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Sample records for sunn hemp mosaic

  1. The facts about sunn hemp toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is an annual plant widely grown in the tropics. The genus Crotalaria includes some species known to be toxic to animals. Development of seed producing cultivars for the continental USA at Auburn University, AL, has raised the question if its seed and forage are toxic...

  2. Apical Dominance and Planting Density Effects on Weed Suppression by Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 in Citra, Florida to evaluate the effects of seeding rate and removal of apical dominance of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) on weed suppression and seed production of sunn hemp. Three seeding rates of sunn hemp were used; a representative seed producti...

  3. Nitrogen mineralization from 'AU Golden' sunn hemp residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tropical legume sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) cultivar ‘AU Golden’ has the potential to provide substantial amounts of nitrogen (N) to subsequent crops that could reduce recommended application rates of synthetic N fertilizers. Nitrogen fertilization problems via legumes are often due to asynch...

  4. Production of the sunn hemp cultivars 'AU Golden' and 'AU Durbin developed by Auburn University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is the fastest growing species of the genus Crotalaria and is the most widely grown green manure in the tropics. Sunn hemp is also adapted to a wide range of conditions and soil types, while still producing high biomass yields. These characteristics enable the crop...

  5. Sunn hemp as a cover crop to reduce nitrogen inputs for winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tropical legume sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) has the potential to perform as a beneficial cover crop in the southeastern United States due to its ability to accumulate large amounts of biomass and symbiotic nitrogen (N) in a short period of time during the summer months. Planting sunn hemp,...

  6. Phenotypic characterization of sixteen accessions of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a leguminous cover crop that provides benefits to a cropping system including nitrogen accumulation, weed suppression and soil stability. Adoption of sunn hemp as a cover crop is limited primarily due to the availability of seed sources, leading to high seed cost...

  7. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea): Monoculture and polyculture production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

  8. Planting date and seeding rate effects on sunn hemp biomass and nitrogen production for a winter cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N) quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) wi...

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF NITROGEN FROM SUNN HEMP AND AMMONIUM SULFATE BY SUGAR CANE RATOON

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The utilization of nitrogen by sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) fertilized with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) as green manure and ammonia sulfate and its residual effect during two cuts were evaluated using 15N tracer technique. The amounts of 195.8 kg and 70 kg of N by hectare were added respectively as sunn hemp (SH) and ammonium sulfate (AS), in the following treatments: Control; AS-15N; SH-15N + AS; SH-15N; AS-15N + SH. Five samples of +3 leaves were collected and two meters of th...

  10. Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) cutting date and planting density on weed suppression in Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J Bradley; Chase, Carlene; Treadwell, Danielle; Koenig, Rosie; Cho, Alyssa; Morales-Payan, Jose Pable; Murphy, Tim; Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA, to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to (1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks after planting (WAP) on May 14, 2008 and May 21, 2009] and (2) assess the impact of seeding rates (11, 28, and 45 kg ha(-1)) on weed biomass reduction. Weed species were identified at 4, 8, and 12 wks after sunn hemp planting. Sunn hemp cutting date had no significant effect on weed suppression in 2008 but significant differences for grass weeds at 4, 8, and 12 WAP and for yellow nutsedge at 8 and 12 WAP did occur when compared to the control in 2009. In comparison to the sunn hemp-free control plot in 2009, all three seeding rates had reduced grass weed dry weights at 4, 8, and 12 WAP. The total mass of yellow nutsedge when grown with sunn hemp was reduced compared to the total mass of yellow nutsedge grown in the weedy check for all seeding rates at 8 and 12 WAP. Lower grass weed biomass was observed by 12 WAP for cutting dates and seeding rates during 2008 and 2009. Sunn hemp cutting date and seeding rate reduced branch numbers in both years. The reduction in sunn hemp seeding rates revealed a decrease in weed populations.

  11. Planting Date and Seeding Rate Effects on Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for a Winter Cover Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling S. Balkcom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha. Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.

  12. Application of bokashi and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. to improve inorganic fertilizer efficiency on maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Yuliana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted lo learn about the effect of Bokashi and Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. on maize production and inorganic fertilizer use efficiency on maize. The experiment was conducted in Jatikerto, Malang; at the altitude of 303 m above sea level, in Alfisol soil type, the average daily temperature ranges 21-33oC, from June to October 2013. The experiment was conducted as factorial, designed in a randomized block design (RBD. The first factor was dose of inorganic fertilizer (100% ; 75% and 50% of recommendation dose. The second factor was the organic fertilizer (Without organic fertilizer20 t Bokashi/ ha, 20 t Sunn hemp/ha, 10 t Bokashi/ha + 10 t Sunn hemp/ha. The results showed that application of 20 t Bokashi/ha, 20 t Sunn hemp/ha, and combination of 10 t Bokashi/ha + 10 t Sunn hemp/ha, along with the application of inorganic fertilizer by dose of 100% increased the yields of maize for about 41.8%; 47.6% and 54.7% (10.73 t/ha; 11.17 t/ha, and 11.71 t/ha, respectively. The yield and nutrient use efficiency in the treatment dose of 100% inorganic fertilizer did not have any significant difference from the application of 20 t Bokashi /ha, 20 t Sunn hemp/ha, and 10 t Bokashi/ha + 10 t Sunn hemp/ha along with doses of inorganic fertilization 75% and 50%. Therefore, the organic fertilizer of 20 t Bokashi/ ha, 20 t Sunn hemp/ha, and combination of 10 t Bokashi/ha + 10 t Sunn hemp/ha could reduce the need of inorganic fertilizer for about 50%.

  13. Utilization of sunn hemp for cover crops and weed control in temperate climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need to develop increasingly integrated pest management and sustainable food production systems has encouraged a greater interest to thoroughly evaluate effective utilization of cover crops in agricultural systems. Sunn hemp, a tropical legume that originated most likely from the Indo-Pakistani ...

  14. Sunn Hemp cover cropping and organic fertilizer effects on the nematode community under temperate growing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantings of sunn hemp as a cover crop have been experimentally shown to improve soil health, reduce plant-parasitic nematodes, and increase nematode-antagonistic microorganisms. However, these studies have been largely conducted in tropical and subtropical regions. To investigate the impacts of sun...

  15. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp cv. 'Tropic Sun')

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp cv. ‘Tropic Sun’) is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds, and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydr...

  16. Effect of Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) Cutting Date and Planting Density on Weed Suppression in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to: 1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks...

  17. Variability of surface characteristics and energy flux patterns of sunn hemp ( Crotalaria juncea L.) under well-watered conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Keiko; Kimura, Reiji; Şaylan, Levent

    2009-05-01

    There is not much information in the literature about the energy partitioning and micrometeorological features of sunn hemp. Therefore, in this study, the variations in the energy-balance components and plant characteristics such as aerodynamic and surface conductance, crop coefficient, albedo, short- and long wave down- and upward radiation have been measured and estimated for the time period from August to October 2004 over an irrigated sand field at the Arid Land Research Center in Tottori, Japan. The Bowen ratio energy-balance method was used to calculate the partitioning of heat fluxes of sunn hemp. The Bowen ratio values at the first growing stages in August were found to be higher than the Bowen ratio values at the latest growing stages in September and October because of the heavy rain and high soil-water content. The daytime averaged Bowen ratio was 0.19. During the measurement period, the daytime average net radiation, and soil, latent and sensible heat fluxes were approximately 231, 28, 164, and 39 W m-2, respectively. The net radiation and soil heat flux showed decreasing trends from the beginning to the end of the experiment period due to the atmospheric and crop growth conditions. The daytime averages of aerodynamic and surface conductance for sunn hemp were around 31 and 17 mm s-1, respectively. Also, the daytime average albedo of sunn hemp was around 19%. Finally, the high precipitation amount due to typhoons, high soil-water content, low available energy and low vapor-pressure deficit lead to decreasing trend of the energy fluxes during the generative phase of sunn hemp.

  18. Sunn hemp cover cropping and organic fertilizer effects on the nematode community under temperate growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Jermaine; Wang, Koon-Hui; Marahatta, Sharadchandra P; Meyer, Susan L F; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2013-12-01

    Field experiments were conducted in Maryland to investigate the influence of sunn hemp cover cropping in conjunction with organic and synthetic fertilizers on the nematode community in a zucchini cropping system. Two field treatments, zucchini planted into a sunn hemp living and surface mulch (SH) and zucchini planted into bare-ground (BG) were established during three field seasons from 2009 to 2011. In 2009, although SH slightly increased nematode richness compared with BG by the first harvest (P < 0.10), it reduced nematode diversity and enrichment indices (P < 0.01 and P < 0.10, respectively) and increased the channel index (P < 0.01) compared to BG at the final harvest. This suggests a negative impact of SH on nematode community structure. The experiment was modified in 2010 and 2011 where the SH and BG main plots were further split into two subplots to investigate the added influence of an organic vs. synthetic fertilizer. In 2010, when used as a living and surface mulch in a no-till system, SH increased bacterivorous, fungivorous, and total nematodes (P < 0.05) by the final zucchini harvest, but fertilizer type did not influence nematode community structure. In 2011, when incorporated into the soil before zucchini planting, SH increased the abundance of bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes early in the cropping season. SH increased species richness also at the end of the season (P < 0.05). Fertilizer application did not appear to influence nematodes early in the season. However, in late season, organic fertilizers increased enrichment and structure indices and decreased channel index by the end of the zucchini cropping cycle.

  19. Efeito de fertilizantes fosfatados na cultura da crotalária Effect of phosphate fertilizers in sunn hemp crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados e discutidos os resultados obtidos em seis experimentos de campo, em que se procurou estudar a resposta da crotalária (Crotalaria juncea L. a diversos adubos fosfatados, em diferentes tipos de solo e regiões paulistas, considerando-se a produção de massa verde e de sementes. Esses adubos, sempre acompanhados de nitrogênio e potássio, foram: superfosfato simples, superfosfato triplo, fosfato-de-araxá, termofosfato, farinha de ossos degelatinada e Yoorin. Os resultados dos experimentos revelam que os adubos fosfatados não apresentaram significância estatística sobre a produção de massa verde e sementes. Mesmo assim, convém ressaltar a posição de destaque que alcançou em vários experimentos (Tatuí, Ribeirão Preto e Campinas a utilização de farinha de ossos degelatinada na produção média de massa verde.The objective of this work was to study the growth response of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. to different phosphate fertilizers, in three locations. Six field experiments were carried out in the Experimental Stations of the Agricultural Institute of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, located in Tatuí, Ribeirão Preto and Campinas, during two following years, 1971/72 and 1972/73. The soils in those locations corresponded to a Dusky Red Latosol. The treatments consisted of the following phosphate fertilizers: simple superphosphate, triple superphosphate, phosphate of Araxá, thermophosphate, steamed bone meal and Yoorin. Nitrogen and potassium fertilizers were also supplied in normal rates. Two checks were used, one without any fertilization and another with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers only. The experimental design consisted of randomized complete blocks with five replications. The results obtained showed higher green matter and seed yields, by the plants grown with steamed bone meal, in several experiments in all three locations. However, in the analysis of variance these

  20. The use of sunn hemp as green manure intercropped with taro Utilização de crotalária como adubo-verde em consórcio com taro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luíz de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in Magé, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, to evaluate the performance of taro (Colocasia esculenta intercropped with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea, used as green manure. A randomized blocks design with four replicates was used and the soil of the field plots was classified as Haplic Gleysol. Treatments consisted of taro (1 intercropped with unpruned sunn hemp, (2 intercropped with sunn hemp cut at soil level, (3 intercropped with sunn hemp pruned at its mid-height, and (4 in monoculture. The taro was planted in double rows spaced by 1.0 m. The planting furrows had a space of 0.5 m, with rhizomes placed at every 3.0 m. The experimental plot consisted of four 3.0 m rows and the useful area corresponded to the five central plants in each of the two central rows. The sunn hemp was sown in parallel lines in the spaces between the taro double rows, 120 days after planting the taro. When the sunn hemp was cut at soil level, an accumulation of 211 kg ha-1 of N was observed. Besides this, the sunn hemp's biomass promoted the cycling of an average 17 kg ha-1 of P, 85 kg ha-1 of K, 151 kg ha-1 of Ca, and 27 kg ha-1 of Mg. Worth mentioning, it represented also a deposition of 6.85 Mg ha-1 of dry substance. Even when pruned at its mid-height, the sunn hemp still provided 60% of nutrients relatively to the treatment in which it was cut at soil level. In addition to the nutrient supply, the use of taro intercropped with sunn hemp cut at soil level or pruned at mid-height represented efficient alternatives for controlling the spontaneous vegetation and for reducing taro leaf burning by solar radiation, without compromising the yield of taro. In all intercropping systems, taro plants had a larger leaf area and were taller than plants in monoculture.O experimento foi desenvolvido no município de Magé, Região Metropolitana do estado do Rio de Janeiro, para avaliar a influência do manejo da crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, usada como

  1. Soil microbial communities as affected by organic fertilizer and sunn hemp as a cover crop in organic sweet pepper production in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic production in Puerto Rico is at an early stage and research is needed to validate the sustainability of different management practices. This research initiated evaluation of selected soil properties including the microbial communities to evaluate the effects of Tropic sunn (Crotalaria juncea...

  2. Correlação entre os teores de líber e fibras em caules de crotalária e malva Correlation between bast and fiber content in sunn hemp and malva stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, estimou-se a correlação entre os teores de líber (casca e fibras em caules de crotalária (Crotalaria juncea L. e malva (Urena lobata L., com o objetivo de estabelecer um procedimento simples e rápido de análise de fibra. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os teores de líber e fibra estão relacionados entre si, com alto nível de significância (p > 0,99 para as correlações entre essas duas características tecnológicas. Os coeficientes de correlação observados, de 0,84 e 0,79, respectivamente, para crotalária e malva, permitem a avaliação indireta do teor de fibra liberiana através do teor de líber, estabelecendo um procedimento simples e rápido de análise de fibra, a ser utilizado especificamente em programas de melhoramento genético.In this paper it was estimated the correlation between the bast and fiber contents in suns hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. and malva (Urena lobata L. stalks. The results showed that fiber contents are related with a high level of signification (p > 0.99 for the correlation between these two technological characteristics. The correlation coefficients observed were of 0.84 and 0.79, respectively to sunn hemp and malva. These high levels of correlation showed that the fiber content may be evaluated indirectly through the bast content, establishing a simple and rapid procedure for fiber determination of both species.

  3. Nitrogen supply to corn from sunn hemp and velvet bean green manures Fornecimento de nitrogênio ao milho pelos adubos verdes crotalária júncea e mucuna preta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson José Ambrosano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their nitrogen fixation potential, legumes represent an alternative for supplying nutrients, substituting or complementing mineral fertilization in cropping systems involving green manuring. The objective of this study was to evaluate the N balance in a soil-plant system involving green manures [sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima Piper & Tracy], both labeled with 15N. They were incorporated into two soils of contrasting textural classes: a clayey Eutrudox and a sandy-clayey Paleudalf, both cultivated with corn. The research was carried out in a greenhouse, using pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil, to which the equivalent to 13 Mg ha-1 dry matter of above-ground mass plus 2.7 or 2.2 Mg ha-1 of velvet bean and sunn hemp roots were incorporated, respectively, with 15N labeling of either shoots or roots. One hundred days after emergence of the corn, the velvet bean residues provided higher accumulation of N in the soil, higher absorption by corn plants and accumulation in the shoot. The green manure decomposition was more intense in the medium-textured Paleudalf. The highest nitrogen losses were also observed in this soil.Em função de seu potencial de fixação de nitrogênio, as leguminosas representam uma alternativa ao suprimento, substituição ou complementação da adubação mineral em sistemas de cultivos envolvendo adubação verde. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o balanço do N no sistema solo planta com adubos verdes crotalária júncea (Crotalaria juncea L. e mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrima Piper & Tracy, marcadas com 15N, incorporadas em dois solos de diferentes classes texturais: Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico textura argilosa, A moderado (LVef e Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico textura arenosa/média, A moderado (PVAd, e cultivados com milho. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em casa-de-vegetação, em vasos contendo 6 kg de terra aos quais foi incorporado o equivalente a 13 Mg ha-1 de

  4. Adequação de modelo aditivo-dominante em dois caracteres de crotalária: aditive-dominant in two traits of sunn hemp Adequacy of the model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Albino Coelho de Miranda

    1991-01-01

    to the exploration of hybrid vigor in sunn hemp, since it is possible to control the polinization.

  5. Adubação NPK e calagem na produção de massa verde e sementes de crotalária Effect of NPK fertilization and liming on the green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados dois experimentos de campo visando avaliar o efeito de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na presença e na ausência de calcário, na produção de massa verde e de sementes de crotalária. Os experimentos foram realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas e na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, em Latossolo Roxo, no ano agrícola de 1969/70. Os resultados obtidos mostram claramente que o efeito para a utilização do fósforo foi significativo em solos com menor teor deste elemento e que houve efeito altamente positivo para o emprego do calcário na localidade de Tatuí.Two field experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of N, P, K fertilization, with and without liming, on the total green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.. The experiments were done in the experimental stations of the Instituto Agronômico of State of São Paulo, Brazil, located in Campinas and Tatuí, during the years of 1969/1970, in soils of the group Latosol >. The results obtained indicated a positive effect of P fertilization on the sunn hemp yield, in the soils that presented less soil P content. Significant increases in yield were obtained with the application of dolomitic lime, specially in the experimental station of Tatuí.

  6. Efeito da adubação verde do feijoeiro "da sêca" com Crotalaria juncea L., empregando-se toda a vegetação ou retirando-se do campo as hastes despojadas de suas fôlhas Sunn-hemp as a green manure for beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. A. Mascarenhas

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiências foram conduzidas, em diferentes localidades do Estado de São Paulo, para estudar o efeito da adubação verde com Crotalaria juncea L., em cultura do feijoeiro "da sêca", incorporando-se ao solo tôda a vegetação desta ou retirando-se do campo experimental as hastes despojadas de suas fôlhas. O aumento médio de produção proporcionado pela adubação verde correspondeu a 41%, no primeiro caso, mas baixou para 28%, no segundo.Sunn-hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. was tested as a green manure for beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in several localities of the State of São Paulo. The green manure was planted in the same area that was subsequently sown with beans. Incorporation of the whole plants or only their leaves were compared. The mean yield increase resulting from the treatments when compared with the checks was 41 % in the first case and 28 % in the second.

  7. Green insulation: hemp fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-09-15

    Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.

  8. Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-08

    hemp oil , true hemp yarn, true hemp fabric, true hemp raw or processed but not spun, and true hemp raw other. 13 USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service...Poland, Romania, Canada, and India. The leading exporters of hemp oil have been the Netherlands, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the Republic of South

  9. Multiplet classification for SU(n,n)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrev, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    In the present paper we review our project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of the non-compact algebras su(n,n) for n = 2, 3,4. We give explicitly the main multiplets of indecomposable elementary representations and some reduced multiplets. We give explicitly the minimal representations. Due to the recently established parabolic relations the multiplet classification results are valid also for the algebras sl(2n, R) and when n = 2k for the algebras su* (4k) with suitably chosen maximal parabolic subalgebras.

  10. Hemp for textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Westerhuis, W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Key words: Cannabis sativa L., day length sensitivity, fibre hemp, genotype, harvest time, plant density, plant weight, primary fibres, secondary fibres, sowing date, textiles. Westerhuis, W. (2016) Hemp for textiles: plant size matters, PhD thesis. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 234 pp. With English and Dutch summaries.  Fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to cotton and synthetic fibres as a raw material for textile yarn production in the ...

  11. Sunn hemp with chicory or pearl millet to minimize gastrointestinal nematode infection in weaned goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predominantly grass forage systems are typically used throughout the southeastern U.S., but are inadequate for nutritional needs of growing goats, and encourage problems with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Browse predominant forages would be preferable, but are not always available. Selection o...

  12. Sunn hemp as a ground cover to manage fall armyworm populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a serious pest of sweet corn in south Florida and a pest of other vegetable, row, and forage crops in the southeastern, mid-Atlantic, and central U.S. It is a migratory pest, moving north each season from overwintering areas in southern Texas and south...

  13. Hemp for textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Key words: Cannabis sativa L., day length sensitivity, fibre hemp, genotype, harvest time, plant density, plant weight, primary fibres, secondary fibres, sowing date, textiles. Westerhuis, W. (2016) He

  14. Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-14

    refers to industrial hemp, “marijuana” (or “ marihuana ” as it is spelled in the older statutes) refers to the psychotropic drug (whether used for...fibre-type from drug-type plants,” UNODC Bulletin on Narcotics, January 1985; C. W. Waller, “Chemistry Of Marihuana ,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 23...passed laws restricting legal production to medicinal and industrial purposes only.42 The 1937 Marihuana Tax Act defined hemp as a narcotic drug

  15. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% ± 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%.

  16. Quality of chemically modified hemp fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Mirjana; Pejic, Biljana; Skundric, Petar

    2008-01-01

    Hemp fibers are very interesting natural material for textile and technical applications now. Applying hemp fibers to the apparel sector requires improved quality fibers. In this paper, hemp fibers were modified with sodium hydroxide solutions (5% and 18% w/v), at room and boiling temperature, for different periods of time, and both under tension and slack, in order to partially extract noncellulosic substances, and separate the fiber bundles. The quality of hemp fibers was characterised by determining their chemical composition, fineness, mechanical and sorption properties. The modified hemp fibers were finer, with lower content of lignin, increased flexibility, and in some cases tensile properties were improved. An original method for evaluation of tensile properties of hemp fibers was developed.

  17. Water Absorption Behavior of Hemp Hurds Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezda Stevulova; Julia Cigasova; Pavol Purcz; Ivana Schwarzova; Frantisek Kacik; Anton Geffert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, water sorption behavior of 28 days hardened composites based on hemp hurds and inorganic binder was studied. Two kinds of absorption tests on dried cube specimens in deionized water bath at laboratory temperature were performed. Short-term (after one hour water immersion) and long-term (up to 180 days) water absorption tests were carried out to study their durability. Short-term water sorption behavior of original hemp hurds composites depends on mean particle length of hemp an...

  18. Microscopic Study on Hemp Bast Fibre Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, A.; Westerhuis, W.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2007-01-01

    Commonly, fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa) is not considered for the production of soft and easy-care textiles. However, initial tests in the textile industry have shown that certain processes allow improvement in the everyday-wear characteristics of hemp textiles. In the framework of the EU R&D pro

  19. Thermal comfort behavior of hemp based knitted fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović, Nenad; Bizjak, Matejka; Stanković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The hemp fibres production is characterized by sharp ups and downs, from the extensively growing to their decline in the past decades. Thanks to the unique hemp fibre properties, such as physiological, hygienic and ecological properties, hemp is nowadays reintroduced as a potential fibre source for health clothing textiles. However, hemp fibres have some limitations concerning the coarseness and lower elasticity. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of producing hemp bas...

  20. An integrated physical, genetic and cytogenetic map around the sunn locus of Medicago truncatula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnabel, E.; Kulikova, O.; Penmetsa, R.V.; Bisseling, T.; Cook, D.R.; Frugoli, J.

    2003-01-01

    The sunn mutation of Medicago truncatula is a single-gene mutation that confers a novel supernodulation phenotype in response to inoculation with Sinorhizobium meliloti. We took advantage of the publicly available codominant PCR markers, the high-density genetic map, and a linked cytogenetic map to

  1. Comparison of the cable coupling effects under two kinds of HEMP environment

    CERN Document Server

    Sun Bei Yun; Xie Yan Zhao

    2002-01-01

    There are various kinds of HEMP environment definitions. The coupling effects of electronic system are more different under different HEMP environment. The responds of cable of different length are investigated under 1976 HEMP and 1996 HEMP environment. The results indicate that the cable coupling effects under 1976 HEMP environment are more serious than those under 1996 HEMP environment

  2. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. (Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E[sub 1] (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E[sub 3] (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council's regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  3. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. (Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E[sub 1] (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E[sub 3] (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council's regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  4. Mosaic Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudecki, Maryanna

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a lesson inspired by Sicilian mosaics. The author first presented a PowerPoint presentation of mosaics from the Villa Romana del Casale and reviewed complementary and analogous colors. Students then created mosaics using a variety of art materials. They presented their work to their peers and discussed the thought and…

  5. Pretreatment of hemp fibers for utilization in strong biocomposite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming

    that cellulase has a negative impact on fiber properties. Mono-component pectinase enzymes were thereby tested on hemp bast fibers combined with hydrothermal pre-treatment. Enhanced removal of pectin from hemp fibers was found to produce a positive impact on hemp fiber reinforced composites. Further work......, interest in hemp fiber reinforced composites is increasing because of a high potential of manufacturing hemp fiber reinforced polymer composites with acceptable mechanical properties at low cost. In order to expedite the application of natural fibers in polymer composites, hemp fibers need to be treated...... before being incorporated in matrix polymers to optimize the properties of fibers and fiber reinforced composites. The overall objective of this study was therefore to focus on understanding the correlation between chemical composition and morphology of hemp fibers and mechanical properties of hemp...

  6. Synergy between cellulases and pectinases in the hydrolysis of hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Pakarinen, Annukka; Viikari, Liisa

    2013-02-01

    The impact of pectinases in the hydrolysis of fresh, steam-exploded and ensiled hemp was investigated and the synergy between cellulases, pectinases and xylanase in the hydrolysis was evaluated. About half; 59.3% and 46.1% of pectin in the steam-exploded and ensiled hemp, respectively, could be removed by a low dosage of pectinases used. Pectinases were more efficient than xylanase in the hydrolysis of fresh and ensiled hemp whereas xylanase showed higher hydrolytic efficiency than the pectinase preparation used in the hydrolysis of steam-exploded hemp. Clear synergistic action between cellulases and xylanase could be observed in the hydrolysis of steam-exploded hemp. Supplementation of pectinase resulted in clear synergism with cellulases in the hydrolysis of all hemp substrates. Highest hydrolysis yield of steam-exploded hemp was obtained in the hydrolysis with cellulases and xylanase. In the hydrolysis of ensiled hemp, the synergistic action between cellulases and pectinases was more obvious for efficient hydrolysis.

  7. INDUSTRIAL HEMP AS AN ALTERNATIVE CROP IN NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Kraenzel, David G.; Petry, Timothy A.; Nelson, Bill; Anderson, Marshall J.; Mathern, Dustin; Todd, Robert

    1998-01-01

    This report is in response to a national and state interest in the potential benefits of industrial hemp as an alternative crop. Industrial hemp has many uses which can be categorized into nine submarkets. North Dakota may have a comparative advantage in producing industrial hemp seed for oil because of the multi-oil processing facility in Carrington (AgGrow Oils) and the established infrastructure. Industrial hemp is currently legally produced in 22 countries with Canada being the closest an...

  8. New developments in fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Zhang, Qingying; Amaducci, Stefano; Yang, Ming; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable and high yielding industrial crop that can help to meet the high global demand for fibers. Hemp can be grown for fiber, seeds, and/or for dual purpose in a wide range of geographic zones and climates. Currently the main hemp producing regions in th

  9. [Brief history of recent hemp cultivation in Switzerland and subsequent medico-legal problems resulting from hemp cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, C; Broillet, A; Augsburger, M; Bernhard, W; Rivier, L; Mangin, P

    1999-01-21

    In March 1995, a decision about cultivation of cannabis was issued by the Swiss Federal Offices of Public Health, Police and Agriculture in order to satisfy the growing interest of farmers and other people in hemp farming. It pointed out that 1)... each hemp plant contains THC and must be therefore considered a drug, 2)... no permission is required for those who grow hemp without the intention to produce drugs ... meaning that the choice of the plant variety was not restricted to those which are characterized by a low THC concentration and grown in a few countries belonging to the European Union. Claiming that natural hemp must contain significant amounts of THC and thanks to the Swiss legislation, areas dedicated to hemp cultivation develop considerably. Most hemp plants which are submitted to our laboratories by the police for THC quantification belong to the drug-type. Nowadays, a great deal of goods (food and beverages, cosmetics, drugs) made of hemp are marketed in Switzerland. Strong suspicions exist however that several of these products could be used as a screen for the illegal market of cannabis. For instance, despite financial support from the state, fiber hemp cultivation remains unsuccessful. No advantage with regard to seed productivity, edible seed and essential oils qualities and yields have been found for drug hemp over fiber hemp by agricultural research stations up to now. Several clues about the possible illicit use of hemp goods rich in THC, especially hemp tea made of flower tops and "therapeutic" pillows filled with cannabis exist. Recently, two Federal edits were issued in order to restrict the selling of hemp seedlings and of hemp foods and beverages to those containing only low amounts of THC. However, the marketing of hemp plants used for decorating remains free partly explaining the recent success of these "beautiful" plants. Broadly speaking, the Swiss and European legislations about hemp have approached mutually during the last years.

  10. Still special? Harvesting procedures for industrial hemp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jörg Gusovius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of different harvesting procedures is available after the re-approval of hemp growing in Germany about 20 years ago. Established, but as well recent machine developments enable the supply of raw materials for further processing or as food and feed materials. The necessary specialization level results in high but, compared to other established crops, not exceeding procedural costs. In this study, harvesting procedures and technologies are analyzed that are currently used under Northern European cultivation conditions. However, technological enhancements are still needed in order to improve the competitiveness of fibre hemp in the crop rotation as well as of hemp-based semi-finished and finished products.

  11. Influence of barley variety, timing of nitrogen fertilisation and sunn pest infestation on malting and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Sensidoni, Michele; Rubio, José Manuel Amigo; Perretti, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2011-03-30

    This paper presents a multivariate approach to investigate the influence of barley variety, timing of nitrogen fertilisation and sunn pest infestation on malting and brewing. Four spring and two winter barley varieties were grown in one location in southern Europe. Moreover, one of the spring varieties was infested with sunn pest, in order to study the effects of this pest on malting quality, and subjected to different nitrogen fertilisation timing regimes. The samples were micromalted, mashed, brewed and analysed. The data showed that even though the two winter barleys seemed to be the best regarding their physical appearance (sieving fraction I + II > 82%), this superiority was not confirmed in the malt samples, which showed low values of Hartong extract (27.1%) and high values of pH (6.07-6.11) and β-glucan content (12.5-13.2 g kg(-1)), resulting in low-quality beers. The barley sample subjected to postponed fertilisation had a total nitrogen content (19.5 g kg(-1) dry matter) exceeding the specification for malting barley and gave a beer with a low content of free amino nitrogen (47 mg L(-1)) and high values of viscosity (1.99 cP) and β-glucan content (533 mg L(-1)). The beer obtained from the barley sample subjected to pest attack had good quality parameters. All spring barleys gave well-modified malts and consequently beers of higher quality than the winter barleys. Moreover, postponed fertilisation was negatively related to the quality of the final beer, and sunn pest infestation did not induce important economic losses in the beer production chain. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M; Gardner, Kyle M; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains.

  13. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana, which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains.

  14. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E.; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains. PMID:26308334

  15. Thermal Stress Effect on Density Changes of Hemp Hurds Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzova, Ivana; Cigasova, Julia; Stevulova, Nadezda

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this article is to study the behavior of prepared biocomposites based on hemp hurds as a filling agent in composite system. In addition to the filler and water, an alternative binder, called MgO-cement was used. For this objective were prepared three types of samples; samples based on untreated hemp hurds as a referential material and samples based on chemically (with NaOH solution) and physically (by ultrasonic procedure) treated hemp hurds. The thermal stress effect on bulk density changes of hemp hurds composites was monitored. Gradual increase in temperature led to composites density reduction of 30-40 %. This process is connected with mass loss of the adsorbed moisture and physically bound water and also with degradation of organic compounds present in hemp hurds aggregates such as pectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose. Therefore the changes in the chemical composition of treated hemp hurds in comparison to original sample and its thermal decomposition were also studied.

  16. The mechanical properties of density graded hemp/polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvegis, Raphaël; Rodrigue, Denis

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the production and mechanical characterization of density graded biocomposites based on high density polyethylene and hemp fibres was performed. The effect of coupling agent addition (maleated polyethylene) and hemp content (0-30%) was studied to determine the effect of hemp distribution (graded content) inside the composite (uniform, linear, V and Λ). Tensile and flexural properties are reported to compare the structures, especially in terms of their stress-strain behaviors under tensile loading.

  17. Characterization of byproducts originating from hemp oil processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojić, Milica; Mišan, Aleksandra; Sakač, Marijana; Dapčević Hadnađev, Tamara; Šarić, Bojana; Milovanović, Ivan; Hadnađev, Miroslav

    2014-12-24

    Valorization of hemp seed meal, a byproduct of hemp oil processing, was performed by measuring the distribution of nutritional and antinutritional compounds in different hemp seed meal fractions. According to chemical composition, two cotyledon-containing fractions (>180 and 350 and >250 μm), which were significantly richer in crude fiber content (29.5% ± 0.04% and 21.3% ± 0.03%, respectively). The free radical scavenging capacity (IC50) of fraction extracts increased (p hemp seed meal into different fractions could be used to concentrate valuable target compounds and consequently facilitate their recovery.

  18. Strength-length scaling of elementary hemp fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poriķe, E.; Andersons, J.

    2013-03-01

    The application of hemp fibers as a reinforcement of composite materials necessitates the characterization of fiber strength scatter and the effect of fiber length on its strength. With this aim, elementary hemp fibers were tested in tension at two different gage lengths. Due to the similar morphology of hemp and flax fibers, the probabilistic strength models derived and verified for the latter were applied to the former. The fiber strength was found to agree with the modified Weibull distribution. The modeling approaches developed for describing the variability of the strength and failure strain of elementary flax fibers are shown to be also applicable to hemp fibers.

  19. Physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri-Garavand, A.; Nassiri, A.; Gharibzahedi, S. M. T.

    2012-04-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of moisture content on the post-harvest physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed in the range of 5.39 to 27.12% d.b. Results showed that the effect of moisture content on the most physical properties of the grain was significant (Phemp seed was not significant. However, the moisture content effect on rupture force and energy was significant (Phemp seed were significant (P<0.05).

  20. Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der H.

    1994-01-01

    Fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the Netherlands were investigated.Until flowering (generally in

  1. [Study on spectral reflectance characteristics of hemp canopies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Chen; Jia, Kun; Wu, Bing-Fang; Li, Qiang-Zi

    2010-12-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a special economic crop and widely used in many field. It is significative for the government to master the information about planting acreage and spatial distribution of hemp for hemp industrial policy decision in China. Remote sensing offers a potential way of monitoring large area for the cultivation of hemp. However, very little study on the spectral properties of hemp is available in the scientific literature. In the present study, the spectral reflectance characteristics of hemp canopy were systematically analyzed based on the spectral data acquired with ASD FieldSpec portable spectrometer. The wavebands and its spectral resolution for discriminating hemp from other plants were identified using difference analysis. The major differences in canopy reflectance of hemp and other plants were observed near 530, 552, 734, 992, 1 213, 1 580 and 2 199 nm, and the maximal difference is near 734 nm. The spectral resolution should be 30 nm or less in visible and near infrared regions, and 50 nm or less in middle infrared regions.

  2. Thermal properties of hemp fibre non-woven materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freivalde, Liga; Kukle, Silvija; Russell, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    This review considers the thermal properties analysis of hemp fiber non-woven materials made by three different manufacturing technologies - thermal bonding, needle-punching and hydro-entanglement. For non-wovens development two hemp fibers cultivars grown in Latvia were used - Purini and Bialobrzeskie. Thermal resistance, conductivity and the effects of several parameters on thermal performance are revised.

  3. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as an Environmentally Friendly Energyplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisa, Liena; Adamovics, Aleksandrs

    2010-01-01

    Hemp is suitable as a renewable energy resource. The aim of this study was to clarify local hemp's (Cannabis sativa L.) possibilities for energy use. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and titanium (Ti) presence in hemp was determined using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Optima 2100 DV. If there were increased N fertilizer rates, there were increased hemp `Pūriņi' seeds and shive yield increases, but the oil content was reduced. Arsenic content was higher in the shives than in the stems with fibre. The ash content depends on non-organic substances which the plants absorb during the vegetation season. The lignin content depends on several factors: plant parts, and the N fertilizer rate. The unexplored factors have a great effect on the ash and lignin content. Hemp is suitable for cultivation and for bio-energy production in the agro-climatic conditions in Latvia.

  4. Sunn hemp, a major source-plant of the phytoplasma associated with huanglongbing symptoms of sweet orange in São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff, N. A.; Teixeira, D. C.; MARTINS, E. C.; Toloy, R. S.; Bianco, L. F.; Colletti, D. A.B.; Kitajima,E. W.; Bové, J M

    2015-01-01

    In São Paulo State (SPS), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) trees with huanglongbing (HLB) symptoms are infected with Candidatus (Ca.) Liberibacter (L.) asiaticus (Las) or Ca. L. americanus (Lam). However, in 2007, 3 years after HLB was first reported in SPS, some trees with characteristic HLB symptoms were found free of liberibacters, but infected with a phytoplasma of 16Sr group IX. This phytoplasma was further characterized by PCR amplification of ribosomal protein genes rpsC-rplV-rpsS and am...

  5. Mosaic Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Annemarie

    2012-01-01

    Through the generosity of a Lowes Toolbox for Education Grant and a grant from the Bill Graham Foundation, an interdisciplinary mosaic mural was created and installed at Riverview Middle School in Bay Point, California. The actual mural, which featured a theme of nurturing students through music, art, sports, science, and math, took about three…

  6. Application of Hemp Hurds in the Preparation of Biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigasova, J.; Stevulova, N.; Schwarzova, I.; Sicakova, A.; Junak, J.

    2015-11-01

    Hemp is a controversial bio-product with promising performance as a sustainable building material. The fact that hemp is an organic, natural product makes it highly relevant in the present reality of global pollution and struggle for coping with planetary warming. The construction sector is among the leading industries when it comes to energy consumption, release of CO2; it is responsible for great amounts of waste and pollution. The research and implementation of sustainable building materials is a crucial necessity in the modern times. Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is an agricultural crop that can be used as a building material in combination with conventional or alternative binders. Hemp composites have many advantages as a building material, but it is not load-bearing and must be used in combination with a loadbearing wooden frame. Despite this disadvantage, hemp composite materials offer several of appropriate properties, namely: low density, good thermal insulation, antiseptic and breathability. This paper studies the possibility of preparing the lightweight composites based on hemp hurds (treated and/or untreated) as a filler and alternative MgO-cement as a binder. Properties of hemp composites are characterized by mechanical and physical methods.

  7. Multiple Autoregulation of Nodulation (AON Signals Identified through Split Root Analysis of Medicago truncatula sunn and rdn1 Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessema Kassaw

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nodulation is energetically costly to the host: legumes balance the nitrogen demand with the energy expense by limiting the number of nodules through long-distance signaling. A split root system was used to investigate systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON in Medicago truncatula and the role of the AON genes RDN1 and SUNN in the regulatory circuit. Developing nodule primordia did not trigger AON in plants carrying mutations in RDN1 and SUNN genes, while wild type plants had fully induced AON within three days. However, despite lacking an early suppression response, AON mutants suppressed nodulation when roots were inoculated 10 days or more apart, correlated with the maturation of nitrogen fixing nodules. In addition to correlation between nitrogen fixation and suppression of nodulation, suppression by extreme nutrient stress was also observed in all genotypes and may be a component of the observed response due to the conditions of the assay. These results suggest there is more than one systemic regulatory circuit controlling nodulation in M. truncatula. While both signals are present in wild type plants, the second signal can only be observed in plants lacking the early repression (AON mutants. RDN1 and SUNN are not essential for response to the later signal.

  8. Multiple Autoregulation of Nodulation (AON) Signals Identified through Split Root Analysis of Medicago truncatula sunn and rdn1 Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaw, Tessema; Jr, William Bridges; Frugoli, Julia

    2015-04-27

    Nodulation is energetically costly to the host: legumes balance the nitrogen demand with the energy expense by limiting the number of nodules through long-distance signaling. A split root system was used to investigate systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON) in Medicago truncatula and the role of the AON genes RDN1 and SUNN in the regulatory circuit. Developing nodule primordia did not trigger AON in plants carrying mutations in RDN1 and SUNN genes, while wild type plants had fully induced AON within three days. However, despite lacking an early suppression response, AON mutants suppressed nodulation when roots were inoculated 10 days or more apart, correlated with the maturation of nitrogen fixing nodules. In addition to correlation between nitrogen fixation and suppression of nodulation, suppression by extreme nutrient stress was also observed in all genotypes and may be a component of the observed response due to the conditions of the assay. These results suggest there is more than one systemic regulatory circuit controlling nodulation in M. truncatula. While both signals are present in wild type plants, the second signal can only be observed in plants lacking the early repression (AON mutants). RDN1 and SUNN are not essential for response to the later signal.

  9. A Study in Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hemp Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the experiments undertaken to evaluate various physical and mechanical properties of hemp fibres. The study of these properties is vital for comparison with similar properties of synthetic fibres and for assessing hemp fibres’ suitability for use as reinforcement in composite materials. The properties of hemp fibres were found to be good enough to be used as reinforcement in composite materials. However, the issues of relatively high moisture content of fibres, variability in fibre properties, and relatively poor fibre/matrix interfacial strength were identified as factors that can reduce the efficiency with which these fibres can be utilised.

  10. Thermo-Insulation Properties Of Hemp-Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekavicius V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As known, many multi-purpose plants can be used in different industries. This research is focused on the possibilities to utilize hemp as feedstock for thermal insulation products. The most advantageous features of hemp insulation are associated with health and environmental safety. The thermal conductivity of commercially available hemp insulation products is comparable with that of other fibrous insulation materials; however, it is possible to develop new products that could be more efficient in terms of cost and due to other important features.

  11. Thermo-Insulation Properties Of Hemp-Based Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekavicius, V.; Shipkovs, P.; Ivanovs, S.; Rucins, A.

    2015-02-01

    As known, many multi-purpose plants can be used in different industries. This research is focused on the possibilities to utilize hemp as feedstock for thermal insulation products. The most advantageous features of hemp insulation are associated with health and environmental safety. The thermal conductivity of commercially available hemp insulation products is comparable with that of other fibrous insulation materials; however, it is possible to develop new products that could be more efficient in terms of cost and due to other important features.

  12. Life cycle assessment of hemp cultivation and use of hemp-based thermal insulator materials in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampori, Luca; Dotelli, Giovanni; Vernelli, Valeria

    2013-07-02

    The aim of this research is to assess the sustainability of a natural fiber, such as hemp (Cannabis sativa), and its use as thermal insulator for building applications. The sustainability of hemp was quantified by life cycle assessment (LCA) and particular attention was given to the amount of CO2eq of the whole process, and the indicator greenhouse gas protocol (GGP) was selected to quantify CO2eq emissions. In this study also CO2 uptake of hemp was considered. Two different allocation procedures (i.e., mass and economic) were adopted. Other indicators, such as Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) and EcoIndicator99 H were calculated. The production of 1 ha yielded 15 ton of hemp, whose global warming potential (GWP100) was equal to about -26.01 ton CO2eq: the amount allocated to the technical fiber (20% of the total amount of hemp biomass) was -5.52 ton CO2eq when mass allocation was used, and -5.54 ton CO2eq when economic allocation was applied. The sustainability for building applications was quantified by considering an insulation panel made by hemp fiber (85%) and polyester fiber (15%) in 1 m(2) of wall having a thermal transmittance (U) equal to 0.2 W/m(2)_K. The environmental performances of the hemp-based panel were compared to those of a rockwool-based one.

  13. A Question of Mosaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrasjid, Dorine

    1983-01-01

    At the Grand Royal Palace Compound in Bangkok, mosaics speak to art teachers in new forms. Thai culture can be linked to the study of mosaics, inspire subject matter, and lead to new approaches in mosaic work. (AM)

  14. Revitalization of Industrial Hemp Cannabis sativa L. Var. sativa in Slovenia: a Study of Green Hemp Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijavec Tatjana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of industrial hemp as a source of highly valuable textile fi bres is briefly presented through its use for textiles and composites and its increasing cultivated areas in the 21st century. On the territory of present Slovenia, about 160 ha of agricultural area was cultivated with hemp before WWII, then it quickly began to decline and at the end of the 1970s, it was no longer cultivated. Revitalization of industrial hemp in Slovenia with fi eld experiments started already in the years 2000/2001 for producing seeds, whereas hemp fi bres were used only as an insulation for buildings. The textile technological properties of hemp fi bres from diff erent varieties grown in Slovenia have not been examined till now. They are important for using hemp fibres in highly valuable textile products. The properties of green hemp fi bres extracted mechanically from non-retted hemp stems of Cannabis sativa L. var. sativa (varieties: Novosadska, Juso-11, Bialobrzeskie, Unico- B and Beniko were determined. All the analysed varieties except Beniko had stem height over 200 cm. The highest yield of green fibres was 33.1% (Novosadska. The analysed green fibres’ content was 1.24–3.26% of ash, 7.77–8.50% of moisture regain, 10.69–13.92% of water-soluble substances and 8.45–10.83% of pectin. Through a biodegradation process of retting green hemp fibres in tap water at temperature 35°C, 9.01– 18.89% of dry mass was removed after ten days. Average linear density of green hemp fi bres was very high, around 200 tex. Tenacity of fi bres’ bundles was in the range of 167–272 MPa, but tenacity of elementary fibres was 548–672 MPa. From the curves of specific stress-strain, it is seen that green hemp fibres from all five varieties had similar superstructure. All analysed green hemp fibres had high linear density and low mechanical properties. For textile application, they should be further processed into finer fibres in order to increase their

  15. Hemp fines - an agricultural by-product for biocomposites? A holistic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Spierling, Sebastian; Koplin, Tobias; Endres, Hans-Josef

    2014-01-01

    The technical, environmental and economic potential of hemp fines as a natural filler in bioplastics to produce biocomposites is the subject of this study – giving a holistic overview. Hemp fines are an agricultural by-product of the hemp fibres and shives production. Shives and fibres are for example used in the paper, animal bedding or composite area. About 15 to 20 wt.-% per kg hemp straw results in hemp fines after processing. In 2010 about 11,439 metric tons of hemp fines were produced i...

  16. Chemical stability of prints made on hemp fibre based papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Plazonić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For paper industry and consequently graphic industry it is very important that fibres used in paper production provide high quality and printability of the paper. In pulp and paper industry fibres of cellulose pulp derived still predominantly from wood, but in the last few years the consumption of non-wood raw materials for that purpose has grown. This work presents research on the chemical stability of printed hemp fibre based papers to water, alcohol and alkali. Evaluation of chemical degradation on prints was determined through the spectrophotometric measurements. Deviations in colour of prints have shown that highest chemical stability provides prints made on industrially paper formed from mixture of hemp and post-consumer fibres with high share of inorganic components. Further, bleached hemp fibres in handmade 100 % hemp fibre based paper give prints with the lowest chemical stability.

  17. HEMP-induced transients in electric power substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, C.M.; Thomas, D.E.; Salas, T.M. (BDM International, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-02-01

    A nuclear detonation in or above the earth's atmosphere produces an intense electromagnetic pulse (EMP). A large portion of the EMP electromagnetic energy is within the RF spectrum. A detonation at high altitudes above 40 km produces an EMP called high-altitude EMP (HEMP). HEMP is a steep-front short duration transient with a rise time on the order of a few nanoseconds which decays to near zero in less than a microsecond. A single high-altitude burst can subject much of the continental United States to intense HEMP electric fields on the order of tens of kilovolts per meter. The intense transient HEMP will induce fast transients in high-voltage transmission lines and bus structures, instrumentation cables, and control wires in power transmission and distribution (T D) substations. A system of traveling wave coupling models for a 500 kV substation, including models for the high voltage primary bus, components (circuit breakers, disconnect switches, power transformers, and current and voltage instrument transformers), low voltage control wiring circuits, and a number of conducted and radiated interference coupling modes, had been developed earlier by EPRI. These EPRI served as the baseline for the present HEMP coupling investigations. The HEMP effects on protective relays were assessed for a nominal HEMP environment using several new field coupling models merged with the switching transient data. It is found that a representative solid state relay is unlikely to be damaged or to misoperate by the nominal HEMP threat with a peak field strength of 50 kV/m. However, it is possible for both DC control wires to flash over to ground simultaneously, causing fuses to blow and placing the relay in an inoperative state.

  18. HEMP-induced transients in electric power substations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, C.M.; Thomas, D.E.; Salas, T.M. [BDM International, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-02-01

    A nuclear detonation in or above the earth`s atmosphere produces an intense electromagnetic pulse (EMP). A large portion of the EMP electromagnetic energy is within the RF spectrum. A detonation at high altitudes above 40 km produces an EMP called high-altitude EMP (HEMP). HEMP is a steep-front short duration transient with a rise time on the order of a few nanoseconds which decays to near zero in less than a microsecond. A single high-altitude burst can subject much of the continental United States to intense HEMP electric fields on the order of tens of kilovolts per meter. The intense transient HEMP will induce fast transients in high-voltage transmission lines and bus structures, instrumentation cables, and control wires in power transmission and distribution (T & D) substations. A system of traveling wave coupling models for a 500 kV substation, including models for the high voltage primary bus, components (circuit breakers, disconnect switches, power transformers, and current and voltage instrument transformers), low voltage control wiring circuits, and a number of conducted and radiated interference coupling modes, had been developed earlier by EPRI. These EPRI served as the baseline for the present HEMP coupling investigations. The HEMP effects on protective relays were assessed for a nominal HEMP environment using several new field coupling models merged with the switching transient data. It is found that a representative solid state relay is unlikely to be damaged or to misoperate by the nominal HEMP threat with a peak field strength of 50 kV/m. However, it is possible for both DC control wires to flash over to ground simultaneously, causing fuses to blow and placing the relay in an inoperative state.

  19. Testing of DNA isolation for the identification of hemp

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Vyhnánek; Václav Trojan; Klára Štiasna; Mária Presinszká; Eva Mrkvicová; Luděk Hřivna; Ladislav Havel

    2015-01-01

    Hemp is diploid organism (2n = 2x = 20, genome size 534 Mb) with nine pairs of autosomes plus XX (♀) or XY (♂) chromosomes. Cannabis sativa L. is an important economic plant for the production of food, fibre, oils, and intoxicants. Genotypes (varieties or chemovar) of hemp with low Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol content are used for industrial applications. Varieties with high Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or high cannabidiol content are used for medicinal applications. Biochemical a...

  20. Variability and interrelation of yield components in fiber hemp

    OpenAIRE

    Sikora Vladimir; Berenji Janoš; Latković Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Variability and interrelation of yield components in fiber hemp were analysed in field experiments. This research included 20 commercial varieties currently being cultivated in Europe. Significant variability was determined for plant height, stem yield, fiber content and fiber yield, so these materials can be useful as a good base for future fiber hemp breeding and production improvement. Stem diameter was predominantly determined by ecological factors, and genetic background of examined vari...

  1. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems. Power Systems Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E{sub 1} (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E{sub 3} (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council`s regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  2. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems. Power Systems Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E{sub 1} (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E{sub 3} (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council`s regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  3. Industrial Hemp in North America: Production, Politics and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome H. Cherney

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Western World banned the cultivation of Cannabis sativa in the early 20th century because biotypes high in ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the principal intoxicant cannabinoid are the source of marijuana. Nevertheless, since 1990, dozens of countries have authorized the licensed growth and processing of “industrial hemp” (cultivars with quite low levels of THC. Canada has concentrated on hemp oilseed production, and very recently, Europe changed its emphasis from fiber to oilseed. The USA, historically a major hemp producer, appears on the verge of reintroducing industrial hemp production. This presentation provides updates on various agricultural, scientific, social, and political considerations that impact the commercial hemp industry in the United States and Canada. The most promising scenario for the hemp industry in North America is a continuing focus on oilseed production, as well as cannabidiol (CBD, the principal non-intoxicant cannabinoid considered by many to have substantial medical potential, and currently in great demand as a pharmaceutical. Future success of the industrial hemp industry in North America is heavily dependent on the breeding of more productive oilseed cultivars, the continued development of consumer goods, reasonable but not overly restrictive regulations, and discouragement of overproduction associated with unrealistic enthusiasm. Changing attitudes have generated an unprecedented demand for the cannabis plant and its products, resulting in urgent needs for new legislative, regulatory, and business frameworks, as well as scientific, technological, and agricultural research.

  4. QUALITY OF HEMP SEED OIL DEPENDING ON ITS OBTAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Staruch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. is probably one of the oldest field crops used in nutrition, but also for the production of fibres for clothes, ropes or canvas. Cannabis sativa is one of the most spread species of cannabis which belongs to family Cannabinaceae. The seeds are important part of cannabis sativa, which contains high part of lipids and proteins. It provides also valuable essential fatty acids, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals. Due to low content of THC is possible to produce valuable oil from seeds, which is used in cosmetic and food industry. The aim of this work was to evaluate composition of hemp seeds from one harvest, observe and compare quality of parameters both cold pressed hemp seed oil and hemp seed oil by CO2 extraction. Both oils are comparable in composition of fatty acids which follow from results of analyses. Also contents of sterols and moisture are similar in both oils. The saponification value is similar in both oils, conformable to as a iodine value. Also were found dissimilarities in colours, phospholipides, unsaponifiable matter, acid value and peroxide value. The cold pressed hemp seed oil contained lower values of unsaponifiable matter, colours and higher concentration of phospholipides and lower acid value. It is caused by influence of CO2. The oxidation stability of cold pressed hemp seed oil was four times higher than oil by CO2 extraction. doi:10.5219/32 

  5. Thermal Stress Effect on Density Changes of Hemp Hurds Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzova Ivana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the behavior of prepared biocomposites based on hemp hurds as a filling agent in composite system. In addition to the filler and water, an alternative binder, called MgO-cement was used. For this objective were prepared three types of samples; samples based on untreated hemp hurds as a referential material and samples based on chemically (with NaOH solution and physically (by ultrasonic procedure treated hemp hurds. The thermal stress effect on bulk density changes of hemp hurds composites was monitored. Gradual increase in temperature led to composites density reduction of 30-40 %. This process is connected with mass loss of the adsorbed moisture and physically bound water and also with degradation of organic compounds present in hemp hurds aggregates such as pectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose. Therefore the changes in the chemical composition of treated hemp hurds in comparison to original sample and its thermal decomposition were also studied.

  6. The influence of partial replacement of hemp shives by expanded perlite on physical properties of hemp-lime composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzyski, Przemysław; Widomski, Marcin

    2017-07-01

    The use of waste plants in building materials production is consistent with the principles of sustainable development, including waste management, CO2 balance, biodegradability of the material e.g. after building demolition. The porous structure of plant materials determines their usability as the insulation materials. An example of plant applicable in the construction industry is the industrial hemp. The shives are produced from the wooden core of the hemp stem as lightweight insulating filler in the composite based on lime binder. The discussed hemp-lime composite, due to the presence of lightweight, porous organic aggregates exhibits satisfactory thermal insulation properties and is used as filling and insulation of walls (as well as roofs and floors) in buildings of the wooden frame construction. The irregular shape of shives and their low density causes nonhomogenous compaction of composite and the formation of voids between the randomly arranged shives. In this paper the series of hemp-lime composites were tested. Apart from hemp shives, an additional aggregate - expanded perlite was used as a fine, lightweight, thermal insulating filler. Application of the additional aggregate was aimed to fill the voids between hemp shives and to investigate its influence on the physical properties of composite: apparent density, total porosity, water absorption and thermal conductivity.

  7. Microbial diversity observed during hemp retting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra; Pochart, Philippe; Day, Arnaud; Mennuni, Sarah; Bono, Pierre; Baret, Jean-Luc; Spadoni, Jean-Louis; Mangin, Irène

    2015-05-01

    Historically used in textile and paper industry, hemp fibres have started to find new applications in composite materials with important economic and ecological advantages. However, their applications are limited since manufacturers have some difficulties to standardise fabrication processes. This study is a first step before selection and isolation of strains that could later be used to optimise microbial retting efficiency and hence fibre quality. We studied six samples harvested on different ground types, at different dates and with different retting durations on field to obtain an exhaustive representation of the process. After DNA extraction, total bacteria and fungi associated with stems during retting were specifically quantified using real-time PCR. Then, using sequence analysis of randomly cloned 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, a phylogenetic characterisation of the dominant microorganisms was carried out. Quantitatively, we showed that there were 8.1-9.5 log₁₀ 16S rRNA gene copies per gram of hemp straw for bacteria and 8.6-9.6 log₁₀ 18S rRNA gene copies per gram for fungi. Qualitatively, we noticed a higher bacterial diversity in comparison to fungi. This work showed that in the different samples, the same species were present but in significantly different proportions according to ground type, harvest dates and retting durations on field. The most frequent bacterial sequences were affiliated to species Escherichia coli, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas rhizosphaerae, Rhodobacter sp., Pseudomonas fulva, Rhizobium huautlense and Massilia timonae, whereas fungal sequences were principally related to the genera Cladosporium and Cryptococcus.

  8. New Green Polymeric Composites Based on Hemp and Natural Rubber Processed by Electron Beam Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Maria-Daniela Stelescu; Elena Manaila; Gabriela Craciun; Maria Dumitrascu

    2014-01-01

    A new polymeric composite based on natural rubber reinforced with hemp has been processed by electron beam irradiation and characterized by several methods. The mechanical characteristics: gel fraction, crosslink density, water uptake, swelling parameters, and FTIR of natural rubber/hemp fiber composites have been investigated as a function of the hemp content and absorbed dose. Physical and mechanical properties present a significant improvement as a result of adding hemp fibres in blends. O...

  9. On the HEMP (high-altitude electromagnetic pulse) environment for protective relays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.E.; Wiggins, C.M.; Salas, T.M. (BDM International, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Barnes, P.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the transient environment for protective relays produced by high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) events is presented in this paper. Several mechanisms for coupling of HEMP to relay terminals are used to develop estimates of possible HEMP threats to relays. These predicted relay responses to HEMP events are compared to measured data on a solid state based relay's impulse strength. 12 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. major on different stages of the sunn pest Eurygaster integriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Neda; Abbasipour, Habib; Askary, Hassan; Gorjan, Aziz Sheikhi; Karimi, Jaber

    2013-01-01

    The sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), is the most important insect pest of wheat and barley. The population management of this pest is of major concern to wheat producers. One of the potential control strategies is to use entomopathogenic fungi. This study evaluates the pathogenicity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. major (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) on the sunn pest, E. integriceps. Five concentrations of the fungus were utilized, ranging from 1×10(4) to 1×10(8) conidia/mL, accompanied by controls. Fifth instar nymphs and adults (a migratory summer population and a diapausing population) previously exposed to fungi were sown to isolate the fungi, and the growth parameters were analyzed. A direct spray technique was used to expose the isolates to the E. integriceps. The experiment was repeated four times, and mortalities of the insects for all treatments were recorded daily. The results showed that the mortality of infected nymphs was significantly higher than the mortality of control nymphs. Also, the longevity of infected adults was lower than the controls. The results also showed that diapausing adults of the sunn pest were much more susceptible to infection than the summer adults. Estimated LC50 values for the M14 isolate were 1.4 × 10(6), 1.4 ×10 (5) , and 2.3 × 10(3) spores/mL against the aestivation population, the diapausing population, and 5(th) instar nymphs, respectively. Estimated LT50 values using 10(8) spores/mL of the Mm isolate on the aestivation and diapausing populations were 11.9 and 5.11 days, respectively. The results demonstrated that M. anisoplaie was effective on all of stages of E. integriceps. In addition, the nymphal stage was more susceptible than the adults.

  11. Transient hygrothermal behaviour of a hemp concrete building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Le, A.D.; Maalouf, C.; Mai, T.H. [GRESPI/Thermomecanique, Universite de Reims, Moulin de la Housse BP. 1039, 51687 Reims (France); Wurtz, E. [INES-LOCIE, Savoie Technolac, Universite de Savoie, Le Bourget du Lac, 73375 Savoie (France); Collet, F. [Laboratoire de Genie civil et Genie Mecanique, equipe Materiaux-Thermo-Rheologie, Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Rennes 1 (France)

    2010-10-15

    The sustainable world's economic growth and people's life improvement greatly depend on the use of alternative products in the architecture and construction, such as industrial wastes conventionally called green materials. For this purpose, hemp concrete is more and more recommended by the eco-builders because hemp is a renewable plant, recyclable and does not degrade within time. It corresponds perfectly to the requirements of high environmental quality buildings. The objective of this article is to study transient hygrothermal behaviour of hemp concrete at whole building level. The physical model is one-dimensional and was implemented into the object-oriented simulation environment SPARK, using the finite difference technique with an implicit scheme. The numerical result showed that the use of hemp concrete wall in buildings can ensure good indoor air quality and energy savings in winter. Besides, the combined effect of moisture buffering with the adequate ventilation strategies increases hemp concrete building performance. Our results also suggest that taking into account the hygrothermal transfer at whole building level with heat and moisture production sources has significant effects on predictions. (author)

  12. Role of symbiotic bacteria in the growth and development of the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafil, Maryam; Bandani, Ali Reza; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Goldansaz, Seyed Hossein; Alavi, Seyed Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    The Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), is the most important pest of wheat and barley in wide areas of the world. Different aspects of the insect's life history have been studied, but to date nothing is known about their microbial symbionts. Here, the contribution of symbiotic bacteria to the fitness of the bug was investigated by combining two different approaches to manipulate the host's microbial community: the supplementation of antibiotics into the insects' diet and egg surface sterilization. First, bacteria cultured from gut homogenates were subjected to antibiotic screening tests using 20 different antibiotics. Norfloxacin was the most effective antibiotic, with the greatest inhibition zone among all antibiotics tested. Feeding norfloxacin to adult E. integriceps individuals significantly impaired growth and development of the offspring in a dose-dependent manner, i.e., higher antibiotic doses increased the negative effects on nymphal growth and development. Total developmental time from first nymphal instars to adult emergence in control animals was 30.1 days, but when adults had been offered diets with 10, 20, and 30 µg antibiotic per mg diet, the offspring's developmental time was prolonged to 32.8, 34.0, and 34.8 days, respectively. In the highest two doses of norfloxacin, all of the nymphs died before reaching the fifth nymphal instar. Similar results as for the antibiotic treatment were obtained when egg surface sterilization was used to manipulate the microbial community of E. integriceps. These results indicate that bacterial symbionts play a crucial role in the successful development of the host.

  13. Variability and interrelation of yield components in fiber hemp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability and interrelation of yield components in fiber hemp were analysed in field experiments. This research included 20 commercial varieties currently being cultivated in Europe. Significant variability was determined for plant height, stem yield, fiber content and fiber yield, so these materials can be useful as a good base for future fiber hemp breeding and production improvement. Stem diameter was predominantly determined by ecological factors, and genetic background of examined varieties had small influence on expression of this trait. Regarding expression of other yield components, influence of genetic factors was more important than environmental conditions. Correlation between analyzed traits shows that high stem and fiber yield are achieved in higher populations of fiber hemp with thicker stem. Fiber content increased with stem thickness increase.

  14. Multienzyme Modification of Hemp Protein for Functional Peptides Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods and nutraceuticals are of special importance, particularly for their impact on human health and prevention of certain chronic diseases. Consequently, the production and properties of bioactive peptides have received an increasing scientific interest over past few years. Present work intends to compare the competence of metalloendopeptidases (“Protease N” and “Protease A” with papain for getting functional peptides from hemp seed meal, which is an obligatory waste of hemp fiber production industry. As a measure of the functional potential hemp protein hydrolysates were analyzed for their antiradical properties in DPPH system. “Protease N” modified protein hydrolysate exhibited comparatively superior radical scavenging activity in DPPH system. Overall findings represent the importance of “Protease N,” as endopeptidase in getting peptides of good antiradical properties from various protein sources.

  15. New green polymeric composites based on hemp and natural rubber processed by electron beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelescu, Maria-Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Craciun, Gabriela; Dumitrascu, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A new polymeric composite based on natural rubber reinforced with hemp has been processed by electron beam irradiation and characterized by several methods. The mechanical characteristics: gel fraction, crosslink density, water uptake, swelling parameters, and FTIR of natural rubber/hemp fiber composites have been investigated as a function of the hemp content and absorbed dose. Physical and mechanical properties present a significant improvement as a result of adding hemp fibres in blends. Our experiments showed that the hemp fibers have a reinforcing effect on natural rubber similar to mineral fillers (chalk, carbon black, silica). The crosslinking rates of samples, measured using the Flory-Rehner equation, increase as a result of the amount of hemp in blends and the electron beam irradiation dose increasing. The swelling parameters of samples significantly depend on the amount of hemp in blends, because the latter have hydrophilic characteristics.

  16. New Green Polymeric Composites Based on Hemp and Natural Rubber Processed by Electron Beam Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Daniela Stelescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new polymeric composite based on natural rubber reinforced with hemp has been processed by electron beam irradiation and characterized by several methods. The mechanical characteristics: gel fraction, crosslink density, water uptake, swelling parameters, and FTIR of natural rubber/hemp fiber composites have been investigated as a function of the hemp content and absorbed dose. Physical and mechanical properties present a significant improvement as a result of adding hemp fibres in blends. Our experiments showed that the hemp fibers have a reinforcing effect on natural rubber similar to mineral fillers (chalk, carbon black, silica. The crosslinking rates of samples, measured using the Flory-Rehner equation, increase as a result of the amount of hemp in blends and the electron beam irradiation dose increasing. The swelling parameters of samples significantly depend on the amount of hemp in blends, because the latter have hydrophilic characteristics.

  17. Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Angelika; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, Gerhard; Schubert, Jörg

    2012-02-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa) was found to be a useful propagation host for hop latent virus, a carlavirus. However, when virus preparations were analysed by electron microscopy, along with the expected filamentous particles, spherical particles with a diameter of around 34 nm were found. RNA from virus preparations was purified, and cDNA was prepared and cloned. Sequence information was used to search databases, and the greatest similarity was found with Primula malacoides virus 1, a putative new member of the genus Partitivirus. The full sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of this new hemp cryptic virus were obtained.

  18. Innovative core material produced by infusion process using hemp fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccarusso, L.; Carrino, L.; Durante, M.; Formisano, A.; Langella, A.; Minutolo, F. Memola Capece

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the mechanical properties in term of compression, tensile, flexural and shear strength of a new hemp core based on woven fabric. The hemp core is manufactured by means an innovative vacuum infusion process in which the input both of epoxy resin and of air was allowed. In addition, a comparison among this and others more known materials used as core in sandwich structures was carried out. The results showed that the core under investigation has higher mechanical properties, without shear and indentation failure during the tests on the respective sandwich structures.

  19. Means for sealing hemp packings in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistek, P.; Kubat, J.; Novak, L.

    1981-02-15

    The means for sealing hemp packings in gas pipelines has the following composition: 25-35% diethylene glycol, 10-15% glycerin, 10-15% triethylene glycol, 5-15% high ethylene glycols with an average molecular weight of 300, 20-35% the monobutyl ether of triethylene glycol, 4-7% ethoxylated p-chlorophenol, and 5-15% monoethanol amine.

  20. Sequenced anaerobic - aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis sati

  1. Sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L. ) pulping was

  2. Evaluation of current methods to estimate pulp yield of hemp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, de E.P.M.; Werf, van der H.M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Large-scale evaluation of hemp stems from field trials requires a rapid method for the characterization of stem quality. The large differences between bark and woody core in anatomical and chemical properties, make a quantification of these two fractions of primary importance for quality assessment.

  3. Sustainable hemp-based composites for the building industry application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzova, Ivana; Stevulova, Nadezda; Junak, Jozef; Hospodarova, Viola

    2017-07-01

    Sustainability goals are essential driving principles for the development of innovative materials in the building industry. Natural plant (e.g. hemp) fibers represent an attractive alternative as reinforcing material due to its good properties and sustainability prerequisites. In this study, hemp-based composite materials, designed for building application as non-load bearing material, providing both thermal insulation and physico-mechanical properties, are presented. Composite materials were produced by bonding hemp hurds with a novel inorganic binder (MgO-based cement) and then were characterized in terms of physical properties (bulk density, water absorption), thermal properties (thermal conductivity) and mechanical properties (compressive and tensile strength). The composites exhibited promising physical, thermal and mechanical characteristics, generally comparable to commercially available products. In addition, the hemp-based composites have the advantage of a significantly low environmental impact (thanks to the nature of both the dispersed and the binding phase) and no negative effects on human health. All things considered, the composite materials seem like very promising materials for the building industry application.

  4. Sequenced anaerobic - aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis

  5. Wet-preserved hemp fibreboard properties improvement with veneering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilovs, E.; Kukle, S.; Gusovius, H.-J.

    2015-03-01

    The initial research describes a new type of fiber boards for the furniture interior design, developed in cooperation with ATB (Leibniz-Institute for Agricultural Engineering) by using a new method of raw materials preparation and specific production technologies of ATB. The main raw materials are aerobically aged hemp stalks. The samples are made of hemp chips with a long preservation time and fastened together with the UF glue. Specimens are 8 mm thick and correspond to a medium-density fiberboard, fitting standard EN622. Due to the fact that non-veneered material can be used only in non-load-bearing constructions, material improving technologies were studied, such as increase of board density, increase of glue percentage, partially substitution of wet-preserved hemp chips with a dry hemp and/or wooden chips to equalize moisture content of obtained mixture. The particular article describes how the new material is veneered with the oak veneer obtaining three-ply composite board with the improved mechanical properties that allows to use these boards in a load-bearing constructions. Tests are performed with the veneered material to determine such parameters as static bending strength (MOR), modulus of elasticity in static bending (MOE), swelling in thickness and hardness.

  6. Mosaicism and clinical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Nancy B; Conlin, Laura K

    2014-12-01

    With the introduction of increasingly sensitive technologies for mutation detection such as chromosomal microarrays and next-generation sequencing, the importance of mosaicism for human disease is being more fully appreciated. Mosaicism can occur for any type of mutation, either at the chromosomal or DNA sequence level, and while in many cases mosaicism can modify the clinical effects of a syndrome, there are many alterations that can only occur in mosaic form as the mutation is lethal when present in every cell. Mosaicism can have a wide range of effects, from early pregnancy loss, to organ specific pathology, to modification of clinical syndromes. Recent evidence reveals that generation of mosaic alterations is associated with aging, and our ability to detect mosaic alterations sheds light on normal and pathologic changes across the lifespan.

  7. Oxidation of lignin in hemp fibres by laccase: effects on mechanical properties of hemp fibres and unidirectional fibre/epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Baum, Andreas; Odermatt, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Laccase activity catalyzes oxidation and polymerization of phenols. The effect of laccase treatment on the mechanical properties of hemp fibres and hemp fibre/epoxy composites was examined. Laccase treatment on top of 0.5% EDTA + 0.2% endo-polygalacturonase (EPG) treatments increased the mechanical...

  8. Microstructure and mechanical performance of modified mortar using hemp fibres and carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Rabah

    2014-04-01

    Mechanical performance of modified mortar using hemp fibres is studied following various processing conditions. Hemp fibres combined with carbon nanotubes (CNT) are introduced in mortar and their effect is studied as function of curing time. The cement phase is replaced by different percentages of dry or wet hemp fibres ranging from 1.1. wt% up to 3.1. wt% whereas carbon nanotubes are dispersed in the aqueous solution. Our experimental results show that compressive and flexural strengths of wet fibres modified mortar are higher than those for dry hemp-mortar material. The achieved optimal percentage of wet hemp fibres is 2.1. wt% allowing a flexural strength higher than that of reference mortar. The addition of an optimal CNT concentration (0.01. wt%) combined with wet hemp has a reinforcing effect which turns to be related to an improvement of compressive and flexural strengths by 10% and 24%, respectively, in comparison with reference condition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Carbohydrate components and crystalline structure of organosolv hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) bast fibers pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüşkaya, Esat; Usta, Mustafa; Balaban, Mualla

    2007-02-01

    Changes in carbohydrate components and crystalline structure of hemp bast fibers during organosolv pulping were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, FT-IR spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The reasons for defibrillation and beating problems with organosolv hemp bast fiber pulp were investigated with reference to these properties of pulp samples. Hemp bast fibers and organosolv pulp samples had low hemicellulose contents and high cellulose contents. It was found that the disorder parameter of cellulose in hemp bast fibers was very low, when crystalline cellulose ratio was high and the crystalline structure of cellulose in hemp bast fibers was very stable. These properties affected defibrillation and beating of organosolv hemp bast fibers pulp negatively.

  10. The effects of hemicelluloses and lignin removal on water uptake behavior of hemp fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejic, Biljana M; Kostic, Mirjana M; Skundric, Petar D; Praskalo, Jovana Z

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the individual influences of hemicelluloses and lignin removal on the water uptake behavior of hemp fibers. Hemp fibers with different content of either hemicelluloses or lignin were obtained by chemical treatment with 17.5% sodium hydroxide or 0.7% sodium chlorite. Various tests (capillary rise method, moisture sorption, water retention power) were applied to evaluate the change in water uptake of modified hemp fibers. The obtained results show that when the content of either hemicelluloses or lignin is reduced progressively by chemical treatment, the capillary properties of hemp fibers are improved, i.e. capillary rise height of modified fibers is increased up to 2.7 times in relation to unmodified fibers. Furthermore, hemicelluloses removal increases the moisture sorption and decreases the water retention values of hemp fibers, while lignin removal decreases the moisture sorption and increases the water retention ability of hemp fibers.

  11. Technological and nutritional aspect of different hemp types addition: Comparison of flour and wholemeal effect

    OpenAIRE

    Švec, I.; Hrušková, Marie; Jurinová, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Addition of non-traditional raw-materials and flours into wheat flour follows contemporary trend of manufacturing nutritionally healthier fermented bakery products. Aim of the study follows this tendency, evaluating nutritional improvement of composite flour and baking potential of prepared wheat-hemp flour composites. Hemp products addition significantly increased both protein and dietary fibre contents. Between five types of hemp flour, differences were observed according to incorporated am...

  12. An investigation of the thermal properties of hemp and clay monolithic walls

    OpenAIRE

    Busbridge, Ruth; Rhydwen, Ranyl

    2010-01-01

    The monolithic walls of hemp-lime construction enclose and protect a structural timber frame to provide a healthy, breathable building fabric that meets current UK building regulations. It has been proposed that by using hemp as a building material it is possible to actually remove carbon from the atmosphere. Whether or not ‗hemp-crete‘can be considered carbon sequestering, or even neutral, depends largely on the binder. All the lime based binders have high embodied energy, meaning they limit...

  13. Chemical and physical modification of hemp fibres by steam explosion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutka, Anna; Kukle, Silvija; Gravitis, Janis; Berzins, Agris

    2013-12-01

    In current research attempt has been made to analyse hemp fibres treated with steam explosion (SE) technology. Disintegration of hemp fibres separated from non-retted, dew-retted and dried stems of hemp ('Purini')[1] by alkali treatment and steam explosion (SE) were investigated. An average intensive SE in combination with the hydro-thermal and alkali after-treatment allows decreasing the diameter of hemp fibres and reduce the concentration of non-celluloses components, among them hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin, waxes and water [1;2].

  14. Industrial hemp as a potential bioenergy crop in comparison with kenaf, switchgrass and biomass sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Lalitendu; Liu, Enshi; Saeed, Areej; Williams, David W; Hu, Hongqiang; Li, Chenlin; Ray, Allison E; Shi, Jian

    2017-11-01

    This study takes combined field trial, lab experiment, and economic analysis approaches to evaluate the potential of industrial hemp in comparison with kenaf, switchgrass and biomass sorghum. Agronomy data suggest that the per hectare yield (5437kg) of industrial hemp stem alone was at a similar level with switchgrass and sorghum; while the hemp plants require reduced inputs. Field trial also showed that ∼1230kg/ha hemp grain can be harvested in addition to stems. Results show a predicted ethanol yield of ∼82gallons/dry ton hemp stems, which is comparable to the other three tested feedstocks. A comparative cost analysis indicates that industrial hemp could generate higher per hectare gross profit than the other crops if both hemp grains and biofuels from hemp stem were counted. These combined evaluation results demonstrate that industrial hemp has great potential to become a promising regional commodity crop for producing both biofuels and value-added products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Properties of hemp fibre polymer composites - An optimisation of fibre properties using novel defibration methods and fibre characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of hemp fibres was carried out with fibres obtained with low handling damage and defibration damage to get an indication of how strong cellulose based fibres that can be produced from hemp. Comparison was made with hemp yarn producedunder traditional conditions where damage...... obtained by steam explosion of hemp fibres prior defibrated with pectin degrading enzymes. The S2 layer in the fibre wall of the hemp fibres consisted of1-4 cellulose rich and lignin poor concentric layers constructed of ca. 100 nm thick lamellae. The microfibril angle showed values in the range 0......-10° for the main part of the S2-layer and 70-90° for the S1-layer. The microfibrils that are mainly parallelwith the fibre axis explain the high fibre stiffness, which in defibrated hemp fibres reached 94 GPa. The defibrated hemp fibres had higher fibre stiffness (88-94 GPa) than hemp yarn (60 GPa), which...

  16. Performance characteristics of a diesel engine with deccan hemp oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O.D. Hebbal; K. Vijayakumar Reddy; K. Rajagopal [Poojya Doddappa Appa College of Engineering, Gulbarga (India)

    2006-10-15

    In this present investigation deccan hemp oil, a non-edible vegetable oil is selected for the test on a diesel engine and its suitability as an alternate fuel is examined. The viscosity of deccan hemp oil is reduced first by blending with diesel in 25/75%, 50/50%, 75/25%, 100/0% on volume basis, then analyzed and compared with diesel. Further blends are heated and effect of viscosity on temperature was studied. The performance and emission characteristics of blends are evaluated at variable loads of 0.37, 0.92, 1.48, 2.03, 2.58, 3.13 and 3.68 kW at a constant rated speed of 1500 rpm and results are compared with diesel. The thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) are well comparable with diesel, and emissions are a little higher for 25% and 50% blends. At rated load, smoke, carbon monoxide (CO), and unburnt hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of 50% blend are higher compared with diesel by 51.74%, 71.42% and 33.3%, respectively. For ascertaining the validity of results obtained, pure deccan hemp oil results are compared with results of jatropha and pongamia oil for similar works available in the literature and were well comparable. From investigation it has been established that, up to 25% of blend of deccan hemp oil without heating and up to 50% blend with preheating can be substituted for diesel engine without any engine modification. 27 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Structural and Antihypertensive Properties of Enzymatic Hemp Seed Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A. Malomo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce antihypertensive protein hydrolysates through different forms of enzymatic hydrolysis (2% pepsin, 4% pepsin, 1% alcalase, 2% alcalase, 2% papain, and 2% pepsin + pancreatin of hemp seed proteins (HSP. The hemp seed protein hydrolysates (HPHs were tested for in vitro inhibitions of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, two of the enzymes that regulate human blood pressure. The HPHs were then administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight to spontaneously hypertensive rats and systolic blood pressure (SBP-lowering effects measured over a 24 h period. Size exclusion chromatography mainly showed a 300–9560 Da peptide size range for the HPHs, while amino acid composition data had the 2% pepsin HPH with the highest cysteine content. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed higher fluorescence intensities for the peptides when compared to the unhydrolyzed hemp seed protein. Overall, the 1% alcalase HPH was the most effective (p < 0.05 SBP-reducing agent (−32.5 ± 0.7 mmHg after 4 h, while the pepsin HPHs produced longer-lasting effects (−23.0 ± 1.4 mmHg after 24 h. We conclude that an optimized combination of the fast-acting HPH (1% alcalase with the longer-lasting HPHs (2% and 4% pepsin could provide daily effective SBP reductions.

  18. Thermal conductivity of wool and wool-hemp insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Z.; Wells, C.M.; Carrington, C.G. [University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Physics; Hewitt, N.J. [University of Ulster, Jordanstown (United Kingdom). Centre for Sustainable Technologies

    2006-01-15

    Measurements have been obtained for the thermal resistance of sheep-wool insulation and wool-hemp mixtures, both in the form of bonded insulation batts, using a calibrated guarded hot-box. The density was 9.6-25.9 kg m{sup -3} for the wool and 9.9-18.1 kg m{sup -3} for the wool-hemp mixtures. The measurements were made at a mean sample temperature of 13.3{sup o}C using a calibrated guarded hot-box. The estimated uncertainly in the resistance measurements was of the order of {+-}7%. The thermal conductivity of the samples, derived from the thermal resistance measurements on the basis of the measured thickness, was well correlated with the density, although the variation with density was larger than that obtained in previous studies. The conductivity of the wool-hemp samples was not significantly different from that of the wool samples at the same density. Moisture uptake produced an increase of less than 5% in the conductivity of the bonded wool insulation for an increase in absorbed moisture content of 20%. The thermal resistance was 1.6% lower on average for samples oriented in the horizontal plane rather than the vertical plane, but this difference is not significant. (author)

  19. Structural and Antihypertensive Properties of Enzymatic Hemp Seed Protein Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malomo, Sunday A; Onuh, John O; Girgih, Abraham T; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-09-10

    The aim of this work was to produce antihypertensive protein hydrolysates through different forms of enzymatic hydrolysis (2% pepsin, 4% pepsin, 1% alcalase, 2% alcalase, 2% papain, and 2% pepsin + pancreatin) of hemp seed proteins (HSP). The hemp seed protein hydrolysates (HPHs) were tested for in vitro inhibitions of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), two of the enzymes that regulate human blood pressure. The HPHs were then administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats and systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering effects measured over a 24 h period. Size exclusion chromatography mainly showed a 300-9560 Da peptide size range for the HPHs, while amino acid composition data had the 2% pepsin HPH with the highest cysteine content. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed higher fluorescence intensities for the peptides when compared to the unhydrolyzed hemp seed protein. Overall, the 1% alcalase HPH was the most effective (p < 0.05) SBP-reducing agent (-32.5 ± 0.7 mmHg after 4 h), while the pepsin HPHs produced longer-lasting effects (-23.0 ± 1.4 mmHg after 24 h). We conclude that an optimized combination of the fast-acting HPH (1% alcalase) with the longer-lasting HPHs (2% and 4% pepsin) could provide daily effective SBP reductions.

  20. Influence of accompanying substances of hemp fibres on their electric resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Biljana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemp fibres belong to the group of natural, cellulose bast fibres. These fibres have exceptional properties such as: antimicrobial effect, absence of allergy effect, extraordinary sorption properties, good electro-physical properties (small static electricity in regard to other cellulose fibres as well as high values of breaking strength (the natural fibre with the highest strength. However, hemp fibres have some defects: heterogeneous chemical composition, large quantity of accompanying substances (lignin pectins, waxes and unsatisfactory fineness and eveness. It is possible to a great extent to eliminate or reduce, the defects of hemp fibres by of appropriate modification treatments. In order to determine the appropriate modification treatment of hemp fibres, the dependences between the chemical composition, fineness and electric resistance of hemp fibres were presented in this paper. In the experimental part of the paper, by the application of a procedure for the determination of the chemical composition, the accompanying supstances of hemp fibres were gradually removed. After each phase some fibrous substrates were separated. After that the fineness and electric resistance were determined. This experiment was conducted in order to define the influence of each component of hemp fibres on the fineness and electric resistance. In this paper, hemp fibres were modified by an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, under different conditions of modification. The influence of modification conditions on the fineness and electric resistance were studied.

  1. Alkaline hemp woody core pulping : impregnation characteristics, kinetic modelling and papermaking qualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to elucidate alkaline processing of hemp woody core, supporting the development and optimization of an efficient and non-polluting pulping process. This study has been a constituent of an integral programme to study fibre hemp.

    It is known that

  2. Alkaline hemp woody core pulping: impregnation characteristics, kinetic modelling and papermaking qualities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to elucidate alkaline processing of hemp woody core, supporting the development and optimization of an efficient and non-polluting pulping process. This study has been a constituent of an integral programme to study fibre hemp.It is known that the outer part of the fibre he

  3. Viking and Early Middle Ages Northern Scandinavian Textiles Proven to be made with Hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, G.; Nockert, M.; Holst, B.

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  4. Viking and early Middle Ages northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, G; Nockert, M; Holst, B

    2013-10-18

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  5. Chromosomal mosaicism goes global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurov Yuri B

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular differences of chromosomal content in the same individual are defined as chromosomal mosaicism (alias intercellular or somatic genomic variations or, in a number of publications, mosaic aneuploidy. It has long been suggested that this phenomenon poorly contributes both to intercellular (interindividual diversity and to human disease. However, our views have recently become to change due to a series of communications demonstrated a higher incidence of chromosomal mosaicism in diseased individuals (major psychiatric disorders and autoimmune diseases as well as depicted chromosomal mosaicism contribution to genetic diversity, the central nervous system development, and aging. The later has been produced by significant achievements in the field of molecular cytogenetics. Recently, Molecular Cytogenetics has published an article by Maj Hulten and colleagues that has provided evidences for chromosomal mosaicism to underlie formation of germline aneuploidy in human female gametes using trisomy 21 (Down syndrome as a model. Since meiotic aneuploidy is suggested to be the leading genetic cause of human prenatal mortality and postnatal morbidity, these data together with previous findings define chromosomal mosaicism not as a casual finding during cytogenetic analyses but as a more significant biological phenomenon than previously recognized. Finally, the significance of chromosomal mosaicism can be drawn from the fact, that this phenomenon is involved in genetic diversity, normal and abnormal prenatal development, human diseases, aging, and meiotic aneuploidy, the intrinsic cause of which remains, as yet, unknown.

  6. Inhibition of Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps, α-amylases by α-amylase inhibitors (T-αAI) from Triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali R; Saadati, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    The effect of triticale α-amylases inhibitors on starch hydrolysis catalyzed by the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) midgut amylases was examined. Biochemical studgawies showed that inhibitors from Triticale (a hybrid of wheat and rye) had inhibitiory effects on E. integriceps α-amylases. The effects of the triticale α-amylase inhibitor (T-αAI) on α-amylase of E. integriceps showed a dose dependent manner of inhibition, e.g. less inhibition of enzyme activity (around 10%) with a lower dose (0.25 mg protein) and high inhibition of enzyme activity (around 80%) when a high dose of inhibitor was used (1.5 mg protein). The enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations showed the K(m) remained constant (0.58%) but the maximum velocity (V(max)) decreased in the presence of a crude extract of Triticale inhibitors, indicating mixed inhibition. The temperature giving 50% inactivation of enzyme (T(50)) during a 30-min incubation at pH 7.0 was 73° C. The maximum inhibitory activity was achieved at 35° C and pH 5.0. Gel assays showed the meaningful inhibition of E. integriceps α-amylases by various concentrations of Triticale inhibitors. Based on the data presented in this study, it could be said that the T-αAI has good inhibitory activity on E. integriceps gut α-amylase.

  7. Mosaic tetrasomy 8p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, D; Hammond, L; Wiley, J; Kushnick, T

    1993-06-15

    We report on a patient with mosaic tetrasomy 8p [46,XX/47,XX+i(8p)]. The patient has 2 fused vertebrae, abnormal ribs, congenital heart defects, agenesis of corpus callosum, hypotonia, and delayed development. The patient's developmental delays are most marked in receptive and expressive language skills, with more moderate delays on cognitive, sensorimotor, and motor skill testing. These findings are similar to those of the 3 previously reported patients with mosaic i(8p).

  8. Structural and functional properties of hemp seed protein products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malomo, Sunday A; He, Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-08-01

    The effects of pH and protein concentration on some structural and functional properties of hemp seed protein isolate (HPI, 84.15% protein content) and defatted hemp seed protein meal (HPM, 44.32% protein content) were determined. The HPI had minimum protein solubility (PS) at pH 4.0, which increased as pH was decreased or increased. In contrast, the HPM had minimum PS at pH 3.0, which increased at higher pH values. Gel electrophoresis showed that some of the high molecular weight proteins (>45 kDa) present in HPM were not well extracted by the alkali and were absent or present in low ratio in the HPI polypeptide profile. The amino acid composition showed that the isolation process increased the Arg/Lys ratio of HPI (5.52%) when compared to HPM (3.35%). Intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism data indicate that the HPI proteins had a well-defined structure at pH 3.0, which was lost as pH value increased. The differences in structural conformation of HPI at different pH values were reflected as better foaming capacity at pH 3.0 when compared to pH 5.0, 7.0, and 9.0. At 10 and 25 mg/mL protein concentrations, emulsions formed by the HPM had smaller oil droplet sizes (higher quality), when compared to the HPI-formed emulsions. In contrast at 50 mg/mL protein concentration, the HPI-formed emulsions had smaller oil droplet sizes (except at pH 3.0). We conclude that the functional properties of hemp seed protein products are dependent on structural conformations as well as protein concentration and pH.

  9. Yield Potential of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the yield potential of fibre hemp in Denmark, defined as seed yield, biomass, stem and fibre production, five cultivars were evaluated in field trials at two sites during 1998-2000. The total dry matter yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre percent, plant height, and seed...... was approximately 500 kg ha-1. In general, fibre yields increased when seed rates of 16 kg ha-1 or more were used. At 32 kg seed ha-1 Futura gave higher fibre yields than at all other seed rates, and higher yields at 24 cm row distance than at 48 cm. Fasamo differed from the other cultivars by having a lower dry...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE OF ELEMENTARY HEMP FIBRES: FACTORS INFLUENCING TENSILE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizi Fan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the outcomes from an extensive investigation on the structure and geometry of single hemp fibres, as well as configurations and related tensile strength (TS of hemp fibres, with the aid of field emission scanning and optical microscopy. The results showed that 1 the TS increased with the decrease of the diameter of individual test pieces, due possibly to the stacks of multiple single fibres within the test pieces; 2 shear failure between single fibres in a test pieces played a significant role in the test results; 3 the TS was closely related to the number of both the inherent joints along the fibre length and single fibres contained in the test pieces; 4 the splits along the length and width of hemp fibres may complicate the test results, and 5 the optimized treatment prior to decortications may double the TS of hemp fibres compared to a normal retting processing. Reliable TS of single hemp fibres have been derived by a power regression, and the predicted TS were verified with an excellent agreement with experimentally tested results. The tensile strain-stress plot was found to be linear for all hemp test pieces, showing that the behaviour of single hemp fibres obeys Hooke’s law.

  11. Byssinosis and COPD rates among factory workers manufacturing hemp and jute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukremin Er

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Prior studies have been performed on cotton textile plants throughout the world. This study was planned to identify the rate of byssinosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in hemp and jute workers and those who worked with both of them. Material and Methods: The study was realized in a factory which consecutively processed hemp and jute. The study enrollment included 266 people, 164 of whom were active workers and 102 were retired. A questionnaire, plain chest X-rays, physical examination and pulmonary function tests were performed. Dust levels were measured in various sections of the factory during 8 h work shifts. Endotoxin levels of various quality hemp fibers and dusts were measured. Results: The rate of byssinosis (28.2% was higher among the workers that who exposed to both jute and hemp dust. The frequency of chronic bronchitis in retired workers who previously smoked was higher (20% as compared to currently smoking workers (17%. High dust levels were measured in some parts of the factory (mean (M = 2.69 mg/m3. Working in dense dust areas, active smoking, being older than 40 years of age, being an ex-smoker, and working in the factory for a period exceeding 15 years were significantly associated with bronchitis and emphysema development. High endotoxin levels were determined for fine hemp dust (605 EU/mg, coarse hemp dust (336 EU/mg and poor quality hemp fibers (114 EU/mg, whereas in fresh hemp stalks the level of endotoxin was determined to be lower (0.27 EU/mg. Conclusions: Because of high exposures to jute and hemp dusts that are associated with high byssinosis rates, personal protection and environmental hygiene is crucial to prevention of byssinosis.

  12. Byssinosis and COPD rates among factory workers manufacturing hemp and jute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Mukremin; Emri, Salih A; Demir, Ahmet U; Thorne, Peter S; Karakoca, Yalcin; Bilir, Nazmi; Baris, Izzettin Y

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have been performed on cotton textile plants throughout the world. This study was planned to identify the rate of byssinosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in hemp and jute workers and those who worked with both of them. The study was realized in a factory which consecutively processed hemp and jute. The study enrollment included 266 people, 164 of whom were active workers and 102 were retired. A questionnaire, plain chest X-rays, physical examination and pulmonary function tests were performed. Dust levels were measured in various sections of the factory during 8 h work shifts. Endotoxin levels of various quality hemp fibers and dusts were measured. The rate of byssinosis (28.2%) was higher among the workers that who exposed to both jute and hemp dust. The frequency of chronic bronchitis in retired workers who previously smoked was higher (20%) as compared to currently smoking workers (17%). High dust levels were measured in some parts of the factory (mean (M) = 2.69 mg/m3). Working in dense dust areas, active smoking, being older than 40 years of age, being an ex-smoker, and working in the factory for a period exceeding 15 years were significantly associated with bronchitis and emphysema development. High endotoxin levels were determined for fine hemp dust (605 EU/mg), coarse hemp dust (336 EU/mg) and poor quality hemp fibers (114 EU/mg), whereas in fresh hemp stalks the level of endotoxin was determined to be lower (0.27 EU/mg). Because of high exposures to jute and hemp dusts that are associated with high byssinosis rates, personal protection and environmental hygiene is crucial to prevention of byssinosis. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. Absent yet at All Times Present: Further Thoughts on Secrecy in the Shī‛ī Tradition and in Sunnī Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebstein, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes a tradition (ḥadīṯh that is found in Sunnī and in Shī‛ī sources alike and which portrays the ideal believer as a hidden man who chooses to practice his religion away from the eyes of others. According to the author’s analysis, this tradition has its origins in the religious-political conflicts (fitness of the 2nd/8th century. These conflicts gave rise to a pietistic attitude of noninvolvement and withdrawal from society in times of civil strife. In Shī‛ī versions of the tradition, the element of secrecy and taqiyya is added to the description of the ideal believer. These various motifs were to play an important role in Islamic mysticism, particularly in the teachings of movements such as the malāmatiyya. The author argues that while both Shī‛ī esotericism and Sunnī mysticism incorporated similar, early ḥadīṯhs in their discussions of the figure of the hidden saint, the Shī‛ī tradition contributed much to the development of this theme in its ethical-psychological and esoteric aspects.Este artículo analiza el ḥadīṯ que se encuentra tanto en las fuentes šī‛íes como sunníes que retrata al creyente ideal como un hombre escondido que elige practicar su religión apartado de los ojos de los otros. Según el autor, esta tradición tiene su origen en las luchas político-religiosas (fintas del siglo II/VIII, que propiciaron una actitud piadosa de retiro de la sociedad y no participación en tiempos de lucha civil. En las versiones šī‛íes del ḥadīṯ el elemento de secreto, taqiyya, se anade a la descripción del creyente ideal. Estos motivos habrán de desempenar un papel importante en movimientos místicos como el de malāmatiyya. Aunque el esoterismo šī‛í y el misticismo sunní incorporaron hadices similares a su elaboración del santo escondido, la tradición šī‛í contribuyó particularmente al desarrollo de este tema tanto en términos ético-psicológicos como esotéricos.

  14. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior...... to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted...

  15. Cadmium tolerance and bioaccumulation of 18 hemp accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Gangrong; Liu, Caifeng; Cui, Meicheng; Ma, Yuhua; Cai, Qingsheng

    2012-09-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a fast-growing and high biomass producing plant species, which has been traditionally grown as multiple-use crop and recently considered as an energy crop. In order to screen accessions that can be cultivated in cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils for biodiesel production, the ability of Cd tolerance and bioaccumulation of 18 hemp cultivars or ecotypes were evaluated in pot experiment under 25 mg Cd kg(-1) (dry weight, DW) soil condition, in terms of plant growth, pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, and Cd accumulation at 45 days after seedling emergence. Results showed that seedlings of all cultivars, except USO-31, Shenyang and Shengmu, could grow quite well under 25 mg Cd kg(-1) (DW) soil condition. Among them, Yunma 1, Yunma 2, Yunma 3, Yunma 4, Qujing, Longxi, Lu'an, Xingtai, and Shuyang showed great biomass (>0.5 g plant(-1)), high tolerance factors (68.6-92.3%), and little reduction of pigment content and chlorophyll fluorescence under 25 mg Cd kg(-1) (DW) soil stress, indicating these cultivars had a strong tolerance to Cd stress and could be cultivated in Cd-contaminated soils. Cultivars Longxi, Lu'an, Xingtai, Yunma 2, Yunma 3, Yunma 4, and Qujing exhibited higher Cd concentrations and total Cd in shoots. These cultivars, therefore, are good candidates for the implementation of the new strategy of cultivating biodiesel crops for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  16. Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Savithri, HS; Murthy, MRN

    1983-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses - cucumber mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding protein of brome mosaic virus. A similar protein from alfalfa mosaic virus has a homology of 18.2% and 14.2...

  17. DETERMINATION OF CRYSTALLINITY INDEX OF CARBOHYDRATE COMPONENTS IN HEMP (CANNABIS SATIVA L. WOODY CORE BY MEANS OF FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Gümüşkaya

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study; it was investigated chemical compositions of hemp woody core and changes in crystallinity index of its carbohydrate components by using FT-IR spectroscopy was investigated. It was determined that carbohyrate components ratio in hemp woody core were similar to that in hard wood, but lignin content in hemp woody core was higher than in hard wood. Crystallinity index of carbohydrate components in hemp woody core increased by removing amorphous components. It was designated that monoclinic structure in hemp woody core and its carbohydrate components was dominant, but triclinic ratio increased by treated chemical isolation of carbohydrate from hemp woody core.

  18. Parental trisomy 21 mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D J; Begleiter, M L; Chamberlin, J; Hankins, L; Magenis, R E

    1982-01-01

    A family with three children with trisomy 21 in which the mother is a phenotypically normal, trisomy 21/normal mosaic was studied. Chromosome 21 fluorescent heteromorphisms were used to document that two of the three number 21's in two of the Down syndrome offspring were of maternal origin. Five cytogenetic surveys in which both parents of a child with trisomy 21 were studied have been reviewed. From these data, it is estimated that 3% of couples producing a child with trisomy 21 can be explained by parental mosaicism. From 17 informative sibships, with one parent mosaic, the segregation ratio was estimated to be 0.43 +/- 0.11. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6211090

  19. Feasibility and Manufacturing Considerations of Hemp Textile Fabric Utilized in Pre-Impregnated Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osusky, Gregory

    This study investigates the fabrication and mechanical properties of semicontinuous, hemp fiber reinforced thermoset composites. This research determines if off-the-shelf refined woven hemp fabric is suitable as composite reinforcement using resin pre-impregnated method. Industrial hemp was chosen for its low cost, low resource input as a crop, supply chain from raw product to refined textile and biodegradability potential. Detail is placed on specimen fabrication considerations. Lab testing of tension and compression is conducted and optimization considerations are examined. The resulting composite is limited in mechanical properties as tested. This research shows it is possible to use woven hemp reinforcement in pre-impregnated processed composites, but optimization in mechanical properties is required to make the process commercially practical outside niche markets.

  20. A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ACETYLATION ON HEMP FIBRES WITH VINYL ACETATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgül Özmen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modifications of hemp fibers were performed with acetic anhydride (AA and vinyl acetate (VA in the presence of pyridine or potassium carbonate as catalysts. Hemp fibers (Cannabis sativa were successfully acetylated by VA in the presence of potassium carbonate (15% WPG, but no weight gain was obtained when pyridine was used as catalyst. Hemp fibers were also modified with acetic anhydride (AA in the presence of potassium carbonate and pyridine as catalyst (14% and 16% WPG, respectively under identical conditions, and the results were compared with those obtained using the VA technique. AA-modified, VA-modified, and control hemp fibers were characterized by Infrared (FTIR, 13C CP MAS NMR and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA.

  1. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9 g L(-1)), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid.

  2. Genetic variation in hemp and marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) according to amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datwyler, Shannon L; Weiblen, George D

    2006-03-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) is one of the earliest known cultivated plants and is important in the global economy today as a licit and an illicit crop. Molecular markers distinguishing licit and illicit cultivars have forensic utility, but no direct comparison of hemp and marijuana amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) has been made to date. Genetic variation was surveyed in three populations of fiber hemp and a potent cultivar of marijuana using AFLP markers. Ten primer pairs yielded 1206 bands, of which 88% were polymorphic. Eighteen bands represented fixed differences between all fiber populations and the drug cultivar. These markers have practical utility for (1) establishing conspiracy in the cultivation and distribution of marijuana, (2) identifying geographic sources of seized drugs, and (3) discriminating illegal, potent marijuana cultivars from hemp where the cultivation of industrial hemp is permitted.

  3. Hemp fibres: Enzymatic effect of microbial processing on fibre bundle structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Liu, Ming; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of microbial pretreatment on hemp fibres were evaluated after microbial retting using the white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phlebia radiata Cel 26 and water retting. Based on chemical composition, P. radiata Cel 26 showed the highest selectivity for pectin and lignin...... degradation and lowest cellulose loss (14%) resulting in the highest cellulose content (78.4%) for the treated hemp fibres. The pectin and lignin removal after treatment with P. radiata Cel 26 were of the order 82% and 50%, respectively. Aligned epoxy-matrix composites were made from hemp fibres defibrated...... hemp fibres were badly impregnated due to porosity caused by surface impurities such as epidermis and other pectin rich plant cells. The pectin and lignin mainly located in the outer part of the fibres were assumed to be extracted and degraded by pectinase and peroxidase enzymes produced by the fungi....

  4. Self consistent kinetic simulations of SPT and HEMP thrusters including the near-field plume region

    CERN Document Server

    Matyash, K; Mutzke, A; Kalentev, O; Taccogna, F; Koch, N; Schirra, M

    2009-01-01

    The Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method was used to study two different ion thruster concepts - Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPT) and High Efficiency Multistage Plasma Thrusters (HEMP-T), in particular the plasma properties in the discharge chamber due to the different magnetic field configurations. Special attention was paid to the simulation of plasma particle fluxes on the thrusters channel surfaces. In both cases, PIC proved itself as a powerful tool, delivering important insight into the basic physics of the different thruster concepts. The simulations demonstrated that the new HEMP thruster concept allows for a high thermal efficiency due to both minimal energy dissipation and high acceleration efficiency. In the HEMP thruster the plasma contact to the wall is limited only to very small areas of the magnetic field cusps, which results in much smaller ion energy flux to the thruster channel surface as compared to SPT. The erosion yields for dielectric discharge channel walls of SPT and HEMP thrusters were calc...

  5. Properties and nutritional value of wheat bread enriched by hemp products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Švec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa is annual plant that is native to China and remained as important material for food, industrial  and medical purposes. As source of cannabinoids belongs to controversial, but due to its excellent nutritional profile, non-gluten protein, fat and fibre it has potential in bakery products. Addition of 5% - 20% of hemp press cake fine flour and fine wholemeal significantly increased dietary fibre content, but their influence on volume of laboratory baked bread was different. Reflecting actual dosage, both types of hemp press cake flour diminished bun sizes about 6% - 33%; volumes of bread containing hulled wholemeal were comparable to standard (mean 310 mL/100 g vs. 333 ml/100 g, respectively. Only dehulled wholemeal hemp form increased the bread specific volume (6% - 30%, especially as 10% fortification (434 mL/100 g. Six Canadian hemp products were added as 10% and 20% on wheat flour base, comprising fine hemp flour and coarse hemp powder, dehulled whole seeds, hulled hemp seeds with sea salt as well as 50% and 43% hemp protein concentrates (KP1-KP6, respectively. The higher level of KP1, KP2, KP5 and KP6, the lower bread specific volumes were determined (decrease about 9% - 48%. Soft increase in buns size caused by 10% and 20% KP3 (323 and 319 ml/100 g vs. 296 mL/100 g was insignificant. The effect of KP4 was reversely verifiable, magnifying the parameter about 25% and 17%, respectively. In terms of protein content in bread, a level 11.75% in wheat bread has risen to approx. 14.5% and 18.0% when 10% and 20% of KP3 and KP5, respectively, was included into bread recipe. All six Canadian hemp products increased dietary fibre content in bread, mainly owing to KP4 and both protein concentrates (up to 4 and 3 times, respectively. Incorporation of hemp flour up to the level of 10% positively affected bread sensorial properties.

  6. Infantile spasms and pigmentary mosaicism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars K; Bygum, Anette; Krogh, Lotte N

    2010-01-01

    Summary We present a 3-year-old boy with pigmentary mosaicism and persistent intractable infantile spasms due to mosaicism of chromosome 7. Getting the diagnosis of pigmentary mosaicism in a child with infantile spasms may not be easy, as most diagnostic work-up is done in infancy, at a time when...

  7. Investigating levels of ICT access and confidence by Wheat Planters in Hamedan Province for (Eurygaster integriceps Sunn Pest Management and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmatullah Saadi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Varying forms of ICT is used nowadays to disseminate information and innovations among farmers. The present study investigates the level of access and confidence in various information and communication technologies with respect to pest control (e.g. Sunn Pest. A survey was performed over wheat farmers in Hamedan Province. 203 farmers where selected using multi-level, multi-step sampling. The required data was collected using a questionnaire composed of 35 open and two closed questions. Findings demonstrated that Hamedani Farmers have limited access to modern information sources such as computers, e-journals and e-magazines, and agricultural brochures. Organizational institutions and traditional sources of information such as agricultural extension and service centers, TV, neighbors and friends, Agricultural suppliers and such are increasingly available to these farmers. The findings demonstrates that farmers have high confidence in agricultural research center, Hamedan Agricultural Jahad Organization and regional agricultural service and extension. Given the current situation regarding presentation of specialized information on wheat pests and diseases, particularly the Sunn Pest, Agricultual extensions and Service centers that are highly available to the farmers, pose the most viable choice. There seems to be a significant correlation between area planted, level of production and farmers’ access and confidence in ICT. There is a significant, but negative correlation between farmers’ age and their confidence in ICT. Level of access to and confidence in ICT seems to have significant correlation with level of education, social standing and participation in training courses.

  8. Proteome analysis of gut and salivary gland proteins of fifth-instar nymph and adults of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdi, Mohammad Saadati; Toorchi, Mahmoud; Pourabad, Reza Farshbaf; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Nouri, Mohammad-Zaman; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-10-01

    In the digestive system of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), the salivary gland has a key role in extra oral digestion and the gut is the main site for digestion of food. In this study, proteomics was used to study the role of proteins involved in digestion. The amount of feeding on wheat grain by adult insects increased by comparison to fifth-instar nymphs. Proteins of the gut and salivary gland in adults and fifth-instar nymphs were analyzed 1 day after feeding. The proteins related to digestion, metabolism, and defense against toxins were accumulated in the gut of adult insects. Three plant proteins including serpin, dehydroascorbate reductase, and β-amylase were accumulated in guts of adults. In the salivary gland, phospholipase A2 and arginine kinase were increased in adults. Heat shock protein 70 increased in the gut of fifth-instar nymphs. Proteomic analysis revealed that most of changed proteins in digestive system of sunn pest were increased in adults. This study provided more targets derived from gut and salivary gland for pest management.

  9. Cemical composition of hemp (\\kur{Cannabis sativa}) and possibilities of its utilization as animal feed

    OpenAIRE

    NĚMCOVÁ, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an annual cultural plant used from ancient times up to the present in many spheres of the human life. The aim of this bachelor study was to summarize on the basis of literature sources the information about chemical composition of the hemp seed (basic composition, content of amino acids, fiber, vitamins and specific substances, etc.), genetic variability in the substances content, and possibilities of utilization of the hemp seed and also plant residues as feed. Feeding ...

  10. Properties and nutritional value of wheat bread enriched by hemp products

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Švec; Marie Hrušková

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is annual plant that is native to China and remained as important material for food, industrial  and medical purposes. As source of cannabinoids belongs to controversial, but due to its excellent nutritional profile, non-gluten protein, fat and fibre it has potential in bakery products. Addition of 5% - 20% of hemp press cake fine flour and fine wholemeal significantly increased dietary fibre content, but their influence on volume of laboratory bak...

  11. The potential of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) for biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuger, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are currently produced from agricultural crops, and an increasing use of crops for this application is expected in the EU in the years to come. The dominating crops cultivated in the EU for biofuel production today have a relatively large environmental impact. The European Energy Agency has identified several lignocellulosic crops, including industrial hemp, as more sustainable potential alternatives. However, the biofuel yield from industrial hemp was largely unexplored before the w...

  12. Steam pretreatment of dry and ensiled industrial hemp for ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Sipos, Bálint; Kreuger, Emma; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Réczey, Kati; Björnsson, Lovisa; Zacchi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Biomass can be converted into liquid and gaseous biofuels with good efficiency. In this study, the conversion of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), a biomass source that can be cultivated with a high biomass yield per hectare, was used. Steam pretreatment of dry and ensiled hemp was investigated prior to ethanol production. The pretreatment efficiency was evaluated in terms of sugar recovery and polysaccharide conversion in the enzymatic hydrolysis step. For both materi...

  13. Adsorption of atrazine on hemp stem-based activated carbons with different surface chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lupul, Iwona; Yperman, Jan; Carleer, Robert; Gryglewicz, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Surface-modified hemp stem-based activated carbons (HACs) were prepared and used for the adsorption of atrazine from aqueous solution, and their adsorption performance was examined. A series of HACs were prepared by potassium hydroxide activation of hemp stems, followed by subsequent modification by thermal annealing, oxidation with nitric acid and amination. The resultant HACs differed in surface chemistry, while possessing similar porous structure. The surface group characteristics were exa...

  14. Properties of hemp fibre polymer composites - An optimisation of fibre properties using novel defibration methods and fibre characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Thygesen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of hemp fibres was carried out with fibres obtained with low handling damage and defibration damage to get an indication of how strong cellulose based fibres that can be produced from hemp. Comparison was made with hemp yarn producedunder traditional conditions where damage is unavoidable. The mild defibration was performed by degradation of the pectin and lignin rich middle lamellae around the fibres by cultivation of the mutated white rot fungus Phlebia radiata Cel 26. Fibr...

  15. Revertant mosaicism in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai-Cheong, J E; McGrath, J A

    2013-02-01

    Revertant mosaicism is a naturally occurring phenomenon involving the spontaneous correction of a pathogenic mutation in a somatic cell. Revertant mosaicism is not a rare event and has been described in several inherited skin conditions, including various subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa. The recognition of revertant mosaicism paves the way for revertant therapy which represents a potentially exciting "natural gene therapy" option for genetic disorders. The skin provides a useful model for studying revertant mosaicism because it is readily accessible and easy to examine. In this paper, we provide an overview of revertant mosaicism and its relevance in genetic skin disorders.

  16. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  17. Effects of chemical treatments on hemp fibre structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, M.M., E-mail: kabirm@usq.edu.au [Centre of Excellence in Engineered Fibre Composite (CEEFC), Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Wang, H. [Centre of Excellence in Engineered Fibre Composite (CEEFC), Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Lau, K.T. [Centre of Excellence in Engineered Fibre Composite (CEEFC), Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Cardona, F. [Centre of Excellence in Engineered Fibre Composite (CEEFC), Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, hemp fibres were treated with alkali, acetyl and silane chemicals. Fibre constituents such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin constituents were separated from treated fibres. The chemical and thermal influences of these constituents on the treated fibres were examined by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Experimental results revealed that, hemicellulose was degraded faster than that of cellulose and lignin. Cellulose exhibited better thermal stability and lignin was degraded in a wide range of temperatures. The hydrophilic nature of the fibres was predominantly caused by the presence of hemicellulose and then lignin constituents. Hemicellulose and lignin were mostly removed by the alkalisation with higher concentrations of NaOH, followed by acetylation. Silane treatment could not remove the hemicellulose and lignin, rather this treatment facilitated coupling with the fibre constituents.

  18. Bioactive prenylogous cannabinoid from fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Federica; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Allarà, Marco; Muñoz, Eduardo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Appendino, Giovani

    2011-09-23

    The waxy fraction from the variety Carma of fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa) afforded the unusual cannabinoid 4, identified as the farnesyl prenylogue of cannabigerol (CBG, 1) on the basis of its spectroscopic properties. A comparative study of the profile of 4 and 1 toward metabotropic (CB1, CB2) and ionotropic (TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPM8, TRPA1) targets of phytocannabinoids showed that prenylogation increased potency toward CB2 by ca. 5-fold, with no substantial difference toward the other end-points, except for a decreased affinity for TRPM8. The isolation of 4 suggests that C. sativa could contain yet-to-be-discovered prenylogous versions of medicinally relevant cannabinoids, for which their biological profiles could offer interesting opportunities for biomedical exploitation.

  19. Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James D; Neufeld, Jason; Leson, Gero

    2010-11-24

    The macronutrient composition and the quality of protein of hemp seed and products derived from hemp seed grown in Western Canada were determined. Thirty samples of hemp products (minimum 500 g), including whole hemp seed, hemp seed meal from cold-press expelling, dehulled, or shelled, hemp seed and hemp seed hulls, were obtained from commercial sources. Proximate analysis, including crude protein (% CP), crude fat (% fat) and fiber, as well as full amino acid profiles, were determined for all samples. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) measurements, using a rat bioassay for protein digestibility and the FAO/WHO amino acid requirement of children (2-5 years of age) as reference, were conducted on subsets of hemp products. Mean (±SD) percentage CP and fat were 24.0(2.1) and 30.4(2.7) for whole hemp seed, 40.7(8.8) and 10.2(2.1) for hemp seed meal, and 35.9(3.6) and 46.7(5.0) for dehulled hemp seed. The percentage protein digestibility and PDCAAS values were 84.1-86.2 and 49-53% for whole hemp seed, 90.8-97.5 and 46-51% for hemp seed meal, and 83.5-92.1 and 63-66% for dehulled hemp seed. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid in all products. Removal of the hull fraction improved protein digestibility and the resultant PDCAAS value. The current results provide reference data in support of protein claims for hemp seed products and provide evidence that hemp proteins have a PDCAAS equal to or greater than certain grains, nuts, and some pulses.

  20. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL INNOVATION: THE ROLE OF NON ABSORPTIVE INTERMEDIARY ACTORS. THE CASE OF INDUSTRIAL HEMP AND FLAX SECTORS IN FRANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Pauline; Barbier, Marc,

    2010-01-01

    N° ISBN - 978-2-7380-1284-5; International audience; Industrial hemp and flax have many uses (paper for hemp, textile for flax, but also fibre incorporation in biocomposites or lime blocks). They are facing great technological expectations with the "Green Future" objectives, both because of sustainable end-uses of hemp and flax and because of their respective sustainable cropping properties. With more than 8000 ha of hemp and 80 000 ha of flax cultivated, France is the biggest European produc...

  1. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume—cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield and subsequent energy yield. S...

  2. Performance of four European hemp cultivars cultivated under different agronomic experimental conditions in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blouw, LS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available of Fibre Hemp, Publication Agricultural Engineering, 31, University of Helsinki, 2001. 8. H.S. Sankari, Comparison of Bast Fibre Yield and Mechanical Fibre Properties of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L) cultivars, Industrial Crops and Products, 11, 73-84, 2000...

  3. Evaluation of Properties of Unidirectional Hemp/Polypropylene Composites: Influence of Fiber Content and Fiber/Matrix Interface Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Lilholt, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Flament-wound textile hemp yarn was used in combination with unmodified or maleated polypropylene (PP) films to produce plates of unidirectional composites.......Flament-wound textile hemp yarn was used in combination with unmodified or maleated polypropylene (PP) films to produce plates of unidirectional composites....

  4. Silica Treatments: A Fire Retardant Strategy for Hemp Fabric/Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Branda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, for the first time, inexpensive waterglass solutions are exploited as a new, simple and ecofriendly chemical approach for promoting the formation of a silica-based coating on hemp fabrics, able to act as a thermal shield and to protect the latter from heat sources. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR analysis confirm the formation of –C–O–Si– covalent bonds between the coating and the cellulosic substrate. The proposed waterglass treatment, which is resistant to washing, seems to be very effective for improving the fire behavior of hemp fabric/epoxy composites, also in combination with ammonium polyphosphate. In particular, the exploitation of hemp surface treatment and Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP addition to epoxy favors a remarkable decrease of the Heat Release Rate (HRR, Total Heat Release (THR, Total Smoke Release (TSR and Specific Extinction Area (SEA (respectively by 83%, 35%, 45% and 44% as compared to untreated hemp/epoxy composites, favoring the formation of a very stable char, as also assessed by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. Because of the low interfacial adhesion between the fabrics and the epoxy matrix, the obtained composites show low strength and stiffness; however, the energy absorbed by the material is higher when using treated hemp. The presence of APP in the epoxy matrix does not affect the mechanical behavior of the composites.

  5. Study of Performance of Hybrid yarns (Hemp/ Polypropylene/ Glass Woven Reinforcements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Manins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the performance of reinforcements of 100 tex hemp yarns and hybrid yarns reinforcements with same hemp yarns and glass fibres’ (136 Tex in warp direction (25 % or 50 % interwoven with hemp yarns. The industrial loom CTБ-175 and craftsman’s loom, plain weaving technique for production of reinforcements with surface density in range of 91-246 g/m2 were used in the production. Tensile strength of hemp reinforcement on warp direction is 241.7N-279.8N and tensile modulus 218.48MPa-271.24MPa.The measurement of fabric thickness and physical-mechanical properties of reinforcements were carried out according to ISO 5084:1996 and LVS EN ISO 13934-1-2001 standards. One and two layer composites of woven reinforcements of hemp and polypropylene yarns were produced with Laboratory Press LP_S_50/SASTM. The surface density of one layer composite is 311.2 g/m2 and 608.4 g/m2 of two layers composite. The tensile strength of same composites is 303.1N and 599.5N, the tensile stress is 35.66 MPa and 40.65 MPa. The elastic modulus of one layer composites is 908.2 MPa and 1152.5MPa for two layers composite. The mechanical properties of composites were established according to ISO 527-5:2009 standard.

  6. Characterization of Lignanamides from Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed and Their Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoli; Tang, Jiajing; dos Santos Passos, Carolina; Nurisso, Alessandra; Simões-Pires, Claudia Avello; Ji, Mei; Lou, Hongxiang; Fan, Peihong

    2015-12-16

    Hemp seed is known for its content of fatty acids, proteins, and fiber, which contribute to its nutritional value. Here we studied the secondary metabolites of hemp seed aiming at identifying bioactive compounds that could contribute to its health benefits. This investigation led to the isolation of 4 new lignanamides, cannabisin M (2), cannabisin N (5), cannabisin O (8), and 3,3'-demethyl-heliotropamide (10), together with 10 known lignanamides, among which 4 was identified for the first time from hemp seed. Structures were established on the basis of NMR, HR-MS, UV, and IR as well as by comparison with the literature data. Lignanamides 2, 7, and 9-14 showed good antioxidant activity, among which 7, 10, and 13 also inhibited acetylcholinesterase in vitro. The newly identified compounds in this study add to the diversity of hemp seed composition, and the bioassays implied that hemp seed, with lignanamides as nutrients, may be a good source of bioactive and protective compounds.

  7. Testing of DNA isolation for the identification of hemp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vyhnánek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemp is diploid organism (2n = 2x = 20, genome size 534 Mb with nine pairs of autosomes plus XX (♀ or XY (♂ chromosomes. Cannabis sativa L. is an important economic plant for the production of food, fibre, oils, and intoxicants. Genotypes (varieties or chemovar of hemp with low Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol content are used for industrial applications. Varieties with high Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or high cannabidiol content are used for medicinal applications. Biochemical and molecular methods can be used for identification and classification. An important step for molecular biology methods is to obtain the matrix of the native and sufficiently pure DNA. We tested two different experimental variant of samples (20 mg and 100 mg of seeds, oilcake and dried flowers for analysis of the Italian variety Carmagnola for analysis (harvested in 2014, Hempoint Ltd., Czech Republic. The DNeasy® Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, GE was used to isolate the DNA. The DNA concentration and purity was assessed by agarose electrophoresis and via a spectrophotometer. Samples of lower weight yielded lower values of DNA concentration (average 16.30 - 38.90 ng.µL-1, but with better purity than samples of higher weight (ratio A260nm/A280nm for low-weight samples was near 1.80. To test the applicability of DNA analysis, we used two SSR markers (CAN1347 and CAN2913. PCR products were separated on 1% agarose and on 8% polyacrylamide electrophoresis. DNA samples obtained from samples of higher weight exhibited less PCR amplification than samples of lower weight. We found no effect of sample weight on the formation of non-specific amplification products during the PCR reaction. Based on our results we can be recommended for practical isolation procedure using DNeasy® Plant Mini Kit with lower of sample weight (20 mg. In future work the procedure for DNA isolating from wheat-cannabis products, e. g. breads, rolls or pasta, will be optimized.

  8. Influence of agroclimatic conditions on content of main cannabinoids in industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a six-year field experiment eight industrial hemp varieties were examined for ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD contents. The study analyzed the influence of growing degree days (GDD, soil temperature at 5 cm, air humidity, and growing season precipitation on the levels of the main cannabinoids in this crop. Agroclimatic conditions do not influence THC and CBD contents in industrial hemp in the same way. THC synthesis and accumulation are under the significant positive influence of GDD and air humidity and under the negative influence of precipitation, while soil temperature at 5 cm has no significant effect on it. Soil temperature at 5 cm has a significant positive effect on the CBD content, as do GDD. Precipitation has a negative influence on the CBD content of industrial hemp, while air humidity has no influence on it.

  9. Characterization and biological depectinization of hemp fibers originating from different stem sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Fernando, Dinesh; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    selectivity on stem section, whichdecreased from bottom to top presumably due to the significantly higher lignin content in the bottomsection than in the top section (middle section was in between). Consequently, the fungal retting caused alower reduction in strength of fibers from the bottom section than......The wide variation of mechanical properties of natural fibers limits their applications in matrix compos-ites. The aim of this study is to evaluate the properties of hemp fibers from different stem sections (top,middle and bottom) and to assess fungal retting pretreatment of hemp from different...... in those from the top stem section, andessentially reversed the influence of stem section on fiber tensile strength through depectinization selec-tivity. At whole hemp stem level, the fungal retting with P. radiata Cel 26 exhibited better mechanicalproperties with an ultimate tensile strength, strain...

  10. Antibacterial Properties of Hemp and Other Natural Fibre Plants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belas Ahmed Khan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intervention against pathogenic bacteria using natural plant material has a long history. Plant materials also have been widely used as fillers and/or reinforcers in polymer composites. Some natural fibre plants, such as hemp, are regarded to possess antibacterial activity against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. Innovative applications can be explored if they are incorporated in polymer composites. This review aims to compile the relevant investigations on antibacterial activity of hemp and other fibre plants such as jute, flax, kenaf, sisal, and bamboo. The antibacterial character might be contributed from cannabinoids, alkaloids, other bioactive compounds, or phenolic compounds of lignin. This review is intended to encourage utilization of hemp and other natural fibre plants in value-added diversified products. Some potential applications are also discussed.

  11. Ethanol production from industrial hemp: effect of combined dilute acid/steam pretreatment and economic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Prade, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, combined steam (140-180 °C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis and etha......In the present study, combined steam (140-180 °C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis...... pretreated at the optimal conditions showed positive economic results. The type of hemp cultivation (organic or conventional) did not influence significantly the effectiveness of the pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation....

  12. Enzymatic accessibility of fiber hemp is enhanced by enzymatic or chemical removal of pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, A; Zhang, J; Brock, T; Maijala, P; Viikari, L

    2012-03-01

    Pectinolytic enzymes, steam explosion and alkaline treatment were used to assess the role of pectin for the accessibility of hydrolytic enzymes in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), a potential energy crop especially in boreal climate with a low need of fertilizers, was used in the study either as untreated or anaerobically preserved raw material. Addition of pectinases increased the hydrolysis yield by 26%, 54%, and 64% from the theoretical carbohydrates of untreated, acid, and alkali-preserved materials, respectively. Steam explosion and hot alkali treatment increased the conversion of the total carbohydrates by 78% and 60%, respectively, compared to the untreated hemp. Elevated separation of cells within the hemp stalk tissues and an increased surface area was revealed after hot alkali or pectinase treatments, contributing to the increased conversion to sugars by commercial enzymes.

  13. Ethanol production from industrial hemp: effect of combined dilute acid/steam pretreatment and economic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Prade, Thomas; Johansson, Eva; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, combined steam (140-180°C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis and ethanol yields was also evaluated. Pretreatment with 1% sulfuric acid at 180°C resulted in the highest glucose yield (73-74%) and ethanol yield of 75-79% (0.38-0.40 g-ethanol/g-glucose). Taking into account the costs of biomass processing, from field to ethanol facility storage, the field-dried hemp pretreated at the optimal conditions showed positive economic results. The type of hemp cultivation (organic or conventional) did not influence significantly the effectiveness of the pretreatment as well as subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation.

  14. Biodegradable polyester-based eco-composites containing hemp fibers modified with macrocyclic oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzatti, Lucia; Utzeri, Roberto; Hodge, Philip; Stagnaro, Paola

    2016-05-01

    An original compatibilizing pathway for hemp fibers/poly(1,4-butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) (PBAT) eco-composites was explored exploiting the capability of macrocyclic oligomers (MCOs), obtained by cyclodepolymerization (CDP) of PBAT at high dilution, of being re-converted into linear chains by entropically-driven ring-opening polymerization (ED-ROP) that occurs simply heating the MCOS in the bulk. CDP reaction of PBAT was carried out varying solvent, catalyst and reaction time. Selected MCOs were used to adjust the conditions of the ED-ROP reaction. The best experimental conditions were then adopted to modify hemp fibers. Eco-composites based on PBAT and hemp fibers as obtained or modified with PBAT macrocyclics or oligomers were prepared by different process strategies. The best fiber-PBAT compatibility was observed when the fibers were modified with PBAT oligomers before incorporation in the polyester matrix.

  15. Hemp-Lime Performance in Danish Climatic Context. Thermal Conductivity as a Function of Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    In order to fit low energy building policies and reduce environmental impact of buildings, construction materials must have good balance between thermal properties and embodied energy. By using such materials, reduction of both operational and embodied energy are achieved simultaneously. Hemp...... concrete is a bio-based building material composed of the woody core of industrial hemp and lime based binder. It is a non-load-bearing material, which can be used as floor and around structural frames for walls and roof. The material is characterized by relatively low environmental impact, moderate...... thermal properties and, high air and moisture permeability. The properties vary with binder composition, mixing and casting techniques, as well as intended application. This research presents preliminary heat and moisture building simulations of single family house made out of hemp-lime composite...

  16. Characterization of chemically and enzymatically treated hemp fibres using atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G. [Biorefining Conversions and Fermentations Laboratory, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6E 2P5 (Canada); Abboud, Zeinab [Biorefining Conversions and Fermentations Laboratory, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6E 2P5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Bressler, David C., E-mail: david.bressler@ualberta.ca [Biorefining Conversions and Fermentations Laboratory, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6E 2P5 (Canada)

    2014-09-30

    The mechanical and moisture resistance properties of natural fibre reinforced composites are dependent on the adhesion between the matrix of choice and the fibre. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of NaOH swelling of hemp fibres prior to enzymatic treatment and a novel chemical sulfonic acid method on the physical properties of hemp fibres. The colloidal properties of treated hemp fibres were studied exclusively using an atomic force microscope. AFM imaging in tapping mode revealed that each treatment rendered the surface topography of the hemp fibres clean and exposed the individual fibre bundles. Hemp fibres treated with laccase had no effect on the surface adhesion forces measured. Interestingly, mercerization prior to xylanase + cellulase and laccase treatments resulted in greater enzyme access evident in the increased adhesion force measurements. Hemp fibres treated with sulfonic acid showed an increase in surface de-fibrillation and smoothness. A decrease in adhesion forces for 4-aminotoulene-3-sulfonic acid (AT3S) treated fibres suggested a reduction in surface polarity. This work demonstrated that AFM can be used as a tool to estimate the surface forces and roughness for modified fibres and that enzymatic coupled with chemical methods can be used to improve the surface properties of natural fibres for composite applications. Further, this work is one of the first that offers some insight into the effect of mercerization prior to enzymes and the effect on the surface topography. AFM will be used to selectively screen treated fibres for composite applications based on the adhesion forces associated with the colloidal interface between the AFM tip and the fibre surfaces.

  17. Characterization of chemically and enzymatically treated hemp fibres using atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G.; Abboud, Zeinab; Bressler, David C.

    2014-09-01

    The mechanical and moisture resistance properties of natural fibre reinforced composites are dependent on the adhesion between the matrix of choice and the fibre. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of NaOH swelling of hemp fibres prior to enzymatic treatment and a novel chemical sulfonic acid method on the physical properties of hemp fibres. The colloidal properties of treated hemp fibres were studied exclusively using an atomic force microscope. AFM imaging in tapping mode revealed that each treatment rendered the surface topography of the hemp fibres clean and exposed the individual fibre bundles. Hemp fibres treated with laccase had no effect on the surface adhesion forces measured. Interestingly, mercerization prior to xylanase + cellulase and laccase treatments resulted in greater enzyme access evident in the increased adhesion force measurements. Hemp fibres treated with sulfonic acid showed an increase in surface de-fibrillation and smoothness. A decrease in adhesion forces for 4-aminotoulene-3-sulfonic acid (AT3S) treated fibres suggested a reduction in surface polarity. This work demonstrated that AFM can be used as a tool to estimate the surface forces and roughness for modified fibres and that enzymatic coupled with chemical methods can be used to improve the surface properties of natural fibres for composite applications. Further, this work is one of the first that offers some insight into the effect of mercerization prior to enzymes and the effect on the surface topography. AFM will be used to selectively screen treated fibres for composite applications based on the adhesion forces associated with the colloidal interface between the AFM tip and the fibre surfaces.

  18. 45,X/46,XY mosaicism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Hagen, Casper P; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa;

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are case reports or have described single aspects of the disease.......Most previous studies of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are case reports or have described single aspects of the disease....

  19. Evaluating the impact of hemp food consumption on workplace drug tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leson, G; Pless, P; Grotenhermen, F; Kalant, H; ElSohly, M A

    2001-01-01

    Foods containing seeds or oil of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.) are increasingly found in retail stores in the U.S. The presence of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in these foods has raised concern over their impact on the results of workplace drug tests for marijuana. Previous studies have shown that eating hemp foods can cause screening and confirmed positive results in urine specimens. This study evaluated the impact of extended daily ingestion of THC via hemp oil on urine levels of its metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) for four distinct daily THC doses. Doses were representative of THC levels now commonly found in hemp seed products and a range of conceivable daily consumption rates. Fifteen THC-naïve adults ingested, over four successive 10-day periods, single daily THC doses ranging from 0.09 to 0.6 mg. Subjects self-administered THC in 15-mL aliquots (20 mL for the 0.6-mg dose) of four different blends of hemp and canola oils. Urine specimens were collected prior to the first ingestion of oil, on days 9 and 10 of each of the four study periods, and 1 and 3 days after the last ingestion. All specimens were screened for cannabinoids by radioimmunoassay (Immunalysis Direct RIA Kit), confirmed for THC-COOH by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and analyzed for creatinine to identify dilute specimens. None of the subjects who ingested daily doses of 0.45 mg of THC screened positive at the 50-ng/mL cutoff. At a daily THC dose of 0.6 mg, one specimen screened positive. The highest THC-COOH level found by GC-MS in any of the specimens was 5.2 ng/mL, well below the 15-ng/mL confirmation cutoff used in federal drug testing programs. A THC intake of 0.6 mg/day is equivalent to the consumption of approximately 125 mL of hemp oil containing 5 microg/g of THC or 300 g of hulled seeds at 2 microg/g. These THC concentrations are now typical in Canadian hemp seed products. Based on our findings, these concentrations appear

  20. Hemp-Lime Performance in Danish Climatic Context. Thermal Conductivity as a Function of Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    In order to fit low energy building policies and reduce environmental impact of buildings, construction materials must have good balance between thermal properties and embodied energy. By using such materials, reduction of both operational and embodied energy are achieved simultaneously. Hemp...... concrete is a bio-based building material composed of the woody core of industrial hemp and lime based binder. It is a non-load-bearing material, which can be used as floor and around structural frames for walls and roof. The material is characterized by relatively low environmental impact, moderate...

  1. DYNAMICS OF LEAF PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY DURING ONTOGENY OF HEMP PLANTS, IN RELATION TO SEXUAL PHENOTYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Truta

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available During vegetation of female and male hemp plants (Cannabis sativa L., five quantitative determinations of peroxidase activities were made (40 days, 55 days, 70 days, 85 days, 105 days. Peroxidase activity presented some differences in hemp plants, between females and males, during their vegetation cycle. In female plants, before anthesis were registered peaks of peroxidase activities. The blossoming of male plants was coincident with the increase of catalitic action of peroxidase. Generally, the male plants displayed greater levels of peroxidasic activity.

  2. Preliminary Research Concerning Optimal Percentage of Hemp Hurds for Lining Panels and Filler Materials in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria - Adriana GHERGHISAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials for liningst and wall fillermade of hemp hurds and mineral binders represent again in recovery of mineral binders and use ofrepresent lignocellulosic fiber resulted afterprocessing.This paper aims to establish the optimumpercentual range of hemp hurds that can beembedded in ceramic mass, which is able to supportin various stages, the physical and dimensionalintegrity, manipulation, transport and during sandingresistance, the remaining viable recipes being theones that successfully pass this preliminary test. It isexpected for these samples to have comparablethermal and acoustic properties with similar industrialproducts, currently manufactured, which givesthepractical applicability of these composites.

  3. Influence of Hemp Fibers Pre-processing on Low Density Polyethylene Matrix Composites Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukle, S.; Vidzickis, R.; Zelca, Z.; Belakova, D.; Kajaks, J.

    2016-04-01

    In present research with short hemp fibres reinforced LLDPE matrix composites with fibres content in a range from 30 to 50 wt% subjected to four different pre-processing technologies were produced and such their properties as tensile strength and elongation at break, tensile modulus, melt flow index, micro hardness and water absorption dynamics were investigated. Capillary viscosimetry was used for fluidity evaluation and melt flow index (MFI) evaluated for all variants. MFI of fibres of two pre-processing variants were high enough to increase hemp fibres content from 30 to 50 wt% with moderate increase of water sorption capability.

  4. The effects of growth conditions and of processing into yarn on dislocations in hemp fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2011-01-01

    at harvest in hemp fibres from plants grown in a green house under three different regimes (wind free, windy and dry) with the percentage found in commercial hemp yarn. As expected a higher percentage of the cell wall consisted of dislocations in the processed fibres, but the increase was only significant......Dislocations are irregular regions within the cell wall of natural fibres. Dislocations have also been called slip planes or nodes, and are important for the properties of natural fibres within a number of applications. This study compares the percentage of the cell wall consisting of dislocations...

  5. The effects of Cannabis sativa L. seed (hemp seed) on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofi, Másume; Saberivand, Adel; Becker, Lora A; Karimi, Isaac

    2011-05-01

    This study determined the effects of maternal dietary intake of hemp seed on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points of Wistar rats. Time-mated rats were fed 100% hemp seed (n  =  15), 50% hemp seed (n  =  15) or basal diet (n  =  15) once a day. The amount of food made available was based on control feed consumption records. All dams remained on their respective diets from premating (14 days) throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were given their maternal diet until puberty. Mating and delivery weights of dams in all groups did not show significant changes. Number of pregnancies, number and post-natal survival rate of total rat pups, litter size and milk yield were lower in the group that received 100% hemp seed. Offspring that received 50% hemp seed diet expressed reproductive and neurobehavioral end points from a modified Fox battery earlier than rats on 100% hemp seed or basal diet, except acoustic startle results where no differences appeared. In conclusion, this study shows that hemp seed supplementation does not improve the reproductive and neurobehavioral performances of rats. Pregnant women and nursing mothers should be cautious about the using of Cannabis sativa L. byproducts in their diets.

  6. Cobalt (II) removal from aqueous solutions by natural hemp fibers: Batch and fixed-bed column studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofan, Lavinia; Teodosiu, Carmen; Paduraru, Carmen; Wenkert, Rodica

    2013-11-01

    Natural hemp fibers were explored as sorbent for the removal of Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions in batch and dynamic conditions. The batch Co(II) sorption capacity increased up to pH 5, reached the maximum (7.5-7.8 mg/g) over the initial pH of 4.5-5. As the initial concentration of metal ion increased (in the range of 25-200 mg/L), the cobalt uptake was enhanced, but the Co(II) removal efficiency decreased. The batch sorption of Co(II) on the tested hemp follows a pseudo-second order model, which relies on the assumption that the chemisorptions may be the rate-controlling step. The Langmuir model better described the Co(II) sorption process on the natural hemp fibers in comparison with the Freundlich model. This finding complies with the results of fixed-bed studies which emphasize that the optimal solution for describing the behavior of the investigated hemp bed column is provided by the Thomas model. The sorption capacity of the hemp fibers column (15.44 mg/g) performed better than that of the Co(II)-hemp batch system (13.58 mg/g). The possibility to use hemp fibers as an alternative in the Co(II) wastewater treatment should be studied under pilot scale applications, so as to complete the studies concerning the removal efficiencies with technical and economic factors that influence process scale-up.

  7. Association between the degree of mosaicism and the severity of syndrome in Turner mosaics and Klinefelter mosaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, R; Marimuthu, K M

    1983-12-01

    This study, based on the investigations carried on 82 cases of Turners of which 50 of them were mosaics and 85 cases of Klinefelters of which 70 of them were mosaics, is an attempt to explain the vast range of clinical variations observed in cytogenetically established Turner mosaics (45,X/46,XX) and Klinefelter mosaics (47,XXY/46,XY) in the light of the degree of mosaicism present in them. It was observed that the severity of the syndrome in Turner mosaics and Klinefelter mosaics increased with the relative increase in the abnormal cell line population.

  8. Hemp raw materials: The effect of cultivar, growth conditions and pretreatment on the chemical composition of the fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, A.B.; Rasmussen, S.K.; Bohn, V; Nielsen, K V; Thygesen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Hemp raw materials were analyzed chemically to determine their content of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ashes. Correction for ashes was only necessary in the first step of the chemical analysis: the Neutral Detergent Fibre step. The hemp fiberscontained 73-77% w/w cellulose, 7-9% w/w hemicellulose and 4-6% w/w lignin, while the hemp shives contained 48% w/w cellulose, 21-25% w/w hemicellulose and 17-19% w/w lignin. Among the four investigated cultivars, Felina contained least lignin, w...

  9. Steam pretreatment of dry and ensiled industrial hemp for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipos, Balint; Reczey, Kati [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Applied Biotechnology and Food Science, Szt. Gellert ter 4., H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Kreuger, Emma; Bjoernsson, Lovisa [Lund University, Department of Biotechnology, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svensson, Sven-Erik [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agriculture - Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, P.O. Box 104, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden); Zacchi, Guido [Lund University, Department of Chemical Engineering, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    Biomass can be converted into liquid and gaseous biofuels with good efficiency. In this study, the conversion of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), a biomass source that can be cultivated with a high biomass yield per hectare, was used. Steam pretreatment of dry and ensiled hemp was investigated prior to ethanol production. The pretreatment efficiency was evaluated in terms of sugar recovery and polysaccharide conversion in the enzymatic hydrolysis step. For both materials, impregnation with 2% SO{sub 2} followed by steam pretreatment at 210 C for 5 min were found to be the optimal conditions leading to the highest overall yield of glucose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments carried out with optimised pretreatment conditions resulted in ethanol yields of 163 g kg{sup -1} ensiled hemp (dry matter) (71% of the theoretical maximum) and 171 g kg{sup -1} dry hemp (74%), which corresponds to 206-216 l Mg{sup -1} ethanol based on initial dry material. (author)

  10. Comparing hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars for dual-purpose production under contrasting environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Kailei; Struik, P.C.; Yin, X.; Thouminot, C.; Bjelková, M.; Stramkale, V.; Amaducci, S.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in hemp as a multi-purpose crop is growing worldwide and for the first time in 2015 it was cultivated in Europe on more than 20.000 ha as a dual-purpose crop, for the seeds and for the fibre. In the present study, fibre and seed productivity of 14 commercial cultivars were tested in four

  11. Chopped hemp: Logistics, compaction and financial viability; Logistik, komprimering och ekonomi angaaende hackad hampa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederstroem, Yvonne

    2010-05-15

    In this project compaction and logistics experiments were conducted using chopped hemp. The aim was to reduce the hemp to 250 kg/m3, as well as to identify the best possible logistical system for compaction and subsequent transportation to the end-user in terms of cost and environmental impact. The project primarily focused on landowners and power companies. Other stakeholders are industries, universities and other ongoing projects in related fields. These studies have shown that it is possible to compact chopped hemp from a density of 60 kg dm/m3 (0.30 MWh/m3) when harvesting directly into the container, to a density of 202 kg dm/m3 (1.01 MWh/m3) using the baler. The original compaction target was a volumetric weight of 250 kg/m3. It was determined that straw and hemp react similarly to compaction. This project has demonstrated that the transport rig system has the best potential for large-scale use as compared with the alternate systems used. According to our calculations, the transport rig was the most cost-effective system measured in kronor per energy content. In addition, this system is also flexible. From an environmental standpoint, however, the energy balance showed that the container system was slightly superior

  12. Report of a Working Group on Fibre Crops (Flax and Hemp)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bas, N.; Pavelek, M.; Maggioni, L.; Lipman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the newly established ECPGR Working Group on Fibre Crops (Flax and Hemp), in the framework of Sugar, Starch and Fibre Crops Network, met for the first time at Wageningen, the Netherlands on 14–16 June 2006. Fifteen participants from the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lit

  13. Combined HPLC analysis of organic acids and furans formed during organosolv pulping of fiber hemp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Zomers, F.H.A.

    1995-01-01

    During organosolv pulping of fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L) with a mixture of ethanol/water, delignification is catalyzed by released acetic acid and formic acid in the effluent. The major sources of acetic acid are the acetyl groups, as determined by means of the acetyl balance, whereas formic acid

  14. Effect of water absorption on mechanical properties of hemp fibre/polyolefin’s composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Guduri, BBR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available composite specimens were investigated. The percentage of moisture uptake increased as the fibre loading increased due to the high cellulose content. In order to improve compatibility of the natural hemp fibre and polyolefin’s matrix, two commercial...

  15. Biosorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by short hemp fibers: Effect of chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejic, Biljana; Vukcevic, Marija; Kostic, Mirjana; Skundric, Petar

    2009-05-15

    Sorption potential of waste short hemp fibers for Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) ions from aqueous media was explored. In order to assess the influence of hemp fiber chemical composition on their heavy metals sorption potential, lignin and hemicelluloses were removed selectively by chemical modification. The degree of fiber swelling and water retention value were determined in order to evaluate the change in accessibility of the cell wall components to aqueous solutions due to the fiber modification. The effects of initial ion concentration, contact time and cosorption were studied in batch sorption experiments. The obtained results show that when the content of either lignin or hemicelluloses is progressively reduced by chemical treatment, the sorption properties of hemp fibers are improved. Short hemp fibers are capable of sorbing metal ions (Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2+)) from single as well as from ternary metal ion solutions. The maximum total uptake capacities for Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) ions from single solutions are the same, i.e. 0.078mmol/g, and from ternary mixture 0.074, 0.035 and 0.035mmol/g, respectively.

  16. The effect of Cannabis sativa L. (hemp seed) on hematological parameters in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Isaac; Hayatghaibi, Hossein; Yousefi, Javad; Saberivand, Adel; Zavareh, Saeed

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ingestion of powder of hemp seed on blood picture. This study was experienced on five guinea pigs that fed with normal diet (fresh vegetable and tab water), in addition were force-fed 5 g/kg/day of the powder of hemp seed for 60 days by means of an endogastric tube and syringe. At the beginning day and the termination of study day-60 the blood was taken from animals and the erythrocyte number, leukocyte number, packed cell volume (PCV), and hemoglobin concentration values were determined. The result on analysis showed that erythrocyte-count and PCV significantly decreased (p 0.05). None of the values fell below the normal physiological range of the experimental animals. This shows that hemp seed which contains tetrahydrocannabinols as its active constituents has long term significant toxicological implication such as bone marrow suppression with respect to the concentration given on the erythrocytes of mammals. It is recommended that individuals who have anemia or immunity complication should not use hemp seed in their food preparation on regular basis.

  17. Studying secondary growth and bast fiber development: the hemp hypocotyl peeks behind the wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Behr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herbaceous crop grown for the production of long extraxylary fibers, the bast fibers, rich in cellulose and used both in the textile and biocomposite sectors. Despite being herbaceous, hemp undergoes secondary growth and this is well exemplified by the hypocotyl. The hypocotyl was already shown to be a suitable model to study secondary growth in other herbaceous species, namely Arabidopsis thaliana and it shows an important practical advantage, i.e. elongation and radial thickening are temporally separated. This study focuses on the mechanisms marking the transition from primary to secondary growth in the hemp hypocotyl by analysing the suite of events accompanying vascular tissue and bast fiber development. Transcriptomics, imaging and quantification of phytohormones were carried out on four representative developmental stages (i.e. 6-9-15-20 days after sowing to provide a comprehensive overview of the events associated with primary and secondary growth in hemp. This multidisciplinary approach provides cell wall-related snapshots of the growing hemp hypocotyl and identifies marker genes associated with the young (expansins, β-galactosidases and transcription factors involved in light-related processes and the older hypocotyl (secondary cell wall biosynthetic genes and transcription factors.

  18. Studying Secondary Growth and Bast Fiber Development: The Hemp Hypocotyl Peeks behind the Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Marc; Legay, Sylvain; Žižková, Eva; Motyka, Václav; Dobrev, Petre I; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Lutts, Stanley; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herbaceous crop grown for the production of long extraxylary fibers, the bast fibers, rich in cellulose and used both in the textile and biocomposite sectors. Despite being herbaceous, hemp undergoes secondary growth and this is well exemplified by the hypocotyl. The hypocotyl was already shown to be a suitable model to study secondary growth in other herbaceous species, namely Arabidopsis thaliana and it shows an important practical advantage, i.e., elongation and radial thickening are temporally separated. This study focuses on the mechanisms marking the transition from primary to secondary growth in the hemp hypocotyl by analysing the suite of events accompanying vascular tissue and bast fiber development. Transcriptomics, imaging and quantification of phytohormones were carried out on four representative developmental stages (i.e., 6-9-15-20 days after sowing) to provide a comprehensive overview of the events associated with primary and secondary growth in hemp. This multidisciplinary approach provides cell wall-related snapshots of the growing hemp hypocotyl and identifies marker genes associated with the young (expansins, β-galactosidases, and transcription factors involved in light-related processes) and the older hypocotyl (secondary cell wall biosynthetic genes and transcription factors).

  19. Mechanical and thermal characterisation of poly (l-lactide) composites reinforced with hemp fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, A.; Muhammad, R.; Thomas, N. L.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is the most promising in the bio-derived polymer's family. But its use can be constrained by its poor mechanical properties, poor thermal stability and processing difficulties. The objective of this research is to investigate and improve mechanical and dynamic thermal properties of PLA by developing PLA composites reinforced with natural fibres (hemp). Composites were prepared by melt blending of PLA with hemp fibres. Their properties were investigated using mechanical and dynamic thermal analysis. The elastic modulus increased significantly - from 4.1 ± 0.74 to 9.32 ± 0.86 (GPA) - when the weight fraction of hemp increased from 0 to 30(wt %). The storage modulus obtained by dynamic mechanical analysis increased from 2.20 to 4.58 (GPA) for the same change in the volume fraction of hemp. FE simulation of tensile testing and DMA were carried out to investigate the effect of strain rate and temperature on the observed properties respectively. The model was developed in the commercially available code MSC Marc mentate. The model validated all experimental results.

  20. Fungal treatment of hemp-based pulp and paper mill wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... Acid-line and alkali-line composite effluent was also ... Despite its low lignin content, hemp bast fiber is ... binding components are separated from the fibers by ... Total organic carbon (TOC) content of the effluents was deter-.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effect of methanol extracts of hemp leaf in IL-1β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cells were then treated with prepared extracts of hemp (Canabis sativa) leaf ... neuron cells and immune cells [12]. The activation of these ... SW982 was acquired from ATCC® number HTB-. 93 and was ... in an equal volume. The mixture ...

  2. A Review of Image Mosaicing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Vaghela, Dushyant; Naina, Prof. Kapildev

    2014-01-01

    Image Mosaicing is a method of constructing multiple images of the same scene into a larger image. The output of the image mosaic will be the union of two input images. Image-mosaicing algorithms are used to get mosaiced image. Image Mosaicing processed is basically divided in to 5 phases. Which includes; Feature point extraction, Image registration, Homography computation, Warping and Blending if Image. Various corner detection algorithm is being used for Feature extraction. This corner prod...

  3. Mosaic Conservation Opportunity Areas - Liberal Model (ECO_RES.COA_MOSAIC33)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The COA_Mosaic33 layer designates areas with potential for forest/grassland mosaic conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural forest/grassland mosaic...

  4. Hygienic quality of stem fractions of mechanically processed fibre hemp and linseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H-R. KYMÄLÄINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bast fibre is the most important fraction of bast fibre plants for technical products, i.e. thermal insulations and packaging materials. The hygienic quality of the various fractions of bast fibre plants is of interest in thermal insulations, because it may affect the quality of indoor air. Packaging materials may be associated e.g. with foodstuffs, which highlights the importance of hygienic quality. The aim of this study was to screen the hygienic quality, determined as microbial content, of mechanically fractionated fibre hemp and linseed plants harvested in the autumn before frost, after early frost and in spring. In addition, the possible correlation between microbes and ash was investigated. Two plant species, fibre hemp and linseed were studied. The plants were cultivated in Siuntio in southern Finland during the years 2002 and 2003, harvested in autumn or in spring and mechanically fractionated. The microbial contents of the fractions were examined by measuring the total number of microbes using Hygicult® growing slides. The microbial content of fractions of fibre hemp and linseed varied between 103 and 109 cfu/gdw. The fibre of hemp harvested after early frost or in spring had the lowest amount of moulds, but during winter and spring the amounts of bacteria and yeasts increased in hemp. Mechanically separated fibre and shive contained less microbes than the stalk. Ash contents of all examined samples of stems and stem fractions varied between 1% and 14%. The fibre after fractionating had a lower ash content (2.3–3.3% than that of stems (4.4–6.9% harvested in the autumn. The ash content of stem and shive decreased to 1.6% during winter, the ash content of fibre being even somewhat lower (0.9%. No correlation was observed between the contents of microbes and ash.;

  5. Effect of harvest time and field retting duration on the chemical composition, morphology and mechanical properties of hemp fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Fernando, Dinesh; Daniel, Geoffrey;

    2015-01-01

    tThe large variability in the mechanical properties of hemp fibers is an issue in relation to their use inhigh-grade composites. The objective of the present study was to determine the optimal growth stage forharvesting hemp fibers for use in composites and to evaluate the effect of field retting......% at seed maturity.A highly significant reduction in cellulose deposition in fiber cell walls was reflected by reduced fiberwall thickness with plant maturity and was related to the development and ripening of hemp seeds.A statistically significant increase in lignin deposition and a slight decrease...... in pectins in hemp fibercell walls were also noted with stem maturity. Microscopy observations and histochemical analyzescorroborated the results from the chemical analyzes and revealed variations in morphological aspectsand spatial micro-distributions of carbohydrates and lignin within the cell structure...

  6. Hemp raw materials: The effect of cultivar, growth conditions and pretreatment on the chemical composition of the fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A.B.; Rasmussen, S.K.; Bohn, V.

    2005-01-01

    but was more cellulose rich. Steam explosion, wet oxidation and hydrothermal treatment were used for defibration of retted hemp fibers. These pretreatmentsremoved lignin and hemicellulose resulting in loss of dry matter of 15-73% w/w and in loss of cellulose of 0-69% w/w. Steam explosion treatment generally......Hemp raw materials were analyzed chemically to determine their content of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ashes. Correction for ashes was only necessary in the first step of the chemical analysis: the Neutral Detergent Fibre step. The hemp fiberscontained 73-77% w/w cellulose, 7-9% w....../w hemicellulose and 4-6% w/w lignin, while the hemp shives contained 48% w/w cellulose, 21-25% w/w hemicellulose and 17-19% w/w lignin. Among the four investigated cultivars, Felina contained least lignin, whileFutura and Fasamo contained least cellulose. Hemp yarn had the same color as retted hemp fibers...

  7. 麻布大学第10回学術展示「麻布大学の麻(hemp)」展の記録

    OpenAIRE

    パトリック, コリンズ; 高槻, 成紀

    2014-01-01

    An exhibition on the many uses of the hemp plant was held from June 18 to September 7, 2012. The name “Azabu University” comes from the place name in Tokyo where our university was established in 1890. “Azabu” means a place where hemp grows. Today, the image of hemp is a dangerous plant, but this is a new phenomenon since the end of World War II. Before that, hemp had been regarded as a very useful plant, providing raw material for cloth as well as rope, etc, and even as a holy plant to use f...

  8. Consumption and quantitation of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in commercially available hemp seed oil products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy, T Z; Cole, K A

    2000-10-01

    There has been a recent and significant increase in the use and availability of hemp seed oil products. These products are being marketed as a healthy source of essential omega fatty acids when taken orally. Although the health aspects of these oils is open to debate, the probability that oils derived from the hemp seed will contain delta9-tetrahyrdocannabinol (THC) is noteworthy. Recent additions to the literature cite a number of studies illustrating that the ingestion of these products results in urinary levels of the THC metabolite, delta9-tetrahyrdocannabinol carboxylic acid (THCA), well above the administrative cutoff (50 ng/mL) used during random drug screens. Testing performed by our laboratory found that the concentration of THC in hemp oil products has been reduced considerably since the publication of earlier studies. The purpose of this study is to quantitate the THC levels in commercially available hemp oils and to administer those oils tested to THC-free volunteers to determine urine metabolite levels following several 15-g doses. Two extraction protocols were evaluated for removing THC from the oil matrix: a single step liquid-liquid extraction was compared to a two-phase process using both liquid-liquid and solid-phase techniques. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine THC levels in several products: four from Spectrum Essentials (3 bottled oils and 1-g capsules), two from Health from the Sun (1-g capsules and bottled oil) oils, and single samples of both Hempstead and Hempola hemp oils. These hemp oil products contained THC concentrations of 36.0, 36.4, 117.5, 79.5, 48.6, 45.7, 21.0, and 11.5 mg/g, respectively. The Abbott AxSYM FPIA and Roche On-Line KIMS immunoassays were used to screen the urine samples, and GC-MS was used to determine the amount of THC in each oil as well as confirm and quantitate THCA in the urine of study participants immediately before and 6 h after each dose. Peak THCA levels in the participants' urine

  9. Mars Digital Image Mosaic Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The photomosaic that forms the base for this globe was created by merging two global digital image models (DIM's) of Mars-a medium-resolution monochrome mosaic processed to emphasize topographic features and a lower resolution color mosaic emphasizing color and albedo variations.The medium-resolution (1/256 or roughly 231 m/pixel) monochromatic image model was constructed from about 6,000 images having resolutions of 150-350 m/pixel and oblique illumination (Sun 20 o -45 o above the horizon). Radiometric processing was intended to suppress or remove the effects of albedo variations through the use of a high-pass divide filter, followed by photometric normalization so that the contrast of a given topographic slope would be approximately the same in all images.The global color mosaic was assembled at 1/64 or roughly 864 m/pixel from about 1,000 red- and green-filter images having 500-1,000 m/pixel resolution. These images were first mosaiced in groups, each taken on a single orbit of the Viking spacecraft. The orbit mosaics were then processed to remove spatially and temporally varying atmospheric haze in the overlap regions. After haze removal, the per-orbit mosaics were photometrically normalized to equalize the contrast of albedo features and mosaiced together with cosmetic seam removal. The medium-resolution DIM was used for geometric control of this color mosaic. A green-filter image was synthesized by weighted averaging of the red- and violet-filter mosaics. Finally, the product seen here was obtained by multiplying each color image by the medium-resolution monochrome image. The color balance selected for images in this map series was designed to be close to natural color for brighter, redder regions, such as Arabia Terra and the Tharsis region, but the data have been stretched so that the relatively dark regions appear darker and less red than they actually are.The images are presented in a projection that portrays the entire surface of Mars in a manner

  10. Mosaicism for trisomy 21: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavassiliou, Paulie; Charalsawadi, Chariyawan; Rafferty, Kelly; Jackson-Cook, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    The clinical and cytogenetic findings associated with mosaicism for trisomy 21/Down syndrome are the focus of this review. The primary topics discussed in this overview of the extant literature include the history of this condition and its diagnosis, the incidence of mosaicism, the meiotic and/or mitotic chromosomal malsegregation events resulting in mosaicism, the observation of mosaicism in the parents of children with the non-mosaic form of Down syndrome, and the variation in phenotypic outcome for both constitutional and acquired traits present in people with mosaicism for trisomy 21/Down syndrome, including cognition, fertility, and overall phenotypic findings. Additional topics reviewed include the social conditions of people with mosaicism, as well as age-related and epigenetic alterations observed in people with mosaicism for trisomy 21/Down syndrome. .

  11. Hemp oil ingestion causes positive urine tests for delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, A; Schwartz, R H; Kaplan, P

    1997-10-01

    A hemp oil product (Hemp Liquid Gold) was purchased from a specialty food store. Fifteen milliliters was consumed by seven adult volunteers. Urine samples were taken from the subjects before ingestion and at 8, 24, and 48 h after the dose was taken. All specimens were screened by enzyme immunoassay with SYVA EMIT II THC 20, THC 50, and THC 100 kits. The tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THCA) concentration was determined on all samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (5). A total of 18 postingestion samples were submitted. Fourteen of the samples screened above the 20-ng cutoff, seven were above the 50-ng cutoff, and two screened greater than the 100-ng cutoff. All of the postingestion samples showed the presence of THCA by GC-MS.

  12. Improving enzymatic hydrolysis of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Soo-Jeong [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Yong Joo [KT and G Central Research Institute, 302 Shinseong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-805 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yosung17@yahoo.co.kr

    2008-09-15

    The electron beam irradiation was applied as a pretreatment of the enzymatic hydrolysis of hemp biomass with doses of 150, 300 and 450 kGy. The higher irradiation dose resulted in the more extraction with hot-water extraction or 1% sodium hydroxide solution extraction. The higher solubility of the treated sample was originated from the chains scission during irradiation, which was indirectly demonstrated by the increase of carbonyl groups as shown in diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) spectra. The changes in the micro-structure of hemp resulted in the better response to enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial cellulases (Celluclast 1.5L and Novozym 342). The improvement in enzymatic hydrolysis by the irradiation was more evident in the hydrolysis of the xylan than in that of the cellulose.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF REFINED HEMP FIBERS USING NIR FT RAMAN MICRO SPECTROSCOPY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Kumar Kovur

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The research was focused on the separation of single hemp (Cannabis sativa L. fibre cells with low fineness from mechanically extracted fibre bundles of high fineness. The fiber bundles were treated with enzymes, namely panzym, pectinase, hemicellulase, and cellulase, along with a combination of panzym and ultrasonic treatments. Changes in the fiber structure were followed at molecular and microscopic levels by means of NIR FT Raman spectroscopy and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM. Buffer-panzym treatments of hemp fibers had a prominent effect in loosening of the fiber cells. The best of refining was achieved when the fiber bundles were treated with buffer-panzym solution in combination with ultrasonic treatment.

  14. Targeted pre-treatment of hemp bast fibres for optimal performance in biocomposite materials: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Thygesen, Anders; Summerscales, John

    2017-01-01

    composite matrix material. Targeted modification of natural fibres for NFCs must also be targeted to optimize the fibre surface properties. Consequently, improved interfacial bonding between fibres and hydrophobic polymers, reduced moisture uptake, increased microbial degradation resistance, and prolonged......Global interest in the use of plant fibres in natural fibre reinforced composites (NFCs) is growing rapidly. The increased interest is primarily due to the advantageous properties of natural fibres including biodegradability, low cost, low density and high stiffness and strength to weight ratio....... In order to achieve strong NFCs, well separated and cellulose-rich fibres are required. Hemp is taking a center stage in this regard as a source of suitable natural plant cellulose fibres because natural hemp bast fibres are long and inherently possess high strength. Classical field and water retting...

  15. Enrichment of Cellulosic Waste Hemp (Cannabis sativa Hurd into Non-Toxic Microfibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinu E. Abraham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study a largely available lignocellulose feedstock hemp (Cannabis sativa, obtained as an industrial waste, was used for cellulose extraction. The extraction of cellulose microfibres from hemp biomass was conducted by alkaline treatment and an acidification process. The extracted cellulose microfibres were characterised using Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The viability of the study was determined by growing human fibroblasts on the preparation which resulted in being non-toxic; indicating its potential in preparing biological scaffolds. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose microfibre using cellulase from Trichoderma reesei, a maximum of 909 mg/g of reducing sugars were obtained, which endorses its suitability for biofuel production.

  16. Improving enzymatic hydrolysis of industrial hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soo-Jeong; Sung, Yong Joo

    2008-09-01

    The electron beam irradiation was applied as a pretreatment of the enzymatic hydrolysis of hemp biomass with doses of 150, 300 and 450 kGy. The higher irradiation dose resulted in the more extraction with hot-water extraction or 1% sodium hydroxide solution extraction. The higher solubility of the treated sample was originated from the chains scission during irradiation, which was indirectly demonstrated by the increase of carbonyl groups as shown in diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) spectra. The changes in the micro-structure of hemp resulted in the better response to enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial cellulases (Celluclast 1.5L and Novozym 342). The improvement in enzymatic hydrolysis by the irradiation was more evident in the hydrolysis of the xylan than in that of the cellulose.

  17. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Lorenzo; Zatta, Alessandro; Stefanini, Ilaria; Grandi, Silvia; Sgorbati, Barbara; Biavati, Bruno; Monti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The present study focused on inhibitory activity of freshly extracted essential oils from three legal (THChemp varieties (Carmagnola, Fibranova and Futura) on microbial growth. The effect of different sowing times on oil composition and biological activity was also evaluated. Essential oils were distilled and then characterized through the gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thereafter, the oils were compared to standard reagents on a broad range inhibition of microbial growth via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Microbial strains were divided into three groups: i) Gram (+) bacteria, which regard to food-borne pathogens or gastrointestinal bacteria, ii) Gram (-) bacteria and iii) yeasts, both being involved in plant interactions. The results showed that essential oils of industrial hemp can significantly inhibit the microbial growth, to an extent depending on variety and sowing time. It can be concluded that essential oils of industrial hemp, especially those of Futura, may have interesting applications to control spoilage and food-borne pathogens and phytopathogens microorganisms.

  18. Effect of introducing hemp oil into feed on the nutritional quality of pig meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourot Jacques

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research is being carried out to diversify the sources of n-3 fatty acid-rich lipids for animal feed. In this study, 3 batches of 12 pigs with between 50 and 105 kg of live weight, received isolipidic diets containing either palm oil (PO, or rapeseed oil (CO, or hemp oil (HO (providing respectively 0.6; 1.9 and 3.4 g of C18:3 n-3 (ALA /kg of feed. The quantity of ALA deposited in the meat is higher (p< 0.001 in the HO pigs. Hemp oil may be an interesting source of ALA to improve the nutritional quality of pork.

  19. Study of Inorganic Pollutants Removal from Acid Mine Drainage by Hemp Hurds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demcak, Stefan; Balintova, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Sulphates in wastewaters have an origin as the by-products of a variety of industrial operations. A specific and major producer of such effluents, which contained sulphates and heavy metals, is the mining industry. These contaminants should be removed from wastewater using an adequate process of treatment. The paper deals with selected heavy metals (iron, cooper, and manganese) and sulphate removal from acid mine drainage outflowing from an abandoned mine in Smolnik (Slovakia) using the modified biosorbent - Holland hemp hurds. Pre-treatment of acid mine drainage was based on oxidation of ferrous cations from acid mine drainage by hydrogen peroxide and subsequent precipitation. The precipitate were analysed by infrared spectrometry which found the precipitate containing hydroxide and sulphate functional groups. During this process the concentration of sulphate decreased by 43.8 %. Hemp hurds modified by NaOH decreased concentration of Cu2+ in solution by about 70 %

  20. COHUTTA WILDERNESS, GEORGIA AND TENNESSEE AND HEMP TOP ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gair, Jacob E.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    A survey has found little or no promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral-resources in the Cohutta Wilderness and the adjacent Hemp Top Roadless Area. The Cohutta Wilderness is located mainly in northern Georgia and extends a small distance into southeastern Tennessee; the Hemp Top Roadless Area borders part of the Cohutta Wilderness on the east and extends southward from the Georgia-Tennessee line. The study area is underlain by slightly metamorphosed folded and faulted sedimentary rocks of late Precambrian age. Detailed sampling in the vicinity of the known gold-bearing and tin-bearing samples might outline small areas of low-grade mineralization. The sedimentary rocks which are buried many thousands of feet beneath the surface of the Cohutta area have an unknown potential for oil and gas - probably gas at the inferred depth of burial and temperatures implicit at such depth. This potential could only be verified by a program of deep drilling.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acid production from enzyme saccharified hemp hydrolysate using a novel marine thraustochytrid strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Adarsha; Abraham, Reinu E; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a newly isolated marine thraustochytrid strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3, was used for omega-3 fatty acid production by growing on lignocellulose biomass obtained from local hemp hurd (Cannabis sativa) biomass. Prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, hemp was pretreated with sodium hydroxide to open the biomass structure for the production of sugar hydrolysate. The thraustochytrid strain was able to grow on the sugar hydrolysate and accumulated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). At the lowest carbon concentration of 2%, the PUFAs productivity was 71% in glucose and 59% in the sugars hydrolysate, as a percentage of total fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) levels were highest at about 49% of TFA using 6% glucose as the carbon source. SFAs of 41% were produced using 2% of SH. This study demonstrates that SH produced from lignocellulose biomass is a potentially useful carbon source for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in thraustochytrids, as demonstrated using the new strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3.

  2. Hemp hurds biorefining: A path to green L-(+)-lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Stefano; Pistone, Lucia; Ottolina, Gianluca; Xu, Ping; Riva, Sergio

    2015-09-01

    Sugars streams generated by organosolv pretreatment of hemp hurds, cellulose (C6) and hemicellulose (C5) fractions, were fermented to lactic acid (LA) by Bacillus coagulans strains XZL4 and DSM1. Pretreatment conditions and enzymatic hydrolysis were optimized and B. coagulans aptness to use lignocellulosic-derived sugars as a carbon source was evaluated. Methanolic organosolv pretreatment with 2.5% (w/w) H2SO4 gave the best results in terms of glucan recovery (98%), enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass (70%) and hemicellulosic sugars recovery (61%). C6 and C5 sugars fermentation by strain XZL4 gave, high LA yields (0.90 and 0.84 g/g), high titers (141 and 109 g/L), and high enantiomeric excess (>99%). Overall, 42 g of l-LA were obtained from 100 g of raw hemp hurds. These results can be considered promising for lignocellulosic feedstock valorization toward the production of polymer-grade LA.

  3. Quantification of dislocations in hemp fibers using acid hydrolysis and fiber segment length distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2008-01-01

    Natural fibers such as flax or hemp may be used in composite materials. However, their use for this purpose is hampered by the large natural variation in tensile strength and other quality parameters. The first step in managing these variations is to develop methods for fast and reliable...... determination of relevant parameters. One quality parameter of the fibers is the amount of structural distortions known as dislocations or kink bands. Here, a method developed for the quantification of dislocations in pulp fibers was adapted and tested successfully for hemp yarn segments. The method is based...... on acid hydrolysis and subsequent determination of the fiber segment length distribution. The premise of the method is that acid hydrolysis causes fibers to break in the dislocations rather than in other places. By use of polarized light microscopy and image analysis it was found that the premise...

  4. Manufacturing technology and application of hemp cigarette paper with dense ash integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu; Jian-bo, Zhan; Hao, Wan; Ying, Zhang; Li-wei, Li; Jiang, Yu; Ting-ting, Yu; Jiao, Xie; Bao-shan, Yue

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette paper, as one of the significant materials used for combustion, has special and direct influence on the smoke, also directly influencing the ash appearance of cigarettes before and after combustion. In this paper, full hemp cigarette paper was prepared through creative beating and mixing slurry technology, and the advantages of the preparation process were analyzed. Full hemp cigarette paper was creatively applied to the preparation and verification of slim cigarettes, and the ash integration effect in the process of burning and its influence on whiteness were verified. At the same time, the physical and chemical indexes of cigarette paper were tested and studied, and sensory evaluation was applied to verify the effect of cigarette paper on sensory quality.

  5. Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aladić, K.; S. Jokić; Moslavac, T.; Tomas, S.; S Vidović; Vladić, J.; Šubarić, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the Cannabis sativa L. hemp variety has been unfairly neglected because of its similarity to the illegal kind Cannabis indica used as a narcotic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the process of oil extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds by cold pressing, followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. In the pressing experiments, the response surface methodology was conducted in order to study the effects of temperature, frequency, and nozzle size on oil reco...

  6. Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aladić, K.; S. Jokić; Moslavac, T.; Tomas, S.; S Vidović; Vladić, J.; Šubarić, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the Cannabis sativa L. hemp variety has been unfairly neglected because of its similarity to the illegal kind Cannabis indica used as a narcotic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the process of oil extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds by cold pressing, followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. In the pressing experiments, the response surface methodology was conducted in order to study the effects of temperature, frequency, and nozzle size on oil reco...

  7. EFFECTS INDUCED BY DIETHYL SULPHATE ON SOME CYTOGENETICAL PARAMETERS AND LENGTH GROWTH OF HEMP PLANTLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Truta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The hemp seeds were treated with diethyl sulphate, in four concentrations (0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% and in two variants of alkylant exposure (3 and 6 hours. The length growth of plantlets, mitotic index and frequency of chromosomal aberrations were the analyzed parameters. Significant modifications were obtained at the level of parameters in variants treated with DES, comparatively with control.

  8. Performance and Qualification of the Power Supply and Control Unit for the HEMP Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brag, R.; Herty, F.

    2014-08-01

    In 2013, Astrium GmbH delivered several flight model electronics for Electric Propulsion (EP) systems or corresponding components. One of the elements is a Power Supply and Control Unit (PSCU) for the Thales development "High Efficiency Multistage Plasma Thruster" (HEMP-T) (see Figure 1). This paper presents the PSCU specification and results of the qualification and acceptance phase of the EQM and the PFM.

  9. 3D digitization of mosaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a methodology developed to access to Cultural Heritage information using digital 3d reality-based models as graphic interfaces. The case studies presented belong to the wide repertoire of mosaics of Ravenna. One of the most peculiar characteristics of mosaics that often limits their digital survey is their multi-scale complexity; nevertheless their models could be used in 3d information systems, for digital exhibitions, for reconstruction aims and to document their conservation conditions in order to conduct restoration interventions in digital environments aiming at speeding and performing more reliable evaluations.

  10. 开发汉麻棉涡流纱的体会%Experience of Developing Hemp Cotton Vortex Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美红

    2012-01-01

    To develop hemp cotton vortex yarn, hemp fiber and long-staple cotton raw material were selected reasonably, hemp fiber was pretreated. According to characteristics of hemp fiber raw material, related technulogy measures were adopted,such as selecting fore-spinning and vortex spinning processing parameters rationally, controlling temperature & humidity strictly,finally hemp/cotton 60/40 21. 6 tex vortex yarn can be developed successfully, yam hairiness can be reduced, yam quality level and usability can be improved. It is considered that it is feasible to use vortex spinning technology producing high content hemp cotton blended yarn,yarn hairiness can be reduced and hemp cotton blended yam quality level can be improved.%为开发高比例汉麻棉涡流纱,通过合理选用汉麻纤维和长绒棉原料,对汉麻纤维进行预处理,针对汉麻纤维原料特点,合理配置前纺和涡流纺工艺参数及采取有关技术措施,严格控制温湿度,结果顺利地开发出汉麻/棉60/40 21.6 tex涡流纱,大幅度降低了成纱毛羽,提升了质量水平和使用性能.认为:利用涡流纺纱技术生产高比例汉麻棉混纺纱在技术上是可行的,有助于大幅度降低纱线毛羽、提升汉麻棉混纺纱质量档次.

  11. 汊麻棉精梳涡流纱的开发%Development of Hemp Cotton Combed Vortex Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘必英; 戴俊; 凡启光; 王冬成

    2011-01-01

    为开发汉麻棉精梳涡流纱,对比了汉麻与苎麻、亚麻及棉纤维的性能指标、截面结构,阐述了汉麻纤维的性能特点,运用涡流纺纱技术纺制汉麻棉混纺精梳纱.通过汉麻预处理,正确选择原料混和工艺,合理配置前纺各工序及涡流纺纱机工艺参数,成功纺制出汉麻/棉60/40 21.6 tex混纺精梳涡流纱,且成纱毛羽较环锭纱得到大幅度降低.认为汉麻棉精梳涡流纱具有较好的开发前景,应进一步改进工艺,提高成纱强力和制成率,降低生产成本,方能更好地满足产品开发的需求.%To develop hemp cotton combed vortex yarn, property index and cross section structure of hemp, flax and cotton were contrasted. Property of hemp was introduced. Vortex spinning technology was used and hemp cotton blended combed yarn was spun. Hemp was pretreated, raw material and blending processing were selected correctly, processing parameters in fore-spinning process and vortex spinning were set rationally, hemp/cotton 60/40 21.6 tex blended combed vortex yarn was spun successfully. Hairiness was reduced greatly. It is considered that the development prospects of hemp cotton blended combed yarn is better,the processing should be modified further,yarn strength and finished product rate should be increased and production cost should be reduced, demands of product development can be reached well.

  12. Experimental Study on the Hygrothermal Behavior of a Coated Sprayed Hemp Concrete Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Magueresse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemp concrete is a sustainable lightweight concrete that became popular in the field of building construction because of its thermal and environmental properties. However; available experimental data on its hygrothermal behavior are rather scarce in the literature. This paper describes the design of a large-scale experiment developed to investigate the hygrothermal behavior of hemp concrete cast around a timber frame through a spraying process; and then coated with lime-based plaster. The equipment is composed of two climatic chambers surrounding the tested wall. The experiment consists of maintaining the indoor climate at constant values and applying incremental steps of temperature; relative humidity or vapor pressure in the outdoor chamber. Temperature and relative humidity of the room air and on various depths inside the wall are continuously registered during the experiments and evaporation phenomena are observed. The influence of the plaster on the hygrothermal behavior of hemp concrete is investigated. Moreover; a comparison of experimental temperatures with numerical results obtained from a purely conductive thermal model is proposed. Comparing the model with the measured data gave satisfactory agreement.

  13. Hemp Thermal Insulation Concrete with Alternative Binders, Analysis of their Thermal and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinka, M.; Sahmenko, G.; Korjakins, A.; Radina, L.; Bajare, D.

    2015-11-01

    One of the main challenges that construction industry faces today is how to address the demands for more sustainable, environmentally friendly and carbon neutral construction materials and building upkeep processes. One of the answers to these demands is lime-hemp concrete (LHC) building materials - carbon negative materials that have sufficient thermal insulation capabilities to be used as thermal insulation materials for new as well as for existing buildings. But one problem needs to be overcome before these materials can be used on a large scale - current manufacturing technology allows these materials to be used only as self-bearing thermal insulation material with large labour intensity in the manufacturing process. In order to lower the labour intensity and allow the material to be used in wider applications, a LHC block and board production is necessary, which in turn calls for the binders different from the classically used ones, as they show insufficient mechanical strength for this new use. The particular study focuses on alternative binders produced using gypsum-cement compositions ensuring they are usable in outdoor applications together with hemp shives. Physical, mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of hemp concrete with various binders are addressed in the current study.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of industrial hemp-effect of harvest time on methane energy yield per hectare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuger, E.; Escobar, F.; Bjoernsson, L. [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Prade, T.; Svensson, S.-E.; Englund, J.-E. [Department of Agriculture-Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 104, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    There is a worldwide emphasis to increase the share of renewable transportation fuels. When using agricultural land for production of renewable transportation fuels, the energy output per hectare for different crops and transportation fuels is a crucial factor. In this study, the gross methane energy yield per hectare from anaerobic digestion of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), was determined at four different harvest times between July and October in Southern Sweden, a cold climate region. The biomass yield was determined for three years and the methane yield was determined for two years through the biochemical methane potential test. The highest biomass yield, 16 tonnes dry matter per hectare on an average, and the highest methane energy yield per hectare was achieved when the hemp was harvested in September or October, with an average gross methane energy yield of 136 {+-} 24 GJ per hectare. There was no significant difference in the specific methane yield between the harvest times; the average being 234 {+-} 35 m{sup 3} per tonne volatile solids. Biogas from hemp turned out to be a high yielding alternative to the currently dominating renewable transportation fuels produced from crops grown in Sweden: ethanol from wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. (author)

  15. Characterization of Bacterial Strains Isolated from a Novel Seawater-based Retting Treatment of Hemp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Run-ye; CHEN Jian-yong; FENG Xin-xing; ZHANG Jian-chun

    2008-01-01

    Cultivable bacteria were isolated from seawater-based retting treatment of hemp, in which three of purified strains (SW - 1, SW - 2, and S - SW1) produced relatively high levels of pectinase activities, and also produced mannanases and xylanases.PCR - based entebacterial repetitive intergenic consensus primers (ERIC- PCR) were employed for fingerprinting DNA of the bacterial strains.The ERIC - PCR fingerprints of stains SW- 1, SW -1, and S -SW1 were found to be different, and should be further identified for each isolate.Strains SW - 1 and SW - 2 were identified as Stenotrophomnas maltophilia, while strain S - SW1 was assigned to Ochrobactrum anthropi by BIOLOG system.These two species represented rhizosphere bacterial genera, and possibly were introduced by the hemp plants.These organisms seemed potentially capable of producing pectinase and hemicellulase, and thus effectively degrading the gum substances in the seawater retting.This research could be helpful for improving a novel seawater-based retting treatment of hemp.

  16. Reducing Simulation Performance Gap in Hemp-Lime Buildings Using Fourier Filtering †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Jankovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mainstream dynamic simulation tools used by designers do not have a built-in capability to accurately simulate the effect of hemp-lime on building temperature and relative humidity. Due to the specific structure of hemp-lime, heat travels via a maze of solid branches whilst the capillary tubes absorb and release moisture. The resultant heat and moisture transfer cannot be fully represented in mainstream simulation tools, causing a significant performance gap between the simulation and the actual performance. The author has developed an analysis method, based on a numerical procedure for digital signal filtering using Fourier series. The paper develops and experimentally validates transfer functions that enhance simulation results and enable accurate representation of behaviour of buildings built from hemp-lime material using the results of a post-occupancy research project. As a performance gap between design simulation and actual buildings occurs in relation to all buildings, this method has a wider scope of application in reducing the performance gap.

  17. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery (>95%) as well as significant hemicelluloses solubilization (49-59%) after acid-based method and lignin solubilization (35-41%) after alkaline H2O2 method were registered. Alkaline pretreatment showed to be superior over the acid-based method with respect to the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149kg of EtOH and 115kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1ton of dry hemp. Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Remediation of benzo[a]pyrene and chrysene-contaminated soil with industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sonia; Paquin, Daniel; Awaya, Jonathan D; Li, Qing X

    2002-01-01

    The phytoremediation, with industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa), of a Hawaiian silty clay soil contaminated with two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, was studied. Hemp showed a very high tolerance to the contaminants. The growth rates of hemp, compared with control, in soils fortified with chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene at concentrations of each varying from 25 to 200 micrograms/g were consistently above 100%. The plants grew from seed for 45 days in soil fortified with PAHs at concentrations of 25, 50, and 75 micrograms/g. Controls were pots with contaminated soil but no plant. PAHs levels were significantly reduced in all pots (control and seeded pots), expect for one set at a high concentration of chrysene, which may be due to uneven spiking. A time course study over 28 days was done to monitor changes of microbial count and levels of chrysene. Little changes were observed for the total microbial count in the soil, and the concentration of chrysene in the soil decreased slightly in the pots containing plants. However, the chrysene levels in those pots were consistently lower than those in the pots without plants.

  19. STUDY ON THE BIOSCOURING TREATMENT OF 50 % OF HEMP + 50 % OF COTTON FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUSTIANU Monica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the study of the Bioscouring treatment applied on 50 % of hemp + 50 % of cotton blended materials. The goal of the treatment was the removing of morphological impurities present in cotton and hemp fibers in order to obtain cleaner materials with better properties. For enzymatic treatments different concentrations (1-3 % o.w.f from a commercial product named Beisol PRO (a mixture of enzymes pectinases were used. The reaction media was made of phosfate buffer solution of 0.1 M and pH 8. (sodium phosfate/disodium phosphate, 2 g/L sodium citrate (complexing agent and 0.5 % Denimcol Wash RGN (wetting agent. All the experiments were carried out after a central, rotatable second order compound program with two independent variables: enzyme concentration (concentrations between 1-3 % o.w.f and treatment time (15-55 minutes at 20:1 liquid to fabric ratio and a temperature of 55 0C. The reatment efficiency has been verified by the following analyses: weight loss, hydrophilicity, whiteness degree, yellowness degree, crystallinity, tensile strength, elongation at break, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, spectrophotometric analysis in CIELAB system of the samples dyed with alizarin dye. After all the investigations it was found that the bioscouring procedure of 50 % of hemp + 50 % of cotton blended materials conducted to a proper removal of the morphological impurities without affecting the internal structure of cellulose or any significant degradation of the material.

  20. Confined placental mosaicism in short term culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Bojana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding of fetal chromosomal mosaicism complicates genetic counseling, as well as pregnancy management. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of confined placental mosaicism in short term culture of chorionic villous samples. We conducted a retrospective review of karyotype analysis results obtained after chorionic villous sampling (CVS in two years period. A 420 samples of chorionic villi were taken transabdominally and obtained by a semidirect method (overnight incubating culture. All fetuses with CVS mosaicism were under the intensive perinatal care. In all cases of chromosome mosaicism the additional karyotyping was performed from fetal blood samples after 22nd gestational week in order to exclude true fetal mosaicism. After delivery newborns were examined by experienced pediatrician. From 420 analyzed samples in 11 (2,6% cases we found placental mosaicism. No anomalies were seen in genetic sonogram of this fetuses and mosaicism was confirmed only in one case. Confined placental mosaicism (CPM was found in 2,1% (9/420 of all analyzed cases, and it made 90% of all placental mosaicism. In 60% (6/10 of placental mosaicism cases we found mosaicism with single aberrant cell. Trisomy 21 mosaicism was the most frequent aberration found in 30% of cases. Finding of mosaicism in chorionic villi sample is at special importance for genetic counseling, because every case has to be reveled individually regarding the type and level of mosaicism. Anyway, in every case of placental mosaicism intensive antenatal monitoring is necessary, with additional chromosome analysis from different tissue in consideration of previous findings.

  1. Cucumber mosaic virus in Rubus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been reported on red raspberry in Chile, Scotland and the Soviet Union and in Chile on blackberry. Its occurrence in Rubus is rare and seems to cause little damage. Except for one early, unconfirmed report, CMV has not been reported on Rubus in North America. This vir...

  2. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of monoecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars reveals its karyotype variations and sex chromosomes constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumova, Olga V; Alexandrov, Oleg S; Divashuk, Mikhail G; Sukhorada, Tatiana I; Karlov, Gennady I

    2016-05-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L., 2n = 20) is a dioecious plant. Sex expression is controlled by an X-to-autosome balance system consisting of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes XY for males and XX for females. Genetically monoecious hemp offers several agronomic advantages compared to the dioecious cultivars that are widely used in hemp cultivation. The male or female origin of monoecious maternal plants is unknown. Additionally, the sex chromosome composition of monoecious hemp forms remains unknown. In this study, we examine the sex chromosome makeup in monoecious hemp using a cytogenetic approach. Eight monoecious and two dioecious cultivars were used. The DNA of 210 monoecious plants was used for PCR analysis with the male-associated markers MADC2 and SCAR323. All monoecious plants showed female amplification patterns. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the subtelomeric CS-1 probe to chromosomes plates and karyotyping revealed a lack of Y chromosome and presence of XX sex chromosomes in monoecious cultivars with the chromosome number 2n = 20. There was a high level of intra- and intercultivar karyotype variation detected. The results of this study can be used for further analysis of the genetic basis of sex expression in plants.

  3. Influence of yarn folding on UV protection properties of hemp knitted fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Ana A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the media have highlighted the damage of the ozone layer and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR reaching the earth’s surface. Prolonged and repeated, both occupational and recreational, sun exposure of the population causes some detrimental effects. Clothing is considered to be one of the most important tools for UV protection. It is generally accepted that synthetic fibres provide a high UV protection capability of textiles, while cellulose fibres (cotton, linen, hemp, viscose have a low UV absorption capacity. However, natural pigments, pectin and waxes in natural cellulose fibers, and lignin in hemp fibers, act as UV absorbers having a favorable effect on UPF of grey-state fabrics. Bearing in mind the trend of reintroduction of hemp fibers as a source of eco-friendly textiles, there is a serious lack of study about the potential of hemp materials in terms of UV protection. Folded yarn is a complex yarn composed of two or more component yarns arranged parallel and twisted together to make a “new quality” yarn. Folding of yarns is an operation undertaken in order to modify single-yarn properties to an appreciable degree. There are very few investigations concerning the relationship between the yarn properties and UV protection effectiveness of the fabric made there from. In addition, there is no any result in the scientific literature about the influence of yarn folding on UV protection properties of textile materials. Having this in mind, for our research the idea was to evaluate the effect of yarn folding in this regard. The plain knitted fabrics composed of single or two-folded hemp yarn were compared in terms of UV protection properties. The Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF, as the quantitative measurement of the material effectiveness to protect the human skin against UVR, was determined for the textile materials by in vitro test method according to the European standard EN 13758. The knitted

  4. Effect of harvest time and field retting duration on the chemical composition, morphology and mechanical properties of hemp fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Fernando, Dinesh; Daniel, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    tThe large variability in the mechanical properties of hemp fibers is an issue in relation to their use inhigh-grade composites. The objective of the present study was to determine the optimal growth stage forharvesting hemp fibers for use in composites and to evaluate the effect of field retting...... time on mechanicalperformance of the fibers. Reduction in bast content and thickness of the primary bast fiber layer instems were found to be highly significant (P plant maturity. A significant increase in thesecondary fiber fraction occurred with maturity, reaching a maximum value of 10......% at seed maturity.A highly significant reduction in cellulose deposition in fiber cell walls was reflected by reduced fiberwall thickness with plant maturity and was related to the development and ripening of hemp seeds.A statistically significant increase in lignin deposition and a slight decrease...

  5. 麻型织物风格官感评价试验%Hemp fabric style sense-evaluation experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琪

    2012-01-01

    运用风格官感评价方法,对不同成分的几种麻型织物进行风格官感试验,并对试验结果进行风格特征分析,为麻型织物服用性能的改进提供数据。%With the style sense-evaluation method,different components of some hemp fabrics are tested for the characteristics analysis.The works can offer useful data for improving the performance of the hemp fabrics.

  6. Mosaic Conservation Opportunity Areas - Conservativel Model (ECO_RES.COA_MOSAIC66)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The COA_Mosaic66 layer designates areas with potential for forest/grassland mosaic conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural forest/grassland land...

  7. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic...

  8. Trisomy 4 mosaicism: Delineation of the phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Arjan; van der Kevie-Kersemaekers, Anne-Marie; Huijsdens-van Amsterdam, Karin; Dahhan, Nordin; Knegt, Lia; Vansenne, Fleur; Cobben, Jan Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Trisomy 4 mosaicism in liveborns is very rare. We describe a 17-month-old girl with trisomy 4 mosaicism. Clinical findings in this patient are compared to previously reported patients. Based on the few descriptions available in the literature the common phenotype of trisomy 4 mosaicism seems to consist of IUGR, low birth weight/length/OFC, congenital heart defects, characteristic thumb anomalies (aplasia/hypoplasia), skin abnormalities (hypo-/hyperpigmentation), several dysmorphic features, and likely some degree of intellectual disability. When trisomy 4 mosaicism is suspected clinicians should be aware that a normal karyotype in lymphocytes does not exclude mosaicism for trisomy 4. This report contributes to a further delineation of the phenotype associated with trisomy 4 mosaicism.

  9. Mosaic trisomy 13 and a sacral appendage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachajoa, Harry; Meza Escobar, Luis Enrique

    2013-07-31

    Mosaic trisomy 13 occurs when there is a percentage of trisomic cells for an entire chromosome 13, while the remaining percentage of cells is euploid. The prevalence of this syndrome ranges from 1 in 10 000 to 1 in 20 000 births. Complete, partial or mosaic forms of this disorder can occur. The phenotype of mosaic trisomy 13 patients varies widely. Patients with mosaic trisomy 13 usually have a longer survival and a less severe phenotype compared to patients with complete trisomy 13. Genetic counselling is difficult due to the wide variation among the clinical manifestations of these patients. There have been 49 cases of mosaic trisomy 13 reported in the literature. We report the case of a patient with mosaic trisomy 13, a sacral appendage and a cleft lip and palate.

  10. Targeted mutation of Δ12 and Δ15 desaturase genes in hemp produce major alterations in seed fatty acid composition including a high oleic hemp oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Monika; Kaminski, Filip; Adams, Ian; Poulson, Helen; Sloan, Raymond; Li, Yi; Larson, Tony R; Winzer, Thilo; Graham, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    We used expressed sequence tag library and whole genome sequence mining to identify a suite of putative desaturase genes representing the four main activities required for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemp seed oil. Phylogenetic-based classification and developing seed transcriptome analysis informed selection for further analysis of one of seven Δ12 desaturases and one of three Δ15 desaturases that we designate CSFAD2A and CSFAD3A, respectively. Heterologous expression of corresponding cDNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed CSFAD2A to have Δx+3 activity, while CSFAD3A activity was exclusively at the Δ15 position. TILLING of an ethyl methane sulphonate mutagenized population identified multiple alleles including non-sense mutations in both genes and fatty acid composition of seed oil confirmed these to be the major Δ12 and Δ15 desaturases in developing hemp seed. Following four backcrosses and sibling crosses to achieve homozygosity, csfad2a-1 was grown in the field and found to produce a 70 molar per cent high oleic acid (18:1(Δ9) ) oil at yields similar to wild type. Cold-pressed high oleic oil produced fewer volatiles and had a sevenfold increase in shelf life compared to wild type. Two low abundance octadecadienoic acids, 18:2(Δ6,9) and 18:2(Δ9,15), were identified in the high oleic oil, and their presence suggests remaining endogenous desaturase activities utilize the increased levels of oleic acid as substrate. Consistent with this, CSFAD3A produces 18:2(Δ9,15) from endogenous 18:1(Δ9) when expressed in S. cerevisiae. This work lays the foundation for the development of additional novel oil varieties in this multipurpose low input crop.

  11. Laccase enzyme detoxifies hydrolysates and improves biogas production from hemp straw and miscanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroyen, Michel; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; Holemans, Sander; Vervaeren, Han; Raes, Katleen

    2017-07-27

    The impact of various phenolic compounds, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid on anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass (hemp straw and miscanthus) was studied. Such phenolic compounds have been known to inhibit biogas production during anaerobic digestion. The different phenolic compounds were added in various concentrations: 0, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000mg/L. A difference in inhibition of biomethane production between the phenolic compounds was noted. Hydrolysis rate, during anaerobic digestion of miscanthus was inhibited up to 50% by vanillic acid, while vanillic acid had no influence on the initial rate of biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of hemp straw. Miscanthus has a higher lignin concentration (12-30g/100gDM) making it less accessible for degradation, and in combination with phenolic compounds released after harsh pretreatments, it can cause severe inhibition levels during the anaerobic digestion, lowering biogas production. To counter the inhibition, lignin degrading enzymes can be used to remove or degrade the inhibitory phenolic compounds. The interaction of laccase and versatile peroxidase individually with the different phenolic compounds was studied to have insight in the polymerization of inhibitory compounds or breakdown of lignocellulose. Hemp straw and miscanthus were incubated with 0, 100 and 500mg/L of the different phenolic compounds for 0, 6 and 24h and pretreated with the lignin degrading enzymes. A laccase pretreatment successfully detoxified the substrate, while versatile peroxidase however was inhibited by 100mg/L of each of the individual phenolic compounds. Finally a combination of enzymatic detoxification and subsequent biogas production showed that a decrease in phenolic compounds by laccase treatment can considerably lower the inhibition levels of the biogas production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of Manila Hemp Fiber Epoxy Composite with High Tensile Properties Through Handpicking Fiber Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Takagi, Hitoshi; Yang, Zhimao

    Manila hemp fibers are separated to several sequent fragments from single fiber. The tensile strength of each fiber fragments and their epoxy composite are measured, followed by scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) analysis. The results show that the tensile strength of fiber fragments is almost constant along fiber. For composite, the tensile strength first increases and then decreases at the position near to root. The Young's modulus presents increasing with location from root to top for fiber and composite. Microstructure analysis indicates that the difference of tensile properties between fiber fragments derive from the difference of fiber diameter.

  13. Effect of alkali treatment on the physical and surface properties of Indian hemp fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangappa, Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Asha, S.; Somashekar, R.

    2013-02-01

    The Plant fibers are rich in cellulose and they are a cheap, easily renewable source of fibers with the potential for polymer reinforcement. The presence of surface impurities and the large amount of hydroxyl groups make plant fibers less attractive for reinforcement of polymeric materials. Hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.) fibers were subjected to alkalization using 1N sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The structural properties and surface morphology of untreated and chemically modified fibers have been studied using X-ray diffraction (WAXS) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively.

  14. Hemp yarn reinforced composites – III. Moisture content and dimensional changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Lilholt, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive set of experimental data it is demonstrated that the moisture properties of aligned hemp fibre yarn/thermoplastic matrix composites are showing low moisture sorption capacity and low dimensional changes. Using a reference humidity of 65% RH, and a common span of ambient...... content of the composites is shown to be well predicted by a mixtures relationship using the measured moisture contents of the constituents. The dimensional changes of the composites are well predicted by micromechanical models of the transverse and axial hygral strains....

  15. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery...... (> 95%) as well as significant hemicelluloses solubilization (49-59%) after acid-based method and lignin solubilization (35-41%) after alkaline H2O2 method were registered. Alkaline pretreatment showed to be superior over the acid-based method with respect to the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol...

  16. Fabrication and Evaluation of 2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate-co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gel content (gc), porosity measurement (P) and in vitro drug release of the delivery system were evaluated. ..... porous network structure of formulation F1 was .... Sunn hemp cellulose graft ... chondroitin sulphate hydrogel as scaffolds for.

  17. Mosaicism and uniparental disomy in prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermann, Thomas; Soellner, Lukas; Buiting, Karin; Kotzot, Dieter

    2015-02-01

    Chromosomal mosaicism is the presence of numerous cell lines with different chromosomal complements in the same individual. Uniparental disomy (UPD) is the inheritance of two homologous chromosomes from the same parent. These genetic anomalies arise from errors in meiosis and/or mitosis and can occur independently or in combination. Due to the formation mechanisms of UPD, low-level or undetected mosaicisms are assumed for a significant number of UPD cases. The pre- and postnatal clinical consequences of mosaicism for chromosomal aberrations and/or UPD depend on the gene content of the involved chromosome. In prenatal evaluation of chromosomal mosaicism and UPD, genetic counseling should be offered before any laboratory testing.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Pallister-Killian mosaic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions Pallister-Killian mosaic syndrome Pallister-Killian mosaic syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Pallister-Killian mosaic syndrome is a developmental disorder that affects ...

  19. Organic broccoli production on transition soils: Comparing cover crops, tillage and sidedress N

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberg, D.L.; Morse, R.D.; Welbaum, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Little information is available about how farmers in transition to organic practices should manage short- and long-term N fertility. The objectives of this research were (1) to evaluate the leguminous cover crops lablab (Dolichos lablab L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and a mixture of sunn hemp and cowpea (Vigna sinensis Endl.) as N sources; (2) to compare N availability and broccoli yield when cover crops were incorporated with conventi...

  20. Sowing density and harvest time affect fibre content in hemp (Cannabis sativa) through their effects on stem weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, W.; Amaducci, S.; Struik, P.C.; Zatta, A.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Stomph, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Sowing density and harvest time are considered important crop management factors influencing fibre quantity and quality in hemp (Cannabis sativa). We investigated whether the effects of these factors are essentially different or that both factors affect stem weight and thereby total and long-fibre c

  1. Sowing density and harvest time affect fibre content in hemp (Cannabis sativa) through their effects on stem weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, W.; Amaducci, S.; Struik, P.C.; Zatta, A.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Stomph, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Sowing density and harvest time are considered important crop management factors influencing fibre quantity and quality in hemp (Cannabis sativa). We investigated whether the effects of these factors are essentially different or that both factors affect stem weight and thereby total and long-fibre c

  2. Biological Control of the weed hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) in rice (Oryza sativa) by the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    In greenhouse and field experiments, a mycelial formulation of the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (IMI 361690; henceforth designated MV) containing 0.20% Silwet L-77 surfactant exhibited high bioherbicidal efficacy against the problematic weed hemp sesbania. High infection and mortality (100%) of he...

  3. Postponed sowing does not alter the fibre/wood ratio or fibre extractability of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, W.; Struik, P.C.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Stomph, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Because hemp is a short-day plant, postponing the sowing date might be a suitable strategy to obtain shorter and smaller plants around flowering, when primary fibres are 'ripe' enough to be harvested. Smaller plants can be processed on existing flax scutching and hackling lines and might have fibre

  4. Comparison of traditional field retting and Phlebia radiata Cel 26 retting of hemp fibres for fibre-reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Kołaczkowski, Bartłomiej

    2017-01-01

    Classical field retting and controlled fungal retting of hemp using Phlebia radiata Cel 26 (a mutant with low cellulose degrading ability) were compared with pure pectinase treatment with regard to mechanical properties of the produced fibre/epoxy composites. For field retting a classification...... was obtained using P. radiata Cel 26 compared to 248 MPa with field retting....

  5. A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: Flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergfjord, Christian, E-mail: christian.bergfjord@uib.no [Institute for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Holst, Bodil, E-mail: bodil.holst@uib.no [Institute for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    Identifying and distinguishing between natural textile fibres is an important task in both archaeology and criminology. Wool, silk and cotton fibres can readily be distinguished from the textile bast fibres flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Distinguishing between the bast fibres is, however, not easily done and methods based on surface characteristics, chemical composition and cross section size and shape are not conclusive. A conclusive method based on X-ray microdiffraction exists, but as the method requires the use of a synchrotron it is not readily available. In this paper we present a simple procedure for identifying the above mentioned textile bast fibres. The procedure is based on measuring the fibrillar orientation with polarised light microscopy and detecting the presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaC{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in association with the fibres. To demonstrate the procedure, a series of fibre samples of flax, nettle, ramie, hemp and jute were investigated. The results are presented here. An advantage of the procedure is that only a small amount of fibre material is needed.

  6. Chemometrics of Wheat Composites with Hemp, Teff, and Chia Flour: Comparison of Rheological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixolab, a rheological device developed recently, combines approved farinograph and amylograph test procedures. Analysing wheat flour composites with hemp, teff, or chia in terms of all three mentioned rheological methods, correspondence of farinograph, and amylograph versus mixolab features was examined by principal component analysis. The first two principal components, PC1 and PC2, explained 75% of data scatter and allowed a satisfying confirmation of presumed relationships between farinograph or amylograph and mixolab parameters. Dough development time and stability were associated with gluten strength (C1 torque point and also dough softening (mixing tolerance index had a link to protein weakening (C1-C2 difference. In the second mentioned case, amylograph viscosity maximum and amylase activity (C3-C4 closeness was verified. Starch and starch gel properties during mixing (C3, C3-C2, and C4 affect dough viscosity (C1 and rheological behaviour (dough development time and stability. Another important finding is unequivocal distinguishing of the composite subsets (of hemp, teff, and chia ones by the used rheological methods and statistical treatment of multivariable data.

  7. Formulation, Characterization and Properties of Hemp Seed Oil and Its Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mikulcová

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The formulation, characterization, and anticipated antibacterial properties of hemp seed oil and its emulsions were investigated. The oil obtained from the seeds of Cannabis sativa L. in refined and unrefined form was characterized using iodine, saponification, acid values, and gas chromatography, and was employed for the preparation of stable oil-in-water emulsions. The emulsions were prepared using pairs of non-ionic surfactants (Tween, Span. The effects of the emulsification method (spontaneous emulsification vs. high-intensity stirring, hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB, type and concentration of surfactant, and oil type on the size and distribution of the emulsion particles were investigated. It was found that the ability to form stable emulsions with small, initial particle sizes is primarily dependent on the given method of preparation and the HLB value. The most efficient method of emulsification that afforded the best emulsions with the smallest particles (151 ± 1 nm comprised the high-energy method, and emulsions stable over the long-term were observed at HBL 9 with 10 wt % concentration of surfactants. Under high-intensity emulsification, refined and unrefined oils performed similarly. The oils as well as their emulsions were tested against the growth of selected bacteria using the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The antibacterial effect of hemp seed oil was documented against Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus. The formulated emulsions did not exhibit the antibacterial activity that had been anticipated.

  8. Mechanical and dielectric characterization of hemp fibre reinforced polypropylene (HFRPP by dry impregnation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibres such as jute, coir, sisal, bamboo and pineapple are known to have high specific strength and can be effectively used in composites in various applications. The use of hemp fibres to reinforce the polymer aroused great interest and expectations amongst scientists and materials engineers. In this paper, composites with isotactic polypropylene (iPP matrix and hemp fibres were studied. These materials were manufactured via the patented FIBROLINE process based on the principle of the dry impregnation of a fibre assembly with a thermoplastic powder (iPP, using an alternating electric field. The aim of this paper is to show the influence of fibre/matrix interfaces on dielectric properties coupled with mechanical behaviours. Fibres or more probably the fibre/matrix interfaces allow the diffusion of electric charges and delocalise the polarisation energy. In this way, damages are limited during mechanical loading and the mechanical properties of the composites increase. The structure of composite samples was investigated by X-ray and FTIR analysis. The mechanical properties were analysed by quasistatic and dynamic tests. The dielectric investigations were carried out using the SEMME (Scanning Electron Microscope Mirror Effect method coupled with the measurement of the induced current (ICM.

  9. A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfjord, Christian; Holst, Bodil

    2010-08-01

    Identifying and distinguishing between natural textile fibres is an important task in both archaeology and criminology. Wool, silk and cotton fibres can readily be distinguished from the textile bast fibres flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Distinguishing between the bast fibres is, however, not easily done and methods based on surface characteristics, chemical composition and cross section size and shape are not conclusive. A conclusive method based on X-ray microdiffraction exists, but as the method requires the use of a synchrotron it is not readily available. In this paper we present a simple procedure for identifying the above mentioned textile bast fibres. The procedure is based on measuring the fibrillar orientation with polarised light microscopy and detecting the presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaC2O4) in association with the fibres. To demonstrate the procedure, a series of fibre samples of flax, nettle, ramie, hemp and jute were investigated. The results are presented here. An advantage of the procedure is that only a small amount of fibre material is needed. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Properties of cast films from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and soy protein isolates. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shou-Wei; Tang, Chuan-He; Wen, Qi-Biao; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2007-09-05

    The properties of cast films from hemp protein isolate (HPI) including moisture content (MC) and total soluble mass (TSM), tensile strength (TS) and elongation at the break (EAB), and surface hydrophobicity were investigated and compared to those from soy protein isolate (SPI). The plasticizer (glycerol) level effect on these properties and the interactive force pattern for the film network formation were also evaluated. At some specific glycerol levels, HPI films had similar MC, much less TSM and EAB, and higher TS and surface hydrophobicity (support matrix side), as compared to SPI films. The TS of HPI and SPI films as a function of plasticizer level (in the range of 0.3-0.6 g/g of protein) were well fitted with the exponential equation with coefficient factors of 0.991 and 0.969, respectively. Unexpectedly, the surface hydrophobicity of HPI films (including air and support matrix sides) increased with increasing the glycerol level (from 0.3 to 0.6 g/g of protein). The analyses of protein solubility of film in various solvents and free sulfydryl group content showed that the disulfide bonds are the prominent interactive force in the HPI film network formation, while in the SPI case, besides the disulfide bonds, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions are also to a similar extent involved. The results suggest that hemp protein isolates have good potential to be applied to prepare protein film with some superior characteristics, e.g., low solubility and high surface hydrophobicity.

  11. Fractionation of hemp hurds by organosolv pretreatment and its effect on production of lignin and sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Stefano; Ottolina, Gianluca; Consonni, Roberto; Riva, Sergio; Patel, Ilabahen

    2014-07-01

    Fractionation of hemp hurds into its three main components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, was carried out using organosolv pretreatment. The effect of processing parameters, such as temperature, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and methanol (MeOH) concentration, on the dissolution and recovery of hemicellulose and lignin was determined. More than 75% of total hemicellulose and 75% of total lignin was removed in a single step with low amounts of degradation products under the following conditions: 165 °C, 3% H2 SO4 , 20 min reaction time, and 45% MeOH. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual pretreated biomass yielded up to 60% of cellulose-to-glucose conversion. The maximum recovery of the main components was obtained at a combined severity factor value of around one. Characterization of pretreated biomass and isolated lignin was carried out with FTIR and 2D (13) C-(1) H correlation HSQC NMR spectroscopy, the latter technique providing detailed structural information about the obtained methanol organosolv lignin (MOSL). Results suggested that xylopyranoside is the major carbohydrate associated with hemp lignin. The chemical properties of MOSL samples in terms of their phenolic group content and antioxidant capacity were also investigated. The results showed that MOSL samples have a high phenolic group content and antioxidant capacity relative to Klason lignin.

  12. A novel hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate reduces oxidative stress factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Alashi, Adeola M; He, Rong; Malomo, Sunday A; Raj, Pema; Netticadan, Thomas; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-12-01

    This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old) SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group) and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w) HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection. After a 4-week washout period, the remaining 20-week old SHRs were fed for an additional four weeks and sacrificed for blood collection. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total peroxides (TPx) levels were determined. Results showed that plasma TAC, CAT and SOD levels decreased in the older 20-week old SHRs when compared to the young SHRs. The presence of HMH in the diets led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in plasma SOD and CAT levels in both young and adult SHR groups; these increases were accompanied by decreases in TPx levels. The results suggest that HMH contained antioxidant peptides that reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in SHRs with enhanced antioxidant enzyme levels and total antioxidant capacity.

  13. Modification of the cellulosic component of hemp fibers using sulfonic acid derivatives: Surface and thermal characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G; Bressler, David C

    2015-12-10

    The aim of this study was to characterize the surface, morphological, and thermal properties of hemp fibers treated with two commercially available, inexpensive, and water soluble sulfonic acid derivatives. Specifically, the cellulosic component of the fibers were targeted, because cellulose is not easily removed during chemical treatment. These acids have the potential to selectively transform the surfaces of natural fibers for composite applications. The proposed method proceeds in the absence of conventional organic solvents and high reaction temperatures. Surface chemical composition and signature were measured using gravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). XPS data from the treated hemp fibers were characterized by measuring the reduction in O/C ratio and an increase in abundance of the C-C-O signature. FTIR confirmed the reaction with the emergence of peaks characteristic of disubstituted benzene and amino groups. Grafting of the sulfonic derivatives resulted in lower surface polarity. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that treated fibers were characterized by lower percent degradation between 200 and 300 °C, and a higher initial degradation temperature.

  14. Hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil: analytical and phytochemical characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S; Marín-Aguilar, F; García-Giménez, M D; Fernández-Arche, M A

    2014-02-05

    Non-drug varieties of Cannabis sativa L., collectively namely as "hemp", have been an interesting source of food, fiber, and medicine for thousands of years. The ever-increasing demand for vegetables oils has made it essential to characterize additional vegetable oil through innovative uses of its components. The lipid profile showed that linoleic (55%), α-linolenic (16%), and oleic (11%) were the most abundant fatty acids. A yield (1.84-1.92%) of unsaponifiable matter was obtained, and the most interesting compounds were β-sitosterol (1905.00 ± 59.27 mg/kg of oil), campesterol (505.69 ± 32.04 mg/kg of oil), phytol (167.59 ± 1.81 mg/kg of oil), cycloartenol (90.55 ± 3.44 mg/kg of oil), and γ-tocopherol (73.38 ± 2.86 mg/100 g of oil). This study is an interesting contribution for C. sativa L. consideration as a source of bioactive compounds contributing to novel research applications for hemp seed oil in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic food, and other non-food industries.

  15. Fabrication and evaluation of mechanical properties of alkaline treated sisal/hemp fiber reinforced hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesha Gupta, N. S.; Akash; Sreenivasa Rao, K. V.; kumar, D. S. Arun

    2016-09-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composite have acquired a dominant place in variety of applications because of higher specific strength and modulus, the plant based natural fiber are partially replacing currently used synthetic fiber as reinforcement for polymer composites. In this research work going to develop a new material which posses a strength to weight ratio that for exceed any of the present material. The hybrid composite sisal/hemp reinforced with epoxy matrix has been developed by compression moulding technique according to ASTM standards. Sodium hydroxide (NAOH) was used as alkali for treating the fibers. The amount of reinforcement was varied from 10% to 50% in steps of 10%. Prepared specimens were examined for mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, and hardness. Hybrid composite with 40wt% sisal/hemp fiber were found to posses higher strength (tensile strength = 53.13Mpa and flexural strength = 82.07Mpa) among the fabricated hybrid composite specimens. Hardness value increases with increasing the fiber volume. Morphological examinations are carried out to analyze the interfacial characteristics, internal structure and fractured surfaces by using scanning electron microscope.

  16. A Novel Hemp Seed Meal Protein Hydrolysate Reduces Oxidative Stress Factors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham T. Girgih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection. After a 4-week washout period, the remaining 20-week old SHRs were fed for an additional four weeks and sacrificed for blood collection. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and total peroxides (TPx levels were determined. Results showed that plasma TAC, CAT and SOD levels decreased in the older 20-week old SHRs when compared to the young SHRs. The presence of HMH in the diets led to significant (p < 0.05 increases in plasma SOD and CAT levels in both young and adult SHR groups; these increases were accompanied by decreases in TPx levels. The results suggest that HMH contained antioxidant peptides that reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in SHRs with enhanced antioxidant enzyme levels and total antioxidant capacity.

  17. Nutritive quality of romanian hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L. with special focus on oil and metal contents of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihoc Marcela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aims to determine the nutritional value of hemp seed expressed by the oil content and by the concentration of metals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd, for five varieties of monoecious and dioecious hemp seeds approved in Romania, comparative with the concentration of these metals in the soil. Results The content of oil in hempseed registers a slight decrease in the production records of 2011, losses due to drought and low levels of precipitation during the growth period. The greatest loss is found in Diana monoecious variety (26.54-20.82% followed by Zenit varieties (27.37-22.97%, Armanca (29.27-25.32%, Silvana (28.89-25.04% and Denise (26.96-25.30%. Siccative hemp oil has a yellowish green color and an iodine index of 140–156 g I2/100 g oil. Hemp seed are rich in mineral based Ca (144–955 mg/100 g seed, Mg (237–694 mg/100 g seed, K (463–2821 mg/100 g seed, Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1, Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1 and Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1. For the soil the following macroelements concentrations were determined: Ca (2100–2520 mg.kg-1, Mg (320–376 mg.kg-1 and K (232–257 mg.kg-1. Mn (156–197 mg.kg-1 and Zn (54–67 mg.kg-1 remain within normal limits for Romania. The soils in the experience area contain large amounts of Fe (19000–20430 mg.kg-1. The presence of K in large quantities determines the accumulation of large quantities of Fe in the soil. Conclusion Hempseed belonging to the five Romanian varieties are rich source of nutrients (Ca, Mg, K and unsaturated oil easily digestible by the body, but the presence of Cd concentrations above the upper limit puts a question mark over the use of seeds in various food products. Hemp extracts easily certain metals from the soil. Significant amounts of Fe (1133–2400 mg.kg-1, Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1, Zn (42–94 mg.kg-1 and Cd (1.3-4.0 mg.kg-1 are found in hemp seeds. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. is included among plants suitable for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium

  18. Mental Development in Down Syndrome Mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishler, Karol; Koch, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of the mental status of 30 subjects with Down's Syndrome mosaicism and 30 matched subjects with trisomy 21 Down's Syndrome found that the mean intelligent quotient of the mosaic Down's Syndrome group was significantly higher and that this group showed better verbal abilities and more normal visual-perceptual skills. (Author/DB)

  19. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future.

  20. Web Map Services (WMS) Global Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percivall, George; Plesea, Lucian

    2003-01-01

    The WMS Global Mosaic provides access to imagery of the global landmass using an open standard for web mapping. The seamless image is a mosaic of Landsat 7 scenes; geographically-accurate with 30 and 15 meter resolutions. By using the OpenGIS Web Map Service (WMS) interface, any organization can use the global mosaic as a layer in their geospatial applications. Based on a trade study, an implementation approach was chosen that extends a previously developed WMS hosting a Landsat 5 CONUS mosaic developed by JPL. The WMS Global Mosaic supports the NASA Geospatial Interoperability Office goal of providing an integrated digital representation of the Earth, widely accessible for humanity's critical decisions.

  1. [Revertant somatic mosaicism in primary immunodeficiency diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    Revertant somatic mosaicism has been described in an increasing number of genetic disorders including primary immunodeficiency diseases. Both back mutations leading to restoration of wild-type sequences and second-site mutations resulting in compensatory changes have been demonstrated in mosaic individuals. Recent studies identifying revertant somatic mosaicism caused by multiple independent genetic changes further support its frequent occurrence in primary immunodeficiency diseases. Revertant mosaicism acquires a particular clinical relevance because it may lead to selective growth advantage of the corrected cells, resulting in improvement of disease symptoms or atypical clinical presentations. This phenomenon also provides us unique opportunities to evaluate the biological effects of restored gene expression in different cell lineages. Here we review the recent findings of revertant somatic mosaicism in primary immunodeficiency diseases and discuss its clinical implications.

  2. 麻类作物田杂草种类与防除技术%Classification and Control Techniques of Weeds in Hemp Crops Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟桂元; 邬腊梅; 周静; 柏连阳

    2011-01-01

    Weeds were always growing associate with hemp crops in the field resulting in a competition of water, light and fertilizer, which could seriously affect the growth,yield and quality of hemp crops. Therefore,effectively controlling weeds in the field of hemp crops is particularly necessary. In this paper, the current situation of hemp crop production, weed species , infestation of main weeds, and weed control techniques were outlined in the fields of herm crops in China.%杂草常伴随麻类作物滋生,与其争光争肥争水,严重影响其生长、降低产量和品质.因此,有效防除麻田杂草尤为必要.文章概述了我国麻类作物生产现状,主要麻类作物田杂草危害、杂草种类及防除技术.

  3. Ethanol and supercritical fluid extracts of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L. increase gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghyun Hong

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrated that the hemp seed effectively inhibited H2O2 mediated oxidative stress and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in preventing oxidative stress mediated diseases.

  4. Influence of Alkaline Treatment on Chloroform Extract of China-Hemp%碱处理对汉麻皮氯仿萃取物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小泷; 杨力生; 金彪; 李荣霞; 周文龙

    2013-01-01

    运用气质联用技术,对汉麻皮的氯仿萃取物进行了测定分析.研究表明,汉麻皮的氯仿萃取物中仍然明显有大麻中的特殊化学成分——四氢大麻酚(THC)存在.四氢大麻酚会在汉麻的普通化学脱胶处理(碱处理)中被有效去除,这说明在汉麻纺织商品中不会含有大麻酚物质,汉麻纺织产品是安全的,同时也说明四氢大麻酚物质可能与汉麻皮的胶类物质有一定的关系.在一定条件下,碱处理60 min后纤维中将不会存在四氢大麻酚.汉麻皮氯仿萃取物中主要还含有十六酸和十八烷酸等物质.%This paper tests and analyzes chloroform extract of China-hemp using gas chromatography-mass spectrography technology. The research shows that the special chemical component in hemp-THC still exists in chloroform extract of China-hemp. THC will be effectively removed in general chemical de-gumming treatment (alkaline treatment) of China-hemp, indicating that China-hemp textile goods do not contain Cannabinol and China-hemp textile products are safe and that THC might have certain relationship with gum substance of China-hemp. Under certain conditions, fiber subject to alkaline treatment for 60 min will not have THC. Chloroform extract of China-hemp also contains hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid etc.

  5. 工业大麻纤维特性与开发利用%Fiber Properties and Development and Utilization of Industrial Hemp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳; 张云云; 苏文君; 杨明; 郭鸿彦; 刘飞虎

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced the fiber properties, development and utilization of industrial hemp. Industrial hemp and drug hemp are two different types. Industrial hemp with tetrahydrocannabinol content below 0.3% can not be used to produce drugs. Industrial hemp fiber have many particular properties , such as good hygroscopicity and air permeability, toughness, antistatic and anti - UV, and therefore are widely used in dress, car, construction and other industries. Industrial hemp is considered as one of the most promising natural fibers in the future.%本文主要介绍大麻和它的纤维特性及其利用.工业用大麻与毒品大麻为不同的品种,工业用大麻品种中四氢大麻酚(THC)含量<0.3%,不具备制毒的条件.工业大麻纤维具有吸湿透气、坚牢耐用、抗静电、防紫外线等优良的特性,被广泛用于服装、汽车、建筑等行业中,因此被认为是未来最具潜力的天然纤维之一.

  6. Trisomy 21 mosaicism and maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joan K

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the maternal age-specific risk for trisomy 21 mosaicism. Data were obtained on 322 trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism and 27,943 simple trisomy 21 diagnoses recorded in the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register from 1989 to 2009 in England and Wales. Trisomy 21 cases with mosaicism have a mean maternal age of 33.1 years compared to 35.0 years for free trisomy 21 cases. Sixty-seven percent of trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism are maternal age dependent, with a risk 0.8% that of the corresponding maternal age specific risk for simple trisomy 21. However 33% (0.8 per 100,000 births) are not maternal age dependent, indicating that maternal age is not the only risk factor for mosaicism. Trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism are more likely to be female than free trisomy 21 diagnoses, however there was no association of fetal sex with maternal age which indicates that there is another factor involved in the presence of mosaicism not associated with maternal age, but associated with fetal sex.

  7. A MOSAIC for the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Needles, M. M.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Costa, D.; Cadigan, J.; Clements, C.; May, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    MOSAIC (Mesospheric Ozone System for Atmospheric Investigations in the Classroom) is a project to engage secondary and undergraduate students in authentic inquiry-based science learning using a network of inexpensive spectrometers monitoring the mesospheric ozone concentration. The MOSAIC system observes the 11 GHz emission line of ozone using electronics built around satellite television equipment. The possibilities for student investigation are broad and scientifically significant. MOSAIC observations have confirmed diurnal variations in mesospheric ozone concentration and detected semiannual variations that may be due to inter-hemispheric meridional circulation of water vapor. Possible future projects include monitoring the temperature of the mesosphere and correlations with the solar cycle. Students are also encouraged to design their own investigations with MOSAIC data. Early results have been reported in a major scientific journal, and further scientific progress is likely as future MOSAIC systems are deployed -- increasing the sensitivity and geographic coverage of the network. Complete teaching units, including slides, laboratory activities, background information, student worksheets, and conformance with national and Massachusetts educational standards, have been developed to integrate MOSAIC into a classroom environment. One unit introduces the layers of the atmosphere, Earth's energy balance, the greenhouse effect, processes of ozone creation and destruction, noctilucent clouds, heat transfer, the laws of thermodynamics, radio waves (including radio astronomy), and fluid behavior. A second unit, currently being tested in classrooms, uses the MOSAIC system to motivate and deepen understanding of a large portion of electromagnetism in a conceptual physics class. MOSAIC has also been used in a local high school chemistry class. MOSAIC is still in development and is funded by the National Science Foundation.

  8. Unrevealed mosaicism in the next-generation sequencing era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajecka, Marzena

    2016-04-01

    Mosaicism refers to the presence in an individual of normal and abnormal cells that are genotypically distinct and are derived from a single zygote. The incidence of mosaicism events in the human body is underestimated as the genotypes in the mosaic ratio, especially in the low-grade mosaicism, stay unrevealed. This review summarizes various research outcomes and diagnostic questions in relation to different types of mosaicism. The impact of both tested biological material and applied method on the mosaicism detection rate is especially highlighted. As next-generation sequencing technologies constitute a promising methodological solution in mosaicism detection in the coming years, revisions in current diagnostic protocols are necessary to increase the detection rate of the unrevealed mosaicism events. Since mosaicism identification is a complex process, numerous examples of multistep mosaicism investigations are presented and discussed.

  9. Trisomy 9 Mosaicism Diagnosed In Utero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three cases of trisomy 9 mosaicism diagnosed by amniocentesis with ongoing pregnancies after referral to our center due to fetal abnormalities. Two cases were associated with severe fetal growth restriction (FGR, each of which resulted in an intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD in the third trimester. The other case involved mild FGR with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia and resulted in a live birth with severe development delay. A major prenatal finding of trisomy 9 mosaicism is FGR. Fetuses with trisomy 9 mosaicism can rarely survive in the case of severe FGR.

  10. Mosaic of Commemorative Microscope Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Written by electron beam lithography in the Microdevices Laboratory of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, this Optical Microscope substrate helps the Phoenix Mars Mission science team learn how to assemble individual microscope images into a mosaic by aligning rows of text. Each line is about 0.1 millimeter tall, the average thickness of a human hair. Except for the Mogensen twins, the names are of babies born and team members lost during the original development of MECA (the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer) for the canceled 2001 Mars lander mission. The plaque also acknowledges the MECA 2001 principal investigator, now retired. This image was taken by the MECA Optical Microscope on Sol 111, or the 111th day of the Phoenix mission (Sept. 16, 2008). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Unrevealed mosaicism in the next-generation sequencing era

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Mosaicism refers to the presence in an individual of normal and abnormal cells that are genotypically distinct and are derived from a single zygote. The incidence of mosaicism events in the human body is underestimated as the genotypes in the mosaic ratio, especially in the low-grade mosaicism, stay unrevealed. This review summarizes various research outcomes and diagnostic questions in relation to different types of mosaicism. The impact of both tested biological material and applied method ...

  12. Prenatal Diagnosis and Genetic Counseling for Mosaic Trisomy 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Counseling parents of a fetus with trisomy 13 mosaicism remains difficult because of the phenotypic variability associated with the condition; some patients exhibit the typical phenotype of complete trisomy 13 with neonatal death, while others have few dysmorphic features and prolonged survival. This article provides a comprehensive review of the prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling for mosaic trisomy 13, including confined placental mosaicism 13, mosaic trisomy 13 diagnosed at amniocentesis, and phylloid hypomelanosis in association with mosaic trisomy 13.

  13. Durability of Starch Based Biodegradable Plastics Reinforced with Manila Hemp Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Ochi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradability of Manila hemp fiber reinforced biodegradable plastics was studied for 240 days in a natural soil and 30 days in a compost soil. After biodegradability tests, weights were measured and both tensile strength tests and microscopic observation were performed to evaluate the biodegradation behavior of the composites. The results indicate that the tensile strength of the composites displays a sharp decrease for up to five days, followed by a gradual decrease. The weight loss and the reduction in tensile strength of biodegradable composite materials in the compost soil are both significantly greater than those buried in natural soil. The biodegradability of these composites is enhanced along the lower portion because this area is more easily attacked by microorganisms.

  14. HEMP and LEMP Created in Laboratory%HEMP和LEMP的实验室产生方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯民胜; 贾宏亮

    2007-01-01

    分析了高空核电磁脉冲(HEMP)和雷电电磁脉冲(LEMP)的特性,介绍了实验室产生强电磁脉冲的方法.设计了一种电磁脉冲模拟装置,该装置由Marx发生器和吉赫横电磁波(GTEM)室组成.为了获得前沿小于10ns的电磁脉冲,该装置采用了前沿陡化技术.初步实验研究表明,采用这种装置能够产生波形参数满足要求的高空核电磁脉冲和雷电电磁脉冲.

  15. Advanced Technology for Decortication of Flax,Hemp and other Bast Fibre Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Munder,F; Fürll, Ch; Hempel,H

    2004-01-01

    Flax,linseed or hemp fibres can substitu1e wood,synthetic,carbon and glassfibres in a wide range of industrial products A complete new machine line for the processing of natural fibre plants was developed,which includes all process stagesfrom pick up and cutting of straw bales up tothe cleaning ofthefinal roducts,fbres and shives The processed fibres have afinenessin the range from 2 5to1 5tex.The length of the fibresis adjustablein the range from 50 to 200 mm These fibres can be shortened by additional cuttlngto a defined length from e g 4to 8 mm Practical applications of the fibres are the automotiveindustry,geo-textiles,thermal blankets,fibrous insulating material and composites, builging boards,coarse yarn,coarse textiles,and reinforcement of saveral composites and structural parts.

  16. Calculation of the relative uniformity coefficient on the green composites reinforced with cotton and hemp fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, Florin; Hadǎr, Anton; Sava, Mihaela; Marinel, Stǎnescu Marius; Bolcu, Dumitru

    2016-06-01

    In this paper it is studied the influence of discontinuities on elastic and mechanical properties of green composite materials (reinforced with fabric of cotton or hemp). In addition, it is studied the way variations of the volume f the reinforcement influences the elasticity modulus and the tensile strength for the studied composite materials. In order to appreciate the difference in properties between different areas of the composite material, and also the dimensions of the defective areas, we have introduced a relative uniformity coefficient with which the mechanical behavior of the studied composite is compared with a reference composite. To validate the theoretical results we have obtained we made some experiments, using green composites reinforced with fabric, with different imperfection introduced special by cutting the fabric.

  17. Effect of fiber loading on flexural strength of hybrid sisal/hemp-HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Lakshya; Sinha, Shishir; Gupta, V. K.

    2015-05-01

    The continuing demand for sustainable materials and increasing environmental concerns have led to intense research in the field of natural fiber reinforced composites. Natural fibers are favored over synthetic fibers as reinforcement due to positive environmental benefits such as raw material utilization at source and easy disposable of the biodegradable fiber. In the present work, we have investigated flexural behavior of hybrid natural fiber reinforced HDPE composites. The matrix comprises of 50-50 ratio of virgin and recycled HDPE and the content of fibers (sisal and hemp) in the composite is varied from 10 to 30%. The natural fibers were mercerized with NaOH solution and chemically treated with maleic anhydride. The flexural specimens were prepared by injection moulding process and the testing was conducted in accordance to ASTM D790 standards. It is revealed that the flexural strength of the hybrid composite increases with the increase in fibers content when compared to specimen containing 100% HDPE.

  18. Investigation into hemp fiber-and whisker-reinforced soy protein composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linxiang WANG; Rakesh KUMAR; Lina ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Whiskers, designated as W, were prepared from hemp fibers. Both fibers and whiskers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravi-metric analysis. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the dimensions of the fibers and whiskers, respectively.By incorporating different weight fraction of the fibers and whiskers into soy protein isolate, we prepared two different composites designated as SC and SC-W,respectively. Thiodiglycol was used as a plasticizer for the preparation of composites. The SC and SC-W composites were characterized and compared in terms of mechanical properties, volume fraction of porosity,and water uptake. The results indicated that there was not much significant difference in the properties of the composites. In fact, mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites were higher than whisker-reinforced composites at optimum weight fractions.This study can give us the idea about the judicious use of fibers or whiskers as reinforcement materials.

  19. Interconnected carbon nanosheets derived from hemp for ultrafast supercapacitors with high energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanlei; Xu, Zhanwei; Kohandehghan, Alireza; Li, Zhi; Cui, Kai; Tan, Xuehai; Stephenson, Tyler James; King'ondu, Cecil K; Holt, Chris M B; Olsen, Brian C; Tak, Jin Kwon; Harfield, Don; Anyia, Anthony O; Mitlin, David

    2013-06-25

    We created unique interconnected partially graphitic carbon nanosheets (10-30 nm in thickness) with high specific surface area (up to 2287 m(2) g(-1)), significant volume fraction of mesoporosity (up to 58%), and good electrical conductivity (211-226 S m(-1)) from hemp bast fiber. The nanosheets are ideally suited for low (down to 0 °C) through high (100 °C) temperature ionic-liquid-based supercapacitor applications: At 0 °C and a current density of 10 A g(-1), the electrode maintains a remarkable capacitance of 106 F g(-1). At 20, 60, and 100 °C and an extreme current density of 100 A g(-1), there is excellent capacitance retention (72-92%) with the specific capacitances being 113, 144, and 142 F g(-1), respectively. These characteristics favorably place the materials on a Ragone chart providing among the best power-energy characteristics (on an active mass normalized basis) ever reported for an electrochemical capacitor: At a very high power density of 20 kW kg(-1) and 20, 60, and 100 °C, the energy densities are 19, 34, and 40 Wh kg(-1), respectively. Moreover the assembled supercapacitor device yields a maximum energy density of 12 Wh kg(-1), which is higher than that of commercially available supercapacitors. By taking advantage of the complex multilayered structure of a hemp bast fiber precursor, such exquisite carbons were able to be achieved by simple hydrothermal carbonization combined with activation. This novel precursor-synthesis route presents a great potential for facile large-scale production of high-performance carbons for a variety of diverse applications including energy storage.

  20. Effect of feeding hemp seed and hemp seed oil on laying hen performance and egg yolk fatty acid content: evidence of their safety and efficacy for laying hen diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakhar, N; Goldberg, E; Jing, M; Gibson, R; House, J D

    2012-03-01

    Forty-eight 19-wk-old Bovan White laying hens were fed 1 of 5 diets containing either hemp seed (HS) or hemp seed oil (HO). The level of HO was 4, 8, or 12%, whereas the level was 10 or 20% for the HS. A set of 8 birds fed wheat-, barley-, and corn oil-based diets served as the control. Performance was monitored over 12 wk. Average hen-day egg production was not affected upon feeding of either HS or HO diets. Egg weight was higher than that of the controls for hens consuming the 20% HS diet (P hens consuming the 12% HO diet. The total egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content increased linearly (P laying hens up to a maximum level of 20 and 12%, respectively, does not adversely effect the performance of laying hens and leads to the enrichment of the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs.

  1. Liquid vat dyes for hemp and hemp/tencel knitted fabric dyeing%液体还原染料对大麻和大麻/天丝针织物的染色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 李艳福; 闫凯; 王蒙; 曹机良

    2016-01-01

    The three liquid vat dyes such as Vat Blue RSN, Brown BR and Olive T were used for Hemp and hemp/Tencel blended fabric leuco dyeing. This paper discussed the effects of dyeing temperature, time, and the amount of urea, JFC and dye on dyed fabric K/S and the color fastness of dyed fabric was measured. The results showed that the optimum dyeing process of liquid vat dyes for hemp and hemp/Tencel blended fabric were as following:dye 4%(omf), urea 30 g/L, JFC 1 g/L, the dyeing temperature 50~60℃and dyeing time 60 min were. Each of color fastness was able to 3~4 scale or more and met the wearability standard.%采用还原蓝RSN、棕BR、橄榄T 3种液体还原染料对大麻和大麻/天丝混纺织物进行隐色体染色,探讨了染色温度、时间以及尿素、JFC和染料用量等对染色织物K/S值的影响,测试了染色织物的色牢度。结果表明,液体还原染料对大麻和大麻/天丝混纺织物的最佳染色工艺:染料4%(omf),尿素30 g/L,JFC 1 g/L,染色温度50~60℃,染色时间60 min。各项染色牢度均能达到3~4级以上,满足服用要求。

  2. Recurrence risk for germinal mosaics revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, M A; te Meerman, G J

    1995-01-01

    A formula to calculate recurrence risk for germline mosaicism published by Hartl in 1971 has been updated to include marker information. For practical genetic counselling new, more elaborate tables are given.

  3. Revertant mosaicism in human genetic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, MF

    1999-01-01

    Somatic reversion of inherited mutations is known for many years in plant breeding, however it was recognized only recently in humans. The concept of revertant mosaicism is important in medical genetics. (C) 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Aerial Photos - Photo Reference Mosaics -CS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS and Non USGS Agencies Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics inventory contains indexes to aerial photographs. The inventory contains imagery from various government...

  5. Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Carbon-Hemp Laminated Composites Used as Thermal Insulation for Different Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Scutaru

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-hemp composite laminate provides good thermal properties. For this reason this type of material is presently being used for various applications like insulator for airplanes, spaceships, nuclear reactors, and so forth. Unfortunately their mechanical properties are less studied. These characteristics are very important since they should be guaranteed also for important mechanical stress in addition to the thermal one. The present paper presents a study regarding the impact testing of some hybrid composite laminate panels based on polyester resin reinforced with both carbon and hemp fabric. The effects of different impact speeds on the mechanical behavior of these panels have been analyzed. The paper lays stress on the characterization of this hybrid composite laminate regarding the impact behavior of these panels by dropping a weight with low velocity.

  6. Characterization of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of Hemp fibres intended for the manufacturing oh high performance composites

    CERN Document Server

    Placet, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the thermo-mechanical behaviour of hemp fibres (Cannabis sativa L.) is investigated using a Dynamic Mechanical Analyser. Experiments are performed at a frequency of 1 Hz in the temperature range of 20 to 220\\degree C. When a periodic solicitation is applied to an elementary fibre, an increase of the fibre rigidity and a reduction of the damping capacity are observed. These evolutions aim at stabilization after an identified number of cycles, traducing a phenomenon of "adaptation". This specific mechanical behaviour certainly involves biochemical and/or structural modifications in the material organisation as microfibrils reorientation. In addition, the behaviour of hemp fibres is affected by temperature. Temperature acts as an activation factor but also as a degradation factor of the viscoelastic properties of fibres. The rigidity and the endurance of fibres are highly affected by thermal treatment at temperature above 150\\degree C to 180\\degree C. Taking into account these results, polypropyle...

  7. Influence of Hybridizing Flax and Hemp-Agave Fibers with Glass Fiber as Reinforcement in a Polyurethane Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Pandey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, six combinations of flax, hemp, and glass fiber were investigated for a hybrid reinforcement system in a polyurethane (PU composite. The natural fibers were combined with glass fibers in a PU composite in order to achieve a better mechanical reinforcement in the composite material. The effect of fiber hybridization in PU composites was evaluated through physical and mechanical properties such as water absorption (WA, specific gravity (SG, coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE, flexural and compression properties, and hardness. The mechanical properties of hybridized samples showed mixed trends compared to the unhybridized samples, but hybridization with glass fiber reduced water absorption by 37% and 43% for flax and hemp-agave PU composites respectively.

  8. Denaturation and Oxidative Stability of Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Protein Isolate as Affected by Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Vassilios; Duthie, Garry; Ranawana, Viren

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the impact of heat treatments on the denaturation and oxidative stability of hemp seed protein during simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID). Heat-denatured hemp protein isolate (HPI) solutions were prepared by heating HPI (2 mg/ml, pH 6.8) to 40, 60, 80 and 100 °C for 10 min. Heat-induced denaturation of the protein isolates was monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Heating HPI at temperatures above 80 °C significantly reduced solubility and led to the formation of large protein aggregates. The isolates were then subjected to in vitro GID and the oxidative stability of the generated peptides was investigated. Heating did not significantly affect the formation of oxidation products during GID. The results suggest that heat treatments should ideally remain below 80 °C if heat stability and solubility of HPI are to be preserved.

  9. Modelling of volumetric composition and mechanical properties of unidirectional hemp/epoxy composites - Effect of enzymatic fibre treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Thygesen, Anders; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    the changes in volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites when differently treated hemp fibres are used. The decrease in the fibre correlated porosity factor with the enzymatic fibre treatments shows that the removal of pectin by pectinolytic enzymes results in a better fibre......The objective of the present study is to assess the effect of enzymatic fibre treatments on the fibre performance in unidirectional hemp/epoxy composites by modelling the volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites. It is shown that the applied models can well predict...... efficiency exponent is set equal to 2. Altogether, it is demonstrated that the applied models provide a concept to be used for the evaluation of performance of treated fibres in composites....

  10. Detecting somatic mosaicism: considerations and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A S A; Wilson, S L; Trinh, J; Ye, X C

    2015-06-01

    Human disease is rarely a matter of all or nothing; variable expressivity is generally observed. Part of this variability is explained by somatic mosaicism, which can arise by a myriad of genetic alterations. These can take place at any stage of development, possibly leading to unusual features visible at birth, but can also occur later in life, conceivably leading to cancer. Previously, detection of somatic mosaicism was extremely challenging, as many gold standard tests lacked the necessary resolution. However, with the advances in high-throughput sequencing, mosaicism is being detected more frequently and at lower levels. This raises the issue of normal variation within each individual vs mosaicism leading to disease, and how to distinguish between the two. In this article, we will define somatic mosaicism with a brief overview of its main mechanisms in concrete clinical examples, discuss the impact of next-generation sequencing technologies in its detection, and expand on the clinical implications associated with a discovery of somatic mosaicism in the clinic.

  11. The effect of particle shape and size distribution on the acoustical properties of mixtures of hemp particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glé, Philippe; Gourdon, Emmanuel; Arnaud, Laurent; Horoshenkov, Kirill-V; Khan, Amir

    2013-12-01

    Hemp concrete is an attractive alternative to traditional materials used in building construction. It has a very low environmental impact, and it is characterized by high thermal insulation. Hemp aggregate particles are parallelepiped in shape and can be organized in a plurality of ways to create a considerable proportion of open pores with a complex connectivity pattern, the acoustical properties of which have never been examined systematically. Therefore this paper is focused on the fundamental understanding of the relations between the particle shape and size distribution, pore size distribution, and the acoustical properties of the resultant porous material mixture. The sound absorption and the transmission loss of various hemp aggregates is characterized using laboratory experiments and three theoretical models. These models are used to relate the particle size distribution to the pore size distribution. It is shown that the shape of particles and particle size control the pore size distribution and tortuosity in shiv. These properties in turn relate directly to the observed acoustical behavior.

  12. In situ analysis of cell wall polymers associated with phloem fibre cells in stems of hemp, Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Anthony W; Marcus, Susan E; Copeland, James E; Blackburn, Richard S; Knox, J Paul

    2008-06-01

    A study of stem anatomy and the sclerenchyma fibre cells associated with the phloem tissues of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) plants is of interest for both understanding the formation of secondary cell walls and for the enhancement of fibre utility as industrial fibres and textiles. Using a range of molecular probes for cell wall polysaccharides we have surveyed the presence of cell wall components in stems of hemp in conjunction with an anatomical survey of stem and phloem fibre development. The only polysaccharide detected to occur abundantly throughout the secondary cell walls of phloem fibres was cellulose. Pectic homogalacturonan epitopes were detected in the primary cell walls/intercellular matrices between the phloem fibres although these epitopes were present at a lower level than in the surrounding parenchyma cell walls. Arabinogalactan-protein glycan epitopes displayed a diversity of occurrence in relation to fibre development and the JIM14 epitope was specific to fibre cells, binding to the inner surface of secondary cell walls, throughout development. Xylan epitopes were found to be present in the fibre cells (and xylem secondary cell walls) and absent from adjacent parenchyma cell walls. Analysis of xylan occurrence in the phloem fibre cells of hemp and flax indicated that xylan epitopes were restricted to the primary cell walls of fibre cells and were not present in the secondary cell walls of these cells.

  13. 汉麻粉体对PVDF膜的改性研究%Modification of PVDF membranes by hemp powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟智丽; 张江范; 吴艳玲

    2014-01-01

    采用汉麻粉体与 PVDF 共混的方法对 PVDF 膜进行改性,测试共混膜的微观结构和热学性能、力学性能以及与碳纤维布之间的层间剥离强度等性能,并研究汉麻粉体含量对于共混膜性能的影响.实验结果表明:随着汉麻粉体质量分数的增加,共混膜表面光洁度降低,断面结构越发不规整,密度及厚度增大,共混膜变得易碎,而力学性能大幅下降;随着汉麻粉体质量分数的增加,共混膜与碳纤维布/木质复合材料之间的层间剥离强度先增大后减小,当汉麻粉体质量分数为6%时,层间剥离强度达到最大值0.36 N/mm.%Hemp powder and PVDF blended approach were used to modify PVDF membrane, then the blend interlayer film microstructure and thermal properties, mechanical properties as well as peel strength between CFRP and other properties were tested, and the influence of hemp flour content on the blend membrane performance was studied. Experimental results show that with the increase of the mass fraction of hemp powder, blend membrane surface finish lower, more irregular cross -section structure, density and thickness increase, the blend film becomes brittle, while mechanical properties dropped significantly; with the increase of the mass fraction of hemp powder, the inter-layer blend membranes with CFRP / wood composites, interlaminar strength firstly increases and then decreases, when the mass fraction of hemp powder is 6%, the maximum interlaminar strength value is 0.36 N/mm.

  14. Spinning of Cotton Hemp Bamboo Fiber Blended Yarn%棉汊麻竹浆纤维混纺纱的纺制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙治海

    2011-01-01

    To spinning cotton hemp bamboo blended yarn,hemp fiber were reconditioned and pretreated. Processing of raw material blending was selected to improve spinnability. Raw material feed ratio was controlled rationally, waste percentages in comb process, opening and picking process were controlled well to ensure yam blending ratio. Drawing processing was adjusted rationally to improve draw sliver evenness. In spinning less nipper gauge was used, new top pin was adopted to reduced float area and increase yarn quality. In winding process, winding tension and electronic yarn clearer parameter were selected rationally to ensure winding shape,finally cotton/hemp/bamboo 50/25/25 29. 2 tex blended yarn was spun successfully. It is pointed out quality demand of cotton hemp bamboo blended yarn can be ensured only to adjust technology measures in each process according to hemp property.%为纺制棉汉麻竹浆纤维混纺纱,对汉麻纤维进行养生及预分梳处理;选用原料混和工艺改善可纺性;合理控制原料投料比例并控制开清棉与梳棉落棉率,保证成纱混纺比;并条工序合理调整工艺,提高熟条条干;细纱工序使用小钳口隔距,使用新型上销,缩短浮游区,以提高成纱质量;络筒工序选择适当的电清参数和络纱张力,以保证成形良好,结果顺利纺制出棉/汉麻/竹浆50/25/25 29.2 tex混纺纱.指出:只有针对汉麻纤维特点调整各工序纺纱技术措施,方能纺制出符合质量要求的棉汉麻竹浆纤维混纺纱.

  15. Effects of thermal and enzymatic treatments and harvesting time on the microbial quality and chemical composition of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykter, Minna; Kymaelaeinen, Hanna-Riitta; Sjoeberg, Anna-Maija [Department of Agrotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 28, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders [Biosystems Department, Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Lilholt, Hans [Materials Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Koponen, Hilkka [Department of Applied Biology, Section of Plant Pathology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of pectinase enzyme treatment followed by thermal treatments (steam explosion and dry heating) on the microbial quality and chemical composition of hemp fibres. Before these treatments, the fibres were separated manually from the stems harvested after stand retting in the field before frost, after early frost or in the following spring. The enzymatic treatment of hemp promoted growth of moulds on the fibres (500-fold increase in colony-forming units (cfu)), whereas steam explosion reduced the amount of moulds to a relatively constant level of 10{sup 2} cfu/g dw. The amount of bacteria was not markedly affected by enzymatic treatment but was reduced tenfold after steam explosion. Steam explosion is thereby a potentially good process for the production of hemp fibres with low fungal contamination, which can be of importance in insulation materials. Dry heating had no effect on mould and bacterial counts at temperatures below 120 C and durations less than 60 min. The chemical composition was affected by the enzymatic treatment due to extraction and degradation of water-soluble components, pectin and ash. Thus the cellulose content increased by 6% w/w to 67-70% w/w. Steam explosion of the untreated hemp fibres increased the cellulose content to 74% w/w, whereas steam explosion of enzymatically treated hemp increased the cellulose content to 78% w/w. (author)

  16. Characterisation of a new thermoalkaliphilic bacterium for the production of high-quality hemp fibres, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius strain PB94A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Juárez, A G; Dreyer, J; Göpel, P K; Koschke, N; Frank, D; Märkl, H; Müller, R

    2009-06-01

    Novel thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria for the processing of bast fibres were isolated using hemp pectin as substrate. The strain PB94A, which showed the highest growth rate (micro = 0.5/h) was identified as Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius (DSM 21625). The strain grew optimally at 60 degrees C and pH 8.5. During growth on citrus pectin, the strain produced pectinolytic lyases, which were excreted into the medium. In contrast to the commercially available pectinase Bioprep 3000 L, the enzymes from G. thermoglucosidasius PB94A converted pectin isolated from hemp fibres. In addition to hemp pectin, the culture supernatant also degraded citrus, sugar beet and apple pectin and polygalacturonic acid. When hemp fibres were incubated with the cell-free fermentation broth of G. thermoglucosidasius PB94A, the fineness of the fibres increased. The strain did not produce any cellulases, which is important in order to avoid damaging the fibres during incubation. Therefore, these bacteria or their enzymes can be used to produce fine high-quality hemp fibres.

  17. The categories of cutaneous mosaicism: A proposed classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happle, Rudolf

    2016-02-01

    Mosaic disorders can most easily be studied in the skin. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the different forms of cutaneous mosaicism. Major categories are genomic versus epigenetic mosaicism and nonsegmental versus segmental mosaicism. The class of nonsegmental mosaics includes single point mosaicism as exemplified by solitary benign or malignant skin tumors; disseminated mosaicism as noted in autosomal dominant tumor syndromes such as neurofibromatosis 1; and patchy mosaicism without midline separation as found in giant melanocytic nevus. The class of segmental mosaics includes segmental manifestation of lethal genes surviving by mosaicism as noted in Proteus syndrome; type 1 segmental mosaicism of autosomal dominant skin disorders reflecting heterozygosity for a postzygotic new mutation; type 2 segmental mosaicism of autosomal dominant skin disorders reflecting loss of heterozygosity that occurred at an early developmental stage in a heterozygous embryo; and isolated or superimposed segmental mosaicism of common polygenic skin disorders such as psoriasis or atopic dermatitis. A particular form of genomic mosaicism is didymosis (twin spotting). Revertant mosaicism is recognizable as one or more areas of healthy skin in patients with epidermolysis bullosa or other serious genodermatoses. The category of epigenetic mosaicism includes several X-linked, male lethal disorders such as incontinentia pigmenti, and the patterns of lyonization as noted in X-linked non-lethal disorders such as hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia of the Christ-Siemens-Touraine type. An interesting field of future research will be the concept of epigenetic autosomal mosaicism that may explain some unusual cases of autosomal transmission of linear hypo- or hypermelanosis.

  18. Quality Evaluation of Hemp Seed from Different Habitats%不同产地火麻仁品质评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王化东; 卫莹芳; 郭山山; 闫婕; 金虹

    2012-01-01

    对不同产地的25份火麻仁从性状、千粒重、薄层色谱、浸出物、脂肪油含量等方面进行分析,探索火麻仁质量评价体系.结果表明,火麻仁药材均呈卵圆形或近圆形,但不同产地药材在大小、颜色、表面纹理方面有一定差异.火麻仁药材大小差异较大,平均长为0.42~0.63 cm,平均宽为0.30~0.49 cm;不同产地火麻仁千粒重有较大的差异,为13.61~49.90 g.薄层色谱鉴别结果表明,供试品色谱与对照药材色谱相应的位置上显相同颜色的斑点,颜色的深浅有一定差异;醇溶性浸出物含量在27.00%~39.89%;脂肪油含量在27.04%~37.87%.不同产地火麻仁质量有一定差异,各产地火麻仁是否都适合药用,由于目前火麻仁质量标准尚不完善,无法判定.火麻仁质量标准有待进一步完善.%In order to explore the hemp seed quality evaluation system, 25 hemp seeds of different origin were tested in terms of traits, grain weight, thin layer chromatography, extraction, the content of fatty oil and other aspects. The results showed that the hemp seeds presented oval or nearly round; but there were some differences in terms of size, weight, color and surface texture of hemp seeds from different habitats. Hemp seeds average length was 0.42-0.63 cm, average width was 0.30-0.49 cm, and the seed weight were 13.61-49.90 g. TLC (thin layer chromatography) identification results showed that there was same color spots on the corresponding position between the samples and the control medicinal materials. However, there were some differences in the depth of color. Extract content value was 27.00%~39.89%; fatty oil content was 27.04%-37.87%. Different origin hemp seeds had different quality. It is still unknown if they were all suitable for medicinal purposes. Hemp seed quality standards should be further improved.

  19. 汉麻针织居家面料的开发%Development of Hemp Household Knitted Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小云; 赵义隆

    2013-01-01

    针对汉麻产品在穿着过程中的刺痒问题,对汉麻在针织居家面料上的应用进行研究。介绍了汉麻纤维特殊的物理、化学性能,汉麻纱线合股的工艺,以及“超棉”纤维在汉麻混纺纱中的应用;阐述了用其开发居家针织面料的编织、染整、涂料印花工序中的工艺创新和技术改进;并对面料的服用性能进行了测试。结果表明:异形涤纶“超棉”纤维加入到汉麻混纺纱中,对增强汉麻居家面料的吸湿和散湿性能,起到了促进作用;采用复合茶皂素工艺对汉麻居家面料进行染色前处理可以减少纤维损伤;采用磨毛工艺对汉麻短纤维进行处理,可以减轻纤维素酶的处理强度;选用亲水氨基硅油柔软剂可以提高面料的吸湿性能;工艺改进后所开发的汉麻针织居家面料,其各项服用性能指标均符合要求。%In terms of the problem of itchy sensation of hemp fabrics, the paper introduces the special physical and chemical properties of hemp fiber, the plying process of hemp yarns and the application of ‘highly simulated cotton’ in hemp blended yarns. It develops a new kind of hemp knitted fabric and also analyzes in detail the pro-cess innovation and technological improvement during the knitting, dyeing and finishing and pigment printing pro-cesses. Through the wearing properties testing, the results show that adding the ‘highly simulated cotton’ of polyester with irregular hemp blended yarns can improve the moisture absorption and transferring properties; using the composite tea saponin for pre-dyeing process can reduce the damage of fibers; the sanding process can reduce the treatment intensity of cellulose; the hydrophilic amino-silicone oil softener can improve the moisture absorption properties of fabric. The test results prove that the various wearing performance index of this kind hemp household knitted fabric developed with the improvement technology

  20. Genetic Mosaics and the Germ Line Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Samuels

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic mosaics provide information about cellular lineages that is otherwise difficult to obtain, especially in humans. De novo mutations act as cell markers, allowing the tracing of developmental trajectories of all descendants of the cell in which the new mutation arises. De novo mutations may arise at any time during development but are relatively rare. They have usually been observed through medical ascertainment, when the mutation causes unusual clinical signs or symptoms. Mutational events can include aneuploidies, large chromosomal rearrangements, copy number variants, or point mutations. In this review we focus primarily on the analysis of point mutations and their utility in addressing questions of germ line versus somatic lineages. Genetic mosaics demonstrate that the germ line and soma diverge early in development, since there are many examples of combined somatic and germ line mosaicism for de novo mutations. The occurrence of simultaneous mosaicism in both the germ line and soma also shows that the germ line is not strictly clonal but arises from at least two, and possibly multiple, cells in the embryo with different ancestries. Whole genome or exome DNA sequencing technologies promise to expand the range of studies of genetic mosaics, as de novo mutations can now be identified through sequencing alone in the absence of a medical ascertainment. These technologies have been used to study mutation patterns in nuclear families and in monozygotic twins, and in animal model developmental studies, but not yet for extensive cell lineage studies in humans.

  1. Mosaic Convergence of Rodent Dentitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Vincent; Charles, Cyril; Tafforeau, Paul; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Aguilar, Jean-Pierre; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Michaux, Jacques; Viriot, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Background Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. Conclusion/Significance The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible pathways. Because convergent

  2. Mosaic convergence of rodent dentitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Lazzari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible

  3. Global Color Mosaic of Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Global color mosaic of Triton, taken in 1989 by Voyager 2 during its flyby of the Neptune system. Color was synthesized by combining high- resolution images taken through orange, violet, and ultraviolet filters; these images were displayed as red, green, and blue images and combined to create this color version. With a radius of 1,350 (839 mi), about 22% smaller than Earth's moon, Triton is by far the largest satellite of Neptune. It is one of only three objects in the Solar System known to have a nitrogen-dominated atmosphere (the others are Earth and Saturn's giant moon, Titan). Triton has the coldest surface known anywhere in the Solar System (38 K, about -391 degrees Farenheit); it is so cold that most of Triton's nitrogen is condensed as frost, making it the only satellite in the Solar System known to have a surface made mainly of nitrogen ice. The pinkish deposits constitute a vast south polar cap believed to contain methane ice, which would have reacted under sunlight to form pink or red compounds. The dark streaks overlying these pink ices are believed to be an icy and perhaps carbonaceous dust deposited from huge geyser-like plumes, some of which were found to be active during the Voyager 2 flyby. The bluish-green band visible in this image extends all the way around Triton near the equator; it may consist of relatively fresh nitrogen frost deposits. The greenish areas include what is called the cataloupe terrain, whose origin is unknown, and a set of 'cryovolcanic' landscapes apparently produced by icy-cold liquids (now frozen) erupted from Triton's interior.

  4. GENERATION OF GEOMETRIC ORNAMENTS IN ANCIENT MOSAIC ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASS Ludmila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines geometrical ornaments from ancient mosaic.We studied the geometric generation by using Computer Aided Graphics for three examples of ancient mosaic: a mosaic of Ancient Corinth, a mosaic of the sacred geometry Flower of Life (exposed in the National Museum of Israel and a mosaic of fortress Masada - Israel. The technique of drawing ancient mosaic is recomposed using computer aided graphics. A program has been developed that can help draw a petal-type arc (semicircle of the mosaic that is the Byzantine church of Masada. Based on these mosaics, other variants of aesthetic images in monochrome or black and white and polychrome were drawn, all of which can be materialized in decorative art to embellish various surfaces: walls, floors, pools, fountains, etc.

  5. Infrared image mosaic using point feature operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Sun, Shaoyuan; Shen, Zhenyi; Hou, Junjie; Zhao, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study infrared image mosaic around a single point of rotation, aiming at expanding the narrow view range of infrared images. We propose an infrared image mosaic method using point feature operators including image registration and image synthesis. Traditional mosaic algorithms usually use global image registration methods to extract the feature points in the global image, which cost too much time as well as considerable matching errors. To address this issue, we first roughly calculate the image shift amount using phase correlation and determine the overlap region between images, and then extract image features in overlap region, which shortens the registration time and increases the quality of feature points. We improve the traditional algorithm through increasing constraints of point matching based on prior knowledge of image shift amount based on which the weighted map is computed using fade in-out method. The experimental results verify that the proposed method has better real time performance and robustness.

  6. Document image mosaicing: A novel approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Hemantha Kumar; P Shivakumara; D S Guru; P Nagabhushan

    2004-06-01

    There are situations where it is not possible to capture large documents with the given imaging media such as scanners or copying machines in a single stretch because of their inherent limitations. This results in capture of a large document in terms of split components of a document image. Hence, the need is to mosaic the split components into the original and put together the document image. In this paper, we present a novel and simple approach to mosaic two split images of a large document based on pixel value matching. The method compares the values of pixels in the columns of split images to identify the common or overlapping region (OR) in them, which helps in mosaicing of split images of a large document.

  7. Outcome of prenatally diagnosed trisomy 6 mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert; Oh, Tracey; Durcan, Judy; Abdelhak, Yaakov; Clachko, Mark; Aviv, Hana

    2002-08-01

    We report the prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 6 mosaicism via amniocentesis, in which trisomy 6 cells were identified in three of five culture vessels with 33% (5/15) of colonies showing trisomic cells. The pregnancy was electively terminated and examination revealed minor abnormalities (shortening of the femurs, micrognathia, posterior malrotation of the ears, and bilateral camptomelia of the second digit of the hands and fifth digits of the feet). Cytogenetic analysis of the placenta showed trisomy 6 in 100% of 20 cells studied. Karyotype was 46,XX in 100 cells examined from fetal skin. There are relatively few prenatally diagnosed cases of mosaic trisomy 6 at amniocentesis. Confined placental mosaicism (CPM) has been postulated in other cases where follow-up cytogenetic studies were not available. The present case differs from those previously reported, as it appears to represent CPM of chromosome 6 with phenotypic effects to the fetus.

  8. Effects of thermal and enzymatic treatments and harvesting time on the microbial quality and chemical composition of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nykter, M.; Kymalainen, H.R.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2008-01-01

    level of 10(2)cfu/g dw. The amount of bacteria was not markedly affected by enzymatic treatment but was reduced tenfold after steam explosion. Steam explosion is thereby a potentially good process for the production of hemp fibres with low fungal contamination, which can be of importance in insulation...... materials. Dry heating had no effect on mould and bacterial counts at temperatures below 120 degrees C and durations less than 60 min. The chemical composition was affected by the enzymatic treatment due to extraction and degradation of water-soluble components, pectin and ash. Thus the cellulose content...... increased by 6% w/w to 67-70% w/w. Steam explosion of the untreated hemp fibres increased the cellulose content to 74% w/w, whereas steam explosion of enzymatically treated hemp increased the cellulose content to 78% w/w. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. The hormonal control of sex differentiation in dioecious plants of hemp (Cannabis sativd. The influence of plant growth regulators on sex expression in male and female plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Galoch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of GA3, IAA, ethrel, ABA and kinetin on sex expression in male and female plants of hemp (Cannabis sativa cultivar LKC SD was investigated. The growth regulators were applied separately and in combinations on stem apices of plant determined sexually and having the first flower primordia. Gibberellic acid promoted masculinization, whereas IAA, ethylene and kinetin had a feminization effect on sex of hemp. Abscisic acid did not exert any direct effect on sex determination, it however acted antagnisticaly in relation to the effect exerted by GA3 and IAA. The results of combined application of IAA and ethrel with other growth regulators suggest, that the mechanism of action of auxin and ethylene in the control of sex expression in hemp is different. Auxins in this process cannot be regarded only as causing agents of ethylene production increase.

  10. 欧洲大麻育种及发展方向研究%Study on Breeding and Development Future of European Hemp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴广文

    2013-01-01

      In order to promote the development of hemp industry ,the abroad study situation of hemp was sum‐marized ,the development process of breeding ,researching method and achievements obtained were introduced . The study tendency of hemp in Europe from physiology to genetics were emphasized on .%  为促进大麻产业的发展,对国外大麻育种研究进行了综述,介绍了育种的发展过程和应用的方法及取得的成绩。重点从生理到遗传的研究内容上阐述了欧洲大麻的发展方向。

  11. Somatic Mosaicism in Cases with Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Thomas; Karamysheva, Tatyana; Merkas, Martina; Brecevic, Lukrecija; Hamid, Ahmed B.; Ewers, Elisabeth; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Weise, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Somatic mosaicism is something that is observed in everyday lives of cytogeneticists. Chromosome instability is one of the leading causes of large-scale genome variation analyzable since the correct human chromosome number was established in 1956. Somatic mosaicism is also a well-known fact to be present in cases with small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC), i.e. karyotypes of 47,+mar/46. In this study, the data available in the literature were collected concerning the frequency mosaicism in different subgroups of patients with sSMC. Of 3124 cases with sSMC 1626 (52%) present with somatic mosaicism. Some groups like patients with Emanuel-, cat-eye- or i(18p)- syndrome only tend rarely to develop mosaicism, while in Pallister-Killian syndrome every patient is mosaic. In general, acrocentric and non-acrocentric derived sSMCs are differently susceptible to mosaicism; non-acrocentric derived ones are hereby the less stable ones. Even though, in the overwhelming majority of the cases, somatic mosaicism does not have any detectable clinical effects, there are rare cases with altered clinical outcomes due to mosaicism. This is extremely important for prenatal genetic counseling. Overall, as mosaicism is something to be considered in at least every second sSMC case, array-CGH studies cannot be offered as a screening test to reliably detect this kind of chromosomal aberration, as low level mosaic cases and cryptic mosaics are missed by that. PMID:21358988

  12. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO IDENTIFY TOMATO MOSAIC TOBAMOVIRUS (TOMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Keila M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies were obtained against Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV isolated in Brazil. One antibody (8G7G2 isotyped as IgG2b (kappa light chain showed strong specificity and very low cross reaction with the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV. It can be used in identification of tomato mosaic virus (ToMV.

  13. Predicting the long-term durability of hemp-lime renders in inland and coastal areas using Mediterranean, Tropical and Semi-arid climatic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizzi, Anna; Viles, Heather; Martín-Sanchez, Inés; Cultrone, Giuseppe

    2016-01-15

    Hemp-based composites are eco-friendly building materials as they improve energy efficiency in buildings and entail low waste production and pollutant emissions during their manufacturing process. Nevertheless, the organic nature of hemp enhances the bio-receptivity of the material, with likely negative consequences for its long-term performance in the building. The main purpose of this study was to study the response at macro- and micro-scale of hemp-lime renders subjected to weathering simulations in an environmental cabinet (one year was condensed in twelve days), so as to predict their long-term durability in coastal and inland areas with Mediterranean, Tropical and Semi-arid climates, also in relation with the lime type used. The simulated climatic conditions caused almost unnoticeable mass, volume and colour changes in hemp-lime renders. No efflorescence or physical breakdown was detected in samples subjected to NaCl, because the salt mainly precipitates on the surface of samples and is washed away by the rain. Although there was no visible microbial colonisation, alkaliphilic fungi (mainly Penicillium and Aspergillus) and bacteria (mainly Bacillus and Micrococcus) were isolated in all samples. Microbial growth and diversification were higher under Tropical climate, due to heavier rainfall. The influence of the bacterial activity on the hardening of samples has also been discussed here and related with the formation and stabilisation of vaterite in hemp-lime mixes. This study has demonstrated that hemp-lime renders show good durability towards a wide range of environmental conditions and factors. However, it might be useful to take some specific preventive and maintenance measures to reduce the bio-receptivity of this material, thus ensuring a longer durability on site.

  14. The Effect of Modification Methods on the Performance Characteristics of Composites Based on a Linear Low-Density Polyethylene and Natural Hemp Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajaks, J.; Zelca, Z.; Kukle, S.

    2015-11-01

    Influence of the content of hemp fibers (harvested in 2012) and their modification methods (treatment with boiling water, sodium hydroxide, and acetic anhydride) and addition of an interfacial modifier, maleated polyethylene (MAPE), on the performance characteristics (tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break, microhardness, and water resistance) of composites based on a linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was investigated. The results obtained are compared with data found earlier for the same type of hemp fibers, but harvested in 2011. It is shown that optimum content of untreated hemp fibers in the LLDPE matrix is 30 wt.% and optimum length of the fibers is less than 1 mm. An increase in the content of hemp fibers (to 30 wt.%) raised the tensile strength and modulus of the composites, but reduced their elasticity and deformation ability. Simultaneously, the microhardness of the composite materials grew. Pretreating the fibers with sodium hydroxide improved the mechanical properties of the composites only slightly, but treating with acetic anhydride allowed us to elevate the content of the fibers up to 40 and 50 wt.%. The best results were achieved by addition of 50 wt.% MAPE, when the tensile modulus increased by about 47% and the tensile strength by 27% as compared with those of composites with fibers pretreated by other methods. To estimate the processing possibilities of the composites, the melt flow index (MFI) was determined. It is established that the pretreatment of the fibers significantly affects the numerical values of MFI. For example, upon treatment with acetic anhydride, a sufficiently high fluidity of the composites was retained even at a 50 wt.% content of fibers. The lowest fluidity was observed for composites with alkali-pretreated hemp fibers. The surface microhardness decreased upon their chemical pretreatment. The highest microhardness showed composites with 30 wt.% untreated fibers. The chemical pretreatment considerably raised the

  15. 小型复合直喂剥麻机的研制%Study on Small Size Hemp Decorticator with Direct Feeding Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时玲; 唐风平; 罗显东; 彭秀玲

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to reduce the labor strength and cost of farmers processing hemp in mountainous areas, a kind of small size hemp decorticator with direct feeding device was developed. [ Method] Its structure, operating principle, main performance parameters and design of main parts were introduced. [ Result ] According to the test of sample machine, the results proveed that this type of hemp decorticator showed the characteristics of higher percentage of primary hemp from green hemp and production efficiency and lower cost. It worked securely and reliably and was easy to operate. [ Conclusion ] Now it was widely used by hemp farmers in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan.%[目的]降低山区农民加工汉麻的劳动强度和成本,研究一种小型复合直喂剥麻机.[方法]介绍了其主要结构、工作原理、性能参数及主要部件的设计方案.[结果]通过对该剥麻机的样机进行运行试验测试,结果证明该剥麻机具有出麻率和生产效率高以及使用成本低的特点,并且操作简单,工作安全可靠.[结论]该剥麻机目前已经被云南西双版纳州汉麻种植农户普遍推广使用.

  16. 大麻脱胶功能菌株在沤麻中的应用%Application of Functional Degumming Bacteria in Hemp Retting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文杰; 王贵宾; 韩洁; 接伟光; 葛菁萍; 蔡柏岩

    2012-01-01

    Functional hemp degumming strains HDDMM02 and HDDMG05 isolated in laboratory were cultured to maximum enzyme production phase and inoculated for degumming and retting of Cannabis sotiva fiber. The chemical composition of hemp fiber was determined; and it was showed that the optimum inoculation dose of the 2 strains was 0.5% of the volume of raw hemp; the optimal dose of urea and NaCl was 1.0 g/L. Pilot test was conducted under these conditions and indexes of hemp fiber was measured. The result showed that adding retting bacteria could increase hemp fiber yield by 12.44%, enhance hemp fiber strength by 23.67 N, improve fiber breakage strength by 0.21 cN/dtex, and increase hemp-fiber-bundle effective length by 0.16 cm. Compared to CK, SEM images showed the gum could be completely removed from the hemp with the bacteria adhered to the fiber surface; and single fiber was nearly dissociated in treatment adding degumming fiber.%将实验室自行分离的功能菌株HDDMM02、HDDMG05培养至最大产酶时期后用于大麻(Cannabis sativa)脱胶沤麻,并对大麻纤维化学成分进行测定.结果显示两种菌株最佳的接种量为麻原料体积的0.5%,尿素和NaCl的最佳添加量均为1.0 g/L.在此条件下进行中试,对麻纤维各项指标进行检测.结果表明加菌沤制麻纤维的平均出麻率比正常沤制时增加了1.45个百分点,平均强度提高了23.67 N,断裂比强度提高了0.21 cN/dtex,麻束有效强度伸长了0.16m.扫描电镜图片显示加菌沤麻纤维脱胶完全且粘附在纤维表面,单纤维已基本游离出来.

  17. Discussion of the Problems and the Solutions on Hemp Production%浅析大麻生产中存在的问题及解决途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国江; 潘冬梅; 赵越; 韩承伟; 韩喜财; 刘淑霞; 尤秋实

    2014-01-01

    简述国外大麻生产概况,特别阐述了乌克兰、匈牙利、加拿大、德国大麻概况,对中国大麻特别是黑龙江和云南大麻概况加以叙述。揭示中国大麻在原料供应,优良品种匮乏,良种繁育体系不健全,栽培技术落后,原茎温水沤制成本高,大麻产业链不完整等大麻生产中存在的问题,提出培育大麻高产、低毒、高纤雌雄同株和异株新品种,建立良种繁育体系,提高栽培技术水平,采用雨露沤麻技术,提高大麻综合利用价值,建立大麻生态全产业链等发展大麻生产的新途径。%This paper introduces the production status of foreign hemp briefly, especially in U-kraine, Hungary, Canada and Germany.And it also introduces the status especially in Heilongjiang and Yunnan of China.It reveals the existed problems of hemp production such as the shortage of hemp raw material, the lack of good varieties, incomplete seed breeding system, poor cultivation techniques, high cost of retting of primary stem with warm water and incomplete hemp industrial chain, etc.This paper provides many approaches to develop hemp production like culturing high-yield, low-toxicity and high-fiber monoecism and dioecism new variety, establishing improved variety breeding system, improving the level of cultivation techniques, retting hemp with rain and dew, improving the comprehensive utiliza-tion value of hemp, establishing a hemp ecological industry chain, etc.

  18. Dislocations in single hemp fibres-investigations into the relationship of structural distortions and tensile properties at the cell wall level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Eder, M.; Burgert, I.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between dislocations and mechanical properties of single hemp fibres (Cannabis sativa L. var. Felina) was studied using a microtensile testing setup in a 2-fold approach. In a first investigation the percentage of dislocations was quantified using polarized light microscopy (PLM......) prior to microtensile testing of the fibres. In a second approach PLM was used to monitor the dislocations while straining single fibres. The first part of the study comprised 53 hemp fibres with up to 20% of their cell wall consisting of dislocations. For this data set the percentage of dislocations...

  19. Physicochemical properties of hemp seed and its oils%火麻籽及其油的理化性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞剑泉; 于修烛; 陈兴誉; 杜双奎

    2012-01-01

    In order to research and exploit hemp seed resource, the main nutritional ingredients and phys-icochmeical parameter of hemp seed and oil were analyzed by using the Gansu and Ningxia hemp seeds as raw materials. The results showed that the three dimensional size and physical properties of hemp seeds were not significantly different; the oil content of Gansu hemp seed was more than that of Ningxia' s, but the two oils contained 4 kinds of main fatty acid,and the unsaturated fatty acid content was about 88% , and the α - linolenic acid content was more than 20% ; the protein contents of two hemp seeds were not significantly different, and they had quite similar amino acid composition and a good proportion; the mineral elements kinds of the two hemp seeds were not significantly different, but the main elements contents had significantly difference. There were rich nutritional ingredients in hemp seeds, which had wide prospect in food field.%为了开发和利用火麻籽资源,以甘肃和宁夏火麻品种为原料,采用常规及仪器方法对火麻籽的主要营养成分、氨基酸组成及其油的脂肪酸组成和理化指标进行了分析测定.结果表明:甘肃和宁夏的火麻籽三维尺寸和物理特性比较接近,甘肃火麻籽的含油量大于宁夏的品种;两个品种火麻籽油的主要脂肪酸均为4种,不饱和脂肪酸的相对含量约为88%,其中α-亚麻酸相对含量均在20%以上;两个品种火麻籽的蛋白质含量相当,其氨基酸组成基本一致且比例合理;两个品种火麻籽的矿物质含量相当,但主要矿物质元素含量差别较大.火麻籽含有多种营养成分,具有较好的开发利用前景.

  20. Controlled retting of hemp fibres: Effect of hydrothermal pre-treatmen tand enzymatic retting on the mechanical properties of unidirectiona lhemp/epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Silva, Diogo Alexandre Santos; Fernando, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the use of hydrothermal pre-treatment and enzymatic retting to remove non-cellulosic compounds and thus improve the mechanical properties of hemp fibre/epoxy composites. Hydrothermal pre-treatment at 100 kPa and 121 °C combined with enzymatic retting...... produced fibres with the highest ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 780 MPa. Compared to untreated fibres, this combined treatment exhibited a positive effect on the mechanical properties of hemp fibre/epoxy composites, resulting in high quality composites with low porosity factor (αpf) of 0.08.Traditional...

  1. Production, Trade and Research Progress on Hemp in Canada%加拿大工业大麻生产贸易概况及科研进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆滢; 郭鸿彦; 杨明

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了加拿大工业大麻栽培历史、生产现状、贸易、育种、栽培、利用概况和未来发展框架,旨在为我国工业大麻产业健康快速发展提供参考和借鉴.%The planting history, production, trade, breeding, cultivation, application and the future framework of development on industrial hemp in Canada are summarized in this paper.The aims are to provide valuable references for the sustainable development of industrial hemp in china.

  2. Purification, properties, and diagnosis of banana bract mosaic potyvirus and its distinction from abaca mosaic potyvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J E; Geering, A D; Gambley, C F; Kessling, A F; White, M

    1997-07-01

    ABSTRACT Using biochemical, serological, and cytopathological evidence, we have confirmed that banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) is a distinct member of the family Potyviridae. Virions of a Philippine isolate of BBrMV were purified from field-infected banana cv. Cardaba. Particles were approximately 725-nm long, banded at a density equivalent to 1.29 to 1.31 g/ml in cesium chloride equilibrium gradients, and had an A(260/280) of 1.17. Yields of about 4 mg/kg were obtained from fresh or frozen leaf midrib or lamina tissue. Three major protein species with sizes of 31, 37, and 39 kDa were resolved from dissociated virions, and all reacted specifically with polyclonal antibodies to BBrMV. Infected leaf cells contained typical pinwheel inclusions. Virus-specific cDNA was amplified from field samples by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using potyvirus degenerate primers. In plate-trapped antigen-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), weak serological relationships were demonstrated between BBrMV and other members of the family Potyviridae, including abaca mosaic (AbaMV), dasheen mosaic, maize dwarf mosaic, sorghum mosaic, sugarcane mosaic, and wheat streak mosaic viruses. Despite similarities in the symptoms caused by the two viruses, AbaMV was serologically distinct from BBrMV and reacted only weakly, or not at all, with BBrMV antibodies in double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA. No cross reactions were observed when RT-PCR products from the two viruses were examined by Southern blot hybridization using BBrMV- and AbaMV-specific digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes. BBrMV was consistently associated with banana bract mosaic disease, as assessed by DAS-ELISA and Southern blot hybridization using DNA probes. The known geographical distribution of BBrMV was extended to include India (Kokkan disease) and Sri Lanka.

  3. Development of Hemp Spun Silk Colored Spun Yarn%汉麻绢丝色纺纱的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿才新; 周红涛; 宋秋霞

    2013-01-01

    To develop hemp spun silk colored spun yarn on cotton spinning equipment successfully,according to fiber properties, dyed hemp fiber and spun silk were pretreated respectively to increase spinnability. Ratio of raw material blending, waste percentages in picking and opening process were controlled rationally to ensure blending ratio. In drawing and roving process,drafting processing was selected rationally,necessary moisture-keeping measures were adopted to ensure semi-product quality. In spinning process, draft in back zone should be selected rationally to increased yarn quality. Through the series of technology measures,finally quality of hemp/spun silk 50/50 18.2 tex colored spun yarn can reach use demand.%为了在棉纺设备上顺利开发汉麻绢丝色纺纱,针对混纺纤维的性能特点,对染色后的汉麻纤维和绢丝分别进行预处理以提高纤维的可纺性;合理控制投料比及清梳工序中的落棉以保证混纺比;并粗工序合理配置牵伸工艺及采取必要的保湿措施以保证半制品质量;细纱工序合理配置后区牵伸工艺以提高成纱质量.通过一系列技术措施,最终成功纺制出满足质量要求的汉麻/绢丝50/5018.2 tex色纺纱.

  4. Pulling the Internet Together with Mosaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Presents the history of the Internet with specific emphasis on Mosaic; discusses hypertext and hypermedia information; and describes software and hardware requirements. Sidebars include information on the National Center for Super Computing Applications (NCSA); World Wide Web browsers for use in Windows, Macintosh, and X-Windows (UNIX); and…

  5. PTEN mosaicism with features of Cowden syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, A; Jasperson, K; Pilarski, R; Prior, Tw; Kuwada, S

    2013-12-01

    We present the first known case of somatic PTEN mosaicism causing features of Cowden syndrome (CS) and inheritance in the subsequent generation. A 20-year-old woman presented for genetics evaluation with multiple ganglioneuromas of the colon. On examination, she was found to have a thyroid goiter, macrocephaly, and tongue papules, all suggestive of CS. However, her reported family history was not suspicious for CS. A deleterious PTEN mutation was identified in blood lymphocytes, 966A>G, 967delA. Genetic testing was recommended for her parents. Her 48-year-old father was referred for evaluation and was found to have macrocephaly and a history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, but no other features of CS. Site-specific genetic testing carried out on blood lymphocytes showed mosaicism for the same PTEN mutation identified in his daughter. Identifying PTEN mosaicism in the proband's father had significant implications for the risk assessment/genetic testing plan for the rest of his family. His result also provides impetus for somatic mosaicism in a parent to be considered when a de novo PTEN mutation is suspected.

  6. Infection of Plants by Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry; Maratos, Marina; Farabaugh, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Provides three exercises that introduce high school and college students to a common strain of the tobacco mosaic virus and the study of some basic biological processes. Activities involve inoculation of plants and observing and recording symptom development in infected plants. (DDR)

  7. Diploid/triploid mosaicism in dysmorphic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, [No Value; Rabelink, G; Hochstenbach, R; Tuerlings, J; Giltay, J

    2002-01-01

    Diploid/triploid mosaicism is a dysmorphology syndrome consisting of mental retardation, truncal obesity, body and/or facial asymmetry, growth retardation, hypotonia, a small phallus, malformed low-set ears and micrognathia. In 75% of the cases, the blood karyotype is normal and the diagnosis can on

  8. Tobacco mosaic virus: Proof by synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A linear, non-self-replicating DNA molecule encoding Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was enzymatically synthesized in vitro from DNA templates made from overlapping oligonucleotides. The molecule was a replica of the alphabetic text rendering of the first TMV genome sequence elucidated by Goelet et al. ...

  9. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil

    OpenAIRE

    Da Porto, C.; Natolino, A.; Decorti, D.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using...

  10. Peculiarities of teaching students with mosaic thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Polevoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the aim of the research, the author set the task of searching for new ways of conducting educational activity when teaching Project Management at the university taking into account the dominating mosaic thinking of modern students. There is a need to teach students of the given field logical thinking, the ability to work in the financial and humanitarian spheres of current business. In order to get a result, the analysis of the existing scientific views and approaches to teaching students with dominating mosaic thinking was conducted. The existing views by both Russian and foreign authors of mosaic thinking were considered, its different educational, psychological and philosophical aspects. As a result of the synthesis of the given approaches, taking into account the author’s inventions, proposals were developed on solving the problems of mosaic thinking in teaching students. Taking a constructive approach as a basis, the mosaic thinking is suggested to be considered as a phenomenon having both advantages and disadvantages. Changing the content of the educational process is done through updating standard methods and patterns of education, wide use of innovation approaches, intensifying cooperation and online collaboration of the teacher and the student in the process of study. The basis is formed by the emotional impact on the student in the course of studies, which will allow using logic and form the intention to learn the presented fact. Teaching Project Management to students is proposed taking into account their mosaic thinking, in four stages. During the lecture students receive a chain of images structured by the lecturer in the sequence embracing basic issues of the theme under consideration and presented in such a way as to inspire them to study the given questions independently. At the second stage, the students search for the solution of the assigned tasks in the course of independent work with the opportunities available for

  11. Increased chromosome 21 mosaicism in older Down syndrome individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, E.C.; Schupf, N.; Harris, M. [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Loss of one chromosome 21 in older Down syndrome individuals has been reported recently. During a study of the familial aggregation of Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease, our preliminary observations indicated increased mosaicism for the loss of a chromosome 21 in whole blood cultures from Down syndrome individuals who were age 50 or over from a cohort of 22 individuals. We retrospectively reviewed our experience in 189 cases of Down syndrome ranging in age from 1 day to 71 years. In a combined total of 212 individuals, 39 were age 50 or more of whom 7 or 18% were mosaic, while 169 were under age 50 of whom 4 or 2% were mosaic. Therefore the occurrence of mosaicism was strikingly increased in the group of individuals who were age 50 or over ({chi}{sup 2}=12.8, p<.001). Our observations confirm the above reports of increased mosaicism for chromosome 21 loss in lymphocyte cultures from older Down syndrome individuals. Since the older individuals were not karyotyped at birth, it is not possible to determine whether the age-related increase in mosaicism is due to increased survival of mosaic individuals or acquired mosaicism. Assuming 1% mosaicism at birth for Down syndrome and assuming the general population`s death rates for these mosaic individuals, life table methods showed that the expected proportion of these individuals at age 70 was 5%. This was less than 1/3 of our observations suggesting that acquired mosaicism was the predominant mechanism for our findings.

  12. 水泥对工业大麻秆纤维板性能的影响%Influence of Concrete on the Properties of Industrial Hemp Stalk Based Fiberboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑞; 龚迎春; 李晓平; 吴章康

    2014-01-01

    利用工业大麻秆制备纤维板,分析不同水泥添加量和工业大麻秆不同部位对其制备纤维板性能的影响。结果表明:随着水泥添加量的增加,工业大麻秆纤维板的内结合强度(IB )、静曲强度(MOR)、弹性模量(MOE )均降低,而吸水厚度膨胀率(TS )得到较大改善;大麻秆芯制备的纤维板力学性能优于大麻秆皮部。%The hemp stalk based fiberboard panels were manufacturing and the influence of different concrete additive amount and the different parts of industrial hemp stalk on the properties of industrial hemp stalk based fi-berboard panels was studied.The results showed that,as increasing of concrete additive amount,the mechanical properties including IB、MOR、MOE of industrial hemp stalk based fiberboard were decreased,while the TS of in-dustrial hemp fiberboard were greatly improved.Moreover,the properties of hemp stalk core based fiberboard pan-els were better than those of the hemp bast fiber based fiberboard panels.

  13. 非均匀土壤中埋地电缆 HEMP 响应研究%Response Analysis of Buried Cable Excited by HEMP in Non-Homogeneous Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文刚; 姜勤波; 齐世举; 蔡星会

    2015-01-01

    为进一步研究埋地电缆在高空核爆电磁脉冲( HEMP)辐照下的电磁瞬态响应,采用了电特性更接近实际情况的双层大地土壤模型,基于传输线方程计算了在HEMP平面波垂直入射下,分层大地土壤中埋地电缆的端接负载响应。分析了电导率分层结构、上层土壤厚度及埋地深度等因素对电缆端接负载感应电流的影响。该研究结果可供EMC设计时参考。%For the further study of buried cables′electromagnetic transient response excited by the high -alti-tude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP), the earth is divided into two levels with different electromagnetic proper-ties.The terminal load response of the buried cables in stratified earth irradiated by HEMP plane wave vertical -ly is calculated based on the transmission line equations , and some factors influencing the terminal load induced current , such as the stratified conductivity , the thickness of the upper soil , and the buried depth were ana-lyzed .The results can be a guideline for the empirical EMC design .

  14. Physicochemical and functional properties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuan-He; Ten, Zi; Wang, Xian-Sheng; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2006-11-15

    The amino acid composition and physicochemical and functional properties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein isolate (HPI) were evaluated and compared with those of soy protein isolate (SPI). Edestin, a kind of hexameric legumin, was the major protein component. HPI had similar or higher levels of essential amino acids (except lysine), in comparison to those amino acids of SPI. The essential amino acids in HPI (except lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids) are sufficient for the FAO/WHO suggested requirements for 2-5 year old children. The protein solubility (PS) of HPI was lower than that of SPI at pH less than 8.0 but similar at above pH 8.0. HPI contained much higher free sulfhydryl (SH) content than SPI. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that HPI had only one endothermic peak with denaturation temperature (T(d)) of about 95.0 degrees C, attributed to the edestin component. The T(d) of the endotherm was nearly unaffected by 20-40 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate but significantly decreased by 20 mM dithiothreitol (P < 0.05). The emulsifying activity index, emulsion stability index, and water-holding capacity of HPI were much lower than those of SPI, and the fat adsorption capacity was similar. The data suggest that HPI can be used as a valuable source of nutrition for infants and children but has poor functional properties when compared with SPI. The poor functional properties of HPI have been largely attributed to the formation of covalent disulfide bonds between individual proteins and subsequent aggregation at neutral or acidic pH, due to its high free sulfhydryl content from sulfur-containing amino acids.

  15. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Keri B.; Bauer, Philip J.; Ro, Kyoung S. [United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 W. Lucas St. Florence, SC 29501 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume - cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield (kg ha{sup -1}) and subsequent energy yield (GJ ha{sup -1}). In one year of the study after 12 weeks of growth, sunn hemp had 10.7 Mg ha{sup -1} of biomass with an energy content of 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1}. This resulted in an energy yield of 204 GJ ha{sup -1}. The energy content was 6% greater than that of cowpeas. Eventhough sunn hemp had a greater amount of ash, plant mineral concentrations were lower in some cases of minerals (K, Ca, Mg, S) known to reduce thermochemical conversion process efficiency. Pyrolytic degradation of both legumes revealed that sunn hemp began to degrade at higher temperatures as well as release greater amounts of volatile matter at a faster rate. (author)

  16. The hemp russet mite Aculops cannabicola (Farkas, 1960 (Acari: Eriophyoidea found on Cannabis sativa L. in Serbia: Supplement to the description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petanović Radmila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of Aculops cannabicola (Farkas, 1960, a new species for the fauna of Serbia, is supplemented. The male and juveniles are described for the first time. This species was found as vagrants on leaves of hemp, Cannabis sativa L. A comparison of characters of the population from Serbia and the originally described samples from Hungary is given.

  17. 两层损耗土壤媒质附近HEMP环境%HEMP Environment Over Two-layer Lossy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蓓云; 周辉

    2013-01-01

    To understand the HEMP environment near ground is important for HEMP effects research of ground -base electrical system.The methods to calculate the reflection wave of plane wave and electromagnetic environment over two-layer lossy media are presented.The reflection wave and electromagnetic environment of HEMP over two-layered soil are calculated.The results indicate that there are two peaks in the reflection wave and the time of the second peak is determined by the thickness of the first layer soil.The tail-wave amplitude of x-direction HEMP environment is reduced than one layer's,and the tail-wave amplitude of z-direction is increased.%介绍了分层损耗媒质反射波的计算方法,计算了大地由一定厚度的干土和湿土构成时,x方向和z方向的HEMP反射波及地面附近电磁环境.计算结果表明x方向和z方向的反射波都有双峰,第2个峰出现的时间与第1层土壤的厚度有关;地面附近x方向HEMP环境场波尾的幅度较单层的会有下降,而z方向较单层的会有增加.

  18. Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2014-11-01

    The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

  19. Differential expression of genes involved in C1 metabolism and lignin biosynthesis in wooden core and bast tissues of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Ebskamp, M.J.M.; Toonen, M.A.J.; Koops, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Plants are the major source of fibres for, e.g., textile and paper applications. Fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) can be grown under a wide variety of agro-ecological conditions, is resistant to weeds and pests and, in general, drought tolerant. Fibre length and content of cellulose and lignin are im

  20. Effect of Silane Coupling Agent on Tribological Properties of Hemp Fiber-Reinforced Plant-Derived Polyamide 1010 Biomass Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Yosuke; Kajiyama, Tetsuto; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki

    2017-09-05

    We have studied the effects of silane coupling agents used for the surface treatment of fiber on the tribological properties of hemp fiber (HF) reinforced plant-derived polyamide 1010 (PA1010) biomass composites. Hemp fibers were surface-treated by two surface treatment methods: (a) alkali treatment by sodium hydroxide solution and (b) surface treatment by silane coupling agents. Three types of silane coupling agents, namely aminosilane, epoxysilane and ureidosilane were used. These HF/PA1010 biomass composites were extruded using a twin extruder, and injection-molded. The mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated by the ring-on-plate type sliding wear test. It was found that tribological properties of HF/PA1010 biomass composites improved with the surface treatment by the silane coupling agent. This may be attributed to the change in the mode of friction and wear mechanism by the interfacial adhesion between fiber and matrix polymer according to the type of silane coupling agent used. In particular, the ureidosilane coupling agent showed the best improvement effect for the tribological properties of these biomass composites in this study.

  1. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Porto, C; Natolino, A; Decorti, D

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using gas chromatography. It was shown that the content of linoleic, α-linolenic and oleic acids (the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids) of the hemp seed oils were not affected significantly by the application of ultrasound. UV spectroscopy indices (K232 and K268) and antiradical capacity were used to follow the quality of oils. Significant were the changes in their antiradical capacity due to ultrasound treatment. A comparison with the oil extracted by Soxhlet was also given.

  2. Intrusive growth of primary and secondary phloem fibres in hemp stem determines fibre-bundle formation and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snegireva, Anastasia; Chernova, Tatyana; Ageeva, Marina; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gorshkova, Tatyana

    2015-05-27

    Plant fibres-cells with important mechanical functions and a widely used raw material-are usually identified in microscopic sections only after reaching a significant length or after developing a thickened cell wall. We characterized the early developmental stages of hemp (Cannabis sativa) stem phloem fibres, both primary (originating from the procambium) and secondary (originating in the cambium), when they still had only a primary cell wall. We gave a major emphasis to the role of intrusive elongation, the specific type of plant cell growth by which fibres commonly attain large cell length. We could identify primary phloem fibres at a distance of only 1.2-1.5 mm from the shoot apical meristem when they grew symplastically with the surrounding tissues. Half a millimeter further downwards along the stem, fibres began their intrusive elongation, which led to a sharp increase in fibre numbers visible within the stem cross-sections. The intrusive elongation of primary phloem fibres was completed within the several distal centimetres of the growing stem, before the onset of their secondary cell wall formation. The formation of secondary phloem fibres started long after the beginning of secondary xylem formation. Our data indicate that only a small portion of the fusiform cambial initials (hemp, but may be applied to many other species.

  3. Reverse-phase HPLC separation of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with enhanced antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2013-03-01

    Hemp seed protein hydrolysate (HPH) was produced through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion of hemp seed protein isolate followed by partial purification and separation into eight peptide fractions by reverse-phase (RP)-HPLC. The peptide fractions exhibited higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity as well as scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals when compared to HPH. Radical scavenging activities of the fractionated peptides increased as content of hydrophobic amino acids or elution time was increased, with the exception of hydroxyl radical scavenging that showed decreased trend. Glutathione (GSH), HPH and the RP-HPLC peptide fractions possessed low ferric ion reducing ability but all had strong (>60 %) metal chelating activities. Inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation by some of the HPH peptide fractions was higher at 1 mg/ml when compared to that observed at 0.1 mg/ml peptide concentration. Peptide separation resulted in higher concentration of some hydrophobic amino acids (especially proline, leucine and isoleucine) in the fractions (mainly F5 and F8) when compared to HPH. The elution time-dependent increased concentrations of the hydrophobic amino acids coupled with decreased levels of positively charged amino acids may have been responsible for the significantly higher (p < 0.05) antioxidant properties observed for some of the peptide fractions when compared to the unfractionated HPH. In conclusion, the antioxidant activity of HPH after simulated GIT digestion is mainly influenced by the amino acid composition of some of its peptides.

  4. Synthesis of vertical MnO2 wire arrays on hemp-derived carbon for efficient and robust green catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, MinHo; Kim, Dong Seok; Sim, Jae-Wook; Jeong, Jae-Min; Kim, Do Hyun; Choi, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Choi, Bong Gill

    2017-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) carbon materials derived from waste biomass have been attracted increasing attention in catalysis and materials science because of their great potential of catalyst supports with respect to multi-functionality, unique structures, high surface area, and low cost. Here, we present a facile and efficient way for preparing 3D heterogeneous catalysts based on vertical MnO2 wires deposited on hemp-derived 3D porous carbon. The 3D porous carbon materials are fabricated by carbonization and activation processes using hemp (Cannabis Sttiva L.). These 3D porous carbon materials are employed as catalyst supports for direct deposition of vertical MnO2 wires using a one-step hydrothermal method. The XRD and XPS results reveal the crystalline structure of α-MnO2 wires. The resultant composites are further employed as a catalyst for glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with high conversion yield of 98%, which is expected to be expressly profitable for plastics recycling industry.

  5. Modelling of volumetric composition and mechanical properties of unidirectional hemp/epoxy composites - Effect of enzymatic fibre treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Thygesen, A.; Meyer, AS; Madsen, B.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the effect of enzymatic fibre treatments on the fibre performance in unidirectional hemp/epoxy composites by modelling the volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites. It is shown that the applied models can well predict the changes in volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites when differently treated hemp fibres are used. The decrease in the fibre correlated porosity factor with the enzymatic fibre treatments shows that the removal of pectin by pectinolytic enzymes results in a better fibre impregnation by the epoxy matrix, and the mechanical properties of the composites are thereby increased. The effective fibre stiffness and strength established from the modelling show that the enzymatic removal of pectin also leads to increased mechanical properties of the fibres. Among the investigated samples, the composites with hydrothermally pre-treated and enzymatically treated fibres have the lowest porosity factor of 0.08 and the highest mechanical properties. In these composites, the effective fibre stiffness and strength are determined to be 83 GPa and 667 MPa, respectively, when the porosity efficiency exponent is set equal to 2. Altogether, it is demonstrated that the applied models provide a concept to be used for the evaluation of performance of treated fibres in composites.

  6. Experimental studies on biocompatibility of hemp powder with submicron-scale%亚超细汉麻粉体生物相容性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张森; 张宏杰; 张琦; 尚曼; 钟智丽; 刘艳霞

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价亚超细汉麻粉体的生物相容性.方法:按照GB/T16886的评价要求,对亚超细汉麻粉体进行细胞毒性试验、皮肤刺激试验和致敏试验.结果:6.25%亚超细汉麻粉体浸提液的细胞毒性为1级,12.5%、25%亚超细汉麻粉体浸提液的细胞毒性为2级,50%、100%亚超细汉麻粉体浸提液的细胞毒性大于2级;亚超细汉麻粉体没有皮肤刺激和致敏现象.结论:6.25%亚超细汉麻粉体浸提液有极轻的细胞毒性,无皮肤刺激和致敏现象,6.25%亚超细汉麻粉体符合生物相容性要求.%Objective: To evaluate the bioeompatibility of hemp powder with submicron-scale. Methods: According to the standard for the biological evaluation of the GB/T16886, cytotoxicity test, dermal irritation test and sensitization test were carried out to evaluate the biocompatibility of hemp powder with submicron-scale. Results: The results showed that the level of the cytotoxicity of 6.25% hemp powder with submicron-scale extract group was 1 degree; the level of the eytotoxicity of 12.5%, 25% hemp powder with submicron-scale extract group was 2 degree; 50%, 100% hemp powder with submicron-scale extract group was more than 2 degree. No obvious dermal irritation and sensitization. Conclusion: 6.25% hemp powder with submicron-scale has little cytotoxicity, no obvious dermal irritation and sensitization. 6.25% hemp powder with submicron梥cale meets the biocompatibility requirements.

  7. Mosaic Turner syndrome associated with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook Young; Park, Joo Won; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jun, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Seop

    2014-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a sex-chromosome disorder; occurring in 1 in 2,500 female births. There are sporadic few case reports of concomitant Turner syndrome with schizophrenia worldwide. Most Turner females had a 45,X monosomy, whereas the majority of comorbidity between Turner syndrome and schizophrenia had a mosaic karyotype (45,X/46,XX). We present a case of a 21-year-old woman with Turner syndrome, mosaic karyotype (45,X/46,XX), showing mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and schizophrenia. HOPA gene within Xq13 is related to mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and schizophrenia. Our case may be a potential clue which supports the hypothesis for involvement of genes on X chromosome in development of schizophrenia. Further studies including comorbid cases reports are need in order to discern the cause of schizophrenia in patients having Turner syndrome. PMID:24926463

  8. Mosaic Turner syndrome associated with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook Young; Park, Joo Won; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jun, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Seop; Lee, Ji Eun

    2014-03-01

    Turner syndrome is a sex-chromosome disorder; occurring in 1 in 2,500 female births. There are sporadic few case reports of concomitant Turner syndrome with schizophrenia worldwide. Most Turner females had a 45,X monosomy, whereas the majority of comorbidity between Turner syndrome and schizophrenia had a mosaic karyotype (45,X/46,XX). We present a case of a 21-year-old woman with Turner syndrome, mosaic karyotype (45,X/46,XX), showing mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and schizophrenia. HOPA gene within Xq13 is related to mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and schizophrenia. Our case may be a potential clue which supports the hypothesis for involvement of genes on X chromosome in development of schizophrenia. Further studies including comorbid cases reports are need in order to discern the cause of schizophrenia in patients having Turner syndrome.

  9. Mosaic double aneuploidy: Down syndrome and XYY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Parihar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are seen in nearly 1% of live born infants. We report a 5-year-old boy with the clinical features of Down syndrome, which is the most common human aneuploidy. Cytogenetic analysis showed a mosaicism for a double aneuploidy, Down syndrome and XYY. The karyotype was 47, XY,+21[19]/48, XYY,+21[6]. ish XYY (DXZ1 × 1, DYZ1 × 2. Mosaic double aneuploidies are very rare and features of only one of the aneuploidies may predominate in childhood. Cytogenetic analysis is recommended even if the typical features of a recognized aneuploidy are present so that any associated abnormality may be detected. This will enable early intervention to provide the adequate supportive care and management.

  10. Mosaic Turner syndrome and hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhayyat, H.; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Steer, J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A common and well recognised feature of Turner's syndrome (partial or total monosomy X) is impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus. A small percentage of patients with Turner's syndrome have a complex mosaic karyotype with atypical clinical features and mental retardation....... METHODS/PATIENT: We report the first case of a child with a complex mosaic Turner genotype and hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia responsive to diazoxide therapy. RESULTS: Cytogenetic analysis showed four cell lines: one with 45,X; the others with an additional small ring chromosome, a small marker...... chromosome, and both the ring and marker chromosomes, respectively. FISH studies showed the abnormal chromosomes to originate from an X. The X inactivation locus (XIST) was present in the ring, but not in the marker chromosome. CONCLUSIONS: The recognition of hypoglycaemia in children with atypical Turner...

  11. Mosaicism in osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dennis J; Ichikawa, Shoji; Econs, Michael J

    2010-04-01

    Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis is an X-linked dominant condition caused by mutations in the WTX gene, resulting in linear striations in long bones in combination with cranial sclerosis. This condition is usually lethal in males. OBJECTIVE/PATIENT: Our aim was to determine the underlying genetic cause in a 37-yr-old male with this condition. DNA sequencing of peripheral blood and hair was performed to identify mutations in WTX. Quantitative PCR was performed to determine gene copy number variation. DNA sequenced from peripheral blood revealed the presence of two alleles at the 1108th position of the WTX gene. Subsequent DNA sequencing of hair follicles and quantitative PCR confirmed the presence of mosaicism. A novel mutation (c.1108G>T) found in our patient results in a truncated protein (E370X). Our patient represents the first confirmed case of mosaicism in osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis.

  12. 长线缆核电磁脉冲效应计算研究%Calculation study on HEMP effect of long wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶玲; 安霆

    2013-01-01

    为深入研究高空核电磁脉冲(HEMP)作用于长线缆引发的场线耦合效应问题,该文基于场线耦合效应计算的频域方法,推导了适于较长线缆HEMP效应编程计算的数学模型,利用鳊写的Matlab计算程序详细研究了具有不同参数线缆系统的HEMP效应问题,得出了HEMP效应特点和规律.结果表明,线缆暴露于HEMP电磁环境中,其上可被激励高幅值的电流干扰脉冲,其端部可被激励峰值高达上万伏的电压干扰脉冲.%In order to deeply study the field-wire coupling effect that the nuclear electro magnetic pulse (NEMP) acts on long wire, the mathematical model suitable for programing calculation of long wire HEMP effect is deduced in this paper based on frequency domain model of field-wire coupling effect calculation. The HEMP effect of the wires with different parameters was researched with the calculation program in Matlab. The characteristics and rule of HEMP effects. The calculated result shows that the wire exposed to electromagnetic environment of HEMP can be inspirited with high amplitude current interference pulse. The voltage interference pulse more than 10 000 V at end of a wire can be inspirited.

  13. Wearability-Research of Cotton Bamboo Hemp Blended Fabric%棉竹浆汉麻混纺织物服用性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐建东; 王平; 李立成

    2012-01-01

    Wearability of cotton bamboo hemp blended fabric was researched. Wearability of cotton/bamboo/hemp 40/40/20 blended fabric, cotton/hemp 80/20 blended fabric and pure cotton fabric were tested. Air permeability, moisture permeability, drapability and crease recovery of the three fabrics were contrasted, the test results were analyzed. The result shows that air permeability, moisture permeability, drapability and crease recovery of cotton bamboo hemp blended fabric are the best. It is considered that the wearability of cotton bamboo hemp blended fabric is the best and can be developed as military uniform and high grade clothing.%研究棉竹浆汉麻混纺织物的服用性能.对相同规格的棉/竹浆/汉麻40/40/20混纺织物、棉/汉麻80/20混纺织物和纯棉织物做了服用性能对比试验,比较了织物的透气性、透湿性、悬垂性和抗皱性差异,并对试验结果进行了分析.结果表明:棉竹浆汉麻混纺织物的透气性、透湿性、悬垂性、折痕回复性均优于棉汉麻混纺织物和纯棉织物.认为:棉竹浆汉麻混纺织物服用性能最佳,可用于开发军用服装及高档服饰.

  14. Diffraction studies of papaya mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollin, P; Bancroft, J B; Richardson, J F; Payne, N C; Beveridge, T J

    1979-10-15

    X-ray and optical diffraction studies of the flexuous papaya mosaic virus are described. The virus is constructed so that there are 35 coat protein subunits in 4 turns of the helix. The virus contains about 1410 protein subunits and 6800 nucleotides and has a molecular weight of about 33 x 10(6). The structure of tubes assembled in vitro from coat protein both in the presence and absence of nucleic acid resembles that of the native virus.

  15. Germline mosaicism at the fragile X locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, T W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Guida, M; Enrile, B G

    1995-01-30

    We have identified a fragile X syndrome pedigree where the disorder is associated with a molecular deletion. The deletion was present in the DNA of 2 sons but was absent in the mother's somatic cell (lymphocyte) DNA. The results are consistent with the deletion arising as a postzygotic event in the mother, who therefore is germinally mosaic. This finding has important implications for counseling fragile X families with deletion mutations.

  16. Digital Elevation Model Mosaic of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, A. C.; Watters, T. R.; Robinson, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    At CEPS (Center for Earth and Planetary Studies) work has been underway since 2000 to semi-automatically stereo match all Mariner 10 stereo pairs. The resulting matched image coordinates are converted into longitude, latitude, and height points and then combined to form a map projected Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic of the planet's surface. Stereo images from Mariner 10 cover one quarter of the planet's surface, mostly in the southern hemisphere. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. The newly applied mortars in mosaic restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Moro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available L’intervention de restauration sur la mosaïque de Dionysos à Cologne a permis, dans le cadre du travail de fin d’étude, une recherche sur les problématiques liées au choix du lit de pose des mosaïques detachées et replacées sur de nouveaux supports. Elle a contribué à l’étude des facteurs qui influencent la conservation des mosaïques qui ont précédemment fait l’objet d’interventions de détachement du site originel.The restoration of the Dionysos mosaic in Cologne gave us the opportunity for analysing the process involved in the choice of interstitial mortars in mosaics that were detached from their original site and re-layed on new supports, thus losing their original setting bed. This intervention lead us to investigate the relationships between restoration and a philological perspective and the damages following the stripping of mosaics.

  18. Confined placental mosaicisms and uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalousek, D.K.; Langlois, S.; Harrison, K.J. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 2% of pregnancies studied with chorionic villous sampling (CVS) show confined placental mosaicism (CPM) which persists to term in 50-70% of cases. An increased frequency of complications, such as intrauterine fetal growth restriction or intrauterine death, is observed in these pregnancies. As trisomic zygote rescue is a common mechanism responsible for CPM, fetal uniparental disomy (UPD), resulting from the loss of the extra trisomic chromosome in the embryonic stem cells, would be expected to occur in a proportion of pregnancies with CPM. We have studied 27 pregnancies with CPM involving trisomies for chromosomes 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, and 16 for involvement of specific cell lineage(s) and levels of mosaicism in term placentas. Also, DNA from the parents and infant was analyzed for UPD or biparental disomy (BPD). Five infants with UPD for chromosome 16 and one infant with UPD for chromosome 7 were detected. All other infants showed BPD for the chromosome involved in CPM. For trisomy 16 mosaic gestations, a close correlation between high levels of trisomic cells in placenta and intrauterine fetal growth restriction has been found irrespective of the type of disomy present in the infant. The effect of other trisomies (2, 7, 9, 10, 12) on placental function appears to be similar, but the low numbers of pregnancies studied and lack of detection of UPD for chromosomes 2, 9, 10 and 12 does not allow a definitive conclusion.

  19. Reassessing Jacob Strauss and the Mosaic Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel McDurmon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviewed claims made by modern scholars Ford Lewis Battles, G.H. Williams, and Theodore Tappert concerning the views of Jacob Strauss (1480–1530, court preacher at Eisenach, particularly in regard to the imposition of Mosaic Law upon the civil realm. Most pointedly, Battles claims Strauss proposed to replace European civil law completely with the ‘entire Mosaic code’. This study examined Strauss’s relevant writings to determine his position on Mosaic Law and civil law and demonstrated that the claims of Battles, Williams, and Tappert were not supported by the primary source evidence. Selections from Strauss’ 51 theses on usury are translated into English for the first time. To a much lesser degree, this study addressed the issue in regard to the Weimar court preacher Wolfgang Stein, against whom the same claims were made. A paucity of evidence rendered those claims dubious in his case. In the end we were left only with unsubstantiated second-hand claims against these men.

  20. KARAKTERISASICYMBIDIUM MOSAIC VIRUS (CYMMV PADA TANAMAN ANGGREK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHAMDAN KHALIMI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterization ofCymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV on Orchid Plant Orchids are affected by more virus disease problems than most crops, reducing their commercial values considerably. Orchid viruses are widespread in cultivated orchids, withCymbidium mosaic potexvirus (CymMV being the most prevalent. CymMV high incidence in cultivated orchids has been attributed to the stability and ease of transmission of this virus through cultural practices. CymMV induces floral and foliar necrosis. The virus also reduce plant vigor and lower flower quality, which affect their economic value. The objective of the research is to characterize the virus causing mosaic or chlorotic and necrotic on orchids in West Java. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR assays using oligonucleotide primers specific to CymMV were also successfully amplified the regions of the coat protein (CP gene of the virus. Analysis by using sodium dodecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE revealed that the virus have a major structural protein with an estimated molecular weight of 28 kDa. Aligments of partial nucleotide sequences of the CP gene displayed 86 to 92% homology to CymMV isolates from other countries.

  1. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Mullins, J.; Binnie, D.; Paulsen, S.J.; Granneman, B.; Gorodetzky, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) is the first true-color, high-spatial-resolution image of the seventh continent. It is constructed from nearly 1100 individually selected Landsat-7 ETM+ scenes. Each image was orthorectified and adjusted for geometric, sensor and illumination variations to a standardized, almost seamless surface reflectance product. Mosaicing to avoid clouds produced a high quality, nearly cloud-free benchmark data set of Antarctica for the International Polar Year from images collected primarily during 1999-2003. Multiple color composites and enhancements were generated to illustrate additional characteristics of the multispectral data including: the true appearance of the surface; discrimination between snow and bare ice; reflectance variations within bright snow; recovered reflectance values in regions of sensor saturation; and subtle topographic variations associated with ice flow. LIMA is viewable and individual scenes or user defined portions of the mosaic are downloadable at http://lima.usgs.gov. Educational materials associated with LIMA are available at http://lima.nasa.gov.

  2. Design and experiment on decorticator of hemp fresh stem%大麻鲜茎剥皮机的设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕江南; 龙超海; 马兰; 刘佳杰; 何宏彬

    2014-01-01

    The hemp is widely planted in China, which can be used for varieties of products including hemp cordage, durable clothing and nutritional products.. Because of hemp fiber excellent properties such as natural comfort and gas permeability, it is widely used in textile field. Hemp bast and bone are strong adhesive with the glue in fiber, so it is very difficult to peel off from hemp stem. In China, people usually peel off bast fiber by hand. There are a number of problems using manual peeling, such as low work efficiency, high labor intensity, and high cost. So, high efficiency stripping machine is necessary to designed for peeling off hemp bast in China. At present, there are two kinds of method to gain bast fiber from hemp stem. The fiber was separated from the retted stalk which has been immersed in water. Another way is to stripping the bast from the fresh stem first, then the dried bast is retted in pool in the factory. We can gain clean fiber in mass production by using the second method. According to the requirements, a new kind of stripper which used for separation hemp fresh stem was designed. But there are many branches at upper stem of hemp and the bast attached with hemp bone very firmly. In order to make the bast separated better from the stem, the rubbing-mechanism for stem and the combing-mechanism for bast were designed in this machine. The prototype is mainly consisted of rubbing-mechanism, combing-mechanism, the fiber collection device, transmission, frame, undercarriage and other components. This prototype has many characteristics such as compact structure, easy to move, strong separation ability, etc. The rubbing-mechanism is consisted of two pairs of straight-teeth pressure roller and two pairs of slanting-teeth pressure roller. When the machine works, the hemp fresh stem is broken first by the straight-teeth pressure roller of rubbing-mechanism. After that, the broken stem enters the pressure roller of slanting-teeth of rubbing-mechanism. In

  3. The complete sequence of a sugarcane mosaic virus isolate causing maize dwarf mosaic disease in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晔; 陈炯; 陈剑平

    2002-01-01

    The complete sequence of a potyvirus from maize in Zhejiang Province was determined. The RNA was 9596 nucleotides long, excluding the 3′-poly (A) tail, and there was a single long open reading frame (ORF) of 9192 nts encoding a 346.1 ku polyprotein. The polyprotein had substantial amino acid sequence homology with those encoded by the RNAs of a Chinese isolate of sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV-C) and a Bulgarian isolate of maize dwarf mosaic virus, but it was most closely related to sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) isolates, for which only partial sequences have been published. According to the published criteria for distinguishing potyviruses, the sequence reported here is clearly a strain of SCMV, but it also showed a surprisingly high amino acid homology with SrMV-C in the HC-Pro, P3 and CI proteins.

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of a trisomy 7/trisomy 13 mosaicism

    OpenAIRE

    Huijsdens-van Amsterdam Karin; Barge-Schaapveld Daniela QCM; Mathijssen Inge B; Alders Mariëlle; Pajkrt Eva; Knegt Alida C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Double aneuploidy mosaicism of two different aneuploidy cell lines is rare. We describe for the first time a double trisomy mosaicism, involving chromosomes 7 and 13 in a fetus presenting with multiple congenital anomalies. No evidence for chimerism was found by DNA genotyping. The origin of both trisomies are consistent with isodisomy of maternal origin. Therefore, it is most likely that the double trisomy mosaicism arose from two independent events very early in embryonic developme...

  5. Effects of sulphur dioxide on southern bean mosaic and maize dwarf mosaic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, J.A.; Aluisio, A.L.; Weinstein, L.H.; McCune, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Sub-acute doses of sulphur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) (either 262 or 524 ..mu..g m/sup -3/) for 5-10 days caused small but consistent increases in the titre of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) in Bountiful bean and maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) in maize. Exposure to SO/sub 2/ also increased infection and intensified symptoms caused by MDMV. Sulphur uptake by the host plant was not affected by either virus; however, pre- and post-inoculation exposures of bean plants to SO/sub 2/ resulted in greater than additive effects on sulphur uptake.

  6. Image blending techniques and their application in underwater mosaicing

    CERN Document Server

    Prados, Ricard; Neumann, László

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes strategies and solutions to tackle the problem of building photo-mosaics of very large underwater optical surveys, presenting contributions to the image preprocessing, enhancing and blending steps, and resulting in an improved visual quality of the final photo-mosaic. The text opens with a comprehensive review of mosaicing and blending techniques, before proposing an approach for large scale underwater image mosaicing and blending. In the image preprocessing step, a depth dependent illumination compensation function is used to solve the non-uniform illumination appearance du

  7. 巴马民间火麻汤中的油脂含量测定与制作工艺研究%Determination of Bama Folk Hemp Soup Oil and Study of Producing Technology about the Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃世辉; 陈小梦; 覃勇荣; 欧阳淼

    2014-01-01

    以火麻仁为原料,模拟民间食用火麻汤的煮制方法(湿磨法)制备汤料,测定了汤料中浸出的火麻油的含量。并通过单因素及正交实验优选出了民间火麻汤煮制的最佳工艺条件。结果表明,民间火麻汤煮制的最佳条件是:煮制时间20 min,食盐添加量为1∶20,料液比为1∶3,此条件下火麻汤中油含量最佳。油含量为9.129%,RSD为0.214%。%The hemp soup was prepared by hemp seed and cooked simulating the folk method. The oil was determined in the hemp soup.And through the single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment selected a hemp soup boiled optimum technological conditions. The results showed that, the best conditions which the folk hemp soup cooked were:cooking time 20 min, the addition amount of salt was 1∶20, liquid ratio was 1∶3.In this conditions, the oil in hemp soup is most. Oil content was 9.129%, RSD is 0.214%.

  8. Near-surface Environment with Oblique Incidence of HEMP%近地面HEMP电磁环境特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴焱杰; 孙继银; 赵利军

    2011-01-01

    High-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) poses a serious threat to the electronic devices. According to the problem that the HEMP standards include the general wave characteristics in the free space barely, the environmental characteristics of electromagnetic pulses near the ground with the HEMP incident plane wave perpendicular or oblique to the ground are studied and the electromagnetic environmental parameters are simulated, based on the finite difference time domain method. The result shows that, when the HEMP incident plane wave is perpendicular to the ground, the reflected field weakens the incident one, which makes the total field depressed, especially in the lower position over the ground, and almost integer incident and reflected fields occur in the upper position. In the case of vertical polarization plane wave when the HEMP incident plane wave is oblique to the ground, horizontal field amplitude becomes smaller and pulse width becomes narrower when the incidence angle increases. The experiment conclusions are able to provide guidance for the protection design of electronic devices on the ground.%高空核爆电磁脉冲(HEMP)对电子设备构成严重的威胁;针对国内外有关HEMP的标准中对波形的定义主要针对自由空间的问题,使用时域有限差分法研究了HEMP平面波垂直/斜入射地面时,地面附近的电磁脉冲环境特性,仿真计算了有关电磁环境参数;结果表明,HEMP平面波垂直入射时,较低位置处反射场削弱了部分入射场.使总场幅度降低,较高位置处经历较为完整的人射场和反射场的冲击;HEMP平面波斜入射时,在垂直极化情况下,随着入射角的增大,地面附近的水平场幅值变小、脉冲宽度变窄;实验结论有利于指导地面电子设备的电磁防护设计.

  9. Optimization of extraction of hemp protein by response surface methodology%响应面法优化火麻蛋白提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    以火麻籽为原料,对碱提酸沉法提取火麻蛋白工艺参数进行研究,在单因素试验的基础上,采用响应面分析法对提取温度、提取时间、提取pH和料液比进行优化并得到回归模型.确定的碱提酸沉法提取火麻蛋白最佳工艺参数为:提取温度60℃,提取时间1 h,提取pH 10,料液比1:9.在最佳工艺条件下,火麻蛋白的提取率为63.5%.回归模型的预测值与实测值的相对误差为2.3%,该回归方程与实际情况拟合较好.DSC分析得出火麻蛋白的变性温度为83.0℃,纯化后的火麻蛋白相对分子质量分布均小于40 kDa.%With hemp seed as raw material,the process parameters of alkali extraction and acid precipita-tion of hemp protein were studied. On the basis of single factor experiment,the extraction temperature,ex-traction time,extraction pH and ratio of material to liquid were optimized by response surface methodolo-gy, and the regression model was finally established. The results showed that the optimal parameters of al-kali extraction and acid precipitation of hemp protein were obtained as follows:extraction temperature 60℃,extraction time 1 h,extraction pH 10 and ratio of material to liquid 1:9. Under the optimal condi-tions,the extraction rate of hemp protein was 63. 5%. The relative error between predictive value and ex-perimental value of the regression model was 2. 3%,indicating a good fit between regression equation and actual situation. The DSC analysis results showed that the denaturation temperature of hemp protein was 83. 0℃, and the relative molecular weight distributions of purified hemp protein were less than 40 kDa.

  10. TVS二极管HEMP响应能力实验研究%Experimental Study of the Response Ability of TVS Diode to HEMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鸣心; 姜雯雯; 孙晋; 周颖慧

    2014-01-01

    The rising time of the electromagnetic pulse generated by high-altitude nuclear explosions (HEMP) is about 2.3 ns, and the peak intensity of the electric field will be up to 50 kV/m, which will significantly influence the safety of electronic equipment. Surge protection devices (SPD) with quick response ability are needed in protecting against the conducted interference of HEMP. However, the indicators of conventional SPD devices are mainly aimed at lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP). In order to study the response capability of SPD to HEMP, a kind of transient voltage suppression diodes (TVS) with quick response capability is selected in this paper. Different types of pulse waveforms are used in the test, and the response characteristics of the selected TVS to HEMP are obtained. For comparison, the response characteristics to LEMP are tested in this paper. The results show that the response time of this kind of devices to HEMP is about 6.5 ns, and the damage threshold voltage is about 30 kV. The experiment results are useful in selecting devices to defend HEMP.%高空核爆炸产生的电磁脉冲(HEMP)上升前沿时间约为2.3ns,峰值场强可达50kV/m,会对电子设备的安全运行产生极大的影响。HEMP传导干扰的防护需要使用具有快速响应能力的电涌保护器件(SPD),但常规SPD器件的指标主要针对雷电电磁脉冲(LEMP),为了更详细地了解SPD的HEMP响应能力,选择一款具有快速响应能力的瞬态电压抑制二极管(TVS),采用不同脉冲波形进行了测试,得到了这类TVS的HEMP响应特性,并与雷电电磁脉冲进行了对比。结果表明该器件对HEMP的响应时间约为6.5ns,损伤阈值电压约为30kV。实验研究结果对于HEMP防护中的器件选择具有参考价值。

  11. Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Noil Hemp Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites by Resin Modification and Fiber Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to improve the reinforcement of hemp fibre to polypropylene (PP by simple resin modification and fibre treatment. Maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP was used as resin modifier by direct mixing with PP, and hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl cellulose (HMHEC was used as fibre treatment reagent by immersing fibre into its aqueous solution. The influences of fibre content, resin modification, and fibre treatment on the mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, and impact strengths of composites were investigated. The change of interfacial bonding between fibre and resin in composites caused by MAPP and HMHEC was studied by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. Resin modification and fibre treatment were effective to enhance the mechanical properties of the composites. The improvement in interfacial bonding is quantitatively evaluated with adhesion factor.

  12. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794, Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1 the Colombian territory and (2 northeastern Brazil.

  13. Thermal properties of hemp fiber filled polyamide 1010 biomass composites and the blend of these composites and polyamide 11 elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Yosuke; Mukaida, Jun; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki; Kajiyama, Tetsuto; Kitano, Takeshi

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the performance of all inedible plants-derived materials for new engineering materials such as structural materials and tribomaterials. Thermal properties of hemp fiber filled polyamide 1010 biomass composites and the blend of these composites and plants-derived TPE were investigated experimentally. These biomass composites were extruded by a twin screw extruder and compression or injection molded. Thermal properties such as dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of these biomass composites were evaluated. It was found that the addition of HF and the blend of bio-TPE with PA1010 have strong influence on the thermal properties such as DMA, TGA and DSC. In particular, HF has a good effect for the improvement of the thermal and mechanical properties. These properties of HF/PA1010/PA11E biomass composites are better than those of HF/PA1010/TPU ones.

  14. Response of Cultural Lake Eutrophication to Hemp-retting in Quidenham Mere of England in Post-Medieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xiaoying; LI Shijie; SHEN Qing; XUE Jing

    2007-01-01

    To study the influence of human activity on natural lake, chironomid fauna change in the 700 560cm lake sediment in Quidenham Mere of England associated with chironomid inferred TP presented that the lake experienced a whole eutrophication process due to human hemp-retting in Post-Medieval based on the history record and pollen analysis, which was confirmed by mollusc and ostracod analysis. However, the response of chironomid and mollusc to retting was the strongest with ostracod a little behind. It proved that cultural eutrophication existed in history and could be recovered by itself despite of some long-term unachievable destroy. And it was most important for external nutrient to be cut off during lake restoration even in ancient times.

  15. Mineral resource potential map of the Cohutta Wilderness and the Hemp Top Roadless Area, northern Georgia and southeastern Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gair, Jacob E.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.; Dunn, Maynard L.

    1982-01-01

    The Cohutta Wilderness and the Hemp Top Roadless Area have minor occurrences of metallic minerals, but no known resource potential for such minerals in the forseeable future, judging by available data, and only a very minor potential for stone for aggregate, road construction, and similar nondimension use. The rocks of the Ducktown massive sulfide district to the northeast do not appear to extend into the study area, and geochemical data derived from samples of rock, soil, and alluvium do not reveal any anomalously high concentrations of trace elements that could be representative of hidden mineral deposits. Sedimentary rocks underlying the metamorphic rocks exposed at the surface have an unknown potential for hydrocarbons in the form of natural gas. No reasonable estimate of the potential can be made until some test drilling is done in the area.

  16. Feasibility of a down-scaled HEMP-Thruster as possible N-propulsion system for LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, A.; Köhler, P.; Gärtner, W.; Hey, F. G.; Berger, M.; Braxmaier, C.; Feili, D.; Weise, D.; Johann, U.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental feasibility study on down-scaling HEMP thrusters to textmu N thrust levels as required e.g. for NGO is presented. Prototypes are used to probe the operation space as well as measuring the divergence angle of the plume and ion acceleration voltage by means of Faraday Cups and a Retarding Potential Analyser in order to gain a deeper understanding of the influence of design parameters. From the measured values thrust and specific impulse are calculated using simple models. Stable operation with a calculated thrust down to 70 N has been demonstrated and divergence efficiencies of about 0.5 are observed. Due to the importance of the thrust value and uncertainties of the models it is clearly desirable to measure the thrust and thrust noise directly with a thrust balance. Such a device is under construction, with a picometer noise level heterodyne interferometer as optical readout.

  17. Germline mosaicism at the fragile X locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.C.; Snyder, P.J.; Sedra, M.S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The fragile X full mutation, which is associated with the phenotypic expression of the disorder, is characterized by an expansion of CGG repeat and hypermethylation of the CpG island adjacent to the FMR1 gene. New mutations leading to amplification of the CGG repeat have not been reported. We have identified a fragile X syndrome pedigree where the disorder is associated with a molecular deletion. The deletion was present in the DNA of two affected sons but was absent in the mother`s somatic cell (lymphocyte) DNA. This was confirmed by dosage analysis of the Southern blot using StB12-3 and an additional probe against the dystrophin gene and by PCR analysis of DXS548 alleles. The results are consistent with the deletion arising as a postzygotic event in the mother, who therefore is germinally mosaic. The case reported here clearly demonstrates that FMR1 deletions, unlike the expansions, are not always inherited and the finding of heterozygosity or normal dosage from lymphocyte DNA in the mother of a deletion case does not necessarily rule out the possibility of having a second affected child. The deletion of FMR1 gene may be responsible for a small but significant number of fragile X cases. Therefore, it is imperative that those involved in genetic counseling recognize this diagnostic pitfall. Since it depends upon the size of the mutant clone in the mosaic mother, the exact recurrence risk in germline carriers is unknown. However, prenatal and carrier testing should be performed independently of the outcome of the mother. Furthermore, it is possible that the deletion may not be restricted to the germline, and therefore the mother may actually be a somatic mosaic.

  18. As(V)/Cr(VI) pollution control in soils, hemp waste, and other by-products: competitive sorption trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintáns-Fondo, Ana; Ferreira-Coelho, Gustavo; Paradelo-Núñez, Remigio; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2016-10-01

    We study As(V)/Cr(VI) competitive sorption on a forest soil, a vineyard soil, pyritic material, mussel shell, pine bark, oak ash, and hemp waste, adding variable As(V) and Cr(VI) concentrations or displacing each pollutant with the same concentration of the other. When using variable concentrations, As(V) showed more affinity than Cr(VI) for sorption sites on most materials (sorption up to >84 % on oak ash and pyritic material). The only exception was pine bark, with clearly higher Cr(VI) sorption (>90 %) for any Cr(VI)/As(V) concentration added. Regarding the displacement experiments, when As(V) was added and reached sorption equilibrium, the subsequent addition of equal Cr(VI) concentration did not cause relevant As displacement from oak ash and pyritic material, indicating strong As bindings, and/or low competitive effects. When Cr(VI) was added and reached sorption equilibrium, the subsequent addition of equal As(V) concentration caused Cr(VI) displacement from all materials except pine bark, indicating weak Cr bindings. In view of these results, oak ash and the pyritic material could be used to remove As(V) in concentrations as high as 6 mmol L(-1), even in the presence of a wide range of Cr(VI) concentrations, whereas pine bark could be used to remove Cr(VI) concentrations as high as 6 mmol L(-1). The other materials assayed (including hemp waste, studied for the first time as As(V) and Cr(VI) bio-sorbent) cannot be considered appropriate to remove As(V) and/or Cr(VI) from polluted media.

  19. Influence of silane coupling agents on the rheological behavior of hemp fiber filled polyamide 1010 biomass composites in molten state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Yosuke; Hasumi, Megumi; Kitano, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    In order to develop the new engineering materials such as structural materials and tribomaterials based on all plants-derived materials, the influence of silane coupling agent on the rheological properties of hemp fiber (HF) filled polyamide 1010 (PA1010) biomass composites in molten state was investigated for one step of the fabrication of these materials. PA1010 was made from sebacic acid and decamethylenediamine, which are obtained from plant-derived castor oil. Hemp fibers were surface-treated by two types of surface treatment: a) alkali treatment by NaOH solution and b) surface treatment by silane coupling agents with different concentrations. Three types of silane coupling agents: aminosilane, epoxysilane and ureidosilane were used for surface treatment. HF/PA1010 composites were extruded by a twin screw extruder and compression-molded. Rheological behavior in molten state were evaluated by oscillatory flow testing using a parallel plate type rheometer. It was found that the silane coupling agents remarkably influence on: 1) rheological properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, loss tangent and complex viscosity in low angular frequency region in molten state, 2) temperature dependences of rheological properties, and 3) relationship between phase angle and complex modulus (van Gurp - Palmen plots). These rheological behavior were also strongly influenced by the type of silane coupling agents. The viscoelastic properties (both storage and loss moduli) of aminosilane and epoxysilane treated composites were lower, however, those of ureidosilane treated ones were higher than the moduli of only alkali treated composites. Ureidosilane treated composites were the least temperature sensitive in the surface treated composites investigated here.

  20. Subassembly aggregates of papaya mosaic virus protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J W; Hallett, F R; Bancroft, J B

    1983-08-01

    An examination of the number of subunits in small aggregates of papaya mosaic virus (PMV) coat protein is presented based on a model system which gives results consistent with the experimental observation that the 14 S subassembly species is a double disc, composed of two rows of nine subunits each. The estimated hydration of the disc, about 0.85 g 1H20/9 protein, is unusually large and indicates a cavitated structure for the disc. Comparison with other rod-shaped viruses suggests that the flexuous nature of PMV is a consequence of sparse axial inter-subunit contacts at high radius.

  1. Image Mosaicing Algorithm for Rolled Fingerprint Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺迪; 荣钢; 周杰

    2002-01-01

    Fingerprint identification is one of the most important biometric authentication methods. However, current devices for recording digital fingerprints can only capture plain-touch fingerprints. Rolled fingerprints have much more information for recognition, so a method is needed to construct a rolled fingerprint from a series of plain-touch fingerprints. This paper presents a novel algorithm for image mosaicing for real time rolled fingerprint construction in which the images are assembled with corrections to create a smooth, non-fragmented rolled fingerprint in real time. Experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness by comparing it with other conventional algorithms.

  2. Mosaic crystal algorithm for Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, P A

    2002-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for calculating reflectivity, absorption, and scattering of mosaic crystals in Monte Carlo simulations of neutron instruments. The algorithm uses multi-step transport through the crystal with an exact solution of the Darwin equations at each step. It relies on the kinematical model for Bragg reflection (with parameters adjusted to reproduce experimental data). For computation of thermal effects (the Debye-Waller factor and coherent inelastic scattering), an expansion of the Debye integral as a rapidly converging series of exponential terms is also presented. Any crystal geometry and plane orientation may be treated. The algorithm has been incorporated into the neutron instrument simulation package NISP. (orig.)

  3. Flow visualization using tobacco mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, David L.; Goreau, Thomas J.; Bush, John W. M.

    2009-03-01

    A flow visualization technique using dilute solutions of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is described. Rod-shaped TMV-particles align with shear, an effect that produces a luminous interference pattern when the TMV solution is viewed between crossed polarizers. Attractive features of this technique are that it is both transparent to the naked eye and benign to fish. We use it here to visualize the evolution and decay of the flows that they produce. We also report that dilute solutions of Kalliroscope are moderately birefringent and so may similarly be used for qualitative in situ flow visualizations.

  4. Statistical Mechanics Characterization of Neuronal Mosaics

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luciano da Fontoura; de Lima, Silene Maria Araujo

    2005-01-01

    The spatial distribution of neuronal cells is an important requirement for achieving proper neuronal function in several parts of the nervous system of most animals. For instance, specific distribution of photoreceptors and related neuronal cells, particularly the ganglion cells, in mammal's retina is required in order to properly sample the projected scene. This work presents how two concepts from the areas of statistical mechanics and complex systems, namely the \\emph{lacunarity} and the \\emph{multiscale entropy} (i.e. the entropy calculated over progressively diffused representations of the cell mosaic), have allowed effective characterization of the spatial distribution of retinal cells.

  5. Ectopia cordis in a fetus with mosaic trisomy 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutoglou, Christos; Meditskou, Soultana; Keivanidou, Anastasia; Manthou, Marilena; Anesidis, Nikolaos; Assimakopoulos, Efstratios; Athanasiadis, Apostolos; Kumar, Sailesh

    2010-09-01

    Ectopia cordis and mosaic trisomy 16 are two rare fetal anomalies, which have not been reported in association. We report a case of an isolated ectopia cordis at 11(+3) weeks. Subsequent embryological examination confirmed thoracic ectopia cordis with normal heart structure and array comparative genomic hybridization of fetal tissue detected trisomy 16 mosaicism.

  6. Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Heineman, Maas Jan; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos has been described for almost two decades, its exact prevalence is still unknown. The prevalence of mosaicism is important in the context of preimplantation genetic screening in which the chromosomal status of an embryo is d

  7. High rate of mosaicism in tuberous sclerosis complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, S; Bakker, L; Tempelaars, AMP; Hesseling-Janssen, ALW; Mazurczak, T; Jozwiak, S; Fois, A; Bartalini, G; Zonnenberg, BA; van Essen, AJ; Lindhout, D; Halley, DJJ; van den Ouweland, AMW

    1999-01-01

    Six families with mosaicism are identified in a series of 62 unrelated families with a mutation in one of the two tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes, TSC1 or TSC2. In five families, somatic mosaicism was present in a mildly affected parent of an index patient. In one family with clinically unaff

  8. Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echten-Arends, J. van; Mastenbroek, S.; Sikkema-Raddatz, B.; Korevaar, J.C.; Heineman, M.J.; Veen, F. van der; Repping, S.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos has been described for almost two decades, its exact prevalence is still unknown. The prevalence of mosaicism is important in the context of preimplantation genetic screening in which the chromosomal status of an embryo is d

  9. NOAA-AVHRR image mosaics applied to vegetation identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Maria d. G.; Ruddorff, Bernardo F.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    2001-06-01

    In this paper, the maximum-value composite of images procedure from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index is used to get a cloud free image mosaic. The image mosaic is used to identify vegetation targets such as tropical forest, savanna and caatinga as well to make the vegetation cover mapping of Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

  10. Status of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in farmers’ fields in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Torkpo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey for cassava mosaic disease (CMD was carried out in Ghana from 2007−2008 to determine the status of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in farmers’ fields. The survey covered cassava growing areas in five major cassava producing regions of Ghana. Out of 136 fields visited, the plants in 5% were not affected by CMD, 18% contained plants with mild symptoms, whereas 77% had cassava with moderately severe or severe symptoms. A total of 412 cassava leaf samples and a symptomatic Manihot glaziovii sample were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV alone was detected in 42.0% of symptomatic cassava leaves with the remaining 58% being mixed infected by ACMV and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV. Mixed ACMV and EACMV infections were detected in symptomatic M. glaziovii, two non-symptomatic cassava samples and in individual whitefly vectors. EACMV was not detected alone in any cassava or whitefly sample. South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV, Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV, East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV and the Uganda strain of EACMV were not detected in any cassava or whitefly sample. The occurrence of high proportion of mixed infections of cassava by cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs, which could lead to emergence of new species or variants in the country, require concerted effort to mitigate the CMD problem.

  11. Dawn FC2 Derived Ceres Mosaics V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatsch, T.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K.-D.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Elgner, S.; Schroeder, S. E.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-10-01

    This accumulating data set includes Ceres global mosaics and quadrangles derived from images acquired by the Framing Camera 2 (FC2) on the NASA Dawn spacecraft. Global mosaics are provided in cylindrical and polar stereographic projections. The quadrangle mosaics use Mercator (equatorial), Lambert conformal (mid-latitude) and stereographic projections. Global color filter mosaics are provided for data acquired during the high altitude mapping orbit (HAMO) on volume DWNCHFFC2_2. Global mapping in all filters at low altitude was not possible due to time and downlink limitations. Attempts were made to acquire color imaging of selected Ceres targets but with only limited success because of issues related to ephemeris predictability. Clear filter global mosaics and quadrangle maps are provided for both HAMO (DWNCHCFC2_2) and the low altitude mapping orbit (LAMO, DWNCLCFC2_2) science phases.

  12. Confirmation of prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, D E; Kalousek, D K

    1989-04-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism causes problems in interpretation and in genetic counselling. Part of the difficulty with any prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism is interpretation of results without knowing the exact origin, embryonic or extraembryonic, of the abnormal cell line. To confuse the issue in cases of prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism is the recent demonstration that a diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY made prenatally is not necessarily associated with the same phenotype as when diagnosed postnatally. We present two cases of prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism (45,X/46,XY and 45,X/47,XYY). Posttermination examination of the phenotypically normal male fetuses and their placentas established that the placenta was the most likely source of the 45,X cell line. An approach to confirming the prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism and establishing its origin utilizing detailed cytogenetic examination of both fetus and placenta is suggested.

  13. Hepatoblastoma in a mosaic trisomy 18 child with hemihypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Naveed; Wheeler, Kate; Stewart, Helen; Campbell, Carolyn

    2016-01-21

    To date, there are 12 reported cases of hepatoblastoma in trisomy 18 patients, three of whom had a mosaic chromosome pattern. We report on an 18-month-old child who had hemihypertrophy and developmental delay, was found to have hepatoblastoma on surveillance ultrasound scan, and was subsequently diagnosed with mosaic trisomy 18 on array comparative genomic hybridisation from a peripheral blood sample and molecular cytogenetic analysis of the tumour specimen. Although hemihypertrophy has been associated with mosaic trisomies, there are only a couple of published case reports of hemihypertrophy or asymmetry in mosaic trisomy 18 patients and none in the reported cases of hepatoblastoma in a mosaic trisomy 18 setting. We have reviewed the published case reports of hepatoblastoma in trisomy 18 patients and found that they seem to tolerate the intensive treatment very well if there are no significant comorbidities.

  14. 应用FDTD分析飞行器天线HEMP响应%Analysis of Response to HEMP of Antennas on Aerocraft by FDTD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵守俊; 王华力; 白冬林

    2007-01-01

    高空核爆炸产生的电磁脉冲(HEMP),它具有覆盖频带宽、峰值场强高、上升时间短、作用范围广等特点,对电子信息系统和电气系统构成严重的威胁.文中采用时域有限差分法中的阶梯近似和细线近似技术模拟飞行器上单极天线和刀形天线,通过连接边界条件引入HEMP,计算了飞行器上两副短波天线对核爆脉冲电流响应.所得结果为飞行器采取核防护措施提供了依据.

  15. 汉麻混纺/交织色织机织面料开发%The Development of China-hemp Blended/Interwoven Yarn-dyed Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵钊辉; 刘锁银

    2013-01-01

      利用汉麻的特性,作者成功开发了多款汉麻混纺/交织色织机织面料,较为详尽的阐述了产品开发的整个流程,并对产品的性能进行了检测和分析。%By making use of the excellent performance of China-hemp fiber, the authors successfully developed several yarn-dyed fabrics woven with China-hemp and other fibers either blended or interlaced, and described in detail the entire development process. The relative performance of products was tested and analyzed.

  16. Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of different fractions of hemp essential oil extracted at 130 °C using steam distillation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Nawaz, Haq; Naz, Saima; Mukhtar, Rubina; Rashid, Nosheen; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Saleem, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    In this study, Raman spectroscopy along with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used for the characterization of pure essential oil (pure EO) isolated from the leaves of the Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.,) as well as its different fractions obtained by fractional distillation process. Raman spectra of pure Hemp essential oil and its different fractions show characteristic key bands of main volatile terpenes and terpenoids, which significantly differentiate them from each other. These bands provide information about the chemical composition of sample under investigation and hence can be used as Raman spectral markers for the qualitative monitoring of the pure EO and different fractions containing different active compounds. PCA differentiates the Raman spectral data into different clusters and loadings of the PCA further confirm the biological origin of the different fractions of the essential oil.

  17. Identification of a strain of maize dwarf mosaic virus, related to sugarcane mosaic virus isolated from maize in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhoyen, M.

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain of maize dwarf mosaic virus related to sugarcane mosaic virus has been isolated from maize in Burundi. The properties (including electron microscopy and serology of the virus are described, and elements for a control strategy are reviewed.

  18. Simulation Analysis of Cylindrical Panoramic Image Mosaic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Ningning

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of virtual reality (VR technology, panoramic images are used more widely, which obtained by multi-camera stitching and take advantage of homography matrix and image transformation, however, this method will destroy the collinear condition, make it's difficult to 3D reconstruction and other work. This paper proposes a new method for cylindrical panoramic image mosaic, which set the number of mosaic camera, imaging focal length, imaging position and imaging attitude, simulate the mapping process of multi-camera and construct cylindrical imaging equation from 3D points to 2D image based on photogrammetric collinearity equations. This cylindrical imaging equation can not only be used for panoramic stitching, but also be used for precision analysis, test results show: ①this method can be used for panoramic stitching under the condition of multi-camera and incline imaging; ②the accuracy of panoramic stitching is affected by 3 kinds of parameter errors including focus, displacement and rotation angle, in which focus error can be corrected by image resampling, displacement error is closely related to object distance and rotation angle error is affected mainly by the number of cameras.

  19. Smoothing the mosaic subclinical melanoderma by calcipotriol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Paquet, P; Quatresooz, P; Piérard, G E

    2007-05-01

    The observation of photo-exposed skin under ultraviolet light reveals a mosaic pattern of varying intensity in epidermal melanization. Several patterns of mosaic subclinical melanoderma (MSM) have been described using a specially designed CCD camera and the ultraviolet light-enhanced visualization (ULEV) method. Vitamin D(3) and its analogues influence the biology of keratinocytes and melanocytes. To assess the effect of calcipotriol on MSM. This randomized split-face study was conducted in 27 men to compare the effect of once daily applications of 5% calcipotriol cream or a moisturizing cream on the heterogeneity of facial MSM. Computerized image analysis of video images was used at 1-month intervals before and during a 2-month treatment, as well as during a 3-month follow-up. At both sites, the average melanin content of the epidermis showed no significant change over time. However, the mottled appearance was smoothened at the calcipotriol site, whereas it was increased at the site receiving the moisturizer. The decreased heterogeneity in MSM after calcipotriol applications suggests a control of the epidermal melanocyte unit by the vitamin D(3) derivative.

  20. Somatic mosaicism for a DMD gene deletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kayoko; Ikeya, Kiyoko; Kondo, Eri [Tokyo Women`s Medical College (Japan)] [and others

    1995-03-13

    Mosaicism is a mixed state, with two cell populations of different genetic origins caused by a cell mutation occurring after fertilization. In the present case, DNA analysis of lymphocytes led to a DMD diagnosis before death. Postmortem immunocytochemical and DNA analysis showed somatic mosaicism. At age 18 years, blood lymphocyte DNA analysis showed a DMD gene deletion, upstream from exon 7 to the 5{prime} end containing both muscle and brain promoters. As the patient`s mother and elder sister had no deletions, he was considered to have a new mutation. Immunocytochemical studies of postmortem tissues showed that dystrophin was absent from the tongue, deltoid, intercostal, psoas and rectus femoris muscles, but there was a mix of dystrophin-positive and negative fibers in the rectus abdominis, cardiac, temporalis and sternocleidomastoid muscles. All diaphragm cells were dystrophin positive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from all tissues except the temporalis and sternocleidomastoid muscles, diaphragm and kidney, in which no deletion was found, showed the deletion from at least exon 6 to the 5{prime} end containing both muscle and brain promoters. In this case, a genomic deletion of the DMD gene contributed to the formation of tissues derived from both ectoderm and endoderm, and cells of mesodermal origin showed genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Our results indicate a mutation of the present case may have occurred just before the period of germ layer formation. 34 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Simulation on Scattering Effect of Sea Surface to HEMP%高空核电磁脉冲海面散射的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹斌; 汤仕平; 万海军; 蔡明娟

    2010-01-01

    根据电磁场水平极化波和垂直极化波的反射系数和折射系数表达式,分析了高空核电磁脉冲(HEMP)传播到海面后,在不同极化时的反射系数和折射系数随入射波角度和频率变化的规律.

  2. Determination of cannabinoids in hemp nut products in Taiwan by HPLC-MS/MS coupled with chemometric analysis: quality evaluation and a pilot human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Tung, Chun-Wei; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Tse; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2016-09-02

    Hemp nuts are mature cannabis seeds obtained after shelling and that are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating functional constipation. In this work, we screened hemp nut products, classified them, and verified the legality of consuming them. A total of 18 products were purchased from Taiwan, China, and Canada. Validated high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed for analyzing the cannabinoid (i.e., Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol) content of the products and the concentration of urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC. Chemometric techniques, namely hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were applied for rapidly classifying 11 concentrated powder products in Taiwan. A pilot human study comprising single and multiple administrations of a product with 1.5 µg/g of THC was conducted to examine the urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC concentration. Through optimization of 3(2) full factorial design, using 60% isopropanol as the extraction solvent exhibited the highest yield of cannabinoids and was applied as the optimal condition in further analysis. The results of HCA and PCA on quality evaluation were in good agreement; however, the tested products possessed distinct CBD-to-THC ratios which ranged widely from 0.1:1 to 46.8:1. Particularly, the products with CBD-to-THC ratios higher than 1:1 were the majority in Taiwan. Our data suggested that all the tested hemp nut products met the Taiwan restriction criterion of 10 µg/g of THC. We propose a usual consumption amount of hemp nut products in Taiwan would unlikely to violate the cut-off point of 15 ng/mL of urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Ethanol and supercritical fluid extracts of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) increase gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunghyun Hong; Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan; Taewoo Joo; Chanmook Lim; Haeme Cho; Songmun Kim; Gur-Yoo Kim; Jin-Woo Jhoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes by hemp seed extracts in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Methods: Ethanol and supercritical fluid (SF) extracts obtained from de-hulled hemp seed were used for the evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. In vitro antioxidant activities of the samples evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in HepG2cells was evaluated by real-time PCR. Results:In the antioxidant assay, SF extract of hemp seed exhibited higher ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities (IC50 of 66.6 µg/mL and 9.2 mg/mL, respectively) than ethanol extract. The results of antioxidant enzyme expression in real-time PCR study revealed the H2O2 (200 µM) challenged HepG2 cells reduced the expression of enzymes such as SOD, GPx and CAT. However, the cells treated with ethanol and SF extracts were up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes in concentration dependent manner. When compared to ethanol extract, the SF extract exhibited higher activity in the expression of all the antioxidant enzymes at the concentration of 500 µg/mL. Conclusion: In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrated that the hemp seed effectively inhibited H2O2 mediated oxidative stress and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in preventing oxidative stress mediated diseases.

  4. 工业大麻全秆制浆中试生产%A Trial Production of Whole Industrial Hemp Pulping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关庆芳; 孙川

    2012-01-01

    在前期工业大麻秆芯制浆以及大麻全秆小试制浆的基础上,对大麻全秆制浆进行了中试生产实践。结果表明:大麻全秆易蒸煮,纸浆得率较高、易漂白,聚戊糖含量适中、灰分低,易润胀打浆。蒸煮黑液含硅量比草类原料(如麦草)黑液低得多,且漂白时污染轻.%On the basis of the pulping of industrial hemp stem and lab experiment for whole industrial hemp pulping. The experimental showed that whole industrial hemp has advantages of easy cooking, easy bleaching, high pulping yield, low dioxines compaerd by lignin and chlorine in the process of bleaching, low pollution, moderate content of pentosen, easy swelling and beating. Besides, low ash content, and its silicon conent from black liquor is much lower than the silicon conent from grasses material black liquor such as wheat straw.

  5. Identification of small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes in Urticales plants: mulberry (Morus notabilis), hemp (Cannabis sativa) and ramie (Boehmeria nivea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xing; Bao, Yaning; Wang, B O; Liu, Lijun; Chen, Jie; Dai, Lunjin; Baloch, Sana Ullah; Peng, Dingxiang

    2016-03-01

    Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes are important gene families in auxin signalling transduction and are commonly used as early auxin responsive markers. Till date, no SAUR gene is identified in Urticales plants despite of the published bioinformation of mulberry, hemp and ramie. In this study, we used Arabidopsis sequences as query to search against mulberry, hemp genomes and ramie transcriptome database. In total, we obtained 62, 56 and 71 SAUR genes in mulberry, hemp and ramie, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Urticales specific expansion of SAUR genes. Expression analysis showed 15 randomly selected ramie SAUR genes that were diversely functioned in ramie tissues and revealed a series of IAA-responsive, drought-responsive and high temperature-responsive genes. Moreover, comparison of qRT-PCR data and previous RNA-Seq data suggested the reliability of our work. In this study, we first report the identification of SAUR genes in Urticales plants. These results will provide a foundation for their function validation in Urticales plant growth and development.

  6. Alkali modification and softening finish of hemp yarn%大麻纱线的碱改性柔软整理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠金星; 王宝权; 吕站逵; 季英超

    2012-01-01

    针对大麻纱在针织机上生产时存在编织成圈困难的问题,提出了对大麻纱线进行柔软处理以提高其可编织性的方法.用氢氧化钠对大麻纱线进行改性,结合柔软剂进行柔软处理的方法降低大麻纱线的刚性,并采用正交试验的方法,确定了碱改性的最佳工艺:碱液质量浓度l00g/L,温度20℃,浸渍时间15min,浴比1:20.结合柔软剂整理可明显降低大麻纱线刚性,提高纯大麻纱线的上机编织效果.%The soft hemp yarn processing was studies to enhance their weave performance. Alkali modification together with treatment of caustic soda and softener was used for reducing the stiffness of hemp yarn. The result indicates that the best technological conditions were: alkali concentration 100 g/L, temperature 20 ℃ , soaking time is 15 min, liquor ratio 1 : 20. The treatment with softening agent can obviously reduce the stiffness of hemp yarn and improve its knitting performance.

  7. Ozone response of tomato plants infected with cucumber mosaic virus and/or tobacco mosaic virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormrod, D.P.; Kemp, W.G.

    1979-10-01

    The sensitivity of three tomato cultivars to several concentrations of ozone was evaluated after prior sequential inoculations with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and/or cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Ozone injury in inoculated and uninoculated tomatoes varied from slight to severe depending on the virus, cultivar, ozone concentration and virus incubation period. The frequency of increased ozone injury was about twice as great as that of suppressed injury on infected plants. Ozone injury occurred more frequently in TMV-inoculated plants than in those inoculated with CMV. There were more increases than decreases in ozone injury after 7 or 14 days of virus infection, but mainly decreases in injury after 21 days infection. Growth was significantly reduced in plants exposed to ozone after a 21-day virus incubation period, particularly when they were inoculated with both viruses.

  8. Detection of Corchorus golden mosaic virus Associated with Yellow Mosaic Disease of Jute (Corchorus capsularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Raju; Palit, Paramita; Paul, Sujay; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Roy, Anirban

    2012-06-01

    Yellow mosaic disease, caused by a whitefly transmitted New World Begomovirus, named Corchorus golden mosaic virus (CoGMV), is emerging as a serious biotic constraint for jute fibre production in Asia. For rapid and sensitive diagnosis of the Begomovirus associated with this disease, a non-radiolabelled diagnostic probe, developed against the DNA A component of the east Indian isolate of CoGMV, detected the presence of the virus in infected plants and viruliferous whiteflies following Southern hybridization and nucleic acid spot hybridization tests. Presence of the virus was also confirmed when polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed using virus-specific primers on DNA templates isolated from infected plants and viruliferous whiteflies.

  9. Extensive Hidden Genomic Mosaicism Revealed in Normal Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattathil, Selina; Scheet, Paul

    2016-03-03

    Genomic mosaicism arising from post-zygotic mutation has recently been demonstrated to occur in normal tissue of individuals ascertained with varied phenotypes, indicating that detectable mosaicism may be less an exception than a rule in the general population. A challenge to comprehensive cataloging of mosaic mutations and their consequences is the presence of heterogeneous mixtures of cells, rendering low-frequency clones difficult to discern. Here we applied a computational method using estimated haplotypes to characterize mosaic megabase-scale structural mutations in 31,100 GWA study subjects. We provide in silico validation of 293 previously identified somatic mutations and identify an additional 794 novel mutations, most of which exist at lower aberrant cell fractions than have been demonstrated in previous surveys. These mutations occurred across the genome but in a nonrandom manner, and several chromosomes and loci showed unusual levels of mutation. Our analysis supports recent findings about the relationship between clonal mosaicism and old age. Finally, our results, in which we demonstrate a nearly 3-fold higher rate of clonal mosaicism, suggest that SNP-based population surveys of mosaic structural mutations should be conducted with haplotypes for optimal discovery.

  10. Extensive Hidden Genomic Mosaicism Revealed in Normal Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattathil, Selina; Scheet, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Genomic mosaicism arising from post-zygotic mutation has recently been demonstrated to occur in normal tissue of individuals ascertained with varied phenotypes, indicating that detectable mosaicism may be less an exception than a rule in the general population. A challenge to comprehensive cataloging of mosaic mutations and their consequences is the presence of heterogeneous mixtures of cells, rendering low-frequency clones difficult to discern. Here we applied a computational method using estimated haplotypes to characterize mosaic megabase-scale structural mutations in 31,100 GWA study subjects. We provide in silico validation of 293 previously identified somatic mutations and identify an additional 794 novel mutations, most of which exist at lower aberrant cell fractions than have been demonstrated in previous surveys. These mutations occurred across the genome but in a nonrandom manner, and several chromosomes and loci showed unusual levels of mutation. Our analysis supports recent findings about the relationship between clonal mosaicism and old age. Finally, our results, in which we demonstrate a nearly 3-fold higher rate of clonal mosaicism, suggest that SNP-based population surveys of mosaic structural mutations should be conducted with haplotypes for optimal discovery. PMID:26942289

  11. Parallel-Processing Software for Creating Mosaic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Deen, Robert; McCauley, Michael; DeJong, Eric

    2008-01-01

    A computer program implements parallel processing for nearly real-time creation of panoramic mosaics of images of terrain acquired by video cameras on an exploratory robotic vehicle (e.g., a Mars rover). Because the original images are typically acquired at various camera positions and orientations, it is necessary to warp the images into the reference frame of the mosaic before stitching them together to create the mosaic. [Also see "Parallel-Processing Software for Correlating Stereo Images," Software Supplement to NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 9 (September 2007) page 26.] The warping algorithm in this computer program reflects the considerations that (1) for every pixel in the desired final mosaic, a good corresponding point must be found in one or more of the original images and (2) for this purpose, one needs a good mathematical model of the cameras and a good correlation of individual pixels with respect to their positions in three dimensions. The desired mosaic is divided into slices, each of which is assigned to one of a number of central processing units (CPUs) operating simultaneously. The results from the CPUs are gathered and placed into the final mosaic. The time taken to create the mosaic depends upon the number of CPUs, the speed of each CPU, and whether a local or a remote data-staging mechanism is used.

  12. The eMOSAIC model for humanoid robot control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Norikazu; Morimoto, Jun; Hyon, Sang-Ho; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we propose an extension of the MOSAIC architecture to control real humanoid robots. MOSAIC was originally proposed by neuroscientists to understand the human ability of adaptive control. The modular architecture of the MOSAIC model can be useful for solving nonlinear and non-stationary control problems. Both humans and humanoid robots have nonlinear body dynamics and many degrees of freedom. Since they can interact with environments (e.g., carrying objects), control strategies need to deal with non-stationary dynamics. Therefore, MOSAIC has strong potential as a human motor-control model and a control framework for humanoid robots. Yet application of the MOSAIC model has been limited to simple simulated dynamics since it is susceptive to observation noise and also cannot be applied to partially observable systems. Our approach introduces state estimators into MOSAIC architecture to cope with real environments. By using an extended MOSAIC model, we are able to successfully generate squatting and object-carrying behaviors on a real humanoid robot.

  13. An Intelligent mutli-object retrieval system for historical mosaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Maghrebi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a Mosaics Intelligent Retrieval System (MIRS for digital museums. The objective of this work is to attain a semantic interpretation of images of historical mosaics. We use the fuzzy logic techniques and semantic similarity measure to extract knowledge from the images for multi-object indexing. The extracted knowledge provides the users (experts and laypersons with an intuitive way to describe and to query the images in the database. Our contribution in this paper is firstly, to define semantic fuzzy linguistic terms to encode the object position and the inter-objects spatial relationships in the mosaic image. Secondly, to present a fuzzy color quantization approach using the human perceptual HSV color space and finally, to classify semantically the mosaics images using a semantic similarity measure. The automatically extracted knowledge are collected and traduced into XML language to create mosaics metadata. This system uses a simple Graphic User Interface (GUI in natural language and applies the classification approach both on the mosaics images database and on user queries, to limit images classes in the retrieval process. MIRS is tested on images from the exceptional Tunisian collection of complex mosaics. Experimental results are based on queries of various complexities which yielded a system’s recall and precision rates of 86.6% and 87.1%, respectively, while the classification approach gives an average success rate evaluated to 76%.

  14. Tissue differences in fragile X mosaics: Mosaicism in blood cells may differ greatly from skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobkin, C.S.; Nolin, S.L.; Cohen, I. [NYS Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-09

    The fragile X mutation is diagnosed from the structure of the FMR1 gene in blood cell DNA. An estimated 12 to 41% of affected males are mosaics who carry both a {open_quotes}full mutation{close_quotes} allele from which there is no gene expression and a {open_quotes}premutation{close_quotes} allele which has normal gene expression. We compared the DNA in blood cells and skin fibroblasts from four mosaic fragile X males to see if there was a difference in the relative amounts of premutation and full mutation alleles within the tissues of these individuals. Two of these males showed striking differences in the ratio of premutation to full mutation in different tissues while the other two showed only slight differences. These observations conform with the widely accepted hypothesis that the fragile X CGG repeat is unstable in somatic tissue during early embryogenesis. Accordingly, the mosaicism in brain and skin, which are both ectodermal in origin, may be similar to each other but different from blood which is not ectodermal in origin. Thus, the ratio of full mutation to premutation allele in skin fibroblasts might be a better indicator of psychological impairment than the ratio in blood cells. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Biological and Molecular Characterization of Cucumber mosaic virus Subgroup II Isolate Causing Severe Mosaic in Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Reenu; Bhardwaj, Pooja; Singh, Lakhmir; Zaidi, Aijaz A; Hallan, Vipin

    2013-06-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has a wide host range causing severe damage in many important agricultural and ornamental crops. Earlier reports showed the prevalence of CMV subgroup I isolates in India. However, some recent reports point towards increasing incidence of subgroup II isolates in the country. The complete genome of a CMV isolate causing severe mosaic in cucumber was characterized and its phylogenetic analysis with other 21 CMV isolates reported worldwide clustered it with subgroup II strains. The genome comprised of RNA 1 (3,379 nucleotides), RNA 2 (3,038 nucleotides) and RNA 3 (2,206 nucleotides). The isolate showed highest homology with subgroup II isolates: 95.1-98.7, 87.7-98.0, and 85.4-97.1 % within RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3, respectively. RNA1 and RNA2 were closely related to the Japanese isolate while RNA3 clustered with an American isolate. Host range studies revealed that isolate showed severe mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana spp. and Cucumis spp. The isolate induced leaf deformation and mild filiform type symptoms in tomato. To best of our knowledge this is the first report of complete genome of CMV subgroup II isolate from India.

  16. Solar Mosaic Inc. Mosaic Home Solar Loan SunShot 9 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Colin James [Solar Mosaic Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    2017-02-09

    The 6686 Mosaic SunShot award has helped Solar Mosaic Inc to progress from an early stage startup focused on commercial crowdfunding to a leading multi-state residential solar lender. The software platform is now used by the majority of the nation's top solar installers and offers a variety of simple home solar loans. Mosaic is has originated approximately $1Bil in solar loans to date to put solar on over 35k rooftops. The company now lends to homeowners with a wide range of credit scores across multiple states and mitigates boundaries preventing them from profiting from ownership of a home solar system. The project included milestones in 5 main categories: 1. Lending to homeowners outside of CA 2. Lending to homeowners with FICO scores under 700 3. Packaging O&M with the home solar loan 4. Allowing residential installers to process home solar loans via API 5. Lowering customer acquisition costs below $1500 This report includes a detailed review of the final results achieved and key findings.

  17. Optical flow with structure information for epithelial image mosaicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sharib; Faraz, Khuram; Daul, Christian; Blondel, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Mosaicing of biological tissue surfaces is challenging due to the weak image textures. This contribution presents a mosaicing algorithm based on a robust and accurate variational optical flow scheme. A Riesz pyramid based multiscale approach aims at overcoming the "flattening-out" problem at coarser levels. Moreover, the structure information present in images of epithelial surfaces is incorporated into the data-term to improve the algorithm robustness. The algorithm accuracy is first assessed with simulated sequences and then used for mosaicing standard clinical endoscopic data.

  18. Image mosaic method based on SIFT features of line segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Ren, Mingwu

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel image mosaic method based on SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) feature of line segment, aiming to resolve incident scaling, rotation, changes in lighting condition, and so on between two images in the panoramic image mosaic process. This method firstly uses Harris corner detection operator to detect key points. Secondly, it constructs directed line segments, describes them with SIFT feature, and matches those directed segments to acquire rough point matching. Finally, Ransac method is used to eliminate wrong pairs in order to accomplish image mosaic. The results from experiment based on four pairs of images show that our method has strong robustness for resolution, lighting, rotation, and scaling.

  19. Mosaic tetracycline resistance genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Philip J; Amodeo, Nina; Roberts, Adam P

    2016-12-01

    First reported in 2003, mosaic tetracycline resistance genes are a subgroup of the genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins (RPPs). They are formed when two or more RPP-encoding genes recombine resulting in a functional chimera. To date, the majority of mosaic genes are derived from sections of three RPP genes, tet(O), tet(W) and tet(32), with others comprising tet(M) and tet(S). In this first review of mosaic genes, we report on their structure, diversity and prevalence, and suggest that these genes may be responsible for an under-reported contribution to tetracycline resistance in bacteria.

  20. MOSAICISM CONFINED TO PLACENTA IN PREGNANCIES WITH ADVERSE OUTCOME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向阳; KarinSundberg; BjarneBeck; 孙念怙

    1995-01-01

    Chorionic villi and feral tissues from 50 pathological human conceptions ar gesrarional weeks 9-40 were cultured and cytogenetically analyzed to explore the existence of chromosomal mosaicism confined to the extraembryonic tissues and to clarify the relationship between confined placental mosaicism and adverse outcome of pregnancy. Chorionic villi and fetal rlssues from 12 second trimester gesrations terminated for social reasons served as a control group. In two pathological gestations, true mosaicism was found exclusively in chorionic cells and could not be confirmed in cells derived from the fetal tissues, One of these was severely growth retarded, Concordant results were obtained in all other cases,

  1. Effects of steam pretreatment and co-production with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, heat and electricity production from industrial hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus™ to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-based processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-production of biogas, district heat and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of heat demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Results Producing biogas, heat and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (based on lower heating values), providing that the maximum capacity of district heat is delivered. The combined production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district heat is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-production with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103–128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The production and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the production and prices of electricity and district heat. Conclusions To reduce the production cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined production with

  2. 汉麻叶的生物活性成分研究现状%Advancesin Bioactive Compounds in Hemp Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何锦风; 杜军强; 陈天鹏

    2011-01-01

    本文对汉麻植株叶子中化学成分的生物活性研究概况进行了综述.汉麻叶中生物活性成分可分为大麻酚类化合物和非大麻酚类化合物,其中很多成分在医药领域具有显著的利用价值,有些已经应用于临床.本文对汉麻叶中不同种类的化合物的提取、分离和分析方法进行了总结,较为全面地论述了国内外有关大麻酚类化合物,特别是△9-THC、CBD、CBN等,以及非大麻酚类化合物,如黄酮、生物碱、多酚类和有机酸等,在抗癌、治疗神经疾病、抗菌、抗紫外、抗氧化等方面的研究进展和应用价值.此外,还对汉麻叶中化学成分在药物和护肤品领域中的应用前景进行了展望.汉麻叶可以作为多种生物活性成分的提取原料,生产具有高附加值的产品,是汉麻综合利用产业链中必不可少的环节.%The article reviewed the advances in phytochemicals with bioactivity in hemp (Cannabis saliva L.) leaves. The bioactive components could be divided as cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid, and many of those have significant practical value in pharmaceutical industry and some have been already utilized in clinic. It summarized the separation, isolation, and analysis methods for phytochemicals in hemp leaves and demonstrated the activities of cannabinoid (such as A'-THC, CBD, and CBN) and non-cannabinoid (such as flavone, alkaloids, polyphenols, organic acid) on anti-cancer, treatment on neurological diseases, anti-bacterial, anti-UV, and antioxidation. Finally, the article brings a prospective on the utilization of hemp leaves bioactive compounds in medicine and skin care product. In general, the hemp leaves could be used as material for bioactive compounds with high value, which is a necessary content of comprehensive utilization industry train of hemp

  3. Nucleotide sequence of papaya mosaic virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, T L; Abouhaidar, M G; Holy, S

    1989-09-01

    The RNA genome of papaya mosaic virus is 6656 nucleotides long [excluding the poly(A) tail] with six open reading frames (ORFs) more than 200 nucleotides long. The four nearest the 5' end each overlap with adjacent ORFs and could code for proteins with Mr 176307, 26248, 11949 and 7224 (ORFs 1 to 4). The fifth ORF produces the capsid protein of Mr 23043 and the sixth ORF, located completely within ORF1, could code for a protein with Mr 14113. The translation products of ORFs 1 to 3 show strong similarity with those of other potexviruses but the ORF 4 protein has only limited similarity with the other potexvirus ORF 4 proteins of 7K to 11K.

  4. A Mosaic of Creativity in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Martha Branson-Banks, OT, provided the cover art for the summer 2014 issue of the Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. The piece is titled “Garden with thanks to Klimt” and is one of several mosaic art pieces in her collection of works. She created the piece with art glass and resin on an abandoned door. Her use of a repurposed door represents her belief in the capacity for transformation and beauty within each individual she has treated and taught throughout her career. Martha’s work as an occupational therapist, educator, and artist reminds us of the foundational beliefs of the occupational therapy profession, including the benefits of engagement in meaningful and creative activities.

  5. Methods of Spectral Analysis in C++ (MOSAIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engesser, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Stellar spectroscopic classification is most often still done by hand. MOSAIC is a project focused on the collection and classification of astronomical spectra using a computerized algorithm. The code itself attempts to accurately classify stellar spectra according to the broad spectral classes within the Morgan-Keenan system of spectral classification, based on estimated temperature and the relative abundances of certain notable elements (Hydrogen, Helium, etc.) in the stellar atmosphere. The methodology includes calibrating the wavelength for pixels across the image by using the wavelength dispersion of pixels inherent with the spectrograph used. It then calculates the location of the peak in the star's Planck spectrum in order to roughly classify the star. Fitting the graph to a blackbody curve is the final step for a correct classification. Future work will involve taking a closer look at emission lines and luminosity classes.

  6. Peach latent mosaic viroid: not so latent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ricardo; Delgado, Sonia; Rodio, María-Elena; Ambrós, Silvia; Hernández, Carmen; Serio, Francesco D I

    2006-07-01

    SUMMARY Taxonomy: Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is the type species of the genus Pelamoviroid within the family Avsunviroidae of chloroplastic viroids with hammerhead ribozymes. Physical properties: A small circular RNA of 336-351 nt (differences in size result from the absence or presence of certain insertions) adopting a branched conformation stabilized by a pseudoknot between two kissing loops. This particular conformation is most likely responsible for the insolubility of PLMVd in highly saline conditions (in which other viroids adopting a rod-like conformation are soluble). Both polarity strands are able to form hammerhead structures and to self-cleave during replication as predicted by these ribozymes. Biological properties: Although most infections occur without conspicuous symptoms, certain PLMVd isolates induce leaf mosaics, blotches and in the most extreme cases albinism (peach calico, PC), flower streaking, delays in foliation, flowering and ripening, deformations and decolorations of fruits, which usually present cracked sutures and enlarged roundish stones, bud necrosis, stem pitting and premature ageing of the trees, which also adopt a characteristic growing pattern (open habit). The molecular determinant for PC has been mapped at a 12-14-nt insertion that folds into a hairpin capped by a U-rich loop present only in certain variants. PLMVd is horizontally transmitted by the propagation of infected buds and to a lesser extent by pruning tools and aphids, but not by pollen; the viroid is not vertically transmitted through seed. Interesting features: This provides a suitable system for studying how a minimal non-protein-coding catalytic RNA replicates (subverting a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe an RNA template), moves, interferes with the metabolism of its host (inciting specific symptoms and a defensive RNA silencing response) and evolves following a quasi-species model characterized by a complex spectrum of variants.

  7. 工业大麻种子的营养特性与保健品开发%Nutritional Characteristics of Industrial Hemp Seeds and Development of Healthcare Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云云; 苏文君; 杨阳; 郭鸿彦; 杨明; 刘飞虎

    2012-01-01

    工业大麻种子富含油脂、蛋白质、碳水化合物以及矿质元素和维生素,具有营养和保健双重功效,目前已经开发出大麻籽食品、油、蛋白粉、美容化妆品等系列保健产品.利用现代化加工工艺开发系列大麻营养食品及保健品,对改善人类营养结构、增进健康具有重大意义.%This paper summarizes the nutritional characteristics and healthcare products development of hemp seeds. Hemp seeds, rich in various nutrients including 25% ~35% of oil (of which 80% essential fatty acids) , 20% ~25% of protein and 20% ~ 30% of carbohydrates, especially the abundant minerals and vitamins, have dual efficacy for human nutrition and health care. A series of healthcare products are developed from hemp seeds, such as foods, oil, protein powder and cosmetics. It is of great significance for optimizing the nutrition structure and enhancing human health to take full advantage of hemp resources and develop hemp nutritious foods and healthcare products by using the modern processing technology.

  8. Hemp Industry Research Progress — Ⅱ .Comprehensive Utilization and Development Suggestion%大麻产业研究进展——Ⅱ.大麻的综合利用与发展建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕咏梅; 杨龙; 胡万群

    2012-01-01

    This article introduced some hemp processing technologies including the hemp fiber degumming by steam explosion to produce ecological fiber board, the recycle of xylooligosaccharides and pectin, the production of stalk core viscose, the production of porcelain made of charred hemp stalk core, the processing of green building materials and composite materials of stalk core, the processing of active carbon of stalk core, the comprehensive utilization of hemp seed, the key technologies of active substances extraction. Some preliminary suggestions to quicken our country hemp industry development was come up with.%本文介绍了大麻纤维的汽爆脱胶技术处理生产生态纤维板技术、回收低聚木糖和果胶技术、秆芯粘胶生产技术、秆芯碳化硅木质陶瓷生产技术、秆芯环保建筑材料和复合材料加工技术、秆芯活性炭加工技术、大麻籽综合利用技术、活性物质分离提取应用关键技术;初步提出了加速我国大麻产业发展的思路.

  9. The influence of the type of lime on the hygric behaviour and bio-receptivity of hemp lime composites used for rendering applications in sustainable new construction and repair works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizzi, Anna; Brümmer, Monika; Martín-Sanchez, Inés; Cultrone, Giuseppe; Viles, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of using sustainable building materials are linked not only to the adoption of manufacturing processes that entail reduced pollution, CO2 emissions and energy consumption, but also to the onset of improved performance in the building. In particular, hemp-lime composite shows low shrinkage and high thermal and acoustic insulating properties. However, this material also shows a great ability to absorb water, an aspect that can turn out to be negative for the long-term durability of the building. For this reason, the hygric properties of hemp-based composites need to be studied to ensure the correct use of this material in construction and repair works. The water absorption, drying and transpirability of hemp composites made with aerial (in the form of dry powder and putty) and hydraulic limes were investigated here and related to the microbial growth induced by the water movements within the material. Results show that hemp-natural hydraulic lime mixes exhibit the highest transpirability and drying rate, the lowest water absorption by immersion and capillary uptake and the least intense microbial attack and chromatic change. A microscopical study of the hemp shives also related their great ability to absorb water to the near-irreversible swelling of their structure under dry-wet conditions.

  10. A 2014 nationwide survey of the distribution of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) major viruses in South Korean soybean fields, and changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014 symptomatic soybean samples were collected throughout Korea, and were tested for the most important soybean viruses found in Korea, namely Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV). SYMMV was most commonly detected,...

  11. The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on light interception and dry matter yield in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad reza asghari poor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on canopy light interception and on flowering was investigated in hemp (Cannabis sativa L. cv. ‘Kompolti’ Crop grown at initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 at the Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 at the Shirvan. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied before and 45 days after sowing at a rates of 50 and 200 kg/ha at the Mashhad, and 50, 150 and 250 kg/ha at the Shirvan. Rate of canopy development increased with increasing plant density and nitrogen fertilizer in both sites. At the Mashhad, interception of 90% of light was attained at 380 to 665 degree days (base 2°C from emergence for the crop grown at different densities. At Shirvan, rate of canopy development was slower. Interception of 90% of light was attained at 586 degree days from emergence for the crop grown at 30 plants/m2 and at 712 degree days for the crop grown at 150 plants/m2, probably as a result of cold weather. Nitrogen fertilizer in a similar way as plant density increased light interception. Maximum light interception did not depend on plant density and nitrogen fertilizer and was about 95%. In both sites, the flowering date was later with increasing plant density. Dates of 75% flowering for the initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 in Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 in Shirvan were, respectively 26 August, 1, 6, 6, 11 and 12 September. Independent of plant density, canopy light interception started to decline at about 150 degree days after flowering, reaching 58 to 75% at about 700 degree days post-flowering. Morphological characteristics at both sites were highly correlated with plant sexual, plant population and nitrogen fertilizer. Highest stem, leaf and inflorescence yield were obtained in Mashhad at 250 plant/m-2 and in Shirvan at 150 plant m-2 when 200 kg N ha-1 in Mashhad and 250 kg N/ha in Shirvan was used. Above ground dry matter increased at both sites with increasing plant density and

  12. 1935 15' Quad #227 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #298 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #132 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #082 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #373 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #364 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #273 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #203 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #315 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #100 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #414 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #080 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #413 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #341 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #243 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #242 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #251 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #126 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #171 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #178 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #049 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #346 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. Immunogenic compositions comprising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mosaic Nef proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Perkins, Simon [Los Alamos, NM; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos, NM; Fischer, William M [Los Alamos, NM; Theiler, James [Los Alamos, NM; Letvin, Norman [Boston, MA; Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos, NM; Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-02-21

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Nef polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  15. 1935 15' Quad #223 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #035 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #318 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #342 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #267 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #386 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #322 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 2009 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Brunswick Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #274 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #226 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #152 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #125 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #121 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #388 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #145 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. Mosaic triple X syndrome in a female with primary amenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Venkateshwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Turner′s syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality in females, affecting 1 in 2,500 live female births. It is a result of absence of an X chromosome or the presence of a structurally abnormal X chromosome. Its most consistent clinical features are short stature and ovarian failure. Aim: The aim of the study was to report a rare case of mosaic triple X syndrome in a female with primary amenorrhea. Materials and Methods: The chromosomal analysis using GTG banding was carried out, which revealed a mosaicism with 45,XO/47,XXX chromosomal constitution. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was also carried out to further confirm the observation made in the study. Conclusion: The physical features presented by the female could be due to the 45,XO/47,XXX mosaicism and the karyotype analysis was consistent with the diagnosis and clinical symptoms. Triple X mosaicism was confirmed with conventional and molecular cytogenetic analysis.

  11. 1935 15' Quad #389 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #490 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #442 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #174 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #457 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #225 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #060 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #087 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #104 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #299 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...