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Sample records for sunn hemp electronic

  1. The facts about sunn hemp toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is an annual plant widely grown in the tropics. The genus Crotalaria includes some species known to be toxic to animals. Development of seed producing cultivars for the continental USA at Auburn University, AL, has raised the question if its seed and forage are toxic...

  2. Apical Dominance and Planting Density Effects on Weed Suppression by Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 in Citra, Florida to evaluate the effects of seeding rate and removal of apical dominance of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) on weed suppression and seed production of sunn hemp. Three seeding rates of sunn hemp were used; a representative seed producti...

  3. Nitrogen mineralization from 'AU Golden' sunn hemp residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tropical legume sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) cultivar ‘AU Golden’ has the potential to provide substantial amounts of nitrogen (N) to subsequent crops that could reduce recommended application rates of synthetic N fertilizers. Nitrogen fertilization problems via legumes are often due to asynch...

  4. Production of the sunn hemp cultivars 'AU Golden' and 'AU Durbin developed by Auburn University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is the fastest growing species of the genus Crotalaria and is the most widely grown green manure in the tropics. Sunn hemp is also adapted to a wide range of conditions and soil types, while still producing high biomass yields. These characteristics enable the crop...

  5. Sunn hemp as a cover crop to reduce nitrogen inputs for winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tropical legume sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) has the potential to perform as a beneficial cover crop in the southeastern United States due to its ability to accumulate large amounts of biomass and symbiotic nitrogen (N) in a short period of time during the summer months. Planting sunn hemp,...

  6. Phenotypic characterization of sixteen accessions of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.)in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a leguminous cover crop that provides benefits to a cropping system including nitrogen accumulation, weed suppression and soil stability. Adoption of sunn hemp as a cover crop is limited primarily due to the availability of seed sources, leading to high seed cost...

  7. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea): Monoculture and polyculture production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

  8. Planting date and seeding rate effects on sunn hemp biomass and nitrogen production for a winter cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N) quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) wi...

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF NITROGEN FROM SUNN HEMP AND AMMONIUM SULFATE BY SUGAR CANE RATOON

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The utilization of nitrogen by sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) fertilized with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) as green manure and ammonia sulfate and its residual effect during two cuts were evaluated using 15N tracer technique. The amounts of 195.8 kg and 70 kg of N by hectare were added respectively as sunn hemp (SH) and ammonium sulfate (AS), in the following treatments: Control; AS-15N; SH-15N + AS; SH-15N; AS-15N + SH. Five samples of +3 leaves were collected and two meters of th...

  10. Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) cutting date and planting density on weed suppression in Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J Bradley; Chase, Carlene; Treadwell, Danielle; Koenig, Rosie; Cho, Alyssa; Morales-Payan, Jose Pable; Murphy, Tim; Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA, to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to (1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks after planting (WAP) on May 14, 2008 and May 21, 2009] and (2) assess the impact of seeding rates (11, 28, and 45 kg ha(-1)) on weed biomass reduction. Weed species were identified at 4, 8, and 12 wks after sunn hemp planting. Sunn hemp cutting date had no significant effect on weed suppression in 2008 but significant differences for grass weeds at 4, 8, and 12 WAP and for yellow nutsedge at 8 and 12 WAP did occur when compared to the control in 2009. In comparison to the sunn hemp-free control plot in 2009, all three seeding rates had reduced grass weed dry weights at 4, 8, and 12 WAP. The total mass of yellow nutsedge when grown with sunn hemp was reduced compared to the total mass of yellow nutsedge grown in the weedy check for all seeding rates at 8 and 12 WAP. Lower grass weed biomass was observed by 12 WAP for cutting dates and seeding rates during 2008 and 2009. Sunn hemp cutting date and seeding rate reduced branch numbers in both years. The reduction in sunn hemp seeding rates revealed a decrease in weed populations.

  11. Planting Date and Seeding Rate Effects on Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for a Winter Cover Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling S. Balkcom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha. Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.

  12. Application of bokashi and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. to improve inorganic fertilizer efficiency on maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Yuliana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted lo learn about the effect of Bokashi and Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. on maize production and inorganic fertilizer use efficiency on maize. The experiment was conducted in Jatikerto, Malang; at the altitude of 303 m above sea level, in Alfisol soil type, the average daily temperature ranges 21-33oC, from June to October 2013. The experiment was conducted as factorial, designed in a randomized block design (RBD. The first factor was dose of inorganic fertilizer (100% ; 75% and 50% of recommendation dose. The second factor was the organic fertilizer (Without organic fertilizer20 t Bokashi/ ha, 20 t Sunn hemp/ha, 10 t Bokashi/ha + 10 t Sunn hemp/ha. The results showed that application of 20 t Bokashi/ha, 20 t Sunn hemp/ha, and combination of 10 t Bokashi/ha + 10 t Sunn hemp/ha, along with the application of inorganic fertilizer by dose of 100% increased the yields of maize for about 41.8%; 47.6% and 54.7% (10.73 t/ha; 11.17 t/ha, and 11.71 t/ha, respectively. The yield and nutrient use efficiency in the treatment dose of 100% inorganic fertilizer did not have any significant difference from the application of 20 t Bokashi /ha, 20 t Sunn hemp/ha, and 10 t Bokashi/ha + 10 t Sunn hemp/ha along with doses of inorganic fertilization 75% and 50%. Therefore, the organic fertilizer of 20 t Bokashi/ ha, 20 t Sunn hemp/ha, and combination of 10 t Bokashi/ha + 10 t Sunn hemp/ha could reduce the need of inorganic fertilizer for about 50%.

  13. Utilization of sunn hemp for cover crops and weed control in temperate climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need to develop increasingly integrated pest management and sustainable food production systems has encouraged a greater interest to thoroughly evaluate effective utilization of cover crops in agricultural systems. Sunn hemp, a tropical legume that originated most likely from the Indo-Pakistani ...

  14. Sunn Hemp cover cropping and organic fertilizer effects on the nematode community under temperate growing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantings of sunn hemp as a cover crop have been experimentally shown to improve soil health, reduce plant-parasitic nematodes, and increase nematode-antagonistic microorganisms. However, these studies have been largely conducted in tropical and subtropical regions. To investigate the impacts of sun...

  15. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp cv. 'Tropic Sun')

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp cv. ‘Tropic Sun’) is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds, and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydr...

  16. Effect of Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) Cutting Date and Planting Density on Weed Suppression in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to: 1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks...

  17. Variability of surface characteristics and energy flux patterns of sunn hemp ( Crotalaria juncea L.) under well-watered conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Keiko; Kimura, Reiji; Şaylan, Levent

    2009-05-01

    There is not much information in the literature about the energy partitioning and micrometeorological features of sunn hemp. Therefore, in this study, the variations in the energy-balance components and plant characteristics such as aerodynamic and surface conductance, crop coefficient, albedo, short- and long wave down- and upward radiation have been measured and estimated for the time period from August to October 2004 over an irrigated sand field at the Arid Land Research Center in Tottori, Japan. The Bowen ratio energy-balance method was used to calculate the partitioning of heat fluxes of sunn hemp. The Bowen ratio values at the first growing stages in August were found to be higher than the Bowen ratio values at the latest growing stages in September and October because of the heavy rain and high soil-water content. The daytime averaged Bowen ratio was 0.19. During the measurement period, the daytime average net radiation, and soil, latent and sensible heat fluxes were approximately 231, 28, 164, and 39 W m-2, respectively. The net radiation and soil heat flux showed decreasing trends from the beginning to the end of the experiment period due to the atmospheric and crop growth conditions. The daytime averages of aerodynamic and surface conductance for sunn hemp were around 31 and 17 mm s-1, respectively. Also, the daytime average albedo of sunn hemp was around 19%. Finally, the high precipitation amount due to typhoons, high soil-water content, low available energy and low vapor-pressure deficit lead to decreasing trend of the energy fluxes during the generative phase of sunn hemp.

  18. Sunn hemp cover cropping and organic fertilizer effects on the nematode community under temperate growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Jermaine; Wang, Koon-Hui; Marahatta, Sharadchandra P; Meyer, Susan L F; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2013-12-01

    Field experiments were conducted in Maryland to investigate the influence of sunn hemp cover cropping in conjunction with organic and synthetic fertilizers on the nematode community in a zucchini cropping system. Two field treatments, zucchini planted into a sunn hemp living and surface mulch (SH) and zucchini planted into bare-ground (BG) were established during three field seasons from 2009 to 2011. In 2009, although SH slightly increased nematode richness compared with BG by the first harvest (P < 0.10), it reduced nematode diversity and enrichment indices (P < 0.01 and P < 0.10, respectively) and increased the channel index (P < 0.01) compared to BG at the final harvest. This suggests a negative impact of SH on nematode community structure. The experiment was modified in 2010 and 2011 where the SH and BG main plots were further split into two subplots to investigate the added influence of an organic vs. synthetic fertilizer. In 2010, when used as a living and surface mulch in a no-till system, SH increased bacterivorous, fungivorous, and total nematodes (P < 0.05) by the final zucchini harvest, but fertilizer type did not influence nematode community structure. In 2011, when incorporated into the soil before zucchini planting, SH increased the abundance of bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes early in the cropping season. SH increased species richness also at the end of the season (P < 0.05). Fertilizer application did not appear to influence nematodes early in the season. However, in late season, organic fertilizers increased enrichment and structure indices and decreased channel index by the end of the zucchini cropping cycle.

  19. Efeito de fertilizantes fosfatados na cultura da crotalária Effect of phosphate fertilizers in sunn hemp crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados e discutidos os resultados obtidos em seis experimentos de campo, em que se procurou estudar a resposta da crotalária (Crotalaria juncea L. a diversos adubos fosfatados, em diferentes tipos de solo e regiões paulistas, considerando-se a produção de massa verde e de sementes. Esses adubos, sempre acompanhados de nitrogênio e potássio, foram: superfosfato simples, superfosfato triplo, fosfato-de-araxá, termofosfato, farinha de ossos degelatinada e Yoorin. Os resultados dos experimentos revelam que os adubos fosfatados não apresentaram significância estatística sobre a produção de massa verde e sementes. Mesmo assim, convém ressaltar a posição de destaque que alcançou em vários experimentos (Tatuí, Ribeirão Preto e Campinas a utilização de farinha de ossos degelatinada na produção média de massa verde.The objective of this work was to study the growth response of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. to different phosphate fertilizers, in three locations. Six field experiments were carried out in the Experimental Stations of the Agricultural Institute of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, located in Tatuí, Ribeirão Preto and Campinas, during two following years, 1971/72 and 1972/73. The soils in those locations corresponded to a Dusky Red Latosol. The treatments consisted of the following phosphate fertilizers: simple superphosphate, triple superphosphate, phosphate of Araxá, thermophosphate, steamed bone meal and Yoorin. Nitrogen and potassium fertilizers were also supplied in normal rates. Two checks were used, one without any fertilization and another with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers only. The experimental design consisted of randomized complete blocks with five replications. The results obtained showed higher green matter and seed yields, by the plants grown with steamed bone meal, in several experiments in all three locations. However, in the analysis of variance these

  20. The use of sunn hemp as green manure intercropped with taro Utilização de crotalária como adubo-verde em consórcio com taro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luíz de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in Magé, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, to evaluate the performance of taro (Colocasia esculenta intercropped with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea, used as green manure. A randomized blocks design with four replicates was used and the soil of the field plots was classified as Haplic Gleysol. Treatments consisted of taro (1 intercropped with unpruned sunn hemp, (2 intercropped with sunn hemp cut at soil level, (3 intercropped with sunn hemp pruned at its mid-height, and (4 in monoculture. The taro was planted in double rows spaced by 1.0 m. The planting furrows had a space of 0.5 m, with rhizomes placed at every 3.0 m. The experimental plot consisted of four 3.0 m rows and the useful area corresponded to the five central plants in each of the two central rows. The sunn hemp was sown in parallel lines in the spaces between the taro double rows, 120 days after planting the taro. When the sunn hemp was cut at soil level, an accumulation of 211 kg ha-1 of N was observed. Besides this, the sunn hemp's biomass promoted the cycling of an average 17 kg ha-1 of P, 85 kg ha-1 of K, 151 kg ha-1 of Ca, and 27 kg ha-1 of Mg. Worth mentioning, it represented also a deposition of 6.85 Mg ha-1 of dry substance. Even when pruned at its mid-height, the sunn hemp still provided 60% of nutrients relatively to the treatment in which it was cut at soil level. In addition to the nutrient supply, the use of taro intercropped with sunn hemp cut at soil level or pruned at mid-height represented efficient alternatives for controlling the spontaneous vegetation and for reducing taro leaf burning by solar radiation, without compromising the yield of taro. In all intercropping systems, taro plants had a larger leaf area and were taller than plants in monoculture.O experimento foi desenvolvido no município de Magé, Região Metropolitana do estado do Rio de Janeiro, para avaliar a influência do manejo da crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, usada como

  1. Soil microbial communities as affected by organic fertilizer and sunn hemp as a cover crop in organic sweet pepper production in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic production in Puerto Rico is at an early stage and research is needed to validate the sustainability of different management practices. This research initiated evaluation of selected soil properties including the microbial communities to evaluate the effects of Tropic sunn (Crotalaria juncea...

  2. New Green Polymeric Composites Based on Hemp and Natural Rubber Processed by Electron Beam Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Maria-Daniela Stelescu; Elena Manaila; Gabriela Craciun; Maria Dumitrascu

    2014-01-01

    A new polymeric composite based on natural rubber reinforced with hemp has been processed by electron beam irradiation and characterized by several methods. The mechanical characteristics: gel fraction, crosslink density, water uptake, swelling parameters, and FTIR of natural rubber/hemp fiber composites have been investigated as a function of the hemp content and absorbed dose. Physical and mechanical properties present a significant improvement as a result of adding hemp fibres in blends. O...

  3. Correlação entre os teores de líber e fibras em caules de crotalária e malva Correlation between bast and fiber content in sunn hemp and malva stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, estimou-se a correlação entre os teores de líber (casca e fibras em caules de crotalária (Crotalaria juncea L. e malva (Urena lobata L., com o objetivo de estabelecer um procedimento simples e rápido de análise de fibra. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os teores de líber e fibra estão relacionados entre si, com alto nível de significância (p > 0,99 para as correlações entre essas duas características tecnológicas. Os coeficientes de correlação observados, de 0,84 e 0,79, respectivamente, para crotalária e malva, permitem a avaliação indireta do teor de fibra liberiana através do teor de líber, estabelecendo um procedimento simples e rápido de análise de fibra, a ser utilizado especificamente em programas de melhoramento genético.In this paper it was estimated the correlation between the bast and fiber contents in suns hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. and malva (Urena lobata L. stalks. The results showed that fiber contents are related with a high level of signification (p > 0.99 for the correlation between these two technological characteristics. The correlation coefficients observed were of 0.84 and 0.79, respectively to sunn hemp and malva. These high levels of correlation showed that the fiber content may be evaluated indirectly through the bast content, establishing a simple and rapid procedure for fiber determination of both species.

  4. New green polymeric composites based on hemp and natural rubber processed by electron beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelescu, Maria-Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Craciun, Gabriela; Dumitrascu, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A new polymeric composite based on natural rubber reinforced with hemp has been processed by electron beam irradiation and characterized by several methods. The mechanical characteristics: gel fraction, crosslink density, water uptake, swelling parameters, and FTIR of natural rubber/hemp fiber composites have been investigated as a function of the hemp content and absorbed dose. Physical and mechanical properties present a significant improvement as a result of adding hemp fibres in blends. Our experiments showed that the hemp fibers have a reinforcing effect on natural rubber similar to mineral fillers (chalk, carbon black, silica). The crosslinking rates of samples, measured using the Flory-Rehner equation, increase as a result of the amount of hemp in blends and the electron beam irradiation dose increasing. The swelling parameters of samples significantly depend on the amount of hemp in blends, because the latter have hydrophilic characteristics.

  5. New Green Polymeric Composites Based on Hemp and Natural Rubber Processed by Electron Beam Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Daniela Stelescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new polymeric composite based on natural rubber reinforced with hemp has been processed by electron beam irradiation and characterized by several methods. The mechanical characteristics: gel fraction, crosslink density, water uptake, swelling parameters, and FTIR of natural rubber/hemp fiber composites have been investigated as a function of the hemp content and absorbed dose. Physical and mechanical properties present a significant improvement as a result of adding hemp fibres in blends. Our experiments showed that the hemp fibers have a reinforcing effect on natural rubber similar to mineral fillers (chalk, carbon black, silica. The crosslinking rates of samples, measured using the Flory-Rehner equation, increase as a result of the amount of hemp in blends and the electron beam irradiation dose increasing. The swelling parameters of samples significantly depend on the amount of hemp in blends, because the latter have hydrophilic characteristics.

  6. Nitrogen supply to corn from sunn hemp and velvet bean green manures Fornecimento de nitrogênio ao milho pelos adubos verdes crotalária júncea e mucuna preta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson José Ambrosano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their nitrogen fixation potential, legumes represent an alternative for supplying nutrients, substituting or complementing mineral fertilization in cropping systems involving green manuring. The objective of this study was to evaluate the N balance in a soil-plant system involving green manures [sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima Piper & Tracy], both labeled with 15N. They were incorporated into two soils of contrasting textural classes: a clayey Eutrudox and a sandy-clayey Paleudalf, both cultivated with corn. The research was carried out in a greenhouse, using pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil, to which the equivalent to 13 Mg ha-1 dry matter of above-ground mass plus 2.7 or 2.2 Mg ha-1 of velvet bean and sunn hemp roots were incorporated, respectively, with 15N labeling of either shoots or roots. One hundred days after emergence of the corn, the velvet bean residues provided higher accumulation of N in the soil, higher absorption by corn plants and accumulation in the shoot. The green manure decomposition was more intense in the medium-textured Paleudalf. The highest nitrogen losses were also observed in this soil.Em função de seu potencial de fixação de nitrogênio, as leguminosas representam uma alternativa ao suprimento, substituição ou complementação da adubação mineral em sistemas de cultivos envolvendo adubação verde. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o balanço do N no sistema solo planta com adubos verdes crotalária júncea (Crotalaria juncea L. e mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrima Piper & Tracy, marcadas com 15N, incorporadas em dois solos de diferentes classes texturais: Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico textura argilosa, A moderado (LVef e Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico textura arenosa/média, A moderado (PVAd, e cultivados com milho. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em casa-de-vegetação, em vasos contendo 6 kg de terra aos quais foi incorporado o equivalente a 13 Mg ha-1 de

  7. Adequação de modelo aditivo-dominante em dois caracteres de crotalária: aditive-dominant in two traits of sunn hemp Adequacy of the model

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    Manoel Albino Coelho de Miranda

    1991-01-01

    to the exploration of hybrid vigor in sunn hemp, since it is possible to control the polinization.

  8. Adubação NPK e calagem na produção de massa verde e sementes de crotalária Effect of NPK fertilization and liming on the green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados dois experimentos de campo visando avaliar o efeito de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na presença e na ausência de calcário, na produção de massa verde e de sementes de crotalária. Os experimentos foram realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas e na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, em Latossolo Roxo, no ano agrícola de 1969/70. Os resultados obtidos mostram claramente que o efeito para a utilização do fósforo foi significativo em solos com menor teor deste elemento e que houve efeito altamente positivo para o emprego do calcário na localidade de Tatuí.Two field experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of N, P, K fertilization, with and without liming, on the total green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.. The experiments were done in the experimental stations of the Instituto Agronômico of State of São Paulo, Brazil, located in Campinas and Tatuí, during the years of 1969/1970, in soils of the group Latosol >. The results obtained indicated a positive effect of P fertilization on the sunn hemp yield, in the soils that presented less soil P content. Significant increases in yield were obtained with the application of dolomitic lime, specially in the experimental station of Tatuí.

  9. Efeito da adubação verde do feijoeiro "da sêca" com Crotalaria juncea L., empregando-se toda a vegetação ou retirando-se do campo as hastes despojadas de suas fôlhas Sunn-hemp as a green manure for beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. A. Mascarenhas

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiências foram conduzidas, em diferentes localidades do Estado de São Paulo, para estudar o efeito da adubação verde com Crotalaria juncea L., em cultura do feijoeiro "da sêca", incorporando-se ao solo tôda a vegetação desta ou retirando-se do campo experimental as hastes despojadas de suas fôlhas. O aumento médio de produção proporcionado pela adubação verde correspondeu a 41%, no primeiro caso, mas baixou para 28%, no segundo.Sunn-hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. was tested as a green manure for beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in several localities of the State of São Paulo. The green manure was planted in the same area that was subsequently sown with beans. Incorporation of the whole plants or only their leaves were compared. The mean yield increase resulting from the treatments when compared with the checks was 41 % in the first case and 28 % in the second.

  10. Improving enzymatic hydrolysis of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Soo-Jeong [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Yong Joo [KT and G Central Research Institute, 302 Shinseong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-805 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yosung17@yahoo.co.kr

    2008-09-15

    The electron beam irradiation was applied as a pretreatment of the enzymatic hydrolysis of hemp biomass with doses of 150, 300 and 450 kGy. The higher irradiation dose resulted in the more extraction with hot-water extraction or 1% sodium hydroxide solution extraction. The higher solubility of the treated sample was originated from the chains scission during irradiation, which was indirectly demonstrated by the increase of carbonyl groups as shown in diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) spectra. The changes in the micro-structure of hemp resulted in the better response to enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial cellulases (Celluclast 1.5L and Novozym 342). The improvement in enzymatic hydrolysis by the irradiation was more evident in the hydrolysis of the xylan than in that of the cellulose.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF REFINED HEMP FIBERS USING NIR FT RAMAN MICRO SPECTROSCOPY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

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    Siva Kumar Kovur

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The research was focused on the separation of single hemp (Cannabis sativa L. fibre cells with low fineness from mechanically extracted fibre bundles of high fineness. The fiber bundles were treated with enzymes, namely panzym, pectinase, hemicellulase, and cellulase, along with a combination of panzym and ultrasonic treatments. Changes in the fiber structure were followed at molecular and microscopic levels by means of NIR FT Raman spectroscopy and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM. Buffer-panzym treatments of hemp fibers had a prominent effect in loosening of the fiber cells. The best of refining was achieved when the fiber bundles were treated with buffer-panzym solution in combination with ultrasonic treatment.

  12. Improving enzymatic hydrolysis of industrial hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soo-Jeong; Sung, Yong Joo

    2008-09-01

    The electron beam irradiation was applied as a pretreatment of the enzymatic hydrolysis of hemp biomass with doses of 150, 300 and 450 kGy. The higher irradiation dose resulted in the more extraction with hot-water extraction or 1% sodium hydroxide solution extraction. The higher solubility of the treated sample was originated from the chains scission during irradiation, which was indirectly demonstrated by the increase of carbonyl groups as shown in diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) spectra. The changes in the micro-structure of hemp resulted in the better response to enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial cellulases (Celluclast 1.5L and Novozym 342). The improvement in enzymatic hydrolysis by the irradiation was more evident in the hydrolysis of the xylan than in that of the cellulose.

  13. Comparison of the cable coupling effects under two kinds of HEMP environment

    CERN Document Server

    Sun Bei Yun; Xie Yan Zhao

    2002-01-01

    There are various kinds of HEMP environment definitions. The coupling effects of electronic system are more different under different HEMP environment. The responds of cable of different length are investigated under 1976 HEMP and 1996 HEMP environment. The results indicate that the cable coupling effects under 1976 HEMP environment are more serious than those under 1996 HEMP environment

  14. Green insulation: hemp fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-09-15

    Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.

  15. Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-08

    hemp oil , true hemp yarn, true hemp fabric, true hemp raw or processed but not spun, and true hemp raw other. 13 USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service...Poland, Romania, Canada, and India. The leading exporters of hemp oil have been the Netherlands, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the Republic of South

  16. Multiplet classification for SU(n,n)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrev, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    In the present paper we review our project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of the non-compact algebras su(n,n) for n = 2, 3,4. We give explicitly the main multiplets of indecomposable elementary representations and some reduced multiplets. We give explicitly the minimal representations. Due to the recently established parabolic relations the multiplet classification results are valid also for the algebras sl(2n, R) and when n = 2k for the algebras su* (4k) with suitably chosen maximal parabolic subalgebras.

  17. Hemp for textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Westerhuis, W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Key words: Cannabis sativa L., day length sensitivity, fibre hemp, genotype, harvest time, plant density, plant weight, primary fibres, secondary fibres, sowing date, textiles. Westerhuis, W. (2016) Hemp for textiles: plant size matters, PhD thesis. Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 234 pp. With English and Dutch summaries.  Fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to cotton and synthetic fibres as a raw material for textile yarn production in the ...

  18. Sunn hemp with chicory or pearl millet to minimize gastrointestinal nematode infection in weaned goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predominantly grass forage systems are typically used throughout the southeastern U.S., but are inadequate for nutritional needs of growing goats, and encourage problems with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Browse predominant forages would be preferable, but are not always available. Selection o...

  19. Sunn hemp as a ground cover to manage fall armyworm populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a serious pest of sweet corn in south Florida and a pest of other vegetable, row, and forage crops in the southeastern, mid-Atlantic, and central U.S. It is a migratory pest, moving north each season from overwintering areas in southern Texas and south...

  20. Hemp for textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Key words: Cannabis sativa L., day length sensitivity, fibre hemp, genotype, harvest time, plant density, plant weight, primary fibres, secondary fibres, sowing date, textiles. Westerhuis, W. (2016) He

  1. Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-14

    refers to industrial hemp, “marijuana” (or “ marihuana ” as it is spelled in the older statutes) refers to the psychotropic drug (whether used for...fibre-type from drug-type plants,” UNODC Bulletin on Narcotics, January 1985; C. W. Waller, “Chemistry Of Marihuana ,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 23...passed laws restricting legal production to medicinal and industrial purposes only.42 The 1937 Marihuana Tax Act defined hemp as a narcotic drug

  2. Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Angelika; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, Gerhard; Schubert, Jörg

    2012-02-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa) was found to be a useful propagation host for hop latent virus, a carlavirus. However, when virus preparations were analysed by electron microscopy, along with the expected filamentous particles, spherical particles with a diameter of around 34 nm were found. RNA from virus preparations was purified, and cDNA was prepared and cloned. Sequence information was used to search databases, and the greatest similarity was found with Primula malacoides virus 1, a putative new member of the genus Partitivirus. The full sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of this new hemp cryptic virus were obtained.

  3. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% ± 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%.

  4. Quality of chemically modified hemp fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Mirjana; Pejic, Biljana; Skundric, Petar

    2008-01-01

    Hemp fibers are very interesting natural material for textile and technical applications now. Applying hemp fibers to the apparel sector requires improved quality fibers. In this paper, hemp fibers were modified with sodium hydroxide solutions (5% and 18% w/v), at room and boiling temperature, for different periods of time, and both under tension and slack, in order to partially extract noncellulosic substances, and separate the fiber bundles. The quality of hemp fibers was characterised by determining their chemical composition, fineness, mechanical and sorption properties. The modified hemp fibers were finer, with lower content of lignin, increased flexibility, and in some cases tensile properties were improved. An original method for evaluation of tensile properties of hemp fibers was developed.

  5. Water Absorption Behavior of Hemp Hurds Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezda Stevulova; Julia Cigasova; Pavol Purcz; Ivana Schwarzova; Frantisek Kacik; Anton Geffert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, water sorption behavior of 28 days hardened composites based on hemp hurds and inorganic binder was studied. Two kinds of absorption tests on dried cube specimens in deionized water bath at laboratory temperature were performed. Short-term (after one hour water immersion) and long-term (up to 180 days) water absorption tests were carried out to study their durability. Short-term water sorption behavior of original hemp hurds composites depends on mean particle length of hemp an...

  6. Microscopic Study on Hemp Bast Fibre Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, A.; Westerhuis, W.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2007-01-01

    Commonly, fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa) is not considered for the production of soft and easy-care textiles. However, initial tests in the textile industry have shown that certain processes allow improvement in the everyday-wear characteristics of hemp textiles. In the framework of the EU R&D pro

  7. Thermal comfort behavior of hemp based knitted fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović, Nenad; Bizjak, Matejka; Stanković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The hemp fibres production is characterized by sharp ups and downs, from the extensively growing to their decline in the past decades. Thanks to the unique hemp fibre properties, such as physiological, hygienic and ecological properties, hemp is nowadays reintroduced as a potential fibre source for health clothing textiles. However, hemp fibres have some limitations concerning the coarseness and lower elasticity. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of producing hemp bas...

  8. An integrated physical, genetic and cytogenetic map around the sunn locus of Medicago truncatula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnabel, E.; Kulikova, O.; Penmetsa, R.V.; Bisseling, T.; Cook, D.R.; Frugoli, J.

    2003-01-01

    The sunn mutation of Medicago truncatula is a single-gene mutation that confers a novel supernodulation phenotype in response to inoculation with Sinorhizobium meliloti. We took advantage of the publicly available codominant PCR markers, the high-density genetic map, and a linked cytogenetic map to

  9. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. (Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E[sub 1] (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E[sub 3] (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council's regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  10. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. (Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E[sub 1] (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E[sub 3] (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council's regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  11. Pretreatment of hemp fibers for utilization in strong biocomposite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming

    that cellulase has a negative impact on fiber properties. Mono-component pectinase enzymes were thereby tested on hemp bast fibers combined with hydrothermal pre-treatment. Enhanced removal of pectin from hemp fibers was found to produce a positive impact on hemp fiber reinforced composites. Further work......, interest in hemp fiber reinforced composites is increasing because of a high potential of manufacturing hemp fiber reinforced polymer composites with acceptable mechanical properties at low cost. In order to expedite the application of natural fibers in polymer composites, hemp fibers need to be treated...... before being incorporated in matrix polymers to optimize the properties of fibers and fiber reinforced composites. The overall objective of this study was therefore to focus on understanding the correlation between chemical composition and morphology of hemp fibers and mechanical properties of hemp...

  12. Synergy between cellulases and pectinases in the hydrolysis of hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Pakarinen, Annukka; Viikari, Liisa

    2013-02-01

    The impact of pectinases in the hydrolysis of fresh, steam-exploded and ensiled hemp was investigated and the synergy between cellulases, pectinases and xylanase in the hydrolysis was evaluated. About half; 59.3% and 46.1% of pectin in the steam-exploded and ensiled hemp, respectively, could be removed by a low dosage of pectinases used. Pectinases were more efficient than xylanase in the hydrolysis of fresh and ensiled hemp whereas xylanase showed higher hydrolytic efficiency than the pectinase preparation used in the hydrolysis of steam-exploded hemp. Clear synergistic action between cellulases and xylanase could be observed in the hydrolysis of steam-exploded hemp. Supplementation of pectinase resulted in clear synergism with cellulases in the hydrolysis of all hemp substrates. Highest hydrolysis yield of steam-exploded hemp was obtained in the hydrolysis with cellulases and xylanase. In the hydrolysis of ensiled hemp, the synergistic action between cellulases and pectinases was more obvious for efficient hydrolysis.

  13. INDUSTRIAL HEMP AS AN ALTERNATIVE CROP IN NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Kraenzel, David G.; Petry, Timothy A.; Nelson, Bill; Anderson, Marshall J.; Mathern, Dustin; Todd, Robert

    1998-01-01

    This report is in response to a national and state interest in the potential benefits of industrial hemp as an alternative crop. Industrial hemp has many uses which can be categorized into nine submarkets. North Dakota may have a comparative advantage in producing industrial hemp seed for oil because of the multi-oil processing facility in Carrington (AgGrow Oils) and the established infrastructure. Industrial hemp is currently legally produced in 22 countries with Canada being the closest an...

  14. New developments in fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Zhang, Qingying; Amaducci, Stefano; Yang, Ming; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable and high yielding industrial crop that can help to meet the high global demand for fibers. Hemp can be grown for fiber, seeds, and/or for dual purpose in a wide range of geographic zones and climates. Currently the main hemp producing regions in th

  15. [Brief history of recent hemp cultivation in Switzerland and subsequent medico-legal problems resulting from hemp cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, C; Broillet, A; Augsburger, M; Bernhard, W; Rivier, L; Mangin, P

    1999-01-21

    In March 1995, a decision about cultivation of cannabis was issued by the Swiss Federal Offices of Public Health, Police and Agriculture in order to satisfy the growing interest of farmers and other people in hemp farming. It pointed out that 1)... each hemp plant contains THC and must be therefore considered a drug, 2)... no permission is required for those who grow hemp without the intention to produce drugs ... meaning that the choice of the plant variety was not restricted to those which are characterized by a low THC concentration and grown in a few countries belonging to the European Union. Claiming that natural hemp must contain significant amounts of THC and thanks to the Swiss legislation, areas dedicated to hemp cultivation develop considerably. Most hemp plants which are submitted to our laboratories by the police for THC quantification belong to the drug-type. Nowadays, a great deal of goods (food and beverages, cosmetics, drugs) made of hemp are marketed in Switzerland. Strong suspicions exist however that several of these products could be used as a screen for the illegal market of cannabis. For instance, despite financial support from the state, fiber hemp cultivation remains unsuccessful. No advantage with regard to seed productivity, edible seed and essential oils qualities and yields have been found for drug hemp over fiber hemp by agricultural research stations up to now. Several clues about the possible illicit use of hemp goods rich in THC, especially hemp tea made of flower tops and "therapeutic" pillows filled with cannabis exist. Recently, two Federal edits were issued in order to restrict the selling of hemp seedlings and of hemp foods and beverages to those containing only low amounts of THC. However, the marketing of hemp plants used for decorating remains free partly explaining the recent success of these "beautiful" plants. Broadly speaking, the Swiss and European legislations about hemp have approached mutually during the last years.

  16. 航天核心电子设备加速度输入接口电路抗HEMP加固技术研究%Study on Anti- HEMP Hardening Technology of Aerospace Kernel Electronic Equipment Acceleration Input Interface Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱友忠

    2004-01-01

    提出航天核心电子设备接口电路抗HEMP(高空电磁脉冲)加固的设计方案,并对加速度输入接口电路抗HEMP加固的有关工程实现作了具体介绍,为开发新一代具备抗HEMP能力的航天电子产品提供技术借鉴.

  17. Menace and Defense Test of HEMP for Airplane and Airborne Electronic Equipment%核电磁脉冲对飞机及机载电子设备的

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红鹏

    2008-01-01

    阐述了核电磁脉冲(HEMP)的危害,分析了HEMP对飞机及机载电子设备的作用机理和耦合途径,并对飞机整机和机载设备级的电磁脉冲防护试验方法和试验设备情况进行了初步探讨.

  18. Still special? Harvesting procedures for industrial hemp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jörg Gusovius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of different harvesting procedures is available after the re-approval of hemp growing in Germany about 20 years ago. Established, but as well recent machine developments enable the supply of raw materials for further processing or as food and feed materials. The necessary specialization level results in high but, compared to other established crops, not exceeding procedural costs. In this study, harvesting procedures and technologies are analyzed that are currently used under Northern European cultivation conditions. However, technological enhancements are still needed in order to improve the competitiveness of fibre hemp in the crop rotation as well as of hemp-based semi-finished and finished products.

  19. Influence of barley variety, timing of nitrogen fertilisation and sunn pest infestation on malting and brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Sensidoni, Michele; Rubio, José Manuel Amigo; Perretti, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2011-03-30

    This paper presents a multivariate approach to investigate the influence of barley variety, timing of nitrogen fertilisation and sunn pest infestation on malting and brewing. Four spring and two winter barley varieties were grown in one location in southern Europe. Moreover, one of the spring varieties was infested with sunn pest, in order to study the effects of this pest on malting quality, and subjected to different nitrogen fertilisation timing regimes. The samples were micromalted, mashed, brewed and analysed. The data showed that even though the two winter barleys seemed to be the best regarding their physical appearance (sieving fraction I + II > 82%), this superiority was not confirmed in the malt samples, which showed low values of Hartong extract (27.1%) and high values of pH (6.07-6.11) and β-glucan content (12.5-13.2 g kg(-1)), resulting in low-quality beers. The barley sample subjected to postponed fertilisation had a total nitrogen content (19.5 g kg(-1) dry matter) exceeding the specification for malting barley and gave a beer with a low content of free amino nitrogen (47 mg L(-1)) and high values of viscosity (1.99 cP) and β-glucan content (533 mg L(-1)). The beer obtained from the barley sample subjected to pest attack had good quality parameters. All spring barleys gave well-modified malts and consequently beers of higher quality than the winter barleys. Moreover, postponed fertilisation was negatively related to the quality of the final beer, and sunn pest infestation did not induce important economic losses in the beer production chain. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M; Gardner, Kyle M; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains.

  1. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana, which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains.

  2. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E.; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains. PMID:26308334

  3. Thermal Stress Effect on Density Changes of Hemp Hurds Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzova, Ivana; Cigasova, Julia; Stevulova, Nadezda

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this article is to study the behavior of prepared biocomposites based on hemp hurds as a filling agent in composite system. In addition to the filler and water, an alternative binder, called MgO-cement was used. For this objective were prepared three types of samples; samples based on untreated hemp hurds as a referential material and samples based on chemically (with NaOH solution) and physically (by ultrasonic procedure) treated hemp hurds. The thermal stress effect on bulk density changes of hemp hurds composites was monitored. Gradual increase in temperature led to composites density reduction of 30-40 %. This process is connected with mass loss of the adsorbed moisture and physically bound water and also with degradation of organic compounds present in hemp hurds aggregates such as pectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose. Therefore the changes in the chemical composition of treated hemp hurds in comparison to original sample and its thermal decomposition were also studied.

  4. The mechanical properties of density graded hemp/polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvegis, Raphaël; Rodrigue, Denis

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the production and mechanical characterization of density graded biocomposites based on high density polyethylene and hemp fibres was performed. The effect of coupling agent addition (maleated polyethylene) and hemp content (0-30%) was studied to determine the effect of hemp distribution (graded content) inside the composite (uniform, linear, V and Λ). Tensile and flexural properties are reported to compare the structures, especially in terms of their stress-strain behaviors under tensile loading.

  5. Characterization of byproducts originating from hemp oil processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojić, Milica; Mišan, Aleksandra; Sakač, Marijana; Dapčević Hadnađev, Tamara; Šarić, Bojana; Milovanović, Ivan; Hadnađev, Miroslav

    2014-12-24

    Valorization of hemp seed meal, a byproduct of hemp oil processing, was performed by measuring the distribution of nutritional and antinutritional compounds in different hemp seed meal fractions. According to chemical composition, two cotyledon-containing fractions (>180 and 350 and >250 μm), which were significantly richer in crude fiber content (29.5% ± 0.04% and 21.3% ± 0.03%, respectively). The free radical scavenging capacity (IC50) of fraction extracts increased (p hemp seed meal into different fractions could be used to concentrate valuable target compounds and consequently facilitate their recovery.

  6. Strength-length scaling of elementary hemp fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poriķe, E.; Andersons, J.

    2013-03-01

    The application of hemp fibers as a reinforcement of composite materials necessitates the characterization of fiber strength scatter and the effect of fiber length on its strength. With this aim, elementary hemp fibers were tested in tension at two different gage lengths. Due to the similar morphology of hemp and flax fibers, the probabilistic strength models derived and verified for the latter were applied to the former. The fiber strength was found to agree with the modified Weibull distribution. The modeling approaches developed for describing the variability of the strength and failure strain of elementary flax fibers are shown to be also applicable to hemp fibers.

  7. Performance and Qualification of the Power Supply and Control Unit for the HEMP Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brag, R.; Herty, F.

    2014-08-01

    In 2013, Astrium GmbH delivered several flight model electronics for Electric Propulsion (EP) systems or corresponding components. One of the elements is a Power Supply and Control Unit (PSCU) for the Thales development "High Efficiency Multistage Plasma Thruster" (HEMP-T) (see Figure 1). This paper presents the PSCU specification and results of the qualification and acceptance phase of the EQM and the PFM.

  8. Effects of chemical treatments on hemp fibre structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, M.M., E-mail: kabirm@usq.edu.au [Centre of Excellence in Engineered Fibre Composite (CEEFC), Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Wang, H. [Centre of Excellence in Engineered Fibre Composite (CEEFC), Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Lau, K.T. [Centre of Excellence in Engineered Fibre Composite (CEEFC), Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Cardona, F. [Centre of Excellence in Engineered Fibre Composite (CEEFC), Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, hemp fibres were treated with alkali, acetyl and silane chemicals. Fibre constituents such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin constituents were separated from treated fibres. The chemical and thermal influences of these constituents on the treated fibres were examined by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Experimental results revealed that, hemicellulose was degraded faster than that of cellulose and lignin. Cellulose exhibited better thermal stability and lignin was degraded in a wide range of temperatures. The hydrophilic nature of the fibres was predominantly caused by the presence of hemicellulose and then lignin constituents. Hemicellulose and lignin were mostly removed by the alkalisation with higher concentrations of NaOH, followed by acetylation. Silane treatment could not remove the hemicellulose and lignin, rather this treatment facilitated coupling with the fibre constituents.

  9. Physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri-Garavand, A.; Nassiri, A.; Gharibzahedi, S. M. T.

    2012-04-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of moisture content on the post-harvest physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed in the range of 5.39 to 27.12% d.b. Results showed that the effect of moisture content on the most physical properties of the grain was significant (Phemp seed was not significant. However, the moisture content effect on rupture force and energy was significant (Phemp seed were significant (P<0.05).

  10. Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der H.

    1994-01-01

    Fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the Netherlands were investigated.Until flowering (generally in

  11. [Study on spectral reflectance characteristics of hemp canopies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Chen; Jia, Kun; Wu, Bing-Fang; Li, Qiang-Zi

    2010-12-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a special economic crop and widely used in many field. It is significative for the government to master the information about planting acreage and spatial distribution of hemp for hemp industrial policy decision in China. Remote sensing offers a potential way of monitoring large area for the cultivation of hemp. However, very little study on the spectral properties of hemp is available in the scientific literature. In the present study, the spectral reflectance characteristics of hemp canopy were systematically analyzed based on the spectral data acquired with ASD FieldSpec portable spectrometer. The wavebands and its spectral resolution for discriminating hemp from other plants were identified using difference analysis. The major differences in canopy reflectance of hemp and other plants were observed near 530, 552, 734, 992, 1 213, 1 580 and 2 199 nm, and the maximal difference is near 734 nm. The spectral resolution should be 30 nm or less in visible and near infrared regions, and 50 nm or less in middle infrared regions.

  12. Thermal properties of hemp fibre non-woven materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freivalde, Liga; Kukle, Silvija; Russell, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    This review considers the thermal properties analysis of hemp fiber non-woven materials made by three different manufacturing technologies - thermal bonding, needle-punching and hydro-entanglement. For non-wovens development two hemp fibers cultivars grown in Latvia were used - Purini and Bialobrzeskie. Thermal resistance, conductivity and the effects of several parameters on thermal performance are revised.

  13. Enrichment of Cellulosic Waste Hemp (Cannabis sativa Hurd into Non-Toxic Microfibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinu E. Abraham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study a largely available lignocellulose feedstock hemp (Cannabis sativa, obtained as an industrial waste, was used for cellulose extraction. The extraction of cellulose microfibres from hemp biomass was conducted by alkaline treatment and an acidification process. The extracted cellulose microfibres were characterised using Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The viability of the study was determined by growing human fibroblasts on the preparation which resulted in being non-toxic; indicating its potential in preparing biological scaffolds. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose microfibre using cellulase from Trichoderma reesei, a maximum of 909 mg/g of reducing sugars were obtained, which endorses its suitability for biofuel production.

  14. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as an Environmentally Friendly Energyplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisa, Liena; Adamovics, Aleksandrs

    2010-01-01

    Hemp is suitable as a renewable energy resource. The aim of this study was to clarify local hemp's (Cannabis sativa L.) possibilities for energy use. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and titanium (Ti) presence in hemp was determined using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Optima 2100 DV. If there were increased N fertilizer rates, there were increased hemp `Pūriņi' seeds and shive yield increases, but the oil content was reduced. Arsenic content was higher in the shives than in the stems with fibre. The ash content depends on non-organic substances which the plants absorb during the vegetation season. The lignin content depends on several factors: plant parts, and the N fertilizer rate. The unexplored factors have a great effect on the ash and lignin content. Hemp is suitable for cultivation and for bio-energy production in the agro-climatic conditions in Latvia.

  15. Sunn hemp, a major source-plant of the phytoplasma associated with huanglongbing symptoms of sweet orange in São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff, N. A.; Teixeira, D. C.; MARTINS, E. C.; Toloy, R. S.; Bianco, L. F.; Colletti, D. A.B.; Kitajima,E. W.; Bové, J M

    2015-01-01

    In São Paulo State (SPS), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) trees with huanglongbing (HLB) symptoms are infected with Candidatus (Ca.) Liberibacter (L.) asiaticus (Las) or Ca. L. americanus (Lam). However, in 2007, 3 years after HLB was first reported in SPS, some trees with characteristic HLB symptoms were found free of liberibacters, but infected with a phytoplasma of 16Sr group IX. This phytoplasma was further characterized by PCR amplification of ribosomal protein genes rpsC-rplV-rpsS and am...

  16. Application of Hemp Hurds in the Preparation of Biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigasova, J.; Stevulova, N.; Schwarzova, I.; Sicakova, A.; Junak, J.

    2015-11-01

    Hemp is a controversial bio-product with promising performance as a sustainable building material. The fact that hemp is an organic, natural product makes it highly relevant in the present reality of global pollution and struggle for coping with planetary warming. The construction sector is among the leading industries when it comes to energy consumption, release of CO2; it is responsible for great amounts of waste and pollution. The research and implementation of sustainable building materials is a crucial necessity in the modern times. Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is an agricultural crop that can be used as a building material in combination with conventional or alternative binders. Hemp composites have many advantages as a building material, but it is not load-bearing and must be used in combination with a loadbearing wooden frame. Despite this disadvantage, hemp composite materials offer several of appropriate properties, namely: low density, good thermal insulation, antiseptic and breathability. This paper studies the possibility of preparing the lightweight composites based on hemp hurds (treated and/or untreated) as a filler and alternative MgO-cement as a binder. Properties of hemp composites are characterized by mechanical and physical methods.

  17. STUDY ON THE BIOSCOURING TREATMENT OF 50 % OF HEMP + 50 % OF COTTON FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUSTIANU Monica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the study of the Bioscouring treatment applied on 50 % of hemp + 50 % of cotton blended materials. The goal of the treatment was the removing of morphological impurities present in cotton and hemp fibers in order to obtain cleaner materials with better properties. For enzymatic treatments different concentrations (1-3 % o.w.f from a commercial product named Beisol PRO (a mixture of enzymes pectinases were used. The reaction media was made of phosfate buffer solution of 0.1 M and pH 8. (sodium phosfate/disodium phosphate, 2 g/L sodium citrate (complexing agent and 0.5 % Denimcol Wash RGN (wetting agent. All the experiments were carried out after a central, rotatable second order compound program with two independent variables: enzyme concentration (concentrations between 1-3 % o.w.f and treatment time (15-55 minutes at 20:1 liquid to fabric ratio and a temperature of 55 0C. The reatment efficiency has been verified by the following analyses: weight loss, hydrophilicity, whiteness degree, yellowness degree, crystallinity, tensile strength, elongation at break, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, spectrophotometric analysis in CIELAB system of the samples dyed with alizarin dye. After all the investigations it was found that the bioscouring procedure of 50 % of hemp + 50 % of cotton blended materials conducted to a proper removal of the morphological impurities without affecting the internal structure of cellulose or any significant degradation of the material.

  18. Multiple Autoregulation of Nodulation (AON Signals Identified through Split Root Analysis of Medicago truncatula sunn and rdn1 Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessema Kassaw

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nodulation is energetically costly to the host: legumes balance the nitrogen demand with the energy expense by limiting the number of nodules through long-distance signaling. A split root system was used to investigate systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON in Medicago truncatula and the role of the AON genes RDN1 and SUNN in the regulatory circuit. Developing nodule primordia did not trigger AON in plants carrying mutations in RDN1 and SUNN genes, while wild type plants had fully induced AON within three days. However, despite lacking an early suppression response, AON mutants suppressed nodulation when roots were inoculated 10 days or more apart, correlated with the maturation of nitrogen fixing nodules. In addition to correlation between nitrogen fixation and suppression of nodulation, suppression by extreme nutrient stress was also observed in all genotypes and may be a component of the observed response due to the conditions of the assay. These results suggest there is more than one systemic regulatory circuit controlling nodulation in M. truncatula. While both signals are present in wild type plants, the second signal can only be observed in plants lacking the early repression (AON mutants. RDN1 and SUNN are not essential for response to the later signal.

  19. Multiple Autoregulation of Nodulation (AON) Signals Identified through Split Root Analysis of Medicago truncatula sunn and rdn1 Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaw, Tessema; Jr, William Bridges; Frugoli, Julia

    2015-04-27

    Nodulation is energetically costly to the host: legumes balance the nitrogen demand with the energy expense by limiting the number of nodules through long-distance signaling. A split root system was used to investigate systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON) in Medicago truncatula and the role of the AON genes RDN1 and SUNN in the regulatory circuit. Developing nodule primordia did not trigger AON in plants carrying mutations in RDN1 and SUNN genes, while wild type plants had fully induced AON within three days. However, despite lacking an early suppression response, AON mutants suppressed nodulation when roots were inoculated 10 days or more apart, correlated with the maturation of nitrogen fixing nodules. In addition to correlation between nitrogen fixation and suppression of nodulation, suppression by extreme nutrient stress was also observed in all genotypes and may be a component of the observed response due to the conditions of the assay. These results suggest there is more than one systemic regulatory circuit controlling nodulation in M. truncatula. While both signals are present in wild type plants, the second signal can only be observed in plants lacking the early repression (AON mutants). RDN1 and SUNN are not essential for response to the later signal.

  20. A Study in Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hemp Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the experiments undertaken to evaluate various physical and mechanical properties of hemp fibres. The study of these properties is vital for comparison with similar properties of synthetic fibres and for assessing hemp fibres’ suitability for use as reinforcement in composite materials. The properties of hemp fibres were found to be good enough to be used as reinforcement in composite materials. However, the issues of relatively high moisture content of fibres, variability in fibre properties, and relatively poor fibre/matrix interfacial strength were identified as factors that can reduce the efficiency with which these fibres can be utilised.

  1. Thermo-Insulation Properties Of Hemp-Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekavicius V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As known, many multi-purpose plants can be used in different industries. This research is focused on the possibilities to utilize hemp as feedstock for thermal insulation products. The most advantageous features of hemp insulation are associated with health and environmental safety. The thermal conductivity of commercially available hemp insulation products is comparable with that of other fibrous insulation materials; however, it is possible to develop new products that could be more efficient in terms of cost and due to other important features.

  2. Thermo-Insulation Properties Of Hemp-Based Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekavicius, V.; Shipkovs, P.; Ivanovs, S.; Rucins, A.

    2015-02-01

    As known, many multi-purpose plants can be used in different industries. This research is focused on the possibilities to utilize hemp as feedstock for thermal insulation products. The most advantageous features of hemp insulation are associated with health and environmental safety. The thermal conductivity of commercially available hemp insulation products is comparable with that of other fibrous insulation materials; however, it is possible to develop new products that could be more efficient in terms of cost and due to other important features.

  3. Life cycle assessment of hemp cultivation and use of hemp-based thermal insulator materials in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampori, Luca; Dotelli, Giovanni; Vernelli, Valeria

    2013-07-02

    The aim of this research is to assess the sustainability of a natural fiber, such as hemp (Cannabis sativa), and its use as thermal insulator for building applications. The sustainability of hemp was quantified by life cycle assessment (LCA) and particular attention was given to the amount of CO2eq of the whole process, and the indicator greenhouse gas protocol (GGP) was selected to quantify CO2eq emissions. In this study also CO2 uptake of hemp was considered. Two different allocation procedures (i.e., mass and economic) were adopted. Other indicators, such as Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) and EcoIndicator99 H were calculated. The production of 1 ha yielded 15 ton of hemp, whose global warming potential (GWP100) was equal to about -26.01 ton CO2eq: the amount allocated to the technical fiber (20% of the total amount of hemp biomass) was -5.52 ton CO2eq when mass allocation was used, and -5.54 ton CO2eq when economic allocation was applied. The sustainability for building applications was quantified by considering an insulation panel made by hemp fiber (85%) and polyester fiber (15%) in 1 m(2) of wall having a thermal transmittance (U) equal to 0.2 W/m(2)_K. The environmental performances of the hemp-based panel were compared to those of a rockwool-based one.

  4. Revitalization of Industrial Hemp Cannabis sativa L. Var. sativa in Slovenia: a Study of Green Hemp Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijavec Tatjana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of industrial hemp as a source of highly valuable textile fi bres is briefly presented through its use for textiles and composites and its increasing cultivated areas in the 21st century. On the territory of present Slovenia, about 160 ha of agricultural area was cultivated with hemp before WWII, then it quickly began to decline and at the end of the 1970s, it was no longer cultivated. Revitalization of industrial hemp in Slovenia with fi eld experiments started already in the years 2000/2001 for producing seeds, whereas hemp fi bres were used only as an insulation for buildings. The textile technological properties of hemp fi bres from diff erent varieties grown in Slovenia have not been examined till now. They are important for using hemp fibres in highly valuable textile products. The properties of green hemp fi bres extracted mechanically from non-retted hemp stems of Cannabis sativa L. var. sativa (varieties: Novosadska, Juso-11, Bialobrzeskie, Unico- B and Beniko were determined. All the analysed varieties except Beniko had stem height over 200 cm. The highest yield of green fibres was 33.1% (Novosadska. The analysed green fibres’ content was 1.24–3.26% of ash, 7.77–8.50% of moisture regain, 10.69–13.92% of water-soluble substances and 8.45–10.83% of pectin. Through a biodegradation process of retting green hemp fibres in tap water at temperature 35°C, 9.01– 18.89% of dry mass was removed after ten days. Average linear density of green hemp fi bres was very high, around 200 tex. Tenacity of fi bres’ bundles was in the range of 167–272 MPa, but tenacity of elementary fibres was 548–672 MPa. From the curves of specific stress-strain, it is seen that green hemp fibres from all five varieties had similar superstructure. All analysed green hemp fibres had high linear density and low mechanical properties. For textile application, they should be further processed into finer fibres in order to increase their

  5. Hemp fines - an agricultural by-product for biocomposites? A holistic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Spierling, Sebastian; Koplin, Tobias; Endres, Hans-Josef

    2014-01-01

    The technical, environmental and economic potential of hemp fines as a natural filler in bioplastics to produce biocomposites is the subject of this study – giving a holistic overview. Hemp fines are an agricultural by-product of the hemp fibres and shives production. Shives and fibres are for example used in the paper, animal bedding or composite area. About 15 to 20 wt.-% per kg hemp straw results in hemp fines after processing. In 2010 about 11,439 metric tons of hemp fines were produced i...

  6. Chemical stability of prints made on hemp fibre based papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Plazonić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For paper industry and consequently graphic industry it is very important that fibres used in paper production provide high quality and printability of the paper. In pulp and paper industry fibres of cellulose pulp derived still predominantly from wood, but in the last few years the consumption of non-wood raw materials for that purpose has grown. This work presents research on the chemical stability of printed hemp fibre based papers to water, alcohol and alkali. Evaluation of chemical degradation on prints was determined through the spectrophotometric measurements. Deviations in colour of prints have shown that highest chemical stability provides prints made on industrially paper formed from mixture of hemp and post-consumer fibres with high share of inorganic components. Further, bleached hemp fibres in handmade 100 % hemp fibre based paper give prints with the lowest chemical stability.

  7. HEMP-induced transients in electric power substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, C.M.; Thomas, D.E.; Salas, T.M. (BDM International, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-02-01

    A nuclear detonation in or above the earth's atmosphere produces an intense electromagnetic pulse (EMP). A large portion of the EMP electromagnetic energy is within the RF spectrum. A detonation at high altitudes above 40 km produces an EMP called high-altitude EMP (HEMP). HEMP is a steep-front short duration transient with a rise time on the order of a few nanoseconds which decays to near zero in less than a microsecond. A single high-altitude burst can subject much of the continental United States to intense HEMP electric fields on the order of tens of kilovolts per meter. The intense transient HEMP will induce fast transients in high-voltage transmission lines and bus structures, instrumentation cables, and control wires in power transmission and distribution (T D) substations. A system of traveling wave coupling models for a 500 kV substation, including models for the high voltage primary bus, components (circuit breakers, disconnect switches, power transformers, and current and voltage instrument transformers), low voltage control wiring circuits, and a number of conducted and radiated interference coupling modes, had been developed earlier by EPRI. These EPRI served as the baseline for the present HEMP coupling investigations. The HEMP effects on protective relays were assessed for a nominal HEMP environment using several new field coupling models merged with the switching transient data. It is found that a representative solid state relay is unlikely to be damaged or to misoperate by the nominal HEMP threat with a peak field strength of 50 kV/m. However, it is possible for both DC control wires to flash over to ground simultaneously, causing fuses to blow and placing the relay in an inoperative state.

  8. HEMP-induced transients in electric power substations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, C.M.; Thomas, D.E.; Salas, T.M. [BDM International, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-02-01

    A nuclear detonation in or above the earth`s atmosphere produces an intense electromagnetic pulse (EMP). A large portion of the EMP electromagnetic energy is within the RF spectrum. A detonation at high altitudes above 40 km produces an EMP called high-altitude EMP (HEMP). HEMP is a steep-front short duration transient with a rise time on the order of a few nanoseconds which decays to near zero in less than a microsecond. A single high-altitude burst can subject much of the continental United States to intense HEMP electric fields on the order of tens of kilovolts per meter. The intense transient HEMP will induce fast transients in high-voltage transmission lines and bus structures, instrumentation cables, and control wires in power transmission and distribution (T & D) substations. A system of traveling wave coupling models for a 500 kV substation, including models for the high voltage primary bus, components (circuit breakers, disconnect switches, power transformers, and current and voltage instrument transformers), low voltage control wiring circuits, and a number of conducted and radiated interference coupling modes, had been developed earlier by EPRI. These EPRI served as the baseline for the present HEMP coupling investigations. The HEMP effects on protective relays were assessed for a nominal HEMP environment using several new field coupling models merged with the switching transient data. It is found that a representative solid state relay is unlikely to be damaged or to misoperate by the nominal HEMP threat with a peak field strength of 50 kV/m. However, it is possible for both DC control wires to flash over to ground simultaneously, causing fuses to blow and placing the relay in an inoperative state.

  9. Testing of DNA isolation for the identification of hemp

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Vyhnánek; Václav Trojan; Klára Štiasna; Mária Presinszká; Eva Mrkvicová; Luděk Hřivna; Ladislav Havel

    2015-01-01

    Hemp is diploid organism (2n = 2x = 20, genome size 534 Mb) with nine pairs of autosomes plus XX (♀) or XY (♂) chromosomes. Cannabis sativa L. is an important economic plant for the production of food, fibre, oils, and intoxicants. Genotypes (varieties or chemovar) of hemp with low Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol content are used for industrial applications. Varieties with high Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or high cannabidiol content are used for medicinal applications. Biochemical a...

  10. Variability and interrelation of yield components in fiber hemp

    OpenAIRE

    Sikora Vladimir; Berenji Janoš; Latković Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Variability and interrelation of yield components in fiber hemp were analysed in field experiments. This research included 20 commercial varieties currently being cultivated in Europe. Significant variability was determined for plant height, stem yield, fiber content and fiber yield, so these materials can be useful as a good base for future fiber hemp breeding and production improvement. Stem diameter was predominantly determined by ecological factors, and genetic background of examined vari...

  11. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems. Power Systems Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E{sub 1} (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E{sub 3} (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council`s regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  12. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems. Power Systems Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E{sub 1} (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E{sub 3} (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council`s regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  13. Industrial Hemp in North America: Production, Politics and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome H. Cherney

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Western World banned the cultivation of Cannabis sativa in the early 20th century because biotypes high in ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the principal intoxicant cannabinoid are the source of marijuana. Nevertheless, since 1990, dozens of countries have authorized the licensed growth and processing of “industrial hemp” (cultivars with quite low levels of THC. Canada has concentrated on hemp oilseed production, and very recently, Europe changed its emphasis from fiber to oilseed. The USA, historically a major hemp producer, appears on the verge of reintroducing industrial hemp production. This presentation provides updates on various agricultural, scientific, social, and political considerations that impact the commercial hemp industry in the United States and Canada. The most promising scenario for the hemp industry in North America is a continuing focus on oilseed production, as well as cannabidiol (CBD, the principal non-intoxicant cannabinoid considered by many to have substantial medical potential, and currently in great demand as a pharmaceutical. Future success of the industrial hemp industry in North America is heavily dependent on the breeding of more productive oilseed cultivars, the continued development of consumer goods, reasonable but not overly restrictive regulations, and discouragement of overproduction associated with unrealistic enthusiasm. Changing attitudes have generated an unprecedented demand for the cannabis plant and its products, resulting in urgent needs for new legislative, regulatory, and business frameworks, as well as scientific, technological, and agricultural research.

  14. QUALITY OF HEMP SEED OIL DEPENDING ON ITS OBTAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Staruch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. is probably one of the oldest field crops used in nutrition, but also for the production of fibres for clothes, ropes or canvas. Cannabis sativa is one of the most spread species of cannabis which belongs to family Cannabinaceae. The seeds are important part of cannabis sativa, which contains high part of lipids and proteins. It provides also valuable essential fatty acids, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals. Due to low content of THC is possible to produce valuable oil from seeds, which is used in cosmetic and food industry. The aim of this work was to evaluate composition of hemp seeds from one harvest, observe and compare quality of parameters both cold pressed hemp seed oil and hemp seed oil by CO2 extraction. Both oils are comparable in composition of fatty acids which follow from results of analyses. Also contents of sterols and moisture are similar in both oils. The saponification value is similar in both oils, conformable to as a iodine value. Also were found dissimilarities in colours, phospholipides, unsaponifiable matter, acid value and peroxide value. The cold pressed hemp seed oil contained lower values of unsaponifiable matter, colours and higher concentration of phospholipides and lower acid value. It is caused by influence of CO2. The oxidation stability of cold pressed hemp seed oil was four times higher than oil by CO2 extraction. doi:10.5219/32 

  15. Thermal Stress Effect on Density Changes of Hemp Hurds Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzova Ivana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the behavior of prepared biocomposites based on hemp hurds as a filling agent in composite system. In addition to the filler and water, an alternative binder, called MgO-cement was used. For this objective were prepared three types of samples; samples based on untreated hemp hurds as a referential material and samples based on chemically (with NaOH solution and physically (by ultrasonic procedure treated hemp hurds. The thermal stress effect on bulk density changes of hemp hurds composites was monitored. Gradual increase in temperature led to composites density reduction of 30-40 %. This process is connected with mass loss of the adsorbed moisture and physically bound water and also with degradation of organic compounds present in hemp hurds aggregates such as pectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose. Therefore the changes in the chemical composition of treated hemp hurds in comparison to original sample and its thermal decomposition were also studied.

  16. The influence of partial replacement of hemp shives by expanded perlite on physical properties of hemp-lime composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzyski, Przemysław; Widomski, Marcin

    2017-07-01

    The use of waste plants in building materials production is consistent with the principles of sustainable development, including waste management, CO2 balance, biodegradability of the material e.g. after building demolition. The porous structure of plant materials determines their usability as the insulation materials. An example of plant applicable in the construction industry is the industrial hemp. The shives are produced from the wooden core of the hemp stem as lightweight insulating filler in the composite based on lime binder. The discussed hemp-lime composite, due to the presence of lightweight, porous organic aggregates exhibits satisfactory thermal insulation properties and is used as filling and insulation of walls (as well as roofs and floors) in buildings of the wooden frame construction. The irregular shape of shives and their low density causes nonhomogenous compaction of composite and the formation of voids between the randomly arranged shives. In this paper the series of hemp-lime composites were tested. Apart from hemp shives, an additional aggregate - expanded perlite was used as a fine, lightweight, thermal insulating filler. Application of the additional aggregate was aimed to fill the voids between hemp shives and to investigate its influence on the physical properties of composite: apparent density, total porosity, water absorption and thermal conductivity.

  17. Microbial diversity observed during hemp retting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra; Pochart, Philippe; Day, Arnaud; Mennuni, Sarah; Bono, Pierre; Baret, Jean-Luc; Spadoni, Jean-Louis; Mangin, Irène

    2015-05-01

    Historically used in textile and paper industry, hemp fibres have started to find new applications in composite materials with important economic and ecological advantages. However, their applications are limited since manufacturers have some difficulties to standardise fabrication processes. This study is a first step before selection and isolation of strains that could later be used to optimise microbial retting efficiency and hence fibre quality. We studied six samples harvested on different ground types, at different dates and with different retting durations on field to obtain an exhaustive representation of the process. After DNA extraction, total bacteria and fungi associated with stems during retting were specifically quantified using real-time PCR. Then, using sequence analysis of randomly cloned 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, a phylogenetic characterisation of the dominant microorganisms was carried out. Quantitatively, we showed that there were 8.1-9.5 log₁₀ 16S rRNA gene copies per gram of hemp straw for bacteria and 8.6-9.6 log₁₀ 18S rRNA gene copies per gram for fungi. Qualitatively, we noticed a higher bacterial diversity in comparison to fungi. This work showed that in the different samples, the same species were present but in significantly different proportions according to ground type, harvest dates and retting durations on field. The most frequent bacterial sequences were affiliated to species Escherichia coli, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas rhizosphaerae, Rhodobacter sp., Pseudomonas fulva, Rhizobium huautlense and Massilia timonae, whereas fungal sequences were principally related to the genera Cladosporium and Cryptococcus.

  18. On the HEMP (high-altitude electromagnetic pulse) environment for protective relays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.E.; Wiggins, C.M.; Salas, T.M. (BDM International, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Barnes, P.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the transient environment for protective relays produced by high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) events is presented in this paper. Several mechanisms for coupling of HEMP to relay terminals are used to develop estimates of possible HEMP threats to relays. These predicted relay responses to HEMP events are compared to measured data on a solid state based relay's impulse strength. 12 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Development of Manila Hemp Fiber Epoxy Composite with High Tensile Properties Through Handpicking Fiber Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Takagi, Hitoshi; Yang, Zhimao

    Manila hemp fibers are separated to several sequent fragments from single fiber. The tensile strength of each fiber fragments and their epoxy composite are measured, followed by scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) analysis. The results show that the tensile strength of fiber fragments is almost constant along fiber. For composite, the tensile strength first increases and then decreases at the position near to root. The Young's modulus presents increasing with location from root to top for fiber and composite. Microstructure analysis indicates that the difference of tensile properties between fiber fragments derive from the difference of fiber diameter.

  20. Effect of alkali treatment on the physical and surface properties of Indian hemp fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangappa, Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Asha, S.; Somashekar, R.

    2013-02-01

    The Plant fibers are rich in cellulose and they are a cheap, easily renewable source of fibers with the potential for polymer reinforcement. The presence of surface impurities and the large amount of hydroxyl groups make plant fibers less attractive for reinforcement of polymeric materials. Hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.) fibers were subjected to alkalization using 1N sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The structural properties and surface morphology of untreated and chemically modified fibers have been studied using X-ray diffraction (WAXS) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively.

  1. Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. major on different stages of the sunn pest Eurygaster integriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Neda; Abbasipour, Habib; Askary, Hassan; Gorjan, Aziz Sheikhi; Karimi, Jaber

    2013-01-01

    The sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), is the most important insect pest of wheat and barley. The population management of this pest is of major concern to wheat producers. One of the potential control strategies is to use entomopathogenic fungi. This study evaluates the pathogenicity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. major (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) on the sunn pest, E. integriceps. Five concentrations of the fungus were utilized, ranging from 1×10(4) to 1×10(8) conidia/mL, accompanied by controls. Fifth instar nymphs and adults (a migratory summer population and a diapausing population) previously exposed to fungi were sown to isolate the fungi, and the growth parameters were analyzed. A direct spray technique was used to expose the isolates to the E. integriceps. The experiment was repeated four times, and mortalities of the insects for all treatments were recorded daily. The results showed that the mortality of infected nymphs was significantly higher than the mortality of control nymphs. Also, the longevity of infected adults was lower than the controls. The results also showed that diapausing adults of the sunn pest were much more susceptible to infection than the summer adults. Estimated LC50 values for the M14 isolate were 1.4 × 10(6), 1.4 ×10 (5) , and 2.3 × 10(3) spores/mL against the aestivation population, the diapausing population, and 5(th) instar nymphs, respectively. Estimated LT50 values using 10(8) spores/mL of the Mm isolate on the aestivation and diapausing populations were 11.9 and 5.11 days, respectively. The results demonstrated that M. anisoplaie was effective on all of stages of E. integriceps. In addition, the nymphal stage was more susceptible than the adults.

  2. Transient hygrothermal behaviour of a hemp concrete building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Le, A.D.; Maalouf, C.; Mai, T.H. [GRESPI/Thermomecanique, Universite de Reims, Moulin de la Housse BP. 1039, 51687 Reims (France); Wurtz, E. [INES-LOCIE, Savoie Technolac, Universite de Savoie, Le Bourget du Lac, 73375 Savoie (France); Collet, F. [Laboratoire de Genie civil et Genie Mecanique, equipe Materiaux-Thermo-Rheologie, Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Rennes 1 (France)

    2010-10-15

    The sustainable world's economic growth and people's life improvement greatly depend on the use of alternative products in the architecture and construction, such as industrial wastes conventionally called green materials. For this purpose, hemp concrete is more and more recommended by the eco-builders because hemp is a renewable plant, recyclable and does not degrade within time. It corresponds perfectly to the requirements of high environmental quality buildings. The objective of this article is to study transient hygrothermal behaviour of hemp concrete at whole building level. The physical model is one-dimensional and was implemented into the object-oriented simulation environment SPARK, using the finite difference technique with an implicit scheme. The numerical result showed that the use of hemp concrete wall in buildings can ensure good indoor air quality and energy savings in winter. Besides, the combined effect of moisture buffering with the adequate ventilation strategies increases hemp concrete building performance. Our results also suggest that taking into account the hygrothermal transfer at whole building level with heat and moisture production sources has significant effects on predictions. (author)

  3. Role of symbiotic bacteria in the growth and development of the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafil, Maryam; Bandani, Ali Reza; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Goldansaz, Seyed Hossein; Alavi, Seyed Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    The Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), is the most important pest of wheat and barley in wide areas of the world. Different aspects of the insect's life history have been studied, but to date nothing is known about their microbial symbionts. Here, the contribution of symbiotic bacteria to the fitness of the bug was investigated by combining two different approaches to manipulate the host's microbial community: the supplementation of antibiotics into the insects' diet and egg surface sterilization. First, bacteria cultured from gut homogenates were subjected to antibiotic screening tests using 20 different antibiotics. Norfloxacin was the most effective antibiotic, with the greatest inhibition zone among all antibiotics tested. Feeding norfloxacin to adult E. integriceps individuals significantly impaired growth and development of the offspring in a dose-dependent manner, i.e., higher antibiotic doses increased the negative effects on nymphal growth and development. Total developmental time from first nymphal instars to adult emergence in control animals was 30.1 days, but when adults had been offered diets with 10, 20, and 30 µg antibiotic per mg diet, the offspring's developmental time was prolonged to 32.8, 34.0, and 34.8 days, respectively. In the highest two doses of norfloxacin, all of the nymphs died before reaching the fifth nymphal instar. Similar results as for the antibiotic treatment were obtained when egg surface sterilization was used to manipulate the microbial community of E. integriceps. These results indicate that bacterial symbionts play a crucial role in the successful development of the host.

  4. Variability and interrelation of yield components in fiber hemp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability and interrelation of yield components in fiber hemp were analysed in field experiments. This research included 20 commercial varieties currently being cultivated in Europe. Significant variability was determined for plant height, stem yield, fiber content and fiber yield, so these materials can be useful as a good base for future fiber hemp breeding and production improvement. Stem diameter was predominantly determined by ecological factors, and genetic background of examined varieties had small influence on expression of this trait. Regarding expression of other yield components, influence of genetic factors was more important than environmental conditions. Correlation between analyzed traits shows that high stem and fiber yield are achieved in higher populations of fiber hemp with thicker stem. Fiber content increased with stem thickness increase.

  5. Multienzyme Modification of Hemp Protein for Functional Peptides Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods and nutraceuticals are of special importance, particularly for their impact on human health and prevention of certain chronic diseases. Consequently, the production and properties of bioactive peptides have received an increasing scientific interest over past few years. Present work intends to compare the competence of metalloendopeptidases (“Protease N” and “Protease A” with papain for getting functional peptides from hemp seed meal, which is an obligatory waste of hemp fiber production industry. As a measure of the functional potential hemp protein hydrolysates were analyzed for their antiradical properties in DPPH system. “Protease N” modified protein hydrolysate exhibited comparatively superior radical scavenging activity in DPPH system. Overall findings represent the importance of “Protease N,” as endopeptidase in getting peptides of good antiradical properties from various protein sources.

  6. Innovative core material produced by infusion process using hemp fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccarusso, L.; Carrino, L.; Durante, M.; Formisano, A.; Langella, A.; Minutolo, F. Memola Capece

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the mechanical properties in term of compression, tensile, flexural and shear strength of a new hemp core based on woven fabric. The hemp core is manufactured by means an innovative vacuum infusion process in which the input both of epoxy resin and of air was allowed. In addition, a comparison among this and others more known materials used as core in sandwich structures was carried out. The results showed that the core under investigation has higher mechanical properties, without shear and indentation failure during the tests on the respective sandwich structures.

  7. Mechanical and dielectric characterization of hemp fibre reinforced polypropylene (HFRPP by dry impregnation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibres such as jute, coir, sisal, bamboo and pineapple are known to have high specific strength and can be effectively used in composites in various applications. The use of hemp fibres to reinforce the polymer aroused great interest and expectations amongst scientists and materials engineers. In this paper, composites with isotactic polypropylene (iPP matrix and hemp fibres were studied. These materials were manufactured via the patented FIBROLINE process based on the principle of the dry impregnation of a fibre assembly with a thermoplastic powder (iPP, using an alternating electric field. The aim of this paper is to show the influence of fibre/matrix interfaces on dielectric properties coupled with mechanical behaviours. Fibres or more probably the fibre/matrix interfaces allow the diffusion of electric charges and delocalise the polarisation energy. In this way, damages are limited during mechanical loading and the mechanical properties of the composites increase. The structure of composite samples was investigated by X-ray and FTIR analysis. The mechanical properties were analysed by quasistatic and dynamic tests. The dielectric investigations were carried out using the SEMME (Scanning Electron Microscope Mirror Effect method coupled with the measurement of the induced current (ICM.

  8. Fabrication and evaluation of mechanical properties of alkaline treated sisal/hemp fiber reinforced hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesha Gupta, N. S.; Akash; Sreenivasa Rao, K. V.; kumar, D. S. Arun

    2016-09-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composite have acquired a dominant place in variety of applications because of higher specific strength and modulus, the plant based natural fiber are partially replacing currently used synthetic fiber as reinforcement for polymer composites. In this research work going to develop a new material which posses a strength to weight ratio that for exceed any of the present material. The hybrid composite sisal/hemp reinforced with epoxy matrix has been developed by compression moulding technique according to ASTM standards. Sodium hydroxide (NAOH) was used as alkali for treating the fibers. The amount of reinforcement was varied from 10% to 50% in steps of 10%. Prepared specimens were examined for mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, and hardness. Hybrid composite with 40wt% sisal/hemp fiber were found to posses higher strength (tensile strength = 53.13Mpa and flexural strength = 82.07Mpa) among the fabricated hybrid composite specimens. Hardness value increases with increasing the fiber volume. Morphological examinations are carried out to analyze the interfacial characteristics, internal structure and fractured surfaces by using scanning electron microscope.

  9. Means for sealing hemp packings in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistek, P.; Kubat, J.; Novak, L.

    1981-02-15

    The means for sealing hemp packings in gas pipelines has the following composition: 25-35% diethylene glycol, 10-15% glycerin, 10-15% triethylene glycol, 5-15% high ethylene glycols with an average molecular weight of 300, 20-35% the monobutyl ether of triethylene glycol, 4-7% ethoxylated p-chlorophenol, and 5-15% monoethanol amine.

  10. Sequenced anaerobic - aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis sati

  11. Sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L. ) pulping was

  12. Evaluation of current methods to estimate pulp yield of hemp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, de E.P.M.; Werf, van der H.M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Large-scale evaluation of hemp stems from field trials requires a rapid method for the characterization of stem quality. The large differences between bark and woody core in anatomical and chemical properties, make a quantification of these two fractions of primary importance for quality assessment.

  13. Sustainable hemp-based composites for the building industry application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzova, Ivana; Stevulova, Nadezda; Junak, Jozef; Hospodarova, Viola

    2017-07-01

    Sustainability goals are essential driving principles for the development of innovative materials in the building industry. Natural plant (e.g. hemp) fibers represent an attractive alternative as reinforcing material due to its good properties and sustainability prerequisites. In this study, hemp-based composite materials, designed for building application as non-load bearing material, providing both thermal insulation and physico-mechanical properties, are presented. Composite materials were produced by bonding hemp hurds with a novel inorganic binder (MgO-based cement) and then were characterized in terms of physical properties (bulk density, water absorption), thermal properties (thermal conductivity) and mechanical properties (compressive and tensile strength). The composites exhibited promising physical, thermal and mechanical characteristics, generally comparable to commercially available products. In addition, the hemp-based composites have the advantage of a significantly low environmental impact (thanks to the nature of both the dispersed and the binding phase) and no negative effects on human health. All things considered, the composite materials seem like very promising materials for the building industry application.

  14. Sequenced anaerobic - aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis

  15. Wet-preserved hemp fibreboard properties improvement with veneering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilovs, E.; Kukle, S.; Gusovius, H.-J.

    2015-03-01

    The initial research describes a new type of fiber boards for the furniture interior design, developed in cooperation with ATB (Leibniz-Institute for Agricultural Engineering) by using a new method of raw materials preparation and specific production technologies of ATB. The main raw materials are aerobically aged hemp stalks. The samples are made of hemp chips with a long preservation time and fastened together with the UF glue. Specimens are 8 mm thick and correspond to a medium-density fiberboard, fitting standard EN622. Due to the fact that non-veneered material can be used only in non-load-bearing constructions, material improving technologies were studied, such as increase of board density, increase of glue percentage, partially substitution of wet-preserved hemp chips with a dry hemp and/or wooden chips to equalize moisture content of obtained mixture. The particular article describes how the new material is veneered with the oak veneer obtaining three-ply composite board with the improved mechanical properties that allows to use these boards in a load-bearing constructions. Tests are performed with the veneered material to determine such parameters as static bending strength (MOR), modulus of elasticity in static bending (MOE), swelling in thickness and hardness.

  16. Oxidation of lignin in hemp fibres by laccase: effects on mechanical properties of hemp fibres and unidirectional fibre/epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Baum, Andreas; Odermatt, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Laccase activity catalyzes oxidation and polymerization of phenols. The effect of laccase treatment on the mechanical properties of hemp fibres and hemp fibre/epoxy composites was examined. Laccase treatment on top of 0.5% EDTA + 0.2% endo-polygalacturonase (EPG) treatments increased the mechanical...

  17. Investigation into hemp fiber-and whisker-reinforced soy protein composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linxiang WANG; Rakesh KUMAR; Lina ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Whiskers, designated as W, were prepared from hemp fibers. Both fibers and whiskers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravi-metric analysis. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the dimensions of the fibers and whiskers, respectively.By incorporating different weight fraction of the fibers and whiskers into soy protein isolate, we prepared two different composites designated as SC and SC-W,respectively. Thiodiglycol was used as a plasticizer for the preparation of composites. The SC and SC-W composites were characterized and compared in terms of mechanical properties, volume fraction of porosity,and water uptake. The results indicated that there was not much significant difference in the properties of the composites. In fact, mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites were higher than whisker-reinforced composites at optimum weight fractions.This study can give us the idea about the judicious use of fibers or whiskers as reinforcement materials.

  18. Microstructure and mechanical performance of modified mortar using hemp fibres and carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Rabah

    2014-04-01

    Mechanical performance of modified mortar using hemp fibres is studied following various processing conditions. Hemp fibres combined with carbon nanotubes (CNT) are introduced in mortar and their effect is studied as function of curing time. The cement phase is replaced by different percentages of dry or wet hemp fibres ranging from 1.1. wt% up to 3.1. wt% whereas carbon nanotubes are dispersed in the aqueous solution. Our experimental results show that compressive and flexural strengths of wet fibres modified mortar are higher than those for dry hemp-mortar material. The achieved optimal percentage of wet hemp fibres is 2.1. wt% allowing a flexural strength higher than that of reference mortar. The addition of an optimal CNT concentration (0.01. wt%) combined with wet hemp has a reinforcing effect which turns to be related to an improvement of compressive and flexural strengths by 10% and 24%, respectively, in comparison with reference condition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Carbohydrate components and crystalline structure of organosolv hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) bast fibers pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüşkaya, Esat; Usta, Mustafa; Balaban, Mualla

    2007-02-01

    Changes in carbohydrate components and crystalline structure of hemp bast fibers during organosolv pulping were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, FT-IR spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The reasons for defibrillation and beating problems with organosolv hemp bast fiber pulp were investigated with reference to these properties of pulp samples. Hemp bast fibers and organosolv pulp samples had low hemicellulose contents and high cellulose contents. It was found that the disorder parameter of cellulose in hemp bast fibers was very low, when crystalline cellulose ratio was high and the crystalline structure of cellulose in hemp bast fibers was very stable. These properties affected defibrillation and beating of organosolv hemp bast fibers pulp negatively.

  20. The effects of hemicelluloses and lignin removal on water uptake behavior of hemp fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejic, Biljana M; Kostic, Mirjana M; Skundric, Petar D; Praskalo, Jovana Z

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the individual influences of hemicelluloses and lignin removal on the water uptake behavior of hemp fibers. Hemp fibers with different content of either hemicelluloses or lignin were obtained by chemical treatment with 17.5% sodium hydroxide or 0.7% sodium chlorite. Various tests (capillary rise method, moisture sorption, water retention power) were applied to evaluate the change in water uptake of modified hemp fibers. The obtained results show that when the content of either hemicelluloses or lignin is reduced progressively by chemical treatment, the capillary properties of hemp fibers are improved, i.e. capillary rise height of modified fibers is increased up to 2.7 times in relation to unmodified fibers. Furthermore, hemicelluloses removal increases the moisture sorption and decreases the water retention values of hemp fibers, while lignin removal decreases the moisture sorption and increases the water retention ability of hemp fibers.

  1. Technological and nutritional aspect of different hemp types addition: Comparison of flour and wholemeal effect

    OpenAIRE

    Švec, I.; Hrušková, Marie; Jurinová, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Addition of non-traditional raw-materials and flours into wheat flour follows contemporary trend of manufacturing nutritionally healthier fermented bakery products. Aim of the study follows this tendency, evaluating nutritional improvement of composite flour and baking potential of prepared wheat-hemp flour composites. Hemp products addition significantly increased both protein and dietary fibre contents. Between five types of hemp flour, differences were observed according to incorporated am...

  2. An investigation of the thermal properties of hemp and clay monolithic walls

    OpenAIRE

    Busbridge, Ruth; Rhydwen, Ranyl

    2010-01-01

    The monolithic walls of hemp-lime construction enclose and protect a structural timber frame to provide a healthy, breathable building fabric that meets current UK building regulations. It has been proposed that by using hemp as a building material it is possible to actually remove carbon from the atmosphere. Whether or not ‗hemp-crete‘can be considered carbon sequestering, or even neutral, depends largely on the binder. All the lime based binders have high embodied energy, meaning they limit...

  3. Spinning of Cotton Hemp Bamboo Fiber Blended Yarn%棉汊麻竹浆纤维混纺纱的纺制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙治海

    2011-01-01

    To spinning cotton hemp bamboo blended yarn,hemp fiber were reconditioned and pretreated. Processing of raw material blending was selected to improve spinnability. Raw material feed ratio was controlled rationally, waste percentages in comb process, opening and picking process were controlled well to ensure yam blending ratio. Drawing processing was adjusted rationally to improve draw sliver evenness. In spinning less nipper gauge was used, new top pin was adopted to reduced float area and increase yarn quality. In winding process, winding tension and electronic yarn clearer parameter were selected rationally to ensure winding shape,finally cotton/hemp/bamboo 50/25/25 29. 2 tex blended yarn was spun successfully. It is pointed out quality demand of cotton hemp bamboo blended yarn can be ensured only to adjust technology measures in each process according to hemp property.%为纺制棉汉麻竹浆纤维混纺纱,对汉麻纤维进行养生及预分梳处理;选用原料混和工艺改善可纺性;合理控制原料投料比例并控制开清棉与梳棉落棉率,保证成纱混纺比;并条工序合理调整工艺,提高熟条条干;细纱工序使用小钳口隔距,使用新型上销,缩短浮游区,以提高成纱质量;络筒工序选择适当的电清参数和络纱张力,以保证成形良好,结果顺利纺制出棉/汉麻/竹浆50/25/25 29.2 tex混纺纱.指出:只有针对汉麻纤维特点调整各工序纺纱技术措施,方能纺制出符合质量要求的棉汉麻竹浆纤维混纺纱.

  4. Chemical and physical modification of hemp fibres by steam explosion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutka, Anna; Kukle, Silvija; Gravitis, Janis; Berzins, Agris

    2013-12-01

    In current research attempt has been made to analyse hemp fibres treated with steam explosion (SE) technology. Disintegration of hemp fibres separated from non-retted, dew-retted and dried stems of hemp ('Purini')[1] by alkali treatment and steam explosion (SE) were investigated. An average intensive SE in combination with the hydro-thermal and alkali after-treatment allows decreasing the diameter of hemp fibres and reduce the concentration of non-celluloses components, among them hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin, waxes and water [1;2].

  5. Industrial hemp as a potential bioenergy crop in comparison with kenaf, switchgrass and biomass sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Lalitendu; Liu, Enshi; Saeed, Areej; Williams, David W; Hu, Hongqiang; Li, Chenlin; Ray, Allison E; Shi, Jian

    2017-11-01

    This study takes combined field trial, lab experiment, and economic analysis approaches to evaluate the potential of industrial hemp in comparison with kenaf, switchgrass and biomass sorghum. Agronomy data suggest that the per hectare yield (5437kg) of industrial hemp stem alone was at a similar level with switchgrass and sorghum; while the hemp plants require reduced inputs. Field trial also showed that ∼1230kg/ha hemp grain can be harvested in addition to stems. Results show a predicted ethanol yield of ∼82gallons/dry ton hemp stems, which is comparable to the other three tested feedstocks. A comparative cost analysis indicates that industrial hemp could generate higher per hectare gross profit than the other crops if both hemp grains and biofuels from hemp stem were counted. These combined evaluation results demonstrate that industrial hemp has great potential to become a promising regional commodity crop for producing both biofuels and value-added products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Properties of hemp fibre polymer composites - An optimisation of fibre properties using novel defibration methods and fibre characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of hemp fibres was carried out with fibres obtained with low handling damage and defibration damage to get an indication of how strong cellulose based fibres that can be produced from hemp. Comparison was made with hemp yarn producedunder traditional conditions where damage...... obtained by steam explosion of hemp fibres prior defibrated with pectin degrading enzymes. The S2 layer in the fibre wall of the hemp fibres consisted of1-4 cellulose rich and lignin poor concentric layers constructed of ca. 100 nm thick lamellae. The microfibril angle showed values in the range 0......-10° for the main part of the S2-layer and 70-90° for the S1-layer. The microfibrils that are mainly parallelwith the fibre axis explain the high fibre stiffness, which in defibrated hemp fibres reached 94 GPa. The defibrated hemp fibres had higher fibre stiffness (88-94 GPa) than hemp yarn (60 GPa), which...

  7. Performance characteristics of a diesel engine with deccan hemp oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O.D. Hebbal; K. Vijayakumar Reddy; K. Rajagopal [Poojya Doddappa Appa College of Engineering, Gulbarga (India)

    2006-10-15

    In this present investigation deccan hemp oil, a non-edible vegetable oil is selected for the test on a diesel engine and its suitability as an alternate fuel is examined. The viscosity of deccan hemp oil is reduced first by blending with diesel in 25/75%, 50/50%, 75/25%, 100/0% on volume basis, then analyzed and compared with diesel. Further blends are heated and effect of viscosity on temperature was studied. The performance and emission characteristics of blends are evaluated at variable loads of 0.37, 0.92, 1.48, 2.03, 2.58, 3.13 and 3.68 kW at a constant rated speed of 1500 rpm and results are compared with diesel. The thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) are well comparable with diesel, and emissions are a little higher for 25% and 50% blends. At rated load, smoke, carbon monoxide (CO), and unburnt hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of 50% blend are higher compared with diesel by 51.74%, 71.42% and 33.3%, respectively. For ascertaining the validity of results obtained, pure deccan hemp oil results are compared with results of jatropha and pongamia oil for similar works available in the literature and were well comparable. From investigation it has been established that, up to 25% of blend of deccan hemp oil without heating and up to 50% blend with preheating can be substituted for diesel engine without any engine modification. 27 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Structural and Antihypertensive Properties of Enzymatic Hemp Seed Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A. Malomo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce antihypertensive protein hydrolysates through different forms of enzymatic hydrolysis (2% pepsin, 4% pepsin, 1% alcalase, 2% alcalase, 2% papain, and 2% pepsin + pancreatin of hemp seed proteins (HSP. The hemp seed protein hydrolysates (HPHs were tested for in vitro inhibitions of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, two of the enzymes that regulate human blood pressure. The HPHs were then administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight to spontaneously hypertensive rats and systolic blood pressure (SBP-lowering effects measured over a 24 h period. Size exclusion chromatography mainly showed a 300–9560 Da peptide size range for the HPHs, while amino acid composition data had the 2% pepsin HPH with the highest cysteine content. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed higher fluorescence intensities for the peptides when compared to the unhydrolyzed hemp seed protein. Overall, the 1% alcalase HPH was the most effective (p < 0.05 SBP-reducing agent (−32.5 ± 0.7 mmHg after 4 h, while the pepsin HPHs produced longer-lasting effects (−23.0 ± 1.4 mmHg after 24 h. We conclude that an optimized combination of the fast-acting HPH (1% alcalase with the longer-lasting HPHs (2% and 4% pepsin could provide daily effective SBP reductions.

  9. Thermal conductivity of wool and wool-hemp insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Z.; Wells, C.M.; Carrington, C.G. [University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Physics; Hewitt, N.J. [University of Ulster, Jordanstown (United Kingdom). Centre for Sustainable Technologies

    2006-01-15

    Measurements have been obtained for the thermal resistance of sheep-wool insulation and wool-hemp mixtures, both in the form of bonded insulation batts, using a calibrated guarded hot-box. The density was 9.6-25.9 kg m{sup -3} for the wool and 9.9-18.1 kg m{sup -3} for the wool-hemp mixtures. The measurements were made at a mean sample temperature of 13.3{sup o}C using a calibrated guarded hot-box. The estimated uncertainly in the resistance measurements was of the order of {+-}7%. The thermal conductivity of the samples, derived from the thermal resistance measurements on the basis of the measured thickness, was well correlated with the density, although the variation with density was larger than that obtained in previous studies. The conductivity of the wool-hemp samples was not significantly different from that of the wool samples at the same density. Moisture uptake produced an increase of less than 5% in the conductivity of the bonded wool insulation for an increase in absorbed moisture content of 20%. The thermal resistance was 1.6% lower on average for samples oriented in the horizontal plane rather than the vertical plane, but this difference is not significant. (author)

  10. Structural and Antihypertensive Properties of Enzymatic Hemp Seed Protein Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malomo, Sunday A; Onuh, John O; Girgih, Abraham T; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-09-10

    The aim of this work was to produce antihypertensive protein hydrolysates through different forms of enzymatic hydrolysis (2% pepsin, 4% pepsin, 1% alcalase, 2% alcalase, 2% papain, and 2% pepsin + pancreatin) of hemp seed proteins (HSP). The hemp seed protein hydrolysates (HPHs) were tested for in vitro inhibitions of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), two of the enzymes that regulate human blood pressure. The HPHs were then administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats and systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering effects measured over a 24 h period. Size exclusion chromatography mainly showed a 300-9560 Da peptide size range for the HPHs, while amino acid composition data had the 2% pepsin HPH with the highest cysteine content. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed higher fluorescence intensities for the peptides when compared to the unhydrolyzed hemp seed protein. Overall, the 1% alcalase HPH was the most effective (p < 0.05) SBP-reducing agent (-32.5 ± 0.7 mmHg after 4 h), while the pepsin HPHs produced longer-lasting effects (-23.0 ± 1.4 mmHg after 24 h). We conclude that an optimized combination of the fast-acting HPH (1% alcalase) with the longer-lasting HPHs (2% and 4% pepsin) could provide daily effective SBP reductions.

  11. Near-surface Environment with Oblique Incidence of HEMP%近地面HEMP电磁环境特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴焱杰; 孙继银; 赵利军

    2011-01-01

    High-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) poses a serious threat to the electronic devices. According to the problem that the HEMP standards include the general wave characteristics in the free space barely, the environmental characteristics of electromagnetic pulses near the ground with the HEMP incident plane wave perpendicular or oblique to the ground are studied and the electromagnetic environmental parameters are simulated, based on the finite difference time domain method. The result shows that, when the HEMP incident plane wave is perpendicular to the ground, the reflected field weakens the incident one, which makes the total field depressed, especially in the lower position over the ground, and almost integer incident and reflected fields occur in the upper position. In the case of vertical polarization plane wave when the HEMP incident plane wave is oblique to the ground, horizontal field amplitude becomes smaller and pulse width becomes narrower when the incidence angle increases. The experiment conclusions are able to provide guidance for the protection design of electronic devices on the ground.%高空核爆电磁脉冲(HEMP)对电子设备构成严重的威胁;针对国内外有关HEMP的标准中对波形的定义主要针对自由空间的问题,使用时域有限差分法研究了HEMP平面波垂直/斜入射地面时,地面附近的电磁脉冲环境特性,仿真计算了有关电磁环境参数;结果表明,HEMP平面波垂直入射时,较低位置处反射场削弱了部分入射场.使总场幅度降低,较高位置处经历较为完整的人射场和反射场的冲击;HEMP平面波斜入射时,在垂直极化情况下,随着入射角的增大,地面附近的水平场幅值变小、脉冲宽度变窄;实验结论有利于指导地面电子设备的电磁防护设计.

  12. Influence of accompanying substances of hemp fibres on their electric resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Biljana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemp fibres belong to the group of natural, cellulose bast fibres. These fibres have exceptional properties such as: antimicrobial effect, absence of allergy effect, extraordinary sorption properties, good electro-physical properties (small static electricity in regard to other cellulose fibres as well as high values of breaking strength (the natural fibre with the highest strength. However, hemp fibres have some defects: heterogeneous chemical composition, large quantity of accompanying substances (lignin pectins, waxes and unsatisfactory fineness and eveness. It is possible to a great extent to eliminate or reduce, the defects of hemp fibres by of appropriate modification treatments. In order to determine the appropriate modification treatment of hemp fibres, the dependences between the chemical composition, fineness and electric resistance of hemp fibres were presented in this paper. In the experimental part of the paper, by the application of a procedure for the determination of the chemical composition, the accompanying supstances of hemp fibres were gradually removed. After each phase some fibrous substrates were separated. After that the fineness and electric resistance were determined. This experiment was conducted in order to define the influence of each component of hemp fibres on the fineness and electric resistance. In this paper, hemp fibres were modified by an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, under different conditions of modification. The influence of modification conditions on the fineness and electric resistance were studied.

  13. Alkaline hemp woody core pulping : impregnation characteristics, kinetic modelling and papermaking qualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to elucidate alkaline processing of hemp woody core, supporting the development and optimization of an efficient and non-polluting pulping process. This study has been a constituent of an integral programme to study fibre hemp.

    It is known that

  14. Alkaline hemp woody core pulping: impregnation characteristics, kinetic modelling and papermaking qualities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to elucidate alkaline processing of hemp woody core, supporting the development and optimization of an efficient and non-polluting pulping process. This study has been a constituent of an integral programme to study fibre hemp.It is known that the outer part of the fibre he

  15. Viking and Early Middle Ages Northern Scandinavian Textiles Proven to be made with Hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, G.; Nockert, M.; Holst, B.

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  16. Viking and early Middle Ages northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, G; Nockert, M; Holst, B

    2013-10-18

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  17. TVS二极管HEMP响应能力实验研究%Experimental Study of the Response Ability of TVS Diode to HEMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鸣心; 姜雯雯; 孙晋; 周颖慧

    2014-01-01

    The rising time of the electromagnetic pulse generated by high-altitude nuclear explosions (HEMP) is about 2.3 ns, and the peak intensity of the electric field will be up to 50 kV/m, which will significantly influence the safety of electronic equipment. Surge protection devices (SPD) with quick response ability are needed in protecting against the conducted interference of HEMP. However, the indicators of conventional SPD devices are mainly aimed at lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP). In order to study the response capability of SPD to HEMP, a kind of transient voltage suppression diodes (TVS) with quick response capability is selected in this paper. Different types of pulse waveforms are used in the test, and the response characteristics of the selected TVS to HEMP are obtained. For comparison, the response characteristics to LEMP are tested in this paper. The results show that the response time of this kind of devices to HEMP is about 6.5 ns, and the damage threshold voltage is about 30 kV. The experiment results are useful in selecting devices to defend HEMP.%高空核爆炸产生的电磁脉冲(HEMP)上升前沿时间约为2.3ns,峰值场强可达50kV/m,会对电子设备的安全运行产生极大的影响。HEMP传导干扰的防护需要使用具有快速响应能力的电涌保护器件(SPD),但常规SPD器件的指标主要针对雷电电磁脉冲(LEMP),为了更详细地了解SPD的HEMP响应能力,选择一款具有快速响应能力的瞬态电压抑制二极管(TVS),采用不同脉冲波形进行了测试,得到了这类TVS的HEMP响应特性,并与雷电电磁脉冲进行了对比。结果表明该器件对HEMP的响应时间约为6.5ns,损伤阈值电压约为30kV。实验研究结果对于HEMP防护中的器件选择具有参考价值。

  18. Inhibition of Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps, α-amylases by α-amylase inhibitors (T-αAI) from Triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali R; Saadati, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    The effect of triticale α-amylases inhibitors on starch hydrolysis catalyzed by the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) midgut amylases was examined. Biochemical studgawies showed that inhibitors from Triticale (a hybrid of wheat and rye) had inhibitiory effects on E. integriceps α-amylases. The effects of the triticale α-amylase inhibitor (T-αAI) on α-amylase of E. integriceps showed a dose dependent manner of inhibition, e.g. less inhibition of enzyme activity (around 10%) with a lower dose (0.25 mg protein) and high inhibition of enzyme activity (around 80%) when a high dose of inhibitor was used (1.5 mg protein). The enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations showed the K(m) remained constant (0.58%) but the maximum velocity (V(max)) decreased in the presence of a crude extract of Triticale inhibitors, indicating mixed inhibition. The temperature giving 50% inactivation of enzyme (T(50)) during a 30-min incubation at pH 7.0 was 73° C. The maximum inhibitory activity was achieved at 35° C and pH 5.0. Gel assays showed the meaningful inhibition of E. integriceps α-amylases by various concentrations of Triticale inhibitors. Based on the data presented in this study, it could be said that the T-αAI has good inhibitory activity on E. integriceps gut α-amylase.

  19. Structural and functional properties of hemp seed protein products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malomo, Sunday A; He, Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-08-01

    The effects of pH and protein concentration on some structural and functional properties of hemp seed protein isolate (HPI, 84.15% protein content) and defatted hemp seed protein meal (HPM, 44.32% protein content) were determined. The HPI had minimum protein solubility (PS) at pH 4.0, which increased as pH was decreased or increased. In contrast, the HPM had minimum PS at pH 3.0, which increased at higher pH values. Gel electrophoresis showed that some of the high molecular weight proteins (>45 kDa) present in HPM were not well extracted by the alkali and were absent or present in low ratio in the HPI polypeptide profile. The amino acid composition showed that the isolation process increased the Arg/Lys ratio of HPI (5.52%) when compared to HPM (3.35%). Intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism data indicate that the HPI proteins had a well-defined structure at pH 3.0, which was lost as pH value increased. The differences in structural conformation of HPI at different pH values were reflected as better foaming capacity at pH 3.0 when compared to pH 5.0, 7.0, and 9.0. At 10 and 25 mg/mL protein concentrations, emulsions formed by the HPM had smaller oil droplet sizes (higher quality), when compared to the HPI-formed emulsions. In contrast at 50 mg/mL protein concentration, the HPI-formed emulsions had smaller oil droplet sizes (except at pH 3.0). We conclude that the functional properties of hemp seed protein products are dependent on structural conformations as well as protein concentration and pH.

  20. Yield Potential of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the yield potential of fibre hemp in Denmark, defined as seed yield, biomass, stem and fibre production, five cultivars were evaluated in field trials at two sites during 1998-2000. The total dry matter yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre percent, plant height, and seed...... was approximately 500 kg ha-1. In general, fibre yields increased when seed rates of 16 kg ha-1 or more were used. At 32 kg seed ha-1 Futura gave higher fibre yields than at all other seed rates, and higher yields at 24 cm row distance than at 48 cm. Fasamo differed from the other cultivars by having a lower dry...

  1. CHARACTERIZATION AND PERFORMANCE OF ELEMENTARY HEMP FIBRES: FACTORS INFLUENCING TENSILE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizi Fan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the outcomes from an extensive investigation on the structure and geometry of single hemp fibres, as well as configurations and related tensile strength (TS of hemp fibres, with the aid of field emission scanning and optical microscopy. The results showed that 1 the TS increased with the decrease of the diameter of individual test pieces, due possibly to the stacks of multiple single fibres within the test pieces; 2 shear failure between single fibres in a test pieces played a significant role in the test results; 3 the TS was closely related to the number of both the inherent joints along the fibre length and single fibres contained in the test pieces; 4 the splits along the length and width of hemp fibres may complicate the test results, and 5 the optimized treatment prior to decortications may double the TS of hemp fibres compared to a normal retting processing. Reliable TS of single hemp fibres have been derived by a power regression, and the predicted TS were verified with an excellent agreement with experimentally tested results. The tensile strain-stress plot was found to be linear for all hemp test pieces, showing that the behaviour of single hemp fibres obeys Hooke’s law.

  2. Byssinosis and COPD rates among factory workers manufacturing hemp and jute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukremin Er

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Prior studies have been performed on cotton textile plants throughout the world. This study was planned to identify the rate of byssinosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in hemp and jute workers and those who worked with both of them. Material and Methods: The study was realized in a factory which consecutively processed hemp and jute. The study enrollment included 266 people, 164 of whom were active workers and 102 were retired. A questionnaire, plain chest X-rays, physical examination and pulmonary function tests were performed. Dust levels were measured in various sections of the factory during 8 h work shifts. Endotoxin levels of various quality hemp fibers and dusts were measured. Results: The rate of byssinosis (28.2% was higher among the workers that who exposed to both jute and hemp dust. The frequency of chronic bronchitis in retired workers who previously smoked was higher (20% as compared to currently smoking workers (17%. High dust levels were measured in some parts of the factory (mean (M = 2.69 mg/m3. Working in dense dust areas, active smoking, being older than 40 years of age, being an ex-smoker, and working in the factory for a period exceeding 15 years were significantly associated with bronchitis and emphysema development. High endotoxin levels were determined for fine hemp dust (605 EU/mg, coarse hemp dust (336 EU/mg and poor quality hemp fibers (114 EU/mg, whereas in fresh hemp stalks the level of endotoxin was determined to be lower (0.27 EU/mg. Conclusions: Because of high exposures to jute and hemp dusts that are associated with high byssinosis rates, personal protection and environmental hygiene is crucial to prevention of byssinosis.

  3. Byssinosis and COPD rates among factory workers manufacturing hemp and jute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Mukremin; Emri, Salih A; Demir, Ahmet U; Thorne, Peter S; Karakoca, Yalcin; Bilir, Nazmi; Baris, Izzettin Y

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have been performed on cotton textile plants throughout the world. This study was planned to identify the rate of byssinosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in hemp and jute workers and those who worked with both of them. The study was realized in a factory which consecutively processed hemp and jute. The study enrollment included 266 people, 164 of whom were active workers and 102 were retired. A questionnaire, plain chest X-rays, physical examination and pulmonary function tests were performed. Dust levels were measured in various sections of the factory during 8 h work shifts. Endotoxin levels of various quality hemp fibers and dusts were measured. The rate of byssinosis (28.2%) was higher among the workers that who exposed to both jute and hemp dust. The frequency of chronic bronchitis in retired workers who previously smoked was higher (20%) as compared to currently smoking workers (17%). High dust levels were measured in some parts of the factory (mean (M) = 2.69 mg/m3). Working in dense dust areas, active smoking, being older than 40 years of age, being an ex-smoker, and working in the factory for a period exceeding 15 years were significantly associated with bronchitis and emphysema development. High endotoxin levels were determined for fine hemp dust (605 EU/mg), coarse hemp dust (336 EU/mg) and poor quality hemp fibers (114 EU/mg), whereas in fresh hemp stalks the level of endotoxin was determined to be lower (0.27 EU/mg). Because of high exposures to jute and hemp dusts that are associated with high byssinosis rates, personal protection and environmental hygiene is crucial to prevention of byssinosis. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Absent yet at All Times Present: Further Thoughts on Secrecy in the Shī‛ī Tradition and in Sunnī Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebstein, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes a tradition (ḥadīṯh that is found in Sunnī and in Shī‛ī sources alike and which portrays the ideal believer as a hidden man who chooses to practice his religion away from the eyes of others. According to the author’s analysis, this tradition has its origins in the religious-political conflicts (fitness of the 2nd/8th century. These conflicts gave rise to a pietistic attitude of noninvolvement and withdrawal from society in times of civil strife. In Shī‛ī versions of the tradition, the element of secrecy and taqiyya is added to the description of the ideal believer. These various motifs were to play an important role in Islamic mysticism, particularly in the teachings of movements such as the malāmatiyya. The author argues that while both Shī‛ī esotericism and Sunnī mysticism incorporated similar, early ḥadīṯhs in their discussions of the figure of the hidden saint, the Shī‛ī tradition contributed much to the development of this theme in its ethical-psychological and esoteric aspects.Este artículo analiza el ḥadīṯ que se encuentra tanto en las fuentes šī‛íes como sunníes que retrata al creyente ideal como un hombre escondido que elige practicar su religión apartado de los ojos de los otros. Según el autor, esta tradición tiene su origen en las luchas político-religiosas (fintas del siglo II/VIII, que propiciaron una actitud piadosa de retiro de la sociedad y no participación en tiempos de lucha civil. En las versiones šī‛íes del ḥadīṯ el elemento de secreto, taqiyya, se anade a la descripción del creyente ideal. Estos motivos habrán de desempenar un papel importante en movimientos místicos como el de malāmatiyya. Aunque el esoterismo šī‛í y el misticismo sunní incorporaron hadices similares a su elaboración del santo escondido, la tradición šī‛í contribuyó particularmente al desarrollo de este tema tanto en términos ético-psicológicos como esotéricos.

  5. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior...... to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted...

  6. Cadmium tolerance and bioaccumulation of 18 hemp accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Gangrong; Liu, Caifeng; Cui, Meicheng; Ma, Yuhua; Cai, Qingsheng

    2012-09-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a fast-growing and high biomass producing plant species, which has been traditionally grown as multiple-use crop and recently considered as an energy crop. In order to screen accessions that can be cultivated in cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils for biodiesel production, the ability of Cd tolerance and bioaccumulation of 18 hemp cultivars or ecotypes were evaluated in pot experiment under 25 mg Cd kg(-1) (dry weight, DW) soil condition, in terms of plant growth, pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, and Cd accumulation at 45 days after seedling emergence. Results showed that seedlings of all cultivars, except USO-31, Shenyang and Shengmu, could grow quite well under 25 mg Cd kg(-1) (DW) soil condition. Among them, Yunma 1, Yunma 2, Yunma 3, Yunma 4, Qujing, Longxi, Lu'an, Xingtai, and Shuyang showed great biomass (>0.5 g plant(-1)), high tolerance factors (68.6-92.3%), and little reduction of pigment content and chlorophyll fluorescence under 25 mg Cd kg(-1) (DW) soil stress, indicating these cultivars had a strong tolerance to Cd stress and could be cultivated in Cd-contaminated soils. Cultivars Longxi, Lu'an, Xingtai, Yunma 2, Yunma 3, Yunma 4, and Qujing exhibited higher Cd concentrations and total Cd in shoots. These cultivars, therefore, are good candidates for the implementation of the new strategy of cultivating biodiesel crops for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  7. DETERMINATION OF CRYSTALLINITY INDEX OF CARBOHYDRATE COMPONENTS IN HEMP (CANNABIS SATIVA L. WOODY CORE BY MEANS OF FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Gümüşkaya

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study; it was investigated chemical compositions of hemp woody core and changes in crystallinity index of its carbohydrate components by using FT-IR spectroscopy was investigated. It was determined that carbohyrate components ratio in hemp woody core were similar to that in hard wood, but lignin content in hemp woody core was higher than in hard wood. Crystallinity index of carbohydrate components in hemp woody core increased by removing amorphous components. It was designated that monoclinic structure in hemp woody core and its carbohydrate components was dominant, but triclinic ratio increased by treated chemical isolation of carbohydrate from hemp woody core.

  8. Feasibility and Manufacturing Considerations of Hemp Textile Fabric Utilized in Pre-Impregnated Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osusky, Gregory

    This study investigates the fabrication and mechanical properties of semicontinuous, hemp fiber reinforced thermoset composites. This research determines if off-the-shelf refined woven hemp fabric is suitable as composite reinforcement using resin pre-impregnated method. Industrial hemp was chosen for its low cost, low resource input as a crop, supply chain from raw product to refined textile and biodegradability potential. Detail is placed on specimen fabrication considerations. Lab testing of tension and compression is conducted and optimization considerations are examined. The resulting composite is limited in mechanical properties as tested. This research shows it is possible to use woven hemp reinforcement in pre-impregnated processed composites, but optimization in mechanical properties is required to make the process commercially practical outside niche markets.

  9. A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ACETYLATION ON HEMP FIBRES WITH VINYL ACETATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgül Özmen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modifications of hemp fibers were performed with acetic anhydride (AA and vinyl acetate (VA in the presence of pyridine or potassium carbonate as catalysts. Hemp fibers (Cannabis sativa were successfully acetylated by VA in the presence of potassium carbonate (15% WPG, but no weight gain was obtained when pyridine was used as catalyst. Hemp fibers were also modified with acetic anhydride (AA in the presence of potassium carbonate and pyridine as catalyst (14% and 16% WPG, respectively under identical conditions, and the results were compared with those obtained using the VA technique. AA-modified, VA-modified, and control hemp fibers were characterized by Infrared (FTIR, 13C CP MAS NMR and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA.

  10. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9 g L(-1)), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid.

  11. Genetic variation in hemp and marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) according to amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datwyler, Shannon L; Weiblen, George D

    2006-03-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) is one of the earliest known cultivated plants and is important in the global economy today as a licit and an illicit crop. Molecular markers distinguishing licit and illicit cultivars have forensic utility, but no direct comparison of hemp and marijuana amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) has been made to date. Genetic variation was surveyed in three populations of fiber hemp and a potent cultivar of marijuana using AFLP markers. Ten primer pairs yielded 1206 bands, of which 88% were polymorphic. Eighteen bands represented fixed differences between all fiber populations and the drug cultivar. These markers have practical utility for (1) establishing conspiracy in the cultivation and distribution of marijuana, (2) identifying geographic sources of seized drugs, and (3) discriminating illegal, potent marijuana cultivars from hemp where the cultivation of industrial hemp is permitted.

  12. Hemp fibres: Enzymatic effect of microbial processing on fibre bundle structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Liu, Ming; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of microbial pretreatment on hemp fibres were evaluated after microbial retting using the white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phlebia radiata Cel 26 and water retting. Based on chemical composition, P. radiata Cel 26 showed the highest selectivity for pectin and lignin...... degradation and lowest cellulose loss (14%) resulting in the highest cellulose content (78.4%) for the treated hemp fibres. The pectin and lignin removal after treatment with P. radiata Cel 26 were of the order 82% and 50%, respectively. Aligned epoxy-matrix composites were made from hemp fibres defibrated...... hemp fibres were badly impregnated due to porosity caused by surface impurities such as epidermis and other pectin rich plant cells. The pectin and lignin mainly located in the outer part of the fibres were assumed to be extracted and degraded by pectinase and peroxidase enzymes produced by the fungi....

  13. Self consistent kinetic simulations of SPT and HEMP thrusters including the near-field plume region

    CERN Document Server

    Matyash, K; Mutzke, A; Kalentev, O; Taccogna, F; Koch, N; Schirra, M

    2009-01-01

    The Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method was used to study two different ion thruster concepts - Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPT) and High Efficiency Multistage Plasma Thrusters (HEMP-T), in particular the plasma properties in the discharge chamber due to the different magnetic field configurations. Special attention was paid to the simulation of plasma particle fluxes on the thrusters channel surfaces. In both cases, PIC proved itself as a powerful tool, delivering important insight into the basic physics of the different thruster concepts. The simulations demonstrated that the new HEMP thruster concept allows for a high thermal efficiency due to both minimal energy dissipation and high acceleration efficiency. In the HEMP thruster the plasma contact to the wall is limited only to very small areas of the magnetic field cusps, which results in much smaller ion energy flux to the thruster channel surface as compared to SPT. The erosion yields for dielectric discharge channel walls of SPT and HEMP thrusters were calc...

  14. Properties and nutritional value of wheat bread enriched by hemp products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Švec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa is annual plant that is native to China and remained as important material for food, industrial  and medical purposes. As source of cannabinoids belongs to controversial, but due to its excellent nutritional profile, non-gluten protein, fat and fibre it has potential in bakery products. Addition of 5% - 20% of hemp press cake fine flour and fine wholemeal significantly increased dietary fibre content, but their influence on volume of laboratory baked bread was different. Reflecting actual dosage, both types of hemp press cake flour diminished bun sizes about 6% - 33%; volumes of bread containing hulled wholemeal were comparable to standard (mean 310 mL/100 g vs. 333 ml/100 g, respectively. Only dehulled wholemeal hemp form increased the bread specific volume (6% - 30%, especially as 10% fortification (434 mL/100 g. Six Canadian hemp products were added as 10% and 20% on wheat flour base, comprising fine hemp flour and coarse hemp powder, dehulled whole seeds, hulled hemp seeds with sea salt as well as 50% and 43% hemp protein concentrates (KP1-KP6, respectively. The higher level of KP1, KP2, KP5 and KP6, the lower bread specific volumes were determined (decrease about 9% - 48%. Soft increase in buns size caused by 10% and 20% KP3 (323 and 319 ml/100 g vs. 296 mL/100 g was insignificant. The effect of KP4 was reversely verifiable, magnifying the parameter about 25% and 17%, respectively. In terms of protein content in bread, a level 11.75% in wheat bread has risen to approx. 14.5% and 18.0% when 10% and 20% of KP3 and KP5, respectively, was included into bread recipe. All six Canadian hemp products increased dietary fibre content in bread, mainly owing to KP4 and both protein concentrates (up to 4 and 3 times, respectively. Incorporation of hemp flour up to the level of 10% positively affected bread sensorial properties.

  15. Investigating levels of ICT access and confidence by Wheat Planters in Hamedan Province for (Eurygaster integriceps Sunn Pest Management and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmatullah Saadi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Varying forms of ICT is used nowadays to disseminate information and innovations among farmers. The present study investigates the level of access and confidence in various information and communication technologies with respect to pest control (e.g. Sunn Pest. A survey was performed over wheat farmers in Hamedan Province. 203 farmers where selected using multi-level, multi-step sampling. The required data was collected using a questionnaire composed of 35 open and two closed questions. Findings demonstrated that Hamedani Farmers have limited access to modern information sources such as computers, e-journals and e-magazines, and agricultural brochures. Organizational institutions and traditional sources of information such as agricultural extension and service centers, TV, neighbors and friends, Agricultural suppliers and such are increasingly available to these farmers. The findings demonstrates that farmers have high confidence in agricultural research center, Hamedan Agricultural Jahad Organization and regional agricultural service and extension. Given the current situation regarding presentation of specialized information on wheat pests and diseases, particularly the Sunn Pest, Agricultual extensions and Service centers that are highly available to the farmers, pose the most viable choice. There seems to be a significant correlation between area planted, level of production and farmers’ access and confidence in ICT. There is a significant, but negative correlation between farmers’ age and their confidence in ICT. Level of access to and confidence in ICT seems to have significant correlation with level of education, social standing and participation in training courses.

  16. Proteome analysis of gut and salivary gland proteins of fifth-instar nymph and adults of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdi, Mohammad Saadati; Toorchi, Mahmoud; Pourabad, Reza Farshbaf; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Nouri, Mohammad-Zaman; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-10-01

    In the digestive system of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), the salivary gland has a key role in extra oral digestion and the gut is the main site for digestion of food. In this study, proteomics was used to study the role of proteins involved in digestion. The amount of feeding on wheat grain by adult insects increased by comparison to fifth-instar nymphs. Proteins of the gut and salivary gland in adults and fifth-instar nymphs were analyzed 1 day after feeding. The proteins related to digestion, metabolism, and defense against toxins were accumulated in the gut of adult insects. Three plant proteins including serpin, dehydroascorbate reductase, and β-amylase were accumulated in guts of adults. In the salivary gland, phospholipase A2 and arginine kinase were increased in adults. Heat shock protein 70 increased in the gut of fifth-instar nymphs. Proteomic analysis revealed that most of changed proteins in digestive system of sunn pest were increased in adults. This study provided more targets derived from gut and salivary gland for pest management.

  17. Cemical composition of hemp (\\kur{Cannabis sativa}) and possibilities of its utilization as animal feed

    OpenAIRE

    NĚMCOVÁ, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an annual cultural plant used from ancient times up to the present in many spheres of the human life. The aim of this bachelor study was to summarize on the basis of literature sources the information about chemical composition of the hemp seed (basic composition, content of amino acids, fiber, vitamins and specific substances, etc.), genetic variability in the substances content, and possibilities of utilization of the hemp seed and also plant residues as feed. Feeding ...

  18. Properties and nutritional value of wheat bread enriched by hemp products

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Švec; Marie Hrušková

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is annual plant that is native to China and remained as important material for food, industrial  and medical purposes. As source of cannabinoids belongs to controversial, but due to its excellent nutritional profile, non-gluten protein, fat and fibre it has potential in bakery products. Addition of 5% - 20% of hemp press cake fine flour and fine wholemeal significantly increased dietary fibre content, but their influence on volume of laboratory bak...

  19. The potential of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) for biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuger, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are currently produced from agricultural crops, and an increasing use of crops for this application is expected in the EU in the years to come. The dominating crops cultivated in the EU for biofuel production today have a relatively large environmental impact. The European Energy Agency has identified several lignocellulosic crops, including industrial hemp, as more sustainable potential alternatives. However, the biofuel yield from industrial hemp was largely unexplored before the w...

  20. Steam pretreatment of dry and ensiled industrial hemp for ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Sipos, Bálint; Kreuger, Emma; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Réczey, Kati; Björnsson, Lovisa; Zacchi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Biomass can be converted into liquid and gaseous biofuels with good efficiency. In this study, the conversion of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), a biomass source that can be cultivated with a high biomass yield per hectare, was used. Steam pretreatment of dry and ensiled hemp was investigated prior to ethanol production. The pretreatment efficiency was evaluated in terms of sugar recovery and polysaccharide conversion in the enzymatic hydrolysis step. For both materi...

  1. Adsorption of atrazine on hemp stem-based activated carbons with different surface chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lupul, Iwona; Yperman, Jan; Carleer, Robert; Gryglewicz, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Surface-modified hemp stem-based activated carbons (HACs) were prepared and used for the adsorption of atrazine from aqueous solution, and their adsorption performance was examined. A series of HACs were prepared by potassium hydroxide activation of hemp stems, followed by subsequent modification by thermal annealing, oxidation with nitric acid and amination. The resultant HACs differed in surface chemistry, while possessing similar porous structure. The surface group characteristics were exa...

  2. Properties of hemp fibre polymer composites - An optimisation of fibre properties using novel defibration methods and fibre characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Thygesen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of hemp fibres was carried out with fibres obtained with low handling damage and defibration damage to get an indication of how strong cellulose based fibres that can be produced from hemp. Comparison was made with hemp yarn producedunder traditional conditions where damage is unavoidable. The mild defibration was performed by degradation of the pectin and lignin rich middle lamellae around the fibres by cultivation of the mutated white rot fungus Phlebia radiata Cel 26. Fibr...

  3. Bioactive prenylogous cannabinoid from fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Federica; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Allarà, Marco; Muñoz, Eduardo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Appendino, Giovani

    2011-09-23

    The waxy fraction from the variety Carma of fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa) afforded the unusual cannabinoid 4, identified as the farnesyl prenylogue of cannabigerol (CBG, 1) on the basis of its spectroscopic properties. A comparative study of the profile of 4 and 1 toward metabotropic (CB1, CB2) and ionotropic (TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPM8, TRPA1) targets of phytocannabinoids showed that prenylogation increased potency toward CB2 by ca. 5-fold, with no substantial difference toward the other end-points, except for a decreased affinity for TRPM8. The isolation of 4 suggests that C. sativa could contain yet-to-be-discovered prenylogous versions of medicinally relevant cannabinoids, for which their biological profiles could offer interesting opportunities for biomedical exploitation.

  4. Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James D; Neufeld, Jason; Leson, Gero

    2010-11-24

    The macronutrient composition and the quality of protein of hemp seed and products derived from hemp seed grown in Western Canada were determined. Thirty samples of hemp products (minimum 500 g), including whole hemp seed, hemp seed meal from cold-press expelling, dehulled, or shelled, hemp seed and hemp seed hulls, were obtained from commercial sources. Proximate analysis, including crude protein (% CP), crude fat (% fat) and fiber, as well as full amino acid profiles, were determined for all samples. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) measurements, using a rat bioassay for protein digestibility and the FAO/WHO amino acid requirement of children (2-5 years of age) as reference, were conducted on subsets of hemp products. Mean (±SD) percentage CP and fat were 24.0(2.1) and 30.4(2.7) for whole hemp seed, 40.7(8.8) and 10.2(2.1) for hemp seed meal, and 35.9(3.6) and 46.7(5.0) for dehulled hemp seed. The percentage protein digestibility and PDCAAS values were 84.1-86.2 and 49-53% for whole hemp seed, 90.8-97.5 and 46-51% for hemp seed meal, and 83.5-92.1 and 63-66% for dehulled hemp seed. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid in all products. Removal of the hull fraction improved protein digestibility and the resultant PDCAAS value. The current results provide reference data in support of protein claims for hemp seed products and provide evidence that hemp proteins have a PDCAAS equal to or greater than certain grains, nuts, and some pulses.

  5. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL INNOVATION: THE ROLE OF NON ABSORPTIVE INTERMEDIARY ACTORS. THE CASE OF INDUSTRIAL HEMP AND FLAX SECTORS IN FRANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Pauline; Barbier, Marc,

    2010-01-01

    N° ISBN - 978-2-7380-1284-5; International audience; Industrial hemp and flax have many uses (paper for hemp, textile for flax, but also fibre incorporation in biocomposites or lime blocks). They are facing great technological expectations with the "Green Future" objectives, both because of sustainable end-uses of hemp and flax and because of their respective sustainable cropping properties. With more than 8000 ha of hemp and 80 000 ha of flax cultivated, France is the biggest European produc...

  6. Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Noil Hemp Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites by Resin Modification and Fiber Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to improve the reinforcement of hemp fibre to polypropylene (PP by simple resin modification and fibre treatment. Maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP was used as resin modifier by direct mixing with PP, and hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl cellulose (HMHEC was used as fibre treatment reagent by immersing fibre into its aqueous solution. The influences of fibre content, resin modification, and fibre treatment on the mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, and impact strengths of composites were investigated. The change of interfacial bonding between fibre and resin in composites caused by MAPP and HMHEC was studied by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. Resin modification and fibre treatment were effective to enhance the mechanical properties of the composites. The improvement in interfacial bonding is quantitatively evaluated with adhesion factor.

  7. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume—cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield and subsequent energy yield. S...

  8. Performance of four European hemp cultivars cultivated under different agronomic experimental conditions in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blouw, LS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available of Fibre Hemp, Publication Agricultural Engineering, 31, University of Helsinki, 2001. 8. H.S. Sankari, Comparison of Bast Fibre Yield and Mechanical Fibre Properties of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L) cultivars, Industrial Crops and Products, 11, 73-84, 2000...

  9. Evaluation of Properties of Unidirectional Hemp/Polypropylene Composites: Influence of Fiber Content and Fiber/Matrix Interface Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Lilholt, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Flament-wound textile hemp yarn was used in combination with unmodified or maleated polypropylene (PP) films to produce plates of unidirectional composites.......Flament-wound textile hemp yarn was used in combination with unmodified or maleated polypropylene (PP) films to produce plates of unidirectional composites....

  10. Silica Treatments: A Fire Retardant Strategy for Hemp Fabric/Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Branda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, for the first time, inexpensive waterglass solutions are exploited as a new, simple and ecofriendly chemical approach for promoting the formation of a silica-based coating on hemp fabrics, able to act as a thermal shield and to protect the latter from heat sources. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR analysis confirm the formation of –C–O–Si– covalent bonds between the coating and the cellulosic substrate. The proposed waterglass treatment, which is resistant to washing, seems to be very effective for improving the fire behavior of hemp fabric/epoxy composites, also in combination with ammonium polyphosphate. In particular, the exploitation of hemp surface treatment and Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP addition to epoxy favors a remarkable decrease of the Heat Release Rate (HRR, Total Heat Release (THR, Total Smoke Release (TSR and Specific Extinction Area (SEA (respectively by 83%, 35%, 45% and 44% as compared to untreated hemp/epoxy composites, favoring the formation of a very stable char, as also assessed by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. Because of the low interfacial adhesion between the fabrics and the epoxy matrix, the obtained composites show low strength and stiffness; however, the energy absorbed by the material is higher when using treated hemp. The presence of APP in the epoxy matrix does not affect the mechanical behavior of the composites.

  11. Study of Performance of Hybrid yarns (Hemp/ Polypropylene/ Glass Woven Reinforcements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Manins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the performance of reinforcements of 100 tex hemp yarns and hybrid yarns reinforcements with same hemp yarns and glass fibres’ (136 Tex in warp direction (25 % or 50 % interwoven with hemp yarns. The industrial loom CTБ-175 and craftsman’s loom, plain weaving technique for production of reinforcements with surface density in range of 91-246 g/m2 were used in the production. Tensile strength of hemp reinforcement on warp direction is 241.7N-279.8N and tensile modulus 218.48MPa-271.24MPa.The measurement of fabric thickness and physical-mechanical properties of reinforcements were carried out according to ISO 5084:1996 and LVS EN ISO 13934-1-2001 standards. One and two layer composites of woven reinforcements of hemp and polypropylene yarns were produced with Laboratory Press LP_S_50/SASTM. The surface density of one layer composite is 311.2 g/m2 and 608.4 g/m2 of two layers composite. The tensile strength of same composites is 303.1N and 599.5N, the tensile stress is 35.66 MPa and 40.65 MPa. The elastic modulus of one layer composites is 908.2 MPa and 1152.5MPa for two layers composite. The mechanical properties of composites were established according to ISO 527-5:2009 standard.

  12. Characterization of Lignanamides from Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed and Their Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoli; Tang, Jiajing; dos Santos Passos, Carolina; Nurisso, Alessandra; Simões-Pires, Claudia Avello; Ji, Mei; Lou, Hongxiang; Fan, Peihong

    2015-12-16

    Hemp seed is known for its content of fatty acids, proteins, and fiber, which contribute to its nutritional value. Here we studied the secondary metabolites of hemp seed aiming at identifying bioactive compounds that could contribute to its health benefits. This investigation led to the isolation of 4 new lignanamides, cannabisin M (2), cannabisin N (5), cannabisin O (8), and 3,3'-demethyl-heliotropamide (10), together with 10 known lignanamides, among which 4 was identified for the first time from hemp seed. Structures were established on the basis of NMR, HR-MS, UV, and IR as well as by comparison with the literature data. Lignanamides 2, 7, and 9-14 showed good antioxidant activity, among which 7, 10, and 13 also inhibited acetylcholinesterase in vitro. The newly identified compounds in this study add to the diversity of hemp seed composition, and the bioassays implied that hemp seed, with lignanamides as nutrients, may be a good source of bioactive and protective compounds.

  13. Testing of DNA isolation for the identification of hemp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vyhnánek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemp is diploid organism (2n = 2x = 20, genome size 534 Mb with nine pairs of autosomes plus XX (♀ or XY (♂ chromosomes. Cannabis sativa L. is an important economic plant for the production of food, fibre, oils, and intoxicants. Genotypes (varieties or chemovar of hemp with low Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol content are used for industrial applications. Varieties with high Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or high cannabidiol content are used for medicinal applications. Biochemical and molecular methods can be used for identification and classification. An important step for molecular biology methods is to obtain the matrix of the native and sufficiently pure DNA. We tested two different experimental variant of samples (20 mg and 100 mg of seeds, oilcake and dried flowers for analysis of the Italian variety Carmagnola for analysis (harvested in 2014, Hempoint Ltd., Czech Republic. The DNeasy® Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, GE was used to isolate the DNA. The DNA concentration and purity was assessed by agarose electrophoresis and via a spectrophotometer. Samples of lower weight yielded lower values of DNA concentration (average 16.30 - 38.90 ng.µL-1, but with better purity than samples of higher weight (ratio A260nm/A280nm for low-weight samples was near 1.80. To test the applicability of DNA analysis, we used two SSR markers (CAN1347 and CAN2913. PCR products were separated on 1% agarose and on 8% polyacrylamide electrophoresis. DNA samples obtained from samples of higher weight exhibited less PCR amplification than samples of lower weight. We found no effect of sample weight on the formation of non-specific amplification products during the PCR reaction. Based on our results we can be recommended for practical isolation procedure using DNeasy® Plant Mini Kit with lower of sample weight (20 mg. In future work the procedure for DNA isolating from wheat-cannabis products, e. g. breads, rolls or pasta, will be optimized.

  14. Influence of agroclimatic conditions on content of main cannabinoids in industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a six-year field experiment eight industrial hemp varieties were examined for ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD contents. The study analyzed the influence of growing degree days (GDD, soil temperature at 5 cm, air humidity, and growing season precipitation on the levels of the main cannabinoids in this crop. Agroclimatic conditions do not influence THC and CBD contents in industrial hemp in the same way. THC synthesis and accumulation are under the significant positive influence of GDD and air humidity and under the negative influence of precipitation, while soil temperature at 5 cm has no significant effect on it. Soil temperature at 5 cm has a significant positive effect on the CBD content, as do GDD. Precipitation has a negative influence on the CBD content of industrial hemp, while air humidity has no influence on it.

  15. Characterization and biological depectinization of hemp fibers originating from different stem sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Fernando, Dinesh; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    selectivity on stem section, whichdecreased from bottom to top presumably due to the significantly higher lignin content in the bottomsection than in the top section (middle section was in between). Consequently, the fungal retting caused alower reduction in strength of fibers from the bottom section than......The wide variation of mechanical properties of natural fibers limits their applications in matrix compos-ites. The aim of this study is to evaluate the properties of hemp fibers from different stem sections (top,middle and bottom) and to assess fungal retting pretreatment of hemp from different...... in those from the top stem section, andessentially reversed the influence of stem section on fiber tensile strength through depectinization selec-tivity. At whole hemp stem level, the fungal retting with P. radiata Cel 26 exhibited better mechanicalproperties with an ultimate tensile strength, strain...

  16. Antibacterial Properties of Hemp and Other Natural Fibre Plants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belas Ahmed Khan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intervention against pathogenic bacteria using natural plant material has a long history. Plant materials also have been widely used as fillers and/or reinforcers in polymer composites. Some natural fibre plants, such as hemp, are regarded to possess antibacterial activity against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. Innovative applications can be explored if they are incorporated in polymer composites. This review aims to compile the relevant investigations on antibacterial activity of hemp and other fibre plants such as jute, flax, kenaf, sisal, and bamboo. The antibacterial character might be contributed from cannabinoids, alkaloids, other bioactive compounds, or phenolic compounds of lignin. This review is intended to encourage utilization of hemp and other natural fibre plants in value-added diversified products. Some potential applications are also discussed.

  17. Ethanol production from industrial hemp: effect of combined dilute acid/steam pretreatment and economic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Prade, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, combined steam (140-180 °C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis and etha......In the present study, combined steam (140-180 °C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis...... pretreated at the optimal conditions showed positive economic results. The type of hemp cultivation (organic or conventional) did not influence significantly the effectiveness of the pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation....

  18. Enzymatic accessibility of fiber hemp is enhanced by enzymatic or chemical removal of pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, A; Zhang, J; Brock, T; Maijala, P; Viikari, L

    2012-03-01

    Pectinolytic enzymes, steam explosion and alkaline treatment were used to assess the role of pectin for the accessibility of hydrolytic enzymes in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), a potential energy crop especially in boreal climate with a low need of fertilizers, was used in the study either as untreated or anaerobically preserved raw material. Addition of pectinases increased the hydrolysis yield by 26%, 54%, and 64% from the theoretical carbohydrates of untreated, acid, and alkali-preserved materials, respectively. Steam explosion and hot alkali treatment increased the conversion of the total carbohydrates by 78% and 60%, respectively, compared to the untreated hemp. Elevated separation of cells within the hemp stalk tissues and an increased surface area was revealed after hot alkali or pectinase treatments, contributing to the increased conversion to sugars by commercial enzymes.

  19. Ethanol production from industrial hemp: effect of combined dilute acid/steam pretreatment and economic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Prade, Thomas; Johansson, Eva; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, combined steam (140-180°C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis and ethanol yields was also evaluated. Pretreatment with 1% sulfuric acid at 180°C resulted in the highest glucose yield (73-74%) and ethanol yield of 75-79% (0.38-0.40 g-ethanol/g-glucose). Taking into account the costs of biomass processing, from field to ethanol facility storage, the field-dried hemp pretreated at the optimal conditions showed positive economic results. The type of hemp cultivation (organic or conventional) did not influence significantly the effectiveness of the pretreatment as well as subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation.

  20. Biodegradable polyester-based eco-composites containing hemp fibers modified with macrocyclic oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzatti, Lucia; Utzeri, Roberto; Hodge, Philip; Stagnaro, Paola

    2016-05-01

    An original compatibilizing pathway for hemp fibers/poly(1,4-butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) (PBAT) eco-composites was explored exploiting the capability of macrocyclic oligomers (MCOs), obtained by cyclodepolymerization (CDP) of PBAT at high dilution, of being re-converted into linear chains by entropically-driven ring-opening polymerization (ED-ROP) that occurs simply heating the MCOS in the bulk. CDP reaction of PBAT was carried out varying solvent, catalyst and reaction time. Selected MCOs were used to adjust the conditions of the ED-ROP reaction. The best experimental conditions were then adopted to modify hemp fibers. Eco-composites based on PBAT and hemp fibers as obtained or modified with PBAT macrocyclics or oligomers were prepared by different process strategies. The best fiber-PBAT compatibility was observed when the fibers were modified with PBAT oligomers before incorporation in the polyester matrix.

  1. Hemp-Lime Performance in Danish Climatic Context. Thermal Conductivity as a Function of Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    In order to fit low energy building policies and reduce environmental impact of buildings, construction materials must have good balance between thermal properties and embodied energy. By using such materials, reduction of both operational and embodied energy are achieved simultaneously. Hemp...... concrete is a bio-based building material composed of the woody core of industrial hemp and lime based binder. It is a non-load-bearing material, which can be used as floor and around structural frames for walls and roof. The material is characterized by relatively low environmental impact, moderate...... thermal properties and, high air and moisture permeability. The properties vary with binder composition, mixing and casting techniques, as well as intended application. This research presents preliminary heat and moisture building simulations of single family house made out of hemp-lime composite...

  2. Characterization of chemically and enzymatically treated hemp fibres using atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G. [Biorefining Conversions and Fermentations Laboratory, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6E 2P5 (Canada); Abboud, Zeinab [Biorefining Conversions and Fermentations Laboratory, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6E 2P5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Bressler, David C., E-mail: david.bressler@ualberta.ca [Biorefining Conversions and Fermentations Laboratory, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6E 2P5 (Canada)

    2014-09-30

    The mechanical and moisture resistance properties of natural fibre reinforced composites are dependent on the adhesion between the matrix of choice and the fibre. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of NaOH swelling of hemp fibres prior to enzymatic treatment and a novel chemical sulfonic acid method on the physical properties of hemp fibres. The colloidal properties of treated hemp fibres were studied exclusively using an atomic force microscope. AFM imaging in tapping mode revealed that each treatment rendered the surface topography of the hemp fibres clean and exposed the individual fibre bundles. Hemp fibres treated with laccase had no effect on the surface adhesion forces measured. Interestingly, mercerization prior to xylanase + cellulase and laccase treatments resulted in greater enzyme access evident in the increased adhesion force measurements. Hemp fibres treated with sulfonic acid showed an increase in surface de-fibrillation and smoothness. A decrease in adhesion forces for 4-aminotoulene-3-sulfonic acid (AT3S) treated fibres suggested a reduction in surface polarity. This work demonstrated that AFM can be used as a tool to estimate the surface forces and roughness for modified fibres and that enzymatic coupled with chemical methods can be used to improve the surface properties of natural fibres for composite applications. Further, this work is one of the first that offers some insight into the effect of mercerization prior to enzymes and the effect on the surface topography. AFM will be used to selectively screen treated fibres for composite applications based on the adhesion forces associated with the colloidal interface between the AFM tip and the fibre surfaces.

  3. Characterization of chemically and enzymatically treated hemp fibres using atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G.; Abboud, Zeinab; Bressler, David C.

    2014-09-01

    The mechanical and moisture resistance properties of natural fibre reinforced composites are dependent on the adhesion between the matrix of choice and the fibre. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of NaOH swelling of hemp fibres prior to enzymatic treatment and a novel chemical sulfonic acid method on the physical properties of hemp fibres. The colloidal properties of treated hemp fibres were studied exclusively using an atomic force microscope. AFM imaging in tapping mode revealed that each treatment rendered the surface topography of the hemp fibres clean and exposed the individual fibre bundles. Hemp fibres treated with laccase had no effect on the surface adhesion forces measured. Interestingly, mercerization prior to xylanase + cellulase and laccase treatments resulted in greater enzyme access evident in the increased adhesion force measurements. Hemp fibres treated with sulfonic acid showed an increase in surface de-fibrillation and smoothness. A decrease in adhesion forces for 4-aminotoulene-3-sulfonic acid (AT3S) treated fibres suggested a reduction in surface polarity. This work demonstrated that AFM can be used as a tool to estimate the surface forces and roughness for modified fibres and that enzymatic coupled with chemical methods can be used to improve the surface properties of natural fibres for composite applications. Further, this work is one of the first that offers some insight into the effect of mercerization prior to enzymes and the effect on the surface topography. AFM will be used to selectively screen treated fibres for composite applications based on the adhesion forces associated with the colloidal interface between the AFM tip and the fibre surfaces.

  4. Evaluating the impact of hemp food consumption on workplace drug tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leson, G; Pless, P; Grotenhermen, F; Kalant, H; ElSohly, M A

    2001-01-01

    Foods containing seeds or oil of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.) are increasingly found in retail stores in the U.S. The presence of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in these foods has raised concern over their impact on the results of workplace drug tests for marijuana. Previous studies have shown that eating hemp foods can cause screening and confirmed positive results in urine specimens. This study evaluated the impact of extended daily ingestion of THC via hemp oil on urine levels of its metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) for four distinct daily THC doses. Doses were representative of THC levels now commonly found in hemp seed products and a range of conceivable daily consumption rates. Fifteen THC-naïve adults ingested, over four successive 10-day periods, single daily THC doses ranging from 0.09 to 0.6 mg. Subjects self-administered THC in 15-mL aliquots (20 mL for the 0.6-mg dose) of four different blends of hemp and canola oils. Urine specimens were collected prior to the first ingestion of oil, on days 9 and 10 of each of the four study periods, and 1 and 3 days after the last ingestion. All specimens were screened for cannabinoids by radioimmunoassay (Immunalysis Direct RIA Kit), confirmed for THC-COOH by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and analyzed for creatinine to identify dilute specimens. None of the subjects who ingested daily doses of 0.45 mg of THC screened positive at the 50-ng/mL cutoff. At a daily THC dose of 0.6 mg, one specimen screened positive. The highest THC-COOH level found by GC-MS in any of the specimens was 5.2 ng/mL, well below the 15-ng/mL confirmation cutoff used in federal drug testing programs. A THC intake of 0.6 mg/day is equivalent to the consumption of approximately 125 mL of hemp oil containing 5 microg/g of THC or 300 g of hulled seeds at 2 microg/g. These THC concentrations are now typical in Canadian hemp seed products. Based on our findings, these concentrations appear

  5. Hemp-Lime Performance in Danish Climatic Context. Thermal Conductivity as a Function of Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    In order to fit low energy building policies and reduce environmental impact of buildings, construction materials must have good balance between thermal properties and embodied energy. By using such materials, reduction of both operational and embodied energy are achieved simultaneously. Hemp...... concrete is a bio-based building material composed of the woody core of industrial hemp and lime based binder. It is a non-load-bearing material, which can be used as floor and around structural frames for walls and roof. The material is characterized by relatively low environmental impact, moderate...

  6. DYNAMICS OF LEAF PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY DURING ONTOGENY OF HEMP PLANTS, IN RELATION TO SEXUAL PHENOTYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Truta

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available During vegetation of female and male hemp plants (Cannabis sativa L., five quantitative determinations of peroxidase activities were made (40 days, 55 days, 70 days, 85 days, 105 days. Peroxidase activity presented some differences in hemp plants, between females and males, during their vegetation cycle. In female plants, before anthesis were registered peaks of peroxidase activities. The blossoming of male plants was coincident with the increase of catalitic action of peroxidase. Generally, the male plants displayed greater levels of peroxidasic activity.

  7. Preliminary Research Concerning Optimal Percentage of Hemp Hurds for Lining Panels and Filler Materials in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria - Adriana GHERGHISAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials for liningst and wall fillermade of hemp hurds and mineral binders represent again in recovery of mineral binders and use ofrepresent lignocellulosic fiber resulted afterprocessing.This paper aims to establish the optimumpercentual range of hemp hurds that can beembedded in ceramic mass, which is able to supportin various stages, the physical and dimensionalintegrity, manipulation, transport and during sandingresistance, the remaining viable recipes being theones that successfully pass this preliminary test. It isexpected for these samples to have comparablethermal and acoustic properties with similar industrialproducts, currently manufactured, which givesthepractical applicability of these composites.

  8. Influence of Hemp Fibers Pre-processing on Low Density Polyethylene Matrix Composites Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukle, S.; Vidzickis, R.; Zelca, Z.; Belakova, D.; Kajaks, J.

    2016-04-01

    In present research with short hemp fibres reinforced LLDPE matrix composites with fibres content in a range from 30 to 50 wt% subjected to four different pre-processing technologies were produced and such their properties as tensile strength and elongation at break, tensile modulus, melt flow index, micro hardness and water absorption dynamics were investigated. Capillary viscosimetry was used for fluidity evaluation and melt flow index (MFI) evaluated for all variants. MFI of fibres of two pre-processing variants were high enough to increase hemp fibres content from 30 to 50 wt% with moderate increase of water sorption capability.

  9. The effects of growth conditions and of processing into yarn on dislocations in hemp fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2011-01-01

    at harvest in hemp fibres from plants grown in a green house under three different regimes (wind free, windy and dry) with the percentage found in commercial hemp yarn. As expected a higher percentage of the cell wall consisted of dislocations in the processed fibres, but the increase was only significant......Dislocations are irregular regions within the cell wall of natural fibres. Dislocations have also been called slip planes or nodes, and are important for the properties of natural fibres within a number of applications. This study compares the percentage of the cell wall consisting of dislocations...

  10. The effects of Cannabis sativa L. seed (hemp seed) on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofi, Másume; Saberivand, Adel; Becker, Lora A; Karimi, Isaac

    2011-05-01

    This study determined the effects of maternal dietary intake of hemp seed on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points of Wistar rats. Time-mated rats were fed 100% hemp seed (n  =  15), 50% hemp seed (n  =  15) or basal diet (n  =  15) once a day. The amount of food made available was based on control feed consumption records. All dams remained on their respective diets from premating (14 days) throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were given their maternal diet until puberty. Mating and delivery weights of dams in all groups did not show significant changes. Number of pregnancies, number and post-natal survival rate of total rat pups, litter size and milk yield were lower in the group that received 100% hemp seed. Offspring that received 50% hemp seed diet expressed reproductive and neurobehavioral end points from a modified Fox battery earlier than rats on 100% hemp seed or basal diet, except acoustic startle results where no differences appeared. In conclusion, this study shows that hemp seed supplementation does not improve the reproductive and neurobehavioral performances of rats. Pregnant women and nursing mothers should be cautious about the using of Cannabis sativa L. byproducts in their diets.

  11. Cobalt (II) removal from aqueous solutions by natural hemp fibers: Batch and fixed-bed column studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofan, Lavinia; Teodosiu, Carmen; Paduraru, Carmen; Wenkert, Rodica

    2013-11-01

    Natural hemp fibers were explored as sorbent for the removal of Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions in batch and dynamic conditions. The batch Co(II) sorption capacity increased up to pH 5, reached the maximum (7.5-7.8 mg/g) over the initial pH of 4.5-5. As the initial concentration of metal ion increased (in the range of 25-200 mg/L), the cobalt uptake was enhanced, but the Co(II) removal efficiency decreased. The batch sorption of Co(II) on the tested hemp follows a pseudo-second order model, which relies on the assumption that the chemisorptions may be the rate-controlling step. The Langmuir model better described the Co(II) sorption process on the natural hemp fibers in comparison with the Freundlich model. This finding complies with the results of fixed-bed studies which emphasize that the optimal solution for describing the behavior of the investigated hemp bed column is provided by the Thomas model. The sorption capacity of the hemp fibers column (15.44 mg/g) performed better than that of the Co(II)-hemp batch system (13.58 mg/g). The possibility to use hemp fibers as an alternative in the Co(II) wastewater treatment should be studied under pilot scale applications, so as to complete the studies concerning the removal efficiencies with technical and economic factors that influence process scale-up.

  12. Hemp raw materials: The effect of cultivar, growth conditions and pretreatment on the chemical composition of the fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, A.B.; Rasmussen, S.K.; Bohn, V; Nielsen, K V; Thygesen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Hemp raw materials were analyzed chemically to determine their content of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ashes. Correction for ashes was only necessary in the first step of the chemical analysis: the Neutral Detergent Fibre step. The hemp fiberscontained 73-77% w/w cellulose, 7-9% w/w hemicellulose and 4-6% w/w lignin, while the hemp shives contained 48% w/w cellulose, 21-25% w/w hemicellulose and 17-19% w/w lignin. Among the four investigated cultivars, Felina contained least lignin, w...

  13. Steam pretreatment of dry and ensiled industrial hemp for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipos, Balint; Reczey, Kati [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Applied Biotechnology and Food Science, Szt. Gellert ter 4., H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Kreuger, Emma; Bjoernsson, Lovisa [Lund University, Department of Biotechnology, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svensson, Sven-Erik [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agriculture - Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, P.O. Box 104, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden); Zacchi, Guido [Lund University, Department of Chemical Engineering, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    Biomass can be converted into liquid and gaseous biofuels with good efficiency. In this study, the conversion of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), a biomass source that can be cultivated with a high biomass yield per hectare, was used. Steam pretreatment of dry and ensiled hemp was investigated prior to ethanol production. The pretreatment efficiency was evaluated in terms of sugar recovery and polysaccharide conversion in the enzymatic hydrolysis step. For both materials, impregnation with 2% SO{sub 2} followed by steam pretreatment at 210 C for 5 min were found to be the optimal conditions leading to the highest overall yield of glucose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments carried out with optimised pretreatment conditions resulted in ethanol yields of 163 g kg{sup -1} ensiled hemp (dry matter) (71% of the theoretical maximum) and 171 g kg{sup -1} dry hemp (74%), which corresponds to 206-216 l Mg{sup -1} ethanol based on initial dry material. (author)

  14. Comparing hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars for dual-purpose production under contrasting environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Kailei; Struik, P.C.; Yin, X.; Thouminot, C.; Bjelková, M.; Stramkale, V.; Amaducci, S.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in hemp as a multi-purpose crop is growing worldwide and for the first time in 2015 it was cultivated in Europe on more than 20.000 ha as a dual-purpose crop, for the seeds and for the fibre. In the present study, fibre and seed productivity of 14 commercial cultivars were tested in four

  15. Chopped hemp: Logistics, compaction and financial viability; Logistik, komprimering och ekonomi angaaende hackad hampa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederstroem, Yvonne

    2010-05-15

    In this project compaction and logistics experiments were conducted using chopped hemp. The aim was to reduce the hemp to 250 kg/m3, as well as to identify the best possible logistical system for compaction and subsequent transportation to the end-user in terms of cost and environmental impact. The project primarily focused on landowners and power companies. Other stakeholders are industries, universities and other ongoing projects in related fields. These studies have shown that it is possible to compact chopped hemp from a density of 60 kg dm/m3 (0.30 MWh/m3) when harvesting directly into the container, to a density of 202 kg dm/m3 (1.01 MWh/m3) using the baler. The original compaction target was a volumetric weight of 250 kg/m3. It was determined that straw and hemp react similarly to compaction. This project has demonstrated that the transport rig system has the best potential for large-scale use as compared with the alternate systems used. According to our calculations, the transport rig was the most cost-effective system measured in kronor per energy content. In addition, this system is also flexible. From an environmental standpoint, however, the energy balance showed that the container system was slightly superior

  16. Report of a Working Group on Fibre Crops (Flax and Hemp)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bas, N.; Pavelek, M.; Maggioni, L.; Lipman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the newly established ECPGR Working Group on Fibre Crops (Flax and Hemp), in the framework of Sugar, Starch and Fibre Crops Network, met for the first time at Wageningen, the Netherlands on 14–16 June 2006. Fifteen participants from the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lit

  17. Combined HPLC analysis of organic acids and furans formed during organosolv pulping of fiber hemp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Zomers, F.H.A.

    1995-01-01

    During organosolv pulping of fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L) with a mixture of ethanol/water, delignification is catalyzed by released acetic acid and formic acid in the effluent. The major sources of acetic acid are the acetyl groups, as determined by means of the acetyl balance, whereas formic acid

  18. Effect of water absorption on mechanical properties of hemp fibre/polyolefin’s composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Guduri, BBR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available composite specimens were investigated. The percentage of moisture uptake increased as the fibre loading increased due to the high cellulose content. In order to improve compatibility of the natural hemp fibre and polyolefin’s matrix, two commercial...

  19. Biosorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by short hemp fibers: Effect of chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejic, Biljana; Vukcevic, Marija; Kostic, Mirjana; Skundric, Petar

    2009-05-15

    Sorption potential of waste short hemp fibers for Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) ions from aqueous media was explored. In order to assess the influence of hemp fiber chemical composition on their heavy metals sorption potential, lignin and hemicelluloses were removed selectively by chemical modification. The degree of fiber swelling and water retention value were determined in order to evaluate the change in accessibility of the cell wall components to aqueous solutions due to the fiber modification. The effects of initial ion concentration, contact time and cosorption were studied in batch sorption experiments. The obtained results show that when the content of either lignin or hemicelluloses is progressively reduced by chemical treatment, the sorption properties of hemp fibers are improved. Short hemp fibers are capable of sorbing metal ions (Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2+)) from single as well as from ternary metal ion solutions. The maximum total uptake capacities for Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) ions from single solutions are the same, i.e. 0.078mmol/g, and from ternary mixture 0.074, 0.035 and 0.035mmol/g, respectively.

  20. The effect of Cannabis sativa L. (hemp seed) on hematological parameters in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Isaac; Hayatghaibi, Hossein; Yousefi, Javad; Saberivand, Adel; Zavareh, Saeed

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ingestion of powder of hemp seed on blood picture. This study was experienced on five guinea pigs that fed with normal diet (fresh vegetable and tab water), in addition were force-fed 5 g/kg/day of the powder of hemp seed for 60 days by means of an endogastric tube and syringe. At the beginning day and the termination of study day-60 the blood was taken from animals and the erythrocyte number, leukocyte number, packed cell volume (PCV), and hemoglobin concentration values were determined. The result on analysis showed that erythrocyte-count and PCV significantly decreased (p 0.05). None of the values fell below the normal physiological range of the experimental animals. This shows that hemp seed which contains tetrahydrocannabinols as its active constituents has long term significant toxicological implication such as bone marrow suppression with respect to the concentration given on the erythrocytes of mammals. It is recommended that individuals who have anemia or immunity complication should not use hemp seed in their food preparation on regular basis.

  1. Studying secondary growth and bast fiber development: the hemp hypocotyl peeks behind the wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Behr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herbaceous crop grown for the production of long extraxylary fibers, the bast fibers, rich in cellulose and used both in the textile and biocomposite sectors. Despite being herbaceous, hemp undergoes secondary growth and this is well exemplified by the hypocotyl. The hypocotyl was already shown to be a suitable model to study secondary growth in other herbaceous species, namely Arabidopsis thaliana and it shows an important practical advantage, i.e. elongation and radial thickening are temporally separated. This study focuses on the mechanisms marking the transition from primary to secondary growth in the hemp hypocotyl by analysing the suite of events accompanying vascular tissue and bast fiber development. Transcriptomics, imaging and quantification of phytohormones were carried out on four representative developmental stages (i.e. 6-9-15-20 days after sowing to provide a comprehensive overview of the events associated with primary and secondary growth in hemp. This multidisciplinary approach provides cell wall-related snapshots of the growing hemp hypocotyl and identifies marker genes associated with the young (expansins, β-galactosidases and transcription factors involved in light-related processes and the older hypocotyl (secondary cell wall biosynthetic genes and transcription factors.

  2. Studying Secondary Growth and Bast Fiber Development: The Hemp Hypocotyl Peeks behind the Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Marc; Legay, Sylvain; Žižková, Eva; Motyka, Václav; Dobrev, Petre I; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Lutts, Stanley; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herbaceous crop grown for the production of long extraxylary fibers, the bast fibers, rich in cellulose and used both in the textile and biocomposite sectors. Despite being herbaceous, hemp undergoes secondary growth and this is well exemplified by the hypocotyl. The hypocotyl was already shown to be a suitable model to study secondary growth in other herbaceous species, namely Arabidopsis thaliana and it shows an important practical advantage, i.e., elongation and radial thickening are temporally separated. This study focuses on the mechanisms marking the transition from primary to secondary growth in the hemp hypocotyl by analysing the suite of events accompanying vascular tissue and bast fiber development. Transcriptomics, imaging and quantification of phytohormones were carried out on four representative developmental stages (i.e., 6-9-15-20 days after sowing) to provide a comprehensive overview of the events associated with primary and secondary growth in hemp. This multidisciplinary approach provides cell wall-related snapshots of the growing hemp hypocotyl and identifies marker genes associated with the young (expansins, β-galactosidases, and transcription factors involved in light-related processes) and the older hypocotyl (secondary cell wall biosynthetic genes and transcription factors).

  3. Mechanical and thermal characterisation of poly (l-lactide) composites reinforced with hemp fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, A.; Muhammad, R.; Thomas, N. L.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is the most promising in the bio-derived polymer's family. But its use can be constrained by its poor mechanical properties, poor thermal stability and processing difficulties. The objective of this research is to investigate and improve mechanical and dynamic thermal properties of PLA by developing PLA composites reinforced with natural fibres (hemp). Composites were prepared by melt blending of PLA with hemp fibres. Their properties were investigated using mechanical and dynamic thermal analysis. The elastic modulus increased significantly - from 4.1 ± 0.74 to 9.32 ± 0.86 (GPA) - when the weight fraction of hemp increased from 0 to 30(wt %). The storage modulus obtained by dynamic mechanical analysis increased from 2.20 to 4.58 (GPA) for the same change in the volume fraction of hemp. FE simulation of tensile testing and DMA were carried out to investigate the effect of strain rate and temperature on the observed properties respectively. The model was developed in the commercially available code MSC Marc mentate. The model validated all experimental results.

  4. Fungal treatment of hemp-based pulp and paper mill wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... Acid-line and alkali-line composite effluent was also ... Despite its low lignin content, hemp bast fiber is ... binding components are separated from the fibers by ... Total organic carbon (TOC) content of the effluents was deter-.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of methanol extracts of hemp leaf in IL-1β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cells were then treated with prepared extracts of hemp (Canabis sativa) leaf ... neuron cells and immune cells [12]. The activation of these ... SW982 was acquired from ATCC® number HTB-. 93 and was ... in an equal volume. The mixture ...

  6. Hygienic quality of stem fractions of mechanically processed fibre hemp and linseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H-R. KYMÄLÄINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bast fibre is the most important fraction of bast fibre plants for technical products, i.e. thermal insulations and packaging materials. The hygienic quality of the various fractions of bast fibre plants is of interest in thermal insulations, because it may affect the quality of indoor air. Packaging materials may be associated e.g. with foodstuffs, which highlights the importance of hygienic quality. The aim of this study was to screen the hygienic quality, determined as microbial content, of mechanically fractionated fibre hemp and linseed plants harvested in the autumn before frost, after early frost and in spring. In addition, the possible correlation between microbes and ash was investigated. Two plant species, fibre hemp and linseed were studied. The plants were cultivated in Siuntio in southern Finland during the years 2002 and 2003, harvested in autumn or in spring and mechanically fractionated. The microbial contents of the fractions were examined by measuring the total number of microbes using Hygicult® growing slides. The microbial content of fractions of fibre hemp and linseed varied between 103 and 109 cfu/gdw. The fibre of hemp harvested after early frost or in spring had the lowest amount of moulds, but during winter and spring the amounts of bacteria and yeasts increased in hemp. Mechanically separated fibre and shive contained less microbes than the stalk. Ash contents of all examined samples of stems and stem fractions varied between 1% and 14%. The fibre after fractionating had a lower ash content (2.3–3.3% than that of stems (4.4–6.9% harvested in the autumn. The ash content of stem and shive decreased to 1.6% during winter, the ash content of fibre being even somewhat lower (0.9%. No correlation was observed between the contents of microbes and ash.;

  7. Effect of harvest time and field retting duration on the chemical composition, morphology and mechanical properties of hemp fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Fernando, Dinesh; Daniel, Geoffrey;

    2015-01-01

    tThe large variability in the mechanical properties of hemp fibers is an issue in relation to their use inhigh-grade composites. The objective of the present study was to determine the optimal growth stage forharvesting hemp fibers for use in composites and to evaluate the effect of field retting......% at seed maturity.A highly significant reduction in cellulose deposition in fiber cell walls was reflected by reduced fiberwall thickness with plant maturity and was related to the development and ripening of hemp seeds.A statistically significant increase in lignin deposition and a slight decrease...... in pectins in hemp fibercell walls were also noted with stem maturity. Microscopy observations and histochemical analyzescorroborated the results from the chemical analyzes and revealed variations in morphological aspectsand spatial micro-distributions of carbohydrates and lignin within the cell structure...

  8. Analysis on HEMP Effects of Double Metal Cavities with Penetrated Wire%双层金属腔体贯通导线HEMP耦合特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴焱杰; 赵煜; 许凯

    2014-01-01

    电磁脉冲( EMP )对电子设备构成严重威胁,研究电子设备HEMP效应是电磁兼容与电子设备安全领域的迫切需求。多层金属腔体是电子设备较为常见的一种结构形式,以一种带贯通导线的双层金属腔体为研究对象,基于时域有限差分方法( FDTD)建立计算模型,分析计算了贯通导线在高空核爆电磁脉冲( HEMP )入射波作用下对腔体内电路的耦合效应。仿真结果表明,贯通导线能将入射脉冲能量耦合进腔体内部,使内电路负载产生感应电流,当入射电场与贯通导线平面相互平行时影响较大,但相互垂直时仍会耦合一部分能量。所得结论可为多层腔体的电磁防护设计提供依据。%Electromagnetic pulses ( EMP ) have a serious threat on electronic equipment, so the study of HEMP effects is an urgent task in the fields of electromagnetic compatibility and electronic equipment safety. Multi⁃layer metal cavities are common struc⁃tures of electronic equipment, so the paper focuses on a kind of double wall cavities with penetrated wire. Based on the finite difference time domain method ( FDTD) , it analyses and calculates the internal circuit coupling effects of the penetrated wire in a structure of double wall cavities under the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse ( HEMP ) plane wave. The results show that the penetrated wires couple the incident pulse energy into the internal cavity, so load current is induced in the internal circuit; there is a greater impact when the incident electric field is parallel to the plane of the penetrated wires, but when they are perpendicular to each other, part of the energy is still coupled. The conclusions provide a reference for the electromagnetic protective design of multi-layer cavities.

  9. Hemp raw materials: The effect of cultivar, growth conditions and pretreatment on the chemical composition of the fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A.B.; Rasmussen, S.K.; Bohn, V.

    2005-01-01

    but was more cellulose rich. Steam explosion, wet oxidation and hydrothermal treatment were used for defibration of retted hemp fibers. These pretreatmentsremoved lignin and hemicellulose resulting in loss of dry matter of 15-73% w/w and in loss of cellulose of 0-69% w/w. Steam explosion treatment generally......Hemp raw materials were analyzed chemically to determine their content of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ashes. Correction for ashes was only necessary in the first step of the chemical analysis: the Neutral Detergent Fibre step. The hemp fiberscontained 73-77% w/w cellulose, 7-9% w....../w hemicellulose and 4-6% w/w lignin, while the hemp shives contained 48% w/w cellulose, 21-25% w/w hemicellulose and 17-19% w/w lignin. Among the four investigated cultivars, Felina contained least lignin, whileFutura and Fasamo contained least cellulose. Hemp yarn had the same color as retted hemp fibers...

  10. 麻布大学第10回学術展示「麻布大学の麻(hemp)」展の記録

    OpenAIRE

    パトリック, コリンズ; 高槻, 成紀

    2014-01-01

    An exhibition on the many uses of the hemp plant was held from June 18 to September 7, 2012. The name “Azabu University” comes from the place name in Tokyo where our university was established in 1890. “Azabu” means a place where hemp grows. Today, the image of hemp is a dangerous plant, but this is a new phenomenon since the end of World War II. Before that, hemp had been regarded as a very useful plant, providing raw material for cloth as well as rope, etc, and even as a holy plant to use f...

  11. Consumption and quantitation of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in commercially available hemp seed oil products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy, T Z; Cole, K A

    2000-10-01

    There has been a recent and significant increase in the use and availability of hemp seed oil products. These products are being marketed as a healthy source of essential omega fatty acids when taken orally. Although the health aspects of these oils is open to debate, the probability that oils derived from the hemp seed will contain delta9-tetrahyrdocannabinol (THC) is noteworthy. Recent additions to the literature cite a number of studies illustrating that the ingestion of these products results in urinary levels of the THC metabolite, delta9-tetrahyrdocannabinol carboxylic acid (THCA), well above the administrative cutoff (50 ng/mL) used during random drug screens. Testing performed by our laboratory found that the concentration of THC in hemp oil products has been reduced considerably since the publication of earlier studies. The purpose of this study is to quantitate the THC levels in commercially available hemp oils and to administer those oils tested to THC-free volunteers to determine urine metabolite levels following several 15-g doses. Two extraction protocols were evaluated for removing THC from the oil matrix: a single step liquid-liquid extraction was compared to a two-phase process using both liquid-liquid and solid-phase techniques. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine THC levels in several products: four from Spectrum Essentials (3 bottled oils and 1-g capsules), two from Health from the Sun (1-g capsules and bottled oil) oils, and single samples of both Hempstead and Hempola hemp oils. These hemp oil products contained THC concentrations of 36.0, 36.4, 117.5, 79.5, 48.6, 45.7, 21.0, and 11.5 mg/g, respectively. The Abbott AxSYM FPIA and Roche On-Line KIMS immunoassays were used to screen the urine samples, and GC-MS was used to determine the amount of THC in each oil as well as confirm and quantitate THCA in the urine of study participants immediately before and 6 h after each dose. Peak THCA levels in the participants' urine

  12. Hemp oil ingestion causes positive urine tests for delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, A; Schwartz, R H; Kaplan, P

    1997-10-01

    A hemp oil product (Hemp Liquid Gold) was purchased from a specialty food store. Fifteen milliliters was consumed by seven adult volunteers. Urine samples were taken from the subjects before ingestion and at 8, 24, and 48 h after the dose was taken. All specimens were screened by enzyme immunoassay with SYVA EMIT II THC 20, THC 50, and THC 100 kits. The tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THCA) concentration was determined on all samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (5). A total of 18 postingestion samples were submitted. Fourteen of the samples screened above the 20-ng cutoff, seven were above the 50-ng cutoff, and two screened greater than the 100-ng cutoff. All of the postingestion samples showed the presence of THCA by GC-MS.

  13. Targeted pre-treatment of hemp bast fibres for optimal performance in biocomposite materials: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Thygesen, Anders; Summerscales, John

    2017-01-01

    composite matrix material. Targeted modification of natural fibres for NFCs must also be targeted to optimize the fibre surface properties. Consequently, improved interfacial bonding between fibres and hydrophobic polymers, reduced moisture uptake, increased microbial degradation resistance, and prolonged......Global interest in the use of plant fibres in natural fibre reinforced composites (NFCs) is growing rapidly. The increased interest is primarily due to the advantageous properties of natural fibres including biodegradability, low cost, low density and high stiffness and strength to weight ratio....... In order to achieve strong NFCs, well separated and cellulose-rich fibres are required. Hemp is taking a center stage in this regard as a source of suitable natural plant cellulose fibres because natural hemp bast fibres are long and inherently possess high strength. Classical field and water retting...

  14. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Lorenzo; Zatta, Alessandro; Stefanini, Ilaria; Grandi, Silvia; Sgorbati, Barbara; Biavati, Bruno; Monti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The present study focused on inhibitory activity of freshly extracted essential oils from three legal (THChemp varieties (Carmagnola, Fibranova and Futura) on microbial growth. The effect of different sowing times on oil composition and biological activity was also evaluated. Essential oils were distilled and then characterized through the gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thereafter, the oils were compared to standard reagents on a broad range inhibition of microbial growth via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Microbial strains were divided into three groups: i) Gram (+) bacteria, which regard to food-borne pathogens or gastrointestinal bacteria, ii) Gram (-) bacteria and iii) yeasts, both being involved in plant interactions. The results showed that essential oils of industrial hemp can significantly inhibit the microbial growth, to an extent depending on variety and sowing time. It can be concluded that essential oils of industrial hemp, especially those of Futura, may have interesting applications to control spoilage and food-borne pathogens and phytopathogens microorganisms.

  15. Effect of introducing hemp oil into feed on the nutritional quality of pig meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourot Jacques

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research is being carried out to diversify the sources of n-3 fatty acid-rich lipids for animal feed. In this study, 3 batches of 12 pigs with between 50 and 105 kg of live weight, received isolipidic diets containing either palm oil (PO, or rapeseed oil (CO, or hemp oil (HO (providing respectively 0.6; 1.9 and 3.4 g of C18:3 n-3 (ALA /kg of feed. The quantity of ALA deposited in the meat is higher (p< 0.001 in the HO pigs. Hemp oil may be an interesting source of ALA to improve the nutritional quality of pork.

  16. Study of Inorganic Pollutants Removal from Acid Mine Drainage by Hemp Hurds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demcak, Stefan; Balintova, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Sulphates in wastewaters have an origin as the by-products of a variety of industrial operations. A specific and major producer of such effluents, which contained sulphates and heavy metals, is the mining industry. These contaminants should be removed from wastewater using an adequate process of treatment. The paper deals with selected heavy metals (iron, cooper, and manganese) and sulphate removal from acid mine drainage outflowing from an abandoned mine in Smolnik (Slovakia) using the modified biosorbent - Holland hemp hurds. Pre-treatment of acid mine drainage was based on oxidation of ferrous cations from acid mine drainage by hydrogen peroxide and subsequent precipitation. The precipitate were analysed by infrared spectrometry which found the precipitate containing hydroxide and sulphate functional groups. During this process the concentration of sulphate decreased by 43.8 %. Hemp hurds modified by NaOH decreased concentration of Cu2+ in solution by about 70 %

  17. COHUTTA WILDERNESS, GEORGIA AND TENNESSEE AND HEMP TOP ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gair, Jacob E.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    A survey has found little or no promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral-resources in the Cohutta Wilderness and the adjacent Hemp Top Roadless Area. The Cohutta Wilderness is located mainly in northern Georgia and extends a small distance into southeastern Tennessee; the Hemp Top Roadless Area borders part of the Cohutta Wilderness on the east and extends southward from the Georgia-Tennessee line. The study area is underlain by slightly metamorphosed folded and faulted sedimentary rocks of late Precambrian age. Detailed sampling in the vicinity of the known gold-bearing and tin-bearing samples might outline small areas of low-grade mineralization. The sedimentary rocks which are buried many thousands of feet beneath the surface of the Cohutta area have an unknown potential for oil and gas - probably gas at the inferred depth of burial and temperatures implicit at such depth. This potential could only be verified by a program of deep drilling.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acid production from enzyme saccharified hemp hydrolysate using a novel marine thraustochytrid strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Adarsha; Abraham, Reinu E; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a newly isolated marine thraustochytrid strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3, was used for omega-3 fatty acid production by growing on lignocellulose biomass obtained from local hemp hurd (Cannabis sativa) biomass. Prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, hemp was pretreated with sodium hydroxide to open the biomass structure for the production of sugar hydrolysate. The thraustochytrid strain was able to grow on the sugar hydrolysate and accumulated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). At the lowest carbon concentration of 2%, the PUFAs productivity was 71% in glucose and 59% in the sugars hydrolysate, as a percentage of total fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) levels were highest at about 49% of TFA using 6% glucose as the carbon source. SFAs of 41% were produced using 2% of SH. This study demonstrates that SH produced from lignocellulose biomass is a potentially useful carbon source for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in thraustochytrids, as demonstrated using the new strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3.

  19. Hemp hurds biorefining: A path to green L-(+)-lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Stefano; Pistone, Lucia; Ottolina, Gianluca; Xu, Ping; Riva, Sergio

    2015-09-01

    Sugars streams generated by organosolv pretreatment of hemp hurds, cellulose (C6) and hemicellulose (C5) fractions, were fermented to lactic acid (LA) by Bacillus coagulans strains XZL4 and DSM1. Pretreatment conditions and enzymatic hydrolysis were optimized and B. coagulans aptness to use lignocellulosic-derived sugars as a carbon source was evaluated. Methanolic organosolv pretreatment with 2.5% (w/w) H2SO4 gave the best results in terms of glucan recovery (98%), enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass (70%) and hemicellulosic sugars recovery (61%). C6 and C5 sugars fermentation by strain XZL4 gave, high LA yields (0.90 and 0.84 g/g), high titers (141 and 109 g/L), and high enantiomeric excess (>99%). Overall, 42 g of l-LA were obtained from 100 g of raw hemp hurds. These results can be considered promising for lignocellulosic feedstock valorization toward the production of polymer-grade LA.

  20. Quantification of dislocations in hemp fibers using acid hydrolysis and fiber segment length distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2008-01-01

    Natural fibers such as flax or hemp may be used in composite materials. However, their use for this purpose is hampered by the large natural variation in tensile strength and other quality parameters. The first step in managing these variations is to develop methods for fast and reliable...... determination of relevant parameters. One quality parameter of the fibers is the amount of structural distortions known as dislocations or kink bands. Here, a method developed for the quantification of dislocations in pulp fibers was adapted and tested successfully for hemp yarn segments. The method is based...... on acid hydrolysis and subsequent determination of the fiber segment length distribution. The premise of the method is that acid hydrolysis causes fibers to break in the dislocations rather than in other places. By use of polarized light microscopy and image analysis it was found that the premise...

  1. Manufacturing technology and application of hemp cigarette paper with dense ash integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu; Jian-bo, Zhan; Hao, Wan; Ying, Zhang; Li-wei, Li; Jiang, Yu; Ting-ting, Yu; Jiao, Xie; Bao-shan, Yue

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette paper, as one of the significant materials used for combustion, has special and direct influence on the smoke, also directly influencing the ash appearance of cigarettes before and after combustion. In this paper, full hemp cigarette paper was prepared through creative beating and mixing slurry technology, and the advantages of the preparation process were analyzed. Full hemp cigarette paper was creatively applied to the preparation and verification of slim cigarettes, and the ash integration effect in the process of burning and its influence on whiteness were verified. At the same time, the physical and chemical indexes of cigarette paper were tested and studied, and sensory evaluation was applied to verify the effect of cigarette paper on sensory quality.

  2. Effect of compatibilizing agents on the interface and mechanical behaviour of polypropylene/hemp bast fiber biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruvka, M.; Lenfeld, P.; Brdlik, P.; Behalek, L.

    2015-07-01

    During the last years automotive industry has given a lot of attention to the biobased polymers that are sustainable and eco-friendly. Nevertheless fully green composites are currently too expensive for most applications. A viable solution and logical starting point at this material revolution lies in reinforced synthetic thermoplastics based on plant derived biodegradable fibers. Plant fibers (PF's) have potential to reduce weight of composite vehicle parts up to 40% compared with the main automotive composites filler, glass fibers (GF's). Production of GF's composites is much more energy intensive and polluting compared with growing, harvesting and preparing of PF's. The main disadvantage of PF's lies in combination of non-polar hydrophobic polymer matrix and polar hydrophilic fibers. This combination creates poor interface with low adhesion of both components. That implies poor wettability of fibres by polymer matrix and low mechanical properties of biocomposites. Therefore specific compatibilizing agents (Struktol SA1012, Fusabond P353, Smart + Luperox) were used in order to enhance compatibility between reinforcement and matrix. In this paper sets of biocomposite compounds were prepared by twin screw extrusion considering different type and weight percentage (wt. %) of compatibilizing agents, hemp bast fibres (HBF's) within ratio 20 (wt. %) and polypropylene (PP) THERMOFIL PP E020M matrix. Resulting compounds were than injection molded and tested samples were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical testing.

  3. Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aladić, K.; S. Jokić; Moslavac, T.; Tomas, S.; S Vidović; Vladić, J.; Šubarić, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the Cannabis sativa L. hemp variety has been unfairly neglected because of its similarity to the illegal kind Cannabis indica used as a narcotic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the process of oil extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds by cold pressing, followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. In the pressing experiments, the response surface methodology was conducted in order to study the effects of temperature, frequency, and nozzle size on oil reco...

  4. Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aladić, K.; S. Jokić; Moslavac, T.; Tomas, S.; S Vidović; Vladić, J.; Šubarić, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the Cannabis sativa L. hemp variety has been unfairly neglected because of its similarity to the illegal kind Cannabis indica used as a narcotic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the process of oil extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds by cold pressing, followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. In the pressing experiments, the response surface methodology was conducted in order to study the effects of temperature, frequency, and nozzle size on oil reco...

  5. EFFECTS INDUCED BY DIETHYL SULPHATE ON SOME CYTOGENETICAL PARAMETERS AND LENGTH GROWTH OF HEMP PLANTLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Truta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The hemp seeds were treated with diethyl sulphate, in four concentrations (0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% and in two variants of alkylant exposure (3 and 6 hours. The length growth of plantlets, mitotic index and frequency of chromosomal aberrations were the analyzed parameters. Significant modifications were obtained at the level of parameters in variants treated with DES, comparatively with control.

  6. 开发汉麻棉涡流纱的体会%Experience of Developing Hemp Cotton Vortex Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美红

    2012-01-01

    To develop hemp cotton vortex yarn, hemp fiber and long-staple cotton raw material were selected reasonably, hemp fiber was pretreated. According to characteristics of hemp fiber raw material, related technulogy measures were adopted,such as selecting fore-spinning and vortex spinning processing parameters rationally, controlling temperature & humidity strictly,finally hemp/cotton 60/40 21. 6 tex vortex yarn can be developed successfully, yam hairiness can be reduced, yam quality level and usability can be improved. It is considered that it is feasible to use vortex spinning technology producing high content hemp cotton blended yarn,yarn hairiness can be reduced and hemp cotton blended yam quality level can be improved.%为开发高比例汉麻棉涡流纱,通过合理选用汉麻纤维和长绒棉原料,对汉麻纤维进行预处理,针对汉麻纤维原料特点,合理配置前纺和涡流纺工艺参数及采取有关技术措施,严格控制温湿度,结果顺利地开发出汉麻/棉60/40 21.6 tex涡流纱,大幅度降低了成纱毛羽,提升了质量水平和使用性能.认为:利用涡流纺纱技术生产高比例汉麻棉混纺纱在技术上是可行的,有助于大幅度降低纱线毛羽、提升汉麻棉混纺纱质量档次.

  7. 汊麻棉精梳涡流纱的开发%Development of Hemp Cotton Combed Vortex Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘必英; 戴俊; 凡启光; 王冬成

    2011-01-01

    为开发汉麻棉精梳涡流纱,对比了汉麻与苎麻、亚麻及棉纤维的性能指标、截面结构,阐述了汉麻纤维的性能特点,运用涡流纺纱技术纺制汉麻棉混纺精梳纱.通过汉麻预处理,正确选择原料混和工艺,合理配置前纺各工序及涡流纺纱机工艺参数,成功纺制出汉麻/棉60/40 21.6 tex混纺精梳涡流纱,且成纱毛羽较环锭纱得到大幅度降低.认为汉麻棉精梳涡流纱具有较好的开发前景,应进一步改进工艺,提高成纱强力和制成率,降低生产成本,方能更好地满足产品开发的需求.%To develop hemp cotton combed vortex yarn, property index and cross section structure of hemp, flax and cotton were contrasted. Property of hemp was introduced. Vortex spinning technology was used and hemp cotton blended combed yarn was spun. Hemp was pretreated, raw material and blending processing were selected correctly, processing parameters in fore-spinning process and vortex spinning were set rationally, hemp/cotton 60/40 21.6 tex blended combed vortex yarn was spun successfully. Hairiness was reduced greatly. It is considered that the development prospects of hemp cotton blended combed yarn is better,the processing should be modified further,yarn strength and finished product rate should be increased and production cost should be reduced, demands of product development can be reached well.

  8. Experimental Study on the Hygrothermal Behavior of a Coated Sprayed Hemp Concrete Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Magueresse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemp concrete is a sustainable lightweight concrete that became popular in the field of building construction because of its thermal and environmental properties. However; available experimental data on its hygrothermal behavior are rather scarce in the literature. This paper describes the design of a large-scale experiment developed to investigate the hygrothermal behavior of hemp concrete cast around a timber frame through a spraying process; and then coated with lime-based plaster. The equipment is composed of two climatic chambers surrounding the tested wall. The experiment consists of maintaining the indoor climate at constant values and applying incremental steps of temperature; relative humidity or vapor pressure in the outdoor chamber. Temperature and relative humidity of the room air and on various depths inside the wall are continuously registered during the experiments and evaporation phenomena are observed. The influence of the plaster on the hygrothermal behavior of hemp concrete is investigated. Moreover; a comparison of experimental temperatures with numerical results obtained from a purely conductive thermal model is proposed. Comparing the model with the measured data gave satisfactory agreement.

  9. Hemp Thermal Insulation Concrete with Alternative Binders, Analysis of their Thermal and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinka, M.; Sahmenko, G.; Korjakins, A.; Radina, L.; Bajare, D.

    2015-11-01

    One of the main challenges that construction industry faces today is how to address the demands for more sustainable, environmentally friendly and carbon neutral construction materials and building upkeep processes. One of the answers to these demands is lime-hemp concrete (LHC) building materials - carbon negative materials that have sufficient thermal insulation capabilities to be used as thermal insulation materials for new as well as for existing buildings. But one problem needs to be overcome before these materials can be used on a large scale - current manufacturing technology allows these materials to be used only as self-bearing thermal insulation material with large labour intensity in the manufacturing process. In order to lower the labour intensity and allow the material to be used in wider applications, a LHC block and board production is necessary, which in turn calls for the binders different from the classically used ones, as they show insufficient mechanical strength for this new use. The particular study focuses on alternative binders produced using gypsum-cement compositions ensuring they are usable in outdoor applications together with hemp shives. Physical, mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of hemp concrete with various binders are addressed in the current study.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of industrial hemp-effect of harvest time on methane energy yield per hectare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuger, E.; Escobar, F.; Bjoernsson, L. [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Prade, T.; Svensson, S.-E.; Englund, J.-E. [Department of Agriculture-Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 104, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    There is a worldwide emphasis to increase the share of renewable transportation fuels. When using agricultural land for production of renewable transportation fuels, the energy output per hectare for different crops and transportation fuels is a crucial factor. In this study, the gross methane energy yield per hectare from anaerobic digestion of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), was determined at four different harvest times between July and October in Southern Sweden, a cold climate region. The biomass yield was determined for three years and the methane yield was determined for two years through the biochemical methane potential test. The highest biomass yield, 16 tonnes dry matter per hectare on an average, and the highest methane energy yield per hectare was achieved when the hemp was harvested in September or October, with an average gross methane energy yield of 136 {+-} 24 GJ per hectare. There was no significant difference in the specific methane yield between the harvest times; the average being 234 {+-} 35 m{sup 3} per tonne volatile solids. Biogas from hemp turned out to be a high yielding alternative to the currently dominating renewable transportation fuels produced from crops grown in Sweden: ethanol from wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. (author)

  11. Characterization of Bacterial Strains Isolated from a Novel Seawater-based Retting Treatment of Hemp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Run-ye; CHEN Jian-yong; FENG Xin-xing; ZHANG Jian-chun

    2008-01-01

    Cultivable bacteria were isolated from seawater-based retting treatment of hemp, in which three of purified strains (SW - 1, SW - 2, and S - SW1) produced relatively high levels of pectinase activities, and also produced mannanases and xylanases.PCR - based entebacterial repetitive intergenic consensus primers (ERIC- PCR) were employed for fingerprinting DNA of the bacterial strains.The ERIC - PCR fingerprints of stains SW- 1, SW -1, and S -SW1 were found to be different, and should be further identified for each isolate.Strains SW - 1 and SW - 2 were identified as Stenotrophomnas maltophilia, while strain S - SW1 was assigned to Ochrobactrum anthropi by BIOLOG system.These two species represented rhizosphere bacterial genera, and possibly were introduced by the hemp plants.These organisms seemed potentially capable of producing pectinase and hemicellulase, and thus effectively degrading the gum substances in the seawater retting.This research could be helpful for improving a novel seawater-based retting treatment of hemp.

  12. Reducing Simulation Performance Gap in Hemp-Lime Buildings Using Fourier Filtering †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Jankovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mainstream dynamic simulation tools used by designers do not have a built-in capability to accurately simulate the effect of hemp-lime on building temperature and relative humidity. Due to the specific structure of hemp-lime, heat travels via a maze of solid branches whilst the capillary tubes absorb and release moisture. The resultant heat and moisture transfer cannot be fully represented in mainstream simulation tools, causing a significant performance gap between the simulation and the actual performance. The author has developed an analysis method, based on a numerical procedure for digital signal filtering using Fourier series. The paper develops and experimentally validates transfer functions that enhance simulation results and enable accurate representation of behaviour of buildings built from hemp-lime material using the results of a post-occupancy research project. As a performance gap between design simulation and actual buildings occurs in relation to all buildings, this method has a wider scope of application in reducing the performance gap.

  13. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery (>95%) as well as significant hemicelluloses solubilization (49-59%) after acid-based method and lignin solubilization (35-41%) after alkaline H2O2 method were registered. Alkaline pretreatment showed to be superior over the acid-based method with respect to the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149kg of EtOH and 115kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1ton of dry hemp. Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Remediation of benzo[a]pyrene and chrysene-contaminated soil with industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sonia; Paquin, Daniel; Awaya, Jonathan D; Li, Qing X

    2002-01-01

    The phytoremediation, with industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa), of a Hawaiian silty clay soil contaminated with two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, was studied. Hemp showed a very high tolerance to the contaminants. The growth rates of hemp, compared with control, in soils fortified with chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene at concentrations of each varying from 25 to 200 micrograms/g were consistently above 100%. The plants grew from seed for 45 days in soil fortified with PAHs at concentrations of 25, 50, and 75 micrograms/g. Controls were pots with contaminated soil but no plant. PAHs levels were significantly reduced in all pots (control and seeded pots), expect for one set at a high concentration of chrysene, which may be due to uneven spiking. A time course study over 28 days was done to monitor changes of microbial count and levels of chrysene. Little changes were observed for the total microbial count in the soil, and the concentration of chrysene in the soil decreased slightly in the pots containing plants. However, the chrysene levels in those pots were consistently lower than those in the pots without plants.

  15. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of monoecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars reveals its karyotype variations and sex chromosomes constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumova, Olga V; Alexandrov, Oleg S; Divashuk, Mikhail G; Sukhorada, Tatiana I; Karlov, Gennady I

    2016-05-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L., 2n = 20) is a dioecious plant. Sex expression is controlled by an X-to-autosome balance system consisting of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes XY for males and XX for females. Genetically monoecious hemp offers several agronomic advantages compared to the dioecious cultivars that are widely used in hemp cultivation. The male or female origin of monoecious maternal plants is unknown. Additionally, the sex chromosome composition of monoecious hemp forms remains unknown. In this study, we examine the sex chromosome makeup in monoecious hemp using a cytogenetic approach. Eight monoecious and two dioecious cultivars were used. The DNA of 210 monoecious plants was used for PCR analysis with the male-associated markers MADC2 and SCAR323. All monoecious plants showed female amplification patterns. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the subtelomeric CS-1 probe to chromosomes plates and karyotyping revealed a lack of Y chromosome and presence of XX sex chromosomes in monoecious cultivars with the chromosome number 2n = 20. There was a high level of intra- and intercultivar karyotype variation detected. The results of this study can be used for further analysis of the genetic basis of sex expression in plants.

  16. Influence of yarn folding on UV protection properties of hemp knitted fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Ana A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the media have highlighted the damage of the ozone layer and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR reaching the earth’s surface. Prolonged and repeated, both occupational and recreational, sun exposure of the population causes some detrimental effects. Clothing is considered to be one of the most important tools for UV protection. It is generally accepted that synthetic fibres provide a high UV protection capability of textiles, while cellulose fibres (cotton, linen, hemp, viscose have a low UV absorption capacity. However, natural pigments, pectin and waxes in natural cellulose fibers, and lignin in hemp fibers, act as UV absorbers having a favorable effect on UPF of grey-state fabrics. Bearing in mind the trend of reintroduction of hemp fibers as a source of eco-friendly textiles, there is a serious lack of study about the potential of hemp materials in terms of UV protection. Folded yarn is a complex yarn composed of two or more component yarns arranged parallel and twisted together to make a “new quality” yarn. Folding of yarns is an operation undertaken in order to modify single-yarn properties to an appreciable degree. There are very few investigations concerning the relationship between the yarn properties and UV protection effectiveness of the fabric made there from. In addition, there is no any result in the scientific literature about the influence of yarn folding on UV protection properties of textile materials. Having this in mind, for our research the idea was to evaluate the effect of yarn folding in this regard. The plain knitted fabrics composed of single or two-folded hemp yarn were compared in terms of UV protection properties. The Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF, as the quantitative measurement of the material effectiveness to protect the human skin against UVR, was determined for the textile materials by in vitro test method according to the European standard EN 13758. The knitted

  17. Effect of harvest time and field retting duration on the chemical composition, morphology and mechanical properties of hemp fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Fernando, Dinesh; Daniel, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    tThe large variability in the mechanical properties of hemp fibers is an issue in relation to their use inhigh-grade composites. The objective of the present study was to determine the optimal growth stage forharvesting hemp fibers for use in composites and to evaluate the effect of field retting...... time on mechanicalperformance of the fibers. Reduction in bast content and thickness of the primary bast fiber layer instems were found to be highly significant (P plant maturity. A significant increase in thesecondary fiber fraction occurred with maturity, reaching a maximum value of 10......% at seed maturity.A highly significant reduction in cellulose deposition in fiber cell walls was reflected by reduced fiberwall thickness with plant maturity and was related to the development and ripening of hemp seeds.A statistically significant increase in lignin deposition and a slight decrease...

  18. 麻型织物风格官感评价试验%Hemp fabric style sense-evaluation experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琪

    2012-01-01

    运用风格官感评价方法,对不同成分的几种麻型织物进行风格官感试验,并对试验结果进行风格特征分析,为麻型织物服用性能的改进提供数据。%With the style sense-evaluation method,different components of some hemp fabrics are tested for the characteristics analysis.The works can offer useful data for improving the performance of the hemp fabrics.

  19. 斜入射HEMP近地面电磁环境特性研究%A Study on Near-surface Electromagnetic Environment Characteristics of HEMP with Oblique Incidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴焱杰; 孙继银; 李承剑; 孙东阳

    2011-01-01

    High-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) has the characteristics of a wide coverage and high peak field strength, which poses a serious threat to the electronic devices. But the current HEMP standards include only the general wave characteristics in the free space, so the electromagnetic environmental characteristics near the ground induced by the HEMP incident plane wave oblique to the ground are studied in the paper, and the electromagnetic environmental parameters are calculated. The results show that, in the case of vertical polarization plane wave, the amplitude of horizontal field becomes smaller and pulse width becomes narrower when the incidence angle increases, but the ones of vertical field are just the opposite, and in the case of horizontal polarization plane wave, it is found that the changes of total-field characteristics in the lower position are more prominent than the ones in the higher position with the incidence angle changes.%高空核爆电磁脉冲(HEMP)具有覆盖范围广、峰值场强高等特点,对电子设备构成严重的威胁.针对有关HEMP标准中主要涉及自由空间HEMP波形描述的情况,使用时域有限差分法研究了HEMP平面波斜入射地面时近地面的电磁脉冲环境特性,计算了HEMP在地面附近的电磁环境参数.结果表明,垂直极化的HEMP平面波,随着入射角的增大,地面附近的水平场幅值变小、脉冲宽度变窄,垂直场则相反;水平极化的HEMP平面波,随着入射角的改变,较低位置处比较高位置处的总场变化更为明显.

  20. Targeted mutation of Δ12 and Δ15 desaturase genes in hemp produce major alterations in seed fatty acid composition including a high oleic hemp oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Monika; Kaminski, Filip; Adams, Ian; Poulson, Helen; Sloan, Raymond; Li, Yi; Larson, Tony R; Winzer, Thilo; Graham, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    We used expressed sequence tag library and whole genome sequence mining to identify a suite of putative desaturase genes representing the four main activities required for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemp seed oil. Phylogenetic-based classification and developing seed transcriptome analysis informed selection for further analysis of one of seven Δ12 desaturases and one of three Δ15 desaturases that we designate CSFAD2A and CSFAD3A, respectively. Heterologous expression of corresponding cDNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed CSFAD2A to have Δx+3 activity, while CSFAD3A activity was exclusively at the Δ15 position. TILLING of an ethyl methane sulphonate mutagenized population identified multiple alleles including non-sense mutations in both genes and fatty acid composition of seed oil confirmed these to be the major Δ12 and Δ15 desaturases in developing hemp seed. Following four backcrosses and sibling crosses to achieve homozygosity, csfad2a-1 was grown in the field and found to produce a 70 molar per cent high oleic acid (18:1(Δ9) ) oil at yields similar to wild type. Cold-pressed high oleic oil produced fewer volatiles and had a sevenfold increase in shelf life compared to wild type. Two low abundance octadecadienoic acids, 18:2(Δ6,9) and 18:2(Δ9,15), were identified in the high oleic oil, and their presence suggests remaining endogenous desaturase activities utilize the increased levels of oleic acid as substrate. Consistent with this, CSFAD3A produces 18:2(Δ9,15) from endogenous 18:1(Δ9) when expressed in S. cerevisiae. This work lays the foundation for the development of additional novel oil varieties in this multipurpose low input crop.

  1. Laccase enzyme detoxifies hydrolysates and improves biogas production from hemp straw and miscanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroyen, Michel; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; Holemans, Sander; Vervaeren, Han; Raes, Katleen

    2017-07-27

    The impact of various phenolic compounds, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid on anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass (hemp straw and miscanthus) was studied. Such phenolic compounds have been known to inhibit biogas production during anaerobic digestion. The different phenolic compounds were added in various concentrations: 0, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000mg/L. A difference in inhibition of biomethane production between the phenolic compounds was noted. Hydrolysis rate, during anaerobic digestion of miscanthus was inhibited up to 50% by vanillic acid, while vanillic acid had no influence on the initial rate of biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of hemp straw. Miscanthus has a higher lignin concentration (12-30g/100gDM) making it less accessible for degradation, and in combination with phenolic compounds released after harsh pretreatments, it can cause severe inhibition levels during the anaerobic digestion, lowering biogas production. To counter the inhibition, lignin degrading enzymes can be used to remove or degrade the inhibitory phenolic compounds. The interaction of laccase and versatile peroxidase individually with the different phenolic compounds was studied to have insight in the polymerization of inhibitory compounds or breakdown of lignocellulose. Hemp straw and miscanthus were incubated with 0, 100 and 500mg/L of the different phenolic compounds for 0, 6 and 24h and pretreated with the lignin degrading enzymes. A laccase pretreatment successfully detoxified the substrate, while versatile peroxidase however was inhibited by 100mg/L of each of the individual phenolic compounds. Finally a combination of enzymatic detoxification and subsequent biogas production showed that a decrease in phenolic compounds by laccase treatment can considerably lower the inhibition levels of the biogas production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hemp yarn reinforced composites – III. Moisture content and dimensional changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Lilholt, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive set of experimental data it is demonstrated that the moisture properties of aligned hemp fibre yarn/thermoplastic matrix composites are showing low moisture sorption capacity and low dimensional changes. Using a reference humidity of 65% RH, and a common span of ambient...... content of the composites is shown to be well predicted by a mixtures relationship using the measured moisture contents of the constituents. The dimensional changes of the composites are well predicted by micromechanical models of the transverse and axial hygral strains....

  3. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery...... (> 95%) as well as significant hemicelluloses solubilization (49-59%) after acid-based method and lignin solubilization (35-41%) after alkaline H2O2 method were registered. Alkaline pretreatment showed to be superior over the acid-based method with respect to the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol...

  4. Fabrication and Evaluation of 2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate-co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gel content (gc), porosity measurement (P) and in vitro drug release of the delivery system were evaluated. ..... porous network structure of formulation F1 was .... Sunn hemp cellulose graft ... chondroitin sulphate hydrogel as scaffolds for.

  5. Organic broccoli production on transition soils: Comparing cover crops, tillage and sidedress N

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberg, D.L.; Morse, R.D.; Welbaum, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Little information is available about how farmers in transition to organic practices should manage short- and long-term N fertility. The objectives of this research were (1) to evaluate the leguminous cover crops lablab (Dolichos lablab L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and a mixture of sunn hemp and cowpea (Vigna sinensis Endl.) as N sources; (2) to compare N availability and broccoli yield when cover crops were incorporated with conventi...

  6. Bed agglomeration risk related to combustion of cultivated fuels (wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp) in commercial bed materials; Baeddagglomereringsrisk vid foerbraenning av odlade braenslen (hampa, roerflen, halm) i kommersiella baeddmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhardsson, Thomas; Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de; Oehrstroem, Anna

    2006-12-15

    The market of forest products is expanding and thus resulting in more expensive biomass fuels. Therefore research within the combustion industry for alternative fuels is needed, for example cultivated fuels. Combustion and gasification research on these cultivated fuels are limited. The objectives of this work was to increase the general knowledge of silicon rich cultivated fuels by study the agglomeration characteristics for wheat straw, reed canary grass and industrial hemp in combination with commercial bed materials. Controlled fluidized bed agglomeration tests was conducted in a 5 kW, bench-scale, bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The tendencies of agglomeration were determined with the three cultivated fuels in combination with various minerals present in natural sand (quarts, plagioclase and potassium feldspar) and an alternative bed material (olivine). During the experiments bed samples and formed agglomerates were collected for further analyses with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and with X-ray microanalysis (EDS). Wheat straw had the highest agglomeration tendency of the studied fuels followed by reed canary grass and industrial hemp. No significant layer formation was found around the different bed particles. Instead, the ash forming matter were found as individual ash sticky (partial melted) particles in the bed. The bed material mineralogical composition had no influence of the agglomeration process because of the non layer formation propensities of the used silicon rich fuels.

  7. Sowing density and harvest time affect fibre content in hemp (Cannabis sativa) through their effects on stem weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, W.; Amaducci, S.; Struik, P.C.; Zatta, A.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Stomph, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Sowing density and harvest time are considered important crop management factors influencing fibre quantity and quality in hemp (Cannabis sativa). We investigated whether the effects of these factors are essentially different or that both factors affect stem weight and thereby total and long-fibre c

  8. Sowing density and harvest time affect fibre content in hemp (Cannabis sativa) through their effects on stem weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, W.; Amaducci, S.; Struik, P.C.; Zatta, A.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Stomph, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Sowing density and harvest time are considered important crop management factors influencing fibre quantity and quality in hemp (Cannabis sativa). We investigated whether the effects of these factors are essentially different or that both factors affect stem weight and thereby total and long-fibre c

  9. Biological Control of the weed hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) in rice (Oryza sativa) by the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    In greenhouse and field experiments, a mycelial formulation of the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria (IMI 361690; henceforth designated MV) containing 0.20% Silwet L-77 surfactant exhibited high bioherbicidal efficacy against the problematic weed hemp sesbania. High infection and mortality (100%) of he...

  10. Postponed sowing does not alter the fibre/wood ratio or fibre extractability of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, W.; Struik, P.C.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Stomph, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Because hemp is a short-day plant, postponing the sowing date might be a suitable strategy to obtain shorter and smaller plants around flowering, when primary fibres are 'ripe' enough to be harvested. Smaller plants can be processed on existing flax scutching and hackling lines and might have fibre

  11. Comparison of traditional field retting and Phlebia radiata Cel 26 retting of hemp fibres for fibre-reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Kołaczkowski, Bartłomiej

    2017-01-01

    Classical field retting and controlled fungal retting of hemp using Phlebia radiata Cel 26 (a mutant with low cellulose degrading ability) were compared with pure pectinase treatment with regard to mechanical properties of the produced fibre/epoxy composites. For field retting a classification...... was obtained using P. radiata Cel 26 compared to 248 MPa with field retting....

  12. A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: Flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergfjord, Christian, E-mail: christian.bergfjord@uib.no [Institute for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Holst, Bodil, E-mail: bodil.holst@uib.no [Institute for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    Identifying and distinguishing between natural textile fibres is an important task in both archaeology and criminology. Wool, silk and cotton fibres can readily be distinguished from the textile bast fibres flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Distinguishing between the bast fibres is, however, not easily done and methods based on surface characteristics, chemical composition and cross section size and shape are not conclusive. A conclusive method based on X-ray microdiffraction exists, but as the method requires the use of a synchrotron it is not readily available. In this paper we present a simple procedure for identifying the above mentioned textile bast fibres. The procedure is based on measuring the fibrillar orientation with polarised light microscopy and detecting the presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaC{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in association with the fibres. To demonstrate the procedure, a series of fibre samples of flax, nettle, ramie, hemp and jute were investigated. The results are presented here. An advantage of the procedure is that only a small amount of fibre material is needed.

  13. Chemometrics of Wheat Composites with Hemp, Teff, and Chia Flour: Comparison of Rheological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixolab, a rheological device developed recently, combines approved farinograph and amylograph test procedures. Analysing wheat flour composites with hemp, teff, or chia in terms of all three mentioned rheological methods, correspondence of farinograph, and amylograph versus mixolab features was examined by principal component analysis. The first two principal components, PC1 and PC2, explained 75% of data scatter and allowed a satisfying confirmation of presumed relationships between farinograph or amylograph and mixolab parameters. Dough development time and stability were associated with gluten strength (C1 torque point and also dough softening (mixing tolerance index had a link to protein weakening (C1-C2 difference. In the second mentioned case, amylograph viscosity maximum and amylase activity (C3-C4 closeness was verified. Starch and starch gel properties during mixing (C3, C3-C2, and C4 affect dough viscosity (C1 and rheological behaviour (dough development time and stability. Another important finding is unequivocal distinguishing of the composite subsets (of hemp, teff, and chia ones by the used rheological methods and statistical treatment of multivariable data.

  14. Formulation, Characterization and Properties of Hemp Seed Oil and Its Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mikulcová

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The formulation, characterization, and anticipated antibacterial properties of hemp seed oil and its emulsions were investigated. The oil obtained from the seeds of Cannabis sativa L. in refined and unrefined form was characterized using iodine, saponification, acid values, and gas chromatography, and was employed for the preparation of stable oil-in-water emulsions. The emulsions were prepared using pairs of non-ionic surfactants (Tween, Span. The effects of the emulsification method (spontaneous emulsification vs. high-intensity stirring, hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB, type and concentration of surfactant, and oil type on the size and distribution of the emulsion particles were investigated. It was found that the ability to form stable emulsions with small, initial particle sizes is primarily dependent on the given method of preparation and the HLB value. The most efficient method of emulsification that afforded the best emulsions with the smallest particles (151 ± 1 nm comprised the high-energy method, and emulsions stable over the long-term were observed at HBL 9 with 10 wt % concentration of surfactants. Under high-intensity emulsification, refined and unrefined oils performed similarly. The oils as well as their emulsions were tested against the growth of selected bacteria using the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The antibacterial effect of hemp seed oil was documented against Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus. The formulated emulsions did not exhibit the antibacterial activity that had been anticipated.

  15. A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfjord, Christian; Holst, Bodil

    2010-08-01

    Identifying and distinguishing between natural textile fibres is an important task in both archaeology and criminology. Wool, silk and cotton fibres can readily be distinguished from the textile bast fibres flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Distinguishing between the bast fibres is, however, not easily done and methods based on surface characteristics, chemical composition and cross section size and shape are not conclusive. A conclusive method based on X-ray microdiffraction exists, but as the method requires the use of a synchrotron it is not readily available. In this paper we present a simple procedure for identifying the above mentioned textile bast fibres. The procedure is based on measuring the fibrillar orientation with polarised light microscopy and detecting the presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaC2O4) in association with the fibres. To demonstrate the procedure, a series of fibre samples of flax, nettle, ramie, hemp and jute were investigated. The results are presented here. An advantage of the procedure is that only a small amount of fibre material is needed. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Properties of cast films from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and soy protein isolates. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shou-Wei; Tang, Chuan-He; Wen, Qi-Biao; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2007-09-05

    The properties of cast films from hemp protein isolate (HPI) including moisture content (MC) and total soluble mass (TSM), tensile strength (TS) and elongation at the break (EAB), and surface hydrophobicity were investigated and compared to those from soy protein isolate (SPI). The plasticizer (glycerol) level effect on these properties and the interactive force pattern for the film network formation were also evaluated. At some specific glycerol levels, HPI films had similar MC, much less TSM and EAB, and higher TS and surface hydrophobicity (support matrix side), as compared to SPI films. The TS of HPI and SPI films as a function of plasticizer level (in the range of 0.3-0.6 g/g of protein) were well fitted with the exponential equation with coefficient factors of 0.991 and 0.969, respectively. Unexpectedly, the surface hydrophobicity of HPI films (including air and support matrix sides) increased with increasing the glycerol level (from 0.3 to 0.6 g/g of protein). The analyses of protein solubility of film in various solvents and free sulfydryl group content showed that the disulfide bonds are the prominent interactive force in the HPI film network formation, while in the SPI case, besides the disulfide bonds, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions are also to a similar extent involved. The results suggest that hemp protein isolates have good potential to be applied to prepare protein film with some superior characteristics, e.g., low solubility and high surface hydrophobicity.

  17. Fractionation of hemp hurds by organosolv pretreatment and its effect on production of lignin and sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Stefano; Ottolina, Gianluca; Consonni, Roberto; Riva, Sergio; Patel, Ilabahen

    2014-07-01

    Fractionation of hemp hurds into its three main components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, was carried out using organosolv pretreatment. The effect of processing parameters, such as temperature, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and methanol (MeOH) concentration, on the dissolution and recovery of hemicellulose and lignin was determined. More than 75% of total hemicellulose and 75% of total lignin was removed in a single step with low amounts of degradation products under the following conditions: 165 °C, 3% H2 SO4 , 20 min reaction time, and 45% MeOH. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual pretreated biomass yielded up to 60% of cellulose-to-glucose conversion. The maximum recovery of the main components was obtained at a combined severity factor value of around one. Characterization of pretreated biomass and isolated lignin was carried out with FTIR and 2D (13) C-(1) H correlation HSQC NMR spectroscopy, the latter technique providing detailed structural information about the obtained methanol organosolv lignin (MOSL). Results suggested that xylopyranoside is the major carbohydrate associated with hemp lignin. The chemical properties of MOSL samples in terms of their phenolic group content and antioxidant capacity were also investigated. The results showed that MOSL samples have a high phenolic group content and antioxidant capacity relative to Klason lignin.

  18. A novel hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate reduces oxidative stress factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Alashi, Adeola M; He, Rong; Malomo, Sunday A; Raj, Pema; Netticadan, Thomas; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-12-01

    This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old) SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group) and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w) HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection. After a 4-week washout period, the remaining 20-week old SHRs were fed for an additional four weeks and sacrificed for blood collection. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total peroxides (TPx) levels were determined. Results showed that plasma TAC, CAT and SOD levels decreased in the older 20-week old SHRs when compared to the young SHRs. The presence of HMH in the diets led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in plasma SOD and CAT levels in both young and adult SHR groups; these increases were accompanied by decreases in TPx levels. The results suggest that HMH contained antioxidant peptides that reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in SHRs with enhanced antioxidant enzyme levels and total antioxidant capacity.

  19. Modification of the cellulosic component of hemp fibers using sulfonic acid derivatives: Surface and thermal characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G; Bressler, David C

    2015-12-10

    The aim of this study was to characterize the surface, morphological, and thermal properties of hemp fibers treated with two commercially available, inexpensive, and water soluble sulfonic acid derivatives. Specifically, the cellulosic component of the fibers were targeted, because cellulose is not easily removed during chemical treatment. These acids have the potential to selectively transform the surfaces of natural fibers for composite applications. The proposed method proceeds in the absence of conventional organic solvents and high reaction temperatures. Surface chemical composition and signature were measured using gravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). XPS data from the treated hemp fibers were characterized by measuring the reduction in O/C ratio and an increase in abundance of the C-C-O signature. FTIR confirmed the reaction with the emergence of peaks characteristic of disubstituted benzene and amino groups. Grafting of the sulfonic derivatives resulted in lower surface polarity. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that treated fibers were characterized by lower percent degradation between 200 and 300 °C, and a higher initial degradation temperature.

  20. Hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil: analytical and phytochemical characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S; Marín-Aguilar, F; García-Giménez, M D; Fernández-Arche, M A

    2014-02-05

    Non-drug varieties of Cannabis sativa L., collectively namely as "hemp", have been an interesting source of food, fiber, and medicine for thousands of years. The ever-increasing demand for vegetables oils has made it essential to characterize additional vegetable oil through innovative uses of its components. The lipid profile showed that linoleic (55%), α-linolenic (16%), and oleic (11%) were the most abundant fatty acids. A yield (1.84-1.92%) of unsaponifiable matter was obtained, and the most interesting compounds were β-sitosterol (1905.00 ± 59.27 mg/kg of oil), campesterol (505.69 ± 32.04 mg/kg of oil), phytol (167.59 ± 1.81 mg/kg of oil), cycloartenol (90.55 ± 3.44 mg/kg of oil), and γ-tocopherol (73.38 ± 2.86 mg/100 g of oil). This study is an interesting contribution for C. sativa L. consideration as a source of bioactive compounds contributing to novel research applications for hemp seed oil in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic food, and other non-food industries.

  1. A Novel Hemp Seed Meal Protein Hydrolysate Reduces Oxidative Stress Factors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham T. Girgih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection. After a 4-week washout period, the remaining 20-week old SHRs were fed for an additional four weeks and sacrificed for blood collection. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and total peroxides (TPx levels were determined. Results showed that plasma TAC, CAT and SOD levels decreased in the older 20-week old SHRs when compared to the young SHRs. The presence of HMH in the diets led to significant (p < 0.05 increases in plasma SOD and CAT levels in both young and adult SHR groups; these increases were accompanied by decreases in TPx levels. The results suggest that HMH contained antioxidant peptides that reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in SHRs with enhanced antioxidant enzyme levels and total antioxidant capacity.

  2. Nutritive quality of romanian hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L. with special focus on oil and metal contents of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihoc Marcela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aims to determine the nutritional value of hemp seed expressed by the oil content and by the concentration of metals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd, for five varieties of monoecious and dioecious hemp seeds approved in Romania, comparative with the concentration of these metals in the soil. Results The content of oil in hempseed registers a slight decrease in the production records of 2011, losses due to drought and low levels of precipitation during the growth period. The greatest loss is found in Diana monoecious variety (26.54-20.82% followed by Zenit varieties (27.37-22.97%, Armanca (29.27-25.32%, Silvana (28.89-25.04% and Denise (26.96-25.30%. Siccative hemp oil has a yellowish green color and an iodine index of 140–156 g I2/100 g oil. Hemp seed are rich in mineral based Ca (144–955 mg/100 g seed, Mg (237–694 mg/100 g seed, K (463–2821 mg/100 g seed, Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1, Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1 and Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1. For the soil the following macroelements concentrations were determined: Ca (2100–2520 mg.kg-1, Mg (320–376 mg.kg-1 and K (232–257 mg.kg-1. Mn (156–197 mg.kg-1 and Zn (54–67 mg.kg-1 remain within normal limits for Romania. The soils in the experience area contain large amounts of Fe (19000–20430 mg.kg-1. The presence of K in large quantities determines the accumulation of large quantities of Fe in the soil. Conclusion Hempseed belonging to the five Romanian varieties are rich source of nutrients (Ca, Mg, K and unsaturated oil easily digestible by the body, but the presence of Cd concentrations above the upper limit puts a question mark over the use of seeds in various food products. Hemp extracts easily certain metals from the soil. Significant amounts of Fe (1133–2400 mg.kg-1, Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1, Zn (42–94 mg.kg-1 and Cd (1.3-4.0 mg.kg-1 are found in hemp seeds. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. is included among plants suitable for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium

  3. Ion angular distribution simulation of the HEMP Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duras, Julia; Koch, Norbert; Kahnfeld, Daniel; Bandelow, Gunnar; Matthias, Paul; Lüskow, Karl Felix; Schneider, Ralf; Kemnitz, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Ion angular current and energy distributions are important parameters for ion thrusters, which are typically measured at a few tens of centimetres to a few meters distance from thruster exit. However, fully kinetic Particle-in-Cell simulations are not able to simulate such domain sizes, due to high computational costs. Therefore, a parallelisation strategy of the code is presented to reduce computational time. To map diagnostics information from the domain boundary of the calculational domain to the positions of experimental diagnostics the concept of transfer functions is introduced. The calculated ion beam angular distributions in the plume region are quite sensitive to boundary conditions of the potential, possible additional source contributions, e.g. from secondary electron emission at vessel walls, and charge exchange collisions. This work was supported by the Bavarian State Ministry of Education Science and the Arts and the German Space Agency DLR. We also like to thank R. Heidemann from THALES Electron Devices GmbH, for interesting and stimulating discussions.

  4. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future.

  5. 麻类作物田杂草种类与防除技术%Classification and Control Techniques of Weeds in Hemp Crops Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟桂元; 邬腊梅; 周静; 柏连阳

    2011-01-01

    Weeds were always growing associate with hemp crops in the field resulting in a competition of water, light and fertilizer, which could seriously affect the growth,yield and quality of hemp crops. Therefore,effectively controlling weeds in the field of hemp crops is particularly necessary. In this paper, the current situation of hemp crop production, weed species , infestation of main weeds, and weed control techniques were outlined in the fields of herm crops in China.%杂草常伴随麻类作物滋生,与其争光争肥争水,严重影响其生长、降低产量和品质.因此,有效防除麻田杂草尤为必要.文章概述了我国麻类作物生产现状,主要麻类作物田杂草危害、杂草种类及防除技术.

  6. Ethanol and supercritical fluid extracts of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L. increase gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghyun Hong

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrated that the hemp seed effectively inhibited H2O2 mediated oxidative stress and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in preventing oxidative stress mediated diseases.

  7. Influence of Alkaline Treatment on Chloroform Extract of China-Hemp%碱处理对汉麻皮氯仿萃取物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小泷; 杨力生; 金彪; 李荣霞; 周文龙

    2013-01-01

    运用气质联用技术,对汉麻皮的氯仿萃取物进行了测定分析.研究表明,汉麻皮的氯仿萃取物中仍然明显有大麻中的特殊化学成分——四氢大麻酚(THC)存在.四氢大麻酚会在汉麻的普通化学脱胶处理(碱处理)中被有效去除,这说明在汉麻纺织商品中不会含有大麻酚物质,汉麻纺织产品是安全的,同时也说明四氢大麻酚物质可能与汉麻皮的胶类物质有一定的关系.在一定条件下,碱处理60 min后纤维中将不会存在四氢大麻酚.汉麻皮氯仿萃取物中主要还含有十六酸和十八烷酸等物质.%This paper tests and analyzes chloroform extract of China-hemp using gas chromatography-mass spectrography technology. The research shows that the special chemical component in hemp-THC still exists in chloroform extract of China-hemp. THC will be effectively removed in general chemical de-gumming treatment (alkaline treatment) of China-hemp, indicating that China-hemp textile goods do not contain Cannabinol and China-hemp textile products are safe and that THC might have certain relationship with gum substance of China-hemp. Under certain conditions, fiber subject to alkaline treatment for 60 min will not have THC. Chloroform extract of China-hemp also contains hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid etc.

  8. 工业大麻纤维特性与开发利用%Fiber Properties and Development and Utilization of Industrial Hemp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳; 张云云; 苏文君; 杨明; 郭鸿彦; 刘飞虎

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced the fiber properties, development and utilization of industrial hemp. Industrial hemp and drug hemp are two different types. Industrial hemp with tetrahydrocannabinol content below 0.3% can not be used to produce drugs. Industrial hemp fiber have many particular properties , such as good hygroscopicity and air permeability, toughness, antistatic and anti - UV, and therefore are widely used in dress, car, construction and other industries. Industrial hemp is considered as one of the most promising natural fibers in the future.%本文主要介绍大麻和它的纤维特性及其利用.工业用大麻与毒品大麻为不同的品种,工业用大麻品种中四氢大麻酚(THC)含量<0.3%,不具备制毒的条件.工业大麻纤维具有吸湿透气、坚牢耐用、抗静电、防紫外线等优良的特性,被广泛用于服装、汽车、建筑等行业中,因此被认为是未来最具潜力的天然纤维之一.

  9. Durability of Starch Based Biodegradable Plastics Reinforced with Manila Hemp Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Ochi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradability of Manila hemp fiber reinforced biodegradable plastics was studied for 240 days in a natural soil and 30 days in a compost soil. After biodegradability tests, weights were measured and both tensile strength tests and microscopic observation were performed to evaluate the biodegradation behavior of the composites. The results indicate that the tensile strength of the composites displays a sharp decrease for up to five days, followed by a gradual decrease. The weight loss and the reduction in tensile strength of biodegradable composite materials in the compost soil are both significantly greater than those buried in natural soil. The biodegradability of these composites is enhanced along the lower portion because this area is more easily attacked by microorganisms.

  10. HEMP and LEMP Created in Laboratory%HEMP和LEMP的实验室产生方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯民胜; 贾宏亮

    2007-01-01

    分析了高空核电磁脉冲(HEMP)和雷电电磁脉冲(LEMP)的特性,介绍了实验室产生强电磁脉冲的方法.设计了一种电磁脉冲模拟装置,该装置由Marx发生器和吉赫横电磁波(GTEM)室组成.为了获得前沿小于10ns的电磁脉冲,该装置采用了前沿陡化技术.初步实验研究表明,采用这种装置能够产生波形参数满足要求的高空核电磁脉冲和雷电电磁脉冲.

  11. Advanced Technology for Decortication of Flax,Hemp and other Bast Fibre Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Munder,F; Fürll, Ch; Hempel,H

    2004-01-01

    Flax,linseed or hemp fibres can substitu1e wood,synthetic,carbon and glassfibres in a wide range of industrial products A complete new machine line for the processing of natural fibre plants was developed,which includes all process stagesfrom pick up and cutting of straw bales up tothe cleaning ofthefinal roducts,fbres and shives The processed fibres have afinenessin the range from 2 5to1 5tex.The length of the fibresis adjustablein the range from 50 to 200 mm These fibres can be shortened by additional cuttlngto a defined length from e g 4to 8 mm Practical applications of the fibres are the automotiveindustry,geo-textiles,thermal blankets,fibrous insulating material and composites, builging boards,coarse yarn,coarse textiles,and reinforcement of saveral composites and structural parts.

  12. Calculation of the relative uniformity coefficient on the green composites reinforced with cotton and hemp fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, Florin; Hadǎr, Anton; Sava, Mihaela; Marinel, Stǎnescu Marius; Bolcu, Dumitru

    2016-06-01

    In this paper it is studied the influence of discontinuities on elastic and mechanical properties of green composite materials (reinforced with fabric of cotton or hemp). In addition, it is studied the way variations of the volume f the reinforcement influences the elasticity modulus and the tensile strength for the studied composite materials. In order to appreciate the difference in properties between different areas of the composite material, and also the dimensions of the defective areas, we have introduced a relative uniformity coefficient with which the mechanical behavior of the studied composite is compared with a reference composite. To validate the theoretical results we have obtained we made some experiments, using green composites reinforced with fabric, with different imperfection introduced special by cutting the fabric.

  13. Effect of fiber loading on flexural strength of hybrid sisal/hemp-HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Lakshya; Sinha, Shishir; Gupta, V. K.

    2015-05-01

    The continuing demand for sustainable materials and increasing environmental concerns have led to intense research in the field of natural fiber reinforced composites. Natural fibers are favored over synthetic fibers as reinforcement due to positive environmental benefits such as raw material utilization at source and easy disposable of the biodegradable fiber. In the present work, we have investigated flexural behavior of hybrid natural fiber reinforced HDPE composites. The matrix comprises of 50-50 ratio of virgin and recycled HDPE and the content of fibers (sisal and hemp) in the composite is varied from 10 to 30%. The natural fibers were mercerized with NaOH solution and chemically treated with maleic anhydride. The flexural specimens were prepared by injection moulding process and the testing was conducted in accordance to ASTM D790 standards. It is revealed that the flexural strength of the hybrid composite increases with the increase in fibers content when compared to specimen containing 100% HDPE.

  14. Interconnected carbon nanosheets derived from hemp for ultrafast supercapacitors with high energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanlei; Xu, Zhanwei; Kohandehghan, Alireza; Li, Zhi; Cui, Kai; Tan, Xuehai; Stephenson, Tyler James; King'ondu, Cecil K; Holt, Chris M B; Olsen, Brian C; Tak, Jin Kwon; Harfield, Don; Anyia, Anthony O; Mitlin, David

    2013-06-25

    We created unique interconnected partially graphitic carbon nanosheets (10-30 nm in thickness) with high specific surface area (up to 2287 m(2) g(-1)), significant volume fraction of mesoporosity (up to 58%), and good electrical conductivity (211-226 S m(-1)) from hemp bast fiber. The nanosheets are ideally suited for low (down to 0 °C) through high (100 °C) temperature ionic-liquid-based supercapacitor applications: At 0 °C and a current density of 10 A g(-1), the electrode maintains a remarkable capacitance of 106 F g(-1). At 20, 60, and 100 °C and an extreme current density of 100 A g(-1), there is excellent capacitance retention (72-92%) with the specific capacitances being 113, 144, and 142 F g(-1), respectively. These characteristics favorably place the materials on a Ragone chart providing among the best power-energy characteristics (on an active mass normalized basis) ever reported for an electrochemical capacitor: At a very high power density of 20 kW kg(-1) and 20, 60, and 100 °C, the energy densities are 19, 34, and 40 Wh kg(-1), respectively. Moreover the assembled supercapacitor device yields a maximum energy density of 12 Wh kg(-1), which is higher than that of commercially available supercapacitors. By taking advantage of the complex multilayered structure of a hemp bast fiber precursor, such exquisite carbons were able to be achieved by simple hydrothermal carbonization combined with activation. This novel precursor-synthesis route presents a great potential for facile large-scale production of high-performance carbons for a variety of diverse applications including energy storage.

  15. Effect of feeding hemp seed and hemp seed oil on laying hen performance and egg yolk fatty acid content: evidence of their safety and efficacy for laying hen diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakhar, N; Goldberg, E; Jing, M; Gibson, R; House, J D

    2012-03-01

    Forty-eight 19-wk-old Bovan White laying hens were fed 1 of 5 diets containing either hemp seed (HS) or hemp seed oil (HO). The level of HO was 4, 8, or 12%, whereas the level was 10 or 20% for the HS. A set of 8 birds fed wheat-, barley-, and corn oil-based diets served as the control. Performance was monitored over 12 wk. Average hen-day egg production was not affected upon feeding of either HS or HO diets. Egg weight was higher than that of the controls for hens consuming the 20% HS diet (P hens consuming the 12% HO diet. The total egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content increased linearly (P laying hens up to a maximum level of 20 and 12%, respectively, does not adversely effect the performance of laying hens and leads to the enrichment of the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs.

  16. Liquid vat dyes for hemp and hemp/tencel knitted fabric dyeing%液体还原染料对大麻和大麻/天丝针织物的染色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 李艳福; 闫凯; 王蒙; 曹机良

    2016-01-01

    The three liquid vat dyes such as Vat Blue RSN, Brown BR and Olive T were used for Hemp and hemp/Tencel blended fabric leuco dyeing. This paper discussed the effects of dyeing temperature, time, and the amount of urea, JFC and dye on dyed fabric K/S and the color fastness of dyed fabric was measured. The results showed that the optimum dyeing process of liquid vat dyes for hemp and hemp/Tencel blended fabric were as following:dye 4%(omf), urea 30 g/L, JFC 1 g/L, the dyeing temperature 50~60℃and dyeing time 60 min were. Each of color fastness was able to 3~4 scale or more and met the wearability standard.%采用还原蓝RSN、棕BR、橄榄T 3种液体还原染料对大麻和大麻/天丝混纺织物进行隐色体染色,探讨了染色温度、时间以及尿素、JFC和染料用量等对染色织物K/S值的影响,测试了染色织物的色牢度。结果表明,液体还原染料对大麻和大麻/天丝混纺织物的最佳染色工艺:染料4%(omf),尿素30 g/L,JFC 1 g/L,染色温度50~60℃,染色时间60 min。各项染色牢度均能达到3~4级以上,满足服用要求。

  17. Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Carbon-Hemp Laminated Composites Used as Thermal Insulation for Different Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Scutaru

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-hemp composite laminate provides good thermal properties. For this reason this type of material is presently being used for various applications like insulator for airplanes, spaceships, nuclear reactors, and so forth. Unfortunately their mechanical properties are less studied. These characteristics are very important since they should be guaranteed also for important mechanical stress in addition to the thermal one. The present paper presents a study regarding the impact testing of some hybrid composite laminate panels based on polyester resin reinforced with both carbon and hemp fabric. The effects of different impact speeds on the mechanical behavior of these panels have been analyzed. The paper lays stress on the characterization of this hybrid composite laminate regarding the impact behavior of these panels by dropping a weight with low velocity.

  18. Characterization of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of Hemp fibres intended for the manufacturing oh high performance composites

    CERN Document Server

    Placet, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the thermo-mechanical behaviour of hemp fibres (Cannabis sativa L.) is investigated using a Dynamic Mechanical Analyser. Experiments are performed at a frequency of 1 Hz in the temperature range of 20 to 220\\degree C. When a periodic solicitation is applied to an elementary fibre, an increase of the fibre rigidity and a reduction of the damping capacity are observed. These evolutions aim at stabilization after an identified number of cycles, traducing a phenomenon of "adaptation". This specific mechanical behaviour certainly involves biochemical and/or structural modifications in the material organisation as microfibrils reorientation. In addition, the behaviour of hemp fibres is affected by temperature. Temperature acts as an activation factor but also as a degradation factor of the viscoelastic properties of fibres. The rigidity and the endurance of fibres are highly affected by thermal treatment at temperature above 150\\degree C to 180\\degree C. Taking into account these results, polypropyle...

  19. Influence of Hybridizing Flax and Hemp-Agave Fibers with Glass Fiber as Reinforcement in a Polyurethane Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Pandey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, six combinations of flax, hemp, and glass fiber were investigated for a hybrid reinforcement system in a polyurethane (PU composite. The natural fibers were combined with glass fibers in a PU composite in order to achieve a better mechanical reinforcement in the composite material. The effect of fiber hybridization in PU composites was evaluated through physical and mechanical properties such as water absorption (WA, specific gravity (SG, coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE, flexural and compression properties, and hardness. The mechanical properties of hybridized samples showed mixed trends compared to the unhybridized samples, but hybridization with glass fiber reduced water absorption by 37% and 43% for flax and hemp-agave PU composites respectively.

  20. Denaturation and Oxidative Stability of Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Protein Isolate as Affected by Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Vassilios; Duthie, Garry; Ranawana, Viren

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the impact of heat treatments on the denaturation and oxidative stability of hemp seed protein during simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID). Heat-denatured hemp protein isolate (HPI) solutions were prepared by heating HPI (2 mg/ml, pH 6.8) to 40, 60, 80 and 100 °C for 10 min. Heat-induced denaturation of the protein isolates was monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Heating HPI at temperatures above 80 °C significantly reduced solubility and led to the formation of large protein aggregates. The isolates were then subjected to in vitro GID and the oxidative stability of the generated peptides was investigated. Heating did not significantly affect the formation of oxidation products during GID. The results suggest that heat treatments should ideally remain below 80 °C if heat stability and solubility of HPI are to be preserved.

  1. Modelling of volumetric composition and mechanical properties of unidirectional hemp/epoxy composites - Effect of enzymatic fibre treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Thygesen, Anders; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    the changes in volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites when differently treated hemp fibres are used. The decrease in the fibre correlated porosity factor with the enzymatic fibre treatments shows that the removal of pectin by pectinolytic enzymes results in a better fibre......The objective of the present study is to assess the effect of enzymatic fibre treatments on the fibre performance in unidirectional hemp/epoxy composites by modelling the volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites. It is shown that the applied models can well predict...... efficiency exponent is set equal to 2. Altogether, it is demonstrated that the applied models provide a concept to be used for the evaluation of performance of treated fibres in composites....

  2. The effect of particle shape and size distribution on the acoustical properties of mixtures of hemp particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glé, Philippe; Gourdon, Emmanuel; Arnaud, Laurent; Horoshenkov, Kirill-V; Khan, Amir

    2013-12-01

    Hemp concrete is an attractive alternative to traditional materials used in building construction. It has a very low environmental impact, and it is characterized by high thermal insulation. Hemp aggregate particles are parallelepiped in shape and can be organized in a plurality of ways to create a considerable proportion of open pores with a complex connectivity pattern, the acoustical properties of which have never been examined systematically. Therefore this paper is focused on the fundamental understanding of the relations between the particle shape and size distribution, pore size distribution, and the acoustical properties of the resultant porous material mixture. The sound absorption and the transmission loss of various hemp aggregates is characterized using laboratory experiments and three theoretical models. These models are used to relate the particle size distribution to the pore size distribution. It is shown that the shape of particles and particle size control the pore size distribution and tortuosity in shiv. These properties in turn relate directly to the observed acoustical behavior.

  3. In situ analysis of cell wall polymers associated with phloem fibre cells in stems of hemp, Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Anthony W; Marcus, Susan E; Copeland, James E; Blackburn, Richard S; Knox, J Paul

    2008-06-01

    A study of stem anatomy and the sclerenchyma fibre cells associated with the phloem tissues of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) plants is of interest for both understanding the formation of secondary cell walls and for the enhancement of fibre utility as industrial fibres and textiles. Using a range of molecular probes for cell wall polysaccharides we have surveyed the presence of cell wall components in stems of hemp in conjunction with an anatomical survey of stem and phloem fibre development. The only polysaccharide detected to occur abundantly throughout the secondary cell walls of phloem fibres was cellulose. Pectic homogalacturonan epitopes were detected in the primary cell walls/intercellular matrices between the phloem fibres although these epitopes were present at a lower level than in the surrounding parenchyma cell walls. Arabinogalactan-protein glycan epitopes displayed a diversity of occurrence in relation to fibre development and the JIM14 epitope was specific to fibre cells, binding to the inner surface of secondary cell walls, throughout development. Xylan epitopes were found to be present in the fibre cells (and xylem secondary cell walls) and absent from adjacent parenchyma cell walls. Analysis of xylan occurrence in the phloem fibre cells of hemp and flax indicated that xylan epitopes were restricted to the primary cell walls of fibre cells and were not present in the secondary cell walls of these cells.

  4. 汉麻粉体对PVDF膜的改性研究%Modification of PVDF membranes by hemp powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟智丽; 张江范; 吴艳玲

    2014-01-01

    采用汉麻粉体与 PVDF 共混的方法对 PVDF 膜进行改性,测试共混膜的微观结构和热学性能、力学性能以及与碳纤维布之间的层间剥离强度等性能,并研究汉麻粉体含量对于共混膜性能的影响.实验结果表明:随着汉麻粉体质量分数的增加,共混膜表面光洁度降低,断面结构越发不规整,密度及厚度增大,共混膜变得易碎,而力学性能大幅下降;随着汉麻粉体质量分数的增加,共混膜与碳纤维布/木质复合材料之间的层间剥离强度先增大后减小,当汉麻粉体质量分数为6%时,层间剥离强度达到最大值0.36 N/mm.%Hemp powder and PVDF blended approach were used to modify PVDF membrane, then the blend interlayer film microstructure and thermal properties, mechanical properties as well as peel strength between CFRP and other properties were tested, and the influence of hemp flour content on the blend membrane performance was studied. Experimental results show that with the increase of the mass fraction of hemp powder, blend membrane surface finish lower, more irregular cross -section structure, density and thickness increase, the blend film becomes brittle, while mechanical properties dropped significantly; with the increase of the mass fraction of hemp powder, the inter-layer blend membranes with CFRP / wood composites, interlaminar strength firstly increases and then decreases, when the mass fraction of hemp powder is 6%, the maximum interlaminar strength value is 0.36 N/mm.

  5. Effects of thermal and enzymatic treatments and harvesting time on the microbial quality and chemical composition of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykter, Minna; Kymaelaeinen, Hanna-Riitta; Sjoeberg, Anna-Maija [Department of Agrotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 28, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders [Biosystems Department, Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Lilholt, Hans [Materials Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Koponen, Hilkka [Department of Applied Biology, Section of Plant Pathology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of pectinase enzyme treatment followed by thermal treatments (steam explosion and dry heating) on the microbial quality and chemical composition of hemp fibres. Before these treatments, the fibres were separated manually from the stems harvested after stand retting in the field before frost, after early frost or in the following spring. The enzymatic treatment of hemp promoted growth of moulds on the fibres (500-fold increase in colony-forming units (cfu)), whereas steam explosion reduced the amount of moulds to a relatively constant level of 10{sup 2} cfu/g dw. The amount of bacteria was not markedly affected by enzymatic treatment but was reduced tenfold after steam explosion. Steam explosion is thereby a potentially good process for the production of hemp fibres with low fungal contamination, which can be of importance in insulation materials. Dry heating had no effect on mould and bacterial counts at temperatures below 120 C and durations less than 60 min. The chemical composition was affected by the enzymatic treatment due to extraction and degradation of water-soluble components, pectin and ash. Thus the cellulose content increased by 6% w/w to 67-70% w/w. Steam explosion of the untreated hemp fibres increased the cellulose content to 74% w/w, whereas steam explosion of enzymatically treated hemp increased the cellulose content to 78% w/w. (author)

  6. Characterisation of a new thermoalkaliphilic bacterium for the production of high-quality hemp fibres, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius strain PB94A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Juárez, A G; Dreyer, J; Göpel, P K; Koschke, N; Frank, D; Märkl, H; Müller, R

    2009-06-01

    Novel thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria for the processing of bast fibres were isolated using hemp pectin as substrate. The strain PB94A, which showed the highest growth rate (micro = 0.5/h) was identified as Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius (DSM 21625). The strain grew optimally at 60 degrees C and pH 8.5. During growth on citrus pectin, the strain produced pectinolytic lyases, which were excreted into the medium. In contrast to the commercially available pectinase Bioprep 3000 L, the enzymes from G. thermoglucosidasius PB94A converted pectin isolated from hemp fibres. In addition to hemp pectin, the culture supernatant also degraded citrus, sugar beet and apple pectin and polygalacturonic acid. When hemp fibres were incubated with the cell-free fermentation broth of G. thermoglucosidasius PB94A, the fineness of the fibres increased. The strain did not produce any cellulases, which is important in order to avoid damaging the fibres during incubation. Therefore, these bacteria or their enzymes can be used to produce fine high-quality hemp fibres.

  7. Quality Evaluation of Hemp Seed from Different Habitats%不同产地火麻仁品质评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王化东; 卫莹芳; 郭山山; 闫婕; 金虹

    2012-01-01

    对不同产地的25份火麻仁从性状、千粒重、薄层色谱、浸出物、脂肪油含量等方面进行分析,探索火麻仁质量评价体系.结果表明,火麻仁药材均呈卵圆形或近圆形,但不同产地药材在大小、颜色、表面纹理方面有一定差异.火麻仁药材大小差异较大,平均长为0.42~0.63 cm,平均宽为0.30~0.49 cm;不同产地火麻仁千粒重有较大的差异,为13.61~49.90 g.薄层色谱鉴别结果表明,供试品色谱与对照药材色谱相应的位置上显相同颜色的斑点,颜色的深浅有一定差异;醇溶性浸出物含量在27.00%~39.89%;脂肪油含量在27.04%~37.87%.不同产地火麻仁质量有一定差异,各产地火麻仁是否都适合药用,由于目前火麻仁质量标准尚不完善,无法判定.火麻仁质量标准有待进一步完善.%In order to explore the hemp seed quality evaluation system, 25 hemp seeds of different origin were tested in terms of traits, grain weight, thin layer chromatography, extraction, the content of fatty oil and other aspects. The results showed that the hemp seeds presented oval or nearly round; but there were some differences in terms of size, weight, color and surface texture of hemp seeds from different habitats. Hemp seeds average length was 0.42-0.63 cm, average width was 0.30-0.49 cm, and the seed weight were 13.61-49.90 g. TLC (thin layer chromatography) identification results showed that there was same color spots on the corresponding position between the samples and the control medicinal materials. However, there were some differences in the depth of color. Extract content value was 27.00%~39.89%; fatty oil content was 27.04%-37.87%. Different origin hemp seeds had different quality. It is still unknown if they were all suitable for medicinal purposes. Hemp seed quality standards should be further improved.

  8. 汉麻针织居家面料的开发%Development of Hemp Household Knitted Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小云; 赵义隆

    2013-01-01

    针对汉麻产品在穿着过程中的刺痒问题,对汉麻在针织居家面料上的应用进行研究。介绍了汉麻纤维特殊的物理、化学性能,汉麻纱线合股的工艺,以及“超棉”纤维在汉麻混纺纱中的应用;阐述了用其开发居家针织面料的编织、染整、涂料印花工序中的工艺创新和技术改进;并对面料的服用性能进行了测试。结果表明:异形涤纶“超棉”纤维加入到汉麻混纺纱中,对增强汉麻居家面料的吸湿和散湿性能,起到了促进作用;采用复合茶皂素工艺对汉麻居家面料进行染色前处理可以减少纤维损伤;采用磨毛工艺对汉麻短纤维进行处理,可以减轻纤维素酶的处理强度;选用亲水氨基硅油柔软剂可以提高面料的吸湿性能;工艺改进后所开发的汉麻针织居家面料,其各项服用性能指标均符合要求。%In terms of the problem of itchy sensation of hemp fabrics, the paper introduces the special physical and chemical properties of hemp fiber, the plying process of hemp yarns and the application of ‘highly simulated cotton’ in hemp blended yarns. It develops a new kind of hemp knitted fabric and also analyzes in detail the pro-cess innovation and technological improvement during the knitting, dyeing and finishing and pigment printing pro-cesses. Through the wearing properties testing, the results show that adding the ‘highly simulated cotton’ of polyester with irregular hemp blended yarns can improve the moisture absorption and transferring properties; using the composite tea saponin for pre-dyeing process can reduce the damage of fibers; the sanding process can reduce the treatment intensity of cellulose; the hydrophilic amino-silicone oil softener can improve the moisture absorption properties of fabric. The test results prove that the various wearing performance index of this kind hemp household knitted fabric developed with the improvement technology

  9. Effects of thermal and enzymatic treatments and harvesting time on the microbial quality and chemical composition of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nykter, M.; Kymalainen, H.R.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2008-01-01

    level of 10(2)cfu/g dw. The amount of bacteria was not markedly affected by enzymatic treatment but was reduced tenfold after steam explosion. Steam explosion is thereby a potentially good process for the production of hemp fibres with low fungal contamination, which can be of importance in insulation...... materials. Dry heating had no effect on mould and bacterial counts at temperatures below 120 degrees C and durations less than 60 min. The chemical composition was affected by the enzymatic treatment due to extraction and degradation of water-soluble components, pectin and ash. Thus the cellulose content...... increased by 6% w/w to 67-70% w/w. Steam explosion of the untreated hemp fibres increased the cellulose content to 74% w/w, whereas steam explosion of enzymatically treated hemp increased the cellulose content to 78% w/w. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. The hormonal control of sex differentiation in dioecious plants of hemp (Cannabis sativd. The influence of plant growth regulators on sex expression in male and female plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Galoch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of GA3, IAA, ethrel, ABA and kinetin on sex expression in male and female plants of hemp (Cannabis sativa cultivar LKC SD was investigated. The growth regulators were applied separately and in combinations on stem apices of plant determined sexually and having the first flower primordia. Gibberellic acid promoted masculinization, whereas IAA, ethylene and kinetin had a feminization effect on sex of hemp. Abscisic acid did not exert any direct effect on sex determination, it however acted antagnisticaly in relation to the effect exerted by GA3 and IAA. The results of combined application of IAA and ethrel with other growth regulators suggest, that the mechanism of action of auxin and ethylene in the control of sex expression in hemp is different. Auxins in this process cannot be regarded only as causing agents of ethylene production increase.

  11. 欧洲大麻育种及发展方向研究%Study on Breeding and Development Future of European Hemp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴广文

    2013-01-01

      In order to promote the development of hemp industry ,the abroad study situation of hemp was sum‐marized ,the development process of breeding ,researching method and achievements obtained were introduced . The study tendency of hemp in Europe from physiology to genetics were emphasized on .%  为促进大麻产业的发展,对国外大麻育种研究进行了综述,介绍了育种的发展过程和应用的方法及取得的成绩。重点从生理到遗传的研究内容上阐述了欧洲大麻的发展方向。

  12. Predicting the long-term durability of hemp-lime renders in inland and coastal areas using Mediterranean, Tropical and Semi-arid climatic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizzi, Anna; Viles, Heather; Martín-Sanchez, Inés; Cultrone, Giuseppe

    2016-01-15

    Hemp-based composites are eco-friendly building materials as they improve energy efficiency in buildings and entail low waste production and pollutant emissions during their manufacturing process. Nevertheless, the organic nature of hemp enhances the bio-receptivity of the material, with likely negative consequences for its long-term performance in the building. The main purpose of this study was to study the response at macro- and micro-scale of hemp-lime renders subjected to weathering simulations in an environmental cabinet (one year was condensed in twelve days), so as to predict their long-term durability in coastal and inland areas with Mediterranean, Tropical and Semi-arid climates, also in relation with the lime type used. The simulated climatic conditions caused almost unnoticeable mass, volume and colour changes in hemp-lime renders. No efflorescence or physical breakdown was detected in samples subjected to NaCl, because the salt mainly precipitates on the surface of samples and is washed away by the rain. Although there was no visible microbial colonisation, alkaliphilic fungi (mainly Penicillium and Aspergillus) and bacteria (mainly Bacillus and Micrococcus) were isolated in all samples. Microbial growth and diversification were higher under Tropical climate, due to heavier rainfall. The influence of the bacterial activity on the hardening of samples has also been discussed here and related with the formation and stabilisation of vaterite in hemp-lime mixes. This study has demonstrated that hemp-lime renders show good durability towards a wide range of environmental conditions and factors. However, it might be useful to take some specific preventive and maintenance measures to reduce the bio-receptivity of this material, thus ensuring a longer durability on site.

  13. The Effect of Modification Methods on the Performance Characteristics of Composites Based on a Linear Low-Density Polyethylene and Natural Hemp Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajaks, J.; Zelca, Z.; Kukle, S.

    2015-11-01

    Influence of the content of hemp fibers (harvested in 2012) and their modification methods (treatment with boiling water, sodium hydroxide, and acetic anhydride) and addition of an interfacial modifier, maleated polyethylene (MAPE), on the performance characteristics (tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break, microhardness, and water resistance) of composites based on a linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was investigated. The results obtained are compared with data found earlier for the same type of hemp fibers, but harvested in 2011. It is shown that optimum content of untreated hemp fibers in the LLDPE matrix is 30 wt.% and optimum length of the fibers is less than 1 mm. An increase in the content of hemp fibers (to 30 wt.%) raised the tensile strength and modulus of the composites, but reduced their elasticity and deformation ability. Simultaneously, the microhardness of the composite materials grew. Pretreating the fibers with sodium hydroxide improved the mechanical properties of the composites only slightly, but treating with acetic anhydride allowed us to elevate the content of the fibers up to 40 and 50 wt.%. The best results were achieved by addition of 50 wt.% MAPE, when the tensile modulus increased by about 47% and the tensile strength by 27% as compared with those of composites with fibers pretreated by other methods. To estimate the processing possibilities of the composites, the melt flow index (MFI) was determined. It is established that the pretreatment of the fibers significantly affects the numerical values of MFI. For example, upon treatment with acetic anhydride, a sufficiently high fluidity of the composites was retained even at a 50 wt.% content of fibers. The lowest fluidity was observed for composites with alkali-pretreated hemp fibers. The surface microhardness decreased upon their chemical pretreatment. The highest microhardness showed composites with 30 wt.% untreated fibers. The chemical pretreatment considerably raised the

  14. 小型复合直喂剥麻机的研制%Study on Small Size Hemp Decorticator with Direct Feeding Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时玲; 唐风平; 罗显东; 彭秀玲

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to reduce the labor strength and cost of farmers processing hemp in mountainous areas, a kind of small size hemp decorticator with direct feeding device was developed. [ Method] Its structure, operating principle, main performance parameters and design of main parts were introduced. [ Result ] According to the test of sample machine, the results proveed that this type of hemp decorticator showed the characteristics of higher percentage of primary hemp from green hemp and production efficiency and lower cost. It worked securely and reliably and was easy to operate. [ Conclusion ] Now it was widely used by hemp farmers in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan.%[目的]降低山区农民加工汉麻的劳动强度和成本,研究一种小型复合直喂剥麻机.[方法]介绍了其主要结构、工作原理、性能参数及主要部件的设计方案.[结果]通过对该剥麻机的样机进行运行试验测试,结果证明该剥麻机具有出麻率和生产效率高以及使用成本低的特点,并且操作简单,工作安全可靠.[结论]该剥麻机目前已经被云南西双版纳州汉麻种植农户普遍推广使用.

  15. 大麻脱胶功能菌株在沤麻中的应用%Application of Functional Degumming Bacteria in Hemp Retting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文杰; 王贵宾; 韩洁; 接伟光; 葛菁萍; 蔡柏岩

    2012-01-01

    Functional hemp degumming strains HDDMM02 and HDDMG05 isolated in laboratory were cultured to maximum enzyme production phase and inoculated for degumming and retting of Cannabis sotiva fiber. The chemical composition of hemp fiber was determined; and it was showed that the optimum inoculation dose of the 2 strains was 0.5% of the volume of raw hemp; the optimal dose of urea and NaCl was 1.0 g/L. Pilot test was conducted under these conditions and indexes of hemp fiber was measured. The result showed that adding retting bacteria could increase hemp fiber yield by 12.44%, enhance hemp fiber strength by 23.67 N, improve fiber breakage strength by 0.21 cN/dtex, and increase hemp-fiber-bundle effective length by 0.16 cm. Compared to CK, SEM images showed the gum could be completely removed from the hemp with the bacteria adhered to the fiber surface; and single fiber was nearly dissociated in treatment adding degumming fiber.%将实验室自行分离的功能菌株HDDMM02、HDDMG05培养至最大产酶时期后用于大麻(Cannabis sativa)脱胶沤麻,并对大麻纤维化学成分进行测定.结果显示两种菌株最佳的接种量为麻原料体积的0.5%,尿素和NaCl的最佳添加量均为1.0 g/L.在此条件下进行中试,对麻纤维各项指标进行检测.结果表明加菌沤制麻纤维的平均出麻率比正常沤制时增加了1.45个百分点,平均强度提高了23.67 N,断裂比强度提高了0.21 cN/dtex,麻束有效强度伸长了0.16m.扫描电镜图片显示加菌沤麻纤维脱胶完全且粘附在纤维表面,单纤维已基本游离出来.

  16. Discussion of the Problems and the Solutions on Hemp Production%浅析大麻生产中存在的问题及解决途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国江; 潘冬梅; 赵越; 韩承伟; 韩喜财; 刘淑霞; 尤秋实

    2014-01-01

    简述国外大麻生产概况,特别阐述了乌克兰、匈牙利、加拿大、德国大麻概况,对中国大麻特别是黑龙江和云南大麻概况加以叙述。揭示中国大麻在原料供应,优良品种匮乏,良种繁育体系不健全,栽培技术落后,原茎温水沤制成本高,大麻产业链不完整等大麻生产中存在的问题,提出培育大麻高产、低毒、高纤雌雄同株和异株新品种,建立良种繁育体系,提高栽培技术水平,采用雨露沤麻技术,提高大麻综合利用价值,建立大麻生态全产业链等发展大麻生产的新途径。%This paper introduces the production status of foreign hemp briefly, especially in U-kraine, Hungary, Canada and Germany.And it also introduces the status especially in Heilongjiang and Yunnan of China.It reveals the existed problems of hemp production such as the shortage of hemp raw material, the lack of good varieties, incomplete seed breeding system, poor cultivation techniques, high cost of retting of primary stem with warm water and incomplete hemp industrial chain, etc.This paper provides many approaches to develop hemp production like culturing high-yield, low-toxicity and high-fiber monoecism and dioecism new variety, establishing improved variety breeding system, improving the level of cultivation techniques, retting hemp with rain and dew, improving the comprehensive utiliza-tion value of hemp, establishing a hemp ecological industry chain, etc.

  17. Dislocations in single hemp fibres-investigations into the relationship of structural distortions and tensile properties at the cell wall level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Eder, M.; Burgert, I.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between dislocations and mechanical properties of single hemp fibres (Cannabis sativa L. var. Felina) was studied using a microtensile testing setup in a 2-fold approach. In a first investigation the percentage of dislocations was quantified using polarized light microscopy (PLM......) prior to microtensile testing of the fibres. In a second approach PLM was used to monitor the dislocations while straining single fibres. The first part of the study comprised 53 hemp fibres with up to 20% of their cell wall consisting of dislocations. For this data set the percentage of dislocations...

  18. Physicochemical properties of hemp seed and its oils%火麻籽及其油的理化性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞剑泉; 于修烛; 陈兴誉; 杜双奎

    2012-01-01

    In order to research and exploit hemp seed resource, the main nutritional ingredients and phys-icochmeical parameter of hemp seed and oil were analyzed by using the Gansu and Ningxia hemp seeds as raw materials. The results showed that the three dimensional size and physical properties of hemp seeds were not significantly different; the oil content of Gansu hemp seed was more than that of Ningxia' s, but the two oils contained 4 kinds of main fatty acid,and the unsaturated fatty acid content was about 88% , and the α - linolenic acid content was more than 20% ; the protein contents of two hemp seeds were not significantly different, and they had quite similar amino acid composition and a good proportion; the mineral elements kinds of the two hemp seeds were not significantly different, but the main elements contents had significantly difference. There were rich nutritional ingredients in hemp seeds, which had wide prospect in food field.%为了开发和利用火麻籽资源,以甘肃和宁夏火麻品种为原料,采用常规及仪器方法对火麻籽的主要营养成分、氨基酸组成及其油的脂肪酸组成和理化指标进行了分析测定.结果表明:甘肃和宁夏的火麻籽三维尺寸和物理特性比较接近,甘肃火麻籽的含油量大于宁夏的品种;两个品种火麻籽油的主要脂肪酸均为4种,不饱和脂肪酸的相对含量约为88%,其中α-亚麻酸相对含量均在20%以上;两个品种火麻籽的蛋白质含量相当,其氨基酸组成基本一致且比例合理;两个品种火麻籽的矿物质含量相当,但主要矿物质元素含量差别较大.火麻籽含有多种营养成分,具有较好的开发利用前景.

  19. Controlled retting of hemp fibres: Effect of hydrothermal pre-treatmen tand enzymatic retting on the mechanical properties of unidirectiona lhemp/epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Silva, Diogo Alexandre Santos; Fernando, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the use of hydrothermal pre-treatment and enzymatic retting to remove non-cellulosic compounds and thus improve the mechanical properties of hemp fibre/epoxy composites. Hydrothermal pre-treatment at 100 kPa and 121 °C combined with enzymatic retting...... produced fibres with the highest ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 780 MPa. Compared to untreated fibres, this combined treatment exhibited a positive effect on the mechanical properties of hemp fibre/epoxy composites, resulting in high quality composites with low porosity factor (αpf) of 0.08.Traditional...

  20. Production, Trade and Research Progress on Hemp in Canada%加拿大工业大麻生产贸易概况及科研进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆滢; 郭鸿彦; 杨明

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了加拿大工业大麻栽培历史、生产现状、贸易、育种、栽培、利用概况和未来发展框架,旨在为我国工业大麻产业健康快速发展提供参考和借鉴.%The planting history, production, trade, breeding, cultivation, application and the future framework of development on industrial hemp in Canada are summarized in this paper.The aims are to provide valuable references for the sustainable development of industrial hemp in china.

  1. Development of Hemp Spun Silk Colored Spun Yarn%汉麻绢丝色纺纱的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿才新; 周红涛; 宋秋霞

    2013-01-01

    To develop hemp spun silk colored spun yarn on cotton spinning equipment successfully,according to fiber properties, dyed hemp fiber and spun silk were pretreated respectively to increase spinnability. Ratio of raw material blending, waste percentages in picking and opening process were controlled rationally to ensure blending ratio. In drawing and roving process,drafting processing was selected rationally,necessary moisture-keeping measures were adopted to ensure semi-product quality. In spinning process, draft in back zone should be selected rationally to increased yarn quality. Through the series of technology measures,finally quality of hemp/spun silk 50/50 18.2 tex colored spun yarn can reach use demand.%为了在棉纺设备上顺利开发汉麻绢丝色纺纱,针对混纺纤维的性能特点,对染色后的汉麻纤维和绢丝分别进行预处理以提高纤维的可纺性;合理控制投料比及清梳工序中的落棉以保证混纺比;并粗工序合理配置牵伸工艺及采取必要的保湿措施以保证半制品质量;细纱工序合理配置后区牵伸工艺以提高成纱质量.通过一系列技术措施,最终成功纺制出满足质量要求的汉麻/绢丝50/5018.2 tex色纺纱.

  2. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil

    OpenAIRE

    Da Porto, C.; Natolino, A.; Decorti, D.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using...

  3. 水泥对工业大麻秆纤维板性能的影响%Influence of Concrete on the Properties of Industrial Hemp Stalk Based Fiberboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑞; 龚迎春; 李晓平; 吴章康

    2014-01-01

    利用工业大麻秆制备纤维板,分析不同水泥添加量和工业大麻秆不同部位对其制备纤维板性能的影响。结果表明:随着水泥添加量的增加,工业大麻秆纤维板的内结合强度(IB )、静曲强度(MOR)、弹性模量(MOE )均降低,而吸水厚度膨胀率(TS )得到较大改善;大麻秆芯制备的纤维板力学性能优于大麻秆皮部。%The hemp stalk based fiberboard panels were manufacturing and the influence of different concrete additive amount and the different parts of industrial hemp stalk on the properties of industrial hemp stalk based fi-berboard panels was studied.The results showed that,as increasing of concrete additive amount,the mechanical properties including IB、MOR、MOE of industrial hemp stalk based fiberboard were decreased,while the TS of in-dustrial hemp fiberboard were greatly improved.Moreover,the properties of hemp stalk core based fiberboard pan-els were better than those of the hemp bast fiber based fiberboard panels.

  4. 非均匀土壤中埋地电缆 HEMP 响应研究%Response Analysis of Buried Cable Excited by HEMP in Non-Homogeneous Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文刚; 姜勤波; 齐世举; 蔡星会

    2015-01-01

    为进一步研究埋地电缆在高空核爆电磁脉冲( HEMP)辐照下的电磁瞬态响应,采用了电特性更接近实际情况的双层大地土壤模型,基于传输线方程计算了在HEMP平面波垂直入射下,分层大地土壤中埋地电缆的端接负载响应。分析了电导率分层结构、上层土壤厚度及埋地深度等因素对电缆端接负载感应电流的影响。该研究结果可供EMC设计时参考。%For the further study of buried cables′electromagnetic transient response excited by the high -alti-tude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP), the earth is divided into two levels with different electromagnetic proper-ties.The terminal load response of the buried cables in stratified earth irradiated by HEMP plane wave vertical -ly is calculated based on the transmission line equations , and some factors influencing the terminal load induced current , such as the stratified conductivity , the thickness of the upper soil , and the buried depth were ana-lyzed .The results can be a guideline for the empirical EMC design .

  5. Physicochemical and functional properties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuan-He; Ten, Zi; Wang, Xian-Sheng; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2006-11-15

    The amino acid composition and physicochemical and functional properties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein isolate (HPI) were evaluated and compared with those of soy protein isolate (SPI). Edestin, a kind of hexameric legumin, was the major protein component. HPI had similar or higher levels of essential amino acids (except lysine), in comparison to those amino acids of SPI. The essential amino acids in HPI (except lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids) are sufficient for the FAO/WHO suggested requirements for 2-5 year old children. The protein solubility (PS) of HPI was lower than that of SPI at pH less than 8.0 but similar at above pH 8.0. HPI contained much higher free sulfhydryl (SH) content than SPI. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that HPI had only one endothermic peak with denaturation temperature (T(d)) of about 95.0 degrees C, attributed to the edestin component. The T(d) of the endotherm was nearly unaffected by 20-40 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate but significantly decreased by 20 mM dithiothreitol (P < 0.05). The emulsifying activity index, emulsion stability index, and water-holding capacity of HPI were much lower than those of SPI, and the fat adsorption capacity was similar. The data suggest that HPI can be used as a valuable source of nutrition for infants and children but has poor functional properties when compared with SPI. The poor functional properties of HPI have been largely attributed to the formation of covalent disulfide bonds between individual proteins and subsequent aggregation at neutral or acidic pH, due to its high free sulfhydryl content from sulfur-containing amino acids.

  6. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Keri B.; Bauer, Philip J.; Ro, Kyoung S. [United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 W. Lucas St. Florence, SC 29501 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume - cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield (kg ha{sup -1}) and subsequent energy yield (GJ ha{sup -1}). In one year of the study after 12 weeks of growth, sunn hemp had 10.7 Mg ha{sup -1} of biomass with an energy content of 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1}. This resulted in an energy yield of 204 GJ ha{sup -1}. The energy content was 6% greater than that of cowpeas. Eventhough sunn hemp had a greater amount of ash, plant mineral concentrations were lower in some cases of minerals (K, Ca, Mg, S) known to reduce thermochemical conversion process efficiency. Pyrolytic degradation of both legumes revealed that sunn hemp began to degrade at higher temperatures as well as release greater amounts of volatile matter at a faster rate. (author)

  7. The hemp russet mite Aculops cannabicola (Farkas, 1960 (Acari: Eriophyoidea found on Cannabis sativa L. in Serbia: Supplement to the description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petanović Radmila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of Aculops cannabicola (Farkas, 1960, a new species for the fauna of Serbia, is supplemented. The male and juveniles are described for the first time. This species was found as vagrants on leaves of hemp, Cannabis sativa L. A comparison of characters of the population from Serbia and the originally described samples from Hungary is given.

  8. 两层损耗土壤媒质附近HEMP环境%HEMP Environment Over Two-layer Lossy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蓓云; 周辉

    2013-01-01

    To understand the HEMP environment near ground is important for HEMP effects research of ground -base electrical system.The methods to calculate the reflection wave of plane wave and electromagnetic environment over two-layer lossy media are presented.The reflection wave and electromagnetic environment of HEMP over two-layered soil are calculated.The results indicate that there are two peaks in the reflection wave and the time of the second peak is determined by the thickness of the first layer soil.The tail-wave amplitude of x-direction HEMP environment is reduced than one layer's,and the tail-wave amplitude of z-direction is increased.%介绍了分层损耗媒质反射波的计算方法,计算了大地由一定厚度的干土和湿土构成时,x方向和z方向的HEMP反射波及地面附近电磁环境.计算结果表明x方向和z方向的反射波都有双峰,第2个峰出现的时间与第1层土壤的厚度有关;地面附近x方向HEMP环境场波尾的幅度较单层的会有下降,而z方向较单层的会有增加.

  9. Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Russell, Wendy; Duthie, Garry

    2014-11-01

    The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

  10. Differential expression of genes involved in C1 metabolism and lignin biosynthesis in wooden core and bast tissues of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Ebskamp, M.J.M.; Toonen, M.A.J.; Koops, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Plants are the major source of fibres for, e.g., textile and paper applications. Fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) can be grown under a wide variety of agro-ecological conditions, is resistant to weeds and pests and, in general, drought tolerant. Fibre length and content of cellulose and lignin are im

  11. Effect of Silane Coupling Agent on Tribological Properties of Hemp Fiber-Reinforced Plant-Derived Polyamide 1010 Biomass Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Yosuke; Kajiyama, Tetsuto; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki

    2017-09-05

    We have studied the effects of silane coupling agents used for the surface treatment of fiber on the tribological properties of hemp fiber (HF) reinforced plant-derived polyamide 1010 (PA1010) biomass composites. Hemp fibers were surface-treated by two surface treatment methods: (a) alkali treatment by sodium hydroxide solution and (b) surface treatment by silane coupling agents. Three types of silane coupling agents, namely aminosilane, epoxysilane and ureidosilane were used. These HF/PA1010 biomass composites were extruded using a twin extruder, and injection-molded. The mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated by the ring-on-plate type sliding wear test. It was found that tribological properties of HF/PA1010 biomass composites improved with the surface treatment by the silane coupling agent. This may be attributed to the change in the mode of friction and wear mechanism by the interfacial adhesion between fiber and matrix polymer according to the type of silane coupling agent used. In particular, the ureidosilane coupling agent showed the best improvement effect for the tribological properties of these biomass composites in this study.

  12. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Porto, C; Natolino, A; Decorti, D

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using gas chromatography. It was shown that the content of linoleic, α-linolenic and oleic acids (the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids) of the hemp seed oils were not affected significantly by the application of ultrasound. UV spectroscopy indices (K232 and K268) and antiradical capacity were used to follow the quality of oils. Significant were the changes in their antiradical capacity due to ultrasound treatment. A comparison with the oil extracted by Soxhlet was also given.

  13. Intrusive growth of primary and secondary phloem fibres in hemp stem determines fibre-bundle formation and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snegireva, Anastasia; Chernova, Tatyana; Ageeva, Marina; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gorshkova, Tatyana

    2015-05-27

    Plant fibres-cells with important mechanical functions and a widely used raw material-are usually identified in microscopic sections only after reaching a significant length or after developing a thickened cell wall. We characterized the early developmental stages of hemp (Cannabis sativa) stem phloem fibres, both primary (originating from the procambium) and secondary (originating in the cambium), when they still had only a primary cell wall. We gave a major emphasis to the role of intrusive elongation, the specific type of plant cell growth by which fibres commonly attain large cell length. We could identify primary phloem fibres at a distance of only 1.2-1.5 mm from the shoot apical meristem when they grew symplastically with the surrounding tissues. Half a millimeter further downwards along the stem, fibres began their intrusive elongation, which led to a sharp increase in fibre numbers visible within the stem cross-sections. The intrusive elongation of primary phloem fibres was completed within the several distal centimetres of the growing stem, before the onset of their secondary cell wall formation. The formation of secondary phloem fibres started long after the beginning of secondary xylem formation. Our data indicate that only a small portion of the fusiform cambial initials (hemp, but may be applied to many other species.

  14. Reverse-phase HPLC separation of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with enhanced antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2013-03-01

    Hemp seed protein hydrolysate (HPH) was produced through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion of hemp seed protein isolate followed by partial purification and separation into eight peptide fractions by reverse-phase (RP)-HPLC. The peptide fractions exhibited higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity as well as scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals when compared to HPH. Radical scavenging activities of the fractionated peptides increased as content of hydrophobic amino acids or elution time was increased, with the exception of hydroxyl radical scavenging that showed decreased trend. Glutathione (GSH), HPH and the RP-HPLC peptide fractions possessed low ferric ion reducing ability but all had strong (>60 %) metal chelating activities. Inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation by some of the HPH peptide fractions was higher at 1 mg/ml when compared to that observed at 0.1 mg/ml peptide concentration. Peptide separation resulted in higher concentration of some hydrophobic amino acids (especially proline, leucine and isoleucine) in the fractions (mainly F5 and F8) when compared to HPH. The elution time-dependent increased concentrations of the hydrophobic amino acids coupled with decreased levels of positively charged amino acids may have been responsible for the significantly higher (p < 0.05) antioxidant properties observed for some of the peptide fractions when compared to the unfractionated HPH. In conclusion, the antioxidant activity of HPH after simulated GIT digestion is mainly influenced by the amino acid composition of some of its peptides.

  15. Synthesis of vertical MnO2 wire arrays on hemp-derived carbon for efficient and robust green catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, MinHo; Kim, Dong Seok; Sim, Jae-Wook; Jeong, Jae-Min; Kim, Do Hyun; Choi, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Choi, Bong Gill

    2017-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) carbon materials derived from waste biomass have been attracted increasing attention in catalysis and materials science because of their great potential of catalyst supports with respect to multi-functionality, unique structures, high surface area, and low cost. Here, we present a facile and efficient way for preparing 3D heterogeneous catalysts based on vertical MnO2 wires deposited on hemp-derived 3D porous carbon. The 3D porous carbon materials are fabricated by carbonization and activation processes using hemp (Cannabis Sttiva L.). These 3D porous carbon materials are employed as catalyst supports for direct deposition of vertical MnO2 wires using a one-step hydrothermal method. The XRD and XPS results reveal the crystalline structure of α-MnO2 wires. The resultant composites are further employed as a catalyst for glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with high conversion yield of 98%, which is expected to be expressly profitable for plastics recycling industry.

  16. Modelling of volumetric composition and mechanical properties of unidirectional hemp/epoxy composites - Effect of enzymatic fibre treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Thygesen, A.; Meyer, AS; Madsen, B.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the effect of enzymatic fibre treatments on the fibre performance in unidirectional hemp/epoxy composites by modelling the volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites. It is shown that the applied models can well predict the changes in volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites when differently treated hemp fibres are used. The decrease in the fibre correlated porosity factor with the enzymatic fibre treatments shows that the removal of pectin by pectinolytic enzymes results in a better fibre impregnation by the epoxy matrix, and the mechanical properties of the composites are thereby increased. The effective fibre stiffness and strength established from the modelling show that the enzymatic removal of pectin also leads to increased mechanical properties of the fibres. Among the investigated samples, the composites with hydrothermally pre-treated and enzymatically treated fibres have the lowest porosity factor of 0.08 and the highest mechanical properties. In these composites, the effective fibre stiffness and strength are determined to be 83 GPa and 667 MPa, respectively, when the porosity efficiency exponent is set equal to 2. Altogether, it is demonstrated that the applied models provide a concept to be used for the evaluation of performance of treated fibres in composites.

  17. Experimental studies on biocompatibility of hemp powder with submicron-scale%亚超细汉麻粉体生物相容性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张森; 张宏杰; 张琦; 尚曼; 钟智丽; 刘艳霞

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价亚超细汉麻粉体的生物相容性.方法:按照GB/T16886的评价要求,对亚超细汉麻粉体进行细胞毒性试验、皮肤刺激试验和致敏试验.结果:6.25%亚超细汉麻粉体浸提液的细胞毒性为1级,12.5%、25%亚超细汉麻粉体浸提液的细胞毒性为2级,50%、100%亚超细汉麻粉体浸提液的细胞毒性大于2级;亚超细汉麻粉体没有皮肤刺激和致敏现象.结论:6.25%亚超细汉麻粉体浸提液有极轻的细胞毒性,无皮肤刺激和致敏现象,6.25%亚超细汉麻粉体符合生物相容性要求.%Objective: To evaluate the bioeompatibility of hemp powder with submicron-scale. Methods: According to the standard for the biological evaluation of the GB/T16886, cytotoxicity test, dermal irritation test and sensitization test were carried out to evaluate the biocompatibility of hemp powder with submicron-scale. Results: The results showed that the level of the cytotoxicity of 6.25% hemp powder with submicron-scale extract group was 1 degree; the level of the eytotoxicity of 12.5%, 25% hemp powder with submicron-scale extract group was 2 degree; 50%, 100% hemp powder with submicron-scale extract group was more than 2 degree. No obvious dermal irritation and sensitization. Conclusion: 6.25% hemp powder with submicron-scale has little cytotoxicity, no obvious dermal irritation and sensitization. 6.25% hemp powder with submicron梥cale meets the biocompatibility requirements.

  18. 长线缆核电磁脉冲效应计算研究%Calculation study on HEMP effect of long wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶玲; 安霆

    2013-01-01

    为深入研究高空核电磁脉冲(HEMP)作用于长线缆引发的场线耦合效应问题,该文基于场线耦合效应计算的频域方法,推导了适于较长线缆HEMP效应编程计算的数学模型,利用鳊写的Matlab计算程序详细研究了具有不同参数线缆系统的HEMP效应问题,得出了HEMP效应特点和规律.结果表明,线缆暴露于HEMP电磁环境中,其上可被激励高幅值的电流干扰脉冲,其端部可被激励峰值高达上万伏的电压干扰脉冲.%In order to deeply study the field-wire coupling effect that the nuclear electro magnetic pulse (NEMP) acts on long wire, the mathematical model suitable for programing calculation of long wire HEMP effect is deduced in this paper based on frequency domain model of field-wire coupling effect calculation. The HEMP effect of the wires with different parameters was researched with the calculation program in Matlab. The characteristics and rule of HEMP effects. The calculated result shows that the wire exposed to electromagnetic environment of HEMP can be inspirited with high amplitude current interference pulse. The voltage interference pulse more than 10 000 V at end of a wire can be inspirited.

  19. Wearability-Research of Cotton Bamboo Hemp Blended Fabric%棉竹浆汉麻混纺织物服用性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐建东; 王平; 李立成

    2012-01-01

    Wearability of cotton bamboo hemp blended fabric was researched. Wearability of cotton/bamboo/hemp 40/40/20 blended fabric, cotton/hemp 80/20 blended fabric and pure cotton fabric were tested. Air permeability, moisture permeability, drapability and crease recovery of the three fabrics were contrasted, the test results were analyzed. The result shows that air permeability, moisture permeability, drapability and crease recovery of cotton bamboo hemp blended fabric are the best. It is considered that the wearability of cotton bamboo hemp blended fabric is the best and can be developed as military uniform and high grade clothing.%研究棉竹浆汉麻混纺织物的服用性能.对相同规格的棉/竹浆/汉麻40/40/20混纺织物、棉/汉麻80/20混纺织物和纯棉织物做了服用性能对比试验,比较了织物的透气性、透湿性、悬垂性和抗皱性差异,并对试验结果进行了分析.结果表明:棉竹浆汉麻混纺织物的透气性、透湿性、悬垂性、折痕回复性均优于棉汉麻混纺织物和纯棉织物.认为:棉竹浆汉麻混纺织物服用性能最佳,可用于开发军用服装及高档服饰.

  20. Design and experiment on decorticator of hemp fresh stem%大麻鲜茎剥皮机的设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕江南; 龙超海; 马兰; 刘佳杰; 何宏彬

    2014-01-01

    The hemp is widely planted in China, which can be used for varieties of products including hemp cordage, durable clothing and nutritional products.. Because of hemp fiber excellent properties such as natural comfort and gas permeability, it is widely used in textile field. Hemp bast and bone are strong adhesive with the glue in fiber, so it is very difficult to peel off from hemp stem. In China, people usually peel off bast fiber by hand. There are a number of problems using manual peeling, such as low work efficiency, high labor intensity, and high cost. So, high efficiency stripping machine is necessary to designed for peeling off hemp bast in China. At present, there are two kinds of method to gain bast fiber from hemp stem. The fiber was separated from the retted stalk which has been immersed in water. Another way is to stripping the bast from the fresh stem first, then the dried bast is retted in pool in the factory. We can gain clean fiber in mass production by using the second method. According to the requirements, a new kind of stripper which used for separation hemp fresh stem was designed. But there are many branches at upper stem of hemp and the bast attached with hemp bone very firmly. In order to make the bast separated better from the stem, the rubbing-mechanism for stem and the combing-mechanism for bast were designed in this machine. The prototype is mainly consisted of rubbing-mechanism, combing-mechanism, the fiber collection device, transmission, frame, undercarriage and other components. This prototype has many characteristics such as compact structure, easy to move, strong separation ability, etc. The rubbing-mechanism is consisted of two pairs of straight-teeth pressure roller and two pairs of slanting-teeth pressure roller. When the machine works, the hemp fresh stem is broken first by the straight-teeth pressure roller of rubbing-mechanism. After that, the broken stem enters the pressure roller of slanting-teeth of rubbing-mechanism. In

  1. 巴马民间火麻汤中的油脂含量测定与制作工艺研究%Determination of Bama Folk Hemp Soup Oil and Study of Producing Technology about the Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃世辉; 陈小梦; 覃勇荣; 欧阳淼

    2014-01-01

    以火麻仁为原料,模拟民间食用火麻汤的煮制方法(湿磨法)制备汤料,测定了汤料中浸出的火麻油的含量。并通过单因素及正交实验优选出了民间火麻汤煮制的最佳工艺条件。结果表明,民间火麻汤煮制的最佳条件是:煮制时间20 min,食盐添加量为1∶20,料液比为1∶3,此条件下火麻汤中油含量最佳。油含量为9.129%,RSD为0.214%。%The hemp soup was prepared by hemp seed and cooked simulating the folk method. The oil was determined in the hemp soup.And through the single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment selected a hemp soup boiled optimum technological conditions. The results showed that, the best conditions which the folk hemp soup cooked were:cooking time 20 min, the addition amount of salt was 1∶20, liquid ratio was 1∶3.In this conditions, the oil in hemp soup is most. Oil content was 9.129%, RSD is 0.214%.

  2. Optimization of extraction of hemp protein by response surface methodology%响应面法优化火麻蛋白提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    以火麻籽为原料,对碱提酸沉法提取火麻蛋白工艺参数进行研究,在单因素试验的基础上,采用响应面分析法对提取温度、提取时间、提取pH和料液比进行优化并得到回归模型.确定的碱提酸沉法提取火麻蛋白最佳工艺参数为:提取温度60℃,提取时间1 h,提取pH 10,料液比1:9.在最佳工艺条件下,火麻蛋白的提取率为63.5%.回归模型的预测值与实测值的相对误差为2.3%,该回归方程与实际情况拟合较好.DSC分析得出火麻蛋白的变性温度为83.0℃,纯化后的火麻蛋白相对分子质量分布均小于40 kDa.%With hemp seed as raw material,the process parameters of alkali extraction and acid precipita-tion of hemp protein were studied. On the basis of single factor experiment,the extraction temperature,ex-traction time,extraction pH and ratio of material to liquid were optimized by response surface methodolo-gy, and the regression model was finally established. The results showed that the optimal parameters of al-kali extraction and acid precipitation of hemp protein were obtained as follows:extraction temperature 60℃,extraction time 1 h,extraction pH 10 and ratio of material to liquid 1:9. Under the optimal condi-tions,the extraction rate of hemp protein was 63. 5%. The relative error between predictive value and ex-perimental value of the regression model was 2. 3%,indicating a good fit between regression equation and actual situation. The DSC analysis results showed that the denaturation temperature of hemp protein was 83. 0℃, and the relative molecular weight distributions of purified hemp protein were less than 40 kDa.

  3. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794, Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1 the Colombian territory and (2 northeastern Brazil.

  4. Thermal properties of hemp fiber filled polyamide 1010 biomass composites and the blend of these composites and polyamide 11 elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Yosuke; Mukaida, Jun; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki; Kajiyama, Tetsuto; Kitano, Takeshi

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the performance of all inedible plants-derived materials for new engineering materials such as structural materials and tribomaterials. Thermal properties of hemp fiber filled polyamide 1010 biomass composites and the blend of these composites and plants-derived TPE were investigated experimentally. These biomass composites were extruded by a twin screw extruder and compression or injection molded. Thermal properties such as dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of these biomass composites were evaluated. It was found that the addition of HF and the blend of bio-TPE with PA1010 have strong influence on the thermal properties such as DMA, TGA and DSC. In particular, HF has a good effect for the improvement of the thermal and mechanical properties. These properties of HF/PA1010/PA11E biomass composites are better than those of HF/PA1010/TPU ones.

  5. Response of Cultural Lake Eutrophication to Hemp-retting in Quidenham Mere of England in Post-Medieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xiaoying; LI Shijie; SHEN Qing; XUE Jing

    2007-01-01

    To study the influence of human activity on natural lake, chironomid fauna change in the 700 560cm lake sediment in Quidenham Mere of England associated with chironomid inferred TP presented that the lake experienced a whole eutrophication process due to human hemp-retting in Post-Medieval based on the history record and pollen analysis, which was confirmed by mollusc and ostracod analysis. However, the response of chironomid and mollusc to retting was the strongest with ostracod a little behind. It proved that cultural eutrophication existed in history and could be recovered by itself despite of some long-term unachievable destroy. And it was most important for external nutrient to be cut off during lake restoration even in ancient times.

  6. Mineral resource potential map of the Cohutta Wilderness and the Hemp Top Roadless Area, northern Georgia and southeastern Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gair, Jacob E.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.; Dunn, Maynard L.

    1982-01-01

    The Cohutta Wilderness and the Hemp Top Roadless Area have minor occurrences of metallic minerals, but no known resource potential for such minerals in the forseeable future, judging by available data, and only a very minor potential for stone for aggregate, road construction, and similar nondimension use. The rocks of the Ducktown massive sulfide district to the northeast do not appear to extend into the study area, and geochemical data derived from samples of rock, soil, and alluvium do not reveal any anomalously high concentrations of trace elements that could be representative of hidden mineral deposits. Sedimentary rocks underlying the metamorphic rocks exposed at the surface have an unknown potential for hydrocarbons in the form of natural gas. No reasonable estimate of the potential can be made until some test drilling is done in the area.

  7. Feasibility of a down-scaled HEMP-Thruster as possible N-propulsion system for LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, A.; Köhler, P.; Gärtner, W.; Hey, F. G.; Berger, M.; Braxmaier, C.; Feili, D.; Weise, D.; Johann, U.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental feasibility study on down-scaling HEMP thrusters to textmu N thrust levels as required e.g. for NGO is presented. Prototypes are used to probe the operation space as well as measuring the divergence angle of the plume and ion acceleration voltage by means of Faraday Cups and a Retarding Potential Analyser in order to gain a deeper understanding of the influence of design parameters. From the measured values thrust and specific impulse are calculated using simple models. Stable operation with a calculated thrust down to 70 N has been demonstrated and divergence efficiencies of about 0.5 are observed. Due to the importance of the thrust value and uncertainties of the models it is clearly desirable to measure the thrust and thrust noise directly with a thrust balance. Such a device is under construction, with a picometer noise level heterodyne interferometer as optical readout.

  8. As(V)/Cr(VI) pollution control in soils, hemp waste, and other by-products: competitive sorption trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintáns-Fondo, Ana; Ferreira-Coelho, Gustavo; Paradelo-Núñez, Remigio; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2016-10-01

    We study As(V)/Cr(VI) competitive sorption on a forest soil, a vineyard soil, pyritic material, mussel shell, pine bark, oak ash, and hemp waste, adding variable As(V) and Cr(VI) concentrations or displacing each pollutant with the same concentration of the other. When using variable concentrations, As(V) showed more affinity than Cr(VI) for sorption sites on most materials (sorption up to >84 % on oak ash and pyritic material). The only exception was pine bark, with clearly higher Cr(VI) sorption (>90 %) for any Cr(VI)/As(V) concentration added. Regarding the displacement experiments, when As(V) was added and reached sorption equilibrium, the subsequent addition of equal Cr(VI) concentration did not cause relevant As displacement from oak ash and pyritic material, indicating strong As bindings, and/or low competitive effects. When Cr(VI) was added and reached sorption equilibrium, the subsequent addition of equal As(V) concentration caused Cr(VI) displacement from all materials except pine bark, indicating weak Cr bindings. In view of these results, oak ash and the pyritic material could be used to remove As(V) in concentrations as high as 6 mmol L(-1), even in the presence of a wide range of Cr(VI) concentrations, whereas pine bark could be used to remove Cr(VI) concentrations as high as 6 mmol L(-1). The other materials assayed (including hemp waste, studied for the first time as As(V) and Cr(VI) bio-sorbent) cannot be considered appropriate to remove As(V) and/or Cr(VI) from polluted media.

  9. Influence of silane coupling agents on the rheological behavior of hemp fiber filled polyamide 1010 biomass composites in molten state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Yosuke; Hasumi, Megumi; Kitano, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    In order to develop the new engineering materials such as structural materials and tribomaterials based on all plants-derived materials, the influence of silane coupling agent on the rheological properties of hemp fiber (HF) filled polyamide 1010 (PA1010) biomass composites in molten state was investigated for one step of the fabrication of these materials. PA1010 was made from sebacic acid and decamethylenediamine, which are obtained from plant-derived castor oil. Hemp fibers were surface-treated by two types of surface treatment: a) alkali treatment by NaOH solution and b) surface treatment by silane coupling agents with different concentrations. Three types of silane coupling agents: aminosilane, epoxysilane and ureidosilane were used for surface treatment. HF/PA1010 composites were extruded by a twin screw extruder and compression-molded. Rheological behavior in molten state were evaluated by oscillatory flow testing using a parallel plate type rheometer. It was found that the silane coupling agents remarkably influence on: 1) rheological properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, loss tangent and complex viscosity in low angular frequency region in molten state, 2) temperature dependences of rheological properties, and 3) relationship between phase angle and complex modulus (van Gurp - Palmen plots). These rheological behavior were also strongly influenced by the type of silane coupling agents. The viscoelastic properties (both storage and loss moduli) of aminosilane and epoxysilane treated composites were lower, however, those of ureidosilane treated ones were higher than the moduli of only alkali treated composites. Ureidosilane treated composites were the least temperature sensitive in the surface treated composites investigated here.

  10. 应用FDTD分析飞行器天线HEMP响应%Analysis of Response to HEMP of Antennas on Aerocraft by FDTD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵守俊; 王华力; 白冬林

    2007-01-01

    高空核爆炸产生的电磁脉冲(HEMP),它具有覆盖频带宽、峰值场强高、上升时间短、作用范围广等特点,对电子信息系统和电气系统构成严重的威胁.文中采用时域有限差分法中的阶梯近似和细线近似技术模拟飞行器上单极天线和刀形天线,通过连接边界条件引入HEMP,计算了飞行器上两副短波天线对核爆脉冲电流响应.所得结果为飞行器采取核防护措施提供了依据.

  11. 汉麻混纺/交织色织机织面料开发%The Development of China-hemp Blended/Interwoven Yarn-dyed Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵钊辉; 刘锁银

    2013-01-01

      利用汉麻的特性,作者成功开发了多款汉麻混纺/交织色织机织面料,较为详尽的阐述了产品开发的整个流程,并对产品的性能进行了检测和分析。%By making use of the excellent performance of China-hemp fiber, the authors successfully developed several yarn-dyed fabrics woven with China-hemp and other fibers either blended or interlaced, and described in detail the entire development process. The relative performance of products was tested and analyzed.

  12. Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of different fractions of hemp essential oil extracted at 130 °C using steam distillation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Nawaz, Haq; Naz, Saima; Mukhtar, Rubina; Rashid, Nosheen; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Saleem, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    In this study, Raman spectroscopy along with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used for the characterization of pure essential oil (pure EO) isolated from the leaves of the Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.,) as well as its different fractions obtained by fractional distillation process. Raman spectra of pure Hemp essential oil and its different fractions show characteristic key bands of main volatile terpenes and terpenoids, which significantly differentiate them from each other. These bands provide information about the chemical composition of sample under investigation and hence can be used as Raman spectral markers for the qualitative monitoring of the pure EO and different fractions containing different active compounds. PCA differentiates the Raman spectral data into different clusters and loadings of the PCA further confirm the biological origin of the different fractions of the essential oil.

  13. Simulation on Scattering Effect of Sea Surface to HEMP%高空核电磁脉冲海面散射的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹斌; 汤仕平; 万海军; 蔡明娟

    2010-01-01

    根据电磁场水平极化波和垂直极化波的反射系数和折射系数表达式,分析了高空核电磁脉冲(HEMP)传播到海面后,在不同极化时的反射系数和折射系数随入射波角度和频率变化的规律.

  14. Determination of cannabinoids in hemp nut products in Taiwan by HPLC-MS/MS coupled with chemometric analysis: quality evaluation and a pilot human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Tung, Chun-Wei; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Tse; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2016-09-02

    Hemp nuts are mature cannabis seeds obtained after shelling and that are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating functional constipation. In this work, we screened hemp nut products, classified them, and verified the legality of consuming them. A total of 18 products were purchased from Taiwan, China, and Canada. Validated high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed for analyzing the cannabinoid (i.e., Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol) content of the products and the concentration of urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC. Chemometric techniques, namely hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were applied for rapidly classifying 11 concentrated powder products in Taiwan. A pilot human study comprising single and multiple administrations of a product with 1.5 µg/g of THC was conducted to examine the urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC concentration. Through optimization of 3(2) full factorial design, using 60% isopropanol as the extraction solvent exhibited the highest yield of cannabinoids and was applied as the optimal condition in further analysis. The results of HCA and PCA on quality evaluation were in good agreement; however, the tested products possessed distinct CBD-to-THC ratios which ranged widely from 0.1:1 to 46.8:1. Particularly, the products with CBD-to-THC ratios higher than 1:1 were the majority in Taiwan. Our data suggested that all the tested hemp nut products met the Taiwan restriction criterion of 10 µg/g of THC. We propose a usual consumption amount of hemp nut products in Taiwan would unlikely to violate the cut-off point of 15 ng/mL of urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Ethanol and supercritical fluid extracts of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) increase gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunghyun Hong; Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan; Taewoo Joo; Chanmook Lim; Haeme Cho; Songmun Kim; Gur-Yoo Kim; Jin-Woo Jhoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes by hemp seed extracts in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Methods: Ethanol and supercritical fluid (SF) extracts obtained from de-hulled hemp seed were used for the evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. In vitro antioxidant activities of the samples evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in HepG2cells was evaluated by real-time PCR. Results:In the antioxidant assay, SF extract of hemp seed exhibited higher ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities (IC50 of 66.6 µg/mL and 9.2 mg/mL, respectively) than ethanol extract. The results of antioxidant enzyme expression in real-time PCR study revealed the H2O2 (200 µM) challenged HepG2 cells reduced the expression of enzymes such as SOD, GPx and CAT. However, the cells treated with ethanol and SF extracts were up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes in concentration dependent manner. When compared to ethanol extract, the SF extract exhibited higher activity in the expression of all the antioxidant enzymes at the concentration of 500 µg/mL. Conclusion: In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrated that the hemp seed effectively inhibited H2O2 mediated oxidative stress and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in preventing oxidative stress mediated diseases.

  16. 工业大麻全秆制浆中试生产%A Trial Production of Whole Industrial Hemp Pulping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关庆芳; 孙川

    2012-01-01

    在前期工业大麻秆芯制浆以及大麻全秆小试制浆的基础上,对大麻全秆制浆进行了中试生产实践。结果表明:大麻全秆易蒸煮,纸浆得率较高、易漂白,聚戊糖含量适中、灰分低,易润胀打浆。蒸煮黑液含硅量比草类原料(如麦草)黑液低得多,且漂白时污染轻.%On the basis of the pulping of industrial hemp stem and lab experiment for whole industrial hemp pulping. The experimental showed that whole industrial hemp has advantages of easy cooking, easy bleaching, high pulping yield, low dioxines compaerd by lignin and chlorine in the process of bleaching, low pollution, moderate content of pentosen, easy swelling and beating. Besides, low ash content, and its silicon conent from black liquor is much lower than the silicon conent from grasses material black liquor such as wheat straw.

  17. Identification of small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes in Urticales plants: mulberry (Morus notabilis), hemp (Cannabis sativa) and ramie (Boehmeria nivea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xing; Bao, Yaning; Wang, B O; Liu, Lijun; Chen, Jie; Dai, Lunjin; Baloch, Sana Ullah; Peng, Dingxiang

    2016-03-01

    Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes are important gene families in auxin signalling transduction and are commonly used as early auxin responsive markers. Till date, no SAUR gene is identified in Urticales plants despite of the published bioinformation of mulberry, hemp and ramie. In this study, we used Arabidopsis sequences as query to search against mulberry, hemp genomes and ramie transcriptome database. In total, we obtained 62, 56 and 71 SAUR genes in mulberry, hemp and ramie, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Urticales specific expansion of SAUR genes. Expression analysis showed 15 randomly selected ramie SAUR genes that were diversely functioned in ramie tissues and revealed a series of IAA-responsive, drought-responsive and high temperature-responsive genes. Moreover, comparison of qRT-PCR data and previous RNA-Seq data suggested the reliability of our work. In this study, we first report the identification of SAUR genes in Urticales plants. These results will provide a foundation for their function validation in Urticales plant growth and development.

  18. Alkali modification and softening finish of hemp yarn%大麻纱线的碱改性柔软整理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠金星; 王宝权; 吕站逵; 季英超

    2012-01-01

    针对大麻纱在针织机上生产时存在编织成圈困难的问题,提出了对大麻纱线进行柔软处理以提高其可编织性的方法.用氢氧化钠对大麻纱线进行改性,结合柔软剂进行柔软处理的方法降低大麻纱线的刚性,并采用正交试验的方法,确定了碱改性的最佳工艺:碱液质量浓度l00g/L,温度20℃,浸渍时间15min,浴比1:20.结合柔软剂整理可明显降低大麻纱线刚性,提高纯大麻纱线的上机编织效果.%The soft hemp yarn processing was studies to enhance their weave performance. Alkali modification together with treatment of caustic soda and softener was used for reducing the stiffness of hemp yarn. The result indicates that the best technological conditions were: alkali concentration 100 g/L, temperature 20 ℃ , soaking time is 15 min, liquor ratio 1 : 20. The treatment with softening agent can obviously reduce the stiffness of hemp yarn and improve its knitting performance.

  19. Effects of steam pretreatment and co-production with ethanol on the energy efficiency and process economics of combined biogas, heat and electricity production from industrial hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The study presented here has used the commercial flow sheeting program Aspen Plus™ to evaluate techno-economic aspects of large-scale hemp-based processes for producing transportation fuels. The co-production of biogas, district heat and power from chopped and steam-pretreated hemp, and the co-production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power from steam-pretreated hemp were analysed. The analyses include assessments of heat demand, energy efficiency and process economics in terms of annual cash flows and minimum biogas and ethanol selling prices (MBSP and MESP). Results Producing biogas, heat and power from chopped hemp has the highest overall energy efficiency, 84% of the theoretical maximum (based on lower heating values), providing that the maximum capacity of district heat is delivered. The combined production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power has the highest energy efficiency (49%) if district heat is not produced. Neither the inclusion of steam pretreatment nor co-production with ethanol has a large impact on the MBSP. Ethanol is more expensive to produce than biogas is, but this is compensated for by its higher market price. None of the scenarios examined are economically viable, since the MBSP (EUR 103–128 per MWh) is higher than the market price of biogas (EUR 67 per MWh). The largest contribution to the cost is the cost of feedstock. Decreasing the retention time in the biogas process for low solids streams by partly replacing continuous stirred tank reactors by high-rate bioreactors decreases the MBSP. Also, recycling part of the liquid from the effluent from anaerobic digestion decreases the MBSP. The production and prices of methane and ethanol influence the process economics more than the production and prices of electricity and district heat. Conclusions To reduce the production cost of ethanol and biogas from biomass, the use of feedstocks that are cheaper than hemp, give higher output of ethanol and biogas, or combined production with

  20. 汉麻叶的生物活性成分研究现状%Advancesin Bioactive Compounds in Hemp Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何锦风; 杜军强; 陈天鹏

    2011-01-01

    本文对汉麻植株叶子中化学成分的生物活性研究概况进行了综述.汉麻叶中生物活性成分可分为大麻酚类化合物和非大麻酚类化合物,其中很多成分在医药领域具有显著的利用价值,有些已经应用于临床.本文对汉麻叶中不同种类的化合物的提取、分离和分析方法进行了总结,较为全面地论述了国内外有关大麻酚类化合物,特别是△9-THC、CBD、CBN等,以及非大麻酚类化合物,如黄酮、生物碱、多酚类和有机酸等,在抗癌、治疗神经疾病、抗菌、抗紫外、抗氧化等方面的研究进展和应用价值.此外,还对汉麻叶中化学成分在药物和护肤品领域中的应用前景进行了展望.汉麻叶可以作为多种生物活性成分的提取原料,生产具有高附加值的产品,是汉麻综合利用产业链中必不可少的环节.%The article reviewed the advances in phytochemicals with bioactivity in hemp (Cannabis saliva L.) leaves. The bioactive components could be divided as cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid, and many of those have significant practical value in pharmaceutical industry and some have been already utilized in clinic. It summarized the separation, isolation, and analysis methods for phytochemicals in hemp leaves and demonstrated the activities of cannabinoid (such as A'-THC, CBD, and CBN) and non-cannabinoid (such as flavone, alkaloids, polyphenols, organic acid) on anti-cancer, treatment on neurological diseases, anti-bacterial, anti-UV, and antioxidation. Finally, the article brings a prospective on the utilization of hemp leaves bioactive compounds in medicine and skin care product. In general, the hemp leaves could be used as material for bioactive compounds with high value, which is a necessary content of comprehensive utilization industry train of hemp

  1. 工业大麻种子的营养特性与保健品开发%Nutritional Characteristics of Industrial Hemp Seeds and Development of Healthcare Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云云; 苏文君; 杨阳; 郭鸿彦; 杨明; 刘飞虎

    2012-01-01

    工业大麻种子富含油脂、蛋白质、碳水化合物以及矿质元素和维生素,具有营养和保健双重功效,目前已经开发出大麻籽食品、油、蛋白粉、美容化妆品等系列保健产品.利用现代化加工工艺开发系列大麻营养食品及保健品,对改善人类营养结构、增进健康具有重大意义.%This paper summarizes the nutritional characteristics and healthcare products development of hemp seeds. Hemp seeds, rich in various nutrients including 25% ~35% of oil (of which 80% essential fatty acids) , 20% ~25% of protein and 20% ~ 30% of carbohydrates, especially the abundant minerals and vitamins, have dual efficacy for human nutrition and health care. A series of healthcare products are developed from hemp seeds, such as foods, oil, protein powder and cosmetics. It is of great significance for optimizing the nutrition structure and enhancing human health to take full advantage of hemp resources and develop hemp nutritious foods and healthcare products by using the modern processing technology.

  2. Hemp Industry Research Progress — Ⅱ .Comprehensive Utilization and Development Suggestion%大麻产业研究进展——Ⅱ.大麻的综合利用与发展建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕咏梅; 杨龙; 胡万群

    2012-01-01

    This article introduced some hemp processing technologies including the hemp fiber degumming by steam explosion to produce ecological fiber board, the recycle of xylooligosaccharides and pectin, the production of stalk core viscose, the production of porcelain made of charred hemp stalk core, the processing of green building materials and composite materials of stalk core, the processing of active carbon of stalk core, the comprehensive utilization of hemp seed, the key technologies of active substances extraction. Some preliminary suggestions to quicken our country hemp industry development was come up with.%本文介绍了大麻纤维的汽爆脱胶技术处理生产生态纤维板技术、回收低聚木糖和果胶技术、秆芯粘胶生产技术、秆芯碳化硅木质陶瓷生产技术、秆芯环保建筑材料和复合材料加工技术、秆芯活性炭加工技术、大麻籽综合利用技术、活性物质分离提取应用关键技术;初步提出了加速我国大麻产业发展的思路.

  3. The influence of the type of lime on the hygric behaviour and bio-receptivity of hemp lime composites used for rendering applications in sustainable new construction and repair works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizzi, Anna; Brümmer, Monika; Martín-Sanchez, Inés; Cultrone, Giuseppe; Viles, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of using sustainable building materials are linked not only to the adoption of manufacturing processes that entail reduced pollution, CO2 emissions and energy consumption, but also to the onset of improved performance in the building. In particular, hemp-lime composite shows low shrinkage and high thermal and acoustic insulating properties. However, this material also shows a great ability to absorb water, an aspect that can turn out to be negative for the long-term durability of the building. For this reason, the hygric properties of hemp-based composites need to be studied to ensure the correct use of this material in construction and repair works. The water absorption, drying and transpirability of hemp composites made with aerial (in the form of dry powder and putty) and hydraulic limes were investigated here and related to the microbial growth induced by the water movements within the material. Results show that hemp-natural hydraulic lime mixes exhibit the highest transpirability and drying rate, the lowest water absorption by immersion and capillary uptake and the least intense microbial attack and chromatic change. A microscopical study of the hemp shives also related their great ability to absorb water to the near-irreversible swelling of their structure under dry-wet conditions.

  4. The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on light interception and dry matter yield in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad reza asghari poor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on canopy light interception and on flowering was investigated in hemp (Cannabis sativa L. cv. ‘Kompolti’ Crop grown at initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 at the Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 at the Shirvan. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied before and 45 days after sowing at a rates of 50 and 200 kg/ha at the Mashhad, and 50, 150 and 250 kg/ha at the Shirvan. Rate of canopy development increased with increasing plant density and nitrogen fertilizer in both sites. At the Mashhad, interception of 90% of light was attained at 380 to 665 degree days (base 2°C from emergence for the crop grown at different densities. At Shirvan, rate of canopy development was slower. Interception of 90% of light was attained at 586 degree days from emergence for the crop grown at 30 plants/m2 and at 712 degree days for the crop grown at 150 plants/m2, probably as a result of cold weather. Nitrogen fertilizer in a similar way as plant density increased light interception. Maximum light interception did not depend on plant density and nitrogen fertilizer and was about 95%. In both sites, the flowering date was later with increasing plant density. Dates of 75% flowering for the initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 in Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 in Shirvan were, respectively 26 August, 1, 6, 6, 11 and 12 September. Independent of plant density, canopy light interception started to decline at about 150 degree days after flowering, reaching 58 to 75% at about 700 degree days post-flowering. Morphological characteristics at both sites were highly correlated with plant sexual, plant population and nitrogen fertilizer. Highest stem, leaf and inflorescence yield were obtained in Mashhad at 250 plant/m-2 and in Shirvan at 150 plant m-2 when 200 kg N ha-1 in Mashhad and 250 kg N/ha in Shirvan was used. Above ground dry matter increased at both sites with increasing plant density and

  5. HEMP模拟器的改进及测量探头的设计%Development of HEMP Simulator and Design of D-dot Probe for HEMP Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启武; 石立华; 李炎新; 司荣仁

    2011-01-01

    针对国际电工委员会发布的高空核电磁脉冲(HEMP)波形新标准,对有界波电磁脉冲模拟器进行了改进:研制了新型纳秒液体开关,设计、制作了D-dot型电场监测探头,构成了一套完整的快前沿HEMP抗扰度实验系统.试验结果表明,改进后的模拟器可产生前沿小于2.0ns,半峰宽25ns,峰值50kV/m的双指数电磁脉冲;通过与瑞士Montena公司生产的SEG2G型电场探头试验测量结果的比较,表明本文研制的测量系统完全满足设计要求.

  6. Application of Bow-Tie Analysis in Hemp%BTA技术分析在HEMP中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石天雄

    2010-01-01

    近年来,领结图分析(Bow-Tie Analysis,缩写BTA)技术日益广泛被应用于石油化工建设项目的HSE管理和安全设计中.作为技术核心,BTA对危害及后果管理程序(Hazards and Effects Management Process,缩写HEMP)的成败起到了至关重要的作用.在陈述BTA起源背景、理论方法的基础上,着重细化并解决了在石化项目HSE管理中与领结图中顶事件、威胁预防措施、应急削减措施和升级因素等关键要素相关联的事件和活动任务,给出了BTA在HEMP中的实施程序和应用举例,说明BTA是解决石化项目HSE管理和HEMP的工具.

  7. Laboratory and outdoor assessment of UV protection offered by flax and hemp fabrics dyed with natural dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Daniele; Bacci, Laura; Zipoli, Gaetano; Carreras, Giulia; Baronti, Silvia; Sabatini, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The safest protection from UV radiation (UVR) exposure is offered by clothing and its protectiveness depends on fabric composition (natural, artificial or synthetic fibers), fabric parameters (porosity, weight and thickness) and dyeing (natural or synthetic dyes, dye concentration, UV absorbing properties, etc.). In this study the UV protection properties of two fabrics made of natural fibers (flax and hemp) dyed with some of the most common natural dyes were investigated. UVR transmittance of fabrics was measured by two methods: one based on the utilization of a spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere (in vitro test), and the other based on outdoor measurements taken by a spectroradiometer. Transmittance measurements were used to calculate the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF). Experimental results revealed that natural dyes could confer good UV protection, depending mainly on their different UVR-absorbing properties, provided that the fabric construction already guaranteed good cover. An increase in cover factor caused by the dyeing process was also detected. Weld-dyed fabrics gave the highest protection level. The comparison between the two methods applied to measure fabric transmittance pointed out that the UPFs calculated by in vitro measurements were generally lower than those based on outdoor data, indicating an underestimation of the actual protection level of tested fabrics assessed by the in vitro test.

  8. Structure and Properties of Hemp Fabrics with Liquid Ammonia Treatment%液氨处理前后大麻纤维结构与性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永凯; 高燕; 戴春芬; 张华; 张建春

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of structure changes on the performances of the hemp fabics, the structure changes of hemp fibers with liquid ammonia treatment was studied, through the apparent shapes, aperture sizes and crystallinity tests. Test results showed that after liquid ammonia treatment, the crystallization of hemp fibers decreased, disordered area increased; and the streak and cracks on the longitudinal surface reduced or even disappeared, the surface became smooth; the aperture distribution changed, and the numbe of micro porous and large aperture reduced. When u-sing direct dyes, the dyeing rate of the treated fabrics was lower than that of the unteated fabuics, and the dyeing rate of large molecules was worse than that of the small molecules. When using eac-tive dyes, the dyeing performance at medium temperature and high temperature was better, while low temperature dye was not fit on hemp fibers; the fixation degrees and K/S values of the hemp fibers were improved after liquid ammonia treatment. After liquid ammonia treatment, the water absorption and retention properties of hemp fabrics became weak, and the wetting, moisture transmission, wet bulk and dry properties were better.%通过对大麻纤维的表观形态、孔径及结晶度测试,分析液氨处理前后大麻纤维的结构变化.测试发现:经液氨处理后,大麻纤维的结晶度下降,无序区增加;纵向表面条痕和裂痕减小或消失,表面变得光滑;纤维孔径分布发生变化,微孔及大孔径数量减少.液氨处理前后麻纤维结构变化导致其性能发生变化.采用直接染料对液氨处理前后的织物进行染色,对比染色结果发现,处理后的织物上染百分率低于未处理织物,大分子染料的上染百分率不及小分子染料;采用活性染料染色时,中温及高温型活性染料的染色性能较好;低温型染料不宜用于大麻纤维染色,经液氨处理后织物的固色率及K/S值有所改善.液

  9. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Hot-nature diet and co-supplemented hemp seed, evening primrose oils intervention in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour-Firouzi, Soheila; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Mehdi, Farhoudi; Mehrangiz, Ebrahimi-Mamaghani; Baradaran, Behzad; Sadeghihokmabad, Elyar; Mostafaei, Somaiyeh; Fazljou, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Torbati, Mohammad-ali; Sanaie, Sarvin; Zamani, Fatemeh

    2013-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most chronic and inflammatory disorder. Because of limited efficacy and adverse side effects, identifying novel therapeutic and protective agents is important. This study was aimed to assess the potential therapeutic effects of hemp seed and evening primrose oils as well as Hot-nature dietary intervention on RRMS patients. In this double blind, randomized trial, 100 MS patients with EDSS<6 were allocated into 3 groups: "Group A" who received co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with advised Hot-nature diet, "Group B" who received olive oil, "Group C" who received the co-supplemented oils. Mizadj, clinically EDSS and relapse rate as well as immunological factors (IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17) were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. Mean follow-up was 180±2.9 SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25±8.07 years with disease duration 6.80±4.33 years). There was no significant difference in studies parameters at baseline. After 6 months, significant improvements in Mizadj, EDSS and relapse rate were found in the groups A and C, while the group B showed a border significant decrease in relapse rate. Immunological parameters showed improvement in groups A and C, whereas there was worsening condition for group B after the intervention. The co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with Hot-nature diet have beneficial effects in improving of clinical score in RRMS patients which were confirmed by immunological findings. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of Expanded Disability Status Scale and Cytokines after Intervention with Co-supplemented Hemp Seed, Evening Primrose Oils and Hot-natured Diet in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Baradaran

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Because of limited efficacy and adverse side effects, identifying novel therapeutic and protective agents is important. The aim of this study is to examine the correlations between expanded disability status scale (EDSS and cytokines after intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils and hot-natured diet in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS. Methods: We studied a group of 23 patients with clinically definite RRMS, with EDSS<6 who received co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with advising hot-natured diet. Clinically EDSS and immunological factors (plasma cytokines of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17 were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. Results: Mean follow-up was 180±2.9 days (N=23, 7 Male and 16 Females aged 25.0±7.5 years with disease duration 6.26±3.9 years. After 6 months, significant improvements in extended disability status score were found in the patients in agreement with decrease cytokines of IFN-γ and IL-17 and increase cytokines of IL-4. Clinical and immunological parameters showed improvement in the patients after the intervention. Conclusion: Our study shows that co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils with hot-natured diet can have beneficial effects in improving clinical symptoms in relapsing remitting MS patients and significant correlation was found between EDSS and immunological findings.

  11. Statistical Analysis on the Response Characteristic for TVS Diode in HEMP%TVS二极管HEMP响应特性统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鸣心; 石立华; 周颖慧; 富志凯

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the transient voltage suppression diodes (TVS) defending against the electromagnetic pulse generated by high-altitude nuclear explosions (HEMP), different types of impulses injecting to the circuit has been researched. In this paper, the limiting voltage, breakdown threshold voltage, damage threshold voltage and damage threshold current are measured. Breakdown probability and damage probability caused by different types of pulses are also calculated. The results show that accumulative effect has a significant influence on the circuit. The more the number of pulses is, the lower threshold voltage and current will be. This study provides references for electromagnetic pulse protection in microelectronic devices and selecting devices to defend against HEMP.%针对瞬态电压抑制(TVS)二极管对高空核爆炸产生的电磁脉冲(HEMP)的防护问题,研究了不同类型脉冲传导注入至被测电路,分别测得了限幅电压、损伤阈值电压、损毁阈值电压和损毁阈值电流,计算出了不同类型脉冲作用下损伤概率和损毁概率。结果表明被测电路受到了注入脉冲次数累积效应的影响,脉冲次数越多,其阈值电压和阈值电流会越低。研究结果为微电子设备的电磁脉冲防护及HEMP防护中的器件选择提供了参考。

  12. [Detection method for the ability of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed germination by the use of 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Jun; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki; Goda, Yukihiro

    2008-11-01

    Cannabis plants show a high Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol content and are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore the cultivation of hemp and its possession are prohibited by law in Japan. Meanwhile, Cannabis seeds have been used as a component of shichimi-togarashi (a Japanese spice), bird feed, or a crude drug (mashinin). To exclude the possibility of germination, it is officially noticed that hemp seeds must be killed. However, the number of violators has increased in recent years. To judge the ability of seed germination, a germination test is performed. However, the test requires several days and thus has not been used for on-site inspection. In this study, we developed a rapid detection method to determine the ability of Cannabis seeds to germinate using 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC). The principle of the assay is as follows. The endogenous respiratory enzymes in hemp seeds convert added colorless TTC into red 1,3,5-triphenylformazan. Consequently, a living embryo is stained red, while red does not appear in the dead seeds. The reaction was active over a pH range of 8.0-9.0, and the optimum activity was found from 40 to 50 degrees C. Under the optimum conditions, we were able to determine the ability of seeds to germinate based on the presence of color within 20 min. Since this method is rapid and simple, it is applicable to on-site inspections. In addition, it could be used as an alternative technique to the germination test, because erroneous decisions is cannot occur under the assay principle.

  13. Study on bleaching process of hemp fabric with peracetic acid%过氧乙酸漂白大麻织物的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玉娟; 李瑞

    2011-01-01

    对比了过氧乙酸单漂、双氧水单漂、过氧乙酸与双氧水复漂及其次序组合对大麻织物的漂白效果,通过分析大麻织物的一些性能和木质素含量得出:过氧乙酸单漂(过氧乙酸10 g/60℃,pH=5.5)、双氧水单漂(双氧水10 g/L)、过氧乙酸初漂与双氧水复漂后大麻织物中木质素含量分别为4.02%、4.53%和3.63%.使用优选的过氧乙酸初漂与双氧水复漂结合进行,在保持一定强力前提下,可使大麻织物获得较好的白度.%The bleaching effect of peracetic acid single bleaching, hydrogen peroxide single bleaching, the second bleaching and the order were compared.Through analyzing some performances of hemp fabric and content of lignin, it was concluded that the lignin content of hemp fabric using peracetic acid sirigle bleaching with peracetic acid 10 g/L reacting at 60 ℃ under pH = 5.5, hydrogen peroxide single bleaching with hydrgen peroxide 10 g/L and peracetic acid first bleaching, hydrogen peroxide second bleaching was 4.02%, 4.53% and 3.63%, respectively, peracetic acid first bleaching, hydrogen peroxide second bleaching could endow hemp fabric with good whiteness under certain strength.

  14. Preliminary Studies on the Tissue Culture of Cannabis sativa L. (Industrial hemp)%汉麻组织培养的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜颖; 夏尊民; 唐艳; 韩强; 韩承伟

    2015-01-01

    The internodes of the new cultivar Long-ma No.1 of Cannabis sativa L. (In-dustrial hemp) were used as explants for tissue culture. The paper studied the key factors of industrial hemp tissue culture, such as the physiological state of aseptic seedlings, the selection and concentration of plant growth regulators and so on. Hemp seed disinfection used 75% alcohol for 2 min and sterilized in 1‰ HgCl2 for 5 min. The best combinations of plant growth regulators were 1.0 mg/L 6-BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA for the induction of cal us, and the best combinations of hormones were 1.0 mg/L KT and 0.5 mg/L NAA for differentiation rate of adventitious bud.%以汉麻新品种“龙麻一号”的茎节为初始材料,研究了汉麻组织培养中的关键因素如无菌苗的获得及其生理状态、植物生长调节剂的选择及其浓度等。选用 MS作为基本培养基;种子消毒用75%乙醇浸泡2 min后,再用1‰的升汞溶液(HgCl2)浸泡处理5 min;愈伤组织诱导的最适植物生长调节剂组合为1.0 mg/L 6-BA和0.5mg/L NAA;不定芽分化的最适激素组合为1.0 mg/L KT和0.5 mg/L NAA。

  15. Neuvolaikäisten lasten syömishäiriöt -Varhaisravitsemuksen vaikutus myöhempään terveyteen

    OpenAIRE

    Friman-Mahkonen, Satu

    2016-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tuottaa terveydenhoitajille lisätietoa neuvolaikäisen lapsen syömishäiriöistä ja varhaisravitsemuksen merkityksestä lapsen myöhempään terveyteen. Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin toiminnallisesti. Työn toiminnallinen osuus järjestettiin osastotuntina Nokian kaupungin äitiys- ja lastenneuvolan terveydenhoitajille. Kehittämistyönä opinnäytetyöstä tehtiin terveydenhoitajille aineisto intranetiin neuvolaikäisen lapsen syömishäiriöistä. Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin ke...

  16. 麻醉科毒麻精神药品管理的改进与体会%Improved Drug Hemp and Experience Anesthesiology Management of Psychotropic Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云; 郑艳萍; 周艳

    2014-01-01

    Ensure the safe use of toxic hemp drugs is an important part of the work of drug administration in anesthesiology department. During our work, we found that there are some loopholes in administration of toxic hemp psychotropic drugs in anesthesiology department of our hospital. We propose a combination of the psychotropic drugs management experience from anesthesiology department of PLA general hospital and drug hemp content in spiritual Narcotic Drugs and Drug Regulations, to improve and perfect the regulation of anesthesiology department. The operating room nurses are united with anesthesiology nurses, to jointly manage toxic hemp medicines and ensure that every aspect of the use of psychotropic drugs is under the control of regulation, to prevent the outlfow of narcotic drugs, and to ensure that the process of psychotropic drugs use in security, legalization, standardized and orderly.%保证毒麻药品的安全使用是麻醉科药品管理工作的重要内容之一,在工作中发现我院麻醉科毒麻精神药品管理存在一些漏洞。现将解放军总医院麻醉科毒麻精神药品的管理经验与《麻醉药品精神药品管理条例》内容相结合,对我院麻醉科的管理制度进行改进与完善,联合麻醉科护士与手术室护士共同对毒麻药品进行管理,确保毒麻药品精神药品每个使用环节都有监管,杜绝麻醉药品外流。保证毒麻精神药品使用过程中的安全性、合法化、规范化、有序化。

  17. Isolation of Delta9-THCA-A from hemp and analytical aspects concerning the determination of Delta9-THC in cannabis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussy, Franz E; Hamberg, Cornelia; Luginbühl, Marco; Schwerzmann, Thomas; Briellmann, Thomas A

    2005-04-20

    A simple procedure based on a common silica gel column chromatography for the isolation of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Delta9-THCA-A) from hemp in a multi-milligram scale is presented. Further, the decarboxylation reaction of Delta9-THCA-A to the toxicologically active Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) at different analytical and under-smoking conditions is investigated. Maximal conversion in an optimised analytical equipment yields about 70% Delta9-THC. In the simulation of the smoking process, only about 30 % of the spiked substance could be recovered as Delta9-THC.

  18. Comparison of traditional field retting and Phlebia radiata Cel 26 retting of hemp fibres for fibre-reinforced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Ale, Marcel T; Kołaczkowski, Bartłomiej; Fernando, Dinesh; Daniel, Geoffrey; Meyer, Anne S; Thygesen, Anders

    2017-12-01

    Classical field retting and controlled fungal retting of hemp using Phlebia radiata Cel 26 (a mutant with low cellulose degrading ability) were compared with pure pectinase treatment with regard to mechanical properties of the produced fibre/epoxy composites. For field retting a classification of the microbial evolution (by gene sequencing) and enzyme profiles were conducted. By phylogenetic frequency mapping, different types of fungi, many belonging to the Ascomycota phylum were found on the fibres during the first 2 weeks of field retting, and thereafter, different types of bacteria, notably Proteobacteria, also proliferated on the field retted fibres. Extracts from field retted fibres exhibited high glucanase activities, while extracts from P. radiata Cel 26 retted fibres showed high polygalacturonase and laccase activities. As a result, fungal retting gave a significantly higher glucan content in the fibres than field retting (77 vs. 67%) and caused a higher removal of pectin as indicated by lower galacturonan content of fibres (1.6%) after fibres were retted for 20 days with P. radiata Cel 26 compared to a galacturonan content of 3.6% for field retted fibres. Effective fibre stiffness increased slightly after retting with P. radiata Cel 26 from 65 to 67 GPa, while it decreased after field retting to 52 GPa. Effective fibre strength could not be determined similarly due to variations in fibre fracture strain and fibre-matrix adhesion. A maximum composite strength with 50 vol% fibres of 307 MPa was obtained using P. radiata Cel 26 compared to 248 MPa with field retting.

  19. Glucose, stem dry weight variation, principal component and cluster analysis for some agronomic traits among 16 regenerated Crotalaria juncea accessions for potential cellulosic ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United State Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service, (ARS), Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit’s (PGRCU) sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) germlasm collection consists of 22 accessions. Sixteen (16) accessions of the most seed productive were selected. These access...

  20. Study of Medicinal Health Diet of Hemp and Tourism Development in Bama%巴马火麻的药用保健饮食及旅游开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 王金叶

    2012-01-01

    指出了巴马火麻作为“长寿之乡”巴马的重要饮食组成部分,是巴马人长寿的原因之一;然而巴马火麻产品的开发和火麻特色菜肴的推广进程缓慢。具体阐述了火麻的药用价值、保健饮食,以及在旅游开发的现状,并提出了相应的对策。%As an important dietary part in Bama which is the longevity town in China,Bama Hemp is one of the reasons that make Bama people live long. However,it is slow to develop Bama Hemp products and promote Hemp cuisine. This article introduces the medicinal value and health food of Bama Hemp, expounds the present situation of the tourism development, and gives the corresponding countermeasures.

  1. Identification of small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes in Urticales plants: mulberry (Morus notabilis), hemp (Cannabis sativa) and ramie (Boehmeria nivea)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xing Huang; Yaning Bao; Bo Wang; Lijun Liu; Jie Chen; Lunjin Dai; Sana Ullah Baloch; Dingxiang Peng

    2016-03-01

    Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes are important gene families in auxin signalling transduction and are commonly used asearly auxin responsive markers. Till date, no SAUR gene is identified in Urticales plants despite of the published bioinformationof mulberry, hemp and ramie. In this study, we used Arabidopsis sequences as query to search against mulberry, hempgenomes and ramie transcriptome database. In total, we obtained 62, 56 and 71 SAUR genes in mulberry, hemp and ramie,respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Urticales specific expansion of SAUR genes. Expression analysis showed 15 randomly selected ramie SAUR genes that were diversely functioned in ramie tissues and revealed a series of IAA-responsive,drought-responsive and high temperature-responsive genes. Moreover, comparison of qRT-PCR data and previous RNA-Seqdata suggested the reliability of our work. In this study, we first report the identification of SAUR genes in Urticales plants.These results will provide a foundation for their function validation in Urticales plant growth and development.

  2. 汉麻籽油喷雾干燥微胶囊工艺的研究%Study on Microcapsule Technology of Hemp Seed Oil by Spray Drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳茹

    2011-01-01

    The microcapsule technology by spray - drying of hemp seed oil was studied in this paper. The parameters of producing stable microcapsule were established by orthogonal experiment as follows: soybean protein iso-late/maltodextrin was 1 : 1.0,core/wall was 1:1.5,and the concentration of total solids in emulsion was 25 mg/mL. The microcapsule hemp seed oil obtained was nearly spheroidal, the grain size was about 4 ~ 7 (xm and the solubility was >90%.%研究了喷雾干燥法制备汉麻籽油微胶囊的生产工艺,通过正交试验,确定了制备稳定的微胶囊乳化液的参数为:大豆分离蛋白与麦芽糊精的比例为1∶1.0,心材与壁材的比例为1∶1.5,乳化液总固形物质量浓度25 mg/mL.得到的微胶囊化汉麻籽油外型近球型,粒径大小在4~7 μm左右,溶解度>90%.

  3. Development of Tencel Hemp Wool Spun Silk Blended Sirospun Knitting Yarn%Tencel汉麻羊毛绢丝混纺赛络针织纱的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄克华

    2012-01-01

    为顺利开发Tencel/汉麻/羊毛/绢丝40/30/15/15 14.7 tex赛络针织纱,针对混纺组分纤维的主要特性,对原料的预处理、混纺比控制提出了解决方案,确定了各工序适宜的工艺参数配置,并制定了相关的技术措施,最终成功纺制出Tencel汉麻羊毛绢丝混纺赛络针织纱,其成纱质量满足了使用要求.%To develop Tencel/hemp/wool/spun silk 40/30/15/15 14.7 tex sirospun knitting yarn,according to the fiber main characteristics,solution methods of raw material pretreatment and blending ratio controlling were put forward. Parameter configuration in each process was defined. Related technology measures were made. Finally Tencel hemp wool spun silk blended sirospun knitting yam can be produced successfully, the yam quality can reach use demands.

  4. Effect of addition of plants-derived polyamide 11 elastomer on the mechanical and tribological properties of hemp fiber reinforced polyamide 1010 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaida, Jun; Nishitani, Yosuke; Kitano, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    For the purpose of developing the new engineering materials such as structural materials and tribomaterials based on all plants-derived materials, the effect of the addition of plant-derived polyamide 11 Elastomer (PA11E) on the mechanical and tribological properties of hemp fiber(HF) reinforced polyamide 1010 (HF/PA1010) composites was investigated. PA1010 and PA11E (except the polyether groups used as soft segment) were made from plant-derived castor oil. Hemp fiber was surface-treated by two types of treatment: alkali treatment by NaOH solution and surface treatment by ureido silane coupling agent. HF/PA1010/PA11E ternary composites were extruded by a twin screw extruder and injection-molded. Their mechanical properties such as tensile, bending, Izod impact and tribological properties by ring-on-plate type sliding wear testing were evaluated. The effect of the addition of PA11E on the mechanical and tribological properties of HF/PA1010 composite differed for each property. Izod impact strength and specific wear rate improved with the addition of PA11E although tensile strength, modulus, and friction coefficient decreased with PA11E. It follows from these results that it may be possible to develop the new engineering materials with sufficient balance between mechanical and tribological properties.

  5. 大麻雨露脱胶真菌的分离及脱胶特性研究%Study on Isolation of Hemp Dew -retting Fungi and the Enzyme Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨庆丽

    2016-01-01

    Hemp dew -retting fungi was isolated from the stem of hemp in present study.GB /T18147.2 -2008 and DNS methods were used to research the separation degree of hemp bast and xylem, gum content and degummase activities of hemp by 6 dominant fungi.Results showed DMJ6 separated the hemp fiber and kept its completion.Gum content and cellulase activity of DMJ6 were the lowest,but pectinase and mannanase activities were the highest in 6 dominant fungi after 7 d degumming.Pectinase and cellulase activities of DMJ6 could reach 100 U /mL after 4 d.The relative similarity of DMJ6 and As-perigillus niger was 99% according to 18S rRNA test.%本研究从雨露沤麻后的大麻原茎上分离筛选大麻脱胶真菌。采用 GB /T18147.2-2008和 DNS 法对6株优势真菌进行残胶率及脱胶酶活性分析。结果表明,DMJ6沤麻7 d,大麻原茎木质部及韧皮部分离较好且不破坏纤维完整性;残胶率明显低于其他;果胶酶、甘露聚糖酶活性高于其他,木聚糖酶活性较高,纤维素酶活性低于其他;此菌产酶快,4 d 果胶酶及甘露聚糖酶活性可达100 U /mL。经18S rRNA 鉴定,DMJ6与 Asperigillus niger 相似度为99%。

  6. Technologically indicative properties of straw fractions of flax, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) and fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymäläinen, H-R; Koivula, M; Kuisma, R; Sjöberg, A-M; Pehkonen, A

    2004-08-01

    In this study of the behaviour of the fractions of unretted and frost-retted fibre straws in damp air, a production scale method to separate fibre and shive from fibre plants was introduced and tested on bast fibre plants (Linum usitatissimum L. and Cannabis sativa L.). The method consists of optional drying of stalks, unloading bales, milling the straws with a hammer mill, separating the fractions from air stream with a cyclone and finally separating fibres from shives with a screening drum. Fractions were characterized focusing on technologically indicative properties such as equilibrium moisture content, ash and microbiological quality. Unretted fractions of the bast fibre plant stem reached higher equilibrium moisture contents than the retted fractions, and hemp fibres absorbed more moisture from air than did the Linum fibres. In very humid air, all fractions began to lose weight due to moulding. The weight decrease during the first week was lower in frost-retted than in unretted fractions. The frost-retted fractions appeared to be more resistant to humidity in the short term. The total number of microbes and especially the numbers of yeasts and moulds can be used as a criterion of hygienic level. For green fractions, the mould level was similar in fibres and in shives, but frost-retted shives contained more moulds than the unretted shives. The mould content of a fraction had no direct correlation with the moulding tendency of the fraction. The ash contents of fibres were somewhat higher than those of shives, due to a probable soil contamination. Ash content did not have significant correlation with microbiological quality, although ash is a possible risk factor for hygienic quality. According to the results of this study it is highly important to study the quality of the production chain of bast fibre plants to ensure the quality of industrial products. From the producer's point of view, raw material with defined quality can be directed to the most suitable

  7. Optimization of Cold-Pressed Extraction Process for Hemp Seed Oil by Response Surface Methodology%响应面法优化火麻仁油冷榨提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鸿翔; 黄小焕; 王广莉; 邱树毅; 程艳波

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To obtain high quality, pure, natural hemp seed oil and meanwhile maintain the natural bio activity of protein retained in hemp seed meal. Methods: Onefactoratatime design and response surface meth odology were applied for the optimization of process parameters for the extraction of hemp seed oil by cold pressed method. A mathematical mode describing oil yield as a function of raw material water content, temperature, pressure and time was set up. The fatty acid composition and purity of hemp seed oil were analyzed by GC and peak area normalization method. Results: The optimal process parameters were determined through canonical analysis as follows: hemp seeds containing 4.5% water were pressed at 40 MPa and 59 ℃ for 36 min. Under these conditions, the yield of hemp seed oil was up to 82.74%. Hemp seed oil was found to be rich in linoleic acid, linolenic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids and have a total unsaturated fatty acids content as high as 89.80%. Conclusion: Response surface analysis is effective for optimizing the coldpressed extraction of hemp seed oil. Hemp seed oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and can thus be seen as a functional oil with high nutritional value.%目的:得到高品质、纯天然火麻仁油及保留饼粕中蛋白质的天然生物活性。方法:采用冷榨法提取火麻仁油,在单因素试验基础上,采用响应面法对提取工艺参数进行优化。建立入榨水分含量、入榨温度、压榨压力、压榨时间与火麻仁油提取率之间的数学模型。采用气相色谱法测定、面积归一化法分析所提取火麻仁油脂肪酸组成及含量。结果:通过典型性分析得出最优工艺条件为入榨水分含量4.5%、入榨温度59℃、压榨压力40MPa、压榨时间36min,在此最佳工艺条件下火麻仁油提取率可达82.74%。脂肪酸测定表明火麻仁冷榨油富含亚油酸、亚麻酸、

  8. 汉麻纤维的超声波/双氧水脱胶工艺研究%Study on hemp fiber degumming ultrasonic/hydrogen peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚

    2014-01-01

    汉麻纤维是一种功能型和环保型纺织纤维,其胶质含量较高,致使脱胶效果不佳,严重制约了对其的开发利用.通过超声波预处理并结合双氧水氧化脱胶,探讨影响脱胶效果的因素,得出最佳脱胶工艺条件:超声波频率60 kHz,处理时间55 min,双氧水用量5%,硅酸钠用量2%,渗透剂JFC用量2%,NaOH用量3%,煮练温度90℃,煮练时间60 min.在此工艺条件下,汉麻纤维的共生物杂质总含量由原来的30.49%下降到8.75%,断裂强度保持在4.5 cN/dtex以上,其可纺性以及纤维品质均有明显改善.%Hemp fiber is a kind of functional and environmental friendly textile fiber. The gum content of hemp fiber is high, which brings about poor degumming effect and severely restricts its development and utili-zation. Through the ultrasonic pretreatment combining with hydrogen peroxide oxidation of degumming, the ef-fects of influencing factors on degumming result were discussed and the optimal degumming conditions were determined: ultrasonic frequency 60 kHz, processing time was 55 min, 5% of hydrogen peroxide, sodium sili-cate dosage was 2%, penetrating agent JFC was 2%, the dosage of NaOH was 3%, boiling temperature was 90 ℃, boiling time was 60 min. Under the best degumming process conditions, the total biological impurity content of hemp fiber decreased from 30.49% to 8.75%, the breaking strength remained above 4.5 cN/dtex, the indexes of spinning and fiber quality was significantly improved.

  9. 新型工艺对汉麻纤维性能的影响%The Effect of New of Process on Hemp Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李闲闲; 罗玉成; 赵宇航; 管路遥; 魏丽乔

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new combined process that consists of UV-freezing-heating, enzyme-treatment and HTHP treatment was adopted for the degumming of hemp fiber, and the influence of different process conditions on residual gum rate and mechanical property was investigated. Hemp fibers before and after degumming were characterized by using SEM, FTIR and TG, the changes of overall performance and structure and chemical composition before and after degumming of hemp fiber were analyzed. It showed that the lignin content reduced to 0.71% from 14.13%, the residual gum rate reduced to 2.26% from 43.12%. The fiber has smooth surface, increased whiteness, reduced diameter but improved evenness as well as better mechanical property, compliance and thermal stability. . Chemical reagent dosage has reduced by about 1/3, which means energy conservation and emissions reduction.%本文采用UV-辐射、冷冻骤热、生物酶处理和高温高压联合处理的新型工艺,对汉麻纤维进行脱胶处理,研究了其工艺条件对汉麻纤维残胶率、力学性能等的影响。利用扫描电镜(SEM)进行表面形貌观测、红外光谱法(FTIR)进行结构分析,热重分析仪(TG)进行热稳定性表征。结果表明:经上述新型工艺处理后汉麻纤维木质素含量由14.13%降低到0.71%,残胶率由43.12%降为2.26%,汉麻纤维表面胶质和杂质基本去除,纤维表面光滑,白度增加,纤维变细且均匀,力学性能优良,柔顺性好,热稳定性提高。且化学试剂用量减少1/3,有利于节能减排。

  10. 工业大麻高效再生体系的初步研究%Preliminary Study on Efficient Regeneration System of Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜颖; 夏尊民; 韩承伟; 李秋芝; 赵越; 曹洪勋

    2015-01-01

    选用工业大麻新品种龙麻一号的下胚轴作为外植体进行组织培养,对无菌苗的获得、植物生长调节剂的选择及浓度等影响工业大麻组织培养的关键因素进行研究,愈伤组织诱导的最适植物生长调节剂组合为1.0mg/L 6-BA 和0.5mg/L NAA,不定芽分化的最适激素组合为1.0mg/L KT 和0.5mg/L NAA,以1/2MS +0.05mg/L IBA +0.05mg/L NAA 激素组合生根效果较好。初步建立工业大麻高效再生体系,愈伤组织诱导率达到91.67%,不定芽分化率达到76.67%,生根率达到75%。%The Hypocotyls of a new industrial hemp cultivar Long -ma No.1 were used as explants for tissue culture.The paper studied the key factors of industrial hemp tissue culture such as the physio-logical state of aseptic seedlings,the selection and concentration of plant growth regulators and so on. The best combination of plant growth regulators was 1.0 mg/L 6 -BA and 0.5 mg/L NAA for the induc-tion of callus.The best combination of hormones was 1.0 mg/L KT and 0.5 mg/L NAA for the differen-tiation rate of adventitious bud.The best combination was 1 /2 MS +0.05 mg/L IBA +0.05 mg/L NAA for rooting.The efficient regeneration system for industrial hemp was built preliminarily.The induction rate of callus was 91.67%,the differentiation rate of adventitious bud was 76.67%,the induction rate of root was 75%.

  11. Retting and degumming of natural fibers by pectinolytic enzymes produced from Bacillus tequilensis SV11-UV37 using solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiliveri, Swarupa Rani; Koti, Sravanthi; Linga, Venkateswar Rao

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrated the simultaneous production and optimization of pectinolytic enzymes (pectate lyase and polygalacturonase) under SSF from Bacillus tequilensis SV11-UV37 using wheat bran as a substrate, which is commercially viable and cost-effective. Optimization by one variable-at-a-time-approach showed a maximum yield of pectate lyase (1371.25 U/gds) and polygalacturonase (85.45 U/gds) with wheat bran using 80 % (v/w) moisture, 0.7 mm particle size, 20 % (v/w) inoculum, 1 % (w/w) pectin at 37 °C, pH 6 and 72 h of incubation. In addition, optimization using central composite design achieved 1.6-fold improvement in both pectate lyase (1828.13 U/gds) and polygalacturonase (105.55 U/gds) yield at optimum levels of pectin (3 %, w/w), inoculum size (20 %, v/w) and moisture level (80 %, v/w). Further, Retting studies concluded that the enzyme mixture was efficient in separating the whole fiber from kenaf and part (>75 %) from sunn hemp. In degumming of sunn hemp fibers, amount of galacturonic acid released and percentage weight loss was higher in successive alkali and enzymatic treatment than their independent treatments. The scanning electron microscopic analysis also confirmed that alkali followed by enzymatic treatment effectively removed non-cellulosic gummy material from the fiber; hence, this enzyme mixture may find feasible applications in the fiber and textile industry.

  12. 电信中心HEMP抗扰度试验与防护%HEMP Immunity Test and Protection for Telecommunication Centres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈儒猛; 罗森文; 陈少川

    2015-01-01

    探讨了安装在电信中心的通信设备(如交换、传输、无线和动力设备等)抵御高空电磁脉冲(HEMP)所需的辐射和传导抗扰度要求,内容包括电信中心设备防御HEMP的各种辐射和传导抗扰度测试方法、试验等级、电信中心HEMP系统防护与设计指南,以及采用保护器件和对建筑物或设备外壳加装电磁屏蔽等提高其抗扰度等级的方法等.

  13. Key Parameters Analysis of Hybrid HEMP Simulator%辐射波HEMP模拟器关键参数数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛从光; 周辉

    2009-01-01

    根据国际电工委员会(IEC)制定的最新高空核电磁脉冲(HEMP)标准,对辐射波模拟器关键结构的指标参数进行分解.分析了不同模拟器激励源和双锥结构对辐射电场波形关键参数的影响,基于分析曲线提出脉冲源的指标,最后给出辐射波HEMP模拟器自由空间辐射电场的计算波形.论文结果对此类模拟器的设计具有重要参考价值.

  14. Digestibility of amino acids in organically cultivated white-flowering faba bean and cake from cold-pressed rapeseed, linseed and hemp seed in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presto, Magdalena Høøk; Lyberg, Karin; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2011-02-01

    The study aimed at determining the ileal apparent (IAD) and standardised ileal (SID) digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in organically cultivated white-flowering faba beans (Vicia faba), and cakes from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa), linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). The experiment was designed as a four period cross-over trial with six castrated male Yorkshire pigs fitted with post valve T-caecum (PVTC) cannulas. The IAD and SID of CP for the feed ingredients ranged from 79.2-85.9% and were affected by dietary treatment, with significantly lower values in rapeseed cake. The IAD and SID of most AA in the feed ingredients were also significantly affected by dietary treatment, but without any consistent trend. However, the overall digestibilities were in general comparable with conventional protein feed ingredients. Thus, these alternative protein feed ingredients have the potential to be used to a greater extent when formulating organic pig diets.

  15. Physical and thermo-mechanical properties of bionano reinforced poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate, hemp/CNF/Ag-NPs composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikrishnan Pulikkalparambil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A facile approach to prepare bionanocomposites of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT is reported in this paper. The effect of different wt% of hemp/Sihemp, carbon nanofiber (CNF and silver nanoparticle (Ag-NPs on the density, water absorption, melting and crystallization behavior, thermal stability, mechanical properties and morphology was investigated. The density of the composites was reduced except for Ag-NPs reinforced nanocomposites while diffusion coefficient and maximum water absorption were decreased for Sihemp reinforced composites making it a suitable material to replace conventional polymers. Significant improvement in tensile strength (TS and tensile modulus (TM was observed for the PBAT/Sihemp composites. For CNF and Ag-NPs reinforced nanocomposites, mechanical properties were retained at lower filler concentration. But as the concentration increased, there was a tendency for the nanofillers to agglomerate, which resulted in a reduction in mechanical properties.

  16. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of extract from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Birch, Edward John

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of ultrasonic extraction of phenolics and flavonoids from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes was compared to the conventional extraction method. Ultrasonic treatment at room temperature showed increased polyphenol extraction yield and antioxidant capacity by two-fold over the conventional extraction method. Different combinations of ultrasonic treatment parameters consisting of solvent volume (25, 50, 75 and 100 mL), extraction time (20, 30 and 40 min) and temperature (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) were selected for polyphenol extractions from the seed cakes. The chosen parameters had a significant effect (pextraction yield and subsequent antioxidant capacity from the seed cakes. Application of heat during ultrasonic extraction yielded higher polyphenol content in extracts compared to the non-heated extraction. From an orthogonal design test, the best combination of parameters was 50 mL of solvent volume, 20 min of extraction time and 70 °C of ultrasonic temperature.

  17. Lipophilic extractives from several nonwoody lignocellulosic crops (flax, hemp, sisal, abaca) and their fate during alkaline pulping and TCF/ECF bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gisela; del Río, José C; Gutiérrez, Ana

    2010-01-01

    The fate of lipophilic extractives from several nonwoody species (flax, hemp, sisal and abaca) used for the manufacturing of cellulose pulps, was studied during soda/anthraquinone (AQ) pulping and totally chorine free (TCF) and elemental chlorine free (ECF) bleaching. With this purpose, the lipophilic extracts from the raw materials and their unbleached and bleached industrial pulps, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aldehydes, hydroxyfatty acids and esterified compounds such as ester waxes, sterol esters and alkylferulates strongly decreased after soda/AQ pulping while alkanes, alcohols, free sterols and sterol glycosides survived the cooking process. Among the lipophilic extractives that remained in the unbleached pulps, some amounts of free sterols were still present in the TCF pulps whereas they were practically absent in the ECF pulps. Sterol glycosides were also removed after both TCF and ECF bleaching. By contrast, saturated fatty acids, fatty alcohols and alkanes were still present in both bleached pulps.

  18. Chemical comparison of two dosage forms of Hemp Seed Pills by UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS/MS and multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Song, Jing-Zheng; Fu, Wen-Wei; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2013-10-01

    Hemp seed soft gel capsule (HSSGC) is a modernised dosage form that is derived from a traditional Chinese patent medicine, Hemp Seed Pills (HSP). Two dosage forms claim the same therapeutic effects; however, their chemical components and chemical equivalency are unclear. In the present study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ToF-MS)-based chemical profiling approach was proposed to rapidly evaluate the chemical differences between HSP and HSSGC as model dosage forms. Samples of the two dosage forms were subjected to UHPLC-ToF-MS analysis. The datasets of retention time (TR) and mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) to holistically compare the difference between these two dosage form samples. A clear classification trend was observed in the score plot, and a loading bi-plot was generated in which the variables are correlated with the group and the samples that were observed. The important chemical components that caused differences among the samples were explored with a Variables Importance Projection (VIP) index. Using the proposed approach, global chemical differences were found between the two dosage forms and among samples of the same dosage form. The most important components that are related to the differences were identified and most of them were attributed to Fructus Aurantii Immaturus. It is suggested that this newly established approach could be used for pre-clinical trial chemical equivalence study or the quality evaluation of the traditional medicinal products with large variations in quality.

  19. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in multiple sclerosis patients and hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp-seed and evening-primrose oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour-Firouzi, Soheila; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Ebrahimi-Mamaghani, Mehrangiz; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Baradaran, Behzad; Ali, Torbati Mohammad; Zamani, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased dietary intake of saturated fatty acids. For many years it has been suspected that this disease might be associated with an imbalance between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. We determined erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels in Hot nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils in multiple sclerosis patients. To determine the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels and correlate it with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) at baseline after 6 months intervention in MS patients by gas chromatography, in this double blind, randomized trial, 100 RRMS patients with EDSShemp seed and evening primrose oils with advised Hot nature diet. "Group B" received olive oil and "Group C" received the co-supplemented oils. The results showed that the mean follow-up was 180 ± 2.9SD days (N=65, 23 M and 42 F aged 34.25 ± 8.07 years with disease duration of 6.80 ± 4.33 years). There was no significant difference in the study parameters at baseline. After 6 months, EDSS, Immunological parameters and the erythrocyte cell membrane with regard to specific fatty acids showed improvement in the group A and C, whereas there was worsening condition for the group B after the intervention. We concluded that Hot-nature dietary intervention with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils caused an increase PUFAs in MS patients and improvement in the erythrocyte membrane fatty acids composition. This could be an indication of restored plasma stores, and a reflection of disease severity reduction.

  20. 山西平阳传统麻纸制作技艺考察%Investigation on Handicraft of Pingyang Traditional Handmade Hemp Paper in Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兵; 冯立昇; 施继龙

    2016-01-01

    Pingyang Hemp Paper is made in methods of traditional handicraft in Linfen,Shanxi province.The handicraft is chosen into the forth batch of state-level intangible cultural heritage expansion project directory.Based on investigation for the handicraft in xiangfen county,records its procedure completely,and concludes that most of the procedure is the same as traditional craft,such as steaming, crushing with stone wheels,forming a paper sheet on a bamboo mold by hand.However,some changes also exists,that is to say,motor power has replaced human power and animal power.Youngsters are not willing to inherit the skill,and hemp papers used in painting have a poor sale,consequently,the traditional skill confronts huge challenges in inheriting and protecting.%通过对山西襄汾县平阳传统麻纸制作技艺的田野调查,整理了该项技艺的完整工序,认为麻纸的传统制作技艺基本传承了下来,核心技术如蒸麻、碾麻、抄纸均得以保留,变化主要表现在制作机器上,如以电机动力代替了人力、畜力。调查显示,年轻人不愿传承麻纸制作手艺,加之目前作为高级书画纸的麻纸销路不佳,因此对该项传统技艺的传承与保护面临巨大挑战。

  1. The Weaving of Multi-functional and Multi-weave Aircell/Hemp Interwoven Fabric%多功能多组织Aircell/汉麻交织面料的织造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2013-01-01

    以市场消费需求为导向,开发了多功能多组织Aircell/汉麻交织面料。通过多次实践,优化并完善了络筒、整经、浆纱、织造关键技术措施和工艺参数,为Aircell/汉麻纱交织面料的生产提供了技术依据。%To meet the demand on market, a multi-functional and multi-weave Aircell/hemp fabric was developed. After repeated trials, key technical measures and process parameters for winding, warping, sizing and weaving steps were optimized, offering technical basis for the production of Aircell/hemp interwoven fabric.

  2. Manufacturing Methods of Thermoplastic Composites Reinforced with Hemp Fiber%麻纤维增强热塑性树脂复合材料的加工方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨夕; 王伟宏; 王清文

    2011-01-01

    The authors introduced the commonly used methods for manufacturing hemp reinforced thermoplastic composites. They briefly described different forms of hemp reinforcement and their processing technologies. Finally, they analyzed the existing barriers in the processing of thermoplastic composites and discussed future research needs.%介绍麻纤维增强热塑性树脂制备复合材料的主要加工方法,包括麻纤维增强体的形态和加工工艺、增强体与聚合物的复合工艺和成型工艺.指出目前存在的问题,并针对问题,提出可行的建议和措施.

  3. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and the corresponding acid in hemp containing foods with special regard to the fluorescence properties of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, O; Rhyn, P; Zimmerli, B

    2000-03-03

    A solvent programmed reversed-phase HPLC method with UV detection for the determination of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A) in foods containing parts of hemp such as edible oil, herb-teas (infusion), herbal hemp or hempseed is presented. The THC peak is also detected by fluorescence. The detection limits with UV detection are 0.01 ng for THC and 0.05 ng for THCA-A and with fluorescence detection 0.1 ng for THC. The relative standard deviation under repeatability conditions of the chromatographic procedure is about 0.5% and that of the over-all analytical procedure for THC in vegetable oils 2% (concentration range of 10-100 mg/kg).

  4. 基于布与帛对比视角下布衣服饰文化的考辨%Investigations on commoner clothing culture based on comparative perspective of hemp and silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖江波; 杨小明

    2016-01-01

    中国社会礼法体制的变迁,能从服饰面料中管窥其端倪。葛麻织成的布与蚕丝织成的帛,是古代服饰的两种主要纺织面料。基于布与帛对比的视角,通过历史文献与出土文物,考察葛麻纺织的面料特征,考辨其在服饰形制中的角色定位,进而来揭示布衣服饰文化的内涵与延伸。研究表明,布衣作为服饰面料和礼乐精神的二元文化根基,其建立在以葛麻质地为物质前提、以服制为礼制载体的基础之上。布衣指代的演变,伴随着纺织科研和人文语境的变化。%Changes of Chinese social etiquette system can find its clue from apparel fabrics. Ko-hemp cloth and silk fabric are two major textile fabrics in ancient clothing. Based on comparative perspective of hemp and silk cloth, through historical literature and unearthed relics, this paper investigated characteristics of ko-hemp textile and its role in styles and clothing systems to reveal the connotation and extension of commoner clothing culture. Studies show that commoner cloth is the bicultural foundations for apparel fabrics and ritual spirit. its material base is ko-hemp cloth, its wears are the carriers of cultural rituals and etiquette. Changes of commoner clothing connotations are happening along with the changes of textile research and human context.

  5. 大豆蛋白胶麻杆刨花板制备工艺的研究%Study on preparation of soy protein adhesive-based hemp stalk particle board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞媛; 杨光; 杨波; 翟艳

    2011-01-01

    为了开发环境友好型刨花板,探讨利用大豆蛋白胶黏剂压制麻杆刨花板的制备工艺,分析热压温度、热压时间、施胶量和密度对麻杆刨花板性能的影响.结果表明,大豆蛋白胶可以用于麻杆刨花板的制造,其最佳工艺参数为:热压温度180℃,热压时间25 min,施胶量18%,密度0.80 g/cm3.在此条件下,压制的板材的性能超过GB/T 4897.4-2003的要求.%Preparation of hemp stalk particle board derived from soy protein-based adhesive were investigated and the effects of hot pressing temperature, hot pressing time, soy protein-based adhesive content, and density of hemp particle on the particle board physical and mechanical properties were analyzed. The results showed that soy protein-based adhesive can be used in hemp stalk particle board production and the optimal parameters were hot pressing temperature 180℃ , hot pressing time 25 min, soy protein-based adhesive content 18% ,density of hemp particle board 0. 80 g/cm3. Under above conditions,the particle-board has mechanical properties exceeding the Chinese National GB/T 4897. 4-2003 standard requirements.

  6. 工业大麻秆芯纤维素吸水树脂快速合成及性能研究%Rapid Synthesis and Characterization of Cellulose-Based Absorbent Resin from Industrial Hemp Hurds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高欣; 陈克利; 张恒; 朱正良; 陈海燕

    2014-01-01

    以“云麻1号”工业大麻秆芯为原料,采用水溶液微波辅助聚合方式将丙烯酸(AA)和N,N-二甲基丙烯酰胺(DMAA)单体接枝到磨浆处理后的纤维素中,制备吸水性树脂.研究两种单体用量比例、引发剂用量、交联剂用量、纤维素磨浆预处理程度、微波功率和时间对吸水树脂吸液率的影响.通过X-射线衍射(XRD)和扫描电镜(SEM)对其结构和形貌进行表征.结果表明,AA和DMAA质量比为1∶0.3,引发剂用量与单体比率为2.0%,交联剂用量与单体总质量比率为0.3%,微波功率300 W,时间400 s,纤维素打浆度为94°SR,制得树脂吸液率较优.%Absorbent resins are synthesized by grafting copolymerization of acrylic acid(AA)and N,N-dimethyl-acrylamide(DMAA)onto the milled cellulose from“Yunma No.1”hemp hurds by microwave-assisted radical re-action in aqueous solution.The factors,such as weight ratio of two monomers,the amount of initiator and cross-linker,beating degree of cellulose,microwave power and time are investigated.The crystallinity change and the surface morphology are characterized by X-ray diffractometer(XRD)and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), respectively.The resin with nearly optimal absorbency is obtained under the copolymerized conditions of weight ratio of AA to DMAA of 1∶0.3 ,initiator to monomers ratio of 2.0%,cross-linker to monomers weight ratio of 0.3%,94°SR cellulose,300 W microwave power for 400 s.

  7. Frequency-Domain Method for Determining HEMP Standard Waveform Parameters%确定高空电磁脉冲标准波形参数的频域方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程引会; 马良; 李进玺; 吴伟; 赵墨; 郭景海

    2014-01-01

    通过对数值计算的高空电磁脉冲(HEMP)波形函数拟合,确定了 HEMP标准波形的函数形式。以标准电磁脉冲波形频谱的各频率分量最大值为原则,得到标准波形的幅度谱,利用希尔伯特变换,用频谱相位重建方法获得标准时域波形;最后以部分数据为例,对获得标准参数的频域方法进行了详细讨论。%The equation which defines the HEMP standard waveform was determined by fit-ting and analyzing different HEMP waveforms coming from numerical calculation . The fre-quency spectrum of standard waveform was obtained by enveloping all reasonable physical waveform spectra . According to the Hilbert transform , the standard HEMP waveform pa-rameters were carried out utilizing the signal reconstruction method based on the amplitude spectrum . In this paper , some limited physical data are presented as examples to illustrate the method in detail .

  8. 汉麻纤维与微孔聚酯纤维紧密纺纱的生产实践%Production Practice of Spinning Compact Yarn Blended with Hemp Fiber and Microporous Polyester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐萍

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of hemp fiber was introduced. Aimed at poor uniformity and spinnabili- ty,compact spinning process was adopted. The production practice of spinning hemp/microporous pol- yester 35/65 16.4 tex K compact spun yarn was elaborated from the aspects of controlling blending ratio in feeding material,pretreatment of hemp and microporous polyester, process and quality control in production process.%文章介绍了汉麻纤维的性能,针对汉麻纤维整齐度差,可纺性不好的困难,采用紧密纺工艺流程,从投料控制混纺比、汉麻纤维及微孔聚酯涤纶的预处理、以及生产工艺过程的质量控制方面阐述了纺制汉麻/微孔聚酯35/6516.4texK紧密纱的生产实践。

  9. Research on the Separation of Two Pathogens Causing Hemp Stem Disease and Its Impacts on the Soil Environment%大麻茎腐病菌的分离及其对土壤环境影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑楠; 宋宪友; 张利国; 房郁妍; 殷博

    2013-01-01

    In this article, two strains of pathogenic fungi (DN1 and DN2) were separated from le-sion site of hemp. Through morphological identification, DN1 and DN2 were initial identificated as Alternaria and Verticillium of feuteromycotina subphylum separately. Two strains could grow nor-mally when the pH value ranged from 4 to 14. It indicated that both all have the very strong adapt-ability to the environment. The effect of hemp on soil pH value was determined by pot experiment, and the results showed that hemp could repair alkaline soil.%  从病变部位分离出两株病真菌DN1和DN2,通过菌丝及孢子形态的观察,初步确定其分别为半知菌亚门链格孢属(Alternaria alternata)及轮枝孢属(M.Verticillium).在pH值4~14之间,两株菌都能正常生长,对环境的适应能力较强.通过盆栽试验确定大麻对土壤pH的影响,结果表明大麻能修复弱碱性土壤.

  10. Preparation of Hemp Stalk Activated Carbons for Decolorizing and Deodorizing of Bamboo Vinegar%汉麻杆活性炭的制备及对竹醋液脱色脱臭的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷; 高雅琳; 林小云; 周文富

    2012-01-01

    为了研究自制的汉麻活性炭对竹醋原液的脱色脱臭的最佳工艺,以单因素试验考察活性炭的用量、吸附时间、温度对竹醋原液(100℃蒸馏液)脱色脱臭的影响.结果表明:最佳工艺条件为单位体积竹醋原液汉麻活性炭用量24mg/mL,单位体积竹醋蒸馏液汉麻活性炭用量10mg/mL,吸附20min,吸附温度60℃,pH值为3.0,磷酸汉麻活性炭脱色率达85%以上;氯化锌脱色率达60%以上,磷酸汉麻活性炭吸附量高达385.3~427.3mg/g.结论:磷酸汉麻活性炭脱色率比其他活性炭脱色、脱臭率高,可应用于竹醋液的脱色脱臭.%The optimum process of decolorization and deodorization was studied, by using self-made hemp activated carbons and bamboo vinegar. The influence of adsorption dosage, time, and temperature on the decolorization and deodorization of bamboo vinegar liquid and its distillate(100℃) were explored by single factor. The results show that the optimum process conditions are. The hemp activated carbon is processed by phosphoric acid for bamboo vinegar liquid, dosage of activated carbons 24 mg/ml bamboo vinegar, dosage of activated carbons 10 mg/ml bamboo vinegar liquid and its distillate, adsorption time is 20 min, adsorption temperature is 60 ~C, pH=3.0, in this condition, the color removal rate of phosphoric acid processing hemp activated carbon is up to 85~; The color removal rate of zinc chloride processing hemp activated carbon is up to 60~/~o. The maximum adsorption of phosphoric acid processing hemp activated carbon is up to 358. 3~427.3 mg/g. The conclusion is drawn: The color removal rate and deodorizing rate of phosphoric acid processing activated carbon are higher than other activated carbons for the decolorization and deodorization of bamboo vinegar liquid.

  11. 某型无人机数据链系统HEMP辐照效应%HEMP Radiation Effects on Unmanned Aerial Vdehicle Data Link System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚洲; 张冬晓; 田庆民; 程二威

    2016-01-01

    The resistance of transceiver combination(as a core component of Unmarmed Aerial Vdehicle(UAV) data link system) to electromagnetic interference directly affects airborne communications security.In order to verify the reliability of UAV data link system under radiation condition of the nuclear electromagnetic pulse(HEMP), we built a test platform based on the fast along the electromagnetic pulse simulation system.Typical "unlock" effect was regarded as discrimination of interfered accordance to conduct a research of radiation effects and to analyze the "unlock" effect mechanism of UAV data link.Experimental results show that HEMP does interfere with UAV data link test system when it reaches 72 kV/m, which results in the phenomena of completely unclock and black screen on flight control simulator.Besides, changing the attitude of transceiver combination does not affect the interference threshold of basic data link system.Through electromagnetic simulation analysis, instantaneous power interruption of transceiver combination due to terminated cable of flight control simulator coupling strong external field signal will directly interfere the data link.Exclusive of flight control simulator of the data link test system, when the radiation field strength is less than 90 kV/m, the UAV downlink telemetry link does not appear to lose lock.%收发组合作为无人机数据链系统的核心部件,其抗电磁干扰能力直接影响机载通信安全.为检验核电磁脉冲(HEMP)辐照条件下某型无人机数据链系统的可靠性,基于快沿电磁脉冲模拟系统建立了无人机HEMP效应试验平台,以典型"失锁"效应作为受干扰判别依据,开展了无人机数据链系统辐照效应研究,分析了无人机数据链"失锁"效应机理.结果表明:核电磁脉冲场强达到72 kV/m时能够对飞机数据链测试系统产生干扰,导致地面监视系统回报通信链路全部失锁、飞行控制模拟器黑屏,且收发组合放置姿态改

  12. 云南大麻品种抗旱性研究初报1%Preliminary Study on Drought Resistance of Hemp Varieties in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜光辉; 周波; 李熠; 朱睿; 刘飞虎

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the hemp varieties‘Yunma 1’,‘Yunma 5’ and‘Yunwan 6’ cultivated in Yunnan province were used for the drought resistance analysis, with PEG-6000 simulating drought stress and controlled watering in pot culture during the germination and seedling stages respectively.At germination stage, the tolerance concentration of PEG-6000 for germination was from 0 to 15%, but the seed germination was significantly inhibited in the concentration over 20%.And there were significant differences in the drought resistance among different hemp varieties at germination stage.During seedling period, with the increase of stress time and stress level, the growth rate of plant height decreased gradu-ally, the leaf chlorophyll content increased irregularly, and content of small molecular substances, inclu-ding proline and soluble sugar, increased gradually.Superoxide dismutase ( SOD) activity showed a rise-and-fall trend, while malondialdehyde ( MDA) content was a fall-and-rise pattern.These results indicated that all the three hemp varieties were drought resistant in some extent, but‘Yunwan 6’ was the best one, and‘Yunma 5’ was the lowest tolerance one.%本研究选用云南大麻品种云麻1号、云麻5号和云晚6号为材料,分别采用PEG-6000模拟干旱法和盆栽控水法研究大麻萌发期和苗期抗旱性。结果表明:在萌发期,大麻耐受PEG-6000浓度位于0~15%之间,而浓度高于20%则大幅抑制大麻种子萌发。同时,不同大麻品种萌发期的抗旱性存在显著差异。苗期,随着胁迫时间和程度的增加,大麻株高增长速率逐渐降低,叶片叶绿素含量呈不规则增加,脯氨酸和可溶性糖含量逐渐增加,超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)活性呈先升后降趋势,丙二醛( MDA)含量则先降低后增加。综合以上萌发期和苗期的指标发现,供试大麻品种均有一定的抗旱能力,其中云晚6号抗旱性最强,云麻5号较弱。

  13. Nutrition Health Care Function and Health Food Development Prospect of Hemp Seeds%汉麻籽的营养保健功能及其健康食品发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵越; 魏国江; 潘冬梅; 韩承伟; 徐磊

    2015-01-01

    Hemp seeds are rich in various nutrients including oil, protein, carbohydrates, minerals,vitamins and other nutrients. All these nutrients play an important role in human health. Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid,α-linolenic acid,γ-linolenic acid) were contained in hemp seeds, which can delay aging, prevent cardiovascular disease, promote brain development, be anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer, lower blood viscosity, remove excess fat in the body, maintain the vitality of heart and brain thinking agile, maintain digestive tract unobstructed, enhance the prostate function, etc. The hemp seeds are rich in hemp globulin which was easily digested and absorbed by human body. Eight kinds of essential amino acids and a variety of natural bioactive ingredients were contained in its protein, which can repair DNA. As a result,health food with health care function was researched and developed using hemp seeds as raw materials. It is of great significance for developing hemp industry, optimizing the human nutrition structure and enhancing human health. Therefore, hemp seed health food has good development prospects.%汉麻籽具有丰富的油脂、蛋白质、碳水化合物、矿质元素及维生素等营养成分,这些营养成分对人类健康起着重要的作用。汉麻籽中的人体必需的不饱和脂肪酸(亚油酸、α-亚麻酸、γ-亚麻酸),可以延缓衰老、防止心血管疾病、促进大脑发育、抗炎以及抗癌、降低血黏度、清除体内的多余脂肪、保持心脏的活力和大脑思维敏捷、保持消化道通畅健康、改善和增进前列腺。汉麻籽含有丰富的汉麻仁球蛋白,易被人体消化吸收,其蛋白中含有8种人体必需氨基酸和多种天然生物活性成分,可以修复DNA。以汉麻籽为原料研发具有保健功能的健康保健食品,不仅能够推动汉麻产业的发展,还能够改善人类营养结构,促进身体健康。因此,汉麻籽健康食品发展前景良好。

  14. Investigation of the pyrolysis behavior of hemp pulp used in cigarette paper%卷烟纸用麻浆热解行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建新; 孙川; 张碰元; 肖维毅; 杨绍文

    2009-01-01

    采用热分析以及热裂解气相色谱/质谱联用仪研究了卷烟纸用麻浆的热解行为.在空气氛围中,将麻浆分别在350,400,466和500 ℃下进行热裂解,并以GC/MS对其裂解产物进行定性和半定量分析.结果发现,麻浆可裂解出3-戊烯-2-酮、糠醛、2-甲基-苯酚和庚酸等32种产物.低温(350 ℃)下,裂解产物组分主要为醛类和呋喃类化合物,且随着裂解温度的增加,醛类和呋喃类的相对含量逐渐下降.466 ℃时开始出现酚类,500 ℃时开始出现 1-甲基萘等有害物质,酚类的种类和含量都增加了,但同样增加了酸类和醇类.致香成分的减少和有害物质的增加主要是高温纤维素芳环化的结果.%The pyrolysis behavior of hemp pulp used in cigarette paper was investigated using thermal analysis and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrumetry.In the air atmosphere, the hemp pulp was pyrolyzed at 350,400,466 and 500 ℃,respectively.The pyrolysis products were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed.At the four pyrolysis temperatures mentioned above,complex pyrolysis products were formed and 32 products were detected altogether,including 3-pentene-2-one,furol,2-methylphenol and heptanoic acid.At low temperature (350 ℃),pyrolysis products were mainly aldehydes and funans,and with the elevation of the pyrolysis temperature,the contents of aldehydes and funans decreased.Phenols starts to present at 466 ℃,and at 500 ℃,harmful pyrolysis products such as 1-methylnaphthalenes started to present,the phenols'type and content increased,but acids and alcohols increased similarly.The results of the decreasing of the fragrant ingredient and the increasing of the harmful pyrolysis products is mainly cellulose benzannulation at high temperature.

  15. 接地线缆HEMP电流响应规律研究%Study on Current Response of Grounding Cable in HEMP Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴焱杰; 张春光; 许凯; 赵煜

    2014-01-01

    The cable connecting the information systems may be coupled by the electromagnetic pulse energy to the internal cir-cuit,resulting in system performance degradation,damage and even burned,and bringing great harm. Therefore,the work to research cables’ effects under electromagnetic pulse is the precondition to take electromagnetic protective measures. The finite-difference time-domain ( FDTD) method and Noda thin models are used to establish the space and computational model with high-altitude nuclear elec-tromagnetic pulse (HEMP) as the incident source,the grounding cable HEMP current response in the different states is analyzed and calculated. The results show that the response current of grounding cable attenuates rapidly in the oscillation process with a large peak at a position higher;the incident direction changes of the wave source can produce different results in response,and the response current mainly appears from the cable laid in the same direction with the electric field excitation component. The conclusions can provide useful guidance for the cable electromagnetic protection.%连接电子系统的线缆能够将电磁脉冲能量耦合至系统的内部电路,造成系统性能降级、损伤甚至烧毁,带来极大的危害,因此开展线缆的电磁脉冲效应研究工作是采取针对性电磁防护措施的必要前提。以高空核爆电磁脉冲(HEMP)为入射源,基于时域有限差分(FDTD)方法和Noda细线模型建立仿真空间和计算模型,分析计算了不同状态下接地线缆的HEMP电流响应。结果表明,接地线缆的响应电流在振荡过程中迅速衰减,且在较高位置处峰值较大;波源入射方向的改变会产生不同的响应结果,线缆响应电流主要来自与其布设方向一致的电场分量的激励。所得结论能够为线缆的电磁防护提供有益指导。

  16. Improving the dimensional stability of natural fibers with the fiber polymer penetrant and electron beam method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Sean R.

    Cellulose-based material absorbs or releases moisture in relation to atmospheric conditions. This research looks to minimize dimensional change with the use of low molecular weight (LMW) monomers polymerized by electron beam (EB) ionizing radiation. Sisal, jute, coir, and hemp natural fibers with average natural swelling of 26.55%, 29.46%, 9.06%, and 32.69%, respectively, and glass fiber as control were used for analysis. Three LMW bulk monomers, hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (EGDA), as well as an encapsulating agent, isodecyl acrylate, and cross-linker, ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate, were evaluated for resin formulation. In total, 1015 specimens were measured for swelling. Moisture uptake characteristics of the specimens were analyzed. A new method of measuring specimen dimensional changes by a light microscope and image analysis software was used. Results indicate dimensional stability improvement of 39.34% - 91.46% for hemp with HEA and cross-linker, and sisal with HEMA and cross-linker respectively.

  17. Alternations in Cholesterol and Fatty Acids Composition in Egg Yolk of Rhode Island Red x Fyoumi Hens Fed with Hemp Seeds (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaib Shahid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of hemp seed (HS supplementation on egg yolk cholesterol and fatty acid composition in laying hens. Sixty hens (Rhode Island Red x Fyoumi were evenly distributed into four groups (three replicates per group at the peak production (34 weeks. HS was included into the ration at the level of 0.0 (HS-0, 15 (HS-15, 20 (HS-20, and 25% (HS-25 and continued the supplementation for consecutively three weeks. At the end of the experiment, three eggs per replicate were randomly collected and analyzed for egg yolk fatty acids and cholesterol profile. The statistical analysis of the result revealed that supplementation of HS-25 significantly (P<0.05 decreased egg yolk total cholesterol, myristic (C14:0, palmitic (C16:0, and stearic (C18:0. Similarly, total as well as individual monounsaturated fatty acids decreased significantly (P<0.05 while total and individual polyunsaturated fatty acids increased significantly in the HS-25. In addition, total omega-3 and omega-6 increased significantly in the HS-25 group. From the present result, we concluded that addition of HS at the rate of 25% to the diet of laying hens augmented the cholesterol and fatty acids profile in egg yolk.

  18. 近地面1553B通信系统HEMP效应试验%HEMP effect experiment for surface 1553B communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建红; 周启明; 赵刚; 李小伟; 周开明; 王艳

    2010-01-01

    为了考察地面设备抗高空电磁脉冲(HEMP)性能,确定关键耦合节点,寻求有效的加固方法,进行了带1553B通信电缆的某地面监控系统的功能演示设备HEMP效应试验.通过分析电磁脉冲主要耦合通道,针对耦合通道设计实验方案,测试了1553B通信线缆及变压耦合器端口的HEMP耦合信号,分析了系统中变压耦合器及隔离变压器对耦合干扰信号的影响,同时对低通滤波器降低HEMP耦合的加固方法进行了验证.实验结果显示1553B通信系统具有较好的抗HEMP性能,变压耦合器对端口耦合信号有较大影响,采用低通滤波器可以简单有效地降低HEMP耦合强度.

  19. Antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysates produced by the proteases AFP, HT, Pro-G, actinidin and zingibain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; Birch, John

    2016-07-15

    Hemp protein isolates (HPIs) were hydrolysed by proteases (AFP, HT, ProG, actinidin and zingibain). The enzymatic hydrolysis of HPIs was evaluated through the degree of hydrolysis and SDS-PAGE profiles. The bioactive properties of the resultant hydrolysates (HPHs) were accessed through ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities. The physical properties of the resultant HPHs were evaluated for their particle sizes, zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity. HT had the highest rate of caseinolytic activity at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg mL(-1)) compared to other proteases that required concentration of 100 mg mL(-1) to achieve their maximum rate of caseinolytic activity. This led to the highest degree of hydrolysis of HPIs by HT in the SDS-PAGE profiles. Among all proteases and substrates, HT resulted in the highest bioactivities (ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities) generated from alkali extracted HPI in the shortest time (2 h) compared to the other protease preparations.

  20. Boosting accumulation of neutral lipids in Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 grown on hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn) seed aqueous extract as feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alok; Pravez, Mohammad; Deeba, Farha; Pruthi, Vikas; Singh, Rajesh P; Pruthi, Parul A

    2014-08-01

    Hemp seeds aqueous extract (HSAE) was used as cheap renewable feedstocks to grow novel oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 isolated from Himalayan permafrost soil. The yeast showed boosted triglyceride (TAG) accumulation in the lipid droplets (LDs) which were transesterified to biodiesel. The sonicated HSAE prepared lacked toxic inhibitors and showed enhanced total lipid content and lipid yield 55.56%, 8.39±0.57g/l in comparison to 41.92%, 6.2±0.8g/l from industrially used glucose synthetic medium, respectively. Supersized LDs (5.95±1.02μm) accumulated maximum TAG in sonicated HSAE grown cells were visualized by fluorescent BODIPY (505/515nm) stain. GC-MS analysis revealed unique longer carbon chain FAME profile containing Arachidic acid (C20:0) 5%, Behenic acid (C22:0) 9.7%, Heptacosanoic acid (C27:0) 14.98%, for the first time in this yeast when grown on industrially competent sonicated HSAE, showing more similarity to algal oils.

  1. Effect-directed analysis of cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils by planar chromatography linked with (bio)assays and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2015-11-15

    Cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils are healthy oils for human consumption as these are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and bioactive phytochemicals. However, bioactive information on the food intake side is mainly focused on target analysis. For more comprehensive information with regard to effects, single bioactive compounds present in the seed oil extracts were detected by effect-directed assays, like bioassays or an enzymatic assay, directly linked with chromatography and further characterized by mass spectrometry. This effect-directed analysis is a streamlined method for the analysis of bioactive compounds in the seed oil extracts. All effective compounds with regard to the five assays or bioassays applied were detected in the samples, meaning also bioactive breakdown products caused during oil processing, residues or contaminants, aside the naturally present bioactive phytochemicals. The investigated cold-pressed oils contained compounds that exert antioxidative, antimicrobial, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and estrogenic activities. This effect-directed analysis can be recommended for bioactivity profiling of food to obtain profound effect-directed information on the food intake side.

  2. Kinetics and molecular docking studies of the inhibitions of angiotensin converting enzyme and renin activities by hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; He, Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-05-07

    Four novel peptide sequences (WVYY, WYT, SVYT, and IPAGV) identified from an enzymatic digest of hemp seed proteins were used for enzyme inhibition kinetics and molecular docking studies. Results showed that WVYY (IC50 = 0.027 mM) was a more potent (p < 0.05) ACE-inhibitory peptide than WYT (IC50 = 0.574 mM). However, WYT (IC50 = 0.054 mM) and SVYT (IC50 = 0.063 mM) had similar renin-inhibitory activity, which was significantly better than that of IPAGV (IC50 = 0.093 mM). Kinetics studies showed that WVYY had a lower inhibition constant (Ki) of 0.06 mM and hence greater affinity for ACE when compared to the 1.83 mM obtained for WYT. SVYT had lowest Ki value of 0.89 mM against renin, when compared to the values obtained for WYT and IPAGV. Molecular docking results showed that the higher inhibitory activities of WVYY and SVYT were due to the greater degree of noncovalent bond-based interactions with the enzyme protein, especially formation of higher numbers of hydrogen bonds with active site residues.

  3. 麻秆轻体实芯门门扇的研制%Development of Hemp Stalk Lightweight Solid Core Doors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴跃锋

    2014-01-01

    用木材作为边框,利用麻秆作为芯层材料制成实木复合门,介绍了其结构和生产工艺,通过检测表明:该制品与传统的实木复合门相比,除具有生产工艺简单、质量轻、木材利用率高、不易变形的优点外,还具有很好的隔音和耐冲击性能。%The present work discussed the technology of using wood as border frame and hemp stalk as core material to produce solid wood composite doors. The structure of the door and its production process were introduced. Testing results indicated that compared with the traditional solid wood composite doors, this product exhibited the advantages of simple production process, light weight, high timber utilization rate, good dimensional stability, plus good performances on sound proofing, water proofing, and shock resistance.

  4. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  5. Investigation on the biological enzyme degumming technology combined with chemical method on hemp fiber%汉麻纤维的生物酶与化学法联合脱胶工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵欣; 赵彦松; 罗晶琨

    2015-01-01

    采用酸性果胶酶和木聚糖酶复配对汉麻纤维进行前处理后,再使用氢氧化钠传统方法对汉麻纤维进行二次脱胶,分析了酶用量、时间、温度、pH和二次脱胶时氢氧化钠用量对煮练效果的影响,并确定最佳工艺条件为:酸性果胶酶9%(omf),木聚糖酶12%(omf),时间120 min,温度50℃,pH=4.6,二次脱胶时使用6 g/L氢氧化钠.与传统煮练法漂白后的大麻纤维相比,联合脱胶漂白后纤维的白度基本保持不变,但后者的失重率、断裂强力和残胶率却均优于前者.%Hemp fibers pretreated with acid pectinase and xylanase were degummed once again with the traditional sodium hydroxide. The influences of the amount of enzyme, treating time and temperature, pH and the dosage of sodium hydroxide in the second degumming on scouring effect were analyzed, and the opti-mum technological conditions were determined as the amount of pectinase was 9%(omf), xylanase dosage was 12%(omf), the time was 120 min, the temperature was 50 ℃, pH was 4.6 and the concentration of sodi-um hydroxide in second degumming was 6 g/L. Compared with bleached hemp fibers with traditional scouring method, the whiteness of the bleached hemp fibers with combined method remain nearly unchanged, the weight loss rate, breaking strength and the residual gum rate was better.

  6. 一种新型非易失性存储器在导弹控制系统抗HEMP中的应用设想%A New FRAM Application in Ballistic Missile Control System for Anti-HEMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春侠

    2006-01-01

    介绍了一种新型非易失性存储器(FRAM)的数据存储原理、特性及其在相关行业的应用.针对电磁脉冲武器对导弹控制系统的严重威胁,重点阐述控制系统抗核电磁脉冲(HEMP)的主要途径.提出在导弹控制系统中使用FRAM的应用设想,并分析指出FRAM在导弹控制系统中使用的优点.

  7. 两种高空核爆电磁脉冲电缆耦合效应的比较%Comparison of the cable coupling effects under two kinds of HEMP environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蓓云; 周辉; 谢彦召

    2002-01-01

    有关高空核爆电磁脉冲(HEMP)的标准,我国推荐的1976 HEMP和IEC推荐的1996 HEMP的早期波形是不同的.针对两种HEMP标准,采用传输线方程计算了不同长度电缆受HEMP影响的情况,结果表明电缆的1976 HEMP早期耦合效应较1996 HEMP早期耦合效应要严重的多.

  8. Design of HEMP Radiating-wave Simulator Based on TEM Horn%基于横电磁波天线的高空核电磁脉冲辐射波模拟器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽思; 潘晓东; 王赟

    2012-01-01

    为解决传统核电磁脉冲模拟器存在测试空间受限的问题,提出了基于横电磁波(TEM)喇叭天线的高空核电磁脉冲辐射波模拟器设计方案。通过数值仿真验证了TEM喇叭天线的辐射场波形,指出TEM喇叭天线在应用于辐射式电磁脉冲模拟器时存在低频辐射能力差的问题;通过比较TEM喇叭天线对3种典型核电磁脉冲的辐射能力,发现辐射场的上升沿部分主要取决于激励源的上升前沿陡度,辐射场的脉冲宽度与激励脉冲的宽度有关,可以通过展宽激励源脉冲宽度的方法来补偿TEM天线低频辐射能力差的问题;通过实验验证了利用TEM喇叭天线研制电磁脉冲辐射波模拟器的可行性,但仍需要阻性加载或展宽激励脉冲等方法对TEM喇叭天线的低频辐射性能进行改善。%A TEM horn antenna of HEMP radiating-wave simulator is presented to expand the relatively small testing zone of the traditional transmission line simulator. The radiation field waveform of the antenna is simulated. The simulation results show that TEM antenna can be used to radiate HEMP simulation radiating wave, but in low frequency band its emissive capability is poor. Compared with radiation field waveforms of three typical HEMP excitation sources, it is concluded that the rise edge of the radiation waveform is determined by the changing rate of the excitation pulse source's rise edge, and the width of the radiation waveform is determined by the width of the excitation pulse. So the impact of the low frequency radiation capability deficiency can be compensated by expanding the excitation pulse width. The idea of using TEM horn antenna for HEMP radiating-wave simulater is verified by experiments. However, this application still needs improvement in the antenna's low frequency radiation capability, by means of loading resistance and expanding the exciation pulse width etc.

  9. 黑龙江省发展大麻的优势与主要栽培技术%The Superiority and Main Cultivation Technology of Hemp in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宪友; 张利国; 房郁妍; 郑楠

    2011-01-01

    The status and the development advantages of hemp industry in Heilongjiang Province were described in this article: Heilongjiang Province is the first one to use flat sowing, close planting and mechanized processing. Warm water retting, dew retting technology and decorticating scutching machinery were adopted in the hemp production. The planting area of hemp in Heilongjiang Province was 9300 hm2 in 2007 and 4200 hm2 in 2009, accounting for 38.9% of the total in China. There are rich soil resources,suitable climate, a long history of planting hemp, the large-scale processing conditions and the mechanized conditions for cultivation and production. At the same time, the primary cultivation techniques were stated including seed treatment, right soil selection, ploughing in the summer and the fall, careful soil preparation,rational fertilization, timely planting, chemical weed control, irrigation, the control of diseases and pests,timely harvest, the proper storage and the mechanical threshing.%本文介绍了黑龙江省大麻产业的现状和发展优势:率先采用平播密植,机械加工.大麻生产主要采用温水沤麻和雨露工艺进行生物脱胶,利用亚麻剥麻机制麻.2007年我省大麻种植面积9300hm2,2009年仍有4200hm2,种植面积占全国大麻种植面积的38.9%.黑龙江种植大麻有丰富的土地资源、适宜的气候条件;有悠久的种麻历史、规模加工条件;有全程的机械化栽培生产条件.同时,结合黑龙江生产实际提出了大麻主要栽培技术:播前种子药剂处理,选择适宜的地块种植,伏、秋翻地,精细整地,合理施肥,适时播种,适时进行化学除草、灌溉、防病治虫,适期收获,妥善保管,机械脱粒.

  10. 汉麻/天丝等多组分功能性针织面料的开发%Development of Hemp/Tencel multi-component functional knitted fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王圣杰

    2016-01-01

    Hemp/Tencel multi-component functional knitted fabric was developed by using hemp fiber, hemp viscose fiber ,Tencel LF fiber and long-staple cotton fiber. The paper introduced the properties of four fibers. The special physical and chemical properties of hemp fiber were introduced in detail . Technological improvement during the spinning,knitting ,dyeing and finishing was illustrated in detail. Trough the wearing and functional properties testing,the results showed the following conclusions. The blending of four fibers was able to improve its spinnability and fabric feel. Steaming and waxing technology were used to reduce the knitting difficulty and increase the rate of finished products. Cellulases polishing treatment was applied to improve the fabric handle. Knitted fabric developed with the improvement technology meet the wearability and have antibacterial and UV resistance functions.%采用汉麻原生纤维、汉麻粘胶纤维、天丝LF纤维和长绒棉纤维开发了汉麻/天丝等多组分功能性针织面料。文中介绍了4种纤维的性能,详细介绍汉麻原生纤维的结构特点及性能;阐述了纱线的纺纱工序和针织面料的编织、染整工序中的技术改进;并对面料的服用性能和功能性进行了测试。结果表明:采用4种纤维混纺,可以有效地提高纱线的可纺性,改善面料的手感;采用蒸纱、上蜡技术可以减轻织造难度,提高面料的制成率;采用纤维素酶抛光处理技术能够有效地改善面料的手感。本文中所开发的针织面料,不仅其各项服用性能指标符合要求,还具有很好地抑菌抗菌和抗紫外线的功能。

  11. The Difference of Resistant Ability among Hemp Varieties under Low Potassium Stress%低钾胁迫下不同大麻品种的耐性差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐云; 袁青; 胡华冉; 陈仲英; 龙瑜菡; 杜光辉; 刘飞虎

    2016-01-01

    采用水培方法研究6个大麻品种在低钾胁迫下苗期生长、干物质积累和钾吸收利用特性。结果表明:低钾胁迫对大麻地上部的产量影响较大,对根重的影响较小;不同品种在不同处理下各器官的钾离子和干物质的分配有差异;基于隶属函数平均值评价供试品种耐低钾能力,巴马火麻>云麻5号>云麻1号>皖麻1号>云晚6号>晋麻1号。由结果可知,耐低钾胁迫能力强的品种能够在钾含量低的环境下吸收较多的钾离子,向地上部转运钾离子的能力较强,能利用有限的钾营养产生较高的生物量。%Using 6 hemp varieties as test material,the growth,dry matter accumulation and potassi-um absorption and utilization characteristics were assessed under low-potassium stress by the method of water culture. The results showed that the aboveground yield of hemp was more severely inhibited than root,and the distribution of dry matter and potassium in organs were different. Evaluating the ability of tolerating low-potassium based on the average value of membership function,we found a phenomenon:Bama hemp>Yunma 1 >Wanma 1 >Yunma 5 >Yunwan 6>Jinma 1. The results showed that the hemp varieties had a strong ability to resistant low-potassium stress which could absorb more potassium and transport to the aboveground organs under low potassium environment,and take advantage of the limited nutrition of potassium to produce higher biomass.

  12. Fluffy and softening finishes of hemp/cotton mixture fabrics%大麻/彩棉交织物蓬松柔软整理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚杨; 姜凤琴

    2011-01-01

    To improve the flexibility and the feeling of hemp/cotton mixture fabrics, weak cationic softener and fluffy agents were used to process the mixture fabrics. Flexural rigidity was used as main evaluation index. Regression equation was made through quadratic regression orthogonal and the best ratio of softener and fluffy agents was calculated. The result demonstrated that the mass concentration of softener is 7. 656 g/L and the mass concentration of fluffy agents is 6. 862%. After treatment, the stiffness decreased significantly and the flexibility is increased significantly but the loss of strength is very small.%为了提高大麻/彩棉交织物的柔软度,分别选用弱阳离子型柔软剂和阳离子型蓬松片对织物进行处理,以抗弯刚度为主要评价指标.考虑到柔软剂与蓬松片的交互作用,通过二次回归正交试验建立回归方程,确定交互作用下试剂的最佳浓度.通过对处理前后交织物的断裂强力、断裂伸长及手感进行对比分析最后得出最佳整理工艺:柔软剂的质量浓度为7.656 g/L,蓬松片的质量分数为6.862%.经蓬松柔软处理的大麻/彩棉交织物,硬挺度明显下降,手感丰满、滑糯,柔软度明显增加且强力损失较小.

  13. Allelopathy of Extracted Solutions from Flax, Castor and Hemp on Soybean Cyst Nematode%亚麻、蓖麻和大麻浸提液对 SCN化感作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑霞; 潘冬梅; 魏国江; 杜春玉; 高宇; 韩喜财; 姜颖

    2014-01-01

    The killing effect of extracted solutions from different tissues and organs in flax , castor and hemp acting on soybean cyst nematode was studied in this paper , the result showed that the extracted solution from flax root had a stimulatory function to the hatch of cysts and was most capable of killing the juveniles.The killing effect of the extracted solution from hemp leaves was better than that from roots.%利用亚麻、蓖麻和大麻三种植物不同器官浸提液对SCN卵和J2的室内毒力进行了测定,结果表明亚麻根提取物显著促进胞囊孵化,且对SCN J2毒杀效果最好;同一植物根提取物对SCN J 2毒杀效果随着浓度的增大而增强。

  14. UWB,HEMP作用下长线缆场线耦合效应比较研究%Study on the Comparation of Field-Wire Coupling Efftect for Long Wire in UWB with HEMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安霆; 魏明; 李士彦; 刘尚合

    2010-01-01

    为详细研究UWB(超宽带)、HEMP(核电磁脉冲)作用下长线缆的场线耦合效应问题,并将二者进行比较,依据场线耦合效应计算的Agrawal、Vance模型,推导了能有效用于场线耦合效应编程计算的实用算式.在此基础上编写了Matlab计算程序,对UWB和HEMP作用下长线缆的场线耦合效应进行了计算、分析和比较,得出了两种强场作用下的效应规律.计算显示,UWB和HEMP都能在线缆上激励较高的电流脉冲,也能在线缆端部激励较强的干扰电压脉冲;在相近条件下,UWB激励的响应弱于HEMP;二者相比,其场线耦合效应既有相似之处,又有不同的特点.

  15. Effects of green manure cover crops on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Li, Nian-Jhen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Tang, Li-Cheng; Chi, Hsin

    2014-06-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) is an important pest of numerous agro-economic crops, including green manure cover crops. In Taiwan, sesbania (Sesbanin roxburghii Merr.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), and rapeseed (Brassicae campestris L. variety chinensis) are the most popular green manure crops; sesbania and sunn hemp are commonly planted in warm seasons, whereas rapeseed is grown in the winter. In this study, life-table data for S. litura reared on these three green manures were collected to evaluate their roles as refuges of this pest. The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase of S. litura were the highest when reared on sesbania (1428.1 offspring, 0.2327 d(-1), 1.2621 d(-1)), followed by sunn hemp (778.4 offspring, 0.2070 d(-1), 1.2300 d(-1)) and rapeseed (737.6 offspring, 0.2040 d(-1), 1.2263 d(-1)). The high growth rates on these green manure crops show that they can serve as potential breeding sites for S. litura. Population projection demonstrated the rapid growth of S. litura on sesbania, sunn hemp, and rapeseed as well. Because most growers have traditionally ignored pest management in green manure fields, the mass emergence of S. litura in these fields may cause unexpected infestations in nearby vegetable, corn, and peanut crops. This study shows that the use of green manures as sources of nutrients should be critically reassessed and an area-wide pest management program should be instituted by taking the population of S. litura in green manure fields into consideration.

  16. Organic polyculture of passion fruit, pineapple, corn and cassava: the influence of green manure and distance between espaliers

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto; Pedro Arruda Campos; Leonardo Barreto Tavella; Antônio Jussier da Silva Solino; Irene Ferro da Silva

    2014-01-01

    The organic fruit crop should incorporate the principles of sustainable agriculture, with a guarantee of productivity coupled with ecological diversity, using techniques of policultive with regional species. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the green manure crops [Canavalia ensiformis (jack beans), Crotalaria spectabilis (sunn hemp), Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu), Arachis pintoi (peanut forage) and spontaneous plants] and distance between espaliers on the yields of ...

  17. Phytomass production and nutrient accumulation by green manure species

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Green manuring is recognized as a viable alternative to improve nutrient cycling in soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation in shoots of the summer green manures jack bean [Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC.], dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajanvar var. Flavus DC.), dwarf mucuna [Mucuna deeringiana (Bort) Merr] and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), under nitrogen fertilization and/or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria. A split plo...

  18. Organic polyculture of passion fruit, pineapple, corn and cassava: the influence of green manure and distance between espaliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The organic fruit crop should incorporate the principles of sustainable agriculture, with a guarantee of productivity coupled with ecological diversity, using techniques of policultive with regional species. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the green manure crops [Canavalia ensiformis (jack beans, Crotalaria spectabilis (sunn hemp, Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu, Arachis pintoi (peanut forage and spontaneous plants] and distance between espaliers on the yields of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (passion fruit, Ananas comosus (pineapple, Zea mays (maize, Manihot esculenta (cassava and biomass in organic polyculture in the state of Acre, Brazil. The randomized block design experiment comprised plots encompassing the space between the rows of passion fruits (espaliers located 3 m or 4 m apart, and subplots that contained the green manure crops. Green biomass yield by jack beans, sunn hemp and tropical kudzu was greater than that provided by peanut forage and spontaneous plants. The polyculture of passion fruit, pineapple, maize and cassava presented a high overall yield (44462 kg ha-1. The land-use efficiency of the polyculture system was between 2.45 (with sunn hemp and 2.77 (with tropical kudzu times greater than that achieved by individual monocultures. The yields of passion fruit (with tropical kudzu as cover crop and pineapple (with spontaneous plants as green manure were enhanced by some 72 and 34%, respectively, when cultivated in plots comprising 3 m-spaced espaliers in comparison with plots containing 4 m-spaced espaliers.

  19. Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P winter cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida.

  20. Soil Organic Matter Quality of an Oxisol Affected by Plant Residues and Crop Sequence under No-Tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cora, Jose; Marcelo, Adolfo

    2013-04-01

    Plant residues are considered the primarily resource for soil organic matter (SOM) formation and the amounts and properties of plant litter are important controlling factors for the SOM quality. We determined the amounts, quality and decomposition rate of plant residues and the effects of summer and winter crop sequences on soil organic C (TOC) content, both particulate organic C (POC) and mineral-associated organic C (MOC) pools and humic substances in a Brazilian Rhodic Eutrudox soil under a no-tillage system. The organic C analysis in specifics pools used in this study was effective and should be adopted in tropical climates to evaluate the soil quality and the sustainability of various cropping systems. Continuous growth of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) on summer provided higher contents of soil POC and continuous growth of maize (Zea mays L.) provided higher soil humic acid and MOC contents. Summer soybean-maize rotation provided the higher plant diversity, which likely improved the soil microbial activity and the soil organic C consumption. The winter sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke) enhanced the soil MOC, a finding that is attributable to the higher N content of the crop residue. Sunn hemp and pigeon pea provided the higher soil POC content. Sunn hemp showed better performance and positive effects on the SOM quality, making it a suitable winter crop choice for tropical conditions with a warm and dry winter.

  1. Phytomass production and nutrient accumulation by green manure species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Soares Mangaravite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is recognized as a viable alternative to improve nutrient cycling in soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation in shoots of the summer green manures jack bean [Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC.], dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajanvar var. Flavus DC., dwarf mucuna [Mucuna deeringiana (Bort Merr] and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., under nitrogen fertilization and/or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria. A split plot design was arranged with the four Fabaceae species as main plots and nitrogen fertilization (with and without and inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria (with and without as the subplots, in a 2² factorial. The experiment was arranged as a randomized complete block design with four replications. In the conditions of this trial, the sunn hemp had the highest production of shoot phytomass (12.4 Mg ha-1 and nutrient accumulation, while the dwarf mucuna had the lowest production of shoot phytomass (3.9 Mg ha-1 and nutrient accumulation. The results showed no effect of nitrogen fertilization or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria on the production of shoot phytomass and nutrient accumulation, except for inoculation without nitrogen fertilization, resulting in greater P accumulation (p <0.05 in the sunn hemp and greater Zn and Mn accumulation in the dwarf mucuna. These findings indicate that N fertilization or inoculation with N2-fixing bacteria for Fabaceae are low efficiency practices in the edaphoclimatic conditions of this study.

  2. Vegetation indices as indicators of damage by the sunn pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... structure insensitive pigment index (SIPI) were chosen out of 19 indices initially tested. The NDVI ... Because chlorophyll content plays a direct role in photosynthesis ... near infrared (NIR) reflectance from its leaves. Jensen.

  3. 药剂拌种处理对大麻病虫害的防治%Seed Dressing with Chemicals to Control Diseases and Pests of Hemp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宪友

    2012-01-01

    The method of controlling the diseases and pests of hemp by treating seeds with some fungicide and chemicals was studied comprehensively in this paper. Firstly, two combinations were selected, which performed better on the seedling emergence, survival seedlings rate, harvested plants, stalk and fiber yields, and cotrol efficiency. Secondly, a comparison experiment was made between the two combinations, the results showed that the combination of 10% metalaxyl, 48% mancozeb and 75% carbofuran per hectare could have effects by 71.4%, 80%, 75.0% and 583% respectively on controlling flea beetle, borer, stalk rot and botrytis cinerea accordingly, and the combination of 10% metalaxyl, 48% mancozeb and 75% carbofuran per hectare could have effects by 57.1%, 60.0%, 100% and 75.0% respectively on controlling the aboved diseases and pests.%本文研究了利用药剂拌种方法,对大麻病虫害进行综合防治.首先通过药剂筛选试验,选出对大麻出苗率、保苗率、收获株数提高和原茎、纤维增产及防病虫效果优异的药剂组合两个;然后再进行比较试验,对这两个药剂组合防治大麻病虫害效果进行研究.研究结果表明:每公顷用10%甲霜灵(0.75kg)+48%代森锰锌(0.9kg)+75%克百威(1.0kg)拌种,对大麻虫害跳甲、螟虫和病害茎腐病、灰霉病的防治效果分别达71.4%、80%和75.0%、58.3%;每公顷用15%多菌灵(1.0kg) +75%克百威(1.0kg)+10%福美双(1.2kg),对大麻虫害跳甲、螟虫和病害茎腐病、灰霉病的防治效果分别达57.1%、60.0%和100%、75.0%.

  4. High Efficient Technology of Enclosed Weeding in Hemp Field%大麻高效除草(封闭)技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宪友

    2012-01-01

    本文利用不同除草剂进行播后苗前(封闭)处理,对大麻生产期田间杂草综合防治效果进行了研究.研究结果表明:采用65%异丙甲草胺乳油3L/hm2封闭除草,对禾本科杂草防效可达55.6%,对阔叶杂草龙葵、藜、蓼、苋的防治效果分别达到66.7%、37.5%、88.9%、89.5%,对阔叶杂草蓼、苋防治效果比较理想;采用40%施田扑乳油3L/hm2封闭除草,对禾本科杂草防效可达63.9%,对阔叶杂草龙葵、藜、蓼、苋的防治效果分别达到75.0%、75.0%、66.7%、57.9%,阔叶杂草龙葵、藜比较理想.两种除草剂对禾本科杂草均较好的抑制生长效果.%In this paper, we had a study on the weeding efficiencies of two herbicides in hemp field, the herbicides were sprayed after sowing but before seedling emerging (enclosed weeding). The results were: Using 65% of EC (dosage was SL/hm2), the control efficiency of the grass family weed could be 55.6%, and the control efficiencies of the broad leaf weed including nightshade, lamb's -quarters, knotweed and amaranth were 66.7%, 37.5%, 88.9% and 89.5% respectively. This herbicide had good control for knotweed and amaranth. Using 40% of Phendimethalin (dosage was dUhm2), the control efficiency of the grass family weed could be 63.9%, and the control efficiencies of the broad leaf weed including nightshade, lamb's-quarters, knotweed and amaranth were 75%, 75%, 66.7% and 57.9% respectively. This herbicide had good control for nightshade and lamb's-quarters. Both the herbicides had good control for the grass family weed.

  5. 云南省5个雌雄异株工业大麻群体遗传结构评价%Genetic Structure of Five Dioecious Industrial Hemp Varieties in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璇; 郭蓉; 万睿璇; 许艳萍; 张庆滢; 郭孟璧; 郭鸿彦; 杨明

    2015-01-01

    为了揭示雌雄异株工业大麻品种群体的遗传结构,本研究采用RAPD和ISSR分子标记对云南省5个典型的雌雄异株工业大麻品种群体(云麻1号~云麻5号)的遗传多样性和遗传分化进行了评价。结果显示,所用的4条RAPD引物和8条ISSR引物在5个工业大麻品种群体共120个个体中扩增出74个位点,其中多态位点64个,多态率达86.5%。5个工业大麻品种总的Nei's基因多样性(He)为0.3095,群体内Nei's基因多样性介于0.2167~0.2878,平均值为0.2513,遗传多样性水平呈现出:云麻3号>云麻4号>云麻1号>云麻5号>云麻2号;群体间遗传相似系数介于0.8749~0.9255,群体间基因流(Nm)为2.1595,表明5个工业大麻品种群体之间遗传同质化程度较高。5个品种群体之间遗传分化系数(Gst)为0.188,即总的遗传变异中有18.8%存在品种群体之间,人工选择使工业大麻品种间遗传分化显著大于风媒传粉植物居群间遗传分化的平均值(G s t为0.100)。本研究结果表明,雌雄异株工业大麻品种群体遗传相似性较高,加大群体内选择纯化或者使用遗传背景差异大的群体开展工业大麻品种育种具有较大潜力。%To reveal genetic structure of dioecious industrial hemp, population diversity and genetic differentiation of five typical dioecious hemp varieties in Yunnan were studied using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers. Four RAPD primers and eight ISSR primers amplified 74 loci with 64 polymorphic bands in 120 individuals from five industrial hemp populations. The polymorphic rate was 86.5%. The Nei's gene coefficient of the total gene diversity (He ) was 0.309 5, and the Nei's gene diversity within populations ranged from 0.216 7 to 0.287 8 with the average value of 0.251 3. The level of genetic diversity can be ranked as:Yunma No.3>Yunma No.4>Yunma No.1>Yunma No.5>Yunma No.2. The genetic similarity coefficient among populations ranged from 0.874 9 to 0

  6. Determination of Content of Linoleic Acid and α-linoleic Acid in Hemp Fruit by GC%气相色谱法测定火麻仁中亚油酸及α-亚麻酸的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩娜; 赵建邦; 宋平顺

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish the method for determination of the content of linoleic acid and α-linoleic acid in hemp fruit by GC, and provide evidence for evaluating quality and criterion. Method: The GC separation was performed on a ZB-WAX column (0. 5 μm ×0. 32 mm ×30 m) at 190 ℃, inject temperature at 250 ℃, FID detecter temperature was at 250 ℃, gas as N2 (99. 99% ); flow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1, air 450 mL·min -1 , H2 45 mL·min-1. Result: The content of linoleic acid and α-linoleie acid in hemp fruit was 31.42%-37.21%, 8.02% -9. 65%. Conclusion: The method can be used to control the quality of linoleic acid and α-linoleic acid in hemp fruit, which is accurate, convenient and repeatable.%目的:建立气相色谱测定火麻仁中亚油酸、α-亚麻酸的含量方法,为评价质量和标准制定提供依据.方法:ZB-WAX毛细管柱(0.5 μm×0.32 mm×30 m),载气为高纯度氮气,流速1.0 mL·min-1,分流比5∶1,柱温为190℃,进样口温度为250℃,FID检测器温度为250℃,空气450 mL·min-1,氢气45 mL·min-1.结果:火麻仁中亚油酸、α-亚麻酸含量分别31.42%~37.21%,8.02%~9.65%.结论:该法准确,简便,重复性好,可用于火麻仁中亚油酸、α-亚麻酸的质量控制.

  7. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  9. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  10. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. A New Method to Compute the Character Parameters of the Double-Exponential Model for HEMP%一种计算HEMP双指数模型特征参数的新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝宗亮; 盛松林; 赵兴录; 罗建书; 米杨

    2013-01-01

    高空核电磁脉冲(HEMP)一般利用双指数模型进行模拟,文中分析了该模型各特征参数之间的函数关系.提出了一种利用HEMP波形的物理参数计算双指数模型特征参数的新方法,并对该方法进行数值计算验证.该方法相对于以往计算模型特征参数的方法降低了计算难度,提高了计算效率.

  12. Effects to HEMP induced current in circuits inside the shielding box caused by penetrative wire%贯通导线对屏蔽机箱内电路HEMP耦合电流的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余同彬; 周璧华

    2002-01-01

    应用时域有限差分法,研究了屏蔽机箱上贯通导线对机箱内电路HEMP耦合电流的影响.研究表明,贯通导线通过与入射场及屏蔽机箱的散射场耦合,可使机箱内与贯通导线直接相连或不相连电路上的HEMP耦合电流显著增强.此研究对电台、微机等电子设备和系统的核电磁脉冲防护具有十分重要的意义.

  13. Use of Lumbar Hemp Cloth versus Paid United Opioids for Cesarean Delivery%布比卡因联合阿片类药物对剖宫产腰麻的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金荣

    2016-01-01

    【目的】探讨布比卡因联合阿片类药物在剖宫产腰麻中的麻醉效果。【方法】以本院150例择期剖宫产产妇为观察对象,术前均选择腰麻处理,按照使用麻醉药物不同分成两组,观察组(90例)使用布比卡因联合芬太尼腰麻,对照组(60例)使用布比卡因腰麻,比较两组的麻醉效果。【结果】观察组感觉阻滞起效时间为(12.6±4.2)min,明显短于对照组(15.8±5.2)min,观察组感觉阻滞持续时间(286.4±20.4)min,明显长于对照组(272.6±12.6)min,且两组相比较差异均有显著性(P 0.05)。观察组术中爆发性疼痛发生率为3.3%,对照组爆发性疼痛发生率为11.7%,两组相比较差异有显著性(P 0.05)。观察组皮肤瘙痒发生率较对照组明显升高(P <0.05)。【结论】剖宫产应用布比卡因联合阿片类药物腰麻提供了满意的麻醉效果,降低了爆发性疼痛的发生率。%Objective]To explore the use of Lumbar Hemp Cloth versus Paid United Opioids for cesarean de-livery.[Methods]Organized 1 50 patients from our hospital undergoing elective cesarean delivery women as the subjects of our study.According to the use of anesthetic,the 1 50 women were divided into two groups:the obser-vation group (90 cases)used cloth than paid lumbar hemp joint fentanyl,and the control group (60 cases)used cloth because waist hemp.Afterwards,the narcotic effect of the two groups were compared.[Results]The obser-vation group's sensory blockade working time was (12.6 + 4.2)min,which was significantly shorter than the con-trol group's sensory blockade working time (1 5.8 ±5.2)min.The observation group's sensory blockade duration was (286.4 + 20.4)min,which was significantly longer than control group's which was (272.6±12.6)min.The motor block effect duration times of the two groups were not significantly different.The probability of operative instances of pain was 3.3% in the observation group and 1 1.7% in the control group-the probability in the

  14. Desempenho do inhame (taro em plantio direto e no consórcio com crotalária, sob manejo orgânico Main development in direct planting and in conjunction with sun hemp under organic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz de Oliveira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos do plantio direto em cobertura morta de aveia-preta e do consórcio com Crotalaria juncea, em sistema orgânico de produção de inhame, em ensaio na EE de Nova Friburgo (Pesagro-Rio, região serrana do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2, onde os tratamentos corresponderam ao: modo de plantio (direto ou convencional e modo de cultivo (monocultivo ou consórcio com crotalária. O cultivo consorciado com a leguminosa promoveu maior altura nas plantas do inhame, assim como reduziu a queima de folhas pelos raios solares. A população infestante de ervas espontâneas foi mais efetivamente controlada com a combinação entre consórcio e plantio direto. Nenhum dos tratamentos influenciou a produtividade do inhame, que foi considerada satisfatória, indicando o potencial do manejo orgânico adotado.An experiment was carried out in the upland region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, to evaluate different planting systems on yam performance under organic management. A randomized blocks design was used with four replications, in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme comprising the treatments: soil tillage system (no-tillage or conventional and cropping system (monoculture or intercropping with Crotalaria juncea. Intercropping with C. juncea (sun hemp stimulated yam vegetative growth and reduced leaf blight caused by sun radiation. The weed population was reduced more effectively associating no-tillage and intercropping with sun hemp. None of the treatments affected yam yield, which was considered satisfactory indicating the potential of the organic management adopted.

  15. Preparation and Application Performance of Particle Hemp Haulm Board for Cushioning Packaging Material%面向缓冲包装材料的麻杆刨花板制备及应用性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王风玫; 母军; 张德荣; 李媛媛

    2012-01-01

    利用提取麻纤维后的加工剩余物-麻杆作为原材料,制备了缓冲刨花板。以不同的密度、施胶量以及厚度进行正交试验,测定了刨花板的性能,分析了麻杆刨花板作为缓冲包装材料的应用性能特点。实验结果表明:以麻杆为原料,在热压温度175℃下,用分段式热压工艺制备的刨花板,具有色浅、质轻的特性;在施胶量为10%时,刨花板的静曲强度和弹性模量均为最佳值;当σ〉190N/cm^2时,所制备的麻杆刨花板具有较低的缓冲系数,可替代EPE作为缓冲包装材料。%Cushioning particle board was prepared using hemp haulm as raw material, which was the residue ot hemp fiber production. Orthogonal experiments were carried out with different density, sizing dosage, and thickness, and performance of the particleboard was tested. The application performance of the particleboard as cushion packaging material was analyzed. The results showed that the particleboard has the characteristics of light mass and color when hot-pressing temperature at 175 ℃ and using piecewise hot-pressing process; when the sizing dosage is 10%, static bending strength and elastic modulus is the best; when σ〉190 N/cm^2, the particleboard has lower buffer coefficient and can substitute for EPE as cushioning packaging material.

  16. Analysis and Design about Transmission System of Hemp Decorticator%工业大麻剥麻机传动系统的分析与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕江南; 马兰; 刘佳杰; 何宏彬; 龙超海

    2015-01-01

    In order to find the economy and effective mechanical transmission between the moving parts of decorticator of hemp fresh stem,the transmission way was designed.Based on the comparison of main mechanical driving way,a transmission way of belt transmission,chain transmission and gear trans-mission ways was chosen.According to the prototype design efficiency and size,the linear velocity of prototype feeding is 1.96 m /s,and the throwing linear velocity of discharge hole is 5.56 m /s.Based on the above parameters,we confirmed that first broken stem roller speed is 288 r/min,third broken stem roller speed is 310 r/min,the strip roller speed is 443 r/min,linear velocity contrast between first and third broken stem roller is 0.15 m /s,linear velocity contrast between third broken stem roller and the stripping drum is 3.45 m /s.Test results show that transmission way of the prototype between the moving parts can satisfy work requirements,and the motion parameters can achieve satisfying work effect.%为了保证工业大麻剥麻机的剥麻质量,提高各运动部件传动效率及工作稳定性,开展了工业大麻剥麻机传动系统的设计工作。本研究对带传动、链传动和齿轮传动等机械传动方式进行了分析,结合工业大麻剥麻机的传动特点,确定本样机从动力到碎茎装置、多级碎茎装置之间、碎茎装置到剥麻装置、以及相互啮合的碎茎辊或剥皮滚筒分别由三角皮带传动、链传动和齿轮传动相结合的多级组合传动方式。并根据样机设计工效及接麻装置设计尺寸,确定了样机喂入线速度为1.96 m /s,麻皮抛出线速度为5.56 m /s,以上述参数为依据,根据试验结果确定了第1(2)对碎茎辊转速为288 r/min,第3(4)对碎茎辊转速为310 r/min,剥麻滚筒转速为443 r/min,此时第1对碎茎辊与第3对碎茎辊之间的线速度差为0.15 m /s,第3对碎茎辊与剥麻滚筒之间的线速度差为3

  17. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  18. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  19. Compressibility of hemp bast fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbroek, A.P.H.; Roekel, van G.J.; Jong, de E.; Weickert, G.; Westerterp, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    A force-based characterization of the extrusion pulping process is necessary to be able to predict the effects of extrusion on fibres. To determine which forces are beneficial and which only cause energy consumption, the nature and the origin of the forces have to be known. This paper discusses the

  20. Growth and seed yield of Bama hemp under different densities and fertilization rates%不同栽培密度和施肥量对巴马火麻生长发育及麻籽产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪涛; 李初英; 黄其椿; 赵艳红; 叶陧; 陈继明; 唐兴富

    2015-01-01

    Objective]The optimal density and fertilization rate for Bama hemp was identified to provide theoretical references for the cultivation of Bama hemp . [Method]The two- factor randomized block design method was used for analyzing the influence of different planting densities (A1:60000 plants/ha, A2:90000 plants/ha, A3:120000 plants/a) and fertilizer rates (B1:450 kg/ha, B2:750 kg/ha, B3:1050 kg/ha) on sowing stage, male plant squaring stage, male plant flower stage , female plant fruiting stage , plant height , stem diameter , effective branch number , 1000-grain weight, the proportion of male and female and seed yield of Bama hemp. [Result]The growth of Bama hemp was obvi-ously different under different treatments. Other agronomic traits were not significantly varied except the stem diameter of male plant. Great difference existed in the seed yield of hemp under different treatments. Yield ranking was A2B3>A3B1>A2B2>A3B2>A3B3>A1B1>A1B2>A2B1>A1B3. The yield of A2B3 was 1351.88 kg/ha, which was markedly higher than that of A1B2,A2B1 and A1B3(PA3B1>A2B2>A3B2>A3B3>A1B1>A1B2>A2B1>A1B3,其中A2B3产量为1351.88 kg/ha,显著高于A1B2、A2B1和A1B3(P<0.05)。【结论】栽培密度与施肥量互作可以影响巴马火麻籽产量,适当加大栽培密度和增施肥料是获得高产的重要措施,以栽培密度9.0万株/ha、复合肥(17-17-17)施肥量1050 kg/ha最佳。

  1. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extracts of the species Macrophylla furcraea Baker (cuban hemp, Cyperus rotundus L (nut sedge, Sorghum bicolor L (johnson grass and Ruta graveolens L (herb of grace on seed germination of two weeds and one crop. The extracts were obtained by the Soxhlet method, using water, ethanol and chloroform as solvents. Each extract was evaluated in three dilutions (0, 5 and 10 % v/v and was applied to Bidens pilosa L (spanish needle, Amaranthus dubius Mart (spleen amaranth and Coriandrum sativum L (coriander seeds. Three replications of 50 seeds each one were used and the control was watered only with destilled water. The results

  2. Analysis of fatty acids in hemp seed oil using three different esterification methods by GC-MS%火麻仁油中脂肪酸的不同酯化方法与GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文峰; 汪晓伟; 刘飞; 戴煌; 方国珊; 明建

    2011-01-01

    The hemp seed oil was extracted by Soxhletex traction.The fatty acids in the hemp seed oil were esterified by three methods and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).The components and their relative contents of the fatty acids were compared with each other.The results showed that 14 fatty acids were identified by esterification method 1,11 fatty acids were identified by esterification method 2 and 10 fatty acids were identified by esterification method 3.The contents of the identified fatty acids accounted for 83.36%,99.63% and 96.98% of the hemp seed oil,respectively.Comparison of the major fatty acids was made:the major fatty acids were hexadecanoic acid(10.97%),octadecanoic acid(7.56%),9,12-octadecadienoic acid(13.42%)and 9-octadecenoicacid(34.80%)by esterification method 1.The major fatty acids were hexadecanoic acid(8.33%),octadecanoic acid(5.53%),9,12-octadecadienoic acid(54.64%)and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid(25.42%)by esterification method 2.The major fatty acids were hexadecanoic acid(8.20%),octadecanoic acid(5.23%),9,12-octadecadienoic acid(52.19%)and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid(25.77%)by esterification method 3.%采用索氏提取法对火麻仁粗油进行提取,分别采用3种不同的甲酯化方法处理,通过脂肪酸的气相色谱-质谱联机分析,对其脂肪酸组成及含量进行比较。结果表明:3种甲酯化方法分别鉴定出14、11和10种脂肪酸,占火麻仁油总量的83.36%、99.63%和96.98%。甲酯化方法1的火麻仁油中鉴定出主要脂肪酸为:棕榈酸占脂肪酸总量的10.97%,硬脂酸占脂肪酸总量的7.56%,亚油酸占脂肪酸总量的13.42%,油酸占脂肪酸总量的34.80%;甲酯化方法2的火麻仁油中鉴定出的棕榈酸占脂肪酸总量的8.33%,硬脂酸占脂肪酸总量的5.53%,亚油酸占脂肪酸总量的54.64%,亚麻酸占脂肪酸总量的25.42%;甲酯化方法3的火麻仁油中鉴定出的

  3. 4种重金属胁迫对工业大麻种子萌发的影响%The Effects of 4 Heavy Metals Stress on Seed Germination of Industrial Hemp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许艳萍; 陈璇; 郭孟璧; 张庆滢; 何晓莹; 郭鸿彦; 杨明

    2014-01-01

    A germination test was conducted for understanding the effect of Zn , Pb, Cu and Cd on germination rate, radicle growth , bud development and total biomass of industrial hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) , The results showed that 4 types of heavy metals with low concentration could promote seed germination , while heavy metals with high concentration would inhibit seed germination and radical growth.The toxicity of 4 types of heavy metals on seed germination rate could be ranked as Cu 2+>Cd2+>Zn2+>Pb2+, and the germination rate could reach over 80 % for Zn2+and Pb2+with a concentration of 1 000 mg/L.The test also showed the same result for radicle growth, bud growth and total biomass and it could be ranked as Cu 2+>Cd2+>Zn2+>Pb2+.This test indicated that seed germination of hemp was highly resistant to Pb 2+and Zn2+, and it could be ranked as Pb 2+>Zn2+>Cd2+>Cu2+.%通过发芽试验,研究重金属Zn、 Pb、 Cu、 Cd胁迫对工业大麻种子萌发率、胚根伸长、胚芽生长以及总生物量的影响。结果显示,在4种重金属胁迫下,低浓度对种子萌发有促进作用,高浓度会抑制种子萌发和胚根的生长。4种重金属对种子萌发抑制作用依次为Cu2+和Cd2+>Zn2+>Pb2+,其中Zn2+和Pb2+在1000 mg/L浓度时,萌发率仍然达到80%以上;对胚根长、胚芽长和总生物量的毒害或影响作用依次为 Cu2+>Cd2+>Zn2+>Pb2+。结果表明,工业大麻种子萌发过程对Pb2+和Zn2+具有较高的抗性,抗性大小依次为Pb2+>Zn2+>Cd2+>Cu2+。

  4. 不同配比锦棉麻混纺纱的性能分析%STUDY ON THE PROPERTIES OF NYLON/COTTON/HEMP BLENDING FABRIC WITH DIFFERENT BLENDING RATIO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌翠梅; 文珊; 吴诗浩

    2016-01-01

    There are many good properties for Nylon yarn, such as wear-resisting, hygroscopic, flexibility. It is often used as outdoor clothing material such as knitting fabric for the development of outdoor sports. But due to its low modulus, it is easy to be wrinkled. Recently hemp fiber has developed rapidly in many kinds of natural cellulose fiber. It has some good properties like excellent moisture permeability, anti-ultraviolet radiation, antistatic property, mothproof, against mold and so on. Therefore, we chose nylon blade and cotton hemp sliver blending yarn to spin a series of yarns with different blending ratio, the purpose was to find a new type of three-component yarn with excellent property. Through testing the breaking strength, evenness and moisture regain of the corresponding blended yarns in this experiment, the optimal blending ratio was got, so as to give reference and suggestion to factories for developing new polyamide fiber products.%锦纶纱线具有良好的耐磨、吸湿、回弹性好等性能,常被用作开发户外运动针织面料,但由于其模量较低的特点,致使市场上主打的锦纶织物面料、锦/棉织物面料在穿着过程中容易变形产生褶皱。而汉麻纤维是一种天然纤维素,并且在最近几年得到广泛的使用,具有抗汗透湿,抗静电和紫外线,防虫和霉菌的优良特性;因此,选用锦纶条子和棉麻条子进行混和纺制一系列不同混纺比的纱线,目的是开发出一种新型优良的三组份纱线。本论文通过测试混纺纱的断裂强力、条干均匀性、回潮率等指标,分析得出最优配比的混纺纱,以及给工厂开发锦纶新产品提供参考与建议。

  5. 麻秸秆对轻集料混凝土性能影响的试验研究%Experimental study on the hemp stalk’s effect on the properties of lightweight aggregate concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文俊; 刘保华; 邓成; 刘海婷; 刘家劲

    2014-01-01

    轻集料混凝土大量应用于工业与民用建筑及其他工程,可起到减轻结构自重、提高结构的抗震性能、节约材料用量、提高构件运输和吊装效率、减少地基荷载及改善建筑功能(保温隔热和耐火等)等作用。植物纤维的掺入可以进一步改善轻集料混凝土的性能,同时充分利用农业废弃物,减少能源消耗。文章通过测定不同麻秸秆掺入量、不同配合比的轻集料混凝土抗压强度、抗拉强度,确定了试验范围内麻秸秆的最佳掺入量以及轻集料混凝土最佳配合比。%Light aggregate concrete widely used in industrial and civil construction and other engineering,can lessen weight of struc-ture,improve the seismic performance of structure,high effectively save component transportation and hoist material consumption,re-duce the foundation load and improve the building function (such as thermal insulation and refractory and so on).The mixed plant fiber can further improve the performance of light aggregate concrete,make full use of agricultural waste,reduce energy consumption at the same time.In this paper,compressive strength and tensile strength of light aggregate concrete with different amount of hemp stalk and different mixture ratio of light aggregate concrete are measured,the optimum adding quantity of hemp stalk and optimal mixture ratio of light aggregate concrete within the scope of testing are determined.

  6. Determination of α-Linoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid and Oleic Acid in Hemp Seed by HPLC%HPLC同时测定火麻仁中α-亚麻酸、亚油酸和油酸含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦建平; 陆艳芹; 罗雪磊; 吴建雄; 李家春; 萧伟

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立同时测定火麻仁中的α-亚麻酸、亚油酸和油酸含量的HPLC方法.方法:色谱柱为Kromasil 100-5 C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm),以乙腈-o.1%磷酸(80∶20)为流动相,流速1 mL? min-1,柱温30℃,检测波长203 nm.结果:α-亚麻酸在34.625~554 mg? L-1(r=0.999 9),亚油酸在56.375~902 mg?L -1(r=1),油酸在17.125 ~ 274 mg? L-1(r =0.999 9)呈良好的线性关系;平均回收率α-亚麻酸为96.38%,RSD0.93%(n=6);亚油酸为97.79%,RSD 0.92%(n=6);油酸为97.06%,RSD 1.51% (n =6).结论:本法简便准确,专属性强,重复性好,可作为火麻仁的质量控制的参考.%Objective: To establish a HPLC method for the determination of a-linoleic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid in Hemp Seed. Method; The Kromasil 100-5 C18 (4.6 mm ×250 mm, 5 μm) column was used with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0. 1% phosphoric acid (80:20) , the flow rate was 1 mL ? Min-1 , the column temperature was at 30 ℃, the detection wavelength was at 203 nm. Result: The linear ranges of a-linoleic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid were 34. 625-554 mg ? L-1 ( r = 0. 999 9) , 56. 375-902 mg ? L-1 ( r = 1 ) and 17. 125-274 mg ? L-1 (r=0. 999 9) respectively. The average recoveries were 96. 38% with RSD 0. 93% for a-linoleic acid, 97. 79% with RSD 0. 92% for linoleic acid, 97. 06% with RSD 1. 51% for oleic acid. Conclusion; The method can be used to control the quality of a-linoleic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid in Hemp Seed, which is simple, accurate, convenient, specific and repeatable.

  7. A Study on the Thermal Comfort of Polyester/Cotton/Hemp Blended Fabric%涤纶/长绒棉/汉麻织物的热舒适性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅; 孙润军

    2015-01-01

    Eight kinds of light-weight polyester/cotton/hemp blended fabric with different blending ratio and with yarns spun by different spinning methods were selected for investigating their thermal comfort. By using US-made humidity chamber and Sweating Guarded Hotplate, the thermal conductive property of the fabric was simulated under 11 designed temperature and humidity conditions. The objective of this study is to find the influence of blending ratio and spinning methods on the thermal comfort of multi-fiber blended fabric and the thermal comfort conditions of polyester/cotton/hemp blended fabric. The results indicate that among four major factors including temperature, humidity, blending ratio and spinning method, blending ratio has little effect on fabric thermal resistance, while spinning method is the most influential factor; whatever the condition is, the fabric made from sirofil-spun yarn is better than that made from siro-spun yarn in term of thermal transmission and the former is cooler than the latter; under the condition of temperature above 20 ºC and relative humidity below 60%, the thermal resistance of the fabric is low and stable, which contribute to the fabric comfort.%选用8种不同混纺比、不同纺纱方式的涤棉麻混纺薄型织物,对其热舒适性进行研究。采用美国西北公司的热阻湿阻仪,利用恒温恒湿箱控制,设计了11种温湿度条件,模拟织物在不同穿着环境下的热传导性能。目的是为了得到不同混纺比和不同纺纱方式织物的热阻值差异以及涤棉麻混纺织物的热舒适使用条件。结果表明,外界温湿度、原料混纺比及纺纱方式4个因素中,混纺比对织物热阻影响较小,而纺纱方式的影响最大;不论在怎样环境下,赛络菲尔纺织物总是比赛络纺织物热阻小,表现更凉爽;温度高于20℃,相对湿度低于70%环境下,涤棉麻混纺织物热阻值小且稳定,使用舒适。

  8. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  9. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  10. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  11. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  12. Electronic Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... TTY users should call 1-877-486-2048 . Electronic eRx Prescribing I went to the pharmacy, and ...

  13. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  14. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information P

  15. Correlation Between Seed Viability and Germination Rate of Industrial Hemp%工业大麻种子生活力与发芽率的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明; 许艳萍; 郭鸿彦; 郭孟壁; 杨清辉

    2012-01-01

    Adopting the method of TTC and paper bed germination, the seed viability and germination rate of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa ) of four cultivars were respectively determined, to study the correlation between these two indexes. The correlation between seed viability (x) and germination rate ( y) was y = a + bx, and the correlation coefficient R =0. 912 9, which was extremely significant correlation. Utilizing the correlation between these two indexes, the germination rate of seed could be calculated after the viability was rapidly measured.%本项研究采用TTC法和纸床发芽法分别测定工业大麻4个品种种子的生活力和发芽率,分析其相互之间的关系.结果表明,种子生活力(x)与发芽率(y)符合y=a+bx的直线关系,相关系数R=0.9129以上,为极显著正相关;利用这种关系,可根据快速测定种子的生活力计算出相应的发芽率,其理论值与实验测定值具有一致性.此研究结果为估算工业大麻种子发芽率提供了简便的方法.

  16. 进入人防工程的架空线缆对HEMP耦合特性研究%HEMP Coupling Characteristics of Overhead Cable into Civil Air Defense Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁继纲; 陈海林; 毛自文

    2016-01-01

    高空棱电磁脉冲(HEMP)能量可经长导体(如架空电力线、架空通信线等)耦合进入人防工程,而与这些长导体相连的电力、电子设备有可能遭受损坏.文中采用有损耗地面上传输线模型,通过数值仿真,研究架空线的长度、高度、负载阻抗、地面土壤电导率等参数与HEMP耦合特性的关系,为人防工程电磁脉冲防护提供依据.计算结果表明,在HEMP照射作用下,在50m~1 km长的架空线的负载上能产生的感应电压幅度这几十千伏到上百千伏,感应电压的上升时间约在20m.

  17. Analysis of system error for HEMP measurement using integrated optical E-field sensors%集成光学电场探头测量HEMP的系统误差分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石跃武; 周辉; 聂鑫; 朱志臻; 王伟; 杨静; 孙蓓云; 相辉; 冯寒亮

    2015-01-01

    讨论了集成光学电场探头测量高空电磁脉冲(HEMP)的系统误差.根据探测器传输函数和HEMP的表达式得出了误差方程.并通过对HEMP表达式的特征分析,对误差方程进行了简化.通过方程的求解,分析了探测器和HEMP波形的各项参数对测量结果的影响.结果表明:误差随着双指数波幅值、半宽/前沿和探测器工作点漂移的增大而增大;探测器的5%和10%系统测量误差对应的最大测量幅值分别为半波电场的0.165倍和0.23倍.该结论可为此类探测器的使用提供参考.

  18. 大麻新品种龙大麻一号再生体系初探%Preliminary Study on Establishing Regeneration System of New Hemp Cultivar - Longdama No.1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利国; 宋宪友; 房郁妍; 郑楠; 吴广文

    2012-01-01

    选用大麻新品种龙大麻一号的下胚轴进行组织培养,对无菌苗的获得激素浓度、激素配比等影响组培效果的主要因素进行探讨,愈伤及不定芽诱导的最佳激素组合为ZT 1.1 mg·L-1和IAA 1.1 mg·L-1.研究初步建立了龙大麻一号的离体培养再生体系,为转基因大麻工作奠定了研究基础.%The hypocotyls of the new cultivar Longdama No.l of Cannabis saliva L, were used as explants for tissue culture in vitro. A regeneration system for culturing was set up through the study on the physiological state of aseptic seedlings, hormone types and concentrations, and other influential fators. The best combination of hormones were ZT 1.1 mg·L-1 and IAA l.lmg·L-1 for the calli and induction of adventitious buds. The building of this regeneration system could lay a foundation for hemp transgenic research.

  19. Design and Test of HEMP Simulator with Fast Rise Time Using Coaxial Technique%采用同轴锐化技术的快沿脉冲模拟系统研制与测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽思; 魏光辉; 崔耀中

    2010-01-01

    为了模拟满足MIL-STD-464A规定的高空核电磁脉冲,利用Marx发生器作为核电磁脉冲源,使用有界波传输线作为场形成装置,成功地研制了核电磁脉冲(HEMP)模拟系统.该系统采用同轴线分布电容作为锐化电容,具有电感小,阻抗匹配的特点,测量结果表明:合理选择参数可以在有界波传输线内产生上升时间<2 ns、半波宽度约23 ns.幅度范嗣35~105 kV/m连续可调的电磁脉冲场,能够满足MIL-STD-464A中RS105规定的HEMP电磁脉冲场的要求;输出波形的峰值场强、波前时间和半波宽度的变异系数表明该模拟器具有良好的重复性;并且传输线内的峰值场强和Marx发生器的充电电压有较好的线性关系.

  20. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  1. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  2. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  3. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  4. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  5. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed.

  6. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  7. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  8. Electronic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Meredith Lindsay

    1995-01-01

    The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.

  9. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  10. Effects of Combined Application of N,P,K Fertilizers on Accumulation and Distribution of Dry Matter and Nutrients in Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)%氮磷钾配施对工业大麻干物质和养分积累与分配的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浩; 张云云; 胡华冉; 杜光辉; 杨阳; 刘飞虎

    2015-01-01

    Effects of combined fertilization of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium on growth and accumulation and distribution of dry matter and N,P,K nutrients in industrial hemp cultivar Yunnan hemp 1 were studied via pot culture.Nitrogen was the main factor determining the growth and yield, while the effect of phosphorus was not significant if nitrogen and potassium were enough.P and K fertiliz-ers affected the bast fiber yield little,if nitrogen was deficient.Being compared with NPK and NK,NP impeded the growth and dry matter accumulation.PK treatment promoted phosphorus accumulation but impeded potassium accumulation,while NK treatment facilitated the accumulation of both nitrogen and potassium.Hemp consumed potassium mostly,nitrogen secondly,phosphorus least.The results showed that NPK contributed differently to the growth and yield.There were mutual benefits and antagonistic ac-tion between the three elements,which affected the absorption and utilization of them in hemp.%采用盆栽试验研究氮磷钾配施对工业大麻品种云麻1号的生长、干物质和氮磷钾养分积累与分配的影响。氮是影响大麻生长和产量形成的主要因素;氮、钾供应充分时,磷的影响不显著;缺氮时,增施磷、钾肥对纤维产量形成的作用微弱;对比 NPK 和 NK 配施,NP 配施一定程度上阻碍了大麻的生长与干物质积累;NK 配施增加植株对氮钾的积累,但 PK 配施虽增加了植株对磷的积累,却减少了对钾的积累;大麻植株对钾积累最多,氮次之,磷最少。结果表明,氮磷钾三要素对大麻产量的贡献差异较大,三要素之间存在互惠和拮抗效应,从而影响大麻对它们的吸收与积累。

  11. 罗哌卡因蛛网膜下腔麻醉联合硬膜外麻醉在剖宫产手术中的应用%Lumbar Hemp Joint ROM pp Because the Use of Epidural Anesthesia in Cesarean Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 袁军

    2013-01-01

    目的::探究与分析罗哌卡因蛛网膜下腔麻醉(腰麻)联合硬膜外麻醉在剖宫产手术中的安全性和可行性,为临床治疗提供切实可靠的科学依据。方法:随机选取来我院就诊的剖宫产孕妇50例,ASA级,平均分为两组,实验组采取腰麻联合硬膜外麻醉(CSEA),对照组采取单独进行硬膜外麻醉(CEA),每组50例,观察两组在起效时间、肌松效果、阻滞平面、牵拉反应及术中血压变化。结果:术后结果表明,腰麻联合硬膜外麻醉的起效速度要明显快于单独进行硬膜外麻醉,且牵拉反应明显减少,肌松和镇静的效果较好。结论:罗哌卡因腰麻联合硬膜外麻醉可以应用于剖宫产手术,具有安全性和可靠性。%Objective:To explore and analyze the pp kayin lumbar hemp combined epidural anesthesia in cesarean section surgery the feasibility,safety and provide practical and reliable scientific basis for clinical treatment.Methods:Randomly selected 50 cases of cesarean section in pregnant women of our hospital,ASAⅠ~Ⅱlevel,average divided into two groups,experimental group adopted lumbar hemp combined epidural anesthesia (CSEA),control group take separate with epidural anesthesia (CEA),50 cases in each group,observe two groups in effective time,muscle relaxant effect,block surface,draw reaction and intraoperative blood pressure changes.Lumbar hemp. Results:The postoperative results show that the combined effect of epidural anesthesia significantly faster in separate with epidural anesthesia,and retraction of the reaction significantly reduced muscle relaxant and calming effect is better.Conclusion:Luo pp kayin lumbar hemp combined epidural anesthesia can be applied to cesarean section surgery,has the security and reliability.

  12. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  13. Tolerance of Industrial Hemp to Pb at the Stage of Seed Germination and Young Seedling Growth%工业大麻品种萌发期及幼苗前期重金属Pb耐性评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仲英; 龙瑜菡; 徐云; 袁青; 杜光辉; 刘飞虎

    2016-01-01

    Effects of Pb stress on germination and young seedling growth of seven industrial hemp cultivars were tested,and a comprehensive evaluation of Pb tolerance of the seven cultivars was assessed using Subordinate Function Methods. Pb stress had no significant impact to germination potential and ger-mination ratio of seeds in the most cultivars,but the elongation of radicle and development of lateral roots were significantly inhibited by Pb stress. A low concentration of Pb2+showed that the trend of stimulation was obvious in shoot growth,while high concentrations of Pb2+had negative influence on shoot growth.Pb tolerance of the seven hemp cultivars were identified based on six indexes,including relative root/shoot ratio,relative root length,relative shoot length,relative number of lateral root,root tolerance index and shoot tolerance index under the stress of 600 mg/L Pb. Pb tolerance of the cultivars were classified into high of Qingma 1 ,Wanma 1 ,Bamahuoma and Yunwan 6 ,medium of Yunma 5 and Yumma 1 and low of Jinma 1 according to the weighed means of Subordinate Function values.%采用滤纸培养法,研究重金属铅(Pb )对7个工业大麻品种种子萌发及幼苗前期生长的影响,并通过隶属函数法综合评价各品种的Pb耐受能力。结果表明:Pb对多数大麻品种发芽势和发芽率无明显影响,对根的伸长生长和侧根的发育有显著抑制作用,对芽生长则表现为“低促高抑”;以600 mg/L Pb为筛选浓度,以相对根冠比、相对根长、相对芽长、相对侧根数、根耐性指数和芽耐性指数为评价指标,根据隶属函数加权平均值D值大小,研究发现巴马火麻(B)、庆麻1号(Q1)、云晚6号(Y6)和云麻5号(Y5)为高耐型,皖麻1号(W1)和云麻1号(Y1)为中耐型,晋麻1号(J1)为低耐型。

  14. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  15. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  16. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  17. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  18. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  19. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  20. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  1. HEMP场激励下交直流高压输电线耦合响应概率分布%Probability Distribution of Coupling Responses of HVAC and HVDC Externally Excited by HEMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢斌先; 郝晓飞; 罗艳华; 王泽忠

    2011-01-01

    应用蒙特卡罗法和传输线耦合响应节点导纳方程,分析了高空核电磁脉冲(HEMP)场激励下交流高压输电线和直流高压输电线耦合响应的分布规律.分析中将电磁波的入射参数,包括极化角、入射角和方位角,作为一组随机变量,并由计算机随机产生.应用瞬态外场激励下多导体传输线节点导纳方程分别分析端接传输线耦合电流和耦合电压响应峰值,并得出响应的概率分布曲线.当传输线入射参数在[0,π/2]范围内变化时,对比Bell实验室与IEC610000两种标准HEMP电磁波激励下响应的概率分布规律发现:对于包含屏蔽线共地五导体交流架空线来说,不管是IEC61000-2-9标准还是Bell标准,在相同累积概率情况下,中间相首端的耦合响应峰值总是小于两边相的耦合响应峰值.

  2. Preparation and Analysis of Pure Carbonaceous Preforms for Biomorphic Ceramics from Hemp Straw%汉麻秆基生物质陶瓷用纯炭坯体的制备与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐景坤; 高建民

    2012-01-01

    Carbon powder from hemp straw was used as raw material, which was formed into pure carbonaceous preforms for reaction bonded silicon carbide (RB-SC) by dry pressing. These preforms were characterized according to their vertical density profile, microstructures and pore characteristics. Experimental results showed that the density of the preforms increased with increasing pressure until it reached 110 Mpa. When the pressure was 35 Mpa, pure carbonaceous performs with homogeneous pore distribution and microstructure characteristics could be obtained, and the pore size was mainly between 1 μm and 80 μm, which indicates that high quality RB-SC could be obtained by infiltrating the preforms prepared by dry pressing.%以汉麻秆芯炭粉为原料,采用干压成型工艺制备了生物质碳化硅陶瓷用多孔纯炭坯体,通过截面密度分析、SEM以及压汞测试等手段,对纯炭坯体的密度、显微结构和孔隙特征进行了分析.结果表明,成型压力在110MPa以下时,炭坯密度随压力升高而增加,达到110MPa后密度不再增加;成型坯体截面密度分布及显微分布均匀;压汞测试表明,压力为35 MPa时所得炭坯的孔径主要介于1~80 μm之间,具备制备高质量碳化硅陶瓷的理想条件.

  3. 近地电缆屏蔽层对高空核电磁脉冲响应的研究%Research on the Response of Cable Sheath Near Ground to HEMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王川川; 朱长青; 谷志锋; 刘登峰

    2011-01-01

    为了研究近地面电缆屏蔽层对高空电磁脉冲的耦合规律,依据传输线理论,计算了在高空核电磁脉冲作用下损耗大地上电缆屏蔽层上的感应电流。利用快速傅立叶变换技术,首先得到近地面电缆屏蔽层感应电流的频域解,然后采用快速傅立叶逆变换技术得到时域解。得到了感应电流随电缆长度、电缆架设高度、电磁脉冲极化角、方位角、俯仰角、端接阻抗和大地电导率等的变化规律。%In order to research the response of cable sheath near ground to HEMP,the induced currents in cable' s shield are calculated based on transmission line theory.By using fast Fourier transform technique,the currents in frequency domain are obtained,then using fast Fourier inverse transform technique the currents in time domain are obtained.The patterns of induced currents with the parameters of the cable' s length,height,polarization angle of electromagnetic pulse,orientation angle of electromagnetic pulse,pitching angle of electromagnetic pulse,resistance and earth conductivity are obtained.

  4. 响应面法优化超声波提取火麻仁油%Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of hemp seed oil using response surface analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓仕任; 夏林波; 郭莹

    2012-01-01

    采用超声波辅助溶剂提取法提取火麻仁油,在单因素实验的基础上,运用Box-Behnken中心组合实验设计原理进行实验设计,建立料液比、超声时间、超声温度与火麻仁油得率之间的数学模型,通过对该模型的响应面分析,得出超声波提取火麻仁油的最佳条件为:料液比1:17(g/mL)、超声时间27min、超声温度20℃,在此条件下,火麻仁油得率为33.34%。%The purpose was to establish an optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction of hemp seed oil.Based on the single factor analysis,a 3-factor,3-level Box-Behnken experimental design was taken to evaluate the effects of the three factors,including ratio of material to liquid,ultrasonic time,ultrasonic temperature.The interactions of each factor on the extraction yield were investigated with response surface analysis(RSA).Results indicated that the optimal extracting conditions were as follows:ratio of material to liquid was 1:17(g/mL),ultrasonic time was 27min,ultrasonic temperature was 20℃,and under these conditions the extraction yield was 33.34%.

  5. The Influence of the Hemp Seed Oil on the Related Parameters of the Skin in Aging Mice%火麻仁油对衰老模型小鼠皮肤相关指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李寒冰; 马永洁; 苗静静; 张娟; 任汉阳; 李根林

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To observe the influence of the hemp seed oil on the related parameters of skin in the aging mice, and study the anti-aging function of the fructus cannabis. Method; D-galactose was given by hypodermic injection to copy the subaoute aging model of the mice. 1 h later, corresponding drugs were given to their groups for 42 days. The influence of hemp seed oil of high, medium, and low doses ( 12. 0, 6. 0, 3.0 mL ? kg" ) on superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondiadehyde (MDA), lipofuscin (Lpf), hydroxyproline (Hyp) and skin moisture content were observed, respectively. Histopathological observation of mice skin including the epidermal and dermal thickness of the mice skin at the same part of the body was observed. The difference between dermal collagen fibers arrays of different experimental groups was compared, and the area and morphological changes of the elastic fibers were examined. Result; The average contents of MDA and Lpf in skin homogenates of large dose group were 7. 13 nmol· mg-1and 0. 83 μg · g-1 , the average contents of MDA in skin homogenates of medium dose group were 7. 29 nmol· mg-1 , all of these indexes were decreased significantly compared with which of model group (P<0. 05). The average activitis of SOD in skin homogenates of large & medium dose groups were 21. 95 U · mg-1 and 21. 45 U · mg-1, the Hyp contents of them were 8. 31 (Ag · mg-1 and 7. 92 μ,g· mg-1,all of these indexes were increased significantly compared with which of model group (P <0. 0! -P <0. 05). The large and medium doses could greatly increase moisture content in the mice skin (P <0. 01 ~ P <0. 05). The small dose showed some influence on the above indexes, but the effect was not significant. The hemp seed oil could improve the fur growing condition of the model mice.. The dermal thickness and the number of hair follicles of the model mice were considerably increased. The texture of dermal collagen fibers and elastic fibers were obviously%目的:观察火麻仁

  6. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  7. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  8. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  9. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically ... See Cwele v S 2012 4 All SA 497 (SCA); Mohlabeng v Minister of Safety and Security ... ZAKZPHC 51 (2 September 2010); Delta Finance, a Division of Wesbank, ...

  10. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  11. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  12. Preliminary Study on Effects of Drought Stress on Physiological Characteristics and Growth of Different Hemp Cultivars (Cannabis Sativa L.)%干旱胁迫对不同大麻品种生理特性和生长的影响研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭媛; 王玉富; 邱财生; 龙松华; 邓欣; 郝冬梅

    2011-01-01

    Based on experiment of pot-cultivating under different degree of drought stress for 4 hemp cultivars: Yunma 1, BM001, Wandama 1 and Xinyang 1, their drought tolerance, including physiological characteristics and growth, were comprehensively evaluated and compared. The results showed that: 1) Leaf relative water content of Yunma 1 and Wandama 1 were declined fast in earlier stage and later stage of drought stress respectively. For BM001 and Xinyang 1, leaf water content decreased constantly during the whole stage of drought stress. It indicated that different hemp cultivars had different response mechanism to drought tolerance. 2) The protective enzyme activities of 4 hemp cultivars sharply declined when water content of soil was below 15%, indicated that this percentage of water content was a critical point for cultivating hemp. 3) Compared with the other three hemp cultivars, BM001 could tolerate a higher degree of drought stress for its plant height and stem diameter were least effected, which indicated that BM001 could be used for breeding the drought resistance varieties.%通过对4个不同地域来源的大麻品种:云麻1号、BM001、皖大麻1号和信阳1号的盆栽干旱胁迫试验,研究了不同程度干旱胁迫对这4个大麻品种生理特性和生长的影响.结果表明:1、云麻1号和皖大麻1号的叶片含水量分别在干旱胁迫前期和后期下降幅度较大,BM001和信阳1号的叶片含水量在干旱胁迫中呈持续下降状态,说明不同的大麻品种对干旱胁迫的响应模式不同;2、在土壤含水量低于15%时,四种大麻叶片保护酶活性骤降,说明15%的土壤含水量可作为大麻抗旱栽培措施的临界点;3、干旱胁迫对BM001的株高和茎粗生长影响较其他3种品种小,说明这一品种的抗旱能力较强,可用于大麻抗旱品种的选育.

  13. CULTIVO DE FEIJÃO E MILHO EM SUCESSÃO A PLANTAS DE COBERTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ LUIZ RODRIGUES TORRES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing cover crops preceding planting common beans and corn may influence the yield of these cash crops. This study aimed to evaluate the biomass production and decomposition of crop residue cover and yield of maize and beans grown on these soils as coverings of plants. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in the 2011/12 harvest in Uberaba. With a randomized block designed in a split - plot scheme, seven cover crops were used : sunn hemp ( Crotalaria spectabilis , jack bean ( Canavalia ensiformis DC., mil- let ADR300, ADR500 and ENA2 ( Pennisetum glaucum L., Sorgo (S orghum bicolor L. and brachiária ( Urochloa brizantha cv Marandú, and subplots in annual succession crops (maize and bean. The millets ADR300, ADR500 and ENA2 among Poaceae and jack beans between Fabaceae produced more dry biomass (9.8, 8.9, 8.6 and 3.8 t ha - 1 , respectively; after 150 days of decomposition of plant residues of sunn hemp, jack bean, sorghum, brachiaria, millet ADR500, millet ENA2 and millet ADR300 were in the order of 67.9; 71.7; 53.8; 61.7; 49.9; 45.5 and 46.7%, respectively; the maize yield was higher when the culture was grown on resi- dues of millet ENA2 (7.2 t ha - 1 and jack bean (6.8 t ha - 1 , while the bean was higher when grown on millet ADR300 (1.3 t ha - 1 and sunn hemp (1.2 t ha - 1 .

  14. Resultados experimentais com a cultura da Crotalaria juncea L. L., como planta produtora de celulose para papel Results from field trials with Crotalaria juncea L. as fiber plant for paper pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Medina

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados e discutidos os resultados de vários experimentos de campo realizados na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, do Instituto Agronômico, com a Crotalaria juncea L. como planta produtora de celulose para papel. Êsses resultados permitem fazer recomendações úteis sôbre o melhoramento técnico da cultura e da produção, no concernente às questões de variedades, espaçamento, densidade de semeação, época de semeação e época de colheita dos caules.This paper reports the results obtained in sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. field trials carried out at the Tatui Experiment Station, São Paulo State. The trials were designed to study the effect of varieties, spacing x rate of seeding, time of sowing and time of harvesting on sunn hemp fiber production as a raw material for paper pulp. From the results achieved in these trials, the following recommendations can be made for growing sunn hemp as a fiber plant for paper pulp in the State of São Paulo. VARIETY: to use the common variety that is normally sowed for green manuring. TIME OF SOWING: to sow the seeds during october. RATE OF SEED SOWING AND SPACING: to sow the seeds at the rate of 100 lbs/ acre in rows spaced 8 inches apart. TIME OF HARVESTING: to harvest the stalks for mechanical fiber extraction when the seed pods are in the mature stage.

  15. Effects of Interplanting Flowering Plants on the Biological Control of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Roshan; Wright, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Natural enemy exploitation of food resources and alternative hosts in noncrop vegetation has been shown to be an effective means of enhancing natural enemy populations in diversified agro-ecosystem. Field trials were conducted in Hawaii to examine effects of interplanting flowering plants on 1) parasitism of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) eggs by Trichogramma spp., and 2) abundance of Orius spp. in relation to prey (H. zea eggs and thrips [primarily, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella williamsi Hood]). Sweet corn (maize), Zea mays L., was interplanted with three flowering plants, buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), and sunn hemp, Crotolaria juncea L., at 2:1 and 4:1 (corn: flowering plant) ratios in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, the abundance of Orius spp. was significantly greater in the buckwheat-interplanted treatment compared to the monocrop control at similar levels of prey availability, indicating buckwheat flowers might have provided both prey and nectar resources. In 2010, cowpea and sunn hemp flowering plants provided a source of an alternate host insect's eggs for Trichogramma spp. oviposition, resulting in significantly higher parasitism of H. zea eggs in the cowpea- and sunn hemp-interplanted treatments compared to the monocrop control. Despite of differences in pest and natural enemy interactions in two field trials, our findings suggested that provisioning of an alternate host insect's eggs through flowering plants is an effective means for enhancing Trichogramma spp. and provisioning of both nectar and prey resources through flowering plants is important for enhancing predation by Orius spp.

  16. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  17. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  18. Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Kai

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X radiation in 1895 in Wörzburg resulted in an immediate break-through not only in physics but also in Society, the latter mainly because of its sensational radiological applications. Within a short time it furthermore indirectly led to the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. The discovery of X radiation opened the gate to modern atomic physics, and radioactivity to nuclear physics. Later on, the discovery of X-ray diffraction by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping in 1912 initiated the field of X-ray spectroscopy with its fundamental contributions to atomic and crystal structures. Secondary electrons were early observed in the scattered radiation when X-rays were hitting a sample. The development of the corresponding electron spectroscopy had to wait a much longer time for its maturity. A survey of electron spectroscopy is presented.

  19. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  20. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...