be a powerful means of negotiating understanding of the other, this article…

  1. The Dilemma of Islam as School Knowledge in Muslim Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobani, Shiraz

    2007-01-01

    In the contemporary period, the persistence of the dual system of state and "madrasa" education in many Muslim countries has raised for policymakers the dilemma of what form Islam ought to assume as a pedagogic category in these contexts. At one extreme, in the syllabi of traditionalist "madrasas", we find Islam being deployed as an overarching…

  2. Women's employment in Muslim countries: Patterns of diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, C.H.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    With the economic position of women in Muslim countries being a regular focus of public attention and a fiercely debated topic amongst academics, few systematic, detailed descriptions and analyses are available. This book presents a new and nuanced exploration of the topic, introducing a theoretical

  3. Student Teaching at Ground Zero: One Muslim Woman's Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyat, Zareen Niazi

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author, who is a Muslim English teacher shares her teaching experiences after the events of September 11, 2001 and shares her views on Islam. She points out that her appearance and clothing do not represent oppression and restriction but the liberation of her body from the unwanted gazes of those who reduce women from people…

  4. The Educational System in Muslim India: A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ahmed Noor

    1983-01-01

    Presents a review of Muslim education in India between the years 1008 and 1757. Generates seven conclusions about education in this period. Among them, that education was inseparable from religion, that almost all rulers were authors who encouraged mass education, and that problem solving, discovery, and other "modern" educational methods were…

  5. Australian Muslim civil society organisations: Pathways to social inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Shikeen Amath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is great interest on issues related to Muslims and Islam; however, a large concentration of the scholarly literature as well as media and political discourses focus predominantly on political issues and actions related to fundamentalism, radicalisation, militancy and terrorism. The dominance of these issues in the discourses does not provide a holistic understanding of Muslims, particularly their role, place and identity as minorities in a Western society. Indeed, we know relatively little about the larger number of Muslim political actors engaged in civil society, especially those involved in creating pathways to social inclusion. Utilising descriptive phenomenology, this paper explores the complex issues of social inclusion and the Australian Muslim communities. Underpinning this discussion is the theory of social capital; as noted by a number of scholars and social policy experts, the theory of social inclusion alone is inadequate and ineffective in creating participation, equality and cohesion. This paper also observes that while many reports and studies provide pragmatic suggestions on how to work towards the social inclusion of Australian Muslims, the concentration on these suggestions tend to focus on how the government can provide these solutions. What is lacking in the literature is the recognition of the Australian Muslim community’s role and agency in initiating and executing the programs needed to address such issues of social exclusion. The 30 unstructured phenomenological interviews demonstrate that Australian MCSOs are proactively engaging with their communities to ensure that they are responding appropriately to these issues. Moreover, they are creating pathways and access for Australian Muslims to better participate, engage in and contribute to mainstream society. In particular, the MCSO actors revealed four themes related to social inclusion: supporting participation in education and training, facilitating participation

  6. Women in Islam: Qur'anic ideals versus Muslim realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, R

    1995-01-01

    The tragic irony of Islam is that its sacred text, the Qur'an, is particularly solicitous of women's well-being and development, yet Islamic traditions discriminate against girls from the moment of their lamented births. Islam is proud to have abolished female infanticide, yet one of the most common crimes in many Muslim countries is the "honor killing" of women by male relatives. The Qur'anic description of marriage suggests closeness, mutuality, and equality, but tradition defines a husband as his wife's god in earthly form (despite the Qur'an prohibition against human deification as the one unpardonable sin), her gateway to heaven, and the arbiter of her final destiny. The Qur'an permits divorce without fault, but Muslim societies have made divorce both legally and socially very difficult for women. The Qur'an stipulates that both parents must concur on the raising of children and not use the children against each other, but in many Muslim countries divorced women automatically lose custody of their children when the boys turn 7 and the girls 12. Muslim traditions have misinterpreted the Qur'an's spirit and intentions in the matters of polygamy, inheritance rights, purdah (keeping women isolated and at home), and veiling. These customs were originally intended to protect women and even guarantee women autonomy; they have become instead instruments of oppression. The Qur'an does not prohibit family planning, a review of the literature suggests ample religious and ethical support for family planning, but there is the mistaken impression that family planning is anti-Islam. The challenge for all women, and especially Muslim women, is to move from a reactive mind set, in which women must assert their autonomy over patriarchal opposition, to a proactive mind set, in which they can speak of themselves as full and independent human beings with minds and spirits as well as bodies. Muslim women must work in full partnership with Muslim men, rejecting Western models of

  7. The Muslim Body in the Baroque Jesuit Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shore, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jesuits of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries— even those living relatively closely to Muslim lands— often had no personal knowledge of Muslims, and yet the figure of the Muslim loomed large in the baroque Jesuit imagination. Because Jesuit formation involves the visualization of events and persons never seen, Jesuits of this period were in a special position to construct an imaginary Muslim, which they derived from translations of the Qur’an, from artworks, including book illustrations, and from the patterns and symbolism of Jesuit emblematics. This essay explores how baroque Jesuit visualization of the Muslim body was shaped by these factors, and also by other Europe-wide phenomena such as turcica literature.Los jesuitas de los siglos XVII y XVIII, incluso los que vivían relativamente cerca a tierras islámicas, no tenían a menudo un conocimiento personal de los musulmanes. Sin embargo, la figura del musulmán fue cobrando mucha importancia en el imaginario jesuita del Barroco. Puesto que la formación jesuita consistía en la visualización de los eventos y las personas, aunque sin haber sido vistas, los jesuitas de este período se encontraban en una situación muy especial para la construcción de un Musulmán imaginario, tomado de las traducciones del Corán, de obras de arte, incluyendo ilustraciones de libros, y de los patrones y símbolos de los emblemas jesuitas. Este ensayo explora cómo la visualización del cuerpo del musulmán en el barroco jesuita fue influida por estos factores, y también por otros fenómenos surgidos del ámbito europeo, como la literatura turca.

  8. Theological Responses to the Concepts of Democracy and Human Rights: The Case of Contemporary Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals

    OpenAIRE

    Masykuri Abdillah

    2014-01-01

    Almost all governments in the world, including authoritarian, claiming that their political system is democratic. However, not all governments in the Muslim world accept this system. Among the 'ulama and Muslim intellectuals themselves there are differences of opinion about the system and the concept of democracy. In general, the modernist Muslim groups accept this system, because he was judged to be compatible with Islam, while Muslim groups "fundamentalist" and mostly conservative Muslim...

  9. The significance of psychology and environment dimensions for Malaysian Muslim women entrepreneurships venturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Bin Che Mat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The decision to venture into business is relatively differ from each entrepreneur. Some are attracted to the pulling factors while others may be geared based on pushing factors. However the significant of the venturing success are believed to be as a result of inner psychological drive that mobilized their energy to venture into business related sectors. Thus this paper attempts to empirically discuss the effect of psychological and environmental factors in encouraging women to be in business. The survey was conducted on the population involving 436 samples taken on convenience basis. Data was gathered by using personally questionnaires. Through this investigation the result demonstrated that psychological factors are highly relevant, and the strength of its contribution are further supported by the role of environmental factors that encourage Muslim Women to venture into various type of business activities not only at the local but at the national level. The impact of the study shows Muslim women are going to be a perusal factor in economic advancement.  For the further study, the detail investigation concerning the financial strategy must be put into consideration along with variables such as management expertise, global marketing, and cultural diversity developments.

  10. The significance of psychology and environment dimensions for Malaysian Muslim women entrepreneurships venturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norudin bin Mansor

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The decision to venture into business is relatively differ from each entrepreneur. Some are attracted to the pulling factors while others may be geared based on pushing factors. However the significant of the venturing success are believed to be as a result of inner psychological drive that mobilized their energy to venture into business related sectors. Thus this paper attempts to empirically discuss the effect of psychological and environmental factors in encouraging women to be in business. The survey was conducted on the population involving 436 samples taken on convenience basis. Data was gathered by using personally questionnaires. Through this investigation the result demonstrated that psychological factors are highly relevant, and the strength of its contribution are further supported by the role of environmental factors that encourage Muslim Women to venture into various type of business activities not only at the local but at the national level. The impact of the study shows Muslim women are going to be a perusal factor in economic advancement. For the further study, the detail investigation concerning the financial strategy must be put into consideration along with variables such as management expertise, global marketing, and cultural diversity developments.

  11. Youth-Adult Partnership: A New Way Forward for Greater Muslim Youth Participation in Schools and Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    steven eric krauss

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Young people in Muslim majority countries are a valuable asset and investing in them can bring tremendous social and economic benefits. They also face many challenges that undermine their ability to develop and contribute to society. To make the most of the opportunity, these countries must find ways to increase the human and social capital of their respective youth populations. Youth participation in formal and non-formal educational settings such as schools and community programs has been identified as an effective approach to enhancing young people’s experiences. Building on initial findings from Malaysia, the current paper puts forth the concept of youth-adult partnership (Y-AP as a strategy for schools. Y-AP has been shown to enhance personal agency, empowerment and connection to community, three attributes that are critical for Muslim youth to play more substantive roles in national development. The paper further attempts to frame Y-AP within an Islamic socio-historical lens, drawing on examples from the Prophet Muhammad SAW and the early Muslim community to show how developmental relationships were central to the social and educational culture within the Prophet’s community. Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/sd.v2i2.2810

  12. Categorizing Muslims in Postcolonial Indonesia Les musulmans dans l’Indonésie post-coloniale : essai de typologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper categorizes Muslim beliefs and practices in postcolonial Indonesia—santri-abangan-priyayi, traditionalist-modernist, political-cultural, fundamentalist-liberal, great-little tradition, and global-local—and argues that, far from being fixed, they must be situated in context. Such a typology must consider contingency, diversity, and complexity, shaped by various factors. The terms santri and abangan are useful to identify fractions of the Muslim population in Java, but are not relevant in other islands. Santri, originally the students in religious schools (pesantren, now encompasses the wider category of the pious Muslims, whereas abangan refers to nominal Muslims. The two groups have a dynamic relationship, including its politicization in contemporary Indonesia. The traditionalist vs. modernist contrast, influenced by colonialism and the modernization theory, has prevailed, but Muslim groups often perceive their difference in non-fundamental religious matters, rather than in terms of tradition vs. modernity. The political vs. cultural Muslim contrast is between groups that stress politics and groups that do not, but many political Muslims are involved in cultural activities, as many may shift from political to cultural activism. The fundamentalist vs. liberal contrast, referring to the stricter vs. freer interpretation of Islam, emerged from Western and global circumstances, but such fundamentalism and liberalism have various meanings, including political. The contrast of the great vs. little tradition is also problematic if static situations, either “backward” or “civilized,” are implied. Finally, the contrast of local vs. global Islam reflects the impact of processes of globalization and localization, although it is also contingent.Cet article considère les diverses catégories utilisées pour différencier les croyances et pratiques musulmanes dans l’Indonésie post-coloniale – et propose que, loin d’être fig

  13. Trading Activity and Ethnodomestication of Plants by Manipuri Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Mustaque AHMED

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Long distance traveling and trading activity of Muslims from great antiquity brought plants into Manipur (Indo-Burma-China region. The indigenous traveling vehicles, horses needed poppy as their essential medicinal food as well as horse diet. Some words such as- Turushka, Pasha (Pasa, Pangal, Pathan, Mangal, Mughal, are found to be synonymous with the word Muslims and these words were associated with the plants. Ethno-domestication of 18 (eighteen plants in their kitchen garden, flower garden, courtyard, fields, orchards etc, was found. Survey of literature couples with field survey was carried out with an aim to understand the sustainable use of bio-resources. Uses of plants among Manipuri community in various purposes were known to this community. To this aspect, an approach of traditional plant stalk conservation is observed from time immemorial.

  14. Padua's Muslim: on the new Italian Islamic identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Adela Zaros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposed text reflects on the Muslim community and families in Padua including interviews in order to individuate the practices of the transmission of beliefs within the family and the continuity of the group. Mainly from the development of three main points: religious socialization, community representation as umma, according to the mandate of Give to Islam as well of the dichotomy we Muslims / they Christians discourses. Finally, the meanings of identities governed by ethnicity and / or religion and new generations with current debates and struggles identified as new collective identities. That is, the reinterpretation allows the emergence of a new collective identity that makes use of practices that are in tension with the host society emerging like a political force.

  15. Jamaah kraton: the Muslim new agers from Pekalongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Aida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know Muslim New Age identity, how theNew Age practitioners identify themselves as Muslim and apply religiosity, attitudeand expression in their personal and social life. This research discussesabout the religious experiences perceived by those practitioners of ShamballaMulti Dimension Healing.It was a qualitative research using analytical descriptive method, in which theresearcher tried to describe the Muslim New Agers identity by explaining theirritual and their perception about their religion and tradition. The location of thisresearch was in Pekalongan, because it is a good example to describe how NewAge impact to religion and tradition by describing how some Arabian MoslemPekalongan conducted some New Age activities.The research finding shows that Jamaah Kraton from Pekalongan feel comfortablewith New Age because of two main reasons: the fascinating teaching andthe charismatic leader. Moreover, they able to negotiate their religious identityproblem by passing over and mixed all religion’s teaching which has no contrarywith their main religion and tradition, Islam and Arab tradition. If they find anycontradiction (in common definition of other Muslim, they will not feel that theyconduct heresy, and the comfort ability they had picturing of a ‘merger and crossover’,‘a creation of a mixed cultures and’ and ‘syncretism’. Di Indonesia, terutama sejak awal 1990-an, kita menyaksikan penuhnya tempatkajian tasawuf dan maraknya buku-buku tentang ini. Bahkan fenomena bangkitnyaspiritualitas ini sudah pula memasuki kalangan profesional dan bisnis, berkatkehadiran KH Abdullah Gymnastiar (Aa Gym dengan Manajemen Qolbu, atau M.Arifin Ilham dengan gerakan zikir, atau Ary Ginandjar dengan pelatihan ESQ.Teknik reiki dan meditasi modern seperti Anand Asram dan Brahma Kumarisjuga digemari di kalangan kaum muda dan paruh baya, tidak terkecuali denganReiki Shamballa yang tergolong baru di Indonesia, juga

  16. Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd as a Modern Muslim Thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR ZAINATUL NADRA ZAINOL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd is a thinker who has produced works in the fields of theology, philosophy, law, politics and humanities. Abu Zayd’s thought, partly on the Quran and its hermeneutics has stirred controversy in Egypt and the Muslim world. This research focuses on the controversy surrounding Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd which led to the declaration of his apostasy by the Supreme Court of Egypt in 1995, as well as his controversial thoughts on the Quran, its method of exegesis and certain fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence issues such as the hijab (veil and polygamy. This paper serves as a literature review which employs the content analysis as a methodology to elaborate on Abu Zayd’s controversial thoughts based on his books, as well as through the views of Muslim and Western scholars on those thoughts.

  17. Muslims of the Dutch East Indies and the Caliphate Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin van Bruinessen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The abolition of 'Abd al-Majid's caliphate by Turkey's national assembly in March 1924, and the call by Azhar 'ulama' for an international congress in Cairo to elect a new khalifah the following year, had the effct of making Muslims in the Dutch Indies more aware that they were living under infildel rule. These events, and the conquest of the Hijaz by Ibn Sa'ud in the same year, briefly caised feverish activity the Indies. The interm advisor on native affairs to the Dutch Indies goverment, R.A. Kern, even spoke of 'a milestone in the Muhammadan movement in this country." For a few years these issues kept Indonesian Muslim leaders occupied and caused splits in the ranks; then suddenly the caliphate issue dropped from yhe agenda, never to reappear.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v2i3.829

  18. The Increasing Influence of Muslims in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past two millennia, Europe and more recent the European Union had significant interferences with the Muslim world. The first major contact date back to the 8th century, when the Muslim rulers subdued a part of the South-Western Europe, bringing on our continent their cultural, social, economic and technological values. Since then, the contact between the two civilisations has continued, being characterised by conflicts, temporary alliances, peaceful years, culminating recently with the highest wave of Islamic migration towards Europe in history. Our paper aims at unveiling the main features of the current relations between the two civilisations from three perspectives: historical, demographical and economic. We base our research on the literature, recent developments as presented in relevant journals and the available statistical data.

  19. Feminist dilemmas and the agency of veiled Muslim women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses dilemmas of agency for feminism through reflections on social psychological research on the role of representations in the construction of identity by Muslim women. Engaging first with Saba Mahmood’s account of religious subjectivities in Politics of Piety (2005), the author...... argues that feminist research requires a social conception of agency that addresses dialogical dynamics of representation and identity. Drawing on research concerning veiling and identity among Muslim women in the UK and Denmark, the author shows how a social conception of agency may be elaborated...... through the analysis of how competing representations of gender are negotiated in the self–other encounter. The author argues that a dialogical approach to researching identity in context defies blunt political judgement while shedding light on the intersecting socio-cultural forces and relations of power...

  20. On the politics and practice of Muslim fertility: comparative evidence from West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Hanks, Jennifer

    2006-03-01

    Recent popular works have represented Muslim fertility as dangerously high, both a cause and consequence of religious fundamentalism. This article uses comparative, statistical methods to show that this representation is empirically wrong, at least in West Africa. Although religion strongly inflects reproductive practice, its effects are not constant across different communities. In West African countries with Muslim majorities, Muslim fertility is lower than that of their non-Muslim conationals; in countries where Muslims are in the minority, their apparently higher reproductive rates converge to those of the majority when levels of education and urban residence are taken into account. A similar pattern holds for infant mortality. By contrast, in all seven countries, Muslim women are more likely to report that their most recent child was wanted. The article concludes with a discussion of the relationship between autonomy and fertility desires.

  1. Terorisme sebagai Cabaran Ideologi Muslim Masa Kini: Satu Analisis dari Perspektif Falsafah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUL`AZMI YAAKOB

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is currently becoming an ideological challenge for Muslims in contemporary world. The rise of terrorist groups such as the Islamic State (IS and others who claimed themselves as jihadist and propagates Islamic jihad similar to the idea of the medieval ‘Holy War’ not only target non-Muslims or kuffar, but also their Muslim brothers respectively. This act of terrorism raised dilemma among Muslim societies in general whether to support the extreme groups or to defy them as they portrayed themselves as representing the whole Muslims whereas in fact they only represent a group of disillusioned Muslims. This paper aims at analysing their ideological challenge from the philosophical point of view and Islamic ethics. Generally, this analysis emphasizes on the importance of Islamic ethics and law in order to achieve true understanding of jihad.

  2. Globalization and the cultural safety of an immigrant Muslim community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Cynthia

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports a study the aim of which was to further understanding of cultural safety by focusing on the social health of a small immigrant community of Muslims in a relatively homogeneous region of Canada following the terror attacks on 11 September 2001 (9/11). The aftermath of 9/11 negatively affected Muslims living in many centers of Western Europe and North America. Little is known about the social health of Muslims in smaller areas with little cultural diversity. Developed by Maori nurses, the cultural safety concept captures the negative health effects of inequities experienced by the indigenous people of New Zealand. Nurses in Canada have used the concept to understand the health of Aboriginal peoples. It has also been used to investigate the nursing care of immigrants in a Canadian metropolitan centre. Findings indicated, however, that the dichotomy between culturally safe and unsafe groups was blurred. The methodology was qualitative, based on the constructivist paradigm. A purposive sample of 26 Muslims of Middle Eastern, Indian or Pakistani origin and residing in the province of New Brunswick, Canada were interviewed in 2002-2003. Findings. Participants experienced a sudden transition from cultural safety to cultural risk following 9/11. Their experience of cultural safety included a sense of social integration in the community and invisibility as a minority. Cultural risk stemmed from being in the spotlight of an international media and becoming a visible minority. Cultural risk is not necessarily rooted in historical events and may be generated by outside forces rather than by longstanding inequities in relationships between groups within the community. Nurses need to think about the cultural safety of their practices when caring for members of socially disadvantaged cultural minority groups as this may affect the health services delivered to them.

  3. Anti-Muslim Violence and the Possibility of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Kolankiewicz, Marta

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the ways in which justice is dispensed in Swedish courts in cases concerning anti-Muslim violence. Based on material accessed through the Swedish National Board for Crime Prevention and classified as Islamophobic hate crimes, the judicial treatment of cases that may involve racism is analysed. An aim is to explore how different laws against racism in the Swedish legal system, most importantly the penalty enhancement provision for crimes motivated by racism, work ...

  4. Substance Use among Muslim Students in Aceh, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inda Mariana Harahap

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Illicit substance use is a serious social problem faced by adolescents worldwide, including adolescents in Aceh and has many negative consequences. In addition, illicit substance use does not fit with the values of Islamic teaching, and is strictly prohibited in Islam. Purpose: The aims of this paper are to determine the prevalence of illicit substance use, the stages of substance use, and types of substance used among Muslim students in senior high schools in Aceh, Indonesia. Method: Four hundred and twenty six students who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from four senior high schools in Banda Aceh by using simple random sampling, and of these, 290 returned a completed questionnaire. A self reported questionnaire was used to collect data. Result: The mean age of the subjects was 15.9 years old and the majority of them were female (68.6%. The study found that the prevalence of substance use was 2.4%with a higher number of females than males who had used illicit substances. The common substances that were used by the students were marijuana and dextromethorphon, as well as intentionally inhaled substances. Lastly, out of the students who had used illegal substances the majority was in the regular use stage (1.4%. Conclusion: This study found that substance use among Muslim students in Aceh exists, although prevalence was low. Thus, several preventive programs may be needed in Aceh not only for Muslims students who have used substances but also for students who have not use illegal substances. Keywords: Adolescents, Substance use, Muslim students, Indonesia.

  5. The Contestation of Muslim and Special Autonomy in Papua

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyo Pamungkas

    2016-01-01

    Identitas politik orang Papua dianggap sebagai ras Melanesia dengan ciri-ciri yaitu orang yang berkulit hitam, rambut keriting dan beragama Kristen. Identitas politik semacam itu dipergunakan oleh orang-orang elit Papua sebagai alat perpolitikan, namun politik identitas tersebut menjadi agak berbahaya berkaitan dengan identitas Papua yang inklusif dan toleran. Pada kenyataannya, orang Papua asli dapat dibedakan menurut identitas agama mereka yang terdiri dari orang Kristen, Katolik dan Muslim...

  6. The impact of silicon solar cell architecture and cell interconnection on energy yield in hot & sunny climates

    KAUST Repository

    Haschke, Jan

    2017-03-23

    Extensive knowledge of the dependence of solar cell and module performance on temperature and irradiance is essential for their optimal application in the field. Here we study such dependencies in the most common high-efficiency silicon solar cell architectures, including so-called Aluminum back-surface-field (BSF), passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC), passivated emitter rear totally diffused (PERT), and silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. We compare measured temperature coefficients (TC) of the different electrical parameters with values collected from commercial module data sheets. While similar TC values of the open-circuit voltage and the short circuit current density are obtained for cells and modules of a given technology, we systematically find that the TC under maximum power-point (MPP) conditions is lower in the modules. We attribute this discrepancy to additional series resistance in the modules from solar cell interconnections. This detrimental effect can be reduced by using a cell design that exhibits a high characteristic load resistance (defined by its voltage-over-current ratio at MPP), such as the SHJ architecture. We calculate the energy yield for moderate and hot climate conditions for each cell architecture, taking into account ohmic cell-to-module losses caused by cell interconnections. Our calculations allow us to conclude that maximizing energy production in hot and sunny environments requires not only a high open-circuit voltage, but also a minimal series-to-load-resistance ratio.

  7. THE QUR’AN AND LIBERATION OF MUSLIM WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Mukherjee,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the most common topic of the oppression of Muslim women. But one thing that will be highlighted in this paper is that the oppression is not religious but social. The common misconception among non-Muslims is that Islam promotes the repression of women. This paper will clearly trace instances to prove that Islam lays great emphasis on the equality of the sexes and the oppression that is inflicted on women is by the society and it has nothing to do with Islam as such. Women were always suppressed by various cultures and laying the blame on Islam solely puts forth the fact that we are unaware of the other civilizations that had gone a step further in oppressing women. A study of Hinduism and its tradition will also bring forth the various ways of oppression done to women. Islam has always been misunderstood. It‟s not Islam but the laws of the Muslim based institutions that have created this gender bias. There are other aspects that play a major role in determining the identity of a person. Through this paper I will try to unveil these common misconceptions of Islam to reveal the beauty associated with this religion and bask in its glory.

  8. The Educational Rights of the Muslim Minority under Greek Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Kalliopi Boussiakou

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The right of the Muslim minority of Western Thrace to receive education in the mother tongue is provided by the Treaty of Lausanne and the educational bilateral agreements-the Educational Agreement (1951 and the Cultural Protocol (1968-signed between Greece and Turkey. Due to certain particularities in the educational system, however, minority students do not have adequate opportunities to gain knowledge of the Greek or Turkish language. The major problems the Muslim minority faces in education include: a mixed system of administration, outdated textbooks, poorly-educated teaching staff and the absence of an efficient school curriculum. This article will provide a critical analysis of the existing legislation on education provided to Muslim students in the minority schools of Western Thrace. Secondly, an examination will be made of the level and status of minority education in light of current international human rights treaties documents for the protection of minorities. The existing inadequacies of the educational system will be addressed to provide a series of effective solutions and recommendations in favour of the advancement and improvement of education in minority schools. The article will therefore examine the principle that education needs to be made available and accessible at all levels to the member of a minority group and, most importantly, it needs to adapt to the socio-linguistic and cultural needs of minority students.

  9. Britishness and Community Cohesion in Muslim News Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen ZRIBA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of British national identity and social cohesion have become pressing concerns within the multicultural fabric of contemporary British society. The increasing number of immigrants and their offspring, along with the maintenance of their cultural roots, seem to represent a serious defiance to social cohesion and the alleged “purity” of Britishness. A number of race related reports were produced by the official authorities to churn out the necessary steps to be followed by the British (immigrants and host community in order to keep social stability and community cohesion. Thus, the politics of community cohesion came to the fore as the neologism of contemporary British political discourse. Such new discourse of governance has been digested and processed differently by different mass media. It has been decoded, for instance, preferably by mainstream news agencies like BBC News Online. However, arguably, it is read appositionally or at best negotiatedly by ethnicity-related news agencies such as Muslim News Online. In this article, attempt has been made to adopt media discourse analysis tools to decipher the ways Muslim News Online decoded and then encoded the hegemonic official discourses of Britishness and community cohesion. A critical and interpretative approach is used to accomplish such study. The corpus of this study is primarily extracted from the website of the Muslim News Online.

  10. EVERYDAY QUR’AN DI ERA POST-KONSUMERISME MUSLIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Endy Saputro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to give a preliminary draft to formulate an innovative concept in the Qur’anic studies world in the age of post-consumerism Muslim. Recent studies on tug of war between globalization and religion have been identifying salient social transformation in some parts of Muslim world, such as the rise of new (media religious authority, religious commodification trends, varieties of Islamic consumption, the emergence of public Islam and so forth. Apart from these recent scholarships, which successfully grasp the globalization’s influence toward religion (Islam, this paper offers the concept of everyday Qur’an as an alternative basic approach of understanding the cultures of Qur’an in this changing (Muslim world and at the same time, seeking to briefly explain its emerging issues. Some exemplary issues then have analytically discussed to reflect how the proposed theory applied. Thus, everyday Qur’an can contribute the discourse of cultures based technology in the context of Qur’anic Studies. 

  11. Muslim and gay: seeking identity coherence in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The process of accepting oneself as gay and of 'coming out' to family and friends is well documented. For Muslim men, this is complicated by the tension between their emerging sexual identity and their religious and cultural birth identity, which labels homosexuality as sinful. This paper explores this process in a sample of five gay Muslim men living in New Zealand, a liberal secular society where homosexuality is widely accepted and gay rights are endorsed in legislation. Identity Process Theory drives the analysis, which identifies five themes encapsulating the process of striving for psychological coherence: resistance, acceptance, tension, renegotiation and pretence. Initial phases of denial and anger at their emerging sexuality are strongly linked to the conflict with their religious identity. Later, acceptance of their sexuality as natural and even God-given protects them from blame for their 'sins'. In contrast to earlier work in the UK, for most men, renegotiation of their Muslim identity is adopted as the key strategy for achieving intrapsychic coherence. However, at an interpersonal level, families remain a source of conflict, temporarily resolved through pretence. Renegotiating religious identity leaves men having to pretend not just to be straight, but also to be strongly religious.

  12. "Muslim allerførst" - om religiøsitet og diasporiske selvkonstruktioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen tager udgangspunkt i empiribaserede refleksioner over unge muslimers måder at fremstille sig selv på baggrund af teoretiske perspektiver på diasporisk selvkonstruktion, transnationale relationer og intersektionalitet. Der ses nærmere på to overordnede tendenser: 1. Positionering som "all...... "allerførst muslim" med distance til kulturelle, nationale og etniske kategorier, og 2. Positionering som muslim i forhold til nationale, etniske og kulturelle tilhørsforhold....

  13. Muslim Brothers in the Mirror : A Modernizing Agent in Contemporary Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Marius Orningård

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines the progressive aspects of Islamism by conducting a case study of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. By applying the modernization theory of Inglehart and Welzel (2005), it examines the Muslim Brotherhood's attitudes towards a set of questions derived from the modernization theory. As such, it attempts to discover if the attitudes displayed by the Muslim Brotherhood is compatible with factors shown to create development, modernization, and ultimately, democracy.

  14. The Muslim Brotherhood and Modern Education: How Will the Muslim Brotherhood Address Egypt’s Failing Education System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    by Euclid and Archimedes , original work was conducted as well. Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi wrote Kitab al Jabr wa-I-Muqabalah the first book on...secular and religious education using Western pedagogical methods. His education caused al-Banna to implement theories of European holistic education...Ibid. 222 Ziad Munson, “Islamic Mobilization: Social Movement Theory and the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood,” The Sociological Quarterly 42, no. 4

  15. Forensic STR loci reveal common genetic ancestry of the Thai-Malay Muslims and Thai Buddhists in the deep Southern region of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutanan, Wibhu; Kitpipit, Thitika; Phetpeng, Sukanya; Thanakiatkrai, Phuvadol

    2014-12-01

    Among the people living in the five deep Southern Thai provinces, Thai-Malay Muslims (MUS) constitute the majority, while the remaining are Thai Buddhists (BUD). Cultural, linguistic and religious differences between these two populations have been previously reported. However, their biological relationship has never been investigated. In this study, we aimed to reveal the genetic structure and genetic affinity between MUS and BUD by analyzing 15 autosomal short tandem repeats. Both distance and model-based clustering methods showed significant genetic homogeneity between these two populations, suggesting a common biological ancestry. After Islamization in this region during the fourteenth century AD, gradual albeit nonstatistically significant genetic changes occurred within these two populations. Cultural barriers possibly influenced these genetic changes. MUS have closer admixture to Malaysian-Malay Muslims than BUD countrywide. Admixture proportions also support certain degree of genetic dissimilarity between the two studied populations, as shown by the unequal genetic contribution from Malaysian-Malay Muslims. Cultural transformation and recent minor genetic admixture are the likely processes that shaped the genetic structure of both MUS and BUD.

  16. self-criticism to Arab and Muslim intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachrizal Halim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Arab Thought: Studies in Post-1967 Arab Intellectual Historyis written as a self-criticism addressed to Arab and Muslim intellectuals, especially those who reside in the West. The Arab intellectuals or Muslims alike, who have received Western education and have decided to live in Western countries in the first half of twentieth century, have actually benefited from their modern secular education. The liberalization of U.S. immigration laws in 1965 for non-European immigrants has even enlarged the number of Arabs and Muslims who have trained in the best institutions in the U.S. By the dawn of the twentieth century, the number of Arab intellectuals who reside in the West is estimated to double, as the result of the emergence of a second generation. However, the large number of educated Arab people does not always fulfill the promise of transformation of the social conditions of the Arab World. Far from being ‘organic intellectuals’, to use Gramsci’s favorite term, who would transform Arab societies from imperialism and Western hegemony, and the impact of dependency on the so called ‘globalization,’ most Arab thinkers in the West as well as the elite in the Arab world have been party to Western capitalist interests which aim to control the Arab World. By no means denigrating the works of Isma‘il Raji al-Faruqi, Edward Said, Ghada Hashem Talhami, Halim Barakat, or the feminist Leila Ahmad, to mention some brilliant Arab intellectuals, most Arab thinkers in the West seem to have forgotten the social conditions of the Arab world that have been in acute crisis since the mid nineteenth century or from the time colonialism stepped into the Arab world. Pseudo modernization—to say that there has never been any modernization as it emerged from the middle class as in Europe, but was initiated mainly by the elites—has kept Arab intellectuals in the West completely in the dark and unable to offer radical solution to the crises of

  17. Vertical changes in the probability distribution of downward irradiance within the near-surface ocean under sunny conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernez, Pierre; Stramski, Dariusz; Darecki, Miroslaw

    2011-07-01

    Time series measurements of fluctuations in underwater downward irradiance, Ed, within the green spectral band (532 nm) show that the probability distribution of instantaneous irradiance varies greatly as a function of depth within the near-surface ocean under sunny conditions. Because of intense light flashes caused by surface wave focusing, the near-surface probability distributions are highly skewed to the right and are heavy tailed. The coefficients of skewness and excess kurtosis at depths smaller than 1 m can exceed 3 and 20, respectively. We tested several probability models, such as lognormal, Gumbel, Fréchet, log-logistic, and Pareto, which are potentially suited to describe the highly skewed heavy-tailed distributions. We found that the models cannot approximate with consistently good accuracy the high irradiance values within the right tail of the experimental distribution where the probability of these values is less than 10%. This portion of the distribution corresponds approximately to light flashes with Ed > 1.5?, where ? is the time-averaged downward irradiance. However, the remaining part of the probability distribution covering all irradiance values smaller than the 90th percentile can be described with a reasonable accuracy (i.e., within 20%) with a lognormal model for all 86 measurements from the top 10 m of the ocean included in this analysis. As the intensity of irradiance fluctuations decreases with depth, the probability distribution tends toward a function symmetrical around the mean like the normal distribution. For the examined data set, the skewness and excess kurtosis assumed values very close to zero at a depth of about 10 m.

  18. Perceptions of work by pious Muslim students: A comparison between the Netherlands and Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batum, D.S.

    2016-01-01

    There are widespread ideas about Muslim women being oriented to life at home and not participating in paid labour. This article explores notions of work in the groups of practicing Muslim, veiled Turkish-Dutch students of higher education in the Netherlands and Turkish veiled higher education studen

  19. Shaping a Muslim State : The World of a Mid-Eighth-Century Egyptian Official

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijpesteijn, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Shaping a Muslim State provides a synthetic study of the political, social, and economic processes which formed early Islamic Egypt. Looking at a corpus of previously unknown Arabic papyrus letters, dating from between AD 730 and 750, which were written to a Muslim administrator and merchant in the

  20. On the Margins: The Depiction of Muslims in Young Children's Picturebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Heidi J.

    2016-01-01

    There are few empirical studies that examine the depiction of Muslims in children's literature. Given the influence of US media on perspectives of Muslims (Jackson, 2010), and the pervasive use of children's literature in American schools, it is important to investigate what viewpoints about Islam are being communicated to children through these…

  1. Muslims ritualising death in the Netherlands: Death rites in a small town context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, C.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Muslims ritualising death in the Netherlands. Death rites in a small town context. Claudia Venhorst This study on the common practice of Islamic death rites in the Netherlands affords valuable insights in the lived religion of Muslims. Particularly in a small town context, marked by migration and d

  2. Muslim Education and Its (In)commensurability with Multiculturalism: Some Thoughts on the Imaginative Madrassah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    Muslim education is not incommensurate with multiculturalism and, hence, does not pose a threat to multiculturalism at all. If Muslim education were to be perceived as a risk to multiculturalism then either such a form of education is not conceived appropriately or the claims of multiculturalism are false. Instead, the authors argue that Muslim…

  3. Dutch Adolescents' Tolerance of Practices by Muslim Actors: The Effect of Issue Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieling, Maike; Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2012-01-01

    This research, conducted in the Netherlands, examines whether native adolescents' tolerance of practices by Muslim immigrants (e.g., the founding of Islamic schools) is affected by the type of considerations (e.g., educational freedom vs. integration of Muslims in Dutch society). Using an experimental questionnaire design (N = 970), the findings…

  4. Unveiled Sentiments: Gendered Islamophobia and Experiences of Veiling among Muslim Girls in a Canadian Islamic School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zine, Jasmin

    2006-01-01

    The practice of veiling has made Muslim women subject to dual oppressions--racism and Islamophobia--in society at large and patriarchal oppression and sexism from within their communities. Based on a narrative analysis of the politics of veiling in schools and society, the voices of young Muslim women attending a Canadian Islamic school speak to…

  5. Education: Hopes, Expectations and Achievements of Muslim Women in West Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Haleh

    1989-01-01

    Contends that Muslim women in West Yorkshire (England) place an inordinate trust in the educational system's ability to deliver their children from poverty. Results of a three-generational study indicate that daughters of Muslim immigrant families, though aware of intense racism and poor prospects, try to comply with parental wishes. (AF)

  6. Muslim Girls' Experiences in Physical Education in Norway: What Role Does Religiosity Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walseth, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in scholarly attention to minority pupils and their experience of physical education (PE). UK research identifies specific challenges related to Muslim pupils' participation in PE. In Norway, little research has been undertaken on Muslim pupils' experiences in PE, something this paper hopes to redress in part. In…

  7. ISLAM IN THE NON-MUSLIM AREAS OF NORTHERN NIGERIA, c

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QUADRI Y A

    main avenues and dominant features in the introduction of. Islam. The major part of the 19 th century saw jihad forays carried into the non-Muslim areas, although they did not .... Muslim visitors/traders/settlers needed a cordial relationship for the ..... suffered at the hands of their feudal lords made them to look to the.

  8. Beyond the Veil: Learning to Teach Fine Arts in a Muslim Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin-Wakefield, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences and challenges in teaching university-level studio art classes for Muslim women in Kuwait. In Kuwait, popular interpretations of the "Quran" (the Koran), the Muslim holy book, prohibit the use of nude models. The author describes how she had to find alternatives to Western tried and true…

  9. Muslim American University Students' Perceptions of Islam and Democracy: Deconstructing the Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Sarah; Collet, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The aftermath of 9/11 and the current surge of revolutions in North Africa and the Middle East have caused Muslim Americans to be either demonized or forgotten altogether, despite the significance of their everyday navigation of both Islamic and democratic values and unique efforts toward identity construction. The neglect of the Muslim American…

  10. Identity Articulations, Mobilization, and Autonomy in the Movement for Muslim Schools in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, Nasar

    2009-01-01

    Muslim schools in Britain have emerged as a highly salient issue that at times reinforces, and at other times cuts across, political and philosophical divides. It therefore comes as some surprise to learn that despite a general proliferation of literature on "Muslims" in Britain very little research has explicitly investigated how…

  11. Constructing an Alternative Pedagogy of Islam: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Muslims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shanon

    2016-01-01

    There is growing media interest in how lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) Muslims negotiate their seemingly incompatible religious and sexual identities. Thus, there is a need to investigate how some LGBT Muslims utilise Islam as a resource for alternative pedagogical strategies to reconcile their personal beliefs and values. Their…

  12. Islam(s) in Context: Orientalism and the Anthropology of Muslim Societies and Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Sean

    2007-01-01

    This article begins to fill a gap in recent discussions of the future of Islamic studies with an account of the nature and significance of Anthropological and Ethnographic contributions to the study of Islam and Muslims. Drawing attention to both the problem of essence in Orientalism and the dissolution of Islam's significance for Muslims in…

  13. Serving a heterogeneous Muslim identity? Private governance arrangements of halal food in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurth, Laura; Glasbergen, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of halal food may be seen as an expression of the Muslim identity. Within Islam, different interpretations of ‘halal’ exist and the pluralistic Muslim community requests diverse halal standards. Therefore, adaptive governance arrangements are needed in the halal food market. Globaliz

  14. Religiosity, Discrimination, and Community Engagement: Gendered Pathways of Muslim American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2011-01-01

    The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…

  15. The enduring mission of Moses : Indonesian Muslim and Christian Representation of a Jewish Prophet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeka, F.Y.A.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation concentrates discusses the reception and interpretation of Moses among Muslims and Christians in modern Indonesia. The first five chapter are devoted to Muslim interpretations. Much attention is given to the five main Indonesian commentaries on the Qur’ān, namely Zainal Arifin Abba

  16. Arab-American and Muslim-American Contributions: Resources for Secondary Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraqi, Monica M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab-Americans and Muslim-Americans live within the United States surrounded by misconceptions about their culture and religion, in part because of the limited inclusion of positive contributions by these groups within the social studies curriculum. This article attempts to highlight Arab-American and Muslim-American contributions within the U.S.…

  17. Cultural Competence Clinic: An Online, Interactive, Simulation for Working Effectively with Arab American Muslim Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian Daniel; Silk, Kami

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study investigates the impact of an online, interactive simulation involving an Arab American Muslim patient on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of 2nd-year medical students regarding culturally competent healthcare, both in general and specific to Arab American Muslim patients. Method: Participants (N = 199), were…

  18. Reading Jihad: The Identity Enactment and Literacy Practices of Muslim Immigrant Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, Rohany

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation manuscript reports on a study that explored the ways in which the focal children in three Muslim immigrant families enacted identity by way of literacy practice. This study set out to construct a better understanding of Muslim American immigrant families by providing a "thick description" of their identity performance…

  19. The Scope of Justice for Muslim Americans: Moral Exclusion in the Aftermath of 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryn, Chris L. S.; Borshuk, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This paper details a social psychological study of prejudice and moral exclusion. We investigated whether participants, 47 non-Muslim U.S. citizens enrolled at a Midwestern university, considered Muslim Americans to be within their scope of justice, and whether principles of fairness, restitution, and corrective intervention would be applied to a…

  20. Islam(s) in Context: Orientalism and the Anthropology of Muslim Societies and Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Sean

    2007-01-01

    This article begins to fill a gap in recent discussions of the future of Islamic studies with an account of the nature and significance of Anthropological and Ethnographic contributions to the study of Islam and Muslims. Drawing attention to both the problem of essence in Orientalism and the dissolution of Islam's significance for Muslims in…

  1. Muslim American University Students' Perceptions of Islam and Democracy: Deconstructing the Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Sarah; Collet, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The aftermath of 9/11 and the current surge of revolutions in North Africa and the Middle East have caused Muslim Americans to be either demonized or forgotten altogether, despite the significance of their everyday navigation of both Islamic and democratic values and unique efforts toward identity construction. The neglect of the Muslim American…

  2. Islamic Education and the UK Muslims: Options and Expectations in a Context of Multi-Locationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saeeda

    2014-01-01

    The article will discuss Islamic philosophy of education to explain the role and aims of education for the Muslim "Ummah" (Community). It will then debate the needs of the UK Muslims with regard to the education of their children in the context of multi-locationality, and associated challenges of bringing up children while living between…

  3. Education & Agency: Muslim Women and the Tensions of Traditional & Modern Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shabnam Syed

    2010-01-01

    This hermeneutically crafted qualitative study examines how six university-educated middle-class Pakistani Muslim women negotiate the competing expectations of traditional Muslim culture and the emancipated ethos of the university. It uses Robert Kegan's constructive-developmental theory, whose Subject-Object scoring system distinguishes a…

  4. Seeing through the archival prism: A history of the representation of Muslims on Dutch television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Meuzelaar

    2014-01-01

    Since 9/11 and the murder of Theo van Gogh, Islam is centre-stage in the Dutch public debate and the media. Television coverage of Islam and Muslims has often presented particular stereotypes of the Dutch Muslim community, and has depicted Islam as monolithic and homogenous. This book offers an hist

  5. On the radicalisation of Muslim youngsters in the Netherlands : Current research and some perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, G.T.; Notten, T.

    2011-01-01

    The stagnating integration of immigrant groups, the insufficient acceptance of Muslims and the lacking respect for them are assumed to constitute a breeding ground for radicalisation as well as a threat for democracy. Certain groups of Muslim youngsters are susceptible for radical ideas. They cheris

  6. School and "Madrasah" Education: Gender and the Strategies of Muslim Young Men in Rural North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Craig; Jeffery, Roger; Jeffery, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the cultural and economic strategies of educated but un/under-employed young Muslim men aged between 20 and 34 in a village in western Uttar Pradesh, north India. Drawing on Connell's gender theory, the paper demonstrates how economic and political forces shape Muslim young men's strategies. The paper distinguishes between…

  7. THE TRADITION OF LIVING OF MUSLIM COMMUNITY KUDUSKULON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiek Suprapti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The northern coast of Java island Indonesia inherited old cities that hold important role in the spread of Islam. It has a strong correlation with the legend of Walisanga that were acted around the 16th century. The Ancient city of Kudus plays an important role in spreading Islam in the coastal line of Java. Kudushas witnessed the glory of the first Islamic Sultanate in Java. Sunan Kudus was very skillful in transforming Hindu teachings into Islamic teachings. They developed a settlement on the west side of Gelis River, thus the name “Kudus Kulon” (West Kudus. The social-economy independence of Kudus makes it relatively stable to change. The ethnical dynamics of coastal cities have major influence in the Muslim settlement in Kudus Kulon, this is visible from, among them, the building orientations and the spatial arrangement. However, the pressure of modernization-capitalization of the surrounding neighborhood results to several changes. This review is necessary considering the tradition of living of the Muslim community in that city has been here for centuries and has been the identity of the environment. The research will contribute to enrich to the architectural theory especially for a place of local wisdom. The locus of this research is in KampungKauman Kudus Kulon. The research method is historical and ethnographic. The purpose of this research is to understand the theme of tradition of living in the Muslim community of Kudus Kulon. The result of the research is the four concepts include: (1 Center and Orientation, (2 Controlled access; (3 Space of agreements; and (4 High level privacy. The changes that happen in the elements that fill the spaces caused by the shift of idealism as a result of the demanding situation. This result is beneficial to the strengthening of the local identity.

  8. Self-Esteem as a Predictor of Attitudes toward Wife Abuse among Muslim Women and Men in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Alisha; Toner, Brenda B.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the attitudes toward wife abuse in a sample of Muslim women and men in Canada and whether thos e attitudes were influenced by self-esteem. Reveals that Muslim women and men did not differ on levels of self-esteem, but their attitudes were related to self-esteem, and Muslim men had more lenient attitudes toward wife abuse. (CMK)

  9. Managing diabetes during the Muslim fasting month of Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, M

    2012-06-01

    Target blood sugar levels in diabetes are achieved through manipulation of diet, exercise and medication. A change in any one of these three things can skew blood sugar levels and create complications associated with hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Fasting during the month of Ramadan is a religious activity that devout Muslims practice whether they are diabetic or not. Since such fasting involves abstinence from food and water for twelve hours or more during the day from dawn to dusk, it is evident that advice regarding exercise and medication will have to be modified during this period.

  10. Methods and Contexts in the Study of Muslim Minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Research on Islam and Muslim minorities in Europe has generally been focused on the active representatives of these groups, in the form of research on the development of movements and organizations, their legal and political status, activities and relations with the wider political contexts both ...... in the fields of race relations and migration have increasingly mobilized ‘Muslims’ and ‘Islam’ as a common denominator. Initially, among social scientists the motivation seems often to have been the necessity of refining larger unmanageable ethnic groupings....

  11. Forced Migration and Muslim Rituals: An Area of Cultural Psychology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Ahlberg

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychological foundation of rites de passage have long been debated within the history of religion and related areas. The significance of such rites in facilitating emotional readjustment to a new life situation have been particularly stressed. Emotional reactions on the individual level largely remain outside the competence of anthropologists, despite their awareness of the general influence of culture on this as on other areas of human endeavour. Focusing on traumatized female refugees from Iran, a critical question is whether the changing living conditions which have provoked traumatic experiences in the lives of these refugees have been in any way related to Muslim ritual requirements or rites de passage.

  12. PERSATUAN PEMUDA MUSLIM SE-EROPA: Its Qualified Founders, Progression and Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sujadi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article concentrates on the history of Persatuan Pemuda Muslim se-Eropa (PPME, Young Muslims Association in Europe, depicting its founders’qualifications, historical founding, and nature, which has been against practical politics, and restructure and expansion. This association remains the largest Indonesian Islam-oriented Muslim association in Europe. However, there has been little research done on this association, despite its significant contributions to the socio-cultural and religous activities of Indonesian Muslims in Europe, particularly in the Netherlands and Germany. Therefore, this article aims to fill the gap in academic research, dealing with its creation and  development up till the present. To deal with this subject, a historical method emphasizing a chronological approach is applied. In addition to historical evidence, oral sources were primarily used due to the scarcity of written documents. Keywords: Indonesian nationalism, traditionalists, modernists, progressive muslims

  13. Pilot Study of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among US Muslim College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Abu-Ras, Wahiba; Ahmed, Sameera

    2015-10-01

    Waterpipe smoking is common among the young in Muslim-majority countries despite recent Islamic rulings on tobacco. US Muslim college students, especially immigrants, may be at high risk for smoking, but information is lacking. In this pilot study, respondent-driven sampling was used to sample 156 Muslim college students. Waterpipe smoking was common (44.3%). Leading motivations to smoke were social and perceived low tobacco harm. Independent risk factors among the Muslim students were perception that friends and other students smoked, and ever drank alcohol. Personal belief that waterpipe smoking is prohibited in Islam was not significant. This pilot suggests that Muslim students are at high risk for waterpipe smoking and more definitive studies are needed.

  14. The politics of being Muslim and being British in the British Christian print media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Faimau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been a significant number of published studies in recent years on the British media representation of Muslims. These studies have tended to focus only on the British mainstream media, and to my knowledge, there is no significant research on the discursive construction of British Muslims in alternative media outlets. This paper attempts to fill this gap, focusing on the representations of British Muslims in the British Christian print media. Drawing on empirical data relating to four British Christian print media, Church Times, The Tablet, Evangelicals Now and Evangelical Times, this paper investigates how the questions of being Muslim and being British are dealt with in the British Christian print media, and the extent to which the politics of being Muslim and being British inform us about identity formation and affirmation.

  15. Analysis of Danish Media setting and framing of Muslims, Islam and racism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Sara Jul; Jensen, Tina Gudrun; Vitus, Kathrine

    This paper presents the results of two case studies exploring the role which the Danish newspaper Media play in the reproduction of racial and ethnic inequalities. One case study analyses representations of Muslims and Islam in Danish newspapers, the other the presence and absence of discussions...... framed and restricted to certain topics such as extremism, terror and sharia, whereas positive actions and critical topics like racism and discrimination against Muslims were more or less nonexistent in the Media coverage. Constructed through an antagonistic and hierarchical relationship between ‘Danes......, the lives and opinions of the less visible majority of Muslims more or less vanished in the Media coverage. In this way, the newspapers constructed a distorted and negative picture of Muslims and their religion, and thereby contributed to a general climate of intolerance and discrimination against Muslim...

  16. Context, Focus and New Perspectives in the Study of Muslim Religiosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines Muslim religiosities by focusing on the variety of Islam classes offered by Muslim organizations in Denmark. More specifically, the paper highlights conditions for studying religiosity among Muslims in Denmark, and suggests new focus areas. The paper argues against an ‘ethnic......’ approach to Islam and Muslim institutions in Western societies in favour of a more general analytical and theoretical framework. This perspective involves unwinding common assumptions about Muslim religiosity by examining religious relationships and concepts such as membership in religious organizations......, forms of religiosity, religious knowledge, authority and autonomy. By illustrating the complexities of religious memberships and religiosities, the paper dissolves the distinction between organized and individual or private and collective religiosities, suggesting new perspectives that contribute...

  17. Philanthropy and “Muslim Citizenship” in Post-Suharto Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilman Latief

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The spawning of Muslim philanthropic associations signifies an increasingly visible Islamic social and political activism, in Indonesia as elsewhere in the Muslim world. Acting as non-state welfare providers, the associations provide “social security” to poor and disadvantaged groups as a means of promoting the public good. In the intricate relationship between state and citizen in the world’s largest Muslim country, Muslim philanthropic ideals of promoting the well-being of the community (ummah are in turn contested. Will they lead to a more democratic citizenship or to new types of clientelistic relations within a plural society? This research deals with the following questions: To what extent are welfare issues perceived by Muslim philanthropic organizations as shaping a new debate over “citizenship”? Can the Islamic concept of ummah be reconciled with modern ideas of citizenship?

  18. Politics of Locating Muslim Women in Islamic Discursive Tradition in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esita Sur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In postcolonial India, narratives about Muslim women have revolved around tropes, such as tin talaq (divorce, purdah (veil, polygamy and Islam. These have always played a significant role to shape their homogenised identity: an existence of oppression and subordination. However, the paper will try to argue that the marginalisation of Muslim women is not only structural but also discursive (popular as well as religious, which produce them as ‘victims’ and ‘voiceless others’. The paper will also try to argue that Muslim women have already been discursively produced as incapable of progressive thinking, and waging struggle against their subordination. Therefore, the paper shall make an attempt to examine the impact of popular as well as Islamic discourses in shaping the identity of Muslim women in India, and locate those alternative spaces, where Muslim women can challenge their homogenised existence as a category as well as dominant discourses on their victimhood.

  19. Sunny Norton Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A clear day over Norton Sound in the Bering Sea allowed SeaWiFS to capture this image of the phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Alaska. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  20. Social Inclusion of Children With Down Syndrome: Jewish and Muslim Mothers' Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behavioral Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoy, Sivia; Biton, Anna; Itzhaki, Michal

    The current study examined mothers' knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and intention to socially integrate children with Down syndrome (DS) in the family, with children without disabilities and school system. A questionnaire based on a descriptive, cross-sectional design was administered to Jewish and Muslim mothers. The questionnaire included demographics, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and intention to integrate children with DS. Analysis included a regression test of intention to integrate children with DS and a one-way ANOVA for differences between Jewish and Muslim mothers. Nearly all the Jewish mothers (93.7%) and about half the Muslim mothers (52.8%) had performed screening tests for DS during their pregnancy. All mothers displayed low knowledge level about DS. Being Jewish (t=2.89; p=0.005) and holding more positive beliefs (t=3.39; p=0.001) were associated with a higher intention to socially integrate children with DS. Significant positive correlations were found between beliefs and attitudes (r=0.65; psocially integrate children with DS (r=0.39; psocial inclusion of children with DS are quite positive and the intention to integrate children with DS in the family, with children without disabilities, and in the mainstream school system is high. However, their level of knowledge about DS is low. Nurses, as a critical source of information about DS, should develop an ethno-cultural sensitivity to diverse populations in order to influence attitudes and beliefs regarding the social integration of children with DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gerakan Sosial Intelektual Muslim Organik dalam Transformasi Sosial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Afandi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Gramsci’s idea of organic intellectuals that dedicate their life to improve social life has been actually inherited within Indonesian Muslim intellectuals. The main characteristic of them is not conceptualizing and publishing their own interest in the context of academic field, but expressing and advocating social aims. This article attempts to capture Indonesian organic intellectual movement was fashioned from the era of HOS Cokroaminoto in colonial era until the existence of Non-Governmental Organization (NGO in the present time. The history of Indonesia has witnessed that such movement has actively promoted social purposes and aspirations. Although, in its progress, organic intellectual movement is always challenged by the regime (policy oriented studies, it always comes with its own academic-emancipatory explanation for social problems. After Reformation Era, the goal of this movement focuses on advocating society against global capitalism which is expressed in—for example—World Trade Organization (WTC and Multi-National Corporation (MNC. Another finding of this paper is that there are many NGOs in Indonesia based on Islamic values although their activists do not work on the name of Islam. The reason behind this view is that because all Muslim activists work on religious normative exercise social, economic, political, cultural, environment problems.

  2. Reported Male Circumcision Practices in a Muslim-Majority Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Sundus

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Male circumcision is a recommended practice in Muslim tradition. It is important to ensure that this procedure is performed as safely as possible in these communities. Methods. Five hundred adult men and women with at least one male child less than 18 years were interviewed in Karachi, Pakistan, regarding details of their child's circumcision. The survey focused on actual and perceived delays in circumcision and perceptions about appropriate age and reasons and benefits and complications of the procedure. Circumcisions done after two months of age were defined as delayed. Results. Religious requirement was the primary reason for circumcision in 92.6% of children. However, 89.6% of respondents were of the opinion that circumcision had medical benefits as well. Half of the children (54.1%) had delayed circumcision (range 2.5 months to 13 years), even though 81.2% of parents were of the opinion that circumcisions should be done within 60 days of birth. Facility-delivered babies had less delay in circumcisions (49.1%) as compared to home-delivered babies (60.5%). Conclusion. Understanding the perceptions and practices around male circumcision can help guide national strategies for designing and implementing safe circumcision programs in Muslim-majority settings, with the potential to benefit an annual birth cohort of 20–25 million boys worldwide. PMID:28194416

  3. Muslim Politics in Malaysia and the Democratization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Thaib

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article will address the Muslim politics in Malaysia in the light of the broader shifts towards democratization and Islamization by focusing on politics among the majority ethnic Malay community, followed an overview of the ideological rivalry between UMNO and PAS, with special reference to the electoral performances of these parties in the past three general elections (November 1999, March 2004 and March 2008 . It then explores the underlying reason for the perceived importance of Islam in understanding the voting trend among the Malay-Muslim electorate which raised the question to what extent was the discourse on Islam instrumental in persuading the Malays to switch their support from PAS to the UMNO during the 2004 elections, and in the process of continued participation as an ‘Islamic Party’ in Malaysian mainstream politics what factors were that encouraged the PAS leaders to compromises and to play by the ‘rule of democracy’. In the concluding part of the article the writer also provide with an overview on reform agenda of Civilizational Islam (Islam Hadhari under premiership of Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi and the current Malaysia’s Transformation Programme (GTP under the leadership of Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun Abdul Razak.

  4. Ritual plants of Muslim graveyards in northern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafni Amots

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article surveys the botanical composition of 40 Muslim graveyards in northern Israel, accompanied by an ethnobotanical study of the folkloristic traditions of the use of these plants in cemeteries. Three groups of plants were found to be repeated systematically and were also recognized for their ritual importance: aromatics herbs (especially Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis, white flowered plants (mainly Narcissus tazetta, Urginea maritima, Iris spp. and Pancratium spp. and Cupressus sempervirens as the leading cemetery tree. As endemic use we can indicate the essential role of S. fruticosa as the main plant used in all human rites of passage symbolizing the human life cycle. The rosemary is of European origin while the use of basil is of Indian influence. The use of white flowers as cemeteries plants reflects an old European influence and almost the same species are used or their congeners. Most of the trees and shrubs that are planted in Muslim cemeteries in Israel have the same use in ancient as well in modern European cultures. In conclusion, our findings on the occurrence of plants in graveyards reflect the geographic situation of Israel as a crossroads in the cultural arena between Asia and Europe. Most of the traditions are common to the whole Middle East showing high relatedness to the classical world as well as to the present-day Europe.

  5. Ritual plants of Muslim graveyards in northern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafni, Amots; Lev, Efraim; Beckmann, Sabine; Eichberger, Christian

    2006-09-10

    This article surveys the botanical composition of 40 Muslim graveyards in northern Israel, accompanied by an ethnobotanical study of the folkloristic traditions of the use of these plants in cemeteries. Three groups of plants were found to be repeated systematically and were also recognized for their ritual importance: aromatics herbs (especially Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis), white flowered plants (mainly Narcissus tazetta, Urginea maritima, Iris spp. and Pancratium spp.) and Cupressus sempervirens as the leading cemetery tree. As endemic use we can indicate the essential role of S. fruticosa as the main plant used in all human rites of passage symbolizing the human life cycle. The rosemary is of European origin while the use of basil is of Indian influence. The use of white flowers as cemeteries plants reflects an old European influence and almost the same species are used or their congeners. Most of the trees and shrubs that are planted in Muslim cemeteries in Israel have the same use in ancient as well in modern European cultures. In conclusion, our findings on the occurrence of plants in graveyards reflect the geographic situation of Israel as a crossroads in the cultural arena between Asia and Europe. Most of the traditions are common to the whole Middle East showing high relatedness to the classical world as well as to the present-day Europe.

  6. THE MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD: A CENTRIFUGAL OR CENTRIPETAL FORCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Lampridi-Kemou

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Before the third Egyptian revolution in early 2011, the Muslim Brotherhood was considered the only real opposition capable of challenging the hegemonic government of the Egyptian regime, owing to the popular support the organisation enjoyed; much greater than that of the opposition parties. However, change has not come through the Brotherhood, but through the Egyptian people themselves. In all these years that the Brotherhood has existed on the Egyptian political stage, neither its significant logistic and economic resources nor its dominant role in opposition politics have contributed to any change in the country’s power structure. The aim of this article is to show that the policies adopted by the Muslim Brotherhood in their interaction with the Hosni Mubarak government – both when they were in confrontation and in phases of accommodation – have only helped to maintain the status quo, and that they have, therefore, constituted a centripetal force with respect to the regime. This analysis may also offer a few clues as to the organisation’s future behaviour.

  7. Sickness, dreams and moral selfhood among migrant Pakistani Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Kaveri

    2010-12-01

    This paper draws from two years of fieldwork investigating the social course of illness among Pakistani Muslims in East London, exploring how chronic illness is communicated and negotiated in local worlds disrupted by migrancy. It examines episodic short stories about dreams, premonitions and uncanny coincidences that were prominent within the illness narratives of migrant Pakistani Muslims, recalling and throwing light on complex questions concerning subjective constructions of misfortune, the personal and social meanings of illness and the relationships between narrative and selfhood. The ethnography identifies a strong normative context of communication about ill health and bad news, within which revelation through the mode of the supernatural takes on added significance. Recurrent motifs in the dreams emphasize the connectedness between family members scattered across migratory contexts, and the reawakening of moral obligations in families. Whilst medical anthropology has understood descriptions of dreams and other uncanny experiences as 'subjunctivising tactics' serving to maintain alternative plots about the source and outcome of illness, in the Islamic context the narrating of supernatural encounters can have transformative effects, re-organising praxis and conferring legitimacy to certain forms of moral selfhood. The paper therefore argues that the notion of the 'subjunctive mode' imposes the analysts' own system of logic and that there is a need to understand the interpretive frameworks present in the illness narratives in their own terms.

  8. Westliche und muslimische Geschlechter? Western and Muslim Genders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislawa Paulus

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mihçiyazgan geht der Frage nach wie Differenzen in männlichen und weiblichen Subjektkonstutionen im Westen und im Islam empirisch erfasst werden können. Hierbei verfolgt sie eine antiessentialitische Perspektive, in der sie sich zentral auf Judith Butler und Michel Foucault bezieht. Über beide hinausgehend entwickelt sie ein Modell pluraler Diskurse, mit dessen Hilfe kulturelle bedingte Geschlechterkonstruktionen verstehbar werden. Anhand einer Untersuchung von Interviews, in der sie interaktionsanalytische und diskursanalytische Herangehensweisen verbindet, macht sie unterschiedliche Zonen des Sagbaren und Unsagbaren in westlichen und muslimischen Geschlechterdiskursen sichtbar.Mihçiyazgan approaches the question as to how differences in the constitution of the subject in men and women in the west and in Islam can be empirically measured. She takes an anti-essentialist perspective, referring primarily to Judith Butler and Michel Foucault. Going beyond both, however, she develops a model of plural discourses with which gender constructions that are contingent on culture can be understood. On the basis of interviews, in which she connects her approaches through an interactional and discursive analysis, she makes visible different zones of the speakable and the unspeakable in western and Muslim gender discourses. She points to partially discursive incongruities, referring in particular to Muslim men in marginalized positions. The model presented offers a contribution to understanding discourse analysis as an empirical method. It needs to be made more dynamic, however, in order to avoid cultural codification.

  9. Religion and Diasporic Dwelling: Algerian Muslim Women in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafa Shanneik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article will look at the different conceptions of ‘home’ as narrated by Algerian Muslim women living in Ireland. It explores the dynamic processes of their self-identification(s and their different forms of (recreation of diasporic home(s influenced by their religious, cultural, social and economic environment. I will use Thomas A. Tweed’s notion of ‘crossing and dwelling’ to analyse these essentialized identity constructions that become manifest in Tweed’s four ‘chronotopes’: the gendered body, the domestic home, the imagined homeland and the transnational and global cosmos. The conscious or unconscious negotiations and implications for belonging to a specific identity or community that can be observed among Algerian women in Ireland will be examined, together with the different pre- and post-migratory social, political and religious factors that influence such negotiations. This ethnographic study is the first of its kind and fills a gap in the study of Muslim migrants in Europe.

  10. Cultural Presentation of the Muslim Middle Class in Contemporary Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeflich Hasbullah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One approach to understanding the platform of New Order politics is to view it as having been a contest between Indonesian Political groups for access to power. Throughout the New Order period, economic capital was largely in the hands of a Chinese minority, while political capital was in the hands of the abangan Javanese priyayi. At the same time, the santri (the 'true Muslims', have been economically and politically marginalized. They have been, as Wertheim (1975 put it, "the outsiders". Since the 1980s, thanks to the success of development efforts, Indonesia has been undergoing rapid economic development and a massive educational transformation. These economic and educational transformations have increased the percapita income and standard of living, mostly in urban areas, and expanded the 'middle class'. For the urban Muslim community -which represent the bulk of those most affected by development- the economic and educational transformations have not only resulted in class transformation creating a 'middle rank', but also caused the mobilization of the decades-marginalized santri who have embraced the project of cultural Islam.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v7i2.708

  11. Determinants of divorce in a traditional Muslim community in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of spouses' prior marital status and socio-demographic characteristics on the risk of divorce of 1762 Muslim marriages recorded in 1982-83 in Teknaf, Bangladesh. Grooms' prior marital status was categorized into never married, divorced, widowed or polygynous (already cohabiting with one or more wives and brides' prior marital status was categorized into never married, divorced or widowed. Divorce was recorded by following the marriages prospectively for five years. Due to the fact that a longitudinal study design was used, the quality of the information presented here is considered to be high. A discrete-time hazard logistic model was used to estimate the effects of spouses' prior marital status and a number of socio-demographic variables on risk of divorce. Polygynous marriage, remarriage and divorce were found to be common in this traditional Muslim community. The odds of divorce were 2.5 times higher for grooms' polygynous marriages and 1.6 times higher for brides' remarriages compared to their peers' first marriages. The odds of divorce decreased with marriage duration. The groom's and bride's low socio-economic status, illiteracy, and early age at marriage increased the odds of divorce. The odds of divorce were much higher if there was no birth in the preceding six months.

  12. Construction Meaning of Mixed Marriages for Indonesian Muslim Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikri Fachrul Nurhadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The background of this problem is the increasing number of Indonesian citizens who perform mixed marriages, especially women who are married to foreign nationals. This, resulted in the problem starts from differences of religion or belief, culture and lifestyle are different. The purpose of this study is to find and explain the motives, meaning and experience of Indonesian Muslim women as perpetrators of intermarriage. This research method using the phenomenological method that focuses on the study of meaning in everyday life from the perspective of those who experience it. Data collection techniques used participant observation, interview and documentation study. Subjects were Indonesian Muslim women aged 30-40 years, were married to foreign nationals by purposive sampling technique. The results showed that mixed marriages have a motive "because" that is the motive trauma and interest, while the motive "for" consists of the dream motive, worship and repair descent. Likewise intermarriage experience demonstrated mutual culturally adjust, adapt to a multicultural, open and romantic attitude. While the meaning of marriage is an interesting mix, happy, merging two cultures, respect for differences, mutual understanding, complex, beautiful. Construction of meaning formed that a mixed marriage is a marriage of attractive, beautiful, full of challenges in the face of differences in terms of culture, habits and mindset in running family life.

  13. YouTube and Muslim Women’s Legal Subjectivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Bouclin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is located within the discursive and spatio-temporal landscape of post 9/11 Canada in which national identity and beliefs about belonging are embedded in pervasive Islamophobia. Its starting point is that social media are key sites for expression of discrimination and intolerance vis-à-vis people of the Muslim faith, and especially the constitution of Muslim face and head scarves as a metonym for Islamic terrorism and a quintessential symbol of uniquely fundamentalist manifestation of patriarchy. I ask, however, whether new modes of visibility might be captured when we examine representational sites of Muslim femininity through the lens of ‘new’ or ‘critical’ legal pluralism. I highlight how women have used Social Networking Sites (SNSs to respond and reconfigure more entrenched discourses around Muslim femininity circulated elsewhere, such as in formal institutionalized state-based law, mainstream/Western feminist discourses, and in popular cultural productions. I have found that Muslim women deploy social media to constitute or express alternative subjectivities and to represent and evaluate their own understandings of feminism, normative femininity, religious practices, including the multiple meanings that attach to the donning of Islamic headscarves. Este documento se sitúa en el paisaje discursivo y espacio-temporal de la Canadá post 11-S, cuya identidad nacional y creencias sobre la pertenencia están incrustadas en la islamofobia dominante. Su punto de partida es que las redes sociales son sitios clave para la expresión de la discriminación y la intolerancia vis-à-vis de la fe musulmana, y en especial la constitución del rostro musulmán y del pañuelo en la cabeza como una metonimia de terrorismo islámico y el símbolo por excelencia de la única manifestación fundamentalista del patriarcado. La autora se pregunta, sin embargo, si las nuevas formas de visibilidad pueden ser capturadas cuando examinamos sitios

  14. The need of discoursing social theology in Muslim Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Ibrahim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights and evaluates the significance of an emerging social theologicaldiscourse in contemporary Muslim Southeast Asia. It emerged partlyas a response to the traditional Islamic theology inasmuch as the revivalistdakwah activism that became prominent since the 1970s. This emerging discourseis part of the continuity and extension of the reformist voices whichhave evolved since the late 19th century. As a theology, it puts discourse aboutGod as its premium but extend its focus on the social dimension of faith inGod, of the social message of the religion, and the social responsibility of theman and community of faith in God, and to their fellow human beings. Todaythere are several books and articles written which can be classified as belongingto this genre of social theology. In Indonesia this discursive theologycan be found in rational, humanistic, transformative cultural, and the oppressedtheologies. It opens a wider realm of participation and engagement,where theology is no longer the exclusive affairs of experts, but inclusive of thelay intellectuals who are not necessarily from a strictly religious background.It also enables the Muslim public to comprehend critically and to cope creativelywith rapid social change, and its attendant problems. Theology is, afterall, a human enterprise, albeit it’s strong religious commitment. To harnessthe potentiality of the social theology, calls for its recognition. Herein lies the need to start studying and engaging them discerningly, or to advance its criticaldimensions for the benefits of the larger Muslim public.Paper ini menyoroti dan mengevaluasi pentingnya wacana teologi sosial yangmuncul dalam periode kontemporer Muslim Asia Tenggara. Teologi sosialmuncul sebagian sebagai tanggapan terhadap teologi Islam tradisional karenaaktivisme dakwah revivalis yang semakin menonjol sejak tahun 1970-an. Wacanayang muncul di sini merupakan bagian dari kontinuitas dan perluasan suarareformis yang

  15. Some comments on the current (and future status of Muslim personal law in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rautenbach

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The state law of South Africa consists of the common law and the customary law. However, in reality there exist various cultural and religious communities who lead their private lives outside of state law. For example, the Muslim community in South Africa is a close-knit community which lives according to their own customs and usages. Muslims are subject to informal religious tribunals whose decisions and orders are neither recognised nor reviewable by the South African courts.The non-recognition of certain aspects of Muslim personal law causes unnecessary hardships, especially for women. A Muslim woman is often in a "catch two" situation. For example, on the one hand her attempts to divorce her husband in terms of Muslim law may be foiled by the relevant religious tribunal and, on the other hand, the South African courts may not provide the necessary relief, because they might not recognise the validity of her Muslim marriage. Increasingly, South African courts are faced with complex issues regarding the Muslim community. The last few years there has been a definite change in the courts' attitude with regard to the recognition of certain aspects of Muslim personal law. Contrary to pre-1994 court cases, the recent court cases attempt to develop the common law to give recognition to certain aspects of Muslim personal law. This article attempts to give an overview of the recent case law that dealt with issues regarding the recognition of aspects of Muslim personal law. Another issue, which eventuates from the current situation, is whether the South African legal order should continue to have a dualistic legal order or whether we should opt for a unified legal order or even a pluralistic legal order. In order to address this issue, some comments on the current status of Muslim personal law will be made and, finally, in order to contribute to the debate regarding the recognition of Muslim personal law, optional models for the recognition of Muslim

  16. The Dhimmi Narrative: A Comparison between the Historical and the Actual in the Context of Christian-Muslim Relations in Modern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    camels, testify against a Muslim in a criminal legal case, sell alcohol, pork, or carrion to Muslims. In addition, Jews and Christians in some places...case, sell alcohol, pork, or carrion to Muslims. The Pact of Umar prohibited Christians and Jews from marrying Muslim women. In addition, Jews and

  17. Explaining the Muslim employment gap in Western Europe: individual-level effects and ethno-religious penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Phillip; Koenig, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    It is well-documented that Muslims experience economic disadvantages in Western European labor markets. However, few studies comprehensively test individual-level explanations for the Muslim employment gap. Using data from the European Social Survey, this research note briefly examines the role of individual-level differences between Muslims and non-Muslims in mediating employment differences. Results reveal that human capital, migration background, religiosity, cultural values, and perceptions of discrimination jointly account for about 40% of the employment variance between Muslims and non-Muslims. Model specifications for first- and second-generation Muslim immigrants reveal a similar pattern, with migration background and perceived discrimination being of key relevance in mediating employment difference. While individual-level effects are indeed relevant, unexplained variance suggests that symbolic boundaries against Islam may still translate into tangible ethno-religious penalties.

  18. Mosques as Communities of Memories vis-a-vis Muslim Identity and Integration in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Isgandarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosques represent an important element of Muslim identity. This identity may be social, political, personal, etc., and depends on language they speak, attitudes they have, place where they live in, and activities they enjoy to do. In this regard, mosques manifest gender, ethnic, social class, religion, and culture dimensions of Muslim identity. As a place of community of memory mosques play the memory-preserving function for Muslim generations and retain Muslim identity. European mosques combine the traditions of the worshippers with those of their new environment. Thus, Muslims' attachment to Europe grows and they start to identify themselves with their places in Europe. During this transaction between the two, not only Muslims change under the current European tendencies, but Europe also changes by Muslims' identities. This becomes more evident in increasing number of mosques in EU and the debate about its place in EU life.

  19. How to Accumulate National Capital: The Case of the “Good” Muslim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Melanie Riley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the practices of certain high-profile Canadian Muslims who call themselves “progressive” or “moderate” as an example of attempts to increase one’s claims to national belonging through a reification of tropes that designate many Muslims as fanatical, scary and a threat to the Canadian nation. Through tracing the different understandings of “Muslim” and “Canadian” identities and an examination of articles printed in The National Post, this paper argues that this accumulation occurs in three main ways, with portrayals of the “good” Muslim as a patriotic Canadian, as an object of threat from other Muslims and as a protector of oppressed Muslim women. However, in a context marked by rampant Islamophobia throughout Canadian society, these nationalist practices may do more to produce further racialisation of and violence towards those that they positioned as “bad” Muslims than to ensure any lasting claims to national belonging for those who assert themselves to be representative of the “good” Muslims.

  20. An exploratory study of Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality: Implications for sex education and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smerecnik Chris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the results of an exploratory qualitative study on Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality in the Netherlands. Methods Data were gathered from an Internet forum on which 44 Muslim and 33 non-Muslim adolescents discussed sexuality as it relates to Islam. These discussions were subsequently analyzed for content using Nvivo 2.0. Results Our analysis revealed several issues that are relevant for the design of future sex education programs targeting Muslim youth. Apart from some expected outcomes regarding, for example, taboos on sexuality, sex outside marriage, abortion, homosexuality and conservative gender roles, our analyses showed that in cases of disputes 1 discussions were polarized, 2 opponents used the same Qur'anic passages to support their views, and 3 the authority of an Imam was questioned when his interpretation of Qur'anic passages was not in line with the views of participants. Conclusions Our findings show that current approaches to sex education among Muslim youth are likely to be unsuccessful given the rigidity of sexual norms in Muslim society. In addition, we also identified new barriers to sex education among Muslim youth (e.g. lack of respect for an Imam who opposes a youth's views on sexuality.

  1. The Mosque and Social Networks: The Case of Muslim Youth in Brisbane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameera Karimshah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Much of the existing public discourse surrounding Muslim youth in Western societies is framed through a simplistic and static understanding of the role of the Mosque in their everyday life. Mosques are often seen as places for the development of Muslim conservatism where membership is gender and ethno-specific and activities are socially restrictive (Spalek & Imtoual, 2007, p. 195; Spalek & Lambert, 2008; Poynting & Mason, 2008, p. 237. This contributes to an ongoing public preoccupation with the idea that it is necessary to integrate Muslim youth into “mainstream society” as a counter measure to anti-social behaviour and attributed outcomes (i.e. terrorism. This paper, building on the work of Dialmy (2007, p. 70 and Jamal (2005, p. 523, offers an account of how young Muslims network and socialise around the Mosque in Brisbane, Australia. We show that contrary to popular public conception, the role of the Mosque in the lives of Muslim youth is multifaceted and serves as the centrepiece from which the majority of socialisation, across variety formal and informal networks, occurs. This paper also explores the reasons underpinning Muslim youth’s social participation, emphasizing the socio-cultural factors (both within and beyond the place of worship that facilitate and hinder participation across a range of social settings. We argue that discussions on Muslim youth and social engagement must be positioned within an informed understanding of the nuanced role of the Mosque in the generation of social networks within Western contexts.

  2. Dilemma of Muslim women regarding divorce in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gabru

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available On a daily basis people enquire about the dissolution of Islamic marriages, in terms of South African law In South Africa. There exist no legal grounds for obtaining a divorce in a South African court, for persons married in terms of the Islamic law only. The reason for this is due to the fact that Muslim marriages are currently not recognised as valid marriages in terms of South African law. The courts have stated that the non-recognition of Islamic marriages is based on the fact that such marriages are potentially polygamous. In South Africa, marriages may be dissolved by the death of one of the spouses or by divorce. In terms of the Divorce Act, a decree of divorce will be granted by a court of law. Islam grants the husband the right of divorce and also grants the wife the right to request and apply to dissolve the marriage through what is known as Khula, the woman also has the right to a delegated divorce. If the husband dissolves the marriage by divorcing his wife, he cannot retrieve any of the gifts he has given her. Islam further makes provision for the "reasonable maintenance" of divorced women.The non-recognition of Islamic marriages has the effect that a person married in terms of Shari'ah only, has no right to approach a court of law for a decree of divorce and, unless a husband divorces his wife in terms of the Shari'ah, the wife is trapped in a marriage, even if the marriage has broken down irretrievably. Thus a custom in South Africa has developed, whereby Muslim husbands refuse to divorce their wives in terms of Islamic law, so as to punish the wife. The wife in turn cannot make use of the South African judiciary to obtain a divorce, because of the non-recognition of her marriage. This is a burden, which is in direct conflict with Islamic law.In 2000 a Bill was drafted by the South African Law Commission. This act will recognise Islamic family law within a constitutional framework. This article deals with the dilemma that a Muslim

  3. Muslim Women in Women’s Travel Literature of the 19th and 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Dokl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the position of women in Islam, from the beginning of the 19th century till the end of the Second World War, through the eyes of female travel writers. The first women travellers who set out for the Middle East were the first outsiders to be accepted into women’s societies in the Islamic world, and thus they entered the life behind the veil. Comparing writers’ encounters with Muslim women and the Muslim world in general, I describe Muslim women throughout various stages of life.

  4. Oppositional banality: Watching ordinary Muslims in ‘Little Mosque on the Prairie’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer Chao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay interrogates how the globally-syndicated series Little Mosque on the Prairie (2007-2012 mobilises one of the most beloved television formats – the situation comedy – to insert a banal and normalised gaze toward Muslims and contest hostile representations of Islam in Western media. Through what I have termed ‘oppositional banality’ the show relocates Muslim identities to the realm of everyday life and out of the confines of global terrorism. Rather than being under the scrutiny of news cameras and viewed through cataclysmic international events the Muslims in Little Mosque are made comical and timeless, subjected to the emotional entanglements of ordinary life.

  5. An essay on the Muslim Gap. Religiosity and the political system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    The paper analyzes 3 main trends: (t1) The economic development in the Muslim world is slower than in the rest of the world. (t2) The world grows increasingly democratic due to rising incomes, but this trend does not affect the Muslim world. (t3) The world grows increasingly secular due to rising......-Western countries, though at a lower level. Further, it is demonstrated that Muslims deviate as to religiosity, family life values and as to the preference for religion in politics....

  6. Christian-Muslim Relations in Indonesia: Five Challenges of the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abu Rabi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper - inspired by the "International Conference on Muslim-Christian Relations: Past, Present, and Future Dialogue and Cooperation", in Jakarta, August 1997 - discussed the challenges of Indonesia in relation to Christian-Muslim relations into the century 21.In August 1997, a major conference on Christian-Muslim relations and the challenges of religious plulalism in contemporary Indonesia was convenced at the Horison Hotel in Jakarta, Indonesia. Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v5i1.758

  7. Uncovering the political in non-political young muslim immigrant identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; Solhaug, Trond

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this paper is political identity and participation among Muslim migrant young people in Denmark. Political identity is analysed by examining students’ political interests and perception of themselves as participants in politics, as well as their rationalities for politics. In order...... to address the research question ‘What characterizes political identities among Muslim immigrant young people in schools?’ we interviewed eight Muslim students from a Danish upper secondary school and from different national origins. The students’ political orientations seemed quite contradictory, even among...

  8. Alcohol use among U.S. Muslim college students: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ras, Wahiba; Ahmed, Sameera; Arfken, Cynthia L

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behavior among Muslim college students in the United States is unknown. To obtain estimates and examine risk factors, the authors conducted secondary data analysis of the public access database from the 2001 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study. Two variables were associated with drinking-religious activities, which were protective against drinking, and parental approval of drinking, which was a risk factor for drinking. Although American Muslim students had a low rate of drinking in the past year (46.6%) compared to their U.S. college counterparts, they had a higher rate of alcohol consumption compared to their counterparts in predominately Muslim countries.

  9. The effect of stereotypes and prejudices regarding gender roles on the relation between nurses and "Muslim fathers" in health institutions within the Community of Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pascual, Juan Luis; Esteban-Gonzalo, Laura; Rodríguez-García, Marta; Gómez-Cantarino, Sagrario; Moreno-Preciado, Manuel

    2017-03-13

    Modern Western societies are characterized by a considerable cultural and ethnic diversity whereby different groups and minorities live side by side. However, not all people are viewed in the same light by the autochthonous population. This is particularly true in the case of Muslim immigrants, who are often prone to negative stereotyping and prejudice. This has become increasingly apparent since the 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and the subsequent attacks in various Western countries. This study seeks to analyze the relation between female nurses and those labeled by nurses as "Muslim fathers," as part of a research project on the care of immigrant children in Madrid (Spain). The findings promote reflection on the effects of nurses' stereotypes and prejudices regarding the gender roles of "Muslim fathers" and the relations between these groups. These prejudices can lead to situations of cultural imposition and/or discrimination. Self-reflection regarding stereotypes and prejudices is necessary in order to provide culturally competent care. The anthropobiological approach by Marie Françoise Collière may be useful for extending this type of care universally, not only to immigrant groups, as everyone, including nurses, patients, and family members, belong to part of a specific sociocultural context.

  10. Identifying Social Service Needs of Muslims Living in a Post 9/11 Era: The Role of Community-Based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheal L. Shier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this qualitative study the investigators sought to better understand the ways in which service provider organizations (n=19 working with Muslim service providers have adapted to the changing social and political contexts in a post-9/11 era in New York City, and how this changing environment has affected the types of services that Muslims need. Service providers described two general ways in which services were adapted: 1 they have sought to address limits in service delivery programs that were a result of emerging sociopolitical dynamics (such as increasing discrimination through adaptations to existing programs or through the development of new initiatives, programs, and organizations; and 2 they have adapted programs and services to meet the emerging sociocultural demands (such as changing attitudes towards help-seeking, and presenting problems of services users of the Muslim population. The study illustrated the role of service provider organizations in adapting existing services, or creating new services, in response to a changing sociopolitical context. Social work education must focus attention on how social workers can adapt and create organizations that are responsive to the changing needs of service users. More curriculum content is necessary on the intra- and inter-organizational context of direct social work practice, with particular attention to innovation and adaptation within and between human service organizations.

  11. ADOPTION IN SHARI'A LAW, ITS IMPACT ON THE MUSLIM MINORITY IN ISRAEL, AND THE THERAPIST-PATIENT RELATIONSHIP WHEN PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTION IS NECESSARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gith, Emad

    2014-10-01

    Adoption is an act of kindness and an expression of the most exalted of human morality. It fulfills the needs of both the adoptive parents and the adopted child. Muslim religious law has rejected the concept of adoption as it exists in the western world and presents several alternatives including personal liability, declaration of guardianship, bestowing a gift and leaving a last will and testament. Nevertheless, over the past 20 years, the Arab-Muslim population in Israel has developed a certain acceptance of the more typical concept of adoption and the willingness to accept the civil legislation that is applied in domestic courts in Israel. This gradual integration into Israeli society as well as the very act of adoption, which remains controversial, often creates the need for treatment, consultation and guidance for the adoptive family and the adopted child. The traditional, collective characteristics of the Arab-Muslim society have a significant impact on the child's emotional state and behavior and, of course, effect the adoptive family's social standing as well. In such situations, it is imperative to discuss the interaction and the often difficult and complex relationship that develops between the therapist or counselor and the patient.

  12. Cancer Screening Among Patients Who Self-Identify as Muslim: Combining Self-Reported Data with Medical Records in a Family Practice Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, A K; Slater, M; Vahabi, M

    2016-10-06

    Cancer screening is a core component of family medicine but screening inequalities are well documented in Canada for foreign-born persons. Although people of Muslim faith and culture are the fastest growing immigrant population in Canada, there is little information in the literature about their cancer screening practices. Determining screening gaps could inform practice-based quality improvement initiatives. We conducted a retrospective chart review combining patient-level medical record data with self-reported religious affiliation to examine the relationship between religion and cancer screening in a large multi-site urban family practice. Religious affiliation was classified as Muslim, other affiliation, or atheist/no religious affiliation. 5311 patients were included in the study sample. Muslim patients were significantly less likely to prefer English for spoken communication than the other two groups, less likely to be Canadian-born, more likely to have a female family physician, and were over-represented in the lowest income quintile. Muslim women were most likely to be up-to-date on breast cancer screening (85.2 vs. 77.5 % for those with other religions vs. 69.5 % for those with no religious affiliation). There were no significant differences in cancer screening by physician sex. In this pilot study conducted within a primary care practice, we used self-reported data on religious affiliation to examine possible inequities in cancer screening and observed intriguing variations in screening by self-identified religious affiliation. Future efforts to collect and use similar patient-level data should incorporate non-official languages and intensively outreach to patients with less health system contact. Regardless, the family medicine context may be the ideal setting to collect and act on patient-level sociodemographic data such as religious affiliation.

  13. Turkey and the Muslim Brotherhood: Crossing Roads in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulut Gurpinar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Relations between Turkey and the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood (SMB have gained momentum in the light of post-Arab revolt developments. This study aims to present the historical background of the relationship between SMB and AKP and effects of this relationship on foreign policy. For the analytical discussion on the relationship between AKP and SMB integration to ‘particular’ recent foreign policies of Turkey, first of all, it will be examined how the SMB is perceived in Turkey in social and political arenas. Thus, the socio-political dimensions of the process in which the SMB came to the fore and began to be known in Turkey will be explored along with its position in foreign policy during the Justice and Development Party (JDP government and the Syrian crisis.

  14. Death and dying anxiety among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-04-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no differences based on religiosity. Death anxiety was related to gender and education for elderly living in the community, but social support and self-esteem were additional correlates for those living in nursing homes. The results of this study indicate that fostering a sense that one has a supportive social and familial network is important in decreasing death and dying anxiety among elderly Arab people. It would also be beneficial to provide information and knowledge that might relieve some of the anxiety they experience.

  15. Culture analysis and metaphor psychotherapy with Arab-Muslim clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2009-02-01

    Attempting to reveal unconscious content and promoting self-actualization may be counterproductive for clients who come from collectivistic cultures. Such treatment goals may expose clients to harsh confrontations with the family. Clients with dependency traits, low ego-strength, and strict families may be helped through metaphor psychotherapy or culture analysis. Metaphor therapy makes it possible to deal symbolically and indirectly with unconscious content; culture analysis can pave the way to reveal unconscious needs and enable clients to establish a new order within their belief systems and within their families. The present article describes these two therapy methods and illustrates their clinical use with an Arab-Muslim suffering from depression. Through such therapy anchored in his own culture and religion, the client altered his beliefs, became satisfied with himself, and found successful ways to adapt to his family.

  16. Cultural anthropology approach to psychopathology of Muslim murderer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, T; Satoh, S; Morita, N; Konishi, T; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, H; Oda, S

    1994-03-01

    We report a case involving a 31-year-old Islamic male who murdered his associate under particular circumstances. We took the opportunity to test psychiatrically this man who has been diagnosed in his mother country as a schizophrenic. He came to Japan and was working as a laborer. He is an earnest practicing Muslim. We took an interest in this case because of his bizarre behavior previous to the actual crime. We are interested in the actual method of the murder in relation to Mr. A's cultural and religious background. We demonstrated the significance of the religious cultural knowledge relative to the indigenous ritual for expelling satan and the Islamic pilgrimage to Mekka (Hajj). We conclude that a cultural anthropological and religious viewpoint is necessary in objectively understanding the sources of suffering in patients with mental illness who are from foreign countries.

  17. INDONESIAN MUSLIM WOMEN AND THE GENDER EQUALITY MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimatul Qibtiyah

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of Indonesia, the concepts of gender and power-relations between men and women have been linked to a shifting and fluctuating idea of what constitutes good women, good men, and good gender relationships within the context of Indonesia and Islam. To analyse these changing attitudes to women’s issues in Indonesia, we need to pay attention to several points: the character of the women’s organizations, whether fully independent, semi autonomous, or subsidiaries of existing male organizations; the important issues rising within the movements, as well as the strategies to deal with them; and lastly the influential factor of government intervention in the women’s movement. This paper tries to explore the Muslim women’s movement and its strategy to accommodate or resist from the domination of Islam in terms of the nation state, the constitution and the dominant cultural norms in Indonesia.

  18. Autopsy in Islam and current practice in Arab Muslim countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Madadin; Kharoshah, Magdy A

    2014-03-01

    Autopsy, or post-mortem examination, is the dissection of a dead body. It is performed for many reasons. Attitudes toward dead bodies vary with religious beliefs and cultural and geographical backgrounds. We have carried out an extensive literature review to determine the Islamic view and current practice of Autopsy, in at least four Arab countries which published their experiences. Several research articles have studied the history of Islamic Autopsy as well as the current situation and legal debates about it. The overwhelming conclusion is that data is lacking. More must be published from Arabic Muslim countries and more research done to correct misconceptions. We also recommend more application of non-invasive Autopsy.

  19. Muslim Responses to the Communist Revival in Indonesian Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suhelmi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The sudden reappearance of Marxist-Communist literature following the downfall of Soeharto's New Order regime was a concerning development for many Muslim groups in Indonesian, especially those in the so-called Aliansi Anti-Komunis (the Anti-communist Alliance, or AAK. Members of the Alliance reacted by burning Leftist books on April 19, 2001 and demanded that all Marxist-Communist literature found in book shops throughout the country be removed over the following days. Some social groups within Indonesia reacted positively to the book burning arguing that it was in accordance with the constitution, while opponents viewed it as anarchic and extreme. This article discusses the AAK's reaction to the purported Communist threat with particular reference to the burning of the leftist literature.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v14i2.547

  20. Modernity, Rationality and Constitutional Law in Muslim-Majority Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    Are Islamic law, human rights and constitutionalism compatible? In answering this question, this paper first discusses the concept of modernity (understood in terms of rationality and standardization), analysing its abrupt implementation in the MENA countries and the role that the first modern...... constitutions played in institutionalising a new sort of dominion in the newly established states. Against this background, the paper discusses the relationship between constitutionalism and Shari’a law, presenting this as a clash between two competing normative visions that are conceptually difficult...... to reconcile and which each claim exclusivity and hierarchical superiority. The paper advocates for a deconstruction of the ideas of human rights and constitutionalism in order to allow for the incorporation of elements of Muslim traditions, thus challenging the understanding of human rights...

  1. Key Issues to Consider in Therapy with Muslim Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Stephen; Daiches, Anna

    2015-12-01

    We present the key issues to consider in therapy with Muslim families. Following a brief introduction, five themes are presented: self, family dynamics, causation, and coping strategies. The section on "self" includes a discussion of three terms which link the four Islamic models of "self" identified through the review. The family dynamics section pays particular attention to interconnectedness, family roles, and gender. Causation is discussed with reference to supernatural and spiritual causes. On the theme of coping strategies, religious responses are discussed as are the roles of religious leaders, and professional mental health services. Clinical implications from the key themes are also discussed in addition to limitations of the published literature in this area. This includes a discussion of the epistemological and paradigmatic issues related to the research. The review concludes by summarising these issues and presenting areas for further research.

  2. Islam and state school: opinions of Muslim parents in Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Guolo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available What are the opinions of Muslim parents, as to the teaching of Islamic religion? In case it were possible, would they prefer it to be taught in state or religious schools? And in the first case, by whom? What do families think about problems like the observance of dietary laws in school canteens, the class of physical education for girls in mixed classes, the wearing of veil? The article summarizes the data of a survey on these topics (between 2006 and 2007 carried out in Piedmont, in particular in Turin, on a sample of about 1000 people representing the different ethnonational islamic communities living in the region. The methodology employed is both quantitative (the whole sample was given a structured questionnaire and qualitative. The latter concerns detailed interviews with the leaders of Islamic associations in the region. The result is definitely in favour of the teaching of Islamic religion in state schools, together with the request to observe dietary laws, both cultural and religious, and the acceptance, on principle, of the mixed class of physical education. There are of course different opinions which, however, show a growing trend in favour of free choice as to the obligation of veil: a picture widely determined by the ethnonational origin of the interviewed, confirming the pluralism of Italian Islam. The result points out that most Muslims in Piedmont have an inclusive approach and that religion does not mean cultural separation. The main trend, apart from the opinions and projects of a few associative leaderships, is one of an Islam that wishes to become a recognized member of Italian religious and cultural scene.

  3. CATHOLICS, MUSLIMS, AND GLOBAL POLITICS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanto Al Qurtuby

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of Catholics, Muslims, and civic associations in the global politics of the Philippines and Indonesia. The two countries have shared in common with regard to the geographical feature (both are archipelagic countries, the diversity of societies and cultures, and the history of colonialism, dictatorship, ethno-religious violence, and political movement, to name but a few. In addition to their similarities, both countries also have significant differences in particular pertaining to religious dominance (the Philippines dominated by Catholicism, while Indonesia by Islam and the structure of their societies: while the Philippines is a class-stratified society, Indonesia has long been ideologized by colonial and post-colonial religious and political powers. Apart from their parallels and distinctions, religion—both Catholicism and Islam—has marvellous role, negatively or positively, in global politics and public cultures, indicating its vigor and survival in global political domains. This comparative paper, more specifically, examines the historical dynamics of the interplay between religion, civil society, and political activism by using the Philippines and Indonesia as a case study and point of analysis.[Artikel ini mendiskusikan peran Katolik, Muslim dan asosiasi warga dalam politik global di dua negara; Indonesia dan Filipina. Kedua negara tersebut memiliki kesamaan, baik dalam hal ciri geografis sebagai negara kepulauan, keragaman masyarakat dan budayanya, sejarah kolonialisme, pemerintahan diktator, kekerasan etnik-agama, serta gerakan keagamaan. Terlepas dari kesamaan tersebut, keduanya memiliki perbedaan, utamanya menyangkut agama dominan (di Filipina didominasi oleh Katolik, sementara di Indonesia oleh Islam dan struktur masyarakatnya (Filipina ditandai dengan stratifikasi masyarakat berdasarkan klas sosial, sementara di Indonesia ditandai dengan ideologi agama kolonial, paska-kolonial, politik. Terlepas

  4. Malay-Muslim Identity in the Era of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAKARIA STAPA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extant research findings confirm the conjecture that Muslims in Malaysia in general are very concerned with the surge of globalization, fearing that Islamic values stand to be diluted with non-Islamic influences as a result of this. However, a more careful analysis suggests that globalization is merely a by-product of a more dominant notion and philosophy known as post-modernism. This indicates that postmodernism is the hub of globalization through which its ideologies and cultures are formed. It is also worth noting that post-modernism has also given birth to the latest model of secularism. Therefore, post-modernism, whether in the form of globalization or current version of secularism, is Islam's great enemy as it brings about values, beliefs and lifestyles that completely contradict Islamic teachings. As such, in the context of Muslims in Malaysia today, despite the proliferation of teachings of Islamic values at various levels, both formally and informally, there is still a clear indication that many are still trapped within the ideals of post-modernism. This manifests in the form of serious moral crime, strong beliefs in liberalism and religious pluralism, liberal ethics that champion feminism and homosexuality as well as the lack of respect towards traditional authority. This suggests that Islamic education in Malaysia in its current form is not able to counter the threats of post-modern thinking. Therefore, a new approach in teaching Islamic values must be sought, and in this context, presented from the viewpoint and approaches of sufism and sufi’s order.

  5. Review: Abdul Raufu Mustapha (ed., Sects & Social Disorder: Muslim Identities & Conflict in Northern Nigeria (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Bergstresser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume:Abdul Raufu Mustapha (ed., Sects & Social Disorder: Muslim Identities & Conflict in Northern Nigeria, Martlesham: James Currey, 2014, ISBN 9781847011077, 256 pages

  6. DEVELOPING MUSLIM COMMUNTIES IN THE PHILIPPINES THROUGH TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP: AN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapia Moalam Abdulrachman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research concludes that development of Muslim communities in the Philippines primarily relies on local initiatives and people’s assertive character to institute behavioral reform. It entails a transformation process involving all sectors of the society in such a way that true and committed Muslim leaders will emerge to provide direction and at the same time orchestrate the development of the communities.It is therefore argued that transformational leadership is the most appropriate model that could improve the living conditions of Muslims in the Philippines Firstly, this study provides the empirical evidence that leaders and followers believe that it is through Islamic leadership that their communities can be developed. Secondly, the history of the leadership of Prophet Mohammad and his four caliphs proved that Islamic leadership is indeed transformational leadership one, hence, they deserve to be emulated by Muslims.

  7. A multiculturalism-feminism dispute: Muslim women and the Sharia debate in Canada and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadzadeh, Naser

    2010-01-01

    Canadian Muslim women, as opposed to their Australian counterparts, have attained prominent social status not only in terms of their contribution to electoral politics but also in other political spheres. With its focus on the Sharia debate, this paper investigates one potential explanation for this difference. Challenging Okin's feminist perspective, which claims that multiculturalism is an undesirable policy for emancipation, it is argued that multiculturalism facilitates agency of female members of Muslim communities. A comparative examination of the Sharia debate between the two secular countries of Canada and Australia demonstrates that the former's more robust multicultural polity in terms of responding to requests to adopt the Sharia have not only culminated in Muslim women's empowerment but have enhanced their political representation. In contrast, Australian Muslim women have neither had the opportunity to articulate their position with regard to Sharia nor to contribute to an important issue that could have empowered them.

  8. Islamophobia and Crime – Anti-Muslim Demonising and Racialised Targeting: Guest Editor’s Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Poynting

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue deals with anti-Muslim racism, crime, criminalisation and attacks – both ideological and material – on Muslims and their communities in countries like Britain, Canada and Australia. A new spectre is haunting these places: an imagined ‘other’ is seen to be subversively spreading Muslim ‘extremism’ and exhorting anti-Western violence from within these societies, supporting global terrorism abroad and at home, and espousing hyperpatriarchal, homophobic and sexually exploitative culture. The ‘Muslim other’ has become the folk demon of our time in a racialising ideology that circulates internationally and has strikingly similar effects in quite different local contextsTo find out more about this special edition, download the PDF file from this page.  

  9. JUSTICE FOR ALL: AMERICAN MUSLIMS, SHARIA LAW, AND MAINTAINING COMITY WITHIN AMERICAN JURISPRUDENCE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarah M Fallon

    2013-01-01

    .... Nonetheless, in recent years, a growing misunderstanding and fear of Muslims has led some activists to seek to ban the application of Islamic law, or Sharia, in American courts, despite the lack...

  10. Muslim Spirituality, Religious Coping, and Reactions to Terrorism Among Pakistani University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ziasma Haneef; Watson, P J; Chen, Zhuo

    2016-12-01

    Pakistani Muslim university students (N = 207) displayed Personal Distress, Public Distress, and Personal Defeat Reactions to Terrorism. All three reactions predicted poorer mental health with Personal Defeat being especially disturbed in its adjustment implications. In line with the assumptions of coping theory, scores on the Negative Religious Coping Scale correlated positively with Personal Distress and with Personal Defeat. However, Positive Religious Coping, the spirituality of Muslim Experiential Religiousness, and the Intrinsic and Extrinsic Personal Religious Orientations exhibited positive rather than the expected negative linkages with Personal Distress and Public Distress. Muslim Experiential Religiousness moderated associations of Positive and Negative Religious Coping with Public Distress. When spirituality was high, these relationships were negative. When spirituality was low, they became positive. These data documented the negative impacts that terrorism can have on Pakistanis and suggested that Muslim religious commitments may have an important role to play in resisting those influences.

  11. Isolated, invisible, and in the closet: the life story of a Scottish Muslim lesbian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siraj, Asifa

    2011-01-01

    In the last three decades, there has been a significant growth in the literature on lesbian identity and relationships, but the study of lesbians from a Muslim background is conspicuously absent. This article was prompted partly by the relative absence of research into the lives of Muslim lesbians in Britain, and partly by the fact that much of the literature on Islam and homosexuality has tended to focus on homosexual men, ignoring the position of lesbian sexuality in Islam. It also charts the difficulties faced by a heterosexual researcher in conducting an interview with a lesbian and calls attention to the invisibility of self-identified Muslim lesbians in Glasgow. The life story interview is used to explore the very hidden and untold story of a Muslim lesbian; as such the article draws heavily on the subject's narrative.

  12. “Licentious Barbarians”: Representations of North African Muslims in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimillia Mohd Ramli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study traces the various historical contexts under which representations of North African Muslims were created from the sixteenth century until the nineteenth century in Britain. It shows that the image of Muslims that is being propagated in the media today as sexually licentious, oppressive towards women and barbaric were created from the earliest encounters between Westerners and Muslims from North Africa in the sixteenth century and became gradually consolidated in both fictional and factual writings throughout a few centuries up until the nineteenth century. While historical contexts experienced change as a result of the advent and decline of the Ottoman Empire as well as the emergence of Western Imperialism in the nineteenth century, images of Muslims remained largely the same.

  13. Privacy, modesty, hospitality, and the design of Muslim homes: A literature review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zulkeplee Othman Rosemary Aird Laurie Buys

    2015-01-01

    .... The principles of privacy, modesty, and hospitality are central to these guidelines; each principle has a significant effect on the design of Muslim homes, as well as on the organization of space and domestic behaviors within each home...

  14. What Makes a “Muslim Intellectual”? On the Pros and Cons of a Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Peter Hartung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available At its core, this essay contains a substantiated plea for bringing about conceptual clarity to the notion of “Muslim intellectual”, which the frequent and highly ideologically charged public usage of this term seems to distort. In search for a sound analytical concept of “intellectual” first, relevant sociological and philosophical deliberations are highlighted, indicating that both of their notions differ to such an extent that their applicability to academic pursuit must be doubted. Yet, by discussing some considerations by a Study of Islam open to the approaches of the Social Sciences a possible framework for an analytically meaningful concept of “Muslim intellectual” is presented. At the same time, however, arguments are presented for why those contemporary Muslim thinkers who are usually credited with being “Muslim intellectuals” would hardly fit the analytical criteria for such label.

  15. Veiled Politics: Muslim Women’s Visibility and Their Use in European Countries’ Political Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vanzan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the many disastrous consequences of the tragic events of 9/11 is the war waged by the neocolonialists in order to “liberate” Muslim women. This gender-based war stands on a series of pillars, such as the presumption that Western civilization offers women a great deal of privileges, while Muslim culture gives none. Therefore, it would be logical to suppose that, because of the many opportunities the West grants to Muslim women who reside there, the latter may have an active role in the local political process. However, Muslim women have scarce visibility in European political life, and their presence is sometimes merely instrumental to some party: in most cases, women are coopted because they are a good sample of “secular Muslims” (i.e., they do not wear the hijab, i.e., the veil and a modest attire; in others, they are appointed because they are veiled and can therefore become a good vehicle in order to win the support both of the Muslim community and of its sympathizers. In this paper, I will analyze some crucial aspects of Muslim women’s formal political participation in some European countries; in addition, I will focus on the Italian case with the help of a series of interviews with Muslim women who play an active role in local political councils. The study shows how in European politics, Muslim women can become a commodity even when they stand out as rising political individuals; but also how they fight to gain visibility and public recognition, in spite of the tense situation and of the rampant Islamophobia.

  16. CHALLENGING THE MAINSTREAM: BADRUDDIN TYABJI’S OPPOSITION TO MUSLIM SEPARATISM IN BRITISH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELKACEM BELMEKKI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the widespread belief that the Muslim community in British India unanimously championed the idea of separatism in the Subcontinent, there were, after all, some key figures among them who opposed this tendency wholeheartedly. This paper seeks to set out the example of a prominent Muslim leader, Badruddin Tyabji (1844-1906, a lawyer and later a judge, who had a different conception as to the lot of his coreligionists in the Indian Subcontinent.

  17. Religion and the Unmaking of Prejudice toward Muslims: Evidence from a Large National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, John H.; Troughton, Geoffrey; Sibley, Chris G.; Bulbulia, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    In the West, anti-Muslim sentiments are widespread. It has been theorized that inter-religious tensions fuel anti-Muslim prejudice, yet previous attempts to isolate sectarian motives have been inconclusive. Factors contributing to ambiguous results are: (1) failures to assess and adjust for multi-level denomination effects; (2) inattention to demographic covariates; (3) inadequate methods for comparing anti-Muslim prejudice relative to other minority group prejudices; and (4) ad hoc theories for the mechanisms that underpin prejudice and tolerance. Here we investigate anti-Muslim prejudice using a large national sample of non-Muslim New Zealanders (N = 13,955) who responded to the 2013 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We address previous shortcomings by: (1) building Bayesian multivariate, multi-level regression models with denominations modeled as random effects; (2) including high-resolution demographic information that adjusts for factors known to influence prejudice; (3) simultaneously evaluating the relative strength of anti-Muslim prejudice by comparing it to anti-Arab prejudice and anti-immigrant prejudice within the same statistical model; and (4) testing predictions derived from the Evolutionary Lag Theory of religious prejudice and tolerance. This theory predicts that in countries such as New Zealand, with historically low levels of conflict, religion will tend to increase tolerance generally, and extend to minority religious groups. Results show that anti-Muslim and anti-Arab sentiments are confounded, widespread, and substantially higher than anti-immigrant sentiments. In support of the theory, the intensity of religious commitments was associated with a general increase in tolerance toward minority groups, including a poorly tolerated religious minority group: Muslims. Results clarify religion’s power to enhance tolerance in peaceful societies that are nevertheless afflicted by prejudice. PMID:26959976

  18. Hindu-Muslim Violence in India: A National and State-Level Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    an attempt to force the development of equal representation for Muslims within India, Mohammed Ali Jinnah supported the two-nation theory whereby a...Christina E. Ortega Approved by: Anshu N. Chatterjee, Ph.D. Thesis Co-Advisor S. Paul Kapur, Ph.D. Thesis Co-Advisor Mohammed Hafez...CONSOCIATIONAL NEHRUVIAN TRADITION AND LOW HINDU-MUSLIM VIOLENCE ....................................................................14  1.  Partition

  19. An investigation into the new emerging social sub group of professional Muslim women in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Taqi, Fatmatta, B.

    2010-01-01

    Sierra Leone is in transition to peace and development, from a previous decade long civil war. Educated Muslim women appear to have a great deal of expression, interest and passion to offer the process. The study investigates the new emerging social sub group of professional Muslim women in Sierra Leone society and explores their views and experiences of identifying and attempting to overcome the burdens of patriarchy, oppression and exploitation perpetrated by religious, social and cultural ...

  20. Religion and the Unmaking of Prejudice toward Muslims: Evidence from a Large National Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, John H; Troughton, Geoffrey; Sibley, Chris G; Bulbulia, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    In the West, anti-Muslim sentiments are widespread. It has been theorized that inter-religious tensions fuel anti-Muslim prejudice, yet previous attempts to isolate sectarian motives have been inconclusive. Factors contributing to ambiguous results are: (1) failures to assess and adjust for multi-level denomination effects; (2) inattention to demographic covariates; (3) inadequate methods for comparing anti-Muslim prejudice relative to other minority group prejudices; and (4) ad hoc theories for the mechanisms that underpin prejudice and tolerance. Here we investigate anti-Muslim prejudice using a large national sample of non-Muslim New Zealanders (N = 13,955) who responded to the 2013 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We address previous shortcomings by: (1) building Bayesian multivariate, multi-level regression models with denominations modeled as random effects; (2) including high-resolution demographic information that adjusts for factors known to influence prejudice; (3) simultaneously evaluating the relative strength of anti-Muslim prejudice by comparing it to anti-Arab prejudice and anti-immigrant prejudice within the same statistical model; and (4) testing predictions derived from the Evolutionary Lag Theory of religious prejudice and tolerance. This theory predicts that in countries such as New Zealand, with historically low levels of conflict, religion will tend to increase tolerance generally, and extend to minority religious groups. Results show that anti-Muslim and anti-Arab sentiments are confounded, widespread, and substantially higher than anti-immigrant sentiments. In support of the theory, the intensity of religious commitments was associated with a general increase in tolerance toward minority groups, including a poorly tolerated religious minority group: Muslims. Results clarify religion's power to enhance tolerance in peaceful societies that are nevertheless afflicted by prejudice.

  1. Relationship between Workplace Incivility, Job Attitudes and Muslim Religiosity Personality among Trade Union Members

    OpenAIRE

    Azizan H. M.; Razlina H. J.

    2016-01-01

    In reality, workplace incivility has its fair share of attention in organizational research dealing with its causes and effect relationships. In Islam, incivility equates the negative character (akhlak) of ridiculing others. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to investigate relationship between the experience of workplace incivility and job attitudes as well as the moderating effect of Muslim religiosity personality, which is measured by Muslim Religiosity-Personality Inventory ...

  2. Islamic Cosmopolitanism: The sartorial biographies of three Muslim women in London

    OpenAIRE

    Tarlo, Emma

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the dress of three prominent Muslim women who have made a significant mark in British public life: the textile artist Rezia Wahid, the stand-up comedienne Shazia Mirza, and the councilor and advisor on Muslim affairs Humera Khan. It focuses, in particular, on their sartorial biographies, tracing the processes, experiences, and reasoning behind their clothing choices. Whilst the wearing of dress that is visibly identifiable as Islamic is often interpreted as a sign of n...

  3. Reverse migration: Western European Muslim women’s flights to ISIL territory

    OpenAIRE

    DeSitter, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Since early 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has increasingly recruited Western Muslim men and women to its radical ideology. This thesis examines why Western European Muslim women—specifically from France and Great Britain—are voluntarily migrating to ISIL territory to support Islamic extremism. It evaluates women’s involvement in previous terrorist movements and proposes five potential motivations for migration: ...

  4. Research-Led Advocacy and Strategic Collaborations promoting Equal Rights For Muslim Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sait, Siraj

    2013-01-01

    This presentation critically reflects on the UEL research led advocacy experience while working on gender equality issues in the Muslim world. Since 2005, UEL has collaborated extensively with United Nations agencies, the World Bank, governments, Muslim stakeholders such as the Arab League and the Al Azhar, and women’s groups to create new knowledge, strategies and capacities as prominently recognised by the UN State of the Arab Cities Report 2012.\\ud \\ud In the first part, the presentation i...

  5. Transformation of Muslim Behaviour towards Sustainable Environment: Perspectives of Non-Governmental Organisations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashitoh Yaacob

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Man cannot depend solely on science and technology to solve environmental problems. In fact, scholars and environmentalists have observed that some of the causes of environmental deterioration are rooted in science and technology. It is clear that environmental problems need ethical solution. However, environmentally ethical behaviour (EEB is often overlooked in the life of a Muslim. This behaviour is important, particularly, to ensure the future of civilization of the Islamic world and, generally, civilization as a whole. Given the fact that non-governmental organisations (NGOs are more sensitive to the transformation of public behaviour compared to other groups, this article discusses the perspectives of Malaysian NGOs on the transformation of Muslim EEB in Malaysia in three aspects: (a The type of EEB practiced by Muslims in Malaysia; (b The transformation process of EEB experienced by Muslims in Malaysia; and (c Whether or not the transformation of EEB of Muslims in Malaysia is motivated by the values advocated by Islam. The research adopted a qualitative research method of data collection, i.e., focus group discussions (FGDs. FGD’s results illustrated that: (a Pre-cycling, reusing and recycling are the common types of EEB practiced by Muslims in Malaysia; (b The transformation process of EEB experienced by Muslims in Malaysia is not accelerating at the speed that we hoped for; and (c The transformation of EEB of Muslims in Malaysia is motivated more by economic and social factors as well as level of education and regulation enforcement compared to the values advocated by Islam.

  6. [Associations with Muslim patients in general practice surgeries--a survey among German general practicioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenthaler, A; Hiltner, H; Eissler, M

    2014-07-01

    Due to the increasing numbers of Muslims in Germany(1)--about 4.3 million at the moment--more Muslim patients are medicated in the practices of family doctors. Their heterogeneous cultural and religious backgrounds are nontheless unknown and unfamiliar for the treating general practitioner. Based on the daily experiences of the latter and in order to capture their development of intercultural competence, in the present study a brainwriting with general practitioners was conducted to record their spontaneous associations with Muslim patients. Individually and without exchange 90 general practitioners (66 male, 24 female) listed subjective thoughts regarding "Muslim patients" on a prepared sheet of paper. Additionally, sex, age, number of years as physician in a private practice and the frequency of treatment of Muslim patients in their own practice were requested. The content of the notes were evaluated using MAXQDA and were clustered in the categories of "language", "company", "violence", "men"/"women", "psychosomatic medicine", "compliance", "understanding of illness", "physical examination" and "head scarf". The ideas listed show that the majority of interviewed general practitioners regarded the treatment of Muslim patients as difficult. They associate Muslim patients with communication problems, a different type of disease understanding and a fear of contact, which hampers the examination situation. Less frequently, positive associations and unproblematic examination situations were noted. Due to a lack of knowledge about cultural and religious contexts Muslim patients are often described by using stereotypes. This underlines the necessity to foster intercultural competences and self-reflection in daily practice and its systematic inclusion in medical education. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. TAX DEDUCTION THROUGH ZAKAT: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION ON MUSLIM IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mamun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the factors which are affecting Muslim consumer's perception towards tax deduction through zakat in Malaysia. A conceptual framework was drawn based on the literature. Six factors were extracted through principal component analysis and SEM was run to test the hypotheses. This research found that halal-haram aspect of Islamic Shariah has a very positive influence on Muslim consumers’ perception towards the tax rebate system. In addition, legal consciousness and knowledge about tax and zakat have a positive significant impact on Muslim consumers’ perceptions towards this system. Due to the limited literature available on this subject matter, this study offers unique findings that may help in capitalizing the practices in Muslim countries and to understand their consumers’ perception regarding the tax deduction system. In conclusion, zakat institutions in Malaysia will also be better benefitted through this research finding. =========================================== Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menggali faktor- faktor yang mempengaruhi persepsi para konsumen muslim terkait dengan pengurangan pajak melalui zakat di Malaysia. Suatu kerangka konseptual telah digambarkan berdasarkan literatur. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa aspek halal- haram dalam Syariah Islami memiliki pengaruh yang sangat positif terhadap persepsi para konsumen muslim terkait dengan sistem pengurangan pajak. Sebagai tambahan, kesadaran hukum dan pengetahuan tentang pajak dan zakat memiliki pengaruh positif yang signifikan pada persepsi konsumen muslim yang terkait dengan sistem ini. Sehubungan dengan terbatasnya literatur yang tersedia terkait dengan masalah ini, penelitian ini menawarkan temuan- temuan yang menarik yang dapat mendukung pengembangan praktik- praktik di negara- negara muslim dan untuk memahami persepsi para konsumennya terkait dengan sistem pengurangan pajak.

  8. Muslim Young People Online: “Acts of Citizenship” in Socially Networked Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Johns

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current literature regarding Muslim young people’s online social networking and participatory practices with the aim of examining whether these practices open up new spaces of civic engagement and political participation. The paper focuses on the experiences of young Muslims living in western societies, where, since September 11, the ability to assert claims as citizens in the public arena has diminished. The paper draws upon Isin & Nielsen’s (2008 “acts of citizenship” to define the online practices of many Muslim youth, for whom the internet provides a space where new performances of citizenship are enacted outside of formal citizenship rights and spaces of participation. These “acts" are evaluated in light of theories which articulate the changing nature of publics and the public sphere in a digital era. The paper will use this conceptual framework in conjunction with the literature review to explore whether virtual, online spaces offer young Muslims an opportunity to create a more inclusive discursive space to interact with co-citizens, engage with social and political issues and assert their citizen rights than is otherwise afforded by formal political structures; a need highlighted by policies which target minority Muslim young people for greater civic participation but which do not reflect the interests and values of Muslim young people.

  9. Islam and Economic Development: Exploring the Role of Indonesian Muslim Society in Developing Islamic Microfinance Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayi Yunus Rusyana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although a religion is considered as a one of the cultural barriers that can impede an economic development, nevertheless in this paper I prove that Islam as well as Muslim society has a big role to empower economic life in Indonesian Muslim. The growth of Bayt al-Māl wa al-Tamwīl (BMT, Islamic microfinance institution, initiated by Muslim community is a great evidence on how religioun gave a positive impact in economic development in Indonesia. Using the theory of collective action proposed by Alberto Melucci, I explore the main factors that influenced Muslims to establish BMT, and how BMT movement develops in Indonesian Muslim society. Overall, in this paper I argue that the BMT movement can be considered as a social movement where the civil society takes more important role than the state. Interestingly, the lack of regulation is not becoming an obstacle for Muslim society to establish and develop BMT in some regions in Indonesia.

  10. Early Medieval Muslim Graves in France: First Archaeological, Anthropological and Palaeogenomic Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleize, Yves; Mendisco, Fanny; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Hubert, Christophe; Groppi, Alexis; Houix, Bertrand; Deguilloux, Marie-France; Breuil, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    The rapid Arab-Islamic conquest during the early Middle Ages led to major political and cultural changes in the Mediterranean world. Although the early medieval Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is now well documented, based in the evaluation of archeological and historical sources, the Muslim expansion in the area north of the Pyrenees has only been documented so far through textual sources or rare archaeological data. Our study provides the first archaeo-anthropological testimony of the Muslim establishment in South of France through the multidisciplinary analysis of three graves excavated at Nimes. First, we argue in favor of burials that followed Islamic rites and then note the presence of a community practicing Muslim traditions in Nimes. Second, the radiometric dates obtained from all three human skeletons (between the 7th and the 9th centuries AD) echo historical sources documenting an early Muslim presence in southern Gaul (i.e., the first half of 8th century AD). Finally, palaeogenomic analyses conducted on the human remains provide arguments in favor of a North African ancestry of the three individuals, at least considering the paternal lineages. Given all of these data, we propose that the skeletons from the Nimes burials belonged to Berbers integrated into the Umayyad army during the Arab expansion in North Africa. Our discovery not only discusses the first anthropological and genetic data concerning the Muslim occupation of the Visigothic territory of Septimania but also highlights the complexity of the relationship between the two communities during this period.

  11. Attitudes toward cervical cancer screening among Muslim women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Mina; LeBaron, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    Immigrant Muslim women have low rates of health care utilization, especially preventive care such as breast exams, mammograms, and cervical cancer screening. Religious and cultural beliefs, such as the value placed on modesty and premarital virginity, contribute to reluctance to seek health care. In addition, it has been unclear whether discussions of health care behavior that involve sexuality and reproductive health would be welcomed among immigrant Muslim women. (1) To examine the impact of religious and cultural values on health care behavior of Muslim women from immigrant backgrounds in the San Francisco Bay Area, particularly with regard to cervical cancer screening; (2) To determine whether these women would welcome discussing values and beliefs regarding sexuality and reproductive health. Our key informants were five Muslim women who identified pelvic and Pap smear screening exams as major sources of anxiety for their community, and therefore major barriers to health care. Three focus groups were then convened, including 15 women ages 18-25, to discuss these issues in more detail. Many Muslim women from immigrant backgrounds face challenges in obtaining adequate health care due to some common barriers of language, transportation, insurance, and family pressures. Additionally, many Muslim women resist screening practices that are the standard in the US but which threaten their cultural and religious values. Equally important, many health care professionals contribute to the women's challenges by making inappropriate recommendations regarding physical exams and reproductive health. The women were enthusiastic and candid in discussing these highly sensitive and taboo topics.

  12. In Pursuit of Islamic "Authenticity": Localizing Muslim Identity on China's Peripheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Turnbull

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this ethnographic sketch, I analyze the complex processes of Sino-Islamic identity formation by examining the variety and diversity of locally produced “authenticity,” situated within a global understanding of Islam. Even within a single province, among a single official minzu (nationality that People’s Republic of China propaganda, media, and scholarship often construct as a unified, static group, localized practices and processes of identity formation are remarkably diverse. This article investigates how trans/national discourses and practices of Islamic authenticity are localized within two specific field sites: the provincial capital of Kunming and the rural Muslim enclave of Shadian. For the purposes of this article, I focus primarily on how life is temporally and spatially structured, both in everyday practice and in imaginings of one’s place in history, modernity, the Muslim world, and the Chinese state. By setting out details of the daily lives of two Hui Muslim women, I aim to elucidate how temporal and spatial structures of life, which are tied to urban or rural location, reflect and shape local identity formation. I argue that as actors involved in their own self-production, Hui Muslims in Kunming and Shadian negotiated, appropriated, and contested both monolithic notions of Islam and the official state-propagated minzu classificatory system, producing their own versions of authentic Hui Muslim identities. What constituted authentic Hui Muslim identity depended to a great extent on the residence of the individual.

  13. Is Zakah Effective to Alleviate Poverty in a Muslim Society?: A Case of Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussalam, Onagun Isiaka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kwara State is one of the Muslim-dominated states in Nigeria, where Islamic economic instrument of zakah is expected to play vital role in alleviating the problem of poverty in the society. One of the objectives of zakah is to economically circulate the wealth and resources from the rich to the poor and eventually realize fair distribution of those wealth and resources in a Muslim society. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of zakah in the poverty reduction of the poor Muslims in Kwara State, Nigeria, particularly, the poor Muslim women. The study employs mixed method of data collection whereby the primary data are explored using the questionnaire and interview designed for the potential respondents during the on-going academic research programme 2013/2014 academic session of 360 sample size. Similarly, verses from Holy Qu’ran and Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh are used in the study. For the secondary data, existing literature and studies on zakah are also used. Data gathered are analysed using frequencies, percentages and inferential statistics via SPSS 20.0. The findings show that zakah and its institution are not significantly related to and effective in reducing poverty among the poor Muslims in Kwara State, Nigeria. However, recommendations are made towards introduction of standard institution of zakah in the State in order to assist in poverty reduction among the poor Muslims.

  14. Early Medieval Muslim Graves in France: First Archaeological, Anthropological and Palaeogenomic Evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Gleize

    Full Text Available The rapid Arab-Islamic conquest during the early Middle Ages led to major political and cultural changes in the Mediterranean world. Although the early medieval Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is now well documented, based in the evaluation of archeological and historical sources, the Muslim expansion in the area north of the Pyrenees has only been documented so far through textual sources or rare archaeological data. Our study provides the first archaeo-anthropological testimony of the Muslim establishment in South of France through the multidisciplinary analysis of three graves excavated at Nimes. First, we argue in favor of burials that followed Islamic rites and then note the presence of a community practicing Muslim traditions in Nimes. Second, the radiometric dates obtained from all three human skeletons (between the 7th and the 9th centuries AD echo historical sources documenting an early Muslim presence in southern Gaul (i.e., the first half of 8th century AD. Finally, palaeogenomic analyses conducted on the human remains provide arguments in favor of a North African ancestry of the three individuals, at least considering the paternal lineages. Given all of these data, we propose that the skeletons from the Nimes burials belonged to Berbers integrated into the Umayyad army during the Arab expansion in North Africa. Our discovery not only discusses the first anthropological and genetic data concerning the Muslim occupation of the Visigothic territory of Septimania but also highlights the complexity of the relationship between the two communities during this period.

  15. Early Medieval Muslim Graves in France: First Archaeological, Anthropological and Palaeogenomic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Hubert, Christophe; Groppi, Alexis; Houix, Bertrand; Deguilloux, Marie-France; Breuil, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    The rapid Arab-Islamic conquest during the early Middle Ages led to major political and cultural changes in the Mediterranean world. Although the early medieval Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is now well documented, based in the evaluation of archeological and historical sources, the Muslim expansion in the area north of the Pyrenees has only been documented so far through textual sources or rare archaeological data. Our study provides the first archaeo-anthropological testimony of the Muslim establishment in South of France through the multidisciplinary analysis of three graves excavated at Nimes. First, we argue in favor of burials that followed Islamic rites and then note the presence of a community practicing Muslim traditions in Nimes. Second, the radiometric dates obtained from all three human skeletons (between the 7th and the 9th centuries AD) echo historical sources documenting an early Muslim presence in southern Gaul (i.e., the first half of 8th century AD). Finally, palaeogenomic analyses conducted on the human remains provide arguments in favor of a North African ancestry of the three individuals, at least considering the paternal lineages. Given all of these data, we propose that the skeletons from the Nimes burials belonged to Berbers integrated into the Umayyad army during the Arab expansion in North Africa. Our discovery not only discusses the first anthropological and genetic data concerning the Muslim occupation of the Visigothic territory of Septimania but also highlights the complexity of the relationship between the two communities during this period. PMID:26910855

  16. WE ARE FROM THE SAME ANCESTORS: CHRISTIAN-MUSLIM RELATIONS IN CONTEMPORAY ACEH SINGKIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ansor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The following Paper discusses the Muslim-Christian relations in Aceh Singkil Regency as well as the process of religious identity formation in the context of the debate over the Islamic Sharia in Aceh. First of all I will present the overview of the socio-political context of the regulations of Islamic jurisprudence in Aceh and the position of non-Muslims in such regulations. Next, I will trace the impact of the regulations on the format of the Muslim-Christian relations. Based on the Goffman theory of dramaturgy, this paper found that Muslim-Christian relations in Singkil were a complex narrative, often opposite between the appearance of the front stageand the backstage. Amid suspicions of the majority of the Aceh Singkil Muslims and the local Government of the existence of Christians, Interfaith communities at the grassroots level are precisely trying to build harmony and co-existence. I conclude that the consciousness about the similarities of ethnic origins has so far contributed effectivelyto suppressing the conflict between the two religions in Aceh Singkil. Keywords: Ethnicity, Muslim-Christian Relations, Aceh Singkil

  17. MUSLIM INTELLECTUALS OR HOUSEMAIDS? The Saudi Perceptions of the Indonesian Domestic Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yon Machmudi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is certainly the world's largest Muslim country. Its big population however is not capable of offering a big contribution for the world. Indonesia was a major player on the world stage politically and intellectually. But that role has disappeared with the disappearance of Indonesia’s most vibrant minds. This paper tries to exploit the rise and the fall of Indonesian role on the international stage particularly by looking at the presence of the Indonesian workers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and how the Saudis perceive these workers. The paper argues that there is an observable development in the way Indonesia and its people have been perceived in this particular part of the world. In the past, they were respected as intellectuals while at the present they are humiliated as domestic workers. This paper analyzes this setback in the Indonesian role and with it the changing perceptions of the Saudis in particular and the Arabs in general concerning Indonesians in the Middle East. At the end, the paper is concerned with showing how that low perception affects the relation between Indonesia and the Arab countries.

  18. The Baptism of Slaves, Freedmen and Free Muslims in the Oran of Philip II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Bravo Caro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the article is to present new data on the volume of baptisms and conversions officiated in Oran during the last third of the sixteenth century. The parish documents preserved from this period are the basic source of analysis, supplemented by information emanating from different institutions that comprise the organizational management and administration of the Spain of XVI century. The categorization of Oran as a square border is going to confer specificity, also in the matter of slave presence, compared to other populations in the Spanish Monarchy in the Iberian Peninsula and island territories dependent on it. The percentage of enslaved people or freedmen entering the sacrament of baptism is higher than in many Spanish cities at the time, for the years studied. In addition, various members of Muslim families or Jewish religious contemplate this formula of conffesional income as a social integration via, or at least, a vehicle in realizing their existence in the Spanish society of the time, whether in Africa or the metropoli. As in other towns examined, the reference to the owners shows a participation of various groups in the slave market.

  19. Public Islam in Southeast Asia: Late Modernity, Resurgent Religion, and Muslim Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanto Al Qurtuby

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the study of public Islam in Southeast Asia, the world’s most populous Islamic region. More specifically, it examines “late modernity” and its relation to the unprecedented growth of Islam, the Islamic resurgence, and Muslim politics in the public domains of modern Southeast Asia, particularly in Indonesia and the Philippines. It also examines the history of Islam’s resurgence, the underlying factors driving the region’s Islamic boom, and the implications of the aforementioned phenomena on democracy, civil co-existence, and social relations among ethno-religious groups in these areas. Using Southeast Asia as a case of public Islam, the article’s main purpose is to revisit the strength of classic modernization and secularization theories that forecasted the decline, or even the death, of religion from global politics and public spheres. Finally, the article also aims to provide insights on the local dynamics and plurality of public Islam in Southeast Asia.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v20i3.511

  20. Gender Equality? Attitudes towards Equal Opportunity for Women in Higher Education among Israeli Muslim Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Soen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic assumption of the paper is that Israel is practically a bi-national State, where the Arab minority constitutes approximately 20% of the population. The Arab minority is now in an interim state – it is passing from a traditional, collective way of life to a modern, individualistic one. Israeli Arabs recognize the fact that education is the key to socio-economic status. Part of the social change is the growing dominance of women in secondary and higher education in the Arab sector. Women now constitute approximately two thirds of Arab students in the Israeli institutions of higher education. The article sets out to explore the impact of education and religiosity of Israeli Muslim males on their attitudes towards women’s right to pursue higher education. The main finding of the research is the wide support for women’s right to higher education. Religiosity and education of the interviewees have been found to impact their attitudes.

  1. Translating neuroethics: reflections from Muslim ethics: commentary on "Ethical concepts and future challenges of neuroimaging: an islamic perspective".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Ebrahim

    2012-09-01

    Muslim ethics is cautiously engaging developments in neuroscience. In their encounters with developments in neuroscience such as brain death and functional magnetic resonance imaging procedures, Muslim ethicists might be on the cusp of spirited debates. Science and religion perform different kinds of work and ought not to be conflated. Cultural translation is central to negotiating the complex life worlds of religious communities, Muslims included. Cultural translation involves lived encounters with modernity and its byproduct, modern science. Serious ethical debate requires more than just a mere instrumental encounter with science. A robust Muslim approach to neuroethics might require an emulsion of religion and neuroscience, thought and body, and body and soul. Yet one must anticipate that Muslim debates in neuroethics will be inflected with Muslim values, symbols and the discrete faith perspectives of this tradition with meanings that are specific to people who share this worldview and their concerns.

  2. Interpretation and power : a study of contemporary reformist trends in muslim societies andtheir relationship to UN standards of human rigths

    OpenAIRE

    Selahvarzi, Chrysostom

    2000-01-01

    This study focuses on the issues of politics and power in contemporary Muslim societies. It is a study of the reformist trends in contemporary Muslim societies, and Islam s relation with politics and human rights is viewed from this perspective. The starting point for the discussion in this paper is the fact that UN standards of human rights are violated by most of the governments of contemporary Muslim societies. Neither in theory, as manifested through the various Islamic schemes for human ...

  3. “阳光行动”的主题内涵与实践价值%Theme Contents of "Sunny Actions" and Practical Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏

    2011-01-01

    The contents of "Sunny Actions" carried out by Shanxi public security could be analyzed from semantic level,academic level and practical operation.Its practical values could be defined that the "Sunny Actions" necessarily provides the effective way for achieving the "one aim,5 demands" raised by Minister Meng Jianzhu and "1+8" blueprint drafted by Public Security Department;necessarily provides reliable protection for Shanxi leapfrog development for transformation;necessarily does active contributions to making police work adapt to the new expectations and demands from the people.%山西公安系统正在开展的"阳光行动",其内涵可以从语义层面、学术层面和实践操作三个层面来进行分析。而其实践价值可以归纳为:必然能为实现孟建柱部长提出的"一个目标、五项要求"和省公安厅制定的"1+8"规划蓝图提供有效途径;必然能为山西的转型跨越发展提供可靠保障;必然能为公安工作适应时代呼唤、回应人民群众的新期望和新要求作出积极贡献。

  4. The Optimally Mobile Muslim Experts In The Service Of The Ummah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Muyibi, Mohammed Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal on how the Muslim Experts made up of Academics, Professionals and Entrepreneurs can be made optimally mobile to utilize their Allah endowed resources to serve the Ummah and mankind more efficiently and effectively as well as being key players in a world which has become a "Global Village". Some case studies are presented to illustrate some of the major problems facing the Muslim Ummah today in not being able to utilize optimally the human as well as material resources endowed to us by Allah to enable us fulfill our role as the "best of Ummah" created for the benefit of mankind and vicegerent of Allah. This proposal includes the setting up of an International Organization of Optimally Mobile Muslim Experts (IOOMME. It is envisaged that IOOMME will have a Talent Bank which will be a database on Muslim Academics and Professionals living and working in both Muslim and non-Muslim countries with detailed information about the experts, their areas of expertise and products developed etc. Furthermore professional resource centers which will be land-based as well as cyberspace or virtual based will be setup made up of published information (journals, technical reports and specialized research equipment/facilities available in Muslim nations where Muslim Academics and Professionals can have access to for their use as well as for developing upcoming Muslim Academics and Professionals. It is envisaged that Muslim nations will create the enabling environment through entry visa and professional short visit regulations for Muslim academics and professionals to use their Sabbaticals, annual vacations, study/research leave, professional short visits etc. academic/ professional staff exchange to go to Muslim nations to render their service to the Ummah. ABSTRAK: Kertas ini membentangkan cadangan bagaimana kumpulan Pakar Islam yang terdiri daripada kalangan ahli akademik, golongan profesional dan para usahawan dibentuk agar dapat

  5. Contraceptive behaviour of Christian and Muslim teenagers at the time of abortion and post-abortion in Thrace, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Koukouli, Zacharoula; Psarros, Nikolaos; Manav, Bachar; Tsagias, Nikolaos; Galazios, Georgios

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the study were to compare the contraceptive behaviour of Christian and Muslim adolescents who had an abortion in Thrace, Greece, and to examine whether extensive contraceptive counselling at the time of abortion modified their subsequent contraceptive practices. Adolescents, aged 14-19 years, who had undergone an elective abortion in our department, were included in a prospective 12-year study. Extensive contraceptive counselling was offered before discharge from the hospital. Attitudes to contraception were assessed by means of a simple questionnaire at the time of abortion and at 1-year follow-up. The study population comprised of 95 Christian Orthodox adolescents (Group A) and 79 Muslim adolescents (Group B). At the time of abortion, contraceptive behaviour differed significantly between the two groups (p = .004). Contraceptive methods used in Group A in comparison with Group B were as follows: oral contraceptives (27.4% vs. 12.7%), condoms (22.1% vs. 38.0%), interrupted coitus (18.9% vs. 20.3%), periodic abstinence (16.8% vs. 25.3%) and emergency contraception (14.7% vs. 3.8%). The commonest source of information on contraception in Group A was the gynaecologist (17.9%) and family planning clinic (15.8%), whereas in Group B it was the individual's partner (25.3%) and parents (16.4%). Contraceptive behaviour was significantly modified in both groups at post-abortion follow-up (both p < .001). The original difference between the groups, however, persisted (p = .006). In Group A, oral contraceptives were the dominant method (48.4%), followed by condoms (30.5%), whereas in Group B, the order was still the reverse (24.1% and 46.8%, respectively). Cultural differences significantly affect the contraceptive behaviour. Nevertheless, interventions that promote contraception can still be successful in different populations.

  6. The Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSORF): a validation study on Iranian Muslim patients undergoing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpour, Amir H; Plante, Thomas G; Saffari, Mohsen; Fridlund, Bengt

    2014-12-01

    The Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSORF) is an often used and validated scale that is uncommonly utilized in culturally diverse populations. The purpose of this research investigation was to adapt the SCSORF for use among Iranian Muslim patients undergoing dialysis and to examine the reliability and validity of the scale among this population. A total of 428 patients (228 females, 200 males, M age = 52.2 years, SD = 10) were selected from five dialysis center in Tehran and Qazvin, Iran. A comprehensive forward-backward translation system was used for cross-cultural translation. Patients completed a baseline questionnaire obtaining demographic and clinical information as well as the SCSORF, the Age Universal Religious Orientation Scale (AUROS), the religious life inventory (RLI), and the Duke University religion index (DUREL). 2 weeks later, patients were asked to complete the SCSORF once again. Reliability of the SCSORF was examined using internal consistency and test-rest reliability. Convergent validity and factor structure using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were also examined. Cronbach's α for the single construct of the SCSORF was 0.89 with adequate test-retest reliability measured over a 2 week period. SCSORF scores were significantly correlated with AUROS, RLI and the DUREL. The EFA generated a single factor solution for the SCSORF while these results were confirmed by the CFA in an independent sample. Findings demonstrated that the SCSORF has favorable reliability, convergent validity, and divergent validity among Iranian Muslim patients undergoing dialysis and is recommended for use by clinicians (e.g., nephrologists) to measure strength of religious faith among patients.

  7. Muslim American adolescents' explanations of changing religious practices: Cultural tools in cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kathleen M; Schiro, Isabella N; Gregory, Wesley E; Westberg, Lindsay M; Lee, Samantha R; Boyle, Colleen D

    2017-03-01

    To examine the culturally embedded nature of religious practices, we conducted a mixed-methods study in which Muslim American adolescents described how and why their religious practices had changed in recent years (see Etengoff & Daiute, 2013, J. Adolesc. Res., 28, 690). Participants included 201 Muslim adolescents (ages 13-19) from predominantly immigrant families; all were contestants in a Muslim Inter-Scholastic Tournament regional competition. Participants completed surveys including an item regarding whether their religious practices had changed, and for those who answered affirmatively, open-ended questions about the change. Additional measures assessed ethnic identity and perceived discrimination. As hypothesized, the 60% of participants who reported a change in religious practices described this shift as a response to new contexts, people, and religious knowledge. Those who reported a change also reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and perceived discrimination. Overall, Muslim American adolescents' descriptions portrayed religious practices as developing through reciprocal interactions with culture. More generally, participants' descriptions point to the viability of a model in which religious practices change and in turn are changed by cultural contexts. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Religious development is viewed as taking place in relational systems with reciprocity between individuals and surrounding contexts. Variations in contexts predict variations in religious development, but mechanisms of development are not well understood. Muslim Americans, including adolescents, show high levels of religious involvement and experience unique cultural and religious contexts. Muslim American emerging adults describe their religious practices as responsive to sociocultural contexts. What does the study add? This study focuses on Muslim American adolescents, a group that has received little research attention

  8. Southeast Asian Muslim Washathyyah in the Global Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrin Harahap

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization in the world has given the huge impact on the people, as the new condition of the world has brought the world to the globalism- a consciousness and understanding that the world is one. Globalization has also unified the people in a global village that covers all aspects of life such as economic, political, cultural, religious aspects. This paper will explore the concept of wa¡a¯iyyah which stresses on the moderation and accommodative way and its implementation in Southeast Asia. The main idea of the wa¡a¯iyyah or moderation in religious life is that it offers the importance of realizing the concept of Islamic blessing for all the Universe (Islam; Ra¥matan lil ±lam³n. Therefore, the main offer of the Muslim wa¡a¯iyyah movement is to focus on developing civilization, freedom, justice, prosperity and better future for all the people. It is the main capital of the Wa¡a¯iyyah in Southeast Asia to give the significant contribution to the globalization of the world.

  9. TRADISI KISIK-KISIK DALAM MASYARAKAT MUSLIM TANJUNGBALAI ASAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnel Anwar Matondang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kisik-Kisik Tradition in Tanjung Balai Muslim Community. Tanjungbalai Community in Asahan as the actors of kisik-kisik ritual believe that the diseases suffered by humans always understood in two sides of interaction, that is the bodies diseases may affect the psyche (mind/spirit and the soul diseases (mind can also affect the bodies healthy (bodies. The magic solution that allows people is kisik-kisik, that is a ceremony to call spirit (ruh that have been lost or away from the body of person who is sick to become healthy. In explaining the system of kisik-kisik belief used functionalist theory by Bronislaw Malinowski, that society is seen as a functional totality, the entire customs and practices must be understood in totality context and explained by looking at the function for the communities who studied. From this study, it was found that the kisik-kisik ritual came from animism which became an ancestor’s belief of Tanjungbalai people in Asahan. However, it still practiced, although Tanjungbalai people have embraced Islam.

  10. Entrepreneurial Management Coastal Muslim In The Village Bongo Gorontalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahmat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research activities to proving the entrepreneurial management of the coastal Muslim community in the village of Bongo. Experimental design used in this research is quasi experiment with the design of "The One-group pre-test - Post-test Design". The results showed that the model of functional skills for women of fishermen in the village of Bongo district of Gorontalo, can be seen from several aspects, namely: (1 The control / understanding of learners (female fisherman in the village of Bongo of the learning materials functional skills wives of the fishermen in the form of entrepreneurship, practice makes kolombengi taste of fish, practice makes fish nuggets and practice makes sticks corn fish. (2 understanding wives of the fishermen village of Bongo towards community empowerment programs and Improved skills of students in the field of entrepreneurship, especially in terms of business development and business administration, and (3 the ability of learners work together in a business group that can produce a product with the criteria and processes in place.

  11. Exploring Identity in Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani Immigrant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Giuliani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a qualitative investigation of how Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani female immigrants living in Italy conceptualize their cultural identity. Ten Moroccan and 10 Pakistani (adolescent and adult women were interviewed through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The interviewees expressed a strong attachment to their culture of origin: their religion is a crucial aspect of their identity, along with certain cultural rules and traditional values. At the same time, both Moroccan and Pakistani participants were ambivalent toward and experienced difficulties in developing a connection to the host country, although the two groups exhibit their lack of connection to their host country in different ways: Moroccans’ self-representation is marked by a sense of foreignness and by a lack of an emotional connection with places where they are living while Pakistanis tend to express cultural distance and conflict with the host culture’s values. For both the Moroccan and Pakistani groups, the challenge of integration and biculturalism seems demanding in the Italian context and is marked by a deep feeling of emptiness, a lack of an emotional bond with the new country, and a strong cultural ambivalence. Finally, narrative themes are articulated across four interrelated dimensions (cultural, religious, gendered, spatial, revealing interesting differences based on national origin and generation.

  12. WHY MUSLIM STUDENTS PLAGIARIZE IN WRITING ENGLISH TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakhid Nashruddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reasons for copy-pasting someone else’s works has attracted attention from many sides that copy-pasting activities, or more popular with term plagiarism, have been considered as a threat for academic life. It also happens at the case of muslim students, in which Islam teaches the students to be honest and not to steal from others. For understanding why it happens, this exploration is conducted. The students of English Department of IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon have to write many of their assignments in English. The result of my observations, the quality of the students’ writing is not good enough. One of the cases found is the copy-paste works, or plagiarism. Using interviews instrument, I try to figure out why students of English Department of IAIN Syekh Nurjati Cirebon. There are at least three reasons behind why students act plagiarism; ignorance on the quotation and citation rules, poor writing skills, and the need of instant writing result. This paper tries to explore these reasons. Keywords: copy-paste, plagiarism, writing in English

  13. Political astronomy: Comet and meteor observations by Muslim historians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander Kapoor, Ramesh

    2015-08-01

    Eclipses and unexpected phenomena like comets, meteors, novae and earthquakes were viewed among various cultures as violating the established order of the heavens. They were considered to be ill omens for kings and emperors and were routinely monitored. The present work looks into the texts of history and literature by Muslim historians and chroniclers in West Asia and India that carry stray references to such phenomena. The accounts often relate the apparitions to specific disastrous events or prognosticate revolts, deaths, epidemics, earthquakes all that that took place in later times. Obviously, the occurrences interested the astrologers more. Comet appearances would last for days and weeks but nearly all the writings lack sequential observations. Meteor showers are annual features but the Islamic calendar being lunar would not easily lead one to notice periodic nature of the incidents, let alone sensing a periodicity in comet appearances. These are non-astronomy texts with little scientific content but being from different ages permit us to see how the astronomical perceptions changed over the times. The recorded details and firm chronology, tested against modern back calculations, can provide valuable information on them, keeping in mind the text and the context in which the original reference was made. We also notice a qualitative change in the Indian writings of the 18th century and later where the authors begin to show up with influence of exposure to the European scientific progress.

  14. The antecedents of identification: a rhetorical analysis of British Muslim activists' constructions of community and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Nick; Kahani-Hopkins, Vered

    2004-03-01

    This paper takes as its focus the perception of community. This is analysed through reference to the literature concerning the adoption of more inclusive, superordinate social categories. Whilst most research tends to focus on the consequences of these social categories for self and other perception, we focus on their antecedents. These are typically hypothesized to include such issues as the perception of the subordinate groups' common fate and factors affecting their perceptual differentiation (e.g. their similarity and entitativity). However, rather than conceiving of such issues as pre-given antecedent variables, we explore how these issues (and others) are actively constructed in and through discourse. More specifically, we explore how such issues are sites of contestation as activists with different political projects seek to construct quite different versions of the relevant superordinate community identity. Our data are qualitative and are drawn from contemporary debates amongst British Muslims concerning their relations with non-Muslim Britons and non-British Muslims across the globe. A key issue in these deliberations concerns the nature of British Muslims' identity and the superordinate identifications that best facilitate its expression and realization. We suggest that constructions of common fate, similarity, entitativity etc., far from being 'givens', are the means through which different definitions of Muslim identity are constructed and different forms of collective action mobilized.

  15. A "good death": perspectives of Muslim patients and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, Mohamad A; Al-Zamel, Ersan; Fareed, Muhammed M; Abouellail, Hesham A

    2010-01-01

    Twelve "good death" principles have been identified that apply to Westerners. This study aimed to review the TFHCOP good death perception to determine its validity for Muslim patients and health care providers, and to identify and describe other components of the Muslim good death perspective. Participants included 284 Muslims of both genders with different nationalities and careers. We used a 12-question questionnaire based on the 12 principles of the TFHCOP good death definition, followed by face-to-face interviews. We used descriptive statistics to analyze questionnaire responses. However, for new themes, we used a grounded theory approach with a "constant comparisons" method. On average, each participant agreed on eight principles of the questionnaire. Dignity, privacy, spiritual and emotional support, access to hospice care, ability to issue advance directives, and to have time to say goodbye were the top priorities. Participants identified three main domains. The first domain was related to faith and belief. The second domain included some principles related to self-esteem and person's image to friends and family. The third domain was related to satisfaction about family security after the death of the patient. Professional role distinctions were more pronounced than were gender or nationality differences. Several aspects of "good death," as perceived by Western communities, are not recognized as being important by many Muslim patients and health care providers. Furthermore, our study introduced three novel components of good death in Muslim society.

  16. Spiritual Care Intervention and Spiritual Well-Being: Jordanian Muslim Nurses' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Ahmad S

    2016-04-22

    This study explored the frequency of providing aspects of spiritual care intervention and its association with nurses' own spiritual well-being in a convenience sample of 355 Jordanian Arab Muslim nurses. The nurses were recruited from different hospitals, representing both public and private health care sectors in northern and central Jordan. A cross-sectional descriptive and correlational design was used. Results indicated that Jordanian Muslim nurses provided religious aspects of spiritual care intervention to their Muslim patients infrequently and that their own spiritual well-being was positively associated with the frequency of provision of spiritual care interventions. The study concluded that Jordanian Muslim nurses most frequently provided spiritual care interventions that were existential, not overtly religious, were commonly used, were more traditional, and did not require direct nurse involvement. Moreover, the findings revealed that spiritual well-being was important to those nurses, which has implications for improving the provision of spiritual care intervention. The study provides information that enables nurses, nursing managers, and nursing educators to evaluate the nurses' provision of various aspects of spiritual care to their Muslim patients, and to identify aspects of spiritual care intervention where nurses might receive training to become competent in providing this care.

  17. Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Harm Reduction in Muslim Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnain Memoona

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Muslim countries, previously considered protected from HIV/AIDS due to religious and cultural norms, are facing a rapidly rising threat. Despite the evidence of an advancing epidemic, the usual response from the policy makers in Muslim countries, for protection against HIV infection, is a major focus on propagating abstention from illicit drug and sexual practices. Sexuality, considered a private matter, is a taboo topic for discussion. Harm reduction, a pragmatic approach for HIV prevention, is underutilized. The social stigma attached to HIV/AIDS, that exists in all societies is much more pronounced in Muslim cultures. This stigma prevents those at risk from coming forward for appropriate counseling, testing, and treatment, as it involves disclosure of risky practices. The purpose of this paper is to define the extent of the HIV/AIDS problem in Muslim countries, outline the major challenges to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, and discuss the concept of harm reduction, with a cultural approach, as a strategy to prevent further spread of the disease. Recommendations include integrating HIV prevention and treatment strategies within existing social, cultural and religious frameworks, working with religious leaders as key collaborators, and provision of appropriate healthcare resources and infrastructure for successful HIV prevention and treatment programs in Muslim countries.

  18. Rotherham, Rochdale, and the Racialised Threat of the ‘Muslim Grooming Gang’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Tufail

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade, British Muslims have been at the forefront of political, media and societal concerns in regards to terrorism, radicalisation, women’s rights, segregation and, most recently, the sexual exploitation and abuse of young women. Demonised, marginalised and criminalised due to inflammatory political rhetoric, inaccurate, irresponsible and sensationalist media reporting, discriminatory counter terrorism policies and legislation and state surveillance, British Muslims have emerged as a perceived racialised threat. This has continued apace with the onset of the Rochdale and Rotherham ‘grooming’ child sexual abuse scandals which in popular discourse have been dominated by representations focusing on race, ethnicity and the dangerous masculinities of Muslim men. This disproportionate and racist narrative served to both frame and limit the debate relating to the sexual exploitation and violence experienced by young female victims at a pivotal moment when the issue had been brought to national attention. This article compares and contrasts the representations and discourse of racialised and non-racialised reporting of child sexual abuse and situates the ‘grooming’ scandals in the context of anti-Muslim racism. It argues that the development of the British Muslim as a racialised threat is a current and on-going legacy of colonialism in which this group experiences discriminatory ‘othering’ processes resulting in their marginalisation.

  19. Reasons for Assimilation: Focus on the Indian Muslims in Kuching, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Khemlani David

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Lasimbang and Miller (1990, people react negatively if they feel they are being subsumed into a larger group on an unequal basis, but they may readily shed their identity for a larger group identity if it is in their best interests. The aims of this study are to investigate if the Indian Muslim community in Kuching, Sarawak wants to be part of the Malay community and to determine the reasons for such assimilation. To understand reasons for such assimilation and for the adoption of a Malay identity open-ended interviews were conducted with thirty Indian Muslims from various socio-economic groups and eight Malay respondents in Kuching. Does Malay identity act as scaffolding for the Indian Muslims in Kuching which in turn creates the basis for social, economic and political attainment? Assimilation for the Indian Muslims in Kuching with the local Malay community has occurred to some part because of mixed marriages with local Malay women and also because of a shared religion i.e. Islam. The ethnic boundaries of the Indian Muslims are permeable and they want to be identified as Malays.

  20. The influence of culture on diabetes self-management: perspectives of Gujarati Muslim men who reside in northwest England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Elizabeth; Carter, Bernie; Pettigrew, Judith

    2008-03-01

    To present the findings of a study which explored the influence of culture on (type 2) diabetes self-management in Gujarati Muslim men who reside in northwest England. This study was informed by an embodied perspective of culture, in which culture is grounded in the body and self. This contrasts with some contemporary health research and policy which adopts an oversimplified perspective, portraying culture as static and deterministic and being responsible for non-adherent self-management behaviours. A case-study approach was used, which combined interview and participant observation methods. Data were collected from Gujarati Muslim men about their lived experiences of diabetes self-management. These accounts, along with further narrative data from 'significant other' participants, were analysed over several cycles. Two central concepts guide the results: embodied culture and dynamic culture. These concepts reflect the subjective and contextual nature of culture and are illustrated in the themes 'past experiences and socio-economic factors', 'social and gendered roles' and 'personal choice and contextual factors'. The findings highlight that the complexity of life means that culture never exists in isolation, but is one of the many factors that a man negotiates to inform his diabetes self-management. We draw attention to the dissonance between the way culture is presented in some government policy and research, and the way it is understood in an embodied approach. The National Service Framework for Diabetes advocates the provision of individualized culturally appropriate care, and in this paper, we make suggestions as to how an embodied approach can be incorporated within the framework. Nurses have an integral role in implementing the National Service Framework for Diabetes. This paper contributes to the debate about how nurses can best deliver this framework to a diverse patient population.

  1. The Historical and religious conditions of the split of Sudan ... in the context of Christian-Muslim relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Cisło

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The split into the predominantly Muslim Northern Sudan, and Southern Sudan with a Christian and animist majority, had been emerging in the course of many centuries. Without any doubt, one is bound to mention the natural and geographical boundaries, the ethnical diversity of the regions, the influence exercised during the centuries by the Egyptians, Arabs and later on by the British. According to the opinions of some experts on the subject, there can be two distinct matters that have contributed to the split of the North and the South. These were education and religion. Apart from education, also the issue of religion was dividing the Sudan. After the declaration of independence on January 1, 1954 all the Christian private schools in the South were closed down. There remained only state schools with Arabic as the language of instruction and with the upbringing model based on the Koran teaching. Having obtained political independence, the fears of the British administration and Christian missionaries became a reality: Islam was made the state religion. The only way to attain an occupational and social status was to convert to Islam. Frequently, this took place according to the rule of an already accomplished fact or by pressure. In the context of Sudan, one of the biggest country in Africa, with its population of over 37 million, made up of 70 per cent Muslim believers , 14 per cent of Christians, and 12 per cent of animists, it is of great importance for the perception of fundamentalism to be familiar with the history of this country.

  2. Muslim Genius; Ibn Sina’s Effects on Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Onur Caglar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available  Ibn Sina (980-1037 was born in the village of Afshana, near Bukhara. Ibn Sina received his early education in his town and by the age of 10 he became a Quran Hafiz. He had exceptional intellectual skills. In some of his teenage years he lived in Anatolia. At the age of sixteen he dedicated all his efforts to learn medicine and when he was eighteen, he gained the status of a reputed physician. His synthesis of Islamic medicine, al Qanun reputed physician fi’l tibb (The Canon of Medicine, was the final authority on medical problems in the world for several centuries. His most significant medical works are the Qanun (Canon and a thesis on cardiac drugs”. The Canon of Medicine (Qanun: Law of Medicine is one of the most famous books in the history of medicine. This book is a five volume medical encyclopedia that was completed in 1025. The eleventh section of the third book primarily deals with different kinds of heart diseases, their effects, and treatment. It should be remembered that the Canon of Avicenna was written in early 11th century and it should be reviewed in the light of the state of knowledge concerning heart diseases and their treatment attained at that time. Researchers today have the advantage of highly advanced instruments which were not available to Ibn Sina 1000 years ago. That he wrote this section of the Canon in such detail and compiled a separate thesis on heart drugs are enough to prove that he had a clear understanding of the fatal character of heart diseases. He was a really scientific genius and medical practitioner. About 1000 years ago, he created many medical hypotheses and tried to discover unknown things related with humanity. Especially anatolian muslim researchers have to follow this way if they want to be succeeded or add some fantastic discoveries on science.

  3. The Cohesiveness of Muslim Pangestu Members in Salatiga, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suciati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The drying of spirituality and weakening of cohesiveness in the midst of materialistic hedonistic modern world become major challenge for the adherents of official religions in Indonesia. The practice of religions is considered too much focusing on ritual aspects. Therefore, those teachings cannot give the real meaningfulness of religious life. Consequently, some adherents of official religions begin to see other spiritual/mysticism sects. This study describes the social cohesiveness among muslims who become members of Pangestu, a spiritual-mysticism sect widely spreading among Javanese society in Indonesia. This research shows that the Pangestu in Salatiga, Central Java, can fulfill social, economic, and spiritual needs of its members. Among the underlying factors that make Pangestu succeed to meet its members’ needs and expectations are the capability of the members to intensely communicate with each other through meetings and bawaraos (Jv, informal gathering, the great concern between members, good-example of leadership, the defense of Pangestu’s good name, and the satisfaction in experiencing meaningfulness of religious practices.[Kekeringan spiritual dan lemahnya kebersamaan di tengah dunia modern yang serba hedonistik menjadi tantangan utama bagi para pemeluk agama di Indonesia. Praktik-praktik keagamaan terlalu banyak terfokus pada aspek ritual, sehingga ajaran agama tidak mampu menghadirkan praktek-praktek keagamaan yang benar-benar bermakna. Hal ini mendorong sebagian pemeluk agama untuk melirik aliran kepercayaan dan kebatinan. Artikel ini mendeskripsikan keguyuban sosial di antara orang-orang Islam yang menjadi anggota Pangestu, sebuah aliran kepercayaan di Indonesia yang banyak menyebar terutama di kalangan masyarakat Jawa. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa Pangestu di Salatiga, Jawa Tegah, mampu memenuhi kebutuhan sosial, ekonomi, dan spiritual para anggotanya. Di antara faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan Pangestu dalam memenuhi

  4. Motherhood as Constructed by Us: Muslim Women’s Negotiations from a Space That Is Their Own

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sariya Mary Cheruvallil-Contractor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to foundational Islamic texts, motherhood is a key aspect of women’s diverse social roles; however some Muslim religious commentaries position motherhood as the only aspect of women’s contributions to society. The everyday mothering experiences of Muslim women remain absent from these discussions. This anthropological article will examine Muslim women’s narratives of motherhood and mothering in contemporary Britain. In my research, Muslim women in Britain chose motherhood, firstly, as one of the many fronts on which to challenge patriarchy that is evident in some Muslim texts and to thus ‘reclaim their faith’ as articulated in foundational Islamic texts. Secondly, in their mothering experiences, Muslim women found a space of commonality that they shared with other women – motherhood was something these Muslim women believed they shared with their ‘sisters’ who were from backgrounds different to their own. Within their diverse and multifaceted struggles, Muslim women thus identified a space which they share with other women.

  5. Framing Discourses of Possibility and Constraint in the Empowerment of Muslim Girls: Issues of Religion, Race, Ethnicity and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the stories of three female Muslim educators actively engaged in empowering Muslim girls in their school/community liaison roles. The stories are drawn from a broader qualitative and predominantly interview-based research project that investigated issues of teaching and social justice in three English schools. Through lenses…

  6. B Is for "Burqa," C Is for Censorship: The Miseducative Effects of Censoring Muslim Girls and Women's Sartorial Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Claudia W.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I add a discursive analysis to the discussion about Muslim girls and women's dress in non-Muslim educational contexts. I argue that a law or policy that prohibits the wearing of "khimar," "burqa," "chador," "niqab," "hijab," or "jilbab" in the context of public schools is a form of censorship in educational contexts. This…

  7. Gender Debate and Teachers' Constructions of Masculinity Vs. Femininity of School Principals: The Case of Muslim Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Oplatka, Izhar

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study that sought to identify Muslim teachers' constructions of "masculinity" and "femininity" of the school principal. The first purpose of the study was to trace Muslim teachers' perceptions of masculine and feminine features of school principals, and the second was to explore their…

  8. Close Encounters of an Inner Asian Kind: Tibetan-Muslim co-existence and conflict past and present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractDrawing from the case of Tibetan-Muslim relations from seventh century contact to present Tibetan boycott campaigns against Muslims in Northeast Tibet (Amdo), this paper questions the relevance of the mainstream theoretical disputes on ethnic conflict, i.e. primordialism, instrumentalism

  9. Shi‘i Muslim youth in the Netherlands : Negotiating Shi‘i fatwas and rituals in the Dutch context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlatmann, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades of the 20th century large numbers of Shi‘i Muslims, mainly from Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan, sought refuge in western countries, including the Netherlands. From the 1990 Shi‘i religious authorities began to issue fatwas specifically for Shi‘i Muslims living in the West. This thesi

  10. Religion, Muslims and the state in Britain and France: from  Westphalia to 9/11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Schøler

    2008-01-01

    Starting from a comparison of the relationships between state and religion in France and Great Britain since 1648, the paper analyses the impact of Muslim immigration and settlement since 1945. The practical policies which have been followed in the two countries by both Muslims and the state...

  11. Examining the Status and Impact Factor of Muslim Scientific Journals in ISI Database: A Bibliometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurrollah Karami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs bibliometric method for analyzing the status of journals published in muslim countries in the Journal of Citation Report, an ISI maintained database. The findings indicated that there are 37 journals from 12 muslim countries indexed in JCR. Turkey leads with nine journals indexed. Inter-disciplinary journals constitute the subject area of six journals. Bentham Science Publishers is the most active by publishing 7 journals. Turkey is the only muslim country that has two journals in social sciences. English is the main language in 86.5 percent of the journals studied. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences has the highest impact factor. The highest citations and citation half-life belonged to Chemical National Compendium from Uzbekistan.

  12. Analysis of Danish Media setting and framing of Muslims, Islam and racism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Sara Jul; Jensen, Tina Gudrun; Vitus, Kathrine

    This paper presents the results of two case studies exploring the role which the Danish newspaper Media play in the reproduction of racial and ethnic inequalities. One case study analyses representations of Muslims and Islam in Danish newspapers, the other the presence and absence of discussions...... about racism and discrimination of ethnic minorities in Denmark. The analyses are based on, respectively, a two-month and a two-week monitoring of four Danish newspapers between mid-October and mid-December 2011. A relatively large share of the news stories dealing with Muslims and Islam was negatively...... framed and restricted to certain topics such as extremism, terror and sharia, whereas positive actions and critical topics like racism and discrimination against Muslims were more or less nonexistent in the Media coverage. Constructed through an antagonistic and hierarchical relationship between ‘Danes...

  13. Stoning for Adultery in Christianity and Islam and its Implementation in Contemporary Muslim Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman bin Mohd Noor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the scriptural bases of stoning for adultery in the two sister religions and its implementation in contemporary Muslim societies. Based upon archival and documentary research, this study found that stoning to death for adultery is prescribed in both the Bible and the Qur’ān. Christians, however, have abandoned this law and it is no longer practiced in any Christian-dominant country. With the expansion of Western imperialism, the same trend seems to be taking place in Muslim societies. There are a few Muslim countries that are trying to implement this law but they face a good deal of criticism from the Western media and other secular organizations, consequently, shying away from implementing this punishment in public.

  14. Factor of Awareness in Searching and Sharing of Halal Food Product among Muslim Families in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusoff Siti Zanariah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information search activities are fundamental in information sharing, especially for the context of information confusion in the market for halal products. This research paper will focus on awareness factor in information searching and sharing of halal products in the Muslim families. Recently, the halal issue has become the hot topic as it involves community religious tenets. This study aims to enrich communications literature in terms of information seeking in halal food products. The sample of the research consisted of 340 Muslim families in Bangi, Selangor. The data are collected through questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive analysis and inferential analysis such as correlation. The result of the study revealed that awareness factor is significantly correlated with information seeking behavior among Muslim family.

  15. Edwin Wieringa and the Exoticism of the Minds of Indonesian Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Media Zainul Bahri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates in-depth the views of Edwin Wieringa on Indonesian Islam. Wieringa is Professor of Indonesian philology with special reference to Islamic cultures at the University of Cologne, Germany. In addition to philology, Wieringa also concerns himself with the Indonesian contemporary Islamic issues. According to Wieringa, various aspects of the minds of Indonesian Muslims in the past and present are always exotic, in the sense of “unique” and “attractive”, and therefore motivates him to examine a lot of things about Indonesian Islam. For Wieringa, Indonesian Muslim cultural exoticism also shows a high civilization that must be appreciated by the Indonesian Muslims themselves. Dozens articles of Wieringa which explore the culture of Islam in this country shows that he has a remarkable contribution to the development of Indonesian Islamic and cultural studies.

  16. Sport, Islam, and Muslims in Europe: in between or on the Margin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfoud Amara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal how misconceptions—or using the concept of Arkoun, “the crisis of meanings”—about the role and position of Islam in Europe is impacting on the discourse on sport, Islam, and immigration. France is selected as a case study for this paper as it is in this country where the debate on religion in general and Islam in particular seem to be more contentious in relation to the questions of integration of Muslim communities to secular (French republican values. Recent sources of tensions include the ban of the Burqa in the public space; the debate on national identity instigated by the former French president Nicholas Sarkozy, which became centred around the question of Islam and Muslims in France; the provocative cartoons about Prophet Mohamed in the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo; opposition against the provision of halal meal in France’s fast-food chain Quick; and resistance toward Qatar’s plan to invest in deprived suburbs of France, to name just a few. The other context which this paper examines in relation to the question of sport, Islam, and identity-making of Muslims in Europe is the phenomenon of “reverse migration” or the re-connection of athletes of Muslim background in Europe, or so-called Muslim neo-Europeans, with their (parents’ country of origin. The paper argues that sport is another highly politicised space to judge the level of “integration” of Muslim athletes in European societies, and the degree of “religiosity” in their (parents’ country of origin.

  17. Meeting needs of Muslim girls in school sport: case studies exploring cultural and religious diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Tansin; Pfister, Gertrud

    2013-01-01

    This paper contains a sociocultural analysis of school sport experiences of Muslim girls in two countries with different gender policies in physical education (PE) classes: England and Denmark. In Denmark, PE lessons take place in co-educative classes, in England schools are more diverse, with predominantly co-educational but also single-sex and faith schools offering different learning contexts. Two case studies from Denmark and England are used to explore the experiences of migrant Muslim girls in these different settings. A social constructionist approach to gender underpins the interpretation of stakeholders' voices on the inclusion of Muslim girls and the analysis of PE discourses in these countries. Findings illustrate similarities and differences at the interface of cultural diversity, political rhetoric of inclusion and realities of sport experiences for Muslim girls in both countries. Complex influences on PE experiences include gender stereotypes, cultural and religious orientations and practices, as well as actions and expectations of parents, communities and coaches/teachers. The studies provide insights into the ways participants managed their identities as Muslim girls in different sport environments to enable participation and retention of their cultural identities. Highlighted throughout the paper are the ways in which school sport policy and practice, providers and gatekeepers, can include or exclude groups, in this case Muslim girls. Too often coaches and teachers are unaware of crucial facts about their learners, not only in terms of their physical development and capabilities but also in terms of their cultural needs. Mistakes in creating conducive learning environments leave young people to negotiate a way to participate or refrain from participation.

  18. Pantang Larang in The Sepinggan Village Muslim Community from The Perspective of Character Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsul Kurniawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research is on pantang larang (taboos or superstitions in Malay culture which serves as local wisdom of the Muslim community in Sepinggan village. It is examined from the perspective of character education. As previous research  indicates that the Muslim community in this area has a lot of local wisdom which includes values or a set of unwritten rules about behavior and  interaction between  individuals in daily life. Among them is pantang larang which contains values or moral message, especially in the context of relationship with God, with oneself and with other creatures of God, that should be manifested in thoughts, attitudes, feelings, words and deeds so as to correspond to norms, manners, and adat (customs. In other words, the Sepinggan Village Muslim community uses pantang larang as a medium as a basis for character building. Fokus penelitian ini adalah pantang larang (tabu atau takhayul dalam budaya Melayu yang berfungsi sebagai kearifan lokal dari komunitas Muslim di desa Sepinggan. Hal ini diteliti dari perspektif pendidikan karakter. Seperti penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa komunitas Muslim di daerah ini memiliki banyak kearifan lokal yang mencakup nilai-nilai atau seperangkat aturan tidak tertulis tentang perilaku dan interaksi antar individu dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Di antaranya adalah pantang larang yang berisi nilai-nilai atau pesan moral, terutama dalam konteks hubungan dengan Tuhan, dengan diri sendiri dan dengan makhluk Allah lainnya, yang harus diwujudkan dalam pikiran, sikap, perasaan, perkataan dan perbuatan sehingga sesuai dengan norma-norma, sopan santun, dan adat (kebiasaan. Dengan kata lain, masyarakat Muslim Desa Sepinggan menggunakan pantang larang sebagai media sebagai dasar untuk membangun karakter.

  19. Positioning the Testimony of Job Ben Solomon, An Enslaved African American Muslim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Sulaiman Al-Badaai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ayyub Ben Suleiman Diallo, better known as Job ben Solomon was among thousands of African Muslims enslaved in America. Job was a son of a high Priest from Senegal. He was kidnapped by his African enemy and sold as a slave in the New World in 1731. He worked on a tobacco plantation in Maryland. He ran away and was captured and imprisoned. Job’s literacy in Arabic attracted the attention of the philanthropist James Oglethorpe who helped to free him. In 1733, Job sailed to England and later returned to Africa. Upon Job’s request, Thomas Bluett wrote Some Memoirs of the Life of Job the Son of Solomon (1734. Allan Austin claims in his book African Muslims in Antebellum America: Transatlantic Stories and Spiritual Struggles (1997 that Job might be considered as the “father of African American Literature”. Muhammad Al-Ahari (2006 states that this account “is perhaps the earliest biography of any African-Americans”. However, William Andrews (1988 with other scholars consider the year of 1760 the appearance of slave narrative as genre. What is more, African Muslim slave narratives have been excluded from African American anthologies. Florence Marfo (2009 in her article entitled “African Muslims in African American Literature” discusses some possible reasons for this omission which mostly relate to the perceived identity of enslaved African American Muslims and the absence of an anti-slavery goal in their narratives. This paper aims to position Job’s testimony in the light of arguments made by the other scholars. Keywords: antebellum, Ayyub, canonization, enslaved Muslims, Job Ben Solomon, slave narrative

  20. Creating religiously compliant milk banks in the Muslim world: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnakshabandi, Kholoud; Fiester, Autumn

    2016-02-01

    Human milk banks are vital for providing donor milk to infants for whom there are maternal or postnatal barriers to the mother's own milk. Although more than 35 countries have active milk banks, not one of those is a Muslim country.(1) Despite widespread support for breastfeeding across the Muslim world, religious constraints surrounding milk-sharing have created challenging barriers to the creation of milk banks. The religious objection centres around the Islamic tenet that consuming human milk builds a kinship bond between individuals who have consumed the same woman's milk which prohibits future marriage between the 'milk-brothers and sisters.' While a small-scale, experimental 'milk exchange' programme has been attempted in two Muslim countries (Kuwait and Malaysia), the only proposed milk bank in the Muslim world was a pilot programme in Turkey that was halted because of religious concerns. The problem with milk banking is the step in the process during which the milk from individual donors is pooled and de-identified, making it impossible to trace its origins and acknowledge the newly formed kinship relationship. To meet the need for Muslim children to be able to access human milk while remaining compliant with the prevalent understanding of Islamic doctrine on milk-sharing, we propose a new approach to milk banking that we term the Conditional Identified Milk Banking System (CIMBS). In this new system, both the donor's and recipient's identities are accessible to all parties through a voluntary registry, and the milk-pooling is limited to three milk donors. Based on recent survey data, we believe that there would be receptivity among practicing Muslims and religious leaders to this alternative approach.

  1. The Representation of Muslims in Rudyard Kipling’s Short Stories: A Postcolonial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mugijatna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article studies Rudyard Kipling’s four short stories, “Wee Willie Winkie”, “The Recrudescence of Imray”, “The Story of Muhammad Din”, and “Without Benefit of Clergy”. The purposes of this research are to describe the representation of Muslims in the four short stories and to describe how the representation of Muslims in the four short stories represents British colonization in India. In this paper, I employs textual study methodology using narrative analysis, binary-opposition analysis, and metaphorical iconicity analysis. The conclusion is that the representation of Muslims in the four short stories ranges from perceiving Muslims as bed men living in hills and forest to perceiving Muslims as the slaves of the British. In all the representations, the British is not presented as an oppressor, instead as a benevolent master. It is a metaphor of Kipling’s firm belief that the British were helping to civilize and educate a previously “savage” people. It disregards the fact that British colonization over India had ruined Islamic empire in India under Mogul Court sovereignty and ruined Indian economy and society organization.[Penelitian ini mengkaji empat cerita pendek Rudyard Kipling, “Wee Willie Winkie”, “The Recrudescence of Imray”, “The Story of Muhammad Din”, dan “Without Benefit of Clergy”. Adapun tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mendeskripsikan representasi Muslim dalam empat cerita pendek tersebut dan mendeskripsikan bagaimana gambaran tersebut merepresentasikan kolonisasi Inggris atas India. Metode yang digunakan adalah metodologi kajian tekstual dengan analisis naratif, analisis oposisi-biner, dan analisis ikonositas metaforis. Kesimpulannya adalah bahwa representasi Muslim dalam empat cerita pendek tersebut merentang mulai dari muslim sebagai orang-orang jahat yang hidup di gunung dan hutan hingga sebagai budak orang Inggris. Dalam represestasi itu orang Inggris tidak pernah digambarkan sebagai

  2. Redefining Boundaries? The Case of South Asian Muslims in Paris’ quartier indien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miniya Chatterji

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Miniya Chatterji, in the only article of this volume on France, examines how in Paris’ so-called quartier indien, an area of intense migrant economic activity, community boundaries are being drawn among South Asian Muslims. She attempts to identify how ‘sub-groups’ are being redefined in migration, by tracing out the nature and depth of bonds and bridges shared by South Asian Muslims. She argues that, at such an early stage of settlement, economic activity seems more prevalent in defining these internal group boundaries than religion, national origin or language.

  3. A Contribution To The Understanding Of Middle Eastern and Muslim Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner

    2015-01-01

    or Muslimexceptionalism. This article documents that when political and colonial history is accounted for, there is nothing exceptional about levels of democracy in these regions. Territories with comparatively developed precolonial state institutions were better able to resist European colonization and settlement......The democratic deficit in the Middle East and the Muslim world is well-established. No study has, however, identified what it is about being a Middle Eastern or Muslim-majority country that impedes democracy. The explanatory deficit has given rise to an idea of Middle Eastern...

  4. Magnus Marsden, Living Islam. Muslim Religious Experience in Pakistan’s North-West Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Blom

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This pleasure is rarely given to a book reviewer, so I shall put it simply: Living Islam is an important work, and this justifies assessing it in earnest and at length. 'What does it mean to live a Muslim life?' wonders Magnus Marsden. Asking this basic but powerful question has perhaps never been as strong a scientific imperative as today. To be sure, everyone—from the media and think-tanks in the West to religious and political authorities in the Muslim world—claim monopoly over the answer....

  5. HUKUM ISLAM DAN BUDAYA LOKAL DI MASYARAKAT MUSLIM PATTANI THAILAND (Integrasi, Konflik dan Dinamikanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali sodiqin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Thai people in Pattani through annexation or conquest, from the Kingdom of Siam to Thailand have changed the socio-cultural Muslim community. Thai Buddhist nation perform a lot of cultural assimilation of Malay Muslim Pattani. The assimilation pursued through politics, education, culture, and law. Political stripes do with the ideology developed, namely "nation, king, religion" that subjecting all citizens into one nationalism. Education path is done through standardized education policy, namely the obligation to teach the language and history of Thai and Buddhist teachings. Cultural path had taken through migration north to south and the formation of "peaceful village". The last path is the law through legal intervention in the form of restrictions on the entry into force of Islamic law and the jurisdiction of Dato 'Yuthithams, the elimination of Islamic justice as consolidated by the civilian justice and law enforcement Thai civilians in Pattani. This assimilation project met with resistance from Pattani Muslim community, as it is considered as an attempt to deculturate Malay Muslim culture that identifies them. The aim of this resistance is to get autonomy in Pattani province to the desire to become an independent state. Abstrak Kehadiran bangsa Thai di Pattani melalui aneksasi atau penaklukan, mulai dari Kerajaan Siam hingga berganti menjadi Thailand, mengubah sosio-kultur masyarakat Muslim. Bangsa Thai yang beragama Budha banyak melakukan assimilasi terhadap kebudayaan Muslim Melayu Pattani. Assimilasi tersebut ditempuh melalui jalur politik, pendidikan, budaya, dan hukum. Jalur politik dilakukan dengan mengembangkan ideologi “nation, king, religion” yang menundukkan semua warga negara ke dalam satu nasionalisme. Jalur pendidikan dilakukan melalui kebijakan standarisasi pendidikan, yaitu kewajiban mengajarkan bahasa dan sejarah Thai serta ajaran Budha. Jalur budaya ditempuh melalui program migrasi penduduk utara ke

  6. Al-'Arābīyah and Basa Sunda: Ideologies of Translation and Interpretation among the Muslim of West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin G. Zimmer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on these questions as they relate to the Sundanese-speaking population of western Java, Indonesia's second largest ethnic group. "Sundaneseness" is to a great extent defined by vernacular usage of the local language, basa Sunda, which is related to but distinct from Javanese, Indonesian, and the other Austronesian languages of the region. Speakers of Sundanese currently number more than 30 million, rivaling the populations of such countries as Canada, Morocco, and Kenya (and twice the population of their erstwhile colonizers, the Netherlands, yet Western scholarly literature on "Java" has paid them scant attention. Ethnographic studies of the island's Muslim communities, from Geertz's Religion of Java to Woodward's Islam in Java, have been similarly skewed towards the dominant Javanese ethno linguistic group inhabiting central and eastern Java.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v7i3.702

  7. Body satisfaction and pressure to be thin in younger and older Muslim and non-Muslim women: the role of Western and non-Western dress preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Trisha M; Davidson, Denise; Qurashi, Shaji

    2010-01-01

    Younger and older Muslim and non-Muslim women living in the United States completed questionnaires about body satisfaction and their internalization of Western standards of beauty (thin-ideal). Younger Muslim women wearing non-Western clothing and a head veil were significantly less likely to express drive for thinness or pressure to attain a thin-ideal standard of beauty than women wearing Western dress or younger women wearing non-Western dress without a head veil. Older women, while expressing greater discrepancy between their ideal body shape and their current body shape, and less satisfaction with their bodies than younger women, reported less drive for thinness and less pressure to attain the Western thin-ideal standard of beauty than younger women. These results are discussed in terms of how factors such as age and religion may serve as protective factors against a strong or unhealthy drive for thinness or thin-ideal standard. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE MUSLIM LAW AND ITS MAIN SOURCES, INFLUENCE OF WESTERNIZATION ON LEGAL SYSTEMS OF MUSLIM COUNTRIES AND ISLAMIZATION OF ROMANGERMANIC AND ANGLO-SAXON LEGAL FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasskazov L. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the Genesis of Islam and its role in the development of Muslim law family, highlights the main sources of Muslim law legal families. It is noted an important role of standards in Islamic law developed by the theologians of the activities in the process of interpretation in filling gaps in the law. All this has led to the emergence of different schools or sects, which contributed to the creation of many ideologically warring with each other Muslim sects. The followers of these movements convince their supporters that the rest courses are false. The article notes that currently, in general, the Muslim law has not lost its position. Modern Islamic community of the world has about a billion and a half followers. The Muslim law has not only maintained its position, but also extends its sphere of influence. Islam – the youngest world religion - enters the countries whose people earlier professed Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, etc., the Followers of Islam, moving to other countries, almost do not assimilate. So, the Islamic community in Europe is practically not subjected to European influence. Some of the legal institutions in a number of non-Muslim countries are subjected to Islamization. In some countries, Islamic law is not considered as legally valid, but it works in fact. This happens in the Muslim enclaves of Europe, it is happening in Russia, particularly in the republics of the North Caucasus

  9. Actualités du statut personnel des communautés musulmanes au Liban Current Developments in the Status of the Person among the Muslim Communities of Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Moukarzel Héchaime

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Les musulmans du Liban, appartenant à trois courants de l’islam, sunnite, shiite et druze, appliquent au mariage et à ses effets, notamment le divorce, la filiation, l’adoption, et les successions, des solutions du droit musulman dégagées par des tribunaux communautaires propres à chacune des communautés. Le droit musulman dont les sources se retrouvent principalement, mais pas seulement, dans le Coran, reçoit en matière de statut personnel des applications diverses selon les différentes écoles de l’islam. Mis à l’épreuve de la cohabitation avec des lois d’origine séculière et du contrôle d’un État religieusement neutre, le droit musulman tel qu’appliqué aujourd’hui au Liban a-t-il subi une transformation qui prenne en compte les acquis sociaux actuels, notamment quand il s’agit du statut de la femme et de la filiation ?Lebanese Muslims belong one of three branches of Islam (Sunni, Shi’a and Druze.  Tribunals apply Islamic law according to their respective community associations with regard to marriage and related questions (notably divorce, filiation, adoption, and succession. The sources of Islamic law are found mainly but not exclusively in the Q’uran; with regard to matters of personal status, Islamic law also draws on diverse applications from the various schools of Islam. Tested by living alongside laws of secular origin and the authority of a religiously neutral state, has Islamic law – as currently applied in Lebanon – undergone a transformation that takes into account social gains, particularly regarding the status of women and issues of filiation?

  10. The Exploration on the Positive Psychological Assessment Indicator of "Sunny Physical Culture" on Campus%高校“阳光体育运动”的积极心理评价指标探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严军锋

    2012-01-01

    文章根据心理学相关理论与研究,结合高校"阳光体育运动"的评价现状认为,现阶段的有关高校"阳光体育运动"的评价缺乏对大学生积极心理层面的指标研究。文章详细介绍了流畅状态与锻炼承诺的理论及两者在大众锻炼领域的应用现状,结合高校"阳光体育运动"认为流畅状态与锻炼承诺可以作为高校"阳光体育运动"的心理评价指标,两者可以反映高校"阳光体育运动"心理层面的价值。%Based on the related theory and the studies,the paper indicates that the recent assessment of "Sunny Physical Culture" is in great lack of the study into the psychological indicator in the dimension of the positive mind.The paper fully introduces the notion of smooth statement and training commitment as well as the application of the two in the public physical training,combined with the perspective that "Sunny Physical Culture" argues that smooth statement and training commitment could work as the indicators of psychological assessment of "Sunny Physical Culture" on campus.Both of the indicators can reflect the true value of "Sunny Physical Culture" in the psychological dimension.

  11. Is the hijab protective? An investigation of body image and related constructs among British Muslim women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Miah, Jusnara; Noorani, Nazerine; Taylor, Donna

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have reported equivocal findings concerning the impact of wearing a hijab, or Islamic head- and body-cover, on Muslim women's body image. Here, we sought to examine that impact using a larger sample of Muslim women than has been relied upon and a wider range of body image measures. A total of 587 British Muslim women completed a battery of scales assessing their frequency and conservativeness of hijab use, body image variables, attitudes towards the media and beauty ideals, importance of appearance, and religiosity. Preliminary results indicated that 218 women never used the hijab and 369 women used some form of the hijab at least rarely. Controlling for religiosity, women who wore the hijab had more positive body image, lower internalization of media messages about beauty standards, and placed less importance on appearance than women who did not wear the hijab. Among women who wore the hijab, hijab use significantly predicted weight discrepancy and body appreciation over and above religiosity. These results are discussed in terms of the possible protective impact among British Muslim women of wearing the hijab.

  12. Strengthening the Muslim Community in Indonesia and Beyond: The 2013 Islamic Solidarity Games in Palembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Trotier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The city of Palembang hosted the third Islamic Solidarity Games (ISG in September/October 2013 and welcomed 39 nations to this sporting event. In particular, I seek to address the question of to what extent the ISG served as a tool to unite Muslims of Indonesia, especially of Palembang, and Muslims from participating countries. The motto of the games, “Unity in Harmony”, conveyed a strong desire to strengthen the Muslim community and identity in Indonesia and worldwide. However, several issues indicate a discrepancy between ideal of the motto and the reality of the games in Indonesia. The perceived exclusion of other religious groups and the discussion about the “appropriate” clothing of female athletes were among some of the sticking points during the ISG. Furthermore, the unbridled nationalism which was exhibited by local spectators whenever Indonesia faced Malaysia hints to tensions between Muslim communities of different nations.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v22i1.1388

  13. Who Am I? Ethnic Identity Formation of Arab Muslim Children in Contemporary U.S. Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia Rebello

    2008-01-01

    The ethnic identity development of Arab Muslim children is discussed with an aim to understand and promote healthy development of the next generation of them growing up in the United States. Since local context plays a powerful role in identity development, the study has focused on the role of two central influences namely, schools and peer groups.

  14. Forging Habsburg Muslim Girls: Gender, Education and Empire in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1878-1918)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giomi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the entanglement of gender, education and empire in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Habsburg period throughout the analysis of a unique institution: Sarajevo's Muslim Female School. Established at the very end of the nineteenth century, this pedagogical institution was the only school in Austria-Hungary specifically devoted…

  15. Muslim Women in America and Hijab: A Study of Empowerment, Feminist Identity, and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Wazni, Anderson Beckmann

    2015-10-01

    This article presents an exploratory, qualitative study of 12 Muslim women living in the Triangle area of North Carolina, who were interviewed regarding their voluntary practice of hijab (Muslim tradition of veiling), exercise of choice in hijab, their relationship to feminist belief and identity, female empowerment, and body image. Through examining the influence of political movements in concert with market capitalism, this article examines how the hijab and those who voluntarily practice this Muslim tradition challenge or contradict mainstream images of what is marketed in the West as feminist. Moreover, this article seeks to examine how, if at all, the hijab empowers those women who practice it, whether it offers an avenue of female empowerment and liberation not traditionally included in prevailing feminist thought, and how this may contribute to third-wave feminist theory. This article informs social work practitioners of the strength of Muslim women, the exercise of choice in hijab, and contributions to feminist thought as participants respond to assumptions of oppression, patriarchal control, and prejudice in a post-9/11 society.

  16. Multiple Identities and Religious Transmission: A Study among Moroccan-Dutch Muslim Adolescents and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Stevens, Gonneke

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between religious group identification and ethnic and national identity among Moroccan-Dutch Muslim adolescents (11-18 years) and their parents (n = 369). Compared to their parents, adolescents showed higher national identification and lower religious and ethnic group identification. However, for adolescents…

  17. Pre-Service Teachers and Muslim Parents: Exploring Religious Diversity in Canadian Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how a group of Caucasian pre-service teachers responded to Muslim immigrant parents' accounts of the marginalization of their faith practices in Canadian public schools. Data were collected through interviews with parents, dialogues between parents and pre-service teachers, online reflections, and focus groups among pre-service…

  18. Towards an Overlapping Consensus: Muslim Teachers' Views on Fundamental British Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Farid

    2016-01-01

    New Teachers' Standards were implemented in England in September 2012, giving prominent place to "Fundamental British Values" (FBV). This paper presents the findings of a small-scale research project carried out to understand Muslim teachers' perspectives on the standards, and FBVs in particular. Though the teachers made several…

  19. Muslims, Minorities and Modernity: The restructuring of heterodoxy in the Middle East and Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Inaugural lecture of Martin van Bruinessen Utrecht, November 21, 2000. When you are considered as an expert on the Muslim world (or at least certain parts of it), people often address you with questions about Islam. With depressing monotony, the questions unfailingly define Islam as a problem. When

  20. The Approach of the Muslim “Other” in the Western Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheșcă

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The images of the other can be found everywhere in the Western civilization and undoubtedly, they have become part of the discourse of colonization. It must be admitted that the encounters between the Western world and the Islam have produced a portrayal of the Islamic religion and Muslim culture mostly in negative, unfair and self-serving ways. Considering that the literature approaching these stereotypes is quite comprehensive, this paper analyses why the Western world has always shown negative images of the Islam and Muslims. The Western image-makers, such as the religious leaders, political institutions and mass-media render the portraits of Muslims in both funny and cruel ways. All these images of the Other seem to have served important goals throughout the history of Western civilization. Sometimes these goals are not very serious, while in other situations they can be terribly destructive. Unfortunately, for Muslims there are bad consequences coming from the social and political background. However, we must all agree that, beyond culture, religion, politics or race, beyond image, prejudices and stereotypes, there should be no boundaries between human beings, our souls and minds, as we are all equal, valuable and important for the whole mankind.