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Sample records for sunlight helps laboratory

  1. Speak Up: Help Prevent Errors in Your Care: Laboratory Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    SpeakUP TM Help Prevent Errors in Your Care Laboratory Services To prevent health care errors, patients are urged to... SpeakUP TM ... are more likely to get better faster. To help prevent health care mistakes, patients are urged to “ ...

  2. How the Nuclear Applications Laboratories Help in Strengthening Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Safety is one of the most important considerations when engaging in highly advanced scientific and technological activities. In this respect, utilizing the potential of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes also involves risks, and nuclear techniques themselves can be useful in strengthening emergency response measures related to the use of nuclear technology. In the case of a nuclear incident, the rapid measurement and subsequent monitoring of radiation levels are top priorities as they help to determine the degree of risk faced by emergency responders and the general public. Instruments for the remote measurement of radioactivity are particularly important when there are potential health risks associated with entering areas with elevated radiation levels. The Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL) — one of the eight laboratories of the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications (NA) in Seibersdorf, Austria — focuses on developing a variety of specialized analytical and diagnostic instruments and methods, and transferring knowledge to IAEA Member States. These include instruments capable of carrying out remote measurements. This emergency response work carried out by the NA laboratories supports health and safety in Member States and supports the IAEA’s mandate to promote the safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy

  3. Sunlight and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences. PMID:24494042

  4. Photochemical effects of sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, F

    1972-07-01

    The importance of sunlight in bringing about not only photosynthesis in plants, but also other photochemical effects, is reviewed. More effort should be devoted to photochemical storage of the sun's energy without the living plant. There is no theoretical reason to believe that such reactions are impossible. Ground rules for searching for suitable solar photochemical reactions are given, and a few attempts are described, but nothing successful has yet been found. Future possibilities are suggested. Photogalvanic cells which convert sunlight into electricity deserve further research. Eugene Rabinowitch has been an active pioneer in these fields.

  5. NWTC Helps Guide U.S. Offshore R&D; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is helping guide our nation's research-and-development effort in offshore renewable energy, which includes: Design, modeling, and analysis tools; Device and component testing; Resource characterization; Economic modeling and analysis; Grid integration.

  6. Psoriasis, Psoralen and Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.C Naik

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical or oral administration of photoactive furocumarins followed by exposure to ultra violet light from artificial sources has been shown previously to clear psoriatic lesions. Sunlight has been chosen as the source of UVL m two separate paired comparison studies using topical and, oral 4,5, 8 trimethylpsoralen. Two out of 21 on topical therapy and none out of 6 patients on oral paired-comparison study showed faster clearance of the drug treated lesions compared to control sites.

  7. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  8. Adaptive fluid lens and sunlight redirection system : exploring a novel way of redirecting and altering sunlight in large span roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Bristogianni, T.; Teuffel, P.; Stouffs, R.; Sariyildiz, S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes a novel system to alter and redirect sunlight under large span roofs with the help of a fluid lens system. Focus lies on the computational design, testing, measurement and evaluation of the performance of a physical prototype.

  9. Carotenoids content and sunlight susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppezzo, Oscar J.; Costa, Cristina; Pizarro, Ramon A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: An environmental pink pigmented bacterium was isolated and identified as Rhodococcus sp. Pigmentation mutants were obtained by chemical mutagenesis. Pigments present in the wild type strain (RMB90), in a pale yellow mutant (RMB91) and in two mutants exhibiting increased pigmentation (RMB92 and RMB93), were extracted with chloroform-methanol and analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. Survival of these strains after exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet radiation from artificial sources was studied under different physiological and irradiation conditions. The ability of RMB91 to survive sunlight exposure was reduced with respect to that of RMB90. Resistance was similar in both strains when bacteria grew in the presence of a carotenoid synthesis inhibitor, which had no effect on survival of RMB91. Reduced sunlight resistance in RMB91 was also observed during irradiations under N2. Using artificial radiation sources, non pigmented bacteria were less resistant to UVA, but not to UVB or UVC. Lethal effects of sunlight and UVA on RMB92 and RMB93 were increased with respect to the wild type strain. Carotenoids protect Rhodococcus sp against deleterious effects of sunlight. In non-photosynthetic bacteria studied to date, photo protection by carotenoids was dependent on [O 2 ]. This is not the case with Rhodococcus sp RMB90, suggesting the occurrence of a different mechanism for protection. UVA radiation seems to playa key role in photo-damage. (author)

  10. New catalyst developed at Argonne National Laboratory could help diesels meet NOx deadlines

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "A new catalyst could help auto makers meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's deadline to eliminate 95 percent of nitrogen-oxide from diesel engine exhausts by 2007, while saving energy" (1 page).

  11. Argonne National Laboratory research to help U.S. steel industry

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has joined a $1.29 million project to develop technology software that will use advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a method of solving fluid flow and heat transfer problems. This technology allows engineers to evaluate and predict erosion patterns within blast furnaces (1 page).

  12. Martin Award Paper: Development of Interactive Virtual Laboratories to Help Students Learn Difficult Concepts in Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Alec S.; Reid, Daniel R.; Koretsky, Milo D.

    2015-01-01

    In this project, we explore the use of threshold concept theory as a design basis for development of Interactive Virtual Laboratories in thermodynamics. Thermodynamics is a difficult subject for chemical and biological engineering students to master. One reason for the difficulty is the diverse and challenging set of threshold concepts that they…

  13. Relocation of blood gas laboratory to the emergency department helps decrease lactic acid values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazg, Jared; Huang, Phyllis; Weiner, Corey; Singh, Guneet; Likourezos, Antonios; Salem, Linda; Dickman, Eitan; Marshall, John

    2018-03-12

    Emergency Physicians often rely on Lactic Acid (LA) values to make important clinical decisions. Accuracy of LA values improve when blood gas analysis is performed in the emergency department (ED) as opposed to a satellite laboratory (SL). To investigate an association between blood gas laboratory location and accuracy of ED lactic acid samples. The study team evaluated lactic acid values from venous and arterial blood gas samples drawn between June 1, 2015 and September 30, 2016. The study was exempt from institutional review board approval. Samples were separated into two groups: those which were drawn prior to and after relocation of the blood gas laboratory to the ED. The data, including patient demographic characteristics, acute illness severity indices, and blood gas results were compared within and between each group using t-test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables. The primary outcome was the mean lactate value measured in the SL group in 2015 compared to the ED group in 2016. Potassium and creatinine values were measured between the two groups as secondary outcomes. Of the 21,595 consecutive samples drawn, 10,363 samples were from the SL group and 11,232 from the ED group. The SL group included 5458 (52.7%) women; mean (SD) age was 61.8 (21.0). The ED group contained 5860 (52.2%) women; mean (SD) age was 61.7 (20.5). Mean Emergency Severity Index (ESI) were the same in each group at 2.31 and rates of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) were also equivalent in each group at 22.2%. Significant differences were found between LA values in the SL group (mean 2.21mmol/L) and in the ED group (mean 1.99mmol/L) with a p value of values in the SL group (mean 3.98meq/L) compared to the ED Group (mean 3.96meq/L) with a p value of 0.022. No significant difference was found between the creatinine values. These results suggest that mean lactate values decreased when measured in an ED blood gas laboratory and may provide more

  14. Relocation of blood gas laboratory to the emergency department helps decrease lactic acid values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazg, Jared; Huang, Phyllis; Weiner, Corey; Singh, Guneet; Likourezos, Antonios; Salem, Linda; Dickman, Eitan; Marshall, John

    2018-03-20

    Emergency physicians often rely on Lactic Acid (LA) values to make important clinical decisions. Accuracy of LA values improve when blood gas analysis is performed in the emergency department (ED) as opposed to a satellite laboratory (SL). To investigate an association between blood gas laboratory location and accuracy of ED lactic acid samples. The study team evaluated lactic acid values from venous and arterial blood gas samples drawn between June 1, 2015 and September 30, 2016. The study was exempt from institutional review board approval. Samples were separated into two groups: those which were drawn prior to and after relocation of the blood gas laboratory to the ED. The data, including patient demographic characteristics, acute illness severity indices, and blood gas results were compared within and between each group using t-test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables. The primary outcome was the mean lactate value measured in the SL group in 2015 compared to the ED group in 2016. Potassium and creatinine values were measured between the two groups as secondary outcomes. Of the 21,595 consecutive samples drawn, 10,363 samples were from the SL group and 11,232 from the ED group. The SL group included 5458 (52.7%) women; mean (SD) age was 61.8 (21.0). The ED group contained 5860 (52.2%) women; mean (SD) age was 61.7 (20.5). Mean Emergency Severity Index (ESI) were the same in each group at 2.31 and rates of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) were also equivalent in each group at 22.2%. Significant differences were found between LA values in the SL group (mean 2.21mmol/L) and in the ED group (mean 1.99mmol/L) with a p value of values in the SL group (mean 3.98meq/L) compared to the ED Group (mean 3.96meq/L) with a p value of 0.022. No significant difference was found between the creatinine values. These results suggest that mean lactate values decreased when measured in an ED blood gas laboratory and may provide more

  15. Effects of concentrated sunlight on organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Katz, Eugene A.; Hirsch, Baruch

    2010-01-01

    We report the effects of concentrated sunlight on key photovoltaic parameters and stability of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Sunlight collected and concentrated outdoors was focused into an optical fiber and delivered onto a 1 cm2 bulk-heterojunction cell. Sunlight concentration C was varied gradu...

  16. Port Sunlight, essai architectural et social

    OpenAIRE

    Machet, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the city of Port Sunlight, its history, design and originality. Created by William Lever in 1888 in order to house his newly-built soap factory, Port Sunlight is part of the numerous “factory villages” built in the wake of the industrial revolution according to philanthropic and utilitarian principles. But this article intends to show that Port Sunlight differs from other factory towns. Its careful design, elaborate architecture and public facilities ...

  17. Habits of Mind for the Science Laboratory: Establishing Proper Safety Habits in the Laboratory Will Help Minimize the Risk of Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lisa; Smith, Margaret; Eick, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Lab safety begins with the teacher. Teachers must make learning how to be safe an integral and important part of their professional development and work. Teachers who are unfamiliar with laboratory instruction should take whatever steps necessary to prepare for the unique challenges associated with safety in conducting laboratory investigations…

  18. Ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Gary J.; Bingham, Carl; Goggin, Rita; Lewandowski, Allan A.; Netter, Judy C.

    2000-06-13

    Process and apparatus for providing ultra accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing of samples under controlled weathering without introducing unrealistic failure mechanisms in exposed materials and without breaking reciprocity relationships between flux exposure levels and cumulative dose that includes multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity at high levels of natural sunlight comprising: a) concentrating solar flux uniformly; b) directing the controlled uniform sunlight onto sample materials in a chamber enclosing multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity to allow the sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a sufficient period of time in days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth of representative weathering of the sample materials.

  19. Concentrated sunlight for organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . A high solar intensity study of inverted P3HT:PCBM solar cells is presented. Performance peak positions were found to be in the range of 1-5 suns, with smaller cells peaking at higher solar concentrations. Additionally, concentrated sunlight is demonstrated as a practical tool for accelerated stability...... were degraded resulting in acceleration factors in the range of 19-55. This shows that concentrated sunlight can be used as qualitatively to determine the lifetime of polymers under highly accelerated conditions....

  20. Providing critical laboratory results on time, every time to help reduce emergency department length of stay: how our laboratory achieved a Six Sigma level of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blick, Kenneth E

    2013-08-01

    To develop a fully automated core laboratory, handling samples on a "first in, first out" real-time basis with Lean/Six Sigma management tools. Our primary goal was to provide services to critical care areas, eliminating turnaround time outlier percentage (TAT-OP) as a factor in patient length of stay (LOS). A secondary goal was to achieve a better laboratory return on investment. In 2011, we reached our primary goal when we calculated the TAT-OP distribution and found we had achieved a Six Sigma level of performance, ensuring that our laboratory service can be essentially eliminated as a factor in emergency department patient LOS. We also measured return on investment, showing a productivity improvement of 35%, keeping pace with our increased testing volume. As a result of our Lean process improvements and Six Sigma initiatives, in part through (1) strategic deployment of point-of-care testing and (2) core laboratory total automation with robotics, middleware, and expert system technology, physicians and nurses at the Oklahoma University Medical Center can more effectively deliver lifesaving health care using evidence-based protocols that depend heavily on "on time, every time" laboratory services.

  1. FNL Scientists Introduce Concept That Could Help the Immune System Respond to Vaccines | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have discovered an efficient and straightforward model to manipulate RNA nanoparticles, a new concept that could help trigger desirable activation of the immune system with vaccines and therapies. A multi-institutional team of researchers

  2. The Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2-Zeolite Composite for Degradation of Dye Using Synthetic UV and Jeddah Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila M. Al-Harbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research different composites of impregnated TiO2 with LTA or FAU zeolites were used as different weight% ratio for photodegradation of organic dye. Normal laboratory UV-lamps were used as a source of UV irradiation. In addition a setup of system of mirrors was used to collect real Jeddah sunlight. A comparison of UV and real sunlight photodegradation activity showed that the real sunlight enhances new centers of active sites exhibiting higher catalytic activity than that of UV irradiated samples.

  3. Large Cancer Drug Trial Helps Move Precision Medicine Toward the Mainstream | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A landmark cancer drug trial is helping set the stage for moving precision medicine into the mainstream of clinical practice, according to a new study. The study, reported in the Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, validates a procedure used in the dru

  4. MOOC as a Laboratory of Culture Shock: Helping Non-U.S. Students Integrate into All-American Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukhlomin, Valeri; Deshpande, Anant

    2017-01-01

    "iMOOC101: Mastering American e-Learning" is a Coursera-based, free, massive online course aimed at preparing non-U.S. students to succeed in regular, for-credit, online classes in American universities. The course is also intended to help foreign-born professionals integrate into virtual work environments in U.S.-based companies. The…

  5. Degadation of semiconducting polymers by concentrated sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Manceau, Matthieu; Petersen, Martin Helgesen

    2011-01-01

    infra-red spectra of MEH-PPV degraded at 1 sun intensity and at high solar concentration only showed minor deviations in degradation mechanisms. The acceleration factor was found to vary linearly with the solar concentration. Finally, a comparison of the degradation rates at 1 sun and 100 suns...... was carried out in a materials study employing five different conjugated polymers relevant to polymer solar cells for which acceleration factors in the range 19–55 were obtained.......A lens based sunlight concentration setup was used to accelerate the degradation of semiconducting polymers. Sunlight was collected outdoor and focused into an optical fiber bundle allowing for indoor experimental work. Photo-degradation of several polymers was studied by UV–vis absorbance...

  6. Tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole at clinical laboratory: can they help to characterize Staphylococcus aureus carrying different SCCmec types?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda Sampaio; Schuenck, Ricardo Pinto; Caboclo, Roberta Mello Ferreira; Ferreira, Dennis de Carvalho; Nouér, Simone Aranha; Santos, Kátia Regina Netto dos

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be difficult to detect at the clinical practice. We analyzed 140 MRSA isolates from inpatients to correlate the antimicrobial susceptibility with the SCCmec types. Type III (n = 63) isolates were more resistant to ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, cloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, and rifampin than type IV (n = 65) ones (p < 0.05). Moreover, type IV isolates were susceptible to tetracycline (100%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (98%), while type III isolates presented resistance to them. In regions where these SCCmec types are prevalent, the detection of specific resistant phenotypes could help to predict them, mainly when there are no technical conditions to SCCmec typing.

  7. Holick's rule and vitamin D from sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, John C; Sayre, Robert M; Holick, Michael F

    2010-07-01

    Holick's rule says that sun exposure 1/4 of a minimal erythemal dose (MED) over 1/4 of a body is equivalent to 1000 International Units (IU) oral vitamin D3. Webb and Engelsen recently commented that the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum used to establish Holick's rule is unknown. They consequently used a spring midday Boston solar spectrum to estimate ample sunlight exposures for previtamin D3 (preD3) at various locations. Literature review found the source upon which this rule is based was a fluorescent sunlamp (FS lamp). The FS spectrum is known and its relative weighting against the action spectra for erythema and the preD3 is significantly different from the solar spectrum used to derive the standard vitamin D effective dose (SDD). The preD3 effectiveness of the solar spectrum per unit erythemal hazard is greater than the FS lamp by a factor of 1.32. Consequently, UV exposure estimates based on Boston reference sunlight, instead of the UV lamp employed in the originating experiments, over estimate UV exposure equivalent to approximately 1000 IU orally by approximately 1/3. This redefinition of SDD impacts risk/benefit assessments of optimal/feasible sun exposure for vitamin D maintenance and the application of Holick's rule to rational public health messages. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Persistence of Bacteroides ovatus under simulated sunlight irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Shengkun

    2014-07-04

    Background: Bacteroides ovatus, a member of the genus Bacteroides, is considered for use in molecular-based methods as a general fecal indicator. However, knowledge on its fate and persistence after a fecal contamination event remains limited. In this study, the persistence of B. ovatus was evaluated under simulated sunlight exposure and in conditions similar to freshwater and seawater. By combining propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection, the decay rates of B. ovatus were determined in the presence and absence of exogenous photosensitizers and in salinity up to 39.5 parts per thousand at 27°C. Results: UVB was found to be important for B. ovatus decay, averaging a 4 log10 of decay over 6 h of exposure without the presence of extracellular photosensitizers. The addition of NaNO2, an exogenous sensitizer producing hydroxyl radicals, did not significantly change the decay rate of B. ovatus in both low and high salinity water, while the exogenous sensitizer algae organic matter (AOM) slowed down the decay of B. ovatus in low salinity water. At seawater salinity, the decay rate of B. ovatus was slower than that in low salinity water, except when both NaNO2 and AOM were present. Conclusion: The results of laboratory experiments suggest that if B. ovatus is released into either freshwater or seawater environment in the evening, 50% of it may be intact by the next morning; if it is released at noon, only 50% may be intact after a mere 5 min of full spectrum irradiation on a clear day. This study provides a mechanistic understanding to some of the important environmental relevant factors that influenced the inactivation kinetics of B. ovatus in the presence of sunlight irradiation, and would facilitate the use of B. ovatus to indicate the occurrence of fecal contamination.

  9. Life-threatening motor vehicle crashes in bright sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Redelmeier, Donald A.; Raza, Sheharyar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bright sunlight may create visual illusions that lead to driver error, including fallible distance judgment from aerial perspective. We tested whether the risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash was increased when driving in bright sunlight. This longitudinal, case-only, paired-comparison analysis evaluated patients hospitalized because of a motor vehicle crash between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. The relative risk of a crash associated with bright sunlight was estim...

  10. Traceable calibration of photovoltaic reference cells using natural sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllejans, H.; Zaaiman, W.; Pavanello, D.; Dunlop, E. D.

    2018-02-01

    At the European Solar Test Installation (ESTI) photovoltaic (PV) reference cells are calibrated traceably to SI units via the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) using natural sunlight. The Direct Sunlight Method (DSM) is described in detail and the latest measurement results and an updated uncertainty budget are reported. These PV reference cells then provide a practical means for measuring the irradiance of natural or simulated sunlight during the calibration of other PV devices.

  11. Fate of kelthane residues on apple pomace exposed to drying in the dark, sunlight, and ultraviolet light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, T.E.; Toscano, R.A.

    1972-01-01

    The present investigations were undertaken to determine the fate of Kelthane residues intentionally applied to apples under controlled laboratory conditions and the reduction of these residues in the pomace by exposure to drying in the dark, in sunlight, and ultraviolet light irradiation

  12. Reversible degradation of inverted organic solar cells by concentrated sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Manor, Assaf; Katz, Eugene A

    2011-01-01

    . The transient state is believed to be a result of the breakdown of the diode behaviour of the ZnO electron transport layer by O2 desorption, increasing the hole conductivity. These results imply that accelerated degradation of organic solar cells by concentrated sunlight is not a straightforward process......Concentrated sunlight was used to study the performance response of inverted P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells after exposure to high intensity sunlight. Correlations of efficiency as a function of solar intensity were established in the range of 0.5–15 suns at three different stages: for a pristine...

  13. Nature sunlight bleaching of Ti center ESR signal in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Gongming; Liu Chunru; Li Jianping; Fang Jiahu; Gao Lu; Lin Min

    2009-01-01

    Quartz grains were extracted from granite. Bleaching was carried out in four different area chosen for their different altitudes (Beijing, Yinchuan, Germu, Lhasa), in order to observe their behavior under different intensities of the UV (Ultra violet) component of sunlight. The result of our experiments indicate that the Ti center signal is totally bleachable by the natural sunlight and show that the Ti center signal was reduced to zero after about 128 h in Beijing and after 56 h for Lhasa. We can speculate that different intensity of the UV component of sunlight lead to different minimal time necessary to obtain the total bleaching of the quartz sample. (authors)

  14. Charles Burchfield: "October Wind and Sunlight in the Woods."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Gaynell

    1986-01-01

    Based on Charles Burchfield's watercolor, "October Wind and Sunlight in the Woods," the goal of this lesson is to introduce students in grades seven through nine to Burchfield's use of symbolism. (JDH)

  15. Analytic Models for Sunlight Charging of a Rapidly Spinning Satellite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tautz, Maurice

    2003-01-01

    ... photoelectrons can be blocked by local potential barriers. In this report, we discuss two analytic models for sunlight charging of a rapidly spinning spherical satellite, both of which are based on blocked photoelectron currents...

  16. Sunlight-induced DNA damage in human mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Wallin, Hakan; Holst, Erik

    2002-01-01

    of sunlight was comparable to the interindividual variation, indicating that sunlight exposure and the individual's background were the two most important determinants for the basal level of DNA damage. Influence of other lifestyle factors such as exercise, intake of foods, infections, and age could......In this study of 301 blood samples from 21 subjects, we found markedly higher levels of DNA damage (nonpyrimidine dimer types) in the summer than in the winter detected by single-cell gel electrophoresis. The level of DNA damage was influenced by the average daily influx of sunlight ... to blood sampling. The 3 and 6 day periods before sampling influenced DNA damage the most. The importance of sunlight was further emphasized by a positive association of the DNA damage level to the amount of time the subjects had spent in the sun over a 3 day period prior to the sampling. The effect...

  17. Effects of Sunlight Exposure on the Quality Parameters of Bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    microbial population (total coliform) of the bottled water with increasing exposure to sunlight was observed. ... safe drinking water which has led to the tremendous ... degradation under high temperature (Bach et al., ..... Solar and photocatalytic.

  18. Accelerated stability testing of organic photovoltaics using concentrated sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Eugene A.; Manor, Assaf; Mescheloff, Asaf

    2012-01-01

    We suggest to use concentrated sunlight for accelerated studies of light-induced mechanisms in the degradation of organic photovoltaics (OPV) based on the polymer (P3HT)/fullerene (PCBM) bulk heterojunctions. Two particular cases of the degradation are reported.......We suggest to use concentrated sunlight for accelerated studies of light-induced mechanisms in the degradation of organic photovoltaics (OPV) based on the polymer (P3HT)/fullerene (PCBM) bulk heterojunctions. Two particular cases of the degradation are reported....

  19. Specular Reflection of Sunlight from Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, T.; Marshak, A.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Gateway vantage point offers advantages in observing specular reflection from water surfaces or ice crystals in clouds. Such data can give information on clouds and atmospheric aerosols, and help test algorithms of future exoplanet characterization.

  20. Sunlight and Vitamin D: A global perspective for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences.

  1. Ultra-Accelerated Natural Sunlight Exposure Testing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Allan A.; Jorgensen, Gary J.

    2004-11-23

    A multi-faceted concentrator apparatus for providing ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing for sample materials under controlled weathering conditions comprising: facets that receive incident natural sunlight, transmits VIS/NIR and reflects UV/VIS onto a secondary reflector that delivers a uniform flux of UV/VIS onto a sample exposure plane located near a center of a facet array in a chamber that provide concurrent levels of temperature and/or relative humidity at high levels of up to 100.times. of natural sunlight that allow sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a significant period of time of about 3 to 10 days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth representative weathering of sample materials.

  2. Getting Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents & Students Home > Special Features > Getting Help Getting Help Resources from NIAAA Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding ... and find ways to make a change. Professional help Your doctor. Primary care and mental health practitioners ...

  3. Successful pacing using a batteryless sunlight-powered pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberlin, Andreas; Zurbuchen, Adrian; Schaerer, Jakob; Wagner, Joerg; Walpen, Sébastien; Huber, Christoph; Haeberlin, Heinrich; Fuhrer, Juerg; Vogel, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Today's cardiac pacemakers are powered by batteries with limited energy capacity. As the battery's lifetime ends, the pacemaker needs to be replaced. This surgical re-intervention is costly and bears the risk of complications. Thus, a pacemaker without primary batteries is desirable. The goal of this study was to test whether transcutaneous solar light could power a pacemaker. We used a three-step approach to investigate the feasibility of sunlight-powered cardiac pacing. First, the harvestable power was estimated. Theoretically, a subcutaneously implanted 1 cm(2) solar module may harvest ∼2500 µW from sunlight (3 mm implantation depth). Secondly, ex vivo measurements were performed with solar cells placed under pig skin flaps exposed to a solar simulator and real sunlight. Ex vivo measurements under real sunlight resulted in a median output power of 4941 µW/cm(2) [interquartile range (IQR) 3767-5598 µW/cm(2), median skin flap thickness 3.0 mm (IQR 2.7-3.3 mm)]. The output power strongly depended on implantation depth (ρSpearman = -0.86, P pacemaker powered by a 3.24 cm(2) solar module was implanted in vivo in a pig to measure output power and to pace. In vivo measurements showed a median output power of >3500 µW/cm(2) (skin flap thickness 2.8-3.84 mm). Successful batteryless VVI pacing using a subcutaneously implanted solar module was performed. Based on our results, we estimate that a few minutes of direct sunlight (irradiating an implanted solar module) allow powering a pacemaker for 24 h using a suitable energy storage. Thus, powering a pacemaker by sunlight is feasible and may be an alternative energy supply for tomorrow's pacemakers. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Sunlight-enhanced catalytic degradation over Ag–CuO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Herein, we report sunlight-activated photo-catalysis response of direct current radio frequency (DC/RF)-sputtered Ag–CuO nanoparticles thin films.We have adopted this approach for facile removal and easy recovery of thin filmsafter use. Ag was incorporated at 2.5 and 5.4 wt% with reference to pure CuO. Structural ...

  5. Effect of sunlight, transport and storage vessels on drinking water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of sunlight, transport and storage vessels on drinking water quality in rural Ghana. ... on drinking water quality in rural Ghana. K Obiri-Danso, E Amevor, LA Andoh, K Jones ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  6. Reversible degradation of inverted organic solar cells by concentrated sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Krebs, Frederik C; Manor, Assaf; Katz, Eugene A

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated sunlight was used to study the performance response of inverted P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells after exposure to high intensity sunlight. Correlations of efficiency as a function of solar intensity were established in the range of 0.5-15 suns at three different stages: for a pristine cell, after 30 min exposure at 5 suns and after 30 min of rest in the dark. High intensity exposure introduced a major performance decrease for all solar intensities, followed by a partial recovery of the lost performance over time: at 1 sun only 6% of the initial performance was conserved after the high intensity exposure, while after rest the performance had recovered to 60% of the initial value. The timescale of the recovery effect was studied by monitoring the cell performance at 1 sun after high intensity exposure. This showed that cell performance was almost completely restored after 180 min. The transient state is believed to be a result of the breakdown of the diode behaviour of the ZnO electron transport layer by O 2 desorption, increasing the hole conductivity. These results imply that accelerated degradation of organic solar cells by concentrated sunlight is not a straightforward process, and care has to be taken to allow for a sound accelerated lifetime assessment based on concentrated sunlight.

  7. Electricity from Sunlight: The Future of Photovoltaics. Worldwatch Paper 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Christopher

    Solar photovoltaic cells have been called the ultimate energy technology, environmentally benign and without moving parts, solar cells directly convert sunlight into electricity. Photovoltaic energy conversion is fundamentally different from all other forms of electricity generation. Without turbines, generators or other mechanical equipment, it…

  8. Effect of sunlight shielding on leaf structure and amino acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Light sensitive albino tea cultivar 'Jinguang' (Camellia sinensis) which grows albinism leaf in yellow colour, results to high level of amino acids but low levels of photosynthetic pigments including chlorophylls, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, phytoxanthin and β-carotene when it is exposed to high sunlight illumination in the ...

  9. Dietary calcium intake and sunlight exposure among children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  10. Turning Sunlight into Electricity-Inorganic Solar Cells and Beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Turning Sunlight into Electricity - Inorganic Solar Cells and Beyond. A K Shukla. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1294-1302. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Dissolved organic carbon biodegradability from thawing permafrost stimulated by sunlight rather than inorganic nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Chen, L.; Zhang, B.; Wang, G.; Qin, S.; Yang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost thaw could result in a large portion of frozen carbon being laterally transferred to aquatic ecosystems as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). During this delivery process, the size of biodegradable DOC (BDOC) determines the proportion of DOC mineralized by microorganisms and associated carbon loss to the atmosphere, which may further trigger positive carbon-climate feedback. Thermokarst is an abrupt permafrost thaw process that can enhance DOC export and also impact DOC processing through increased inorganic nitrogen (N) and sunlight exposure. However, it remains unclear how thermokarst-impacted BDOC responds to inorganic N addition and ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. Here we explored the responses of DOC concentration, composition and its biodegradability to inorganic N and UV light in a typical thermokarst on the Tibetan Plateau, by combining field observation and laboratory incubation with spectra analyses (UV-visible absorption and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra) and parallel factor analyses. Our results showed that BDOC in thermokarst feature outflows was significantly higher than in reference water. Furthermore, inorganic N addition had no influence on thermokarst-impacted BDOC, whereas exposure to UV light significantly increased BDOC by as much as 2.3 times higher than the dark-control. Moreover, N addition and UV irradiation did not generate additive effects on BDOC. These results imply that sunlight rather than inorganic N can increase thermokarst-derived BDOC, potentially strengthening the positive permafrost carbon-climate feedback.

  12. Natural sunlight bleaching of the aluminum center in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Min; Yin Gongming; Han Kongyan; Bao Jifei; Liu Jingwei; Jia Li

    2007-01-01

    The effect of sunlight bleaching on ESR signals from the aluminum center in quartz is reported for two samples of sand-sized quartz, one from a granite and one from a beach sand. The grains were exposed to direct sunlight for periods of time up to 500 h, with bleaching carried out in four different cities in China that are from 50 to 3600 m above sea level. Each sample bleached to the same residual level, ∼55% for the granite and 80% for the beach sand of the initial value after a 200 Gy dose had been given. After 200 h, the bleaching level reached was independent of the height above sea level

  13. Intensity correlation imaging with sunlight-like source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Tang, Zhiguo; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Hui; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Jinbin; Liu, Yanyan; Xu, Zhuo

    2018-05-01

    We show a method of intensity correlation imaging of targets illuminated by a sunlight-like source both theoretically and experimentally. With a Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF), we have modulated the coherence time of a thermal source up to 0.167 ns. And we carried out measurements of temporal and spatial correlations, respectively, with an intensity interferometer setup. By skillfully using the even Fourier fitting on the very sparse sampling data, the images of targets are successfully reconstructed from the low signal-noise-ratio(SNR) interference pattern by applying an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. The resulting imaging quality is as well as the one obtained by the theoretical fitting. The realization of such a case will bring this technique closer to geostationary satellite imaging illuminated by sunlight.

  14. Sunlight technologies for photochemical deactivation of organic pollutants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acher, A.; Fischer, E.; Tornheim, R. [The Volcani Center, Inst. of Soils and Water, Bet Dagan (Israel); Manor, Y. [Sheba Medical Center, Central Virology Lab., Ramat Gan (Israel)

    1997-12-31

    Sensitized-photochemical oxidation methods aimed at use in water treatment technologies for deactivation of biotic (microorganisms) and/or of xenobiotic (pesticides) pollutants in water were developed using global solar radiation or concentrated sunlight (up to 250 suns). The solar global radiation was used either for detoxification of industrial waste water from a pesticide factory to allow their discharge into the urban sewer, or for disinfection of domestric effluents to be used in crop irrigation. The disinfection process was eventually carried out in an experimental pilot-scale plant, capable of disinfection up to 50 m{sup 3}/h of effluent supplied by an activated sludge sewage treatment plant located in Tel-Aviv area. The treated effluents did not show any regrowth of the microorganisms during 7 days. The solar concentrated radiation experiments performed using facilities of the Sun Tower of The Weizman Institute of Science, Rehovot. The concentrated sunlight was provided by different combination of several computer controlled heliostates, up to 8, that track the sun and focus the received sunlight onto the target situated on the roof of the sun-tower. The sunlight intensities measured on the target reached up to 200 kW/m{sup 2}. The experiments were performed either batch- or continuous-wise. The water-samples exposed to disinfection were the above effluent, filtered and supplemented with vaccine strain poliovirus or with different concentrations of an industrial potential pollutant (bromacil), MB 2 mg/L and two concentrations of dissolved oxygen (8.0 or 40.0 mg O{sub 2}/L). An exposure time of 2-3 seconds at 150 kW/m{sup 2} was decreased the microorganisms alive (counts) by five orders of magnitude. A comparison between the two above water treatment technologies is presented. (orig./SR)

  15. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.

  16. The effects of sunlight exposure on the neutron response of CN-85 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Mirza, N.M.; Mirza, S.K.; Tufail, M.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of sunlight exposure on the neutron response of CN-85 track detectors has been studied. It has been observed that the response during the first 28 days of sunlight exposure is slightly enhanced (10%) and then deceases continuously with increase in the sunlight exposure. After 84 days of sunlight exposure the response of the exposed detector relative to an unexposed detector is only 22%. It is also observed that the response can not be maintained by wrapping the CN-85 etch track detectors in typewriter black carbon papers if they are exposed to sunlight. (author)

  17. Search Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance and search help resource listing examples of common queries that can be used in the Google Search Appliance search request, including examples of special characters, or query term seperators that Google Search Appliance recognizes.

  18. Type II GaSb quantum ring solar cells under concentrated sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Che-Pin; Hsu, Shun-Chieh; Lin, Shih-Yen; Chang, Ching-Wen; Tu, Li-Wei; Chen, Kun-Cheng; Lay, Tsong-Sheng; Lin, Chien-Chung

    2014-03-10

    A type II GaSb quantum ring solar cell is fabricated and measured under the concentrated sunlight. The external quantum efficiency confirms the extended absorption from the quantum rings at long wavelength coinciding with the photoluminescence results. The short-circuit current of the quantum ring devices is 5.1% to 9.9% more than the GaAs reference's under various concentrations. While the quantum ring solar cell does not exceed its GaAs counterpart in efficiency under one-sun, the recovery of the open-circuit voltages at higher concentration helps to reverse the situation. A slightly higher efficiency (10.31% vs. 10.29%) is reported for the quantum ring device against the GaAs one.

  19. Molecular and sensory mechanisms to mitigate sunlight-induced DNA damage in treefrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, André P; Lipinski, Victor M; Santos, Mauricio B; Santos, Caroline P; Jardim, Sinara S; Cechin, Sonia Z; Loreto, Elgion L S

    2015-10-01

    The increased incidence of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation has been proposed as an environmental stressor, which may help to explain the enigmatic decline of amphibian populations worldwide. Despite growing knowledge regarding the UV-induced biological effects in several amphibian models, little is known about the efficacy of DNA repair pathways. In addition, little attention has been given to the interplay between these molecular mechanisms with other physiological strategies that avoid the damage induced by sunlight. Here, DNA lesions induced by environmental doses of solar UVB and UVA radiation were detected in genomic DNA samples of treefrog tadpoles (Hypsiboas pulchellus) and their DNA repair activity was evaluated. These data were complemented by monitoring the induction of apoptosis in blood cells and tadpole survival. Furthermore, the tadpoles' ability to perceive and escape from UV wavelengths was evaluated as an additional strategy of photoprotection. The results show that tadpoles are very sensitive to UVB light, which could be explained by the slow DNA repair rates for both cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6,4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6,4PPs). However, they were resistant to UVA, probably as a result of the activation of photolyases during UVA irradiation. Surprisingly, a sensory mechanism that triggers their escape from UVB and UVA light avoids the generation of DNA damage and helps to maintain the genomic integrity. This work demonstrates the genotoxic impact of both UVB and UVA radiation on tadpoles and emphasizes the importance of the interplay between molecular and sensory mechanisms to minimize the damage caused by sunlight. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Technical-economic feasibility of orbiting sunlight reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferov, Z.; Minin, V.

    1986-02-01

    The use of deflectors in orbit as a means of providing artificial illumination is examined. Considerations of technical and economic feasibility are addressed. Three main areas of application are distinguished: reflecting sunlight onto the surface of the Earth; concentration of the flow of solar energy on an orbiting receiver; and retransmission of optical radiation. The advantages of the artificial Earth illumination application of the orbiting reflector scheme in terms of energy savings in lighting cities, and additional daylight time for critical periods of farming operations are discussed.

  1. Ocean color remote sensing using polarization properties of reflected sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, R.; Pouliquen, E.; Breon, F.-M.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the atmosphere and surface on sunlight backscattered to space by the ocean may be substantially reduced by using the unpolarized component of reflectance instead of total reflectance. At 450 nm, a wavelength of interest in ocean color remote sensing, and for typical conditions, 45% of the unpolarized reflectance may originate from the water body instead of 20% of the total reflectance, which represents a gain of a factor 2.2 in useful signal for water composition retrieval. The best viewing geometries are adjacent to the glitter region; they correspond to scattering angles around 100 deg, but they may change slightly depending on the polarization characteristics of the aerosols. As aerosol optical thickness increases, the atmosphere becomes less efficient at polarizing sunlight, and the enhancement of the water body contribution to unpolarized reflectance is reduced. Since the perturbing effects are smaller on unpolarized reflectance, at least for some viewing geometries, they may be more easily corrected, leading to a more accurate water-leaving signal and, therefore, more accurate estimates of phytoplankton pigment concentration.

  2. Bleaching of the thermoluminescence of feldspars by sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, G.B.; Prescott, J.R.; Hutton, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Feldspars are an important component of materials used for thermoluminescence (TL) and photoluminescence (PL) dating of sediments; and successful dating implies a knowledge of the degree of re-setting by exposure to sunlight of the stored luminescence energy. We have studied the bleaching by full sunlight of the TL of six alkali feldspars of representative composition and of one oligoclase. The high potassium and high sodium feldspars are the brightest, and are also the least easily bleached, whereas those of intermediate (K-Na) composition bleach quickly. On a time scale of upwards of 16 h, all samples would have bleached enough for them to be useful for TL dating. A search was made for individual glow curve peaks that bleach particularly quickly (and are thus similar to the well-known 325 o C peak used in the TL dating of quartz). In the samples studied, there was only one glow curve peak that was selectively susceptible to bleaching: the 280 o C peak in oligoclase. (author)

  3. Can Skin Exposure to Sunlight Prevent Liver Inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Gorman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Liver inflammation contributes towards the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Here we discuss how skin exposure to sunlight may suppress liver inflammation and the severity of NAFLD. Following exposure to sunlight-derived ultraviolet radiation (UVR, the skin releases anti-inflammatory mediators such as vitamin D and nitric oxide. Animal modeling studies suggest that exposure to UVR can prevent the development of NAFLD. Association studies also support a negative link between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and NAFLD incidence or severity. Clinical trials are in their infancy and are yet to demonstrate a clear beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation. There are a number of potentially interdependent mechanisms whereby vitamin D could dampen liver inflammation, by inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis and liver fibrosis, modulating the gut microbiome and through altered production and transport of bile acids. While there has been a focus on vitamin D, other mediators induced by sun exposure, such as nitric oxide may also play important roles in curtailing liver inflammation.

  4. Effect of artificial sunlight on the retention of external calcein marks on lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Kehler, T.; Fletcher, J.W.; Mohler, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    When choosing a fish marking technique to address fishery related questions, it is important to consider factors that affect mark retention. Calcein, a chemical marking agent, is under investigation for potential use on fish. Two laboratory trials were conducted with calcein-marked lake trout Salvelinus namaycush to determine the effect of artificial sunlight on calcein mark intensity. In trial 1, fish exposed to 18,000 lx for 7 d lost 90% or more of the calcein mark intensity (relative to the colorimetric key, mg/L) on the head, body, ventral region, and pectoral fins relative to mark intensity in fish that were maintained in darkness. In trial 2, light intensity was reduced 2.5-3.0-fold. After 7 d of light exposure, calcein mark intensity on the head was reduced by 40-45% relative to mark intensity in fish that were held in darkness; by day 14, calcein mark intensity on the head was reduced by 55-60% relative to that of dark-treated fish. No further decline was observed in light-exposed fish, and head mark intensity values did not differ among days 14, 21, and 28 for this treatment group. Of the four areas evaluated, the head and pectoral fin were more easily read using a colorimetric key than the lateral or ventral regions of the fish. The concentration of calcein spotted on filter paper to devise the colorimetric key ranged from 1 to 100 mg/L. A difference of approximately 7 mg/L in apparent calcein mark intensity means for the head region could be detected using the colorimetric key. These trials showed that calcein mark intensity on lake trout declined when fish were exposed to artificial sunlight, and the use of a colorimetric key improved the objectivity of calcein mark intensity assessment.

  5. A generic approach for sunlight and shadow impact computation on large city models

    OpenAIRE

    Jaillot , Vincent; Pedrinis , Frédéric; Servigne , Sylvie; Gesquière , Gilles

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Study of sunlight and shadow effects on the city has become more accessible with the development of 3D citymodels. It allows measuring when and how an object is exposed to the sunlight, which enables conducting manyrelated studies such as energy analyses or urban planning. While many works have been done for this purpose, itmay be interesting to know which objects (terrain, buildings, trees, etc.) prevent other objects from beingexposed to the sunlight. In this paper w...

  6. Ultraviolet- and sunlight-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, T.K.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation and sunlight caused lipid peroxidation in the liposomal membrane (as detected by measurement of the oxidation index, A 233 /A 215 , and the amount of malondialdehyde formed) and made the membrane leaky (as revealed by the release of the trapped chromate anions). The oxidation index and the formation of malondialdehyde increased linearly with increasing dose of radiation and depended significantly on the dose rate. The effects were smaller in liposomes derived from Vibrio cholerae phospholipid than in those derived from egg lecithin. The effects of the radiation dose and dose rate on hemolysis and peroxidation (MDA formation) of the erythrocyte membrane followed a similar pattern. A direct correlation between the percentage leakage of chromate (Y) and the oxidation index (X) of the liposomal system was obtained as Y = 236.5 x X

  7. Harvesting Water from Air: Using Anhydrous Salt with Sunlight

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan

    2018-04-02

    Atmospheric water is abundant alternative water resource, equivalent to 6 times of water in all rivers on Earth. This work screens 14 common anhydrous and hydrated salt couples in terms of their physical and chemical stability, water vapor harvesting and release capacity under relevant application scenarios. Among the salts screened, copper chloride (CuCl2), copper sulfate (CuSO4) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) distinguish themselves and are further made into bi-layer water collection devices, with the top layer being photothermal layer while the bottom layer being salt-loaded fibrous membrane. The water collection devices are capable of capturing water vapor out of the air with low relative humidity (down to 15 %) and releasing water under regular and even weakened sunlight (i.e. 0.7 kW/m2). The work shines light on the potential use of anhydrous salt towards producing drinking water in water scarce regions.

  8. PRKCZ methylation is associated with sunlight exposure in a North American but not a Mediterranean population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunlight exposure has been shown to alter DNA methylation patterns across several human cell-types, including T-lymphocytes. Since epigenetic changes establish gene expression profiles, changes in DNA methylation induced by sunlight exposure warrant investigation. The purpose of this study was to as...

  9. Sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity associated with disability progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Haentjens, P.; Nagels, G.; Garmyn, M.; De Keyser, J.

    Background: Sunlight and vitamin D have been inversely associated with the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: We investigated sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity in relation to disability progression in MS. Methods: We conducted a survey among persons with MS, registered by the Flemish MS

  10. Investigation of sunlight-induced deterioration of aroma of pummelo (Citrus maxima) essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Ni, Hui; Yang, Yuanfan; Wu, Ling; Cai, Hui-nong; Xiao, An-feng; Chen, Feng

    2014-12-10

    Deterioration of aromas of pummelo essential oil (EO) induced by sunlight was compared to those induced by heat and oxygen exposure using the techniques of sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. The sunlight-exposed EO was found to possess an oily off-flavor odor, which was significantly different from its counterparts induced by oxygen and heat. The strong oily note of the sunlight-exposed EO was attributed to the existence of linalool oxides and limonene oxides, as well as the lack of neral and geranial, for which UV sunlight was revealed to be the critical contributor causing the chemical reactions for the aroma changes. The results demonstrated that UV sunlight could significantly affect the aroma of the pummelo EO, providing valuable information that will benefit the production and storage of EO-based aromatic products.

  11. Asteroid thermal modeling in the presence of reflected sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Nathan

    2018-03-01

    A new derivation of simple asteroid thermal models is presented, investigating the need to account correctly for Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation when IR observations contain substantial reflected sunlight. The framework applies to both the NEATM and related thermal models. A new parameterization of these models eliminates the dependence of thermal modeling on visible absolute magnitude H, which is not always available. Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess the potential impact of violating Kirchhoff's law on estimates of physical parameters such as diameter and IR albedo, with an emphasis on NEOWISE results. The NEOWISE papers use ten different models, applied to 12 different combinations of WISE data bands, in 47 different combinations. The most prevalent combinations are simulated and the accuracy of diameter estimates is found to be depend critically on the model and data band combination. In the best case of full thermal modeling of all four band the errors in an idealized model the 1σ (68.27%) confidence interval is -5% to +6%, but this combination is just 1.9% of NEOWISE results. Other combinations representing 42% of the NEOWISE results have about twice the CI at -10% to +12%, before accounting for errors due to irregular shape or other real world effects that are not simulated. The model and data band combinations found for the majority of NEOWISE results have much larger systematic and random errors. Kirchhoff's law violation by NEOWISE models leads to errors in estimation accuracy that are strongest for asteroids with W1, W2 band emissivity ɛ12 in both the lowest (0.605 ≤ɛ12 ≤ 0 . 780), and highest decile (0.969 ≤ɛ12 ≤ 0 . 988), corresponding to the highest and lowest deciles of near-IR albedo pIR. Systematic accuracy error between deciles ranges from a low of 5% to as much as 45%, and there are also differences in the random errors. Kirchhoff's law effects also produce large errors in NEOWISE estimates of pIR, particularly for high

  12. Genotoxic action of sunlight upon Bacillus subtilis spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munakata, Nobuo

    1989-01-01

    Samples of Bacillus subtilis spores dried on membrane filter were exposed to natural sunlight from solar-noon time at Tokyo. The survival and mutation induction of wild-type (UVR) and repair-deficient (UVS) spores were determined on 66 occasions since 1979. Two of the values were considered to be useful in monitoring solar UV intensity; the inverse of the time (in minutes) of exposure to kill 63% of the UVS spores ('sporocidal index') and the induced mutation frequency at 60 minutes of exposure of the UVR spores ('mutagenic index'). Both values were varied greatly due to time of a year, weather and other conditions. Estimates of year-round changes under clear skies were obtained by connecting the maximum values attained in these years. In these curves, there are more than 7-fold differences in the genotoxicity between winter and summer months, with major increases observed in early spring and decreases through autumn. Using a series of UV cut-off filters, the wavelengths most effective for the sporocidal actions were estimated to be in the range of 308 - 325 nm, shorter wavelengths being effective when the genotoxicity was higher. Sunburn meter of Robertson-Berger type seems to respond to slightly longer wavelength components of the solar spectrum. However, a reasonable correlation was obtained between the reading of the meter and the sporocidal index. (author)

  13. The economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from sunlight and wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M. K.; Spath, P. L.; Watt, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing photoelectrochemical and electrolytical technologies to convert energy from the sun and wind into hydrogen was studied. In exploring opportunities to reduce the cost of hydrogen production through interaction with the electric utility grid, it was found that direct photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion of sunlight has the economic potential to compete with direct photovoltaic/electrolysis, notwithstanding the significant stability and efficiency issues that are still awaiting solution. Interaction with the grid, while maximizing electrolizer use, makes a significant impact on the economics of producing hydrogen by photovoltaic/electrolysis, making wind-based systems also more economical. Electrolysis was found to be the optimal solution only with electricity from renewable sources or with less expensive non-peak electricity. On the other hand, the delivered cost of hydrogen was found to the lowest when electricity production was decoupled from the hydrogen production operation. Decoupled hydrogen production also has an additional benefit, i.e. it produces the hydrogen where it is needed, therefore it mitigates the need for various storage and distribution costs. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  14. Theory of direct sunlight transmission through orthogonal screen cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljofi, E.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of using the Rawshan screens to control high light intensity and to avoid excessive solar radiation penetrating inside the building interior. The exploration of the environmental characteristics of this device indicates an ideal solution to utilize available daylight in the arid atmosphere, reduces energy consumption due to the us of artificial light and ensures the continuity of the traditional architecture and the country heritage. A systematic analysis of direct sunlight transmission has been explored using a mathematical approach. The study intends to construct a predictive tool for the architects through which different specifications of the Rawshan screens were identified as far as direct beam of light concerned. The predictive tool was set-up to investigate various parameters of the screen such as the screen configurations, the aperture configurations, the change in orientation and the effect of the sky condition. The analysis of light transmission through the screen were set-up for orthogonal shapes

  15. Towards a Better Understanding of the Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Sunlight-Induced Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Mandy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much less prevalent than its nonmelanoma skin cancer counterparts, cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM is the most lethal human skin cancer. Epidemiological and biological studies have established a strong link between lifetime exposure to ultraviolet (UV light, particularly sunburn in childhood, and the development of melanoma. However, the specific molecular targets of this environmental carcinogen are not known. Data obtained from genetic and molecular studies over the last few years have identified the INK4a/ARF locus as the “gatekeeper” melanoma suppressor, encoding two tumour suppressor proteins in human, p16 INK4a and p14 ARF . Recent developments in molecular biotechnology and research using laboratory animals have made a significant gene breakthrough identifying the components of the p16 INK4a /Rb pathway as the principal and rate-limiting targets of UV radiation actions in melanoma formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in melanoma development and its relationship to sunlight UV radiation.

  16. Bleaching of the thermoluminescence of feldspars by selected wavelengths present in sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, G.B.; Prescott, J.R.; Hutton, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Feldspars occur in many sediments, and dating them by thermoluminescence (TL) requires a knowledge of how efficiently sunlight bleaches these minerals. The relative bleaching efficiencies of various wavelengths have been investigated for four alkali feldspars and an oligoclase, using the natural TL of the samples and the artificial TL induced by laboratory irradiation, bleached by wavelengths in the range 322-550 nm. Ultraviolet wavelengths are more efficient than the longer wavelengths at bleaching all the glow-curve peaks and are responsible for most of the phototransfer from high-temperature peaks to low-temperature peaks. Some feldspars show an initial increase in TL intensity with bleaching. Two sanidines of similar bulk composition but different TL glow curves show different dependences on bleaching wavelength. In a sodic sanidine with a dominant 240 o C peak the energy required to bleach to 50% was a thousand times greater at 550 nm than at 322 nm. In contrast, another sanidine with a complex glow curve between 150 and 450 o C showed a much slower change in the 330 o C peak with wavelength - a factor of 10 between 322 and 550 nm - with a region between 400 and 500 nm which was almost independent of wavelength. This behaviour is explained by competing mechanisms of phototransfer and bleaching which depend on wavelength in different ways. (author)

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by iodine doped tin oxide nanoparticles under UV and sunlight irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamdi, Abdullah M.; Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Dutta, Joydeep, E-mail: dutta@squ.edu.om [Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 17, 123 Al-Khoudh (Oman)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • A sol–gel method used to synthesize tin oxide nanoparticles. • Nanoparticles of tin oxide doped with different iodine concentrations. • Degradation studies carried up with UV–vis, TOC, HPLC and GC instruments. • 1% iodine doped tin dioxide showed maximum photodegradation efficiency. - Abstract: Iodine doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}:I) nanoparticles were prepared by sol–gel synthesis and their photocatalytic activities with phenol as a test contaminant were studied. In the presence of the catalysts, phenol degradation under direct sunlight was comparable to what was achieved under laboratory conditions. Photocatalytic oxidation reactions were studied by varying the catalyst loading, light intensity, illumination time, pH of the reactant and phenol concentration. Upon UV irradiation in the presence of SnO{sub 2}:I nanoparticles, phenol degrades very rapidly within 30 min, forming carboxylic acid which turns the solution acidic. Phenol degradation rate with 1% iodine doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles is at least an order of magnitude higher compared to the degradation achieved through undoped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles under similar illumination conditions.

  18. Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by iodine doped tin oxide nanoparticles under UV and sunlight irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamdi, Abdullah M.; Sillanpää, Mika; Dutta, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A sol–gel method used to synthesize tin oxide nanoparticles. • Nanoparticles of tin oxide doped with different iodine concentrations. • Degradation studies carried up with UV–vis, TOC, HPLC and GC instruments. • 1% iodine doped tin dioxide showed maximum photodegradation efficiency. - Abstract: Iodine doped tin oxide (SnO 2 :I) nanoparticles were prepared by sol–gel synthesis and their photocatalytic activities with phenol as a test contaminant were studied. In the presence of the catalysts, phenol degradation under direct sunlight was comparable to what was achieved under laboratory conditions. Photocatalytic oxidation reactions were studied by varying the catalyst loading, light intensity, illumination time, pH of the reactant and phenol concentration. Upon UV irradiation in the presence of SnO 2 :I nanoparticles, phenol degrades very rapidly within 30 min, forming carboxylic acid which turns the solution acidic. Phenol degradation rate with 1% iodine doped SnO 2 nanoparticles is at least an order of magnitude higher compared to the degradation achieved through undoped SnO 2 nanoparticles under similar illumination conditions

  19. Biological Effects of Sunlight, Ultraviolet Radiation, Visible Light, Infrared Radiation and Vitamin D for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    Humans evolved in sunlight and had depended on sunlight for its life giving properties that was appreciated by our early ancestors. However, for more than 40 years the lay press and various medical and dermatology associations have denounced sun exposure because of its association with increased risk for skin cancer. The goal of this review is to put into perspective the many health benefits that have been associated with exposure to sunlight, ultraviolet A (UVA) ultraviolet B (UVB), visible and infrared radiation. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. Surfactant and natural sunlight enhanced Photogalvanic effect of Sudan I dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooran Koli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Photogalvanic cells (PG have been extensively studied for solar power and storage at low intensity artificial sunlight. But, PG can be practically significant and applicable in daily life only when they are validated at natural sunlight intensity. Therefore, the present study of photogalvanics of Sudan I-Fructose with efficiency enhancer chemical such as Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS surfactant in alkaline medium has been used to observe their workable feasibility in natural sunlight with investigation for optimal fabrication parameters. The cell has been found workable in natural sunlight with greatly enhanced optimum cell performance compared to that for reported similar cells. The observed optimum cell performance in terms of maximum power, short-circuit current, open-circuit potential, conversion efficiency and storage capacity (as half change time is of the order of 1081.1 μW, 4200 μA, 1048 mV, 13.5%, and 31 min, respectively.

  1. Influence of thermoluminescence signal for debris flow surface materials by sunlight bleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Bo; Wei Mingjian; He Youbing; Zhou Rui; Zhao Qiuyue; Zhang Bin

    2013-01-01

    Thermoluminescence was utilized for measuring the thermoluminescence signals of the standard debris flow samples which were bleached by simulated sunlight and debris flow samples after real sunlight bleaching. The experiment results demonstrate that light bleaching phenomenon of the debris flow occurs when it experiences a period of exposure. The thermoluminescence signal of the samples weakens gradually with the increase of depth. The optical bleaching phenomenon is obvious. Within a certain depth, light bleaching phenomenon is enhanced with the increase of light intensity. The annealing depth of simulated sunlight bleaching experiment is about 1 mm, and the actual annealing depth of sunlight bleaching is about 6 mm. According to the equivalent dose variation with depth, the mud of natural debris flow can be divided into two stages. It has fundamental significance in the application of thermoluminescence dating techniques to divide the stages of debris flow sediments. (authors)

  2. Sunlight suppressing rejection of 280- to 320-nm UV-radiation-induced skin tumors in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morison, W.L.; Kelley, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    Repeated exposure of female C3H/HeNCR- mice to sunlight prevented the normal immunologic rejection of a UV-induced tumor. This systemic immunologic alteration was transferred to syngeneic lethally X-irradiated animals with lymphoid cells from mice exposed to sunlight. The lymphoid cells also were able to suppress the capacity of lymphoid cells from normal animals to reject a UV-induced tumor. The 295- to 320-nm wave band appeared to be responsible for this immunosuppressive effect of sunlight because suppression was prevented by filtration of the radiation through Mylar and by application of a sunscreen containing para-aminobenzoic acid. These observations may have importance in understanding the pathogenesis of sunlight-induced skin cancer in humans

  3. Toxicological impact of cadmium-based quantum dots towards aquatic biota: Effect of natural sunlight exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, B.F. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Andreani, T. [Centro de Investigação em Química da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CITAB − Centre for Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, Vila Real (Portugal); Gavina, A., E-mail: anacsgavina@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Vieira, M.N. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Pereira, C.M. [Centro de Investigação em Química da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rocha-Santos, T. [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); and others

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Under sunlight exposure, all QDs form particle aggregates in the different media. • CdSeS/ZnS QDs showed lower toxic effects to V. fischeri before sunlight exposure. • Sunlight exposure decreased the toxicity of CdS 480 in all organisms. • Sunlight exposure increased the toxicity of CdS 380 QDs for D. magna. • Shell of QDs seemed to make them less harmful to aquatic organisms. - Abstract: Cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) are increasingly applied in existent and emerging technologies, especially in biological applications due to their exceptional photophysical and functionalization properties. However, they are very toxic compounds due to the high reactive and toxic cadmium core. The present study aimed to determine the toxicity of three different QDs (CdS 380, CdS 480 and CdSeS/ZnS) before and after the exposure of suspensions to sunlight, in order to assess the effect of environmentally relevant irradiation levels in their toxicity, which will act after their release to the environment. Therefore, a battery of ecotoxicological tests was performed with organisms that cover different functional and trophic levels, such as Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. The results showed that core-shell type QDs showed lower toxic effects to V. fischeri in comparison to core type QDs before sunlight exposure. However, after sunlight exposure, there was a decrease of CdS 380 and CdS 480 QD toxicity to bacterium. Also, after sunlight exposure, an effective decrease of CdSeS/ZnS and CdS 480 toxicity for D. magna and R. subcapitata, and an evident increase in CdS 380 QD toxicity, at least for D. magna, were observed. The results of this study suggest that sunlight exposure has an effect in the aggregation and precipitation reactions of larger QDs, causing the degradation of functional groups and formation of larger bulks which may be less prone to photo-oxidation due to their diminished surface area. The same

  4. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Bacosa, Hernando P.; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L.

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH ...

  5. Water balance of goats in Jeneponto - South Sulawesi under sunlight exposure and water restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoni Prawira Rahardja

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Water balance of 5 does of Kacang goat of Jeneponto was studied under the condition of sunlight exposure and water restriction. The study was conducted in dry season with 4 consecutive treatments of 10 d with 4-5 d of adjustment period between two consecutive treatments: (1 indoor and unrestricted water; (2 indoor and restricted water; (3 10 h outdoor–and unrestricted water; (4 10 h outdoor – restricted water. The maximum air temperature of outdoor was 39.3OC, and it was 30OC in the indoor environment. In all treatments, the animals were placed in the individual crates. The plasma volume of the goats was higher under sunlight exposure, but it decreased by water restriction, while hematocrite value indicated a reverse responses. Sunlight exposure did not significantly decrease the intake and digestion of organic matter, but water restriction affected significantly and this effect was higher under sunlight exposre. The proportions of water loss through every avenue were maintained relatively constant either under water restriction or sunlight exposure in which the respration rate increased significantly. The findings suggest that sunlight exposure with unrestricted water resulted in a positive water balance without a significant change in organic matter intake and utilization. Water restriction resulted in a negative water balance, reducing organic matter intake and utilization. As the adaptive mechanisms, the goat appeared to be able to withstand in the harsh environment of Jeneponto by expanding plasma volume, increasing body temperature and respiration rate.

  6. Sunlight inactivation of Escherichia coli in waste stabilization microcosms in a sahelian region (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Ynoussa; Denyigba, Kokou; Wethe, Joseph; Ouattara, Aboubakar Sidiki

    2009-02-09

    Experiments on sunlight inactivation of Escherichia coli were conducted from November 2006 to June 2007 in eight outdoors microcosms with different depths filled with maturation pond wastewater in order to determine pond depth influence on sunlight inactivation of E. coli. The long-term aim was to maximize sunlight inactivation of waterborne pathogens in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) in sahelian regions where number of sunny days enable longer exposure of wastewater to sunlight. The inactivation was followed during daylight from 8.00 h to 17.00 h and during the night. Sunlight inactivation rates (K(S)), as a function of cumulative global solar radiation (insolation), were 16 and 24 times higher than the corresponding dark inactivation (K(D)) rates, respectively in cold and warm season. In warm season, E. coli was inactivated far more rapidly. Inactivation of E. coli follows the evolution of radiation during the day. In shallow depth microcosms, E. coli was inactivated far more rapidly than in high depth microcosms. The physical chemical parameters [pH, dissolved oxygen (DO)] of microcosms water were higher in shallow depth microcosms than in high depth microcosms suggesting a synergistic effect of sunlight and these parameters to damage E. coli. To increase the efficiency of the elimination of waterborne bacteria, the use of maturation ponds with intermediate depths (0.4m) would be advisable in view of the high temperatures and thus evaporation recorded in sahelian regions.

  7. Natural sunlight shapes crude oil-degradingbacterial communities in northern Gulf of Mexico surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando P Bacosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 d under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  8. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacosa, Hernando P; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 days under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  9. Laboratory quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvin, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    The elements (principles) of quality assurance can be applied to the operation of the analytical chemistry laboratory to provide an effective tool for indicating the competence of the laboratory and for helping to upgrade competence if necessary. When used, those elements establish the planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence in each analytical result reported by the laboratory (the definition of laboratory quality assurance). The elements, as used at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), are discussed and they are qualification of analysts, written methods, sample receiving and storage, quality control, audit, and documentation. To establish a laboratory quality assurance program, a laboratory QA program plan is prepared to specify how the elements are to be implemented into laboratory operation. Benefits that can be obtained from using laboratory quality assurance are given. Experience at HEDL has shown that laboratory quality assurance is not a burden, but it is a useful and valuable tool for the analytical chemistry laboratory

  10. Sunlight stability and rain-fastness of formulations of Baculovirus heliothis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignoffo, C.M.; Garcia, C.; Saathoff, S.G.

    1997-01-01

    Sunlight-Ultraviolet, with an activity spectrum from 290 to 400 nm, is the most destructive factor affecting the persistence of baculoviruses. Benzopurpurin (a disazo dye) and carbon provided the best protection when polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) of Baculovirus heliothis were exposed to an artificial spectrum simulating sunlight-UV (UV). Greater than 75% of the original PIB activity was still present after 48 h of sunlight-UV. When sprayed on soybeans and exposed to natural sunlight, only formulations with carbon provided significant protection of PIB. The half-life of formulations were PIB-only 4.9 +/- 1.4 h (mean +/- SE), PIB + polymer (pyrrolidone-based sticker) 3.3 +/- 0.6 h, PIB + polymer + benzopurpurin 3.4 +/- 0.7 h, and PIB + polymer + carbon 27.7 +/- 5.2 h. PIB of B. heliothis tenaciously adhere to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, leaflets after spraying and drying. Less than 6% of the PIB activity of nonformulated PIB was lost after a drenching, simulated rainfall. More than 97% of the original PIB activity of carbon formulations was still present on soybean leaflets after 10 h of exposure to sunlight-UV. In contrast, 20% was present for formulations without carbon

  11. Hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant: the importance of sunlight exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane F. Vilarta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 30 ng/ml, in both healthy populations and patients with chronic kidney disease. Patients undergoing kidney transplant are at an increased risk of skin cancer and are advised to avoid sunlight exposure. Therefore, these patients might share two major risk factors for hypovitaminosis D: chronic kidney disease and low sunlight exposure. This paper describes the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypovitaminosis D among patients undergoing kidney transplant. METHODS: We evaluated 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in a representative sample of patients undergoing kidney transplant. We sought to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, compare these patients with a control group, and identify factors associated with hypovitaminosis D (e.g., sunlight exposure and dietary habits. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D was found in 79% of patients undergoing kidney transplant, and the major associated factor was low sunlight exposure. These patients had higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone serum levels, with 25-hydroxyvitamin D being inversely correlated with intact parathyroid hormone serum levels. Compared with the control group, patients undergoing kidney transplant presented a higher prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and lower serum calcium, phosphate and albumin but higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirmed the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant. Therapeutic strategies such as moderate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation should be seriously considered for this population.

  12. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, H; Mikkelsen, K; Poulsen, L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sunlight exposure of the skin is known to be the most important source of vitamin D. The aims of this study were: (i) to estimate vitamin D status amongst sunlight-deprived individuals (veiled Arab women, veiled ethnic Danish Moslem women and Danish controls); and (ii) through food...... intake analysis to estimate the oral intake of vitamin D necessary to keep a normal vitamin D status in sunlight-deprived individuals. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study amongst randomly selected Moslem women of Arab origin living in Denmark. Age-matched Danish women were included as controls. To control...... for racial differences, a group of veiled ethnic Danish Moslem women (all Caucasians) was included. SETTING: Primary Health Care Centre, City Vest and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism C, University Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus Amtssygehus, Aarhus, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Sixty-nine Arab women (60 veiled...

  13. Effect of sunlight on the survival of pathogenic E. coli in freshwater and sea water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin, Sabeena; Thampuran, N.

    2011-01-01

    An enteropathogenic group of E. coli are the emerging category of pathogen of public health significance. Several recent pathogenic E. coli outbreaks are associated with drinking water. Aquaculture, the fast emerging food production sector also poses a pathogenic EHEC outbreak risk, as it regularly...... uses cow dung, a reservoir of this organism. Hence, a experiment was set up to study the duration of survival of pathogenic E. coli under sunlight and darkness. Eight pathogenic E. coli isolates from clinical (EPEC, ETEC, EHEC, EAEC), veterinary (CTE3, CTE4) and environmental sources (ASHE3, Rao II......) were studied for their survival under sunlight and darkness in fresh water and seawater. Effect of direct sunlight on the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of cultures was also studied. The results of the study indicated a distinct pattern between freshwater system and seawater system. Pathogenic E...

  14. Roles of sunlight and natural ventilation for controlling infection: historical and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobday, R A; Dancer, S J

    2013-08-01

    Infections caught in buildings are a major global cause of sickness and mortality. Understanding how infections spread is pivotal to public health yet current knowledge of indoor transmission remains poor. To review the roles of natural ventilation and sunlight for controlling infection within healthcare environments. Comprehensive literature search was performed, using electronic and library databases to retrieve English language papers combining infection; risk; pathogen; and mention of ventilation; fresh air; and sunlight. Foreign language articles with English translation were included, with no limit imposed on publication date. In the past, hospitals were designed with south-facing glazing, cross-ventilation and high ceilings because fresh air and sunlight were thought to reduce infection risk. Historical and recent studies suggest that natural ventilation offers protection from transmission of airborne pathogens. Particle size, dispersal characteristics and transmission risk require more work to justify infection control practices concerning airborne pathogens. Sunlight boosts resistance to infection, with older studies suggesting potential roles for surface decontamination. Current knowledge of indoor transmission of pathogens is inadequate, partly due to lack of agreed definitions for particle types and mechanisms of spread. There is recent evidence to support historical data on the effects of natural ventilation but virtually none for sunlight. Modern practice of designing healthcare buildings for comfort favours pathogen persistence. As the number of effective antimicrobial agents declines, further work is required to clarify absolute risks from airborne pathogens along with any potential benefits from additional fresh air and sunlight. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cathodic protection of carbon steel in natural seawater: Effect of sunlight radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, Alessandro [Istituto per l' Energetica e le Interfasi, IENI - CNR, Milano, via Roberto Cozzi 53 20125 Milano (Italy)], E-mail: alessandro.benedetti@cnr.it; Magagnin, Luca [Dip. Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica G. Natta, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy); Passaretti, Francesca [Istituto per l' Energetica e le Interfasi IENI - CNR, Lecco, c.so Promessi Sposi 29, 23900 Lecco (Italy); Chelossi, Elisabetta; Faimali, Marco [Istituto di Scienze Marine, ISMAR- CNR - Via De Marini 6, 16149, Genova (Italy); Montesperelli, Giampiero [Universita di Roma - Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 00133, Roma (Italy)

    2009-11-01

    Cathodic protection of metals in seawater is known to be influenced by chemical-physical parameters affecting cathodic processes (oxygen discharge, hydrogen evolution and calcareous deposit precipitation). In shallow seawater, these parameters are influenced by sunlight photoperiod and photosynthetic activity. The results presented here represent the first step in studies dedicated to cathodic protection in shallow photic seawater. This paper reports on carbon steel protected at -850 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (oxygen limiting current regime) in the presence of sunlight radiation but in the absence of biological and photosynthetic activity, the role of which deserves future research. Comparison of results obtained by exposing electrochemical cells to daylight cycles in both biologically inactivated natural seawater and in NaCl 3.5 wt.% solutions showed that sunlight affects current densities and that calcareous deposit interfere with light-currents effects. Sunlight radiation and induced heating of the solution have been separated, highlighting results not otherwise obvious: (1) observed current waves concomitant with sunlight radiation depend fundamentally on solar radiation, (2) solar radiation can determine current enhancements from early to late phases of aragonite crystal growth, (3) a three-day-old CaCO{sub 3} layer reduces but does not eliminate the amplitude of the current waves. Theoretical calculations for oxygen limiting currents and additional field tests showed that sunlight, rather than bulk solution heating, is the main cause of daily current enhancements. This was confirmed by polarizations performed at -850 and -1000 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (constant bulk temperature), during which the electrode was irradiated with artificial lighting. This test also confirmed O{sub 2} discharge to be the cathodic process involved. A mechanism of radiation conversion to heat in the oxygen diffusion layer region is proposed.

  16. Comparison of germicidal activity of sunlight with the response of a sunburning meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billen, D; Green, A E.S.

    1975-01-01

    In the present work, we compare germicidal activity of sunlight on strain AB 2480 with the irradiance of sunlight as measured with a Sunburning Ultraviolet Meter (manufactured by the Skin and Cancer Hospital, Temple University Health Sciences Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). This instrument, an adaptation by Berger of one developed by Robertson (1972), uses a magnesium tungstate phosphor with a response approximating that of the erythema action spectrum. The light emitted by the phosphor is detected by a phototube which produces a proportional electric current, the signal used in these experiments. (auth)

  17. Errors in short circuit measurements due to spectral mismatch between sunlight and solar simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, H. B.

    1976-01-01

    Errors in short circuit current measurement were calculated for a variety of spectral mismatch conditions. The differences in spectral irradiance between terrestrial sunlight and three types of solar simulator were studied, as well as the differences in spectral response between three types of reference solar cells and various test cells. The simulators considered were a short arc xenon lamp AMO sunlight simulator, an ordinary quartz halogen lamp, and an ELH-type quartz halogen lamp. Three types of solar cells studied were a silicon cell, a cadmium sulfide cell and a gallium arsenide cell.

  18. Reversible degradation in ITO-containing organic photovoltaics under concentrated sunlight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Mescheloff, A.; Veenstra, S.C.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Katz, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Stabilities of ITO-containing and ITO-free organic solar cells were investigated under simulated AM 1.5G illumination and under concentrated natural sunlight. In both cases ITO-free devices exhibit high stability, while devices containing ITO show degradation of their photovoltaic performance. The

  19. Sunlight-enhanced calcareous deposition on cathodic stainless steel in natural seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Eashwar, M.; SathishKumar, P.; Ravishankar, R.; Subramanian, G.

    In replicate series of experiments in natural seawater, one in full darkness and the other in a 1:1 diurnal cycle with as little as 5 percent of natural solar illumination, sunlight promoted calcareous deposition on cathodic stainless steel surfaces...

  20. Colour Counts: Sunlight and Skin Type as Drivers of Vitamin D Deficiency at UK Latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ann R; Kazantzidis, Andreas; Kift, Richard C; Farrar, Mark D; Wilkinson, Jack; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2018-04-07

    Sunlight exposure, with resulting cutaneous synthesis, is a major source of vitamin D for many, while dietary intake is low in modern diets. The constitutive pigment in skin determines skin type, observed as white, brown, or black skin. The melanin pigment absorbs ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and protects underlying skin from damage caused by UVR. It also reduces the UVR available for vitamin D synthesis in the skin. It has been shown that the white-skinned population of the UK are able to meet their vitamin D needs with short, daily lunchtime exposures to sunlight. We have followed the same methodology, based on a 10-year UK all-weather UVR climatology, observation (sun exposure, diet, vitamin D status), and UVR intervention studies with Fitzpatrick skin type V (brown) adults, to determine whether sunlight at UK latitudes could provide an adequate source of vitamin D for this section of the population. Results show that to meet vitamin D requirements, skin type V individuals in the UK need ~25 min daily sunlight at lunchtime, from March to September. This makes several assumptions, including that forearms and lower legs are exposed June-August; only exposing hands and face at this time is inadequate. For practical and cultural reasons, enhanced oral intake of vitamin D should be considered for this population.

  1. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide inversions based on spectral measurements of scattered sunlight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlemmix, T.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of inversion methods for tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), based on ground based observations of scattered sunlight with themulti-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) technique. NO2 is an atmospheric trace gas which, when present near

  2. HISTORY OF SUNLIGHT EXPOSURE IS A RISK FACTOR FOR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schick, T.; Ersoy, L.; Lechanteur, Y.T.; Saksens, N.T.; Hoyng, C.B.; Hollander, A.I. den; Kirchhof, B.; Fauser, S.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate effects of current and past sunlight exposure and iris color on early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Of 3,701 individuals from the EUGENDA database, 752 (20.3%) showed early AMD, 1,179 (31.9%) late AMD, and 1,770 (47.8%) were controls. Information

  3. Greenhouse Effect: Temperature of a Metal Sphere Surrounded by a Glass Shell and Heated by Sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc H.; Matzner, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    We study the greenhouse effect on a model satellite consisting of a tungsten sphere surrounded by a thin spherical, concentric glass shell, with a small gap between the sphere and the shell. The system sits in vacuum and is heated by sunlight incident along the "z"-axis. This development is a generalization of the simple treatment of the…

  4. DNA damage by ethylbenzenehydroperoxide formed from carcinogenic ethylbenzene by sunlight irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Chitose; Uchida, Takafumi; Midorikawa, Kaoru; Murata, Mariko; Hiraku, Yusuke; Okamoto, Yoshinori; Ueda, Koji; Kojima, Nakao; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2003-01-01

    Ethylbenzene, widely used in human life, is a non-mutagenic carcinogen. Sunlight-irradiated ethylbenzene caused DNA damage in the presence of Cu 2+ , but unirradiated ethylbenzene did not. A Cu + -specific chelator bathocuproine inhibited DNA damage and catalase showed a little inhibitory effect. The scopoletin assay revealed that peroxides and H 2 O 2 were formed in ethylbenzene exposed to sunlight. These results suggest that Cu + and alkoxyl radical mainly participate in DNA damage, and H 2 O 2 partially does. When catalase was added, DNA damage at thymine and cytosine was inhibited. Ethylbenzenehydroperoxide, identified by GC/MS analysis, induced the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 ' -deoxyguanosine and caused DNA damage at consecutive guanines, as observed with cumenehydroperoxide. Equimolar concentrations of H 2 O 2 and acetophenone were produced by the sunlight-irradiation of 1-phenylethanol, a further degraded product of ethylbenzene. These results indicate a novel pathway that oxidative DNA damage induced by the peroxide and H 2 O 2 derived from sunlight-irradiated ethylbenzene may lead to expression of the carcinogenicity

  5. Colour Counts: Sunlight and Skin Type as Drivers of Vitamin D Deficiency at UK Latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann R. Webb

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sunlight exposure, with resulting cutaneous synthesis, is a major source of vitamin D for many, while dietary intake is low in modern diets. The constitutive pigment in skin determines skin type, observed as white, brown, or black skin. The melanin pigment absorbs ultraviolet radiation (UVR and protects underlying skin from damage caused by UVR. It also reduces the UVR available for vitamin D synthesis in the skin. It has been shown that the white-skinned population of the UK are able to meet their vitamin D needs with short, daily lunchtime exposures to sunlight. We have followed the same methodology, based on a 10-year UK all-weather UVR climatology, observation (sun exposure, diet, vitamin D status, and UVR intervention studies with Fitzpatrick skin type V (brown adults, to determine whether sunlight at UK latitudes could provide an adequate source of vitamin D for this section of the population. Results show that to meet vitamin D requirements, skin type V individuals in the UK need ~25 min daily sunlight at lunchtime, from March to September. This makes several assumptions, including that forearms and lower legs are exposed June–August; only exposing hands and face at this time is inadequate. For practical and cultural reasons, enhanced oral intake of vitamin D should be considered for this population.

  6. Plant Leaf Imaging using Time of Flight Camera under Sunlight, Shadow and Room Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Foix, Sergi; Alenya, Guillem

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the effects of ambient light on Time of Flight (ToF) depth imaging for a plant's leaf in sunlight, shadow and room conditions. ToF imaging is sensitive to ambient light and we try to find the best possible integration times (IT) for each condition. This is important in...

  7. Hybrid sunlight/LED illumination and renewable solar energy saving concepts for indoor lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuei, Chih-Hsuan; Sun, Wen-Shing; Kuo, Chien-Cheng

    2010-11-08

    A hybrid method for using sunlight and light-emitting diode (LED) illumination powered by renewable solar energy for indoor lighting is simulated and presented in this study. We can illuminate an indoor space and collect the solar energy using an optical switching system. When the system is turned off, the full spectrum of the sunlight is concentrated by a concentrator, to be absorbed by solar photovoltaic devices that provide the electricity to power the LEDs. When the system is turned on, the sunlight collected by the concentrator is split into visible and non-visible rays by a beam splitter. The visible rays pass through the light guide into a light box where it is mixed with LED light to ultimately provide uniform illumination by a diffuser. The non-visible rays are absorbed by the solar photovoltaic devices to provide electrical power for the LEDs. Simulation results show that the efficiency of the hybrid sunlight/LED illumination with the renewable solar energy saving design is better than that of LED and traditional lighting systems.

  8. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour...

  9. Going Online: Helping Technical Communicators Help Translators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Patricia; Lord van Slyke, Melanie; Starke-Meyerring, Doreen; Thompson, Aimee

    1999-01-01

    Explains why technical communicators should help translators. Offers tips for creating "translation-friendly" documentation. Describes the research and design process used by the authors to create an online tutorial that provides technical communicators at a medical technology company the information they need to help them write and…

  10. Sunlight exposure or vitamin D supplementation for vitamin D-deficient non-western immigrants: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, I.S.; Boeke, A.J.P.; van der Meer, I.M.; van Schoor, N.M.; Knol, D.L.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Vitamin D deficiency is very common in non-western immigrants. In this randomized clinical trial, vitamin D 800 IU/day or 100,000 IU/3 months were compared with advised sunlight exposure. Vitamin D supplementation was more effective than advised sunlight exposure in improving vitamin D

  11. IS THERE A LINK BETWEEN SUNLIGHT EXPOSURE AND 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PATIENTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Yee-Moon Wang

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, our study confirmed an extremely high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and an important association between outdoor sunlight exposure and 25(OHD deficiency in Chinese stage 3-5 CKD patients. Further study is needed to determine whether increasing daily outdoor sunlight exposure may represent a cost-free treatment for correcting nutritional 25(OHD deficiency in the CKD population.

  12. Visual performance with sport-tinted contact lenses in natural sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Graham B; Horn, Fraser C; Barney, Tyler; Pexton, Brett; Baird, Richard Y

    2009-05-01

    The use of tinted and clear contact lenses (CLs) in all aspects of life is becoming a more popular occurrence, particularly in athletic activities. This study broadens previous research regarding performance-tinted CLs and their effects on measures of visual performance. Thirty-three subjects (14 male, 19 female) were fitted with clear B&L Optima 38, 50% visible light transmission Amber and 36% visible light transmission Gray-Green Nike Maxsight CLs in an individualized randomized sequence. Subjects were dark-adapted with welding goggles before testing and in between subtests involving a Bailey-Lovie chart and the Haynes Distance Rock test. The sequence of testing was repeated for each lens modality. The Amber and Gray-Green lenses enabled subjects to recover vision faster in bright sunlight compared with clear lenses. Also, subjects were able to achieve better visual recognition in bright sunlight when compared with clear lenses. Additionally, the lenses allowed the subjects to alternate fixation between a bright and shaded target at a more rapid rate in bright sunlight as compared with clear lenses. Subjects preferred both the Amber and Gray-Green lenses over clear lenses in the bright and shadowed target conditions. The results of the current study show that Maxsight Amber and Gray-Green lenses provide better contrast discrimination in bright sunlight, better contrast discrimination when alternating between bright and shaded target conditions, better speed of visual recovery in bright sunlight, and better overall visual performance in bright and shaded target conditions compared with clear lenses.

  13. Photosynthesis, photoprotection, and growth of shade-tolerant tropical tree seedlings under full sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, G Heinrich; Winter, Klaus; Matsubara, Shizue; Krause, Barbara; Jahns, Peter; Virgo, Aurelio; Aranda, Jorge; García, Milton

    2012-09-01

    High solar radiation in the tropics is known to cause transient reduction in photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and CO(2) assimilation in sun-exposed leaves, but little is known how these responses affect the actual growth performance of tropical plants. The present study addresses this question. Seedlings of five woody neotropical forest species were cultivated under full sunlight and shaded conditions. In full sunlight, strong photoinhibition of PSII at midday was documented for the late-successional tree species Ormosia macrocalyx and Tetragastris panamensis and the understory/forest gap species, Piper reticulatum. In leaves of O. macrocalyx, PSII inhibition was accompanied by substantial midday depression of net CO(2) assimilation. Leaves of all species had increased pools of violaxanthin-cycle pigments. Other features of photoacclimation, such as increased Chl a/b ratio and contents of lutein, β-carotene and tocopherol varied. High light caused strong increase of tocopherol in leaves of T. panamensis and another late-successional species, Virola surinamensis. O. macrocalyx had low contents of tocopherol and UV-absorbing substances. Under full sunlight, biomass accumulation was not reduced in seedlings of T. panamensis, P. reticulatum, and V. surinamensis, but O. macrocalyx exhibited substantial growth inhibition. In the highly shade-tolerant understory species Psychotria marginata, full sunlight caused strongly reduced growth of most individuals. However, some plants showed relatively high growth rates under full sun approaching those of seedlings at 40 % ambient irradiance. It is concluded that shade-tolerant tropical tree seedlings can achieve efficient photoacclimation and high growth rates in full sunlight.

  14. Generating hydrogen from sunlight and water using photovoltaic tandem cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    Photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy to energy in hydrogen at viable efficiency is a long-term goal needed to usher in the hydrogen economy worldwide. The twin cell technology based Tandem Cell tackles a number of challenges faced by single photoelectrochemical cell based water splitting and offers a novel way of utilising complimentary parts of the solar spectrum in two cells. The overall process results in a complete system driven by solar energy that splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen Solar Ltd is a UK based enterprise that is working towards commercialisation of this Tandem Cell technology. One of the main project activities involved the development and optimisation of methods for preparation of larger scale photocatalytic electrodes using reproducible low cost industrial processes, with efficiencies equal to or greater than those from small scale samples made experimentally in University laboratories. Stability is also an important issue and endurance testing was performed on some samples. Spray pyrolysis methods offer considerable promise as for preparation of metal oxide semiconductor films at low cost, reproducibly. These studies lead to optimised designs for Tandem Cells, resulting in construction of an array of 12 Tandem Cells. The findings of this array work, in particular engineering issues, were very significant. Based on this work it is intended to build another two array systems that consists of 24 Tandem Cells which will be tested for light to chemical conversion efficiency, to determine what efficiency has been achieved overall. The main conclusions resulting from this project were as follows. Overall, considerable progress was made in characterising the factors that affect photoelectrode performance efficiency but that, losses in efficiency when increasing the area of photoelectrodes was greater than expected and optimisation of efficiency at practical device scale needs more work. Based on the outcome of this work program

  15. Plutonium helps probe protein, superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Scientists are finding that plutonium can be a useful research tool that may help them answer important questions in fields as diverse as biochemistry and solid-state physics. This paper reports that U.S. research involving plutonium is confined to the Department of Energy's national laboratories and centers around nuclear weapons technology, waste cleanup and disposal, and health effects. But at Los Alamos National Laboratory, scientists also are using plutonium to probe the biochemical behavior of calmodulin, a key calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium-regulated processes in biological systems. At Argonne National Laboratory, another team is trying to learn how a superconductor's properties are affected by the 5f electrons of an actinide like plutonium

  16. Institute of Laboratory Animal Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dell, Ralph

    2000-01-01

    ...; and reports on specific issues of humane care and use of laboratory animals. ILAR's mission is to help improve the availability, quality, care, and humane and scientifically valid use of laboratory animals...

  17. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  18. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  19. Sunlight exposure during leisure activities and risk of prostate cancer in Montréal, Canada, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jennifer; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise

    2014-07-28

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading cause of cancer in men in many developed countries, but no modifiable risk factors have been identified. A handful of analytical studies have suggested a possible etiological role for sunlight exposure. We report here on the association between leisure-time sunlight exposure during adulthood and PCa risk in the context of a population-based case-control study. In all, 1,904 PCa cases were ascertained across Montreal French hospitals between 2005 and 2009. Concurrently, 1,962 population controls, frequency matched to cases by age (±5 years), were selected from the electoral list for French-speakers in Greater Montreal. Interviews elicited the frequency of engagement in any leisure activity during adulthood. This was used to derive cumulative sunlight exposure indices: a cumulative number of leisure activities events entailing sunlight exposure and a cumulative duration of sunlight exposure during leisure activities. Unconditional logistic regression was conducted to yield odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for estimating the association between sunlight exposure indices and PCa risk, adjusting for age, ancestry, family history of PCa, PCa screening, education, solar protection, body mass index and physical activity. Compared with men in the upper quartile category for the number of sunlight exposure events, men never exposed during leisure time had an OR of 1.32 (95% CI: 0.82-2.14). ORs were 1.11, 0.91 and 1.00 for the first to the third quartiles of exposure, respectively. Similar results were observed for cumulative duration of exposure to sunlight, and by PCa aggressiveness. These findings provide little evidence of an association between sunlight exposure during leisure-time and PCa risk. Men with no sunlight exposure appeared at somewhat higher risks but none of the estimates achieved statistical significance.

  20. Biodegradation and photooxidation of crude oil under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacosa, H. P.; Erdner, D.; Liu, Z.

    2016-02-01

    An enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM) following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill. While the oil degradation and bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of sunlight on oil and bacterial assemblages in surface waters have received less attention. In this study, we amended surface water collected near the DWH site with crude oil and/or Corexit dispersant and incubated under natural sunlight in the nGoM for 36 d in summer of 2013. The residual alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and alkalyted PAHs were analyzed by GC-MS, and bacterial community was determined via pyrosequencing. The results show that n-alkane biodegradation rate constants (first order) were ca. ten-fold higher than the photooxidation rate constants. While biodegradation was characterized by a lag phase, photooxidation rate constants for the 2-3 ring and 4-5 ring PAHs, were 0.08-0.98 day-1 and 0.01-0.07 day-1, respectively. Compared to biodegradation, photooxidation increased the transformation of 4-5 ring PAHs by 70% and 3-4 ring alkylated PAHs by 36%. Sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and a driver of shifts in bacterial community structure in oil and Corexit treatments. In amended treatments, sunlight increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Halomonas and Bartonella, while the dark treatments enriched Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Pseudomonas. This suggests that different bacteria are degrading the hydrocarbons in the dark and under light exposure. In a follow up study using DNA-Stable isotope probing (SIP), we identified the alkane and PAH degraders using 13C-labeled hexadecane and phenanthrene, respectively. The results of metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses in the light and dark incubations will be presented. For the first

  1. Improved Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes based on Silver Nanowire Networks by a Simple Sunlight Illumination Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Pengfei; Yang, Liu; Chang, Cheng; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks have attracted wide attention as transparent electrodes for emerging flexible optoelectronics. However, the sheet resistance is greatly limited by large wire-to-wire contact resistances. Here, we propose a simple sunlight illumination approach to remarkably improve their electrical conductivity without any significant degradation of the light transmittance. Because the power density is extremely low (0.1 W/cm2, 1-Sun), only slight welding between Ag NWs has been observed. Despite this, a sheet resistance of solar concentrations. Due to the reduced resistance, high-performance transparent film heaters as well as efficient defrosters have been demonstrated, which are superior to the previously-reported Ag NW based film heaters. Since the sunlight is environmentally friendly and easily available, sophisticated or expensive facilities are not necessary. Our findings are particularly meaningful and show enormous potential for outdoor applications. PMID:28169343

  2. Photodegradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenol in Aqueous Systems under Simulated and Natural Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gryglik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents results of studies on 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP degradation in aqueous solutions using photochemically initiated processes by simulated and natural sunlight. A number of possible substrate photodegradation routes were investigated, by both direct photolysis and photosensitized oxidation process. The major role of singlet oxygen in 2,4-DCP photodegradation was proved. Rose Bengal and derivatives of porphine and phthalocyanine were used as sensitizers. The influences of various process parameters on the reaction rate were investigated. On the basis of experimental data reaction rate constants of 2,4-DCP photosensitized oxidation were determined. The possibility of using natural sunlight to degrade 2,4-DCP in water in the middle latitudes was stated. The acute toxicity bioassay was conducted with the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri as a bioluminescent indicator. The obtained results encourage further research on this process.

  3. Effects of UV, sunlight and X-ray radiation on quiescent human cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Nondividing human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) in culture have been used to study the effect on cell lethality of ultraviolet light, natural sunlight and X-rays. A lethal effect is defined as cellular degeneration, loss from the culture and inability to exclude vital strains. Far- and mid-UV have a readily observable lethal effect (cell loss), with DNA and DNA damage as the critical target and critical damage respectively. In part, natural sunlight kills cells by a similar mechanism but has an additional lethal effect at longer exposure times. This additional effect is expressed by the retention of the dead cells in culture, in contrast to the UV-induced promotion of cell degeneration and loss. Relatively large doses of X-rays that destroy proliferative capacity, have no detectable lethal effect on the maintenance of non-dividing cells. The biological response of nondividing HDF to radiations from different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum is dissimilar. (author)

  4. Sunlight reflection off the spacecraft with a solar sail on the surface of mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starinova, O. L.; Rozhkov, M. A.; Gorbunova, I. V.

    2018-05-01

    Modern technologies make it possible to fulfill many projects in the field of space exploration. One such project is the colonization of Mars and providing favorable conditions for living on it. Authors propose principles of functioning of the spacecraft with a solar sail, intended to create a thermal and light spot in a predetermined area of the Martian surface. This additional illumination can maintain and support certain climatic conditions on a small area where a Mars base could be located. This paper investigate the possibility of the spacecraft continuously reflect the sunlight off the solar sail on the small area of the Mars surface. The mathematical motion model in such condition of the solar sail's orientation is considered and used for motion simulation session. Moreover, the analysis of this motion is performed. Thus, were obtained parameters of the synchronic non-Keplerian orbit and spacecraft construction. In addition, were given recommendations for further applying satellites to reflect the sunlight on a planet's surface.

  5. Reflected Sunlight Reduction and Characterization for a Deep-Space Optical Receiver Antenna (DSORA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clymer, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    A baffle system for the elimination of first-order specular and diffuse reflection of sunlight from the sunshade of a deep-space optical receiver telescope is presented. This baffle system consists of rings of 0.5cm blades spaced 2.5 cm apart on the walls of GO hexagonal sunshade tubes that combine to form the telescope sunshade. The shadow cast by the blades, walls, and rims of the tubes prevent all first-order reflections of direct sunlight from reaching the primary mirror of the telescope. A reflection model of the sunshade without baffles is also presented for comparison. Since manufacturers of absorbing surfaces do not measure data near grazing incidence, the reflection properties at anticipated angles of incidence must be characterized. A description of reflection from matte surfaces in term of bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) is presented along with a discussion of measuring BRDF near grazing incidence.

  6. Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles under sunlight irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Junfeng; Chen Jingwen; Martens, D.; Quan Xie; Yang Fenglin; Kettrup, A.; Schramm, K.-W.

    2003-01-01

    Photolysis of PAHs on surfaces may determine their ultimate fate in the environment. - Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) sorbed on surfaces of spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles under sunlight irradiation was investigated. PAHs were produced by combustion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), wood, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and styrene in a stove. The factors of sunlight irradiation on the surfaces of spruce needles were taken into consideration when investigating the kinetic parameters. The photolysis of the 18 PAHs under study follows first-order kinetics. The photolysis half-lives range from 15 h for dibenzo(a,h)anthracene to 75 h for phenanthrene. Photolysis of some PAHs on surfaces of spruce needles may play an important role on the fate of PAHs in the environment

  7. Help Teens Manage Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Help Teens Manage Diabetes Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table ... healthy behaviors, and conflict resolution. The CST training helps diabetic teens to make good decisions when it ...

  8. Help prevent hospital errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000618.htm Help prevent hospital errors To use the sharing features ... in the hospital. If You Are Having Surgery, Help Keep Yourself Safe Go to a hospital you ...

  9. Converting sunlight into red light in fluorosilicate glass for amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Chengguo, E-mail: mingchengguo1978@163.com [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Song, Feng [Photonics Center, College of Physical Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ren, Xiaobin [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Yuan, Fengying; Qin, Yueting [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Photonics Center, College of Physical Science, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); An, Liqun; Cai, Yuanxue [Physics Department, School of Sciences, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Fluorosilicate glass was prepared by high-temperature melting method to explore highly efficient luminescence materials for amorphous silicon solar cells. Absorption, excitation and emission spectra of the glass were measured. The optical characters of the glass were discussed in details. The glass can efficiently convert sunlight into red light. Our glass can be applied to amorphous silicon solar cells as a converter of solar spectrum.

  10. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures NREL develops laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs) for standard biomass analysis. These procedures help scientists and analysts understand more about the chemical composition of raw biomass

  11. Carcinogenic effect of sequential artificial sunlight and UV-A irradiation in hairless mice. Consequences for solarium 'therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staberg, B.; Wulf, H.C.; Poulsen, T.; Klemp, P.; Brodthagen, H.

    1983-01-01

    The carcinogenic effect of artificial UV sunlight followed by UV-A irradiation in human solaria doses has been studied with the use of the hairless mouse as an animal model. Artificial sunlight exposure alone induced only a moderate skin tumor incidence (animals with at least one tumor) of 0.15 after one year, and UV-A irradiation alone induced no tumor formation. However, the combination of artificial sunlight exposure and subsequent UV-A irradiation significantly increased the tumor incidence to 0.72. We conclude that, in humans, tanning with UV-A for cosmetic purposes may not be an innocuous procedure

  12. Degradation of organic dyes using spray deposited nanocrystalline stratified WO3/TiO2 photoelectrodes under sunlight illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunge, Y. M.; Yadav, A. A.; Mahadik, M. A.; Bulakhe, R. N.; Shim, J. J.; Mathe, V. L.; Bhosale, C. H.

    2018-02-01

    The need to utilize TiO2 based metal oxide hetero nanostructures for the degradation of environmental pollutants like Rhodamine B and reactive red 152 from the wastewater using stratified WO3/TiO2 catalyst under sunlight illumination. WO3, TiO2 and stratified WO3/TiO2 catalysts were prepared by a spray pyrolysis method. It was found that the stratified WO3/TiO2 heterostructure has high crystallinity, no mixed phase formation occurs, strong optical absorption in the visible region of the solar spectrum, and large surface area. The photocatalytic activity was tested for degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh B) and reactive red 152 in an aqueous medium. TiO2 layer in stratified WO3/TiO2 catalyst helps to extend its absorption spectrum in the solar light region. Rh B and Reactive red 152is eliminated up to 98 and 94% within the 30 and 40 min respectively at optimum experimental condition by stratified WO3/TiO2. Moreover, stratified WO3/TiO2 photoelectrode has good stability and reusability than individual TiO2 and WO3 thin film in the degradation of Rh B and reactive red 152. The photoelectrocatalytic experimental results indicate that stratified WO3/TiO2 photoelectrode is a promising material for dye removal.

  13. Photolytic debromination pathway of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hexane by sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hua; Zou, Yonghong; Li, An; Christensen, Erik R.; Rockne, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to identify the photolytic debromination pathways of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Thirteen PBDEs (BDEs 209, 208, 207, 206, 196, 183, 154, 153, 100, 99, 85, 47 and 28) in hexane were individually exposed to sunlight for up to 64 h. A total of 180 PBDEs were screened and 74 BDE debromination products were detected. The disappearance rate constant increased exponentially with increasing number of bromines. While no evident difference in debromination preference among ortho, meta and para bromines was found for heavier congeners, the vulnerability rank order was meta ≥ ortho > para for the lighter congeners (≤8 Br). The total molar mass of PBDEs continuously decreased during sunlight exposure, indicating PBDEs were transformed to non-PBDE compounds. A stochastic least squares debromination pathway model was developed to simulate the reactions and determine the yields to extend the results beyond the experimental observations. -- Highlights: ► 74 PBDEs are identified as the products of debromination via photolysis. ► Debromination is more likely at meta than para positions for PBDEs with ≤8 bromines. ► The stochastic least squares model results agree with and expand the experimental observations. ► Mass imbalance indicates a significant loss of PBDE mass during sunlight exposure. -- The PBDE debromination products and pathways identified in this work will assist in future studies on their environmental fate

  14. Modified optical fiber daylighting system with sunlight transportation in free space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Ngoc-Hai; Pham, Thanh-Tuan; Shin, Seoyong

    2016-12-26

    We present the design, optical simulation, and experiment of a modified optical fiber daylighting system (M-OFDS) for indoor lighting. The M-OFDS is comprised of three sub-systems: concentration, collimation, and distribution. The concentration part is formed by coupling a Fresnel lens with a large-core plastic optical fiber. The sunlight collected by the concentration sub-system is propagated in a plastic optical fiber and then collimated by the collimator, which is a combination of a parabolic mirror and a convex lens. The collimated beam of sunlight travels in free space and is guided to the interior by directing flat mirrors, where it is diffused uniformly by a distributor. All parameters of the system are calculated theoretically. Based on the designed system, our simulation results demonstrated a maximum optical efficiency of 71%. The simulation results also showed that sunlight could be delivered to the illumination destination at distance of 30 m. A prototype of the M-OFDS was fabricated, and preliminary experiments were performed outdoors. The simulation results and experimental results confirmed that the M-OFDS was designed effectively. A large-scale system constructed by several M-OFDSs is also proposed. The results showed that the presented optical fiber daylighting system is a strong candidate for an inexpensive and highly efficient application of solar energy in buildings.

  15. Decontamination of poultry feed from ochratoxin A by UV and sunlight radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer Sumbal, Gul; Hussain Shar, Zahid; Hussain Sherazi, Syed Tufail; Sirajuddin; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad; Mahesar, Safaraz Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Mycotoxin-contaminated feed is very dangerous for the growth and even life of poultry. The objective of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of ultra-violet irradiation for decontamination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in spiked and naturally contaminated poultry feed samples. Spiked and naturally contaminated feed samples were irradiated with ultra-violet light (UV) at distance of 25 cm over the feed samples. In vitro, the effect of UV intensity (0.1 mW cm(-2) at 254 nm UV-C) on different types of poultry feeds contaminated with OTA was evaluated. The same samples were also irradiated with sunlight and analysed for OTA by an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Poultry feed samples containing 500 µg kg(-1) were 100% decontaminated in 180 min with UV radiation while OTA was decreased to 70-95 µg kg(-1) using the same poultry feed samples after 8 h sunlight irradiation. Therefore, UV light was found to be more effective. Only 1 h of UV irradiation was found to be sufficient to bring the OTA level to the maximum regulatory limit suggested for poultry feeds (100 µg kg(-1) ), while 8 h were needed to obtain this level using sunlight radiations. The proposed approach is a viable option to reduce the level of OTA in contaminated poultry feeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Prevention of hip fractures by exposure to sunlight and pharmacotherapy in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Hypovitaminosis D and K due to malnutrition or sunlight deprivation, compensatory hyperparathyroidism, increased bone resorption, low bone mineral density (BMD), and an increased risk of falls may contribute to an increased risk of hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the efficacy of interventions against hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease. With respect to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding Alzheimer's disease and hip fractures, the literature was searched with PubMed. Three RCTs were identified, and the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for individual RCTs. Exposure to sunlight with calcium supplementation, menatetrenone (vitamin K2) plus calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and risedronate plus calcium and vitamin D supplementation improved hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism, contributing to a reduction in bone resorption. Risedronate itself strongly decreased bone resorption. Menatetrenone also decreased the serum level of undercarboxylated osteocalcin. The three interventions increased metacarpal BMD and reduced the incidence of hip fractures. The respective RRs (95% CI) were 0.22 (0.049-0.999), 0.13 (0.031-0.554), and 0.26 (0.100- 0.690). The present study clarified the efficacy of three interventions, including exposure to sunlight, menatetrenone, and risedronate with calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation against hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  17. A new mathematical approximation of sunlight attenuation in rocks for surface luminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskaris, Nikolaos, E-mail: nick.laskaris@gmail.com [University of the Aegean, Department of Mediterranean Studies, Laboratory of Archaeometry, 1 Demokratias Avenue, Rhodes 85100 (Greece); Liritzis, Ioannis, E-mail: liritzis@rhodes.aegean.gr [University of the Aegean, Department of Mediterranean Studies, Laboratory of Archaeometry, 1 Demokratias Avenue, Rhodes 85100 (Greece)

    2011-09-15

    The attenuation of sunlight through different rock surfaces and the thermoluminescence (TL) or Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) residuals clock resetting derived from sunlight induced eviction of electrons from electron traps, is a prerequisite criterion for potential dating. The modeling of change of residual luminescence as a function of two variables, the solar radiation path length (or depth) and exposure time offers further insight into the dating concept. The double exponential function modeling based on the Lambert-Beer law, valid under certain assumptions, constructed by a quasi-manual equation fails to offer a general and statistically sound expression of the best fit for most rock types. A cumulative log-normal distribution fitting provides a most satisfactory mathematical approximation for marbles, marble schists and granites, where absorption coefficient and residual luminescence parameters are defined per each type of rock or marble quarry. The new model is applied on available data and age determination tests. - Highlights: > Study of aattenuation of sunlight through different rock surfaces. > Study of the thermoluminescence (TL) or Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) residuals as a function of depth. > A Cumulative Log-Normal Distribution fitting provides the most satisfactory modeling for marbles, marble schists and granites. > The new model (Cummulative Log-Norm Fitting) is applied on available data and age determination tests.

  18. A new mathematical approximation of sunlight attenuation in rocks for surface luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskaris, Nikolaos; Liritzis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The attenuation of sunlight through different rock surfaces and the thermoluminescence (TL) or Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) residuals clock resetting derived from sunlight induced eviction of electrons from electron traps, is a prerequisite criterion for potential dating. The modeling of change of residual luminescence as a function of two variables, the solar radiation path length (or depth) and exposure time offers further insight into the dating concept. The double exponential function modeling based on the Lambert-Beer law, valid under certain assumptions, constructed by a quasi-manual equation fails to offer a general and statistically sound expression of the best fit for most rock types. A cumulative log-normal distribution fitting provides a most satisfactory mathematical approximation for marbles, marble schists and granites, where absorption coefficient and residual luminescence parameters are defined per each type of rock or marble quarry. The new model is applied on available data and age determination tests. - Highlights: → Study of aattenuation of sunlight through different rock surfaces. → Study of the thermoluminescence (TL) or Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) residuals as a function of depth. → A Cumulative Log-Normal Distribution fitting provides the most satisfactory modeling for marbles, marble schists and granites. → The new model (Cummulative Log-Norm Fitting) is applied on available data and age determination tests.

  19. Sunlight Effects on Immune System: Is There Something Else in addition to UV-Induced Immunosuppression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. González Maglio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunlight, composed of different types of radiation, including ultraviolet wavelengths, is an essential source of light and warmth for life on earth but has strong negative effects on human health, such as promoting the malignant transformation of skin cells and suppressing the ability of the human immune system to efficiently detect and attack malignant cells. UV-induced immunosuppression has been extensively studied since it was first described by Dr. Kripke and Dr. Fisher in the late 1970s. However, skin exposure to sunlight has not only this and other unfavorable effects, for example, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, but also a positive one: the induction of Vitamin D synthesis, which performs several roles within the immune system in addition to favoring bone homeostasis. The impact of low levels of UV exposure on the immune system has not been fully reported yet, but it bears interesting differences with the suppressive effect of high levels of UV radiation, as shown by some recent studies. The aim of this article is to put some ideas in perspective and pose some questions within the field of photoimmunology based on established and new information, which may lead to new experimental approaches and, eventually, to a better understanding of the effects of sunlight on the human immune system.

  20. Sunlight Effects on Immune System: Is There Something Else in addition to UV-Induced Immunosuppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, M. L.; Leoni, J.

    2016-01-01

    Sunlight, composed of different types of radiation, including ultraviolet wavelengths, is an essential source of light and warmth for life on earth but has strong negative effects on human health, such as promoting the malignant transformation of skin cells and suppressing the ability of the human immune system to efficiently detect and attack malignant cells. UV-induced immunosuppression has been extensively studied since it was first described by Dr. Kripke and Dr. Fisher in the late 1970s. However, skin exposure to sunlight has not only this and other unfavorable effects, for example, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, but also a positive one: the induction of Vitamin D synthesis, which performs several roles within the immune system in addition to favoring bone homeostasis. The impact of low levels of UV exposure on the immune system has not been fully reported yet, but it bears interesting differences with the suppressive effect of high levels of UV radiation, as shown by some recent studies. The aim of this article is to put some ideas in perspective and pose some questions within the field of photoimmunology based on established and new information, which may lead to new experimental approaches and, eventually, to a better understanding of the effects of sunlight on the human immune system. PMID:28070504

  1. Help with Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Help With Hives KidsHealth / For Kids / Help With Hives What's in this article? What Are ... about what happened. The doctor can try to help figure out what might be causing your hives, ...

  2. A helping hand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirjam de Klerk; Alice de Boer; Sjoerd Kooiker; Inger Plaisier; Peggy Schyns

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Hulp geboden   The help provided to people with a care need is about to undergo major changes in the Netherlands. People who need help will be expected to rely more on help from members of their network. What are the opportunities for informal carers and volunteers, and where

  3. Helping for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuringer, Allen; Oleson, Kathryn C.

    2010-01-01

    In "Helping for Change," Allen Neuringer and Kathryn Oleson describe another strategy that individuals can use to achieve their green goals. You might ask, "How can helping someone else help me change when I'm in the habit of not fulfilling my own promises?" The authors answer that question by explaining how the social reinforcement in a helping…

  4. Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions of Deepwater horizon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Phoebe Z. [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Chen, Huan [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Podgorski, David C. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Future Fuels Institute, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); McKenna, Amy M. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310-4005 (United States); Tarr, Matthew A., E-mail: mtarr@uno.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Sunlight oxygenates petroleum. - Highlights: • Oxidation seen in water-soluble oil fraction after exposure to simulated sunlight. • Oxygen addition occurred across a wide range of carbon number and DBE. • Oil compounds were susceptible to addition of multiple oxygens to each molecule. • Results provide understanding of fate of oil on water after exposure to sunlight. - Abstract: In order to assess the impact of sunlight on oil fate, Macondo well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) rig was mixed with pure water and irradiated with simulated sunlight. After irradiation, the water-soluble organics (WSO) from the dark and irradiated samples were extracted and characterized by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Liquid–liquid extraction yielded two fractions from dark and irradiated water/oil mixtures: acidic WSOs (negative-ion electrospray (ESI)), and base/neutral WSOs (positive-ion ESI) coupled to FT-ICR MS to catalog molecular-level transformations that occur to Macondo-derived WSOs after solar irradiation. Such direct measure of oil phototransformation has not been previously reported. The most abundant heteroatom class detected in the irradiated WSO acid fractions correspond to molecules that contain five oxygens (O{sub 5}), while the most abundant acids in the dark samples contain two oxygen atoms per molecule (O{sub 2}). Higher-order oxygen classes (O{sub 5}–O{sub 9}) were abundant in the irradiated samples, but <1.5% relative abundance in the dark sample. The increased abundance of higher-order oxygen classes in the irradiated samples relative to the dark samples indicates that photooxidized components of the Macondo crude oil become water-soluble after irradiation. The base/neutral fraction showed decreased abundance of pyridinic nitrogen (N{sub 1}) concurrent with an increased abundance of N{sub 1}O{sub x} classes after irradiation. The predominance of higher

  5. Medical Laboratory Assistant. Laboratory Occupations Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for medical laboratory assistant is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a task list. Each…

  6. Interacting effects of sunlight, agriculturally derived dissolved organic matter and reactive oxygen species on fecal indicator bacteria growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial survival in agriculturally impacted surface waters is dependent on resource availability and also on potential resource transformations, mediated by biotic and abiotic processes. In this study, we focused on the effect of sunlight irradiated cattle fecal extract (CFE) a...

  7. Comparison Study On Sunlight Or Gamma Radiation Aging Resistance Of Poly (Vinyl Pyrrolidone) Aqueous Solution With PVP Nanogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Binh; Pham Thu Hong; Nguyen Nguyet Dieu; Nguyen Thanh Duoc

    2011-01-01

    Comparison study on sunlight or gamma-radiation aging resistance of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) aqueous solution with PVP nanogel at 0.5% was carried out. Sunlight or gamma- radiation aging resistance of PVP aqueous solution and nanogel was evaluated on the basis of their intrinsic viscosity, UV-VIS absorbance, weight averaged molecular weight (M w ). The PVP aqueous solution and nanogel exposed to sunlight in the storage duration of 3 months and to gamma radiation at absorbed doses of 0, 15, 30, 50 kGy were used for this study. Furthermore, the stability of PVP nanogel and of PVP aqueous solution was also studied on the change of their intrinsic viscosity, UV-VIS absorbance, weight averaged molecular weight, particle size distribution and coil size. The experimental results were shown that the aging resistance of PVP nanogel was higher than that of PVP aqueous solution when exposed to gamma radiation or sunlight. (author)

  8. Why We Need More Nature at Work: Effects of Natural Elements and Sunlight on Employee Mental Health and Work Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Mihyang; Colarelli, Stephen M; O'Brien, Kimberly; Boyajian, Melanie E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of natural elements and direct and indirect sunlight exposure on employee mental health and work attitudes. We recruited participants via an online panel from the United States and India, and analyzed data from 444 employees. Natural elements and sunlight exposure related positively to job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and negatively to depressed mood and anxiety. Direct sunlight was a dominant predictor of anxiety; indirect sunlight was a dominant predictor of depressed mood, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Natural elements buffered the relationship between role stressors and job satisfaction, depressed mood, and anxiety. We also found that depressed mood partially mediated the relationship between natural elements and job satisfaction. We discuss scientific and policy implications of these findings.

  9. Why We Need More Nature at Work: Effects of Natural Elements and Sunlight on Employee Mental Health and Work Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Mihyang; Colarelli, Stephen M.; O'Brien, Kimberly; Boyajian, Melanie E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of natural elements and direct and indirect sunlight exposure on employee mental health and work attitudes. We recruited participants via an online panel from the United States and India, and analyzed data from 444 employees. Natural elements and sunlight exposure related positively to job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and negatively to depressed mood and anxiety. Direct sunlight was a dominant predictor of anxiety; indirect sunlight was a dominant predictor of depressed mood, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Natural elements buffered the relationship between role stressors and job satisfaction, depressed mood, and anxiety. We also found that depressed mood partially mediated the relationship between natural elements and job satisfaction. We discuss scientific and policy implications of these findings. PMID:27214041

  10. Air Ambient-Operated pNIPAM-Based Flexible Actuators Stimulated by Human Body Temperature and Sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Kanao, Kenichiro; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2015-05-27

    Harnessing a natural power source such as the human body temperature or sunlight should realize ultimate low-power devices. In particular, macroscale and flexible actuators that do not require an artificial power source have tremendous potential. Here we propose and demonstrate electrically powerless polymer-based actuators operated at ambient conditions using a packaging technique in which the stimulating power source is produced by heat from the human body or sunlight. The actuating angle, force, and reliability are discussed as functions of temperature and exposure to sunlight. Furthermore, a wearable device platform and a smart curtain actuated by the temperature of human skin and sunlight, respectively, are demonstrated as the first proof-of-concepts. These nature-powered actuators should realize a new class of ultimate low-power devices.

  11. Toddlers Help a Peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepach, Robert; Kante, Nadine; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Toddlers are remarkably prosocial toward adults, yet little is known about their helping behavior toward peers. In the present study with 18- and 30-month-old toddlers (n = 192, 48 dyads per age group), one child needed help reaching an object to continue a task that was engaging for both children. The object was within reach of the second child who helped significantly more often compared to a no-need control condition. The helper also fulfilled the peer's need when the task was engaging only for the child needing help. These findings suggest that toddlers' skills and motivations of helping do not depend on having a competent and helpful recipient, such as an adult, but rather they are much more flexible and general. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  13. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  14. A sunlight-induced method for rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using an Andrachnea chordifolia ethanol extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi Zarchi, A.A.; Faridi Majidi, R. [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Nanomedicine, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mokhtari, N.; Shahverdi, A.R. [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arfan, M.; Rehman, T.; Ali, M. [University of Peshawar, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa (Pakistan); Amini, M. [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    In this study a sunlight-induced method for rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles using an ethanol extract of Andrachnea chordifolia is described. The silver nitrate solutions (1 mM) containing the ethanol extract of Andrachnea chordifolia were irradiated by both sunlight radiation and by sunlight radiation passed through different colored filters (red, yellow or green). The smallest size of silver nanoparticles was obtained when a silver ion solution was irradiated for 5 minutes by direct sunlight radiation. Further examination of the shape and size and of the surface chemistry of these biogenic silver nanoparticles, which were prepared under sunlight radiation, was carried out using transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy images show spherical particles with an average size of 3.4 nm. Hydroxyl residues were also detected on the surface of these biogenic silver nanoparticles fabricated using plant extract of Andrachnea chordifolia under sunlight radiation. Our study on the reduction of silver ions by this plant extract in darkness shows that the synthesis process can take place under dark conditions at much longer incubations (48 hours). Larger silver polydispersed nanoparticles ranging in size from 3 to 30 nm were obtained when the silver ions were treated with the ethanol extract of Andrachnea chordifolia under dark conditions for 48 hours. (orig.)

  15. Sunlight persistence and rainfastness of spray-dried formulations of baculovirus isolated from Anagrapha falcifera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez-Guerra, P; McGuire, M R; Behle, R W; Hamm, J J; Sumner, H R; Shasha, B S

    2000-04-01

    Nuclear polyhedrosis viruses such as the one isolated from the celery looper, Anagrapha falcifera (Kirby) (AfMNPV), have the potential to be successful bioinsecticides if improved formulations can prevent rapid loss of insecticidal activity from environmental conditions such as sunlight and rainfall. We tested 16 spray-dried formulations of AfMNPV to determine the effect of different ingredients (e.g., lignin, corn flour, and so on) on insecticidal activity after simulated rain and simulated sunlight (at Peoria, IL) and natural sunlight exposures (at Tifton, GA). The most effective formulation contained pregelatinized corn flour and potassium lignate, which retained more than half of its original activity after 5 cm of simulated rain, and almost full activity after 8 h of simulated sunlight. In Georgia, formulations made with and without lignin were compared for persistence of insecticidal activity when exposed to natural sunlight. In addition, the effect of fluorescent brighteners as formulation components and spray tank additives was tested. Results showed that the formulations with lignin had more insecticidal activity remaining after sunlight exposure than formulations without lignin. The inclusion of brighteners in the formulation did not improve initial activity or virus persistence. However, a 1% tank mix significantly enhanced activity and improved persistence. Scanning electron micrographs revealed discreet particles, and transmission electron micrographs showed virus embedded within microgranules. Results demonstrated that formulations made with natural ingredients could improve persistence of virus-based biopesticides.

  16. Handi Helps, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handi Helps, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The six issues of Handi Helps presented here focus on specific issues of concern to the disabled, parents, and those working with the disabled. The two-page handi help fact sheets focus on the following topics: child sexual abuse prevention, asthma, scoliosis, the role of the occupational therapist, kidnapping, and muscular dystrophy. Each handi…

  17. Dynamic light absorption of biomass-burning organic carbon photochemically aged under natural sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, M.; Jang, M.

    2014-02-01

    Wood-burning aerosol produced under smoldering conditions was photochemically aged with different relative humidity (RH) and NOx conditions using a 104 m3 dual outdoor chamber under natural sunlight. Light absorption of organic carbon (OC) was measured over the course of photooxidation using a UV-visible spectrometer connected to an integrating sphere. At high RH, the color decayed rapidly. NOx slightly prolonged the color of wood smoke, suggesting that NOx promotes the formation of chromophores via secondary processes. Overall, the mass absorption cross section (integrated between 280 and 600 nm) of OC increased by 11-54% (except high RH) in the morning and then gradually decreased by 19-68% in the afternoon. This dynamic change in light absorption of wood-burning OC can be explained by two mechanisms: chromophore formation and sunlight bleaching. To investigate the effect of chemical transformation on light absorption, wood smoke particles were characterized using various spectrometers. The intensity of fluorescence, which is mainly related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), rapidly decreased with time, indicating the potential bleaching of PAHs. A decline of levoglucosan concentrations evinced the change of primary organic aerosol with time. The aerosol water content measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that wood-burning aerosol became less hygroscopic as photooxidation proceeded. A similar trend in light absorption changes has been observed in ambient smoke aerosol originating from the 2012 County Line wildfire in Florida. We conclude that the biomass-burning OC becomes less light absorbing after 8-9 h sunlight exposure compared to fresh wood-burning OC.

  18. Dynamic light absorption of biomass burning organic carbon photochemically aged under natural sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, M.; Jang, M.

    2013-08-01

    Wood burning aerosol produced under smoldering conditions was photochemically aged with different relative humidity (RH) and NOx conditions using a 104 m3 dual outdoor chamber under natural sunlight. Light absorption of organic carbon (OC) was measured over the course of photooxidation using a UV-visible spectrometer connected to an integrating sphere. At high RH, the color decayed rapidly. NOx slightly prolonged the color of wood smoke, suggesting that NOx promotes the formation of chromophores via secondary processes. Overall, the mass absorption cross-section (integrated between 280 nm and 600 nm) of OC increased by 11-54% (except high RH) in the morning and then gradually decreased by 19-68% in the afternoon. This dynamic change in light absorption of wood burning OC can be explained by two mechanisms: chromophore formation and sunlight bleaching. To investigate the effect of chemical transformation on light absorption, wood smoke particles were characterized using various spectrometers. The intensity of fluorescence, which is mainly related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), rapidly decreased with time indicating the potential bleaching of PAHs. A decline of levoglucosan concentrations evinced the change of POA with time. The aerosol water content measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that wood burning aerosol became less hygroscopic as photooxidation proceeded. A similar trend in light absorption changes has been observed in ambient smoke aerosol originating from the 2012 County Line Wildfire in Florida. We conclude that the biomass burning OC becomes less light absorbing after 8-9 h sunlight exposure compared to fresh wood burning OC.

  19. Formation of rutile fasciculate zone induced by sunlight irradiation at room temperature and its hemocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuan-Hui; Zheng, Xiang; Cheng, Yuan; Li, Guo-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zheng, Jian-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The fasciculate zone of phase pure rutile was fabricated under sunlight irradiation at room temperature, using titanium tetrachloride as a sole precursor. The crystal phase, morphology and microstructure, and optical absorption behavior of the samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) and UV–vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectra (DRS), respectively. XRD results show that the crystal phase of the sample is composed of rutile only, and a lattice distortion displays in the crystallite of the sample. HRTEM results show that the morphology of rutile particle is fasciculate zone constituted of nanoparticles with a diameter of 4–7 nm, and these particles grow one by one and step by step. The pattern of the selected area electron diffraction of the sample is Kikuchi type, which can be attributed to the predominant orientation growth of rutile nanoparticles along [001] induced by sunlight irradiation. DRS results show that the absorption threshold of the sample is 415 nm, corresponding to the band gap energy of 2.99 eV, which is lower than the band gap energy of rutile, 3.03 eV. Blood compatibility measurement shows that the sample has no remarkable effect on hemolytic and coagulation activity. The percent hemolysis of red blood cells is less than 5% even treated with a big dosage of the fasciculate rutile and under UV irradiation, and there are no obvious changes of plasma recalcification time after the rutile treatment. Thus, the novel structure of rutile fasciculate has low potential toxicity for blood and is hemocompatibility safe. Highlights: • A novel approach to fabricate the fasciculate zone of phase pure rutile • The fasciculate grows from a particle to nanorod and to fasciculate, step by step. • A preferred orientation growth induced by sunlight irradiation in the fasciculate • The rutile fasciculate is low toxicity for blood and is hemocompatibility safe

  20. Greenhouse effect: temperature of a metal sphere surrounded by a glass shell and heated by sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Phuc H; Matzner, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    We study the greenhouse effect on a model satellite consisting of a tungsten sphere surrounded by a thin spherical, concentric glass shell, with a small gap between the sphere and the shell. The system sits in vacuum and is heated by sunlight incident along the z-axis. This development is a generalization of the simple treatment of the greenhouse effect given by Kittel and Kroemer (1980 Thermal Physics (San Francisco: Freeman)) and can serve as a very simple model demonstrating the much more complex Earth greenhouse effect. Solution of the model problem provides an excellent pedagogical tool at the Junior/Senior undergraduate level.

  1. Sunlight simulators-the key to understanding the physiological effects of the sun

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh, A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available simulator Slide 4 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za ۞ Benefits of natural sunlight ۞ Restrictions of lifestyles ۞ Common misconceptions ۞ Experimental setups Slide 5 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Cancer Males...,043 181,439 Lung 965,241 848,132 386,891 330,786 Melanoma of skin 79,043 21,952 81,134 18,829 Breast 1,151,298 410,712 Leukemia 171,037 125,142 129,485 97,364 All sites but skin 5,801,839 3,795,991 5,060,657 2...

  2. Bacterial growth in humic waters exposed to UV-radiation and simulated sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corin, N.; Backlund, P.; Wiklund, T.

    1998-01-01

    Sterile filtered (0.45 mu m) humic lake water was exposed to simulated sunlight (300-800 nm) or W-radiation (254 run)for various periods of times and the dissolved organic carbon content, absorbance at 254 and 460 nm and PH were recorded. The irradiated water was inoculated with a natural bacterial...... assemblage and the number of viable bacteria war estimated 3 and 5 days after the inoculation using the plate count technique. The number of viable bacteria increased with the irradiation time indicating that the chemical changes of the humus macromolecules observed during irradiation resulted...

  3. Concentration of sunlight to solar-surface levels using non-imaging optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleckman, Philip; O'Gallagher, Joseph; Winston, Roland

    1989-05-01

    An account is given of the design and operational principles of a solar concentrator that employs nonimaging optics to achieve a solar flux equal to 56,000 times that of ambient sunlight, yielding temperatures comparable to, and with further development of the device, exceeding those of the solar surface. In this scheme, a parabolic mirror primary concentrator is followed by a secondary concentrator, designed according to the edge-ray method, which is filled with a transparent oil. The device may be used in materials-processing, waste-disposal, and solar-pumped laser applications.

  4. Use of sunlight to degrade oxytetracycline in marine aquaculture's waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, J.F.; Esteves, V.I.; Santos, E.B.H.

    2016-01-01

    Oxytracycline (OTC) is a broad spectrum antibiotic authorized for use in European aquaculture. Its photo-degradation has been widely studied in synthetic aqueous solutions, sometimes resorting to expensive methods and without proven effectiveness in natural waters. Thus, this work studied the possibility to apply the solar photo-degradation for removal of OTC from marine aquaculture's waters. For that, water samples were collected at different locals of the water treatment circuit, from two different aquaculture companies. Water samples were firstly characterized regarding to pH, salinity, total suspended solids (TSS), organic carbon and UV–Vis spectroscopic characteristics. Then, the samples were spiked with OTC and irradiated using simulated sunlight in order to evaluate the matrix effects on OTC photo-degradation. From kinetic results, the apparent quantum yields and the outdoor half-life times, at 40°N for midsummer and midwinter days were estimated by the first time for these conditions. For a midsummer day, at sea level, the outdoor half-life time predicted for OTC in these aquaculture's waters ranged between 21 and 25 min. Additionally, the pH and salinity effects on the OTC photo-degradation were evaluated and it has been shown that high pH values and the presence of sea salt increase the OTC photo-degradation rate in aquaculture's waters, compared to results in deionised water. The results are very promising to apply this low-cost methodology using the natural sunlight in aquaculture's waters to remove OTC. - Highlights: • Oxytetracycline (OTC) is one of the most used antibiotics in aquaculture. • OTC photolysis in marine aquaculture's water is faster than in deionised water. • The sunlight radiation quickly remove the OTC from aquaculture's water. • Outdoor half-life for a midsummer day is 21–25 min in aquaculture's water. • High pH's and salinities increase the OTC photo-degradation. - This work

  5. Session 6: photo-catalytic degradation of Toluene using sunlight-type excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerte, A.; Hernandez-Alonso, M.D.; Martinez-Arias, A.; Conesa, J.C.; Soria, J.; Fernandez-Garcia, M. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, -Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    In this report we investigate the doping of anatase-TiO{sub 2} with nine different cations. It is shown that W can be one of the best options for toluene photo-degradation using sunlight-type excitation. Thermal and hydrothermal treatments were applied to amorphous Ti-W mixed oxide precursors with varying W:Ti atomic ratio for obtaining nano-structured particles having different properties. All Ti-W precursors were prepared by a microemulsion method and the mixed oxides characterized by using XRD, XPS, as well as XAFS, Raman and UV-Vis Spectroscopies. (authors)

  6. Sunlight-Induced Photochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue by Water-Soluble Carbon Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Bhati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble graphitic hollow carbon nanorods (wsCNRs are exploited for their light-driven photochemical activities under outdoor sunlight. wsCNRs were synthesized by a simple pyrolysis method from castor seed oil, without using any metal catalyst or template. wsCNRs exhibited the light-induced photochemical degradation of methylene blue used as a model pollutant by the generation of singlet oxygen species. Herein, we described a possible degradation mechanism of methylene blue under the irradiation of visible photons via the singlet oxygen-superoxide anion pathway.

  7. Persistence of marine fish environmental DNA and the influence of sunlight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Andruszkiewicz

    Full Text Available Harnessing information encoded in environmental DNA (eDNA in marine waters has the potential to revolutionize marine biomonitoring. Whether using organism-specific quantitative PCR assays or metabarcoding in conjunction with amplicon sequencing, scientists have illustrated that realistic organism censuses can be inferred from eDNA. The next step is establishing ways to link information obtained from eDNA analyses to actual organism abundance. This is only possible by understanding the processes that control eDNA concentrations. The present study uses mesocosm experiments to study the persistence of eDNA in marine waters and explore the role of sunlight in modulating eDNA persistence. We seeded solute-permeable dialysis bags with water containing indigenous eDNA and suspended them in a large tank containing seawater. Bags were subjected to two treatments: half the bags were suspended near the water surface where they received high doses of sunlight, and half at depth where they received lower doses of sunlight. Bags were destructively sampled over the course of 87 hours. eDNA was extracted from water samples and used as template for a Scomber japonicus qPCR assay and a marine fish-specific 12S rRNA PCR assay. The latter was subsequently sequenced using a metabarcoding approach. S. japonicus eDNA, as measured by qPCR, exhibited first order decay with a rate constant ~0.01 hr -1 with no difference in decay rate constants between the two experimental treatments. eDNA metabarcoding identified 190 organizational taxonomic units (OTUs assigned to varying taxonomic ranks. There was no difference in marine fish communities as measured by eDNA metabarcoding between the two experimental treatments, but there was an effect of time. Given the differences in UVA and UVB fluence received by the two experimental treatments, we conclude that sunlight is not the main driver of fish eDNA decay in the experiments. However, there are clearly temporal effects that

  8. Dispersed single-phase-step Michelson interferometer for Doppler imaging using sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian

    2012-09-15

    A Michelson interferometer is dispersed with a fiber array-fed spectrograph, providing 59 Doppler sensing channels using sunlight in the 510-570 nm wavelength region. The interferometer operates at a single-phase-step mode, which is particularly advantageous in multiplexing and data processing compared to the phase-stepping mode of other interferometer spectrometer instruments. Spectral templates are prepared using a standard solar spectrum and simulated interferometer modulations, such that the correlation function with a measured 1D spectrum determines the Doppler shift. Doppler imaging of a rotating cylinder is demonstrated. The average Doppler sensitivity is ~12 m/s, with some channels reaching ~5 m/s.

  9. Temporal Stability of the Microbial Community in Sewage-Polluted Seawater Exposed to Natural Sunlight Cycles and Marine Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Yamahara, Kevan M.

    2015-01-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  10. Increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon toxicity following their photomodification in natural sunlight: impacts on the duckweed Lemna gibba L. G-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.D.; Dixon, D.G.; Greenberg, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors previously demonstrated that simulated solar radiation (SSR), with a fluence rate of only 40 mumol m -2 sec -1 , increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) toxicity to the duckweed Lemna gibba and that PAHs photomodified in SSR (generally oxygenation of the ring system) are more toxic than the parent compounds (Huang et al., Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 1993, 12, 1067-1077). It is not known, however, to what extent toxicity of PAHs can increase due to photomodification. Thus, natural sunlight, which has a high fluence rate (approximately 2000 mumol m -2 sec -1 ), was used to photomodify anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Toxicity was based on growth inhibition of L. gibba, measured as the rate of production of new leaves over an 8-day period. Initially, the toxicity of the PAHs applied in intact form was probed, with the compounds demonstrating greater toxicity in sunlight than in SSR. Next the PAHs were photomodified in sunlight prior to incubation with the plants. The half-lives of the PAHs in sunlight ranged from 12 min to 30 hr. Although most of the products of PAH photomodification are not yet identified, the degree that PAH toxicity increased following photomodification in sunlight could still be probed. The mixtures of photomodified chemicals that were derived from each PAH in sunlight were applied of L. gibba and growth inhibition under 100 mumol m -2 sec -1 of SSR was determined. The LC50s for the PAH photoproducts generated in sunlight were an order of magnitude lower than the LC50s for the PAHs applied in intact form. (author)

  11. Hooked on Helping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, James; McCord, Joan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, teens presenting at a symposium on peer-helping programs describe how caring for others fosters personal growth and builds positive group cultures. Their individual thoughts and opinions are expressed.

  12. Divorce: Helping Children Cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alicia S.; McBride, Jean

    1982-01-01

    Examines children's reactions to the divorce process and explores ways in which adults can promote growth and adjustment in children of divorce. Suggests ways in which parents, teachers, and counselors can help children. (RC)

  13. Photoelectrochemical-type sunlight photodetector based on MoS2/graphene heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zongyu; Han, Weijia; Chander, D Sathish; Qi, Xiang; Zhang, Han; Tang, Hongli; Ren, Long

    2015-01-01

    We have fabricated a novel sunlight photo-detector based on a MoS 2 /graphene heterostructure. The MoS 2 /graphene heterostructure was prepared by a facile hydrothermal method along with a subsequent annealing process followed by a substrate-induced high selective nucleation and growth mechanism. The microstructures and morphologies of the two-dimensional MoS 2 /graphene heterostructure can be experimentally confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a UV–vis absorption spectrometer. Photoresponse investigations performed by a photoelectrochemical (PEC) measurement system indicate that the synthesized MoS 2 /graphene heterostructure shows superior photoresponse activities under the illumination of sunlight in contrast with bare MoS 2 and graphene. The improved photoresponsivity can be attributed to the enhanced light absorption, strong light–matter interaction and the extremely efficient charge separation of the heterostructure. The structure and performances of the MoS 2 /graphene heterostructure suggest promising applications in the field of photonics and optoelectronics. (paper)

  14. Terrestrial photovoltaic power systems with sunlight concentration. Annual progress report, January 1, 1975--December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, C.E.

    1976-01-31

    This annual report is for the second year of a program to investigate the characteristics of the components and the total system using sunlight concentrated onto solar cells. The second year was primarily to experimentally investigate the conclusions of the first year of analytical studies. Cells have been fabricated that are designed for different intensities. Typically the efficiency of a cell will increase from its 11 percent at AM1 peak to efficiency at the designed concentration level and return to its initial efficiency at about 3 times its designed concentration level. The developed cells have been tested under high intensity simulators and in concentrated sunlight and have shown to have the predicted response. The experimental testing of passive cooling limitations for cooling cells with just finned arrangements in the back of the cell has been completed in the controlled environment of a wind tunnel. These experiments have confirmed the heat transfer coefficients that had been used in the analytical studies. Testing was done to collect heat transfer coefficients for actual wind conditions and these data show good agreement with the controlled wind tunnel data. Four photovoltaic/concentrator system experiments have been started with CR of about 3, 10, 25, and 100. System analysis has indicated that photovoltaic concentration systems may be attractive in low solar irradiation areas such as Cleveland.

  15. A full-sunlight-driven photocatalyst with super long-persistent energy storage ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Zhijian; Zhang, Guozhu; Zou, Tao; Zou, Zhijun; Zhang, Shunping; Zeng, Dawen; Xie, Changsheng

    2013-01-01

    A major drawback of traditional photocatalysts like TiO2 is that they can only work under illumination, and the light has to be UV. As a solution for this limitation, visible-light-driven energy storage photocatalysts have been developed in recent years. However, energy storage photocatalysts that are full-sunlight-driven (UV-visible-NIR) and possess long-lasting energy storage ability are lacking. Here we report, a Pt-loaded and hydrogen-treated WO3 that exhibits a strong absorption at full-sunlight spectrum (300-1,000 nm), and with a super-long energy storage time of more than 300 h to have formaldehyde degraded in dark. In this new material system, the hydrogen treated WO3 functions as the light harvesting material and energy storage material simultaneously, while Pt mainly acts as the cocatalyst to have the energy storage effect displayed. The extraordinary full-spectrum absorption effect and long persistent energy storage ability make the material a potential solar-energy storage and an effective photocatalyst in practice.

  16. A pathway for sustainable conversion of sunlight to hydrogen using proposed compact CPV system

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2018-03-22

    Solar energy being intermittent in nature, can provide a sustainable, steady and high density energy source when converted into electrolytic hydrogen. However, in current photovoltaic market trend with 99% conventional single junction PV panels, this cannot be achieved efficiently and economically. The advent of the multi-junction solar cells (MJCs), with cell-efficiency exceeding 46%, has yet to receive wide spread acceptance in the current PV market in form of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system, because of its system design complexity, limiting its application scope and customers. The objective of this paper is to develop a low cost compact CPV system that will not only eliminate its application and installation related restrictions but it is also introducing a highly efficient and sustainable photovoltaic system for common consumer, to convert intermittent sunlight into green hydrogen. The developed CPV system negates the common conviction by showing two times more power output than the flat plate PV, in tropical region. In addition, sunlight to hydrogen conversion efficiency of 18% is recorded for CPV, which is two times higher than alone electricity production efficiency of flat plate PV.

  17. Roles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerases Poleta and Polzeta in response to irradiation by simulated sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozmin, Stanislav G; Pavlov, Youri I; Kunkel, Thomas A; Sage, Evelyne

    2003-08-01

    Sunlight causes lesions in DNA that if unrepaired and inaccurately replicated by DNA polymerases yield mutations that result in skin cancer in humans. Two enzymes involved in translesion synthesis (TLS) of UV-induced photolesions are DNA polymerase eta (Poleta) and polymerase zeta (Polzeta), encoded by the RAD30A and REV3 genes, respectively. Previous studies have investigated the TLS roles of these polymerases in human and yeast cells irradiated with monochromatic, short wavelength UVC radiation (254 nm). However, less is known about cellular responses to solar radiation, which is of higher and mixed wavelengths (310-1100 nm) and produces a different spectrum of DNA lesions, including Dewar photoproducts and oxidative lesions. Here we report on the comparative cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of simulated sunlight (SSL) and UVC radiation on yeast wild-type, rad30Delta, rev3Delta and rev3Delta rad30Delta strains. The results with SSL support several previous interpretations on the roles of these two polymerases in TLS of photodimers and (6-4) photoproducts derived from studies with UVC. They further suggest that Poleta participates in the non-mutagenic bypass of SSL-dependent cytosine-containing Dewar photoproducts and 8-oxoguanine, while Polzeta is mainly responsible for the mutagenic bypass of all types of Dewar photoproducts. They also suggest that in the absence of Polzeta, Poleta contributes to UVC- and SSL-induced mutagenesis, possibly by the bypass of photodimers containing deaminated cytosine.

  18. Factors influencing adherence with therapeutic sunlight exposure in older people in intermediate care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durvasula, Seeta; Sambrook, Philip N; Cameron, Ian D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing low adherence with therapeutic sunlight exposure in a randomized controlled trial conducted with older people living in intermediate care facilities. The study involved participants in the FREEDOM (Falls Risk Epidemiology: Effect of vitamin D on skeletal Outcomes and other Measures) study, a randomized controlled trial of therapeutic sun exposure to reduce falls in older people in intermediate care facilities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirty participants in the FREEDOM trial, and with ten sunlight officers who were employed to facilitate the sun exposure. Two focus groups involving 10 participants in the FREEDOM trial were also held at the end of the intervention period. Common themes were derived from the interview and focus group transcripts. The study showed that the perceived health benefits did not influence adherence with the sun exposure. Factors such as socializing with others and being outdoors were more important in encouraging attendance. The main barriers to adherence included the perceived inflexibility and regimentation of daily attendance, clash with other activities, unsuitable timing and heat discomfort. This study showed that providing greater flexibility and autonomy to older people in how and when they receive sun exposure is likely to improve adherence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural organic matter and sunlight accelerate the degradation of 17ss-estradiol in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, Dina M.; Snyder, Matthew T.; Wetzel, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomolar concentrations of steroid hormones such as 17β-estradiol can influence the reproductive development and sex ratios of invertebrate and vertebrate populations. Thus their release into surface and ground waters from wastewater facilities and agricultural applications of animal waste is of environmental concern. Many of these compounds are chromophoric and susceptible to photolytic degradation. High intensity UV-C radiation has been demonstrated to degrade some of these compounds in engineered systems. However, the degradation efficacy of natural solar radiation in shallow fresh waters is less understood. Here photolytic experiments with 17β-estradiol demonstrated modest photodegradation (∼ 26%) when exposed to simulated sunlight between 290 and 720 nm. Photodegradation significantly increased (∼ 40-50%) in the presence of 2.0-15.0 mg/l of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) derived from humic acids of the Suwannee River, GA. However, rates of photodegradation reached a threshold at approximately 5.0 mg/l DOC. Observed suppression of photolysis in the presence of a radical inhibitor (i.e. 2-propanol) indicated that a significant proportion of the degradation was due to radicals formed from the photolysis of DOC. Although photodegradation was greatest in full sunlight containing UV-B (290-320 nm), degradation was also detected with UV-A (320-400 nm) and visible light (400-720 nm) alone

  20. A pathway for sustainable conversion of sunlight to hydrogen using proposed compact CPV system

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Oh, Seung Jin; Ng, Kim Choon

    2018-01-01

    Solar energy being intermittent in nature, can provide a sustainable, steady and high density energy source when converted into electrolytic hydrogen. However, in current photovoltaic market trend with 99% conventional single junction PV panels, this cannot be achieved efficiently and economically. The advent of the multi-junction solar cells (MJCs), with cell-efficiency exceeding 46%, has yet to receive wide spread acceptance in the current PV market in form of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system, because of its system design complexity, limiting its application scope and customers. The objective of this paper is to develop a low cost compact CPV system that will not only eliminate its application and installation related restrictions but it is also introducing a highly efficient and sustainable photovoltaic system for common consumer, to convert intermittent sunlight into green hydrogen. The developed CPV system negates the common conviction by showing two times more power output than the flat plate PV, in tropical region. In addition, sunlight to hydrogen conversion efficiency of 18% is recorded for CPV, which is two times higher than alone electricity production efficiency of flat plate PV.

  1. Inactivation and mutation induction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to simulated sunlight: evaluation of action spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk-Meuser, K; Pawlowsky, K; Kiefer, J

    1992-07-15

    The effectiveness of polychromatic light irradiation was investigated for haploid yeast cells. Inactivation and mutation induction were measured in both a RAD-wildtype strain and an excision-repair defective strain. The behaviour of vegetative "wet" cells was compared to that of dehydrated cells. The aim of the study was to assess the interaction of UVC with other wavelengths in cells of different states of humidity. The irradiation procedure was therefore carried out using a solar simulator either with full spectrum or with a UVC-blocking filter (modified sunlight) added. The results were analysed on the basis of separately determined action spectra. The summation of the efficiency of individual wavelengths was compared to the values obtained from polychromatic irradiation. It is shown that the effects caused by the whole-spectrum irradiation in wet cells can be predicted sufficiently from the calculation, while dried wildtype cells exhibit higher mutation rates. Thus it can be assumed that drying-specific damage leads to lethal and mutagenic lesions which are processed in different ways, causing a synergistic behaviour in mutation induction. Irradiation of vegetative cells with modified sunlight (UVC-) results in less inactivation and lower mutation rates than were calculated. From these results it can be concluded that this antagonistic behaviour is caused by the interaction of near-UV photoproducts.

  2. Prevalence and sunlight photolysis of controlled and chemotherapeutic drugs in aqueous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Lin, Yen-Ching; Lee, Wan-Ning

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the occurrences and natural fates of chemotherapeutics and controlled drugs when found together in hospital effluents and surface waters. The results revealed the presence of 11 out of 16 drugs in hospital effluents, and the maximum detected concentrations were at the μg L −1 level in the hospital effluents and the ng L −1 level in surface waters. The highest concentrations corresponded to meperidine, morphine, 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide. The sunlight photolysis of the target compounds was investigated, and the results indicated that morphine and codeine can be significantly attenuated, with half-lives of 0.27 and 2.5 h, respectively, in natural waters. Photolysis can lower the detected environmental concentrations, also lowering the estimated environmental risks of the target drugs to human health. Nevertheless, 5-fluorouracil and codeine were found to have a high risk quotient (RQ), demonstrating the high risks of directly releasing hospital wastewater into the environment. - Highlights: • High occurrence of chemotherapeutics and controlled substances in aqueous systems. • Photolysis lowers the detected concentrations of morphine and codeine. • 5-fluorouracil and codeine in hospital effluents have high risk quotients. - Chemotherapeutics and controlled drugs occur at significant levels in hospital effluents and surface waters. Natural sunlight photolysis reduces their environmental occurrence

  3. Sunlight triggers cutaneous lupus through a CSF-1-dependent mechanism in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Julia; Hsu, Mei-Yu; Byrne, Katelyn T; Lucas, Julie A; Rabacal, Whitney A; Croker, Byron P; Zong, Xiao-Hua; Stanley, E Richard; Kelley, Vicki R

    2008-11-15

    Sunlight (UVB) triggers cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and systemic lupus through an unknown mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that UVB triggers CLE through a CSF-1-dependent, macrophage (Mø)-mediated mechanism in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. By constructing mutant MRL-Fas(lpr) strains expressing varying levels of CSF-1 (high, intermediate, none), and use of an ex vivo gene transfer to deliver CSF-1 intradermally, we determined that CSF-1 induces CLE in lupus-susceptible MRL-Fas(lpr) mice, but not in lupus-resistant BALB/c mice. UVB incites an increase in Møs, apoptosis in the skin, and CLE in MRL-Fas(lpr), but not in CSF-1-deficient MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. Furthermore, UVB did not induce CLE in BALB/c mice. Probing further, UVB stimulates CSF-1 expression by keratinocytes leading to recruitment and activation of Møs that, in turn, release mediators, which induce apoptosis in keratinocytes. Thus, sunlight triggers a CSF-1-dependent, Mø-mediated destructive inflammation in the skin leading to CLE in lupus-susceptible MRL-Fas(lpr) but not lupus-resistant BALB/c mice. Taken together, CSF-1 is envisioned as the match and lupus susceptibility as the tinder leading to CLE.

  4. Sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity associated with disability progression in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hooghe, M B; Haentjens, P; Nagels, G; Garmyn, M; De Keyser, J

    2012-04-01

    Sunlight and vitamin D have been inversely associated with the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity in relation to disability progression in MS. We conducted a survey among persons with MS, registered by the Flemish MS society, Belgium, and stratified data according to relapsing-onset and progressive-onset MS. We used Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses with time to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 6 as outcome measure. Hazard ratios for the time from onset and from birth were calculated for the potentially predictive variables, adjusting for age at onset, gender and immunomodulatory treatment. 704 (51.3%) of the 1372 respondents had reached EDSS 6. In relapsing-onset MS, respondents reporting equal or higher levels of sun exposure than persons of the same age in the last 10 years had a decreased risk of reaching EDSS 6. In progressive-onset MS, increased sun sensitivity was associated with an increased hazard of reaching EDSS 6. The association of higher sun exposure with a better outcome in relapsing-onset MS may be explained by either a protective effect or reverse causality. Mechanisms underlying sun sensitivity might influence progression in progressive-onset MS.

  5. Natural organic matter and sunlight accelerate the degradation of 17ss-estradiol in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leech, Dina M. [Institute of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 3431 Arendell Street, Morehead City, NC 28557 (United States)], E-mail: dmleech@email.unc.edu; Snyder, Matthew T.; Wetzel, Robert G. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Nanomolar concentrations of steroid hormones such as 17{beta}-estradiol can influence the reproductive development and sex ratios of invertebrate and vertebrate populations. Thus their release into surface and ground waters from wastewater facilities and agricultural applications of animal waste is of environmental concern. Many of these compounds are chromophoric and susceptible to photolytic degradation. High intensity UV-C radiation has been demonstrated to degrade some of these compounds in engineered systems. However, the degradation efficacy of natural solar radiation in shallow fresh waters is less understood. Here photolytic experiments with 17{beta}-estradiol demonstrated modest photodegradation ({approx} 26%) when exposed to simulated sunlight between 290 and 720 nm. Photodegradation significantly increased ({approx} 40-50%) in the presence of 2.0-15.0 mg/l of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) derived from humic acids of the Suwannee River, GA. However, rates of photodegradation reached a threshold at approximately 5.0 mg/l DOC. Observed suppression of photolysis in the presence of a radical inhibitor (i.e. 2-propanol) indicated that a significant proportion of the degradation was due to radicals formed from the photolysis of DOC. Although photodegradation was greatest in full sunlight containing UV-B (290-320 nm), degradation was also detected with UV-A (320-400 nm) and visible light (400-720 nm) alone.

  6. Effect of sunlight irradiation on photocatalytic pyrene degradation in contaminated soils by micro-nano size TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Chien, S.W.; Chang, C.H.; Chen, S.H.; Wang, M.C.; Madhava Rao, M.; Satya Veni, S.

    2011-01-01

    The enhanced catalytic pyrene degradation in quartz sand and alluvial and red soils by micro-nano size TiO 2 in the presence and absence of sunlight was investigated. The results showed that the synergistic effect of sunlight irradiation and TiO 2 was more efficient on pyrene degradation in quartz sand and red and alluvial soils than the corresponding reaction system without sunlight irradiation. In the presence of sunlight irradiation, the photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) of pyrene was very pronounced in alluvial and red soils and especially in quartz sand. However, in the absence of sunlight irradiation, the catalytic pyrene degradation by TiO 2 and the photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) of pyrene were almost nil. This implicates that ultra-violet (UV) wavelength range of sunlight plays an important role in TiO 2 -enhanced photocatalytic pyrene degradation and in photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) of pyrene. The percentages of photocatalytic pyrene degradation by TiO 2 in quartz sand, alluvial and red soils under sunlight irradiation were 78.3, 23.4, and 31.8%, respectively, at 5 h reaction period with a 5% (w/w) dose of the amended catalyst. The sequence of TiO 2 -enhanced catalytic pyrene degradation in quartz sand and alluvial and red soils was quartz sand > red soil > alluvial soil, due to different texture and total organic carbon (TOC) contents of the quartz sand and other two soils. The differential Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of degraded pyrene in alluvial soil corroborate that TiO 2 -enhanced photocatalytic degradation rate of degraded pyrene was much greater than photooxidation (without TiO 2 ) rate of degraded pyrene. Based on the data obtained, the importance for the application of TiO 2 -enhanced photocatalytic pyrene degradation and associated organic contaminants in contaminated soils was elucidated. - Highlights: → Synergistic effect of sunlight irradiation and TiO 2 promoted degradation of pyrene. → Micro-nano size TiO 2 enhanced

  7. Why humans might help strangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola Jayne Raihani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans regularly help strangers, even when interactions are apparently unobserved and unlikely to be repeated. Such situations have been simulated in the laboratory using anonymous one-shot games (e.g. prisoner's dilemma where the payoff matrices used make helping biologically altruistic. As in real-life, participants often cooperate in the lab in these one-shot games with non-relatives, despite that fact that helping is under negative selection under these circumstances. Two broad explanations for such behavior prevail. The 'big mistake' or 'mismatch' theorists argue that behavior is constrained by psychological mechanisms that evolved predominantly in the context of repeated interactions with known individuals. In contrast, the cultural group selection theorists posit that humans have been selected to cooperate in anonymous one-shot interactions due to strong between-group competition, which creates interdependence among in-group members. We present these two hypotheses before discussing alternative routes by which humans could increase their direct fitness by cooperating with strangers under natural conditions. In doing so, we explain why the standard lab games do not capture real-life in various important aspects. First, asymmetries in the cost of perceptual errors regarding the context of the interaction (one-shot versus repeated; anonymous versus public might have selected for strategies that minimize the chance of making costly behavioral errors. Second, helping strangers might be a successful strategy for identifying other cooperative individuals in the population, where partner choice can turn strangers into interaction partners. Third, in many real-world situations individuals are able to parcel investments such that a one-shot interaction is turned into a repeated game of many decisions. Finally, in contrast to the assumptions of the prisoner's dilemma model, it is possible that benefits of cooperation follow a non-linear function of

  8. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  9. National laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscati, G.

    1983-01-01

    The foundation of a 'National Laboratory' which would support a Research center in synchrotron radiation applications is proposed. The essential features of such a laboratory differing of others centers in Brazil are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Geomechanics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geomechanics Laboratory allows its users to measure rock properties under a wide range of simulated service conditions up to very high pressures and complex load...

  11. CERN helps Grid cmputing into the mainstream

    CERN Multimedia

    Moran, Nuala

    2006-01-01

    CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, has launched the seocnd phase of Openlab, its partnership with IT companies for the development of advanced computing facilities. The industrial partners in this phase, Hewlett Packard, Intel and Oracle, will help build on the experience from the last three years when Openlab worked on cluster and Grid computing (1 page)

  12. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  13. Being 'green' helps profitability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Pollution reduction beyond regulatory compliance is gaining momentum among firms, but managers ask if being 'green' helps profitability. Evidence suggests it doesn't hurt, but when we see environmentally attractive firms with sound financial performance, it cannot yet say which is cause and which is effect [it

  14. Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhoit, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how and why college students commit plagiarism, suggesting techniques that instructors can use to help student avoid plagiarism. Instructors should define and discuss plagiarism thoroughly; discuss hypothetical cases; review the conventions of quoting and documenting material; require multiple drafts of essays; and offer responses…

  15. Help with Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be placed early to help speech and language development. If your child needs “tubes” (see below), they can be put ... example, instead of saying the sound /t/, your child may always substitute the sound /k/. The words “toy” and "truck” then come out as “kay” and “ ...

  16. Helping Kids Handle Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... world around them, preteens also may worry about world events or issues they hear about on the news or at ... the news. Parents can help by discussing these issues, offering accurate ... and stress about a world event that's beyond your control, kids are likely ...

  17. Helping Them Grow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidler, William J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Three articles present suggestions to help elementary teachers promote student development. The first describes games that encourage a sense of community. The second deals with making parent teacher conferences a positive experience. The third discusses how to give confused children who are involved in custody battles an alternative to acting out.…

  18. Helping Struggling Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    About 5 to 15 percent of teachers in 2.7 million public-education classrooms are marginal or incompetent. Assistance plans offer structure, purpose, and remedial help. Plans have six components: definition of the problem, statement of objectives, intervention strategies, a timeline, data-collection procedures, and final judgment. (MLH)

  19. Graphene-SnO2 composites for highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Humaira; Christian Kemp, K; Chandra, Vimlesh; Kim, Kwang S

    2012-09-07

    Graphene sheets decorated with SnO(2) nanoparticles (RGO-SnO(2)) were prepared via a redox reaction between graphene oxide (GO) and SnCl(2). Graphene oxide (GO) was reduced to graphene (RGO) and Sn(2+) was oxidized to SnO(2) during the redox reaction, leading to a homogeneous distribution of SnO(2) nanoparticles on RGO sheets. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show uniform distribution of the nanoparticles on the RGO surface and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) shows an average particle size of 3-5 nm. The RGO-SnO(2) composite showed an enhanced photocatalytic degradation activity for the organic dye methylene blue under sunlight compared to bare SnO(2) nanoparticles. This result leads us to believe that the RGO-SnO(2) composite could be used in catalytic photodegradation of other organic dyes.

  20. Sunlight effects on the 3D polar current system determined from low Earth orbit measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laundal, Karl M.; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere is associated with large-scale currents in the ionosphere at polar latitudes that flow along magnetic field lines (Birkeland currents) and horizontally. These current systems are tightly linked, but their global behaviors are rarely...... analyzed together. In this paper, we present estimates of the average global Birkeland currents and horizontal ionospheric currents from the same set of magnetic field measurements. The magnetic field measurements, from the low Earth orbiting Swarm and CHAMP satellites, are used to co-estimate poloidal...... and toroidal parts of the magnetic disturbance field, represented in magnetic apex coordinates. The use of apex coordinates reduces effects of longitudinal and hemispheric variations in the Earth’s main field. We present global currents from both hemispheres during different sunlight conditions. The results...

  1. On the apparent velocity of integrated sunlight. I - 1983-1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Espenak, Fred; Jennings, Donald E.; Brault, James W.; Wagner, Jeremy

    1987-01-01

    Frequency measurements for the Delta V = 2 transitions of CO in the integrated light spectrum of the sun are presented. The nature and magnitude of systematic errors which typically arise in absolute velocity measurements of integrated sunlight are explored in some detail, and measurements believed accurate at the level of about 5 m/s or less are presented. It is found that the integrated light velocity varies by about 3 m/s or less over a one-day period. Over the long term, the data indicate an increasing blue-shift in these weak infrared lines amounting to 30 m/s from 1983 to 1985. The sense of the drift is consistent with a lessening in the magnetic inhibition of granular convection at solar minimum. Such an effect has implications for the spectroscopic detectability of planetary-mass companions to solar-type stars.

  2. Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol Under Sunlight Using ZnO Nanoparticles as Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajar, Kausar; Sirajuddin; Balouch, Aamna; Bhanger, M. I.; Sherazi, Tufail H.; Kumar, Raj

    2018-03-01

    Herein we demonstrate a simplistic microwave assisted chemical precipitation approach regarding the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. As-prepared ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffractometry and scrutinized as photo-catalysts for degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) under sunlight. The study substantiated that 98.5% of 4-CP was degraded within 20 min in the absence of initiator like H2O2 which reflects an outstanding prospective use for ZnO NPs as photo-catalysts. The nanocatalysts were recycled four times and still showed catalytic efficiency up to 95.5% for degradation of 4-CP in the specified 20 min.

  3. Sunlight-assisted synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using chitosan as reducing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, E.; Maryani; Ashadi

    2018-04-01

    The present study we explore an environmentally friendly colloidal silver nanoparticles preparation using chitosan as reducing agent and stabilizer. It develops a new strategy on preparation of silver nanoparticles through the gel phase using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as accelerator reagent. Sunlight irradiation was employed to assisted reducing process of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) phenomenon of silver nanoparticles was investigated using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The shape and size of silver particles were analyzed using TEM. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by the appearance of LSPR absorption peak at 396.0–412.0 nm. The absorption peak of LSPR were affected by NaOH amount, time of sulight irradiation and concentration of AgNO3. The produced silver nanoparticles were spherical with dominant size range of 5 to 8 nm as shown by TEM images. All colloidals were stable without any aggregation for 30 days after preparation.

  4. Recovery of hexavalent chromium from water using photoactive TiO2-montmorillonite under sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Djellabi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium was removed from water under sunlight using a synthesized TiO2-montmorillonite (TiO2-M employing tartaric acid as a hole scavenger. Cr(VI species was then reduced to Cr(III species by electrons arising from TiO2 particles. After that, the produced Cr(III species  was transferred to montmorillonite  due to electrostatic attractions leading to  set free TiO2 particles for a further Cr(VI species reduction. Furthermore, produced Cr(III, after Cr(VI reduction, does not  penetrate into the solution. The results indicate that no dark adsorption of Cr(VI species on TiO2-M is present, however, the reduction of Cr(VI species under sunlight increased strongly as a function of tartaric acid concentration up to 60 ppm, for which the extent of reduction is maximum within 3 h. On the other hand, the reduction extent of Cr(VI species is maximum with an initial concentration of Cr(VI species lower than 30 ppm by the use of 0.2 g/L of TiO2-M. Nevertheless, the increase of the Cr(VI initial concentration led to increase the amount of Cr(VI species reduced (capacity of reduction until a Cr(VI concentration of 75 and 100 ppm, for which  it remained constant at around 221 mg/g. For comparison, the increase of Cr(VI species concentration in the case of the commercial TiO2 P25 under the same conditions exhibited its deactivation when the reduced amount decreased from 198.1 to 157.6 mg/g as the concentration increased from 75 to 100 ppm.

  5. The relationship between long-term sunlight radiation and cognitive decline in the REGARDS cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Shia T.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Howard, Virginia J.; Crosson, William L.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Peace, Fredrick; McClure, Leslie A.

    2014-04-01

    Sunlight may be related to cognitive function through vitamin D metabolism or circadian rhythm regulation. The analysis presented here sought to test whether ground and satellite measures of solar radiation are associated with cognitive decline. The study used a 15-year residential history merged with satellite and ground monitor data to determine sunlight (solar radiation) and air temperature exposure for a cohort of 19,896 cognitively intact black and white participants aged 45+ from the 48 contiguous United States. Exposures of 15, 10, 5, 2, and 1-year were used to predict cognitive status at the most recent assessment in logistic regression models; 1-year insolation and maximum temperatures were chosen as exposure measures. Solar radiation interacted with temperature, age, and gender in its relationships with incident cognitive impairment. After adjustment for covariates, the odds ratio (OR) of cognitive decline for solar radiation exposure below the median vs above the median in the 3rd tertile of maximum temperatures was 1.88 (95 % CI: 1.24, 2.85), that in the 2nd tertile was 1.33 (95 % CI: 1.09, 1.62), and that in the 1st tertile was 1.22 (95 % CI: 0.92, 1.60). We also found that participants under 60 years old had an OR = 1.63 (95 % CI: 1.20, 2.22), those 60-80 years old had an OR = 1.18 (95 % CI: 1.02, 1.36), and those over 80 years old had an OR = 1.05 (0.80, 1.37). Lastly, we found that males had an OR = 1.43 (95 % CI: 1.22, 1.69), and females had an OR = 1.02 (0.87, 1.20). We found that lower levels of solar radiation were associated with increased odds of incident cognitive impairment.

  6. Sunlight-exposed biofilm microbial communities are naturally resistant to chernobyl ionizing-radiation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragon, Marie; Restoux, Gwendal; Moreira, David; Møller, Anders Pape; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta) and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in terms of general diversity patterns, despite increased mutation levels at the single

  7. On the apparent velocity of integrated sunlight. 2: 1983-1992 and comparisons with magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Plymate, Claude

    1994-01-01

    We report additional results in our program to monitor the wavelength stability of lines in the 2.3 micrometer spectrum of integrated sunlight. We use the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) of the National Solar Observatory to monitor 16 delta V = 2 lines of (12)C(16)O, as well as five atomic lines. Wavenumber calibration is achieved using a low-pressure N2O absorption cell and checked against terrestrial atmospheric lines. Imperfect optical integration of the solar disk remains the principal source of error, but this error has been reduced by improved FTS/telescope collimation and observing procedures. The present results include data from an additional 13 quarterly observing runs since 1985. We continue to find that the apparent velocity of integrated sunlight is variable, in the sense of having a greater reshift at solar maximum. This is supported by the temporal dependence of the integrated light velocity, and by the presence of a correlation between velocity and the disk-averaged magnetic flux derived from Kitt Peak magnetograms. The indicated peak-to-peak apparent velocity amplitude over a solar cycle is approximately the same as the velocity amplitude of the Sun's motion about the solar system barycenter. This represents about half the amplitude which we inferred in Paper I (Deming et al. 1987), but the present result has a much greater statistical significance. Our results have implications for those investigations which search for the Doppler signatures of planetary-mass companions to solar-type stars. We contrast our results to the recent finding by McMillan et al. 1993 that solar absorption lines in the violet spectral region are wavelength-stable over the solar cycle.

  8. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  9. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  10. Montlake Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NWFSC conducts critical fisheries science research at its headquarters in Seattle, WA and at five research stations throughout Washington and Oregon. The unique...

  11. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  12. Psychology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...

  13. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  14. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  15. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  16. 76 FR 62052 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to First Solar, Inc., for the Desert Sunlight Solar Farm Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to First Solar, Inc., for the Desert Sunlight Solar Farm Project AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Record of decision. SUMMARY: The U.S... The proposed DSSFP is a photovoltaic solar electrical generating facility using commercial, thin-film...

  17. Photodegradation of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment by sunlight and UV-A, -B and -C irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Kohei; Sugihara, Kazumi; Sanoh, Seigo; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Ohta, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of sunlight on the persistence and ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals contaminating the aquatic environment, we exposed nine pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen (AA), amiodarone (AM), dapsone (DP), dexamethasone (DX), indomethacin (IM), naproxen (NP), phenytoin (PH), raloxifene (RL), and sulindac (SL)) in aqueous media to sunlight and to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at 254, 302 or 365 nm (UV-C, UV-B or UV-A, respectively). Degradation of the pharmaceuticals was monitored by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sunlight completely degraded AM, DP and DX within 6 hr, and partly degraded the other pharmaceuticals, except AA and PH, which were not degraded. Similar results were obtained with UV-B, while UV-A was less effective (both UV-A and -B are components of sunlight). All the pharmaceuticals were photodegraded by UV-C, which is used for sterilization in sewage treatment plants. Thus, the photodegradation rates of pharmaceuticals are dependent on both chemical structure and the wavelength of UV exposure. Toxicity assay using the luminescent bacteria test (ISO11348) indicated that UV irradiation reduced the toxicity of some pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms by decreasing their amount (photodegradation) and increased the toxicity of others by generating toxic photoproduct(s). These results indicate the importance of investigating not only parent compounds, but also photoproducts in the risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments.

  18. Sunlight Induced Rapid Oil Absorption and Passive Room-Temperature Release: An Effective Solution toward Heavy Oil Spill Cleanup

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Mengchun

    2018-05-18

    Rapid cleanup and easy recovery of spilled heavy oils is always a great challenge due to their high viscosity (>103 mPa s). One of the efficient methods to absorb highly viscous oils is to reduce their viscosity by increasing their temperature. In this work, the authors integrate the sunlight‐induced light‐to‐heat conversion effect of polypyrrole (PPy) and thermoresponsive property of poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) into the melamine sponge, which successfully delivers a fast heavy oil absorption under sunlight and passive oil release underwater at room temperature. Thanks to the rationally designed functionalities, the PNIPAm/PPy functionalized sponges possess oleophilicity and hydrophobicity under sunlight. Due to the photothermal effect of PPy, the sponges locally heat up contacting heavy oil under sunlight and reduce its viscosity to a point where the oil voluntarily flow into the pores of the sponge. The material in this work is able to rapidly absorb the heavy oil with room temperature viscosity as high as ≈1.60 × 105 mPa s. The absorbed oil can be passively forced out the sponge underwater at room temperature due to the hydrophilicity of PNIPAm. The sunlight responsive and multifunctional sponge represents a meaningful attempt in coming up with a sustainable solution toward heavy oil spill.

  19. Use of sunlight to partially detoxify groundnut (peanut) cake flour and casein contaminated with aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantha, T; Murthy, V S

    1981-03-01

    Sunlight destroyed 83 and 50% of the toxin added to casein and groundnut cake flour, respectively. Equilibrium dialysis revealed that both casein and groundnut protein bind aflatoxin but the toxin bound to casein appeared more photo-labile than that bound to groundnut protein.

  20. 76 FR 50493 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Desert Sunlight Holdings, LLC, Desert...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA-48649, LLCAD06000 L51010000 ER0000... right-of-way (ROW) application CACA-48649 for the Desert Sunlight Solar Farm Project (DSSF). The DSSF is... (CACA-052682) where the project would interconnect with the SCE regional transmission system. The DSSF...

  1. Sunlight Induced Rapid Oil Absorption and Passive Room-Temperature Release: An Effective Solution toward Heavy Oil Spill Cleanup

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Mengchun; Shi, Yusuf; Chang, Jian; Li, Renyuan; Ong, Chi Siang; Wang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Rapid cleanup and easy recovery of spilled heavy oils is always a great challenge due to their high viscosity (>103 mPa s). One of the efficient methods to absorb highly viscous oils is to reduce their viscosity by increasing their temperature. In this work, the authors integrate the sunlight‐induced light‐to‐heat conversion effect of polypyrrole (PPy) and thermoresponsive property of poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) into the melamine sponge, which successfully delivers a fast heavy oil absorption under sunlight and passive oil release underwater at room temperature. Thanks to the rationally designed functionalities, the PNIPAm/PPy functionalized sponges possess oleophilicity and hydrophobicity under sunlight. Due to the photothermal effect of PPy, the sponges locally heat up contacting heavy oil under sunlight and reduce its viscosity to a point where the oil voluntarily flow into the pores of the sponge. The material in this work is able to rapidly absorb the heavy oil with room temperature viscosity as high as ≈1.60 × 105 mPa s. The absorbed oil can be passively forced out the sponge underwater at room temperature due to the hydrophilicity of PNIPAm. The sunlight responsive and multifunctional sponge represents a meaningful attempt in coming up with a sustainable solution toward heavy oil spill.

  2. Corona helps curb losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  3. Foundation helps refurbish buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camenzind, B.

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at the activities of the Swiss 'Climate-Cent' foundation, which is helping support the energetic refurbishment of building envelopes. The conditions which have to be fulfilled to receive grants are explained. Work supported includes the replacement of windows and the insulation of roofs and attics as well as outside walls. Details on the financial support provided and examples of projects supported are given. The source of the finance needed to provide such support - a voluntary levy on petrol - and further support provided in certain Swiss cantons is commented on

  4. Technology for helping people

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    The first THE Port hackathon problem-solving workshop was held at CERN from 31 October to 2 November in the framework of the 60th anniversary celebrations. The aim of the event was to develop technological projects that can help to solve the day-to-day needs of people living in areas of the planet that experience conflicts or natural disasters.   Collage of shots from THE Port hackathon. Credit: THE Port association The event was dedicated to humanitarian and social topics inspired by members of non-governmental organisations‬. “There is plenty of room for technology to help in humanitarian fields. That’s why we came up with the idea of bringing people together to work on these topics,” explains Ines Knäpper, Project Manager of THE Port hackathon. “We started six months ago setting up THE Port association.* The success of the event was only possible because of the joint effort of a team of roughly twenty people. They were inspired by the aim...

  5. Tests to Help Plan Opportunity Moves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Rover engineers check how a test rover moves in material chosen to simulate some difficult Mars driving conditions. The scene is inside the In-Situ Instrument Laboratory at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. These tests in early May 2005 were designed to help plan the best way for the rover Opportunity to drive off of a soft-sand dune that the rover dug itself into the previous week. The mixture of sandy and powdery material brought in for these specific tests matched the way the soil underneath Opportunity caked onto wheels, filling the spaces between the cleats on the wheels.

  6. Diffused sunlight driven highly synergistic pathway for complete mineralization of organic contaminants using reduced graphene oxide supported photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, Sundaram Ganesh; Ramalingam Vinoth [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Neppolian, Bernaurdshaw, E-mail: neppolian.b@res.srmuniv.ac.in [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Dionysiou, Dionysios D. [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, Department of Biomedical, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Ashokkumar, Muthupandian [The School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Diffused sunlight is firstly used as an effective source for the degradation of organics. • More than 10 fold synergistic effect is achieved by sono-photocatalysis. • rGO enhances the degradation efficiency up to 54% as compared with CuO–TiO{sub 2} alone. • Plausible mechanism and intermediates formed are supported with experimental studies. - Abstract: Diffused sunlight is found to be an effective light source for the efficient degradation and mineralization of organic pollutant (methyl orange as a probe) by sono-photocatalytic degradation using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported CuO–TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. The prepared catalysts are characterized by XRD, XPS, UV–vis DRS, PL, photoelectrochemical, SEM-EDS and TEM. A 10 fold synergy is achieved for the first time by combining sonochemical and photocatalytic degradation under diffused sunlight. rGO loading augments the activity of bare CuO–TiO{sub 2} more than two fold. The ability of rGO in storing, transferring, and shuttling electrons at the heterojunction between TiO{sub 2} and CuO facilitates the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs, as evidenced by the photoluminescence results. The complete mineralization of MO and the by-products within a short span of time is confirmed by TOC analysis. Further, hydroxyl radical mediated degradation under diffused sunlight is confirmed by LC–MS. This system shows similar activity for the degradation of methylene blue and 4-chlorophenol indicating the versatility of the catalyst for the degradation of various pollutants. This investigation is likely to open new possibilities for the development of highly efficient diffused sunlight driven TiO{sub 2} based photocatalysts for the complete mineralization of organic contaminants.

  7. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zoratti

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L. and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L..The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness.The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period.Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species.

  8. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoratti, Laura; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely; Giongo, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L.) and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.). The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy) under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness. The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period. Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species.

  9. Sunlight exposure is important for preventing hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, J; Takeda, T; Matsumoto, H

    2012-04-01

    Hypovitaminosis D as a result of malnutrition or sunlight deprivation, increased bone resorption, low bone mineral density (BMD), or an increased risk of falls may contribute to an increased risk of hip fractures in patients with neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of sunlight exposure for reducing the risk of hip fractures in patients with such neurological diseases. The English literature was searched using PubMed, and randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of sunlight exposure for reducing the risk of hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke were identified. The relative risk and the 95% confidence interval were calculated for individual randomized controlled trials, and a pooled data analysis (meta-analysis) was performed. Three randomized controlled trials were identified. Sunlight exposure improved hypovitaminosis D and increased the BMD. The relative risk (95% confidence interval) of hip fractures was 0.22 (0.05, 1.01) for Alzheimer's disease, 0.27 (0.08, 0.96) for Parkinson's disease, and 0.17 (0.02, 1.36) for stroke. The relative risk (95% confidence interval) calculated for the pooled data analysis was 0.23 (0.10, 0.56) (P = 0.0012), suggesting a significant risk reduction rate of 77%. The present meta-analysis added additional evidence indicating the efficacy of sunlight exposure for reducing the risk of hip fractures in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Nocturnal light pollution and underexposure to daytime sunlight: Complementary mechanisms of circadian disruption and related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Routine exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) in work, home, and community settings is linked with increased risk of breast and prostate cancer (BC, PC) in normally sighted women and men, the hypothesized biological rhythm mechanisms being frequent nocturnal melatonin synthesis suppression, circadian time structure (CTS) desynchronization, and sleep/wake cycle disruption with sleep deprivation. ALAN-induced perturbation of the CTS melatonin synchronizer signal is communicated maternally at the very onset of life and after birth via breast or artificial formula feedings. Nighttime use of personal computers, mobile phones, electronic tablets, televisions, and the like--now epidemic in adolescents and adults and highly prevalent in pre-school and school-aged children--is a new source of ALAN. However, ALAN exposure occurs concomitantly with almost complete absence of daytime sunlight, whose blue-violet (446-484 nm λ) spectrum synchronizes the CTS and whose UV-B (290-315 nm λ) spectrum stimulates vitamin D synthesis. Under natural conditions and clear skies, day/night and annual cycles of UV-B irradiation drive corresponding periodicities in vitamin D synthesis and numerous bioprocesses regulated by active metabolites augment and strengthen the biological time structure. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are widespread in children and adults in developed and developing countries as a consequence of inadequate sunlight exposure. Past epidemiologic studies have focused either on exposure to too little daytime UV-B or too much ALAN, respectively, on vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency or melatonin suppression in relation to risk of cancer and other, e.g., psychiatric, hypertensive, cardiac, and vascular, so-called, diseases of civilization. The observed elevated incidence of medical conditions the two are alleged to influence through many complementary bioprocesses of cells, tissues, and organs led us to examine effects of the totality of the artificial light

  11. Sunlight-exposed biofilm microbial communities are naturally resistant to chernobyl ionizing-radiation levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ragon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in

  12. Sunlight-Exposed Biofilm Microbial Communities Are Naturally Resistant to Chernobyl Ionizing-Radiation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragon, Marie; Restoux, Gwendal; Moreira, David; Møller, Anders Pape; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    Background The Chernobyl accident represents a long-term experiment on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation at the ecosystem level. Though studies of these effects on plants and animals are abundant, the study of how Chernobyl radiation levels affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities is practically non-existent, except for a few reports on human pathogens or soil microorganisms. Environments enduring extreme desiccation and UV radiation, such as sunlight exposed biofilms could in principle select for organisms highly resistant to ionizing radiation as well. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we explored the diversity of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life by cultivation-independent approaches in biofilms developing on concrete walls or pillars in the Chernobyl area exposed to different levels of radiation, and we compared them with a similar biofilm from a non-irradiated site in Northern Ireland. Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcales were the most consistently detected bacterial groups, whereas green algae (Chlorophyta) and ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) dominated within the eukaryotes. Close relatives to the most radio-resistant organisms known, including Rubrobacter species, Deinococcales and melanized ascomycete fungi were always detected. The diversity of bacteria and eukaryotes found in the most highly irradiated samples was comparable to that of less irradiated Chernobyl sites and Northern Ireland. However, the study of mutation frequencies in non-coding ITS regions versus SSU rRNA genes in members of a same actinobacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) present in Chernobyl samples and Northern Ireland showed a positive correlation between increased radiation and mutation rates. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that biofilm microbial communities in the most irradiated samples are comparable to non-irradiated samples in terms of general

  13. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical devices that are intended for use on samples of blood, urine, or other tissues ...

  14. Audio Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment and facilities for auditory display research. A primary focus is the performance use of binaurally rendered 3D sound in conjunction...

  15. Target laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, D.C.; Pednekar, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    A target laboratory to make stripper foils for the accelerator and various targets for use in the experiments is set up in the pelletron accelerator facility. The facilities available in the laboratory are: (1) D.C. glow discharge setup, (2) carbon arc set up, and (3) vacuum evaporation set up (resistance heating), electron beam source, rolling mill - all for target preparation. They are described. Centrifugal deposition technique is used for target preparation. (author). 3 figs

  16. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  17. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Systems Under Natural Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic concentrator modules and systems under natural sunlight using a normal incidence pyrheliometer. 1.2 The test method is limited to module assemblies and systems where the geometric concentration ratio specified by the manufacturer is greater than 5. 1.3 This test method applies to concentrators that use passive cooling where the cell temperature is related to the air temperature. 1.4 Measurements under a variety of conditions are allowed; results are reported under a select set of concentrator reporting conditions to facilitate comparison of results. 1.5 This test method applies only to concentrator terrestrial modules and systems. 1.6 This test method assumes that the module or system electrical performance characteristics do not change during the period of test. 1.7 The performance rating determined by this test method applies only at the period of the test, and implies no past or future performance level. 1.8...

  18. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Photovoltaic Cells Using Reference Cells Under Simulated Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of a photovoltaic cell under simulated sunlight by means of a calibrated reference cell procedure. 1.2 Electrical performance measurements are reported with respect to a select set of standard reporting conditions (SRC) (see Table 1) or to user-specified conditions. 1.2.1 The SRC or user-specified conditions include the cell temperature, the total irradiance, and the reference spectral irradiance distribution. 1.3 This test method is applicable only to photovoltaic cells with a linear response over the range of interest. 1.4 The cell parameters determined by this test method apply only at the time of test, and imply no past or future performance level. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this s...

  19. Genotoxic action of sunlight upon Bacillus subtilis spores: monitoring studies at Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, N

    1989-12-01

    Samples of Bacillus subtilis spores dried on membrane filter were exposed to natural sunlight from solar-noon time at Tokyo. The survival and mutation induction of wild-type (UVR) and repair-deficient (UVS) spores were determined on 66 occasions since 1979. Two of the values were considered to be useful in monitoring solar UV intensity; the inverse of the time (in minutes) of exposure to kill 63% of the UVS spores ("sporocidal index") and the induced mutation frequency at 60 minutes of exposure of the UVR spores ("mutagenic index"). Both values were varied greatly due to time of a year, weather and other conditions. Estimates of year-round changes under clear skies were obtained by connecting the maximum values attained in these years. In these curves, there are more than 7-fold differences in the genotoxicity between winter and summer months, with major increases observed in early spring and decreases through autumn. Using a series of UV cut-off filters, the wavelengths most effective for the sporocidal actions were estimated to be in the range of 308-325 nm, shorter wavelengths being effective when the genotoxicity was higher. Sunburn meter of Robertson-Berger type seems to respond to slightly longer wavelength components of the solar spectrum. However, a reasonable correlation was obtained between the reading of the meter and the sporocidal index.

  20. Sunlight mediated seasonality in canopy structure and photosynthetic activity of Amazonian rainforests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Jian; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Choi, Sungho; Park, Taejin; Barichivich, Jonathan; Ciais, Philippe; Fu, Rong; Ganguly, Sangram; Hall, Forrest; Hilker, Thomas; Huete, Alfredo; Jones, Matthew; Kimball, John; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Mõttus, Matti; Nemani, Ramakrishna R; Piao, Shilong; Poulter, Benjamin; Saleska, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Resolving the debate surrounding the nature and controls of seasonal variation in the structure and metabolism of Amazonian rainforests is critical to understanding their response to climate change. In situ studies have observed higher photosynthetic and evapotranspiration rates, increased litterfall and leaf flushing during the Sunlight-rich dry season. Satellite data also indicated higher greenness level, a proven surrogate of photosynthetic carbon fixation, and leaf area during the dry season relative to the wet season. Some recent reports suggest that rainforests display no seasonal variations and the previous results were satellite measurement artefacts. Therefore, here we re-examine several years of data from three sensors on two satellites under a range of sun positions and satellite measurement geometries and document robust evidence for a seasonal cycle in structure and greenness of wet equatorial Amazonian rainforests. This seasonal cycle is concordant with independent observations of solar radiation. We attribute alternative conclusions to an incomplete study of the seasonal cycle, i.e. the dry season only, and to prognostications based on a biased radiative transfer model. Consequently, evidence of dry season greening in geometry corrected satellite data was ignored and the absence of evidence for seasonal variation in lidar data due to noisy and saturated signals was misinterpreted as evidence of the absence of changes during the dry season. Our results, grounded in the physics of radiative transfer, buttress previous reports of dry season increases in leaf flushing, litterfall, photosynthesis and evapotranspiration in well-hydrated Amazonian rainforests. (letter)

  1. Mycorrhiza symbiosis increases the surface for sunlight capture in Medicago truncatula for better photosynthetic production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Adolfsson

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi play a prominent role in plant nutrition by supplying mineral nutrients, particularly inorganic phosphate (Pi, and also constitute an important carbon sink. AM stimulates plant growth and development, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Medicago truncatula plants were grown with Rhizophagus irregularis BEG141 inoculum (AM, mock inoculum (control or with P(i fertilization. We hypothesized that AM stimulates plant growth through either modifications of leaf anatomy or photosynthetic activity per leaf area. We investigated whether these effects are shared with P(i fertilization, and also assessed the relationship between levels of AM colonization and these effects. We found that increased P(i supply by either mycorrhization or fertilization led to improved shoot growth associated with increased nitrogen uptake and carbon assimilation. Both mycorrhized and P(i-fertilized plants had more and longer branches with larger and thicker leaves than the control plants, resulting in an increased photosynthetically active area. AM-specific effects were earlier appearance of the first growth axes and increased number of chloroplasts per cell section, since they were not induced by P(i fertilization. Photosynthetic activity per leaf area remained the same regardless of type of treatment. In conclusion, the increase in growth of mycorrhized and P(i-fertilized Medicago truncatula plants is linked to an increase in the surface for sunlight capture, hence increasing their photosynthetic production, rather than to an increase in the photosynthetic activity per leaf area.

  2. Direct photolysis rates and transformation pathways of the lampricides TFM and niclosamide in simulated sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Megan B.; Hubert, Terrance D.; Remucal, Christina K.

    2016-01-01

    The lampricides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2′,5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) are directly added to many tributaries of the Great Lakes that harbor the invasive parasitic sea lamprey. Despite their long history of use, the fate of lampricides is not well understood. This study evaluates the rate and pathway of direct photodegradation of both lampricides under simulated sunlight. The estimated half-lives of TFM range from 16.6 ± 0.2 h (pH 9) to 32.9 ± 1.0 h (pH 6), while the half-lives of niclosamide range from 8.88 ± 0.52 days (pH 6) to 382 ± 83 days (pH 9) assuming continuous irradiation over a water depth of 55 cm. Both compounds degrade to form a series of aromatic intermediates, simple organic acids, ring cleavage products, and inorganic ions. Experimental data were used to construct a kinetic model which demonstrates that the aromatic products of TFM undergo rapid photolysis and emphasizes that niclosamide degradation is the rate-limiting step to dehalogenation and mineralization of the lampricide. This study demonstrates that TFM photodegradation is likely to occur on the time scale of lampricide applications (2–5 days), while niclosamide, the less selective lampricide, will undergo minimal direct photodegradation during its passage to the Great Lakes.

  3. Vitamin D, cod-liver oil, sunlight, and rickets: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Kumaravel

    2003-08-01

    Rickets, a disease of vitamin D deficiency, is rarely confronted by the practicing pediatrician in the United States today. At the turn of the 20th century, rickets was rampant among the poor children living in the industrialized and polluted northern cities of the United States. With the discovery of vitamin D and the delineation of the anti-rachitic properties of cod-liver oil by the 1930s, it became possible to not only treat but also eradicate rickets in the United States. Rickets was a common disease in 17th century England. Frances Glisson's treatise on rickets published in 1650, a glorious contribution to English medicine, described the clinical and anatomic features of rickets in great detail. The exact etiology of rickets had been elusive until the 1920s. During the Glissonian era, rickets was a mysterious disease. By the late 19th and early 20th century, faulty diet or faulty environment (poor hygiene, lack of fresh air and sunshine) or lack of exercise was implicated in its etiology. Animal experiments, appreciation of folklore advocating the benefits of cod-liver oil, and the geographical association of rickets to lack of sunshine were all relevant factors in the advancement of knowledge in the conquest of this malady. In this article, the history of rickets pertaining to the discovery of vitamin D, cod-liver oil, and sunlight is reviewed.

  4. Spectropolarimetric Measurements of Scattered Sunlight in the Huggins Bands: Retrieval of Tropospheric Ozone Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, D.; Sander, S. P.; Stutz, J.; Pongetti, T. J.; Yung, Y. L.; Wong, M.; Natraj, V.; Li, K.; Shia, R.

    2009-12-01

    Ozone concentrations in the troposphere have increased over the past century as a result of anthropogenic emissions of NOx and volatile organic compounds. In addition to being harmful to human health and plant life, ozone is an important greenhouse gas, especially in the middle and upper troposphere. Therefore, accurate monitoring of tropospheric ozone vertical distributions is crucial for a better understanding of air quality and climate change. Simulations of vector radiative transfer in the near ultraviolet region have shown that tropospheric ozone profiles can be retrieved using polarization measurements. However, to date there has been no experimental test of this method. A new compact, portable spectropolarimeter has been built for atmospheric remote sensing. The first comprehensive description of the configuration and performance of this instrument for ground-based operation is provided and sample atmospheric scattered sunlight spectra are shown. Using optimal estimation retrieval theory we study the information content of polarization spectra in the Huggins band and uncertainties in the retrieval associated with the measurement parameters, such as aerosol scattering.

  5. Mycorrhiza Symbiosis Increases the Surface for Sunlight Capture in Medicago truncatula for Better Photosynthetic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Lisa; Keresztes, Áron; Uddling, Johan; Schoefs, Benoît; Spetea, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play a prominent role in plant nutrition by supplying mineral nutrients, particularly inorganic phosphate (Pi), and also constitute an important carbon sink. AM stimulates plant growth and development, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Medicago truncatula plants were grown with Rhizophagus irregularis BEG141 inoculum (AM), mock inoculum (control) or with Pi fertilization. We hypothesized that AM stimulates plant growth through either modifications of leaf anatomy or photosynthetic activity per leaf area. We investigated whether these effects are shared with Pi fertilization, and also assessed the relationship between levels of AM colonization and these effects. We found that increased Pi supply by either mycorrhization or fertilization led to improved shoot growth associated with increased nitrogen uptake and carbon assimilation. Both mycorrhized and Pi-fertilized plants had more and longer branches with larger and thicker leaves than the control plants, resulting in an increased photosynthetically active area. AM-specific effects were earlier appearance of the first growth axes and increased number of chloroplasts per cell section, since they were not induced by Pi fertilization. Photosynthetic activity per leaf area remained the same regardless of type of treatment. In conclusion, the increase in growth of mycorrhized and Pi-fertilized Medicago truncatula plants is linked to an increase in the surface for sunlight capture, hence increasing their photosynthetic production, rather than to an increase in the photosynthetic activity per leaf area. PMID:25615871

  6. Direct Photolysis Rates and Transformation Pathways of the Lampricides TFM and Niclosamide in Simulated Sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Megan B; Hubert, Terrance D; Remucal, Christina K

    2016-09-20

    The lampricides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) are directly added to many tributaries of the Great Lakes that harbor the invasive parasitic sea lamprey. Despite their long history of use, the fate of lampricides is not well understood. This study evaluates the rate and pathway of direct photodegradation of both lampricides under simulated sunlight. The estimated half-lives of TFM range from 16.6 ± 0.2 h (pH 9) to 32.9 ± 1.0 h (pH 6), while the half-lives of niclosamide range from 8.88 ± 0.52 days (pH 6) to 382 ± 83 days (pH 9) assuming continuous irradiation over a water depth of 55 cm. Both compounds degrade to form a series of aromatic intermediates, simple organic acids, ring cleavage products, and inorganic ions. Experimental data were used to construct a kinetic model which demonstrates that the aromatic products of TFM undergo rapid photolysis and emphasizes that niclosamide degradation is the rate-limiting step to dehalogenation and mineralization of the lampricide. This study demonstrates that TFM photodegradation is likely to occur on the time scale of lampricide applications (2-5 days), while niclosamide, the less selective lampricide, will undergo minimal direct photodegradation during its passage to the Great Lakes.

  7. Sunlight and Vitamin D: The Bone and Cancer Connections (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holick, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    Vitamin D plays an essential role for calcium metabolism and bone health. It has been estimated that 90 to 95% of our vitamin D requirement comes from casual exposure to sunlight. There is a wide variety of factors that strongly influence the cutaneous production of vitamin D. These include melanin pigmentation, latitude, time of day, sunscreen use, and aging. There is an association with increased risk and mortality to breast, colon, and prostrate cancer. There is evidence that 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the major circulating form of vitamin D, is directly metabolised in prostate, breast, colon, and skin cells to its active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 has the capacity to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, it may be that an increase in the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D results in the increase in the production of 1,25(OH) 2 D in tissues not related to calcium metabolism that results in a decrease in malignancy. (author)

  8. SASKTRAN: A spherical geometry radiative transfer code for efficient estimation of limb scattered sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourassa, A.E.; Degenstein, D.A.; Llewellyn, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    The inversion of satellite-based observations of limb scattered sunlight for the retrieval of constituent species requires an efficient and accurate modelling of the measurement. We present the development of the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model for the prediction of limb scatter measurements at optical wavelengths by method of successive orders along rays traced in a spherical atmosphere. The component of the signal due to the first two scattering events of the solar beam is accounted for directly along rays traced in the three-dimensional geometry. Simplifying assumptions in successive scattering orders provide computational optimizations without severely compromising the accuracy of the solution. SASKTRAN is designed for the analysis of measurements from the OSIRIS instrument and the implementation of the algorithm is efficient such that the code is suitable for the inversion of OSIRIS profiles on desktop computers. SASKTRAN total limb radiance profiles generally compare better with Monte-Carlo reference models over a large range of solar conditions than the approximate spherical and plane-parallel models typically used for inversions

  9. Converting sunlight into audible sound by means of the photoacoustic effect: The Heliophone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, N B; Glorieux, C; Liu, L; Rychtáriková, M; Van der Donck, T; Jacobs, A

    2016-09-01

    One hundred and thirty-five years after Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter explored the photoacoustic effect, and about 40 years after Rosencwaig and Gersho modeled the effect in a photoacoustic cell configuration, the phenomenon is revisited in a "Heliophone" device that converts sunlight into sound. The light is focused on a carbon blackened copper coated Kapton foil in an acoustic cell by means of a compound parabolic collimator, and its intensity is modulated by a mechanical chopper. A horn is employed to make the sound audible without electronic amplification. The description of the photoacoustic effect that was introduced by Rosencwaig and Gersho is extended to a cell-horn configuration, in which the periodically heated air above the foil acts as an oscillating piston, driving acoustic waves in the horn. The pressure in the cavity-horn assembly is calculated by considering the air layer piston as an equivalent volume velocity source. The importance of the carbon black (soot) layer to enhance light absorption, but above all to enhance the photothermal excitation efficiency, is elucidated by means of an experimentally supported physical model.

  10. Sunlight-charged electrochromic battery based on hybrid film of tungsten oxide and polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xueting; Hu, Ruirui; Sun, Shibin; Liu, Jingrong; Lei, Yanhua; Liu, Tao; Dong, Lihua; Yin, Yansheng

    2018-05-01

    Electrochromic (EC) energy storage devices that could realize the multifunctional integration of energy storage and electrochromism have gained much recent attention. Herein, an EC battery based on the hybrid film of W18O49 and polyaniline (PANI) is developed and assembled, which integrates energy storage and EC functions in one device. The W18O49/PANI-EC battery delivers a discharging capacity of 52.96 mA h g-1, which is about two times higher than that of the W18O49-EC battery. Sunlight irradiation could greatly promote the oxidation reactions of both W18O49 and PANI during the charging process of the W18O49/PANI-EC battery, thus effectively accelerating the charging rate. This work provides a green, convenient, environmentally friendly, and cost-free charging strategy for the EC energy systems and could further advance the development of the multifunctional EC devices based on the organic/inorganic composites.

  11. ZnO-graphene quantum dots heterojunctions for natural sunlight-driven photocatalytic environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suneel; Dhiman, Ankita; Sudhagar, Pitchaimuthu; Krishnan, Venkata

    2018-07-01

    In this work, we report the formation of heterojunctions comprising of graphene quantum dots (GQD) decorated ZnO nanorods (NR) and its use as efficient photocatalysts for environmental remediation. The heterojunctions has been designed to be active both in the UV and visible light regions and anticipated utilize the maximum part of the solar light spectrum. In this view, we examined the photocatalytic performance of our heterojunctions towards the degradation of colored pollutant (methylene blue (MB) dye) and a colorless pollutant (carbendazim (CZ) fungicide) under sunlight irradiation. Compared to bare photocatalyst ZnO and GQD, the heterojunction with 2 wt% of GQD (ZGQD2) showed the best photocatalytic activity by effectively degrading (about 95%) of organic pollutants (MB and CZ) from water within a short span of 70 min. The superior photocatalytic activity of these ZnO-GQD heterojunctions could be attributed to efficient charge carrier separation lead suppressed recombination rate at photocatalyst interfaces. In addition to the enhanced light absorption from UV to visible region, the high specific surface area of ZGQD2 heterojunction (353.447 m2 g-1) also imparts strong adsorption capacity for pollutants over catalyst surface, resulting in high photoactivity. Based on the obtained results, band gap alignment at ZnO-GQD heterojunction and active species trapping experiments, a plausible mechanism is proposed for photocatalytic reaction. The excellent photostability and recyclability of the ZnO-GQD heterojunctions fostering as promising photocatalyst candidate for environmental remediation applications.

  12. Hydrogen at the Rooftop: Compact CPV-Hydrogen system to Convert Sunlight to Hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2017-12-27

    Despite being highest potential energy source, solar intermittency and low power density make it difficult for solar energy to compete with the conventional power plants. Highly efficient concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides best technology to be paired with the electrolytic hydrogen production, as a sustainable energy source with long term energy storage. However, the conventional gigantic design of CPV system limits its market and application to the open desert fields without any rooftop installation scope, unlike conventional PV. This makes CPV less popular among solar energy customers. This paper discusses the development of compact CPV-Hydrogen system for the rooftop application in the urban region. The in-house built compact CPV system works with hybrid solar tracking of 0.1° accuracy, ensured through proposed double lens collimator based solar tracking sensor. With PEM based electrolyser, the compact CPV-hydrogen system showed 28% CPV efficiency and 18% sunlight to hydrogen (STH) efficiency, for rooftop operation in tropical region of Singapore. For plant designers, the solar to hydrogen production rating of 217 kWh/kg has been presented with 15% STH daily average efficiency, recorded from the long term field operation of the system.

  13. Hydrogen at the Rooftop: Compact CPV-Hydrogen system to Convert Sunlight to Hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Wakil Shahzad, Muhammad; Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-01-01

    Despite being highest potential energy source, solar intermittency and low power density make it difficult for solar energy to compete with the conventional power plants. Highly efficient concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides best technology to be paired with the electrolytic hydrogen production, as a sustainable energy source with long term energy storage. However, the conventional gigantic design of CPV system limits its market and application to the open desert fields without any rooftop installation scope, unlike conventional PV. This makes CPV less popular among solar energy customers. This paper discusses the development of compact CPV-Hydrogen system for the rooftop application in the urban region. The in-house built compact CPV system works with hybrid solar tracking of 0.1° accuracy, ensured through proposed double lens collimator based solar tracking sensor. With PEM based electrolyser, the compact CPV-hydrogen system showed 28% CPV efficiency and 18% sunlight to hydrogen (STH) efficiency, for rooftop operation in tropical region of Singapore. For plant designers, the solar to hydrogen production rating of 217 kWh/kg has been presented with 15% STH daily average efficiency, recorded from the long term field operation of the system.

  14. The relationship between solar activity and the H and K line cores in integrated sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jebsen, D.E.; Mitchell, W.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper the authors present and analyze new data on the cores of the H and K lines of ionized calcium in the spectrum of integrated sunlight. The intensities of the components Hsub(2γ), H 3 , Hsub(2r), Ksub(2γ), K 3 , and Ksub(2r) in the line cores were measured in terms of the continuum intensity at 4000 A during a solar rotation in September 1969. Other data on these components, obtained at or close to the time of solar minimum (September 1964) and solar maximum (September 1968), were also included. The intensities of these features are compared with two indices of solar activity: the Ca II plage index and the 2800 MHZ signal. The average correlation coefficients between the intensities of the measured features and those indices were 0.69 and 0.64, respectively. The results are consistent with those of Bumba and Ruzickova-Topolova (1967) for a solar rotation period in 1965. The method and results should provide a detailed quantitative basis for the study of the activity cycles and rotation periods of solar-type stars. (Auth.)

  15. Isotope laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report from the Dutch Ministry of Health is an advisory document concerned with isotope laboratories in hospitals, in connection with the Dutch laws for hospitals. It discusses which hospitals should have isotope laboratories and concludes that as many hospitals as possible should have small laboratories so that emergency cases can be dealt with. It divides the Netherlands into regions and suggests which hospitals should have these facilities. The questions of how big each lab. is to be, what equipment each has, how each lab. is organised, what therapeutic and diagnostic work should be carried out by each, etc. are discussed. The answers are provided by reports from working groups for in vivo diagnostics, in vitro diagnostics, therapy, and safety and their results form the criteria for the licences of isotope labs. The results of a questionnaire for isotope labs. already in the Netherlands are presented, and their activities outlined. (C.F.)

  16. Sunlight-Driven Forging of Amide/Ester Bonds from Three Independent Components: An Approach to Carbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yating; Huang, Binbin; Yang, Chao; Chen, Qingqing; Xia, Wujiong

    2016-11-04

    A photoredox catalytic route to carbamates enabled by visible irradiation (or simply sunlight) has been developed. This process leads to a novel approach to the construction of heterocyclic rings wherein the amide or ester motifs of carbamates were assembled from three isolated components. Large-scale experiments were realized by employing continuous flow techniques, and reuse of photocatalyst demonstrated the green and sustainable aspects of this method.

  17. Coupled optic-thermodynamic analysis of a novel wireless power transfer system using concentrated sunlight for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Ming-Liang; Li, Yun-Ze; Mao, Yu-Feng; Liang, Yi-Hao; Liu, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel space wireless power transfer system is proposed. • Concentrated sunlight is used as the medium to avoid multiple conversions. • Fresnel lens and optical fiber bundle make the system compact and space-qualified. • Coupled optic-thermodynamic model is developed to analyze link efficiencies. • End-to-end efficiency achieved is as twice as that of microwave or laser system. - Abstract: The energy generation and supply for in-orbit spacecraft have become an urgent problem concerning efficient and economical utilization of spacecraft formation flying. To fill the gap between the requirement of inter-spacecraft energy transfer and the development of wireless power transfer, this paper presents a novel wireless power transfer system whose transmission medium is concentrated sunlight. The system concentrates sunlight using a Fresnel lens, and changes the direction of concentrated sunlight beam with optical fibers. The light energy is converted to thermal form by a heat collector, and then it is utilized to generate electricity by a Stirling engine integrated with linear alternator. Equipments employed on fractionated spacecraft shall be supported by this electric energy. A coupled optic-thermodynamic model was developed to analyze system link efficiencies. This system offers characteristics such as high flexibility, relatively low cost for launch and maintenance, and most importantly, high end-to-end efficiency. Simulation results show that the geometric concentration ratio and the temperature ratio of expansion and compression spaces are two key parameters of this system. Output power of 234.3 W was achieved on the distance of 100 m, and the end-to-end efficiency of the system was above 20%.

  18. Pengaruh Suhu Terhadap Tegangan Permukaan Sabun Cuci Piring Cair Buatan Sendiri, Sunlight, Dan S.O.S

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Okio Patar

    2011-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the surface tension of homemade liquid dish soap, Sunlight, and SOS was carried out. The temperatures was variated 280C(without heating), 300C, 400C and 500C. The homemade liquid dish soap was prepared by using an active ingredients. The active ingredient of the liquid dishwashing soap were sodium lauryl ether sulphate, sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate, and sodium lauril ether sulfate, respectively. The determination of surface tension was based the increasing of t...

  19. Quantification of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage in the urine of Swedish adults and children following exposure to sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Liljendahl, Tove Sandberg; Kotova, Natalia; Segerbäck, Dan

    2012-01-01

    DNA damage following exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is important in skin cancer development. The predominant photoproduct, cyclobutane thymine dimer (T=T), is repaired and excreted in the urine, where it provides a biomarker of exposure. To quantify urinary T=T levels after recreational sunlight exposure in adults and children. Average UVR doses were measured with personal dosimeters. Urinary T=T was analysed with (32)P-postlabelling. ResuLTS: Background levels of T=T increased...

  20. Influence of Mg doping on ZnO nanoparticles decorated on graphene oxide (GO) crumpled paper like sheet and its high photo catalytic performance under sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhane, P. K.; Sonawane, S. H.; Sonawane, G. H.; Patil, S. P.; Huse, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles decorated on graphene oxide (GO) sheets were synthesized by a wet impregnation method. The effect of Mg doping on ZnO and ZnO-GO composite has been evaluated by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Williamson-Hall Plot (Wsbnd H Plot), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The physical parameters of as-prepared samples were estimated by XRD data. FESEM and HR-TEM images showed the uniform distribution of nanoparticles on GO crumpled paper like sheet. Solar light photocatalytic activities of samples were evaluated spectrophotometrically by the degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) and indigo carmine (IC) solution. Mgsbnd ZnO decorated on GO sheets exhibit excellent catalytic efficiency compared to all other prepared samples under identical conditions, degrading PNP and IC nearly 99% within 60 min under sunlight. The effective degradation by Mgsbnd ZnO decorated on GO sheet would be due to extended solar light absorption, enhanced adsorptivity on the composite catalyst surface and efficient charge separation of photo-induced electrons. Finally, plausible mechanism was suggested with the help of scavengers study.

  1. Help Helps, but Only so Much: Research on Help Seeking with Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleven, Vincent; Roll, Ido; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Help seeking is an important process in self-regulated learning (SRL). It may influence learning with intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), because many ITSs provide help, often at the student's request. The Help Tutor was a tutor agent that gave in-context, real-time feedback on students' help-seeking behavior, as they were learning with an ITS.…

  2. Effect of exposure to sunlight and phosphorus-limitation on bacterial degradation of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Theis; Søndergaard, Morten; Tranvik, Lars

    2008-05-01

    This study reports on the interacting effect of photochemical conditioning of dissolved organic matter and inorganic phosphorus on the metabolic activity of bacteria in freshwater. Batch cultures with lake-water bacteria and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) extracted from a humic boreal river were arranged in an experimental matrix of three levels of exposure to simulated sunlight and three levels of phosphorus concentration. We measured an increase in bacterial biomass, a decrease in DOC and bacterial respiration as CO(2) production and O(2) consumption over 450 h. These measurements were used to calculate bacterial growth efficiency (BGE). Bacterial degradation of DOC increased with increasing exposure to simulated sunlight and availability of phosphorus and no detectable growth occurred on DOC that was not pre-exposed to simulated sunlight. The outcome of photochemical degradation of DOC changed with increasing availability of phosphorus, resulting in an increase in BGE from about 5% to 30%. Thus, the availability of phosphorus has major implications for the quantitative transfer of carbon in microbial food webs.

  3. Morphology-controlled electrodeposition of Cu2O microcrystalline particle films for application in photocatalysis under sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Guodong; Zhai, Wei; Sun, Fengqiang; Chen, Wei; Pan, Zizhao; Li, Weishan

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► PEG was used to electro-deposit Cu 2 O microcrystalline particle films. ► Morphologies of Cu 2 O microcrystals could be controlled by the amount of PEG. ► The films showed regularly varied photocatalytic activities under sunlight. ► The films could be recycled and showed stable activities. -- Abstract: Morphology-controlled Cu 2 O microcrystalline particle films had been successfully electrodeposited on tin-doped indium oxide glass substrates in CuSO 4 solutions containing different amounts of polyethylene glycol (PEG) additives. With an increase of PEG, microcrystals gradually changed from irregular shapes to cubes, octahedrons, and spherical shapes. Sizes increasingly became smaller with an increase of PEG under the same deposition time. These films had been first used as recyclable photocatalysts and showed excellent and photocatalytic activities in photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) under sunlight. Activities were regularly varied relative to the morphologies of films controlled by the amount of PEG and could be further enhanced by adding a little amount of hydrogen peroxide in the MB solution. The method for controllable preparation of Cu 2 O microcrystals with photocatalytic activities was simple and inexpensive. The as-prepared particle films could also be used in photodegradation of many other pollutants under sunlight.

  4. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bibliography Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind Printable ... Information About... Transforming Teaching Family and Community Engagement Early Learning Helping Your Child Our mission is to promote student achievement and ...

  5. Dietary intakes of expeditioners during prolonged sunlight deprivation in polar enviroments do not support bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuliano, Sandra; Ayton, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Background Early Antarctic expeditions were plagued by nutrient deficiencies, due to lack of fresh food and reliance on preserved foods. Modern Antarctic expeditioners also require provisions to be shipped in, but improved knowledge and storage options ensure foods are nutritionally sound. Despite this, nutritional imbalances are observed. Objectives To determine the adequacy of dietary intake of Antarctic expeditioners, with reference to bone health. Design Dietary intake was determined on 225 adults (mean age 42±11 years, 16% female) during 12-month deployments at Australian Antarctic stations from 2004 to 2010, using weighed 3-day food records. Nutrient intake was analysed using FoodWorks. Foods were divided into the 5 food groups according to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Results Men consumed below the recommended levels [recommended daily intake (RDI)/adequate intakes (AI)] of calcium (79±42% of RDI, p<0.001), magnesium (83±34% of RDI, p<0.001), potassium (86±29% of AI, p<0.001) and fibre (75±30% of AI, p<0.001), and above the upper limit (UL) for sodium (125±48% of UL p<0.001), whereas women consumed below the recommended levels of calcium (68±21% of RDI, p<0.001) and iron (73±37% of RDI, p<0.001). Vitamin D intake is not substantial (<150 IU/d). Men consumed more alcohol than women (18±24 g/d vs. 10±13 g/d, p<0.05), nearer the guideline of ≤20 g/d. Men and women consumed approximately 1 serving of dairy food per day, and 3 of 5 recommended vegetable servings. Discretionary foods were consumed in excess of recommended. Conclusions Improving consumption of calcium-rich (dairy) foods better supports bone health during sunlight deprivation. Increasing vegetable intake to recommended levels will increase fibre, potassium and magnesium intakes. The challenge is the logistics of providing these foods throughout the year.

  6. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of dyes under sunlight using biocompatible TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, B.; Sonkar, A. K.; Singh, N.; Dash, D.; Rath, Chandana

    2017-08-01

    As TiO2 is one of the most popular photocatalysts, we have studied here the photocatalytic degradation of the most common dyestuffs like rhodamine B (RhB), congo red (CR) and methylene blue (MB), which mainly come from the textile and photographic industries using nanoparticles of TiO2. Nanoparticles of TiO2 synthesized through a simple and cost effective sol-gel technique crystallizes in the anatase phase, showing a band gap less than that of bulk value. Particles consisting of coherently scattered domains of size 33 nm are found to be agglomerated and polycrystalline in nature. While the degradation rates of MB, CR and RhB after irradiating with a renewable source of energy, i.e. sunlight, show 100% degradation, TiO2 irradiated with UV light of 4.8 eV shows a much slower degradation rate. To use the waste water after photocatalysis, we examine further the biocompatibile nature of the TiO2 nanoparticles by platelet interaction activity, hemolysis effect and MTT assay. It is worth mentioning here that TiO2 nanoparticles are found to be highly hemocompatible, show no platelet aggregation, and the level of intracellular ROS in human platelets does not show significant change in ROS level. We conclude that TiO2 nanoparticles constitute an excellent photocatalyst and biocompatible material, and that after photocatalytic degradation of dye effluents obtained from textile industries, purified water can be used in agriculture and domestic sectors.

  7. Antiradical capacity and polyphenol composition of asparagus spears varieties cultivated under different sunlight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczyński, Bartosz; Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Kmiecik, Dominik; Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Golczak, Dorota; Korczak, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis has a high nutritional value. Asparagus is rich in a number of bioactive compounds, mainly flavonoids (quercetin), glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E, fructans (inulin and fructooligosaccharides) and phytosterols (b-sitosterol). These compounds may play an important role in human health. The purpose of this study was to examine the antioxidant potential and polyphenol composition of white, pale-colored and green asparagus spears of different cultivars. Investigations were conducted on different asparagus spear extracts. The study included three colors of asparagus (white, pale-colored and green) from five different cultivars subjected to the ethanol extraction procedure. Total phenolic content was also determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Polyphenol (phenolic acids and flavonols) composition was estimated using the HPLC method. The antioxidant properties of extracts were examined using DPPH, ABTS and metal ion chelating assays. The highest contents of phenolic and flavonoids were observed in green asparagus from Grolim and the lowest in pale-colored asparagus from Gyjmlin. It was found that both the color of asparagus and the cultivar had a significant effect on the composition of phenolic acid and flavonols. Radical scavenging activity toward DPPH• and ABTS was highest for green asparagus cv. Grolim and Eposs. The greatest number of Fe ions was chelated by samples of green asparagus cv. Grolim and Huchel's Alpha and pale-colored asparagus cv. Huchel's Alpha. It was shown that the antioxidant activity of asparagus spears measured by antiradical and chelating activity test depends on variety and color. The highest activity was found in green asparagus and the lowest was identified in white asparagus extracts. It has also been clarified that changes in flavonol and phenolic acid composition and increases in their diversity depends on growing with sunlight and variety. Asparagus can provide a valuable source of phenolic compounds in the

  8. A practical demonstration of water disinfection using TiO2 films and sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelover, Silvia; Gómez, Luis A; Reyes, Karina; Teresa Leal, Ma

    2006-10-01

    The scope of this study is the assessment of the efficiency of solar disinfection by heterogeneous photocatalysis with sol-gel immobilized (titanium dioxide) TiO2 films over glass cylinders. The solar disinfection process known as SODIS was considered as a reference. Spring water naturally polluted with coliform bacteria was exposed to sunlight in plastic bottles with and without TiO2 over simple solar collectors and the disinfection effectiveness was measured. Total and fecal coliforms quantification was performed by means of the chromogenic substrate method in order to obtain the efficiency of each disinfection treatment. The disinfection with TiO2 was more efficient than the SODIS process, inactivating total coliforms as well as fecal coliforms. On a sunny day (more than 1000 W m(-2) irradiance), it took the disinfection with immobilized TiO2 15 min of irradiation to inactivate the fecal coliforms to make them undetectable. For inactivation of total coliforms, 30 min was required, so that in less than half the time it takes SODIS, the treated water complies with the microbial standards for drinking water in Mexico. Another important part of this study has been to determine the bacterial regrowth in water after the disinfection processes were tested. After SODIS, bacterial regrowth of coliforms was observed. In contrast, when using the TiO2 catalyst, coliforms regrowth was not detected, neither for total nor for fecal coliforms. The disinfection process using TiO2 kept treated water free of coliforms at least for seven days after sun irradiation. This demonstration opens the possibility of application of this simple method in rural areas of developing countries.

  9. Daytime Cognitive Performance in Response to Sunlight or Fluorescent Light Controlling for Sleep Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jhanic; Zamos, Adela; Rao, Rohit; Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Light is the primary synchronizer of the human circadian rhythm and also has acute alerting effects. Our study involves and comparing the alertness, performance and sleep of participants in the NASA Ames Sustainability Base, which uses sunlight as its primary light source, to in a traditional office building which uses overhead florescent lighting and varying exposure to natural light. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the use of natural lighting as a primary light source improves daytime cognitive function and promotes nighttime sleep. Participants from the Sustainability Base will be matched by gender and age to individuals working in other NASA buildings. In a prior study we found no differences in performance between those working in the Sustainability Base and those working in other buildings. Unexpectedly, we found that the average sleep duration among participants in both buildings was short, which likely obscured our ability to detect a difference the effect of light exposure on alertness. Given that such sleep deprivation has negative effects on cognitive performance, in this iteration of the study we are asking the participants to maintain a regular schedule with eight hours in bed each night in order to control for the effect of self-selected sleep restriction. Over the course of one week, we will ask the participants to wear actiwatches continuously, complete a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and digit symbol substitution task (DSST) three times per day, and keep daily sleepwork diaries. We hope that this study will provide data to support the idea that natural lighting and green architectural design are optimal to enhance healthy nighttime sleep patterns and daytime cognitive performance.

  10. Reusable sunlight activated photocatalyst Ag3PO4 and its significant antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, Shankar; Singh, Sarika; Bahadur, D.

    2016-01-01

    A simple and surfactant free soft chemical approach is adopted for the successful synthesis of Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles (NPs) at room temperature. The obtained Ag 3 PO 4 NPs are nearly spherical in shape with a size of 250 ± 50 nm. These NPs are highly efficient for the degradation of three organic dyes (methylene blue, rhodamine B and methyl orange) under four different types of light sources. In this case, the superior photocatalytic activity is mainly driven by singlet oxygen radicals and it is confirmed through the electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping technique, using several quenchers/sources. Notably, these NPs have the ability to absorb large portion of solar spectrum and therefore it displays higher efficiency under sunlight as compared to UV-C light and a 60 W household compact fluorescence lamp (CFL). Furthermore, these NPs exhibit excellent colloidal stability and recycling capability for the degradation of dyes. In addition, it possesses significant antibacterial activity with complete inhibition of bacterial pathogen, Escherichia coli at a very low concentration (0.01 mg/mL) after a mere 15 min of incubation time. The inhibition of bacterial growth is also suggested from the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in E. coli by fluorescence microscopy. Thus, these NPs may provide a potential outcome for the environmental remediation. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of the mechanism involved in photodegradation of organic dyes and inhibition of bacterial growth using Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Excellent catalytic activity for dyes degradation under different light sources. • Mechanism involving catalyst mediated ROS generation in photocatalysis suggested. • Good recycling capability of Ag 3 PO 4 even after the fifth cycles. • Extraordinary antibacterial activity of Ag 3 PO 4 after a very short incubation time. • Detection of intracellular ROS in bacterial cells by fluorescence

  11. Compensatory help-seeking in young and older adults: does seeking help, help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alea, Nicole; Cunningham, Walter R

    2003-01-01

    Asking other people for help is a compensatory behavior that may be useful across the life span to enhance functioning. Seventy-two older and younger men and women were either allowed to ask for help or were not allowed to ask for help while solving reasoning problems. Although the older adults answered fewer problems correctly, they did not seek additional help to compensate for their lower levels of performance. Younger adults sought more help. There were no age differences, however, in the types of help sought: indirect help (e.g., hints) was sought more often than direct help (e.g., asking for the answer). Exploratory analyses revealed that one's ability level was a better indicator than age of the utility of help-seeking. Findings are interpreted in the context of social and task-related influences on the use of help-seeking as a compensatory behavior across the life span.

  12. Helping HELP with limited resources: the Luquillo experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.N. Scatena; JR Ortiz-Zayas; J.F. Blanco-Libreros

    2008-01-01

    By definition the HELP approach involves the active participation of individuals from a wide range of disciplines and backgrounds, including representatives of industry, academics, natural resource managers, and local officials and community leaders. While there is considerable enthusiasm and support for the integrated HELP approach, a central problem for all HELP...

  13. Kingsbury Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the work of the Kingsbury Laboratories of Fairey Engineering Company, for the nuclear industry. The services provided include: monitoring of nuclear graphite machining, specialist welding, non-destructive testing, and metallurgy testing; and all are briefly described. (U.K.)

  14. Sunlight Modulates Fruit Metabolic Profile and Shapes the Spatial Pattern of Compound Accumulation within the Grape Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Noam; Walbaum, Natasha; Agam, Nurit; Fait, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Vineyards are characterized by their large spatial variability of solar irradiance (SI) and temperature, known to effectively modulate grape metabolism. To explore the role of sunlight in shaping fruit composition and cluster uniformity, we studied the spatial pattern of incoming irradiance, fruit temperature and metabolic profile within individual grape clusters under three levels of sunlight exposure. The experiment was conducted in a vineyard of Cabernet Sauvignon cv. located in the Negev Highlands, Israel, where excess SI and midday temperatures are known to degrade grape quality. Filtering SI lowered the surface temperature of exposed fruits and increased the uniformity of irradiance and temperature in the cluster zone. SI affected the overall levels and patterns of accumulation of sugars, organic acids, amino acids and phenylpropanoids, across the grape cluster. Increased exposure to sunlight was associated with lower accumulation levels of malate, aspartate, and maleate but with higher levels of valine, leucine, and serine, in addition to the stress-related proline and GABA. Flavan-3-ols metabolites showed a negative response to SI, whereas flavonols were highly induced. The overall levels of anthocyanins decreased with increased sunlight exposure; however, a hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the members of this family were grouped into three distinct accumulation patterns, with malvidin anthocyanins and cyanidin-glucoside showing contrasting trends. The flavonol-glucosides, quercetin and kaempferol, exhibited a logarithmic response to SI, leading to improved cluster uniformity under high-light conditions. Comparing the within-cluster variability of metabolite accumulation highlighted the stability of sugars, flavan-3-ols, and cinnamic acid metabolites to SI, in contrast to the plasticity of flavonols. A correlation-based network analysis revealed that extended exposure to SI modified metabolic coordination, increasing the number of negative

  15. New Vaccines Help Protect You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues New Vaccines Help Protect You Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... with a few deaths. Therefore, this vaccine will help reduce one of our most common and potentially ...

  16. Help My House Program Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about Help My House, a program that helps participants reduce their utility bills by nearly 35 percent through low-cost loans for EE improvements. Learn more about the key features, approaches, funding sources, and achievements of this program.

  17. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  18. Laboratory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handin, J.

    1980-01-01

    Our task is to design mined-repository systems that will adequately secure high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 yr and that will be mechanically stable for 50 to 100-yr periods of retrievability during which mistakes could be corrected and a valuable source of energy could be reclaimed, should national policy on the reprocessing of spent fuel ever change. The only credible path for the escape of radionuclides from the repository to the biosphere is through ground-water, and in hard rock, bulk permeability is largely governed by natural and artificial fracture systems. Catastrophic failure of an excavation in hard rock is likely to occur at the weakest links - the discontinuities in the rock mass that is perturbed first by mining and then by radiogenic heating. The laboratory can contribute precise measurements of the pertinent thermomechanical, hydrological and chemical properties and improve our understanding of the fundamental processes through careful experiments under well controlled conditions that simulate the prototype environment. Thus laboratory investigations are necessary, but they are not sufficient, for conventional sample sizes are small relative to natural defects like joints - i.e., the rock mass is not a continuum - and test durations are short compared to those that predictive modeling must take into account. Laboratory investigators can contribute substantially more useful data if they are provided facilities for testing large specimens(say one cubic meter) and for creep testing of all candidate host rocks. Even so, extrapolations of laboratory data to the field in neither space nor time are valid without the firm theoretical foundations yet to be built. Meanwhile in-situ measurements of structure-sensitive physical properties and access to direct observations of rock-mass character will be absolutely necessary

  19. Culham Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The report contains summaries of work carried out under the following headings: fusion research experiments; U.K. contribution to the JET project; supporting studies; theoretical plasma physics, computational physics and computing; fusion reactor studies; engineering and technology; contract research; external relations; staff, finance and services. Appendices cover main characteristics of Culham fusion experiments, staff, extra-mural projects supported by Culham Laboratory, and a list of papers written by Culham staff. (U.K.)

  20. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  1. Underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettini, A., E-mail: Bettini@pd.infn.i [Padua University and INFN Section, Dipartimento di Fisca G. Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Plaza Ayuntamiento n1 2piso, Canfranc (Huesca) (Spain)

    2011-01-21

    Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to frontier experiments in particle and nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines, geology and biology, that can profit of their unique characteristics. The cosmic silence allows to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators by searching for extremely rare phenomena. I will briefly review the facilities that are operational or in an advanced status of approval around the world.

  2. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiles of the Berry Skin of Two Red Grape Cultivars (Vitis vinifera) in Which Anthocyanin Synthesis Is Sunlight-Dependent or -Independent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Le; Xin, Hai-Ping; Li, Ji-Hu; Li, Shao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Global gene expression was analyzed in the berry skin of two red grape cultivars, which can (‘Jingyan’) or cannot (‘Jingxiu’) synthesize anthocyanins after sunlight exclusion from fruit set until maturity. Gene transcripts responding to sunlight exclusion in ‘Jingyan’ were less complex than in ‘Jingxiu’; 528 genes were induced and 383 repressed in the former, whereas 2655 genes were induced and 205 suppressed in ‘Jingxiu’. They were regulated either in the same or opposing manner in the two cultivars, or in only one cultivar. In addition to VvUFGT and VvMYBA1, some candidate genes (e.g. AOMT, GST, and ANP) were identified which are probably involved in the differential responses of ‘Jingxiu’ and ‘Jingyan’ to sunlight exclusion. In addition, 26 MYB, 14 bHLH and 23 WD40 genes responded differently to sunlight exclusion in the two cultivars. Interestingly, all of the 189 genes classified as being relevant to ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation were down-regulated by sunlight exclusion in ‘Jingxiu’, but the majority (162) remained unchanged in ‘Jingyan’ berry skin. It would be of interest to determine the precise role of the ubiquitin pathway following sunlight exclusion, particularly the role of COP9 signalosome, cullins, RING-Box 1, and COP1-interacting proteins. Only a few genes in the light signal system were found to be regulated by sunlight exclusion in either or both cultivars. This study provides a valuable overview of the transcriptome changes and gives insight into the genetic background that may be responsible for sunlight-dependent versus -independent anthocyanin biosynthesis in berry skin. PMID:25158067

  3. Seca da semente de café ao sol Effect of sunlight on coffee seed viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Bacchi

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho diz respeito a estudos realizados com o objetivo de observar a influência da luz solar sôbre a capacidade germinativa da semente despolpada de café e verificar, portanto, a possibilidade de se efetuar a seca desta semente exclusivamente ao sol. Além de um ensaio preliminar, foram efetuados mais outros dois, compreendendo, ao todo, duas secas ao sol, duas em um secador a baixa temperatura (±28°C, uma a sombra e uma em um secador a alta temperatura (±40°C. Pelas correlações entre as porcentagens de germinação e de umidade, que foram estabelecidas após diferentes períodos de secagem, foram tiradas as duas seguintes conclusões, que são as principais com relação ao objetivo dêstes ensaios : 1 Os raios solares são prejudiciais à capacidade germinativa da semente de café; sua nocividade acha-se, porém, intimamente ligada ao teor de umidade na semente. 2 À vista da conclusão acima, verifica-se que a semente despolpada de café e, muito provavelmente, também a não despolpada, podem ser perfeitamente sêcas a pleno sol sem que haja prejuízo para sua vitalidade, uma vez que sejam recolhidas antes que o seu teor de umidade caia abaixo do ponto crítico de 8% - 9%.In this paper the author deals with the question related to the coffee seed drying, with special attention to the effect of the sun radiations on seed viability. Based on the results obtained, the following conclusions were drawn : (a The sun rays have no specific influence on the viability of hulled coffee seed ; their effect is indirect and related to loss of moisture by the seed. (b Coffee seed can be dried in the sunlight without loss of viability if the water content does not drop under 8% to 9%. Below this critical level seed germination falls rapidly. (c The moisture content of coffee seed dried „in the sun may fall to about 7% in a short time with the consequent injury to viability. (d Under most conditions in the state of São Paulo

  4. Dietary intakes of expeditioners during prolonged sunlight deprivation in polar enviroments do not support bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Iuliano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early Antarctic expeditions were plagued by nutrient deficiencies, due to lack of fresh food and reliance on preserved foods. Modern Antarctic expeditioners also require provisions to be shipped in, but improved knowledge and storage options ensure foods are nutritionally sound. Despite this, nutritional imbalances are observed. Objectives: To determine the adequacy of dietary intake of Antarctic expeditioners, with reference to bone health. Design: Dietary intake was determined on 225 adults (mean age 42±11 years, 16% female during 12-month deployments at Australian Antarctic stations from 2004 to 2010, using weighed 3-day food records. Nutrient intake was analysed using FoodWorks. Foods were divided into the 5 food groups according to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Results: Men consumed below the recommended levels [recommended daily intake (RDI/adequate intakes (AI] of calcium (79±42% of RDI, p<0.001, magnesium (83±34% of RDI, p<0.001, potassium (86±29% of AI, p<0.001 and fibre (75±30% of AI, p<0.001, and above the upper limit (UL for sodium (125±48% of UL p<0.001, whereas women consumed below the recommended levels of calcium (68±21% of RDI, p<0.001 and iron (73±37% of RDI, p<0.001. Vitamin D intake is not substantial (<150 IU/d. Men consumed more alcohol than women (18±24 g/d vs. 10±13 g/d, p<0.05, nearer the guideline of ≤20 g/d. Men and women consumed approximately 1 serving of dairy food per day, and 3 of 5 recommended vegetable servings. Discretionary foods were consumed in excess of recommended. Conclusions: Improving consumption of calcium-rich (dairy foods better supports bone health during sunlight deprivation. Increasing vegetable intake to recommended levels will increase fibre, potassium and magnesium intakes. The challenge is the logistics of providing these foods throughout the year.

  5. Help!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Caralee

    2006-01-01

    This article presents ten time-saving ideas for teachers. One great time-saving tip is to come in an hour early once or twice a week for grading papers. It is also a great idea if teachers will not give tests on Friday in order to reduce their weekend work.

  6. Helping your teen with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...

  7. Using Microporous Polytetrafluoroethylene Thin Sheets as a Flexible Solar Diffuser to Minimize Sunlight Glint to Cameras in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    An innovative design of using microporous PTFE thin sheets as a solar diffuser for MLI blankets or mechanical structure has been developed. It minimizes sunlight or stray-light glint to cameras when it is incident on these components in space. A microporous black PTFE thin sheet solar diffuser has been qualified for flight at NASA GSFC and installed to the TAGSAM arm MLI, OCAMS PolyCam sunshade MLI and SamCam motor riser MLI in the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission to meet the SamCam camera BRDF requirement.

  8. Aromatic/heterocyclic amino acids and the simulated sunlight-ultraviolet inactivation of the Heliothis/Helicoverpa baculovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignoffo, C.M.; Garcia, C.

    1995-01-01

    Tryptophan, of five aromatic/heterocyclic amino acids (tyrosine, phenylalanine, proline, histidine) provided significant protection of the Heliothis baculovirus (HzSNPV) from inactivation by simulated ultraviolet (SUV). Fifty percent of SUV protection of HzSNPV with tryptophan or tyrosine was obtained at 0.03 mg/ml and 0.5 mg/ml, respectively. Rates as high as 100.0 mg/ml of phenylalanine, histidine, or proline provided <50% protection. The extent of tryptophan protection was correlated with its absorption in the sunlight UV-B spectra. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Effect of exposure to sunlight and phosphorus-limitation on bacterial degradation of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Theis; Søndergaard, Morten; Tranvik, Lars

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on the interacting effect of photochemical conditioning of dissolved organic matter and inorganic phosphorus on the metabolic activity of bacteria in freshwater. Batch cultures with lake-water bacteria and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) extracted from a humic boreal river were...... arranged in an experimental matrix of three levels of exposure to simulated sunlight and three levels of phosphorus concentration. We measured an increase in bacterial biomass, a decrease in DOC and bacterial respiration as CO(2) production and O(2) consumption over 450 h. These measurements were used...

  10. Using microporous polytetrafluoroethylene thin sheets as a flexible solar diffuser to minimize sunlight glint to cameras in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-09-01

    An innovative design of using microporous PTFE thin sheets as a solar diffuser for MLI blankets or mechanical structure has been developed. It minimizes sunlight or stray-light glint to cameras when it is incident on these components in space. A microporous black PTFE thin sheet solar diffuser has been qualified for flight at NASA GSFC and installed to the TAGSAM arm MLI, OCAMS PolyCam sunshade MLI and SamCam motor riser MLI in the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission to meet the SamCam camera BRDF requirement.

  11. Knowledge of vitamin D and perceptions and attitudes toward sunlight among Chinese middle-aged and elderly women: a population survey in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ka-Kui

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical and biological risk factors for vitamin D inadequacy are known; however, cultural- and population-specific behaviours and attitudes that influence these risk factors, particularly among Asian people, are less well documented. To understand more about prevailing attitudes and behaviour toward sunlight and knowledge of vitamin D among a population at greater risk of impaired vitamin D status, poor bone health and osteoporosis, we conducted a telephone interview survey of 547 middle-aged and elderly Chinese women living in Hong Kong. Methods All telephone interviews were conducted using the Computer Assisted Telephone Technique and target respondents were selected by random sampling. Interviews were conducted in Cantonese and eighteen main questions were asked pertaining to personal characteristics, perceptions, attitudes and behaviour toward sunlight, and knowledge about vitamin D. Results The survey results showed that 62.3% (n = 341 did not like going in the sun and 66.7% of respondents spent an average of 6–10 hours indoors, between 6:30 am and 7:00 pm, during weekdays. However, 58% of people thought that they had enough exposure to sunlight. The majority had heard of vitamin D, but knowledge about the role and sources of vitamin D was low. Among those who knew that sunlight was a source of vitamin D, the majority spent less than 1 h in the sun in the past week (76.4% vs 23.6%, 1 h in the sun in the past week, chi-square p Conclusion The survey revealed considerable ignorance and confusion about the role of sunlight in vitamin D production, and the function and sources of vitamin D. Attitudes and behaviour toward sunlight were largely negative and many took measures to avoid sunlight, particularly among younger (middle-aged women who had good awareness of vitamin D.

  12. Patterns and timing of sunlight exposure and risk of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin – a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannacone Michelle R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, comprised of basal (BCC and squamous (SCC cell carcinomas, is the most common cancer in Caucasians. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR exposure is the most important environmental risk factor for NMSC. However, the precise relationship between UVR and the risk of NMSC is complex, and the relationship may differ by skin cancer type. Methods A case–control study was conducted among Florida residents to investigate measures of patterns (intermittent vs. continuous and timing (childhood vs. adulthood of sunlight exposure in BCC and SCC. Participants included 218 BCC and 169 SCC cases recruited from a university dermatology clinic and 316 controls with no history of skin or other cancers. Results A history of blistering sunburn (a measure of intermittent sunlight exposure was associated with both BCC (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.27-3.03 and SCC (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.22-3.33. Additionally, having a job in the sun for ≥3 months for 10 years or longer (a measure of continuous sunlight exposure was also associated with both BCC and SCC in our study population. With the exception of younger age at first blistering sunburn, measures of younger age at sunlight exposure tended to be associated with SCC, but not BCC risk. Conclusions Results from the current study suggest that sunlight exposure is associated with both BCC and SCC risk regardless of the pattern in which the exposure was received (i.e. intermittent vs. continuous. The data also suggest that sunlight exposure at a younger age may be more important for SCC but not BCC, however additional studies are needed to further characterize sunlight exposure-response relationships in different types of NMSC.

  13. Patterns and timing of sunlight exposure and risk of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin – a case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannacone, Michelle R; Fenske, Neil A; Rollison, Dana E; Wang, Wei; Stockwell, Heather G; O’Rourke, Kathleen; Giuliano, Anna R; Sondak, Vernon K; Messina, Jane L; Roetzheim, Richard G; Cherpelis, Basil S

    2012-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), comprised of basal (BCC) and squamous (SCC) cell carcinomas, is the most common cancer in Caucasians. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the most important environmental risk factor for NMSC. However, the precise relationship between UVR and the risk of NMSC is complex, and the relationship may differ by skin cancer type. A case–control study was conducted among Florida residents to investigate measures of patterns (intermittent vs. continuous) and timing (childhood vs. adulthood) of sunlight exposure in BCC and SCC. Participants included 218 BCC and 169 SCC cases recruited from a university dermatology clinic and 316 controls with no history of skin or other cancers. A history of blistering sunburn (a measure of intermittent sunlight exposure) was associated with both BCC (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.27-3.03) and SCC (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.22-3.33). Additionally, having a job in the sun for ≥3 months for 10 years or longer (a measure of continuous sunlight exposure) was also associated with both BCC and SCC in our study population. With the exception of younger age at first blistering sunburn, measures of younger age at sunlight exposure tended to be associated with SCC, but not BCC risk. Results from the current study suggest that sunlight exposure is associated with both BCC and SCC risk regardless of the pattern in which the exposure was received (i.e. intermittent vs. continuous). The data also suggest that sunlight exposure at a younger age may be more important for SCC but not BCC, however additional studies are needed to further characterize sunlight exposure-response relationships in different types of NMSC

  14. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Page Content Article Body Teens are more ... younger the first time they had intercourse. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure “The pressure on teenagers to have sex ...

  15. Adaptation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  16. Sunlight-driven eco-friendly smart curtain based on infrared responsive graphene oxide-polymer photoactuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeladhar; Raturi, Parul; Singh, J P

    2018-02-27

    Photomechanical actuation is the conversion of light energy into mechanical energy through some smart materials. Infrared-responsive smart materials have become an emerging field of research due to easy availability and eco-friendly nature of their stimulus in the form of sunlight, which contains about 50% of near-infrared(nIR) making these materials useful at macro-scale photoactuator applications. Here, we demonstrate fabrication of highly versatile nIR triggered photoactuators based on graphene oxide/polycarbonate bilayers that offers fast, low-cost fabrication, large deflection, reversible actuation and wavelength-selective response. The photoactuators are realized by vacuum filtration of graphene oxide/water dispersion through polycarbonate membrane resulting graphene oxide/polymer bilayer structure. The photoactuation response was measured in the form of deflection from equilibrium position as a result of infrared-irradiation. The deflection is caused by the generated thermal stress at the interface of bilayers due to mismatch of thermal expansion coefficient as a results of nIR absorption by graphene oxide and subsequent temperature rise. A maximum deflection of 12 mm (circular-shaped structure with diameter 28 mm) with corresponding bending curvature of 0.33 cm -1 was shown by this photoactuator for illumination intensity of 106 mW/cm 2 . Few applications of these photoactuators such as sunlight-driven smart curtain, infrared actuated curtain and self-folding box are also demonstrated.

  17. Sunlight Triggers Cutaneous Lupus through a Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1) Dependent Mechanism in MRL-Faslpr mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Julia; Hsu, Mei-Yu; Byrne, Katelyn T.; Lucas, Julie A.; Rabacal, Whitney A.; Croker, Byron P.; Zong, Xiao-Hua; Stanley, E. Richard; Kelley, Vicki R.

    2008-01-01

    Sunlight (UVB) triggers cutaneous (CLE) and systemic lupus through an unknown mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that UVB triggers CLE through a CSF-1-dependent, macrophage (Mø) -mediated mechanism in MRL-Faslpr mice. By constructing mutant MRL-Faslpr strains expressing varying levels of CSF-1 (high, intermediate, none), and use of an ex-vivo gene transfer to deliver CSF-1 intra-dermally, we determined that CSF-1 induces CLE in lupus-susceptible, MRL-Faslpr mice, but not in lupus-resistant, BALB/c mice. Notably, UVB incites an increase in Mø, apoptosis in the skin and CLE in MRL-Faslpr, but not in CSF-1-deficient MRL-Faslpr mice. Furthermore, UVB did not induce CLE in BALB/c mice. Probing further, UVB stimulates CSF-1 expression by keratinocytes leading to recruitment and activation of Mø that, in turn, release mediators, which induce apoptosis in keratinocytes. Thus, sunlight triggers a CSF-1-dependent, Mø-mediated destructive inflammation in the skin leading to CLE in lupus-susceptible MRL-Faslpr, but not lupus-resistant BALB/c mice. Taken together, we envision CSF-1 as the “match” and lupus-susceptibility as the “tinder” leading to CLE. PMID:18981160

  18. Toddlers Selectively Help Fair Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Surian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that infants and toddlers are inclined to help prosocial agents and assign a positive valence to fair distributions. Also, they expect that positive and negative actions directed toward distributors will conform to reciprocity principles. This study investigates whether toddlers are selective in helping others, as a function of others’ previous distributive actions. Toddlers were presented with real-life events in which two actresses distributed resources either equally or unequally between two puppets. Then, they played together with a ball that accidentally fell to the ground and asked participants to help them to retrieve it. Participants preferred to help the actress who performed equal distributions. This finding suggests that by the second year children’s prosocial actions are modulated by their emerging sense of fairness.HighlightsToddlers (mean age = 25 months are selective in helping distributors.Toddlers prefer helping a fair rather than an unfair distributor.Toddlers’ selective helping provides evidence for an early sense of fairness.

  19. The Postwar Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-17

    Recent discussion of project policy has met with a widespread feeling that important alternatives were not being properly considered. These alternatives will be discussed here from the point of view of research personnel concerned with formulation a laboratory policy based on the wartime experience of Los Alamos. This policy is discussed on the primary assumption that the national investment here in facilities, in tradition, and in the existence of an going research and development laboratory organization ought not to be lightly discarded, but also ought not to be wholly continued without reexamination under the new conditions of peace. Others will discuss this policy more broadly, and others will make the decision of continuation; but the purpose of the present document is to suggest a policy which might help answer the question of what to do with Los Alamos.It is the thesis of this document that fundamental research in fields underlying the military utilization of atomic energy ought to be separated from all development testing and production. It still remains to argue which of these separate functions this mesa should carry out. In the next sections it is proposed to describe what this laboratory can do and what it should stop trying to do, and on this detailed basis a general program is proposed.

  20. Effect of grape bunch sunlight exposure and UV radiation on phenolics and volatile composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianqiang; Smart, Richard; Wang, Hua; Dambergs, Bob; Sparrow, Angela; Qian, Michael C

    2015-04-15

    The effect of canopy leaf removal and ultraviolet (UV) on Pinot noir grape and wine composition was investigated in this study. Limited basal leaf removal in the fruit zone was conducted, compared to shaded bunches. The UV exposure was controlled using polycarbonate screens to block UV radiation, and acrylic screens to pass the UV. The results showed that bunch sunlight and UV exposure significantly increased the Brix and pH in the grape juice, and increased substantially wine colour density, anthocyanins, total pigment, total phenolics and tannin content. Bunch sunlight and UV exposure affected terpene alcohols, C13-norisprenoids and other volatile composition of the wine differently. Sunlight exposure and UV resulted in increase of nerol, geraniol and citronellol but not linalool. Sunlight exposure slightly increased the concentration of β-ionone, but the increase was not statistically significant for UV treatment. Neither sunlight nor UV treatment showed any impact on the concentration of β-damascenone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  2. FOOTWEAR PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory provides biomechanical and physical analyses for both military and commercial footwear. The laboratory contains equipment that is integral to the us...

  3. Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research performs preclinical characterization of nanomaterials...

  4. Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...

  5. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  6. Going Local to Find Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Going Local to Find Help Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... phone numbers, maps and directions, such as To Find Out More: Visit www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/ ...

  7. Menopause: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Email Print Print and Share (PDF 375 KB) Menopause (sometimes called “the change of life”) is a ...

  8. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxell, Wade [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3

  9. Helping Teachers Help Themselves: Professional Development That Makes a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Tannehill, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    For school administrators to facilitate impactful teacher professional development, a shift in thinking that goes beyond the acquisition of new skills and knowledge to helping teachers rethink their practice is required. Based on review of the professional development literature and our own continued observations of professional development, this…

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF SUNLIGHT AND WIND ON THE POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Lichograj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Changing conditions have a significant impact on the efficiency and durability of photovoltaic cells. On photovoltaic modules have also influence such external factors as temperature of the module, which changes during the long exposure to light radiation, wind, pollution and the frequency of rainfall. Parameters of PV modules provided by the manufacturers differ significantly from the results achieved under natural conditions. This work presents the laboratory study on the impact of temperature of the polycrystalline silicon module to the change of generated voltage tested with no load. Research confirms the correlation of temperature increase during the long exposure to light radiation with a voltage drop. At the same time simulation of wind causes the cooling of the module and increase the voltage circuit. Further development of research on the effects of environmental conditions will allow for accurate placement optimization of photovoltaic farms.

  11. Photocatalysis and self-cleaning from g-C3N4 coated cotton fabrics under sunlight irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunde; Zhou, Ji; Zhang, Jin; Lou, Yaqin; Huang, Zhenwu; Ye, Yong; Jia, Li; Tang, Bin

    2018-05-01

    Graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets have been facilely assembled via electrostatic interaction onto cotton fabrics for achieving multi-functionalities. The surface morphologies, chemical composition and optical features of the g-C3N4-coated fabrics were characterized. The treated cotton fabrics exhibited remarkable photocatalytic degradation activity and superior self-cleaning performance. A complete degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and removal of stains were accomplished under simulated sunlight irradiation. More importantly, the modified fabrics can be reused in catalysis reactions with great durability. The practical treatment approach demonstrated from this work has great potential to be applied in textile industry for functional fabrics manufacture.

  12. Reconfigurable Charge Pump Circuit with Variable Pumping Frequency Scheme for Harvesting Solar Energy under Various Sunlight Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Heon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose variable pumping frequency (VPF scheme which is merged with the previous reconfigurable charge pump (RCP circuit that can change its architecture according to a given sunlight condition. Here, merging the VPF scheme with the architecture reconfiguration can improve percentage output currents better by 21.4% and 22.4% than RCP circuit with the fixed pumping frequencies of 7 MHz and 15 MHz, respectively. Comparing the VPF scheme with real maximum power points (MPP, the VPF can deliver 91.9% of the maximum amount of output current to the load on average. In terms of the power and area overheads, the VPF scheme proposed in this paper consumes the power by 0.4% of the total power consumption and occupies the layout area by 1.61% of the total layout area.

  13. The influence of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in simulated sunlight on ascospores causing Black Sigatoka disease of banana and plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Mark; Burt, P. J. A.; Wilson, Kate

    The influence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in simulated natural sunlight on the viability of ascospores of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the cause of Black Sigatoka disease in banana and plantain, has been investigated as part of a study to assess the windborne spread of this pathogen from mainland Central and South America into the Caribbean. Spores were killed following continuous exposure to UV radiation for periods of 6 h or over. This relatively short exposure time suggests that the distances over which viable spores can be transported will be determined not only by the speed of the wind but also the amount of cloud cover and the time off day that spore release occurs. On this basis, wind dispersal of viable spores over distances greater than a few hundred kilometres is unlikely. These conclusions are reinforced by an examination of historical reports of the arrival of the disease in previously uninfected areas of the Americas and Africa.

  14. A Kolmogorov-type competition model with multiple coexistence states and its applications to plant competition for sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Winfried; Nevai, Andrew L.

    2008-12-01

    It is demonstrated that a Kolmogorov-type competition model featuring species allocation and gain functions can possess multiple coexistence statesE Two examples are constructed: one in which the two competing species possess rectangular allocation functions but distinct gain functions, and the other in which one species has a rectangular allocation function, the second species has a bi-rectangular allocation function, and the two species share a common gain function. In both examples, it is shown that the species nullclines may intersect multiple times within the interior of the first quadrant, thus creating both locally stable and unstable equilibrium points. These results have important applications in the study of plant competition for sunlight, in which the allocation functions describe the vertical placement of leaves for two competing species, and the gain functions represent rates of photosynthesis performed by leaves at different heights when shaded by overlying leaves belonging to either species.

  15. Abnormal responses to mid-ultraviolet light of cultured fibroblasts from patients with disorders featuring sunlight sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.J.; Paterson, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The postultraviolet light (UV) colony-forming ability and DNA repair properties were examined of human skin fibroblasts derived from two groups of donors at high risk of cancer; (a) persons exhibiting sensitivity to sunlight; and (b) persons with conditions possibly associated with an underlying defect in the repair of radiogenic DNA damage. A comparison was made between the effects of far UV (254 nm) and mid UV (313 nm). Biochemical studies performed on strains sensitive to 313-nm UV alone suggest that their unusual photoresponse is not attributable to defective repair of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers. Furthermore, our data imply that thymine glycols are unlikely candidates for the critical lethal lesions in 313-nm UV-sensitive strains. Evidence is presented in support of the contention that mid UV may be partially radiomimetic, thus extending our understanding of the deleterious biological effects of this ubiquitous environmental carcinogen

  16. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-14

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However, for highly efficient CPV (concentrated photovoltaic) system, the literature is lacking for energy management and optimization algorithm and tool for standalone operation. In this paper, a system with CPV and electrolyser is presented where beam irradiance of sunlight is harnessed to convert the instantaneously generated electricity into useful Hydrogen/Oxygen gas, where they can be stored and re-used for downstream applications such as the fuel cells, etc. The multi-variable design and multi-objective optimization strategies are proposed and presented for a standalone operation of the CPV-Hydrogen system as well as their system performances, particularly electrical rating of CPV based upon the real weather data of Singapore. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Effects of gamma rays, ultraviolet radiation, sunlight, microwaves and electromagnetic fields on gene expression mediated by human immunodeficiency virus promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libertin, C.R.; Woloschak, G.E.; Panozzo, J.; Groh, K.R.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Schreck, S.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work by our group and others has shown the modulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter or long terminal repeat (LTR) after exposure to neutrons and ultraviolet radiations. Using HeLa cells stably transfected with a construct containing the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene, the transcription of which is mediated by the HIV-LTR, we designed experiments to examine the effects of exposure to different types of radiation (such as γ rays, ultraviolet and sunlight irradiations, electromagnetic fields and microwaves) in HIV-LTR-driven expression of CAT. These results demonstrated ultraviolet-light-induced transcription from the HIV promoter, as has been shown by others. Exposure to other DNA-damaging agents such as γ rays and sunlight (with limited exposures) had no significant effect on transcription mediated by HIV-LTR, suggesting that induction of HIV is not mediated by just any type of DNA damage but rather may require specific types of DNA damage. Microwaves did not cause cell killing when cells in culture were exposed in high volumes of medium, and the same cells showed no changes in expression. When microwave exposure was carried out in low volumes of medium (so that excessive heat was generated) induction of HIV-LTR transcription (as assayed by CAT activity) was evident. Electromagnetic field exposures had no effect on expression of HIV-LTR. These results demonstrate that not all types of radiation and not all DNA-damaging agents are capable of inducing HIV. We hypothesize that induction of HIV transcription may be mediated by several different signals exposure to radiation. 22 refs., 8 figs

  18. Roles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerases Polη and Polζ in response to irradiation by simulated sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozmin, Stanislav G.; Pavlov, Youri I.; Kunkel, Thomas A.; Sage, Evelyne

    2003-01-01

    Sunlight causes lesions in DNA that if unrepaired and inaccurately replicated by DNA polymerases yield mutations that result in skin cancer in humans. Two enzymes involved in translesion synthesis (TLS) of UV-induced photolesions are DNA polymerase η (Polη) and polymerase ζ (Polζ), encoded by the RAD30A and REV3 genes, respectively. Previous studies have investigated the TLS roles of these polymerases in human and yeast cells irradiated with monochromatic, short wavelength UVC radiation (254 nm). However, less is known about cellular responses to solar radiation, which is of higher and mixed wavelengths (310–1100 nm) and produces a different spectrum of DNA lesions, including Dewar photoproducts and oxidative lesions. Here we report on the comparative cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of simulated sunlight (SSL) and UVC radiation on yeast wild-type, rad30Δ, rev3Δ and rev3Δ rad30Δ strains. The results with SSL support several previous interpretations on the roles of these two polymerases in TLS of photodimers and (6–4) photoproducts derived from studies with UVC. They further suggest that Polη participates in the non-mutagenic bypass of SSL-dependent cytosine-containing Dewar photoproducts and 8-oxoguanine, while Polζ is mainly responsible for the mutagenic bypass of all types of Dewar photoproducts. They also suggest that in the absence of Polζ, Polη contributes to UVC- and SSL-induced mutagenesis, possibly by the bypass of photodimers containing deaminated cytosine. PMID:12888515

  19. The effect of season and latitude on in vitro vitamin D formation by sunlight in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettifor, J M; Moodley, G P; Hough, F S; Koch, H; Chen, T; Lu, Z; Holick, M F

    1996-10-01

    To assess the effect of season and latitude on the in vitro formation of previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) by sunlight in two cities in South Africa, Cape Town and Johannesburg. An in vitro study utilising vials containing 7-DHC, which were exposed to sunlight for a period of 1 hour between 8:00 and 17:00 on 1 day a month for a year. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 were separated from 7-DHC by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the amounts formed were calculated with the use of external standards. A marked seasonal variation in vitamin D3 production was noted in Cape Town, with very little being formed during the winter months of April through September. In Johannesburg, in vitro formation changed little throughout the year, and was similar to that found in Cape Town during the summer. During sunlit hours, vitamin D3 production was maximal at midday and small quantities were still being formed between 8:00 and 9:00, and between 16:00 and 17:00 during the summer. During winter in Cape Town, peak formation at midday was less than one-third of that in Johannesburg, and negligible amounts were formed before 10:00 and after 15:00. The previously documented seasonal variation in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D recorded in patients in Johannesburg is probably a consequence of the increased clothing worn and the decreased time spent out of doors during winter, rather than decreased ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth. The limited in vitro formation of vitamin D3 during winter in Cape Town may have clinical implications insofar as the management of metabolic bone diseases like rickets and osteoporosis is concerned. Breast-fed infants resident in the area are likely to suffer from vitamin D deficiency rickets unless vitamin D supplements are provided, or the mothers are encouraged to take their children out of doors.

  20. Influence of manure age and sunlight on the community structure of cattle fecal bacteria as revealed by Illumina sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K.; Shaw, T. I.; Oladeinde, A.; Molina, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. Stream and river impairment due to fecal pollution is largely the result of agricultural activities in the United States. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies utilized next generation sequencing to develop microbial community profiles by massively sequencing the 16sRNA hypervariable region. This technology supports the application of water quality assessment such as pathogen detection and fecal source tracking. The bacteria communities of samples in these studies were determined when they were freshly collected; therefore, little is known about how feces age or how environmental stress influences the microbial ecology of fecal materials. In this study we monitored bacteria community changes in cattle feces for 57 days after excretion (day 0, 2, 4 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57) by sequencing the 16s variable region 4, using Illumnia MiSeq. Twelve cattle feces were studied; half of the samples were directly exposed to sunlight (unshaded) and half were shaded. Results indicate that the relative abundance (RA) profile in both shaded and unshaded samples rapidly changed from day 0 to 15, but stabilized from day 22 to 57. Firmcutes were the most abundant phylum (~40%) at day 0, but were reduced to rarefaction curve analysis, richness of bacteria diversity in feces decreased as time progressed. Some pathogens such as Campylobacter were detected only at the beginning, meaning they substantially decayed during the course of our study. Overall, this study indicated: (1) sunlight can influence the community structure and (2) after excretion the fecal bacteria diversity can be significantly changed over time. Future studies should therefore use not only the microbial signature of fresh but also moderately aged fecal samples to develop more accurate community profiles for fecal source tracking.

  1. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  2. Unpaid help: who does what?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirjam de Klerk; Alice de Boer; Sjoerd Kooiker; Peggy Schyns

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Informele hulp: wie doet er wat? There is currently a great deal of interest in the Netherlands in people’s reliance on their own networks in times of need. What can people do for each other when someone needs help because of health problems? And what are they already

  3. Helping fans to get fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    A health and weight loss programme supported by nurses and delivered by professional football clubs in Scotland has been hailed a success in helping men to lose weight sustainably. It uses participants love of football to motivate them to make healthy lifestyle changes.

  4. HELP: Healthy Early Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Laura A.

    2008-01-01

    A daily intensive supplemental reading and writing program was developed to assist students who were: 1. identified with a language disability and 2. identified as at-risk for reading failure in an urban elementary school. The purpose of the program was to help these students understand and develop the connection between oral and written language…

  5. Osteoporosis Treatment: Medications Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help Osteoporosis treatment may involve medication along with lifestyle change. Get answers to some of the most common ... 2017. Khan M, et al. Drug-related adverse events of osteoporosis therapy. ... and management of osteoporosis. European Journal of Rheumatology. 2017;4: ...

  6. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  7. Exercises to help prevent falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent falls because it can: Make your muscles stronger and more flexible Improve your balance Increase how ... To make your calves and ankle muscles stronger: Hold on to a solid ... of a chair. Stand with your back straight and slightly bend ...

  8. Department of Energy multiprogram laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The Panel recommends the following major roles and missions for the laboratories: perform the Department's national trust fundamental research missions in the physical sciences, including high energy and nuclear physics, and the radiobiological sciences including nuclear medicine; sustain scientific staff core capabilities and specialized research facilities for laboratory research purposes and for use by other Federal agencies and the private sector; perform independent scientific and technical assessment or verification studies required by the Department; and perform generic research and development where it is judged to be in the public interest or where for economic or technical reasons industry does not choose to support it. Organizational efficiencies if implemented by the Department could contribute toward optimal performance of the laboratories. The Panel recommends that a high level official, such as a Deputy Under Secretary, be appointed to serve as Chief Laboratory Executive with authority to help determine and defend the research and development budget, to allocate resources, to decide where work is to be done, and to assess periodically laboratory performance. Laboratory directors should be given substantially more flexibility to deploy resources and to initiate or adapt programs within broad guidelines provided by the Department. The panel recommends the following actions to increase the usefulness of the laboratories and to promote technology transfer to the private sector: establish user groups for all major mission programs and facilities to ensure greater relevance for Department and laboratory efforts; allow the laboratories to do more reimbursable work for others (other Federal agencies, state and local governments, and industry) by relaxing constraints on such work; implement vigorously the recently liberalized patent policy; permit and encourage joint ventures with industry

  9. Preparation of K-doped TiO{sub 2} nanostructures by wet corrosion and their sunlight-driven photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Eunhye; Jin, Saera; Kim, Jiyoon; Chang, Sung-Jin [Department of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974 (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Byung-Hyuk [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwang-Won, E-mail: bryan.kwangwon.park@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jongin, E-mail: hongj@cau.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Potassium-doped TiO{sub 2} nanowire networks were prepared by the corrosion reaction of Ti nanoparticles in an alkaline solution. • They were applied to sunlight-driven photocatalytic degradation of differently charged dye molecules. • The adsorption of the dye molecules on the photocatalyst surface is crucial for their sunlight-driven photodegradation. - Abstract: K-doped TiO{sub 2} nanowire networks were prepared by the corrosion reaction of Ti nanoparticles in an alkaline (potassium hydroxide: KOH) solution. The prepared nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Their sunlight-driven photocatalytic activity was also investigated with differently charged dye molecules, such as methylene blue, rhodamine B and methyl orange. The adsorption of the dye molecules on the photocatalyst surface would play a critical role in their selective photodegradation under sunlight illumination.

  10. Meteorological Reference Years of Daily Mean Temperature during the Sunlight Time; Anos Tipos de Temperaturas Medias Diarias durante las Horas de Sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchante Jimenez, M.; Ramirez Santigosa, L.N.; Mora Lopez, L.; Sidrach de Cardona Ortin, M.

    2002-07-01

    In this work the characterization of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time has been analyzed. An algorithm for the hourly series generation from extreme daily values has been applied to evaluate the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time. A generic algorithm has been enounced as a function of the sunrise time. This algorithm allows taking into account the fractions related to the sunrise and sunset hours. This methodology has been applied in data from 45 Spanish stations, uniformly distributed in the Iberian Peninsula. Data for a period of 14 years has been used in most of locations, and once the interest variable has been calculated, the meteorological reference year of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time has been evaluated in each stations. The next step is the evaluation of the daily mean temperature during the sunlight time in any point into the zone of evaluation, not only in the measured stations. >From the result data in each measured station, an geographic information system has been used in order to calculate the interpolation, obtaining maps with a data each 5 km for each of the 365 days of the year. Then, this results can be superposed with the solar radiation evaluation obtaining the input data for the sizing of the photovoltaic grid connected system in any point of the Spanish geography. (Author) 8 refs.

  11. Efficacy of a dose range of simulated sunlight exposures in raising vitamin D status in South Asian adults: implications for targeted guidance on sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Mark D; Webb, Ann R; Kift, Richard; Durkin, Marie T; Allan, Donald; Herbert, Annie; Berry, Jacqueline L; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2013-06-01

    Vitamin D is essential for bone health, and cutaneous synthesis is an important source. South Asians cannot attain adequate amounts of vitamin D by following general recommendations on summer sunlight exposure at northerly latitudes, and increased exposure may be appropriate for improving their vitamin D status. We examined the efficacy of a dose range of simulated summer sunlight exposures in raising vitamin D status in UK adults of South Asian ethnicity. In a dose-response study, healthy adults of South Asian ethnicity (n = 60; 20-60 y old) received 1 of 6 ultraviolet exposures ranging from 0.65 to 3.9 standard erythema doses (SEDs), which were equivalent to 15-90 min unshaded noontime summer sunlight at 53.5°N (Manchester, United Kingdom), 3 times/wk for 6 wk, while wearing casual clothes that revealed a 35% skin area. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured weekly, and dietary vitamin D was estimated. At baseline, all completing participants (n = 51) were vitamin D insufficient [25(OH)D concentrations 10 ng/mL. Targeted guidance on sunlight exposure could usefully enhance vitamin D status to avoid deficiency [25(OH)D concentration >10 ng/mL] in South Asians living at latitudes distant from the equator. This trial was registered at the ISRCTN Register (www.isrctn.org) as 07565297.

  12. Risk control in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeeren, H.P.W.; Zwaard, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the knowledge which is needed for safely working in a laboratory. With the help of the contents it is possible to come, after an evaluation of the risks, to practical measures (risk control). Not only exposure to chemicals but also to other burdening factors (radiation, sound, radioactive materials, micro-organisms) are discussed. A general strategy for risk control forms the central point in this book. 51 refs.; 67 figs.; 29 tabs

  13. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  14. What the IAEA Laboratories Bring to the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2014-01-01

    The safeguards laboratories are critical to the IAEA’s work to help prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. The nuclear applications laboratories, located in Vienna, Seibersdorf, near Vienna, and Monaco, help Member States tackle fundamental development issues such as food security, water resource management, human health, and the monitoring and management of environmental radioactivity and pollution

  15. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  16. Lincoln Laboratory Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...

  17. Gun Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Gun Dynamics Laboratory is a research multi-task facility, which includes two firing bays, a high bay area and a second floor laboratory space. The high bay area...

  18. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  19. Denver District Laboratory (DEN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesDEN-DO Laboratory is a multi-functional laboratory capable of analyzing most chemical analytes and pathogenic/non-pathogenic microorganisms found...

  20. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  1. Perceptions of Help Given to Healthy Older Mothers by Adult Daughters: Ways of Initiating Help and Types of Help Given

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Tanya S.; Grusec, Joan E.; Bernardini, Silvia Cortese

    2003-01-01

    Older mother-adult daughter dyads (N = 43) addressed two issues pertaining to the ways in which help is initiated (offered, requested, and imposed help) and type of help given (instrumental help, advice, and emotional support) a) mothers' reasoning about these aspects of help, and b) daughters' understanding of mothers' feelings. Both groups noted…

  2. How to help teachers' voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatweber, Margarete

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that teachers are at high risk of developing occupational dysphonia, and it has been widely accepted that the vocal characteristics of a speaker play an important role in determining the reactions of listeners. The functions of breathing, breathing movement, breathing tonus, voice vibrations and articulation tonus are transmitted to the listener. So we may conclude that listening to the teacher's voice at school influences children's behavior and the perception of spoken language. This paper presents the concept of Schlaffhorst-Andersen including exercises to help teachers improve their voice, breathing, movement and their posture. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Photovoltaic Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's PV characterization laboratory is used to measure the electrical performance and opto-electronic properties of solar cells and modules. This facility consists...

  4. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  5. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  6. Sandia National Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 60 years, Sandia has delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation's most challenging security issues.Sandia National Laboratories...

  7. Wireless Emulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Wireless Emulation Laboratory (WEL) is a researchtest bed used to investigate fundamental issues in networkscience. It is a research infrastructure that emulates...

  8. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...

  9. Embedded Processor Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Embedded Processor Laboratory provides the means to design, develop, fabricate, and test embedded computers for missile guidance electronics systems in support...

  10. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  11. Acoustic Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains an electro-magnetic worldwide data collection and field measurement capability in the area of acoustic technology. Outfitted by NASA Langley...

  12. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  13. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  14. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  15. Composites Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose of the Composites Characterization Laboratory is to investigate new and/or modified matrix materials and fibers for advanced composite applications both...

  16. Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL) utilizes a low-frequency acceleration measurement system for the characterization of rigid body inertial forces generated...

  17. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  18. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  19. Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Maryland provides the state of the art facilities for realizing next generation products and educating the...

  20. Virtual Training Devices Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...

  1. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  2. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  3. [Theme: Using Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Jack; Braker, Clifton

    1982-01-01

    Pritchard discusses the opportunities for applied learning afforded by laboratories. Braker describes the evaluation of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. (SK)

  4. Wind Structural Testing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides office space for industry researchers, experimental laboratories, computer facilities for analytical work, and space for assembling components...

  5. Geospatial Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: To process, store, and disseminate geospatial data to the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies.DESCRIPTION: The Geospatial Services Laboratory...

  6. Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, researchers study how chemical looping combustion (CLC) can be applied to fossil energy systems....

  7. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  8. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  9. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  10. Laboratory of Chemical Physics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current research in the Laboratory of Chemical Physics is primarily concerned with experimental, theoretical, and computational problems in the structure, dynamics,...

  11. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  12. Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory is used to design and integrate computer hardware and software and related electronic subsystems for tactical vehicles....

  13. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  14. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  15. Quality control for laboratory diagnosis for hand, foot and mouth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    the system for laboratory diagnosis in HFMD. Despite using molecular based technique, some laboratories can still not possibly detect the pathogen.[11] For sure, this can cause the problem in disease control during the outbreak. It is noted that using internal control help improve diagnostic property of laboratory test.[12].

  16. Helping to expand scientific knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear research has spread rapidly across practically all of the established sciences. It has been a dynamic and creative process in which the Agency has been able to play a constructive role. One of the methods has been the programme of research contracts. This has provided financial support for research involving some form of nuclear technology to physicists, chemists, medical doctors, hydrologists, entomologists, geneticists and scientists in many other disciplines. It is a system almost unique within the United Nations family, though the World Health Organization (WHO) also supports medical research under contract. An examination of the programme and its catalysing and co-ordinating effects in the expansion of scientific knowledge is made here by Clarence O'Neal, of the Division of Research and Laboratories. (author)

  17. Virtual laboratory for radiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiftikci, A.; Kocar, C.; Tombakoglu, M.

    2009-01-01

    Simulation of alpha, beta and gamma radiation detection and measurement experiments which are part of real nuclear physics laboratory courses was realized with Monte Carlo method and JAVA Programming Language. As being known, establishing this type of laboratories are very expensive. At the same time, highly radioactive sources used in some experiments carries risk for students and also for experimentalists. By taking into consideration of those problems, the aim of this study is to setup a virtual radiation laboratory with minimum cost and to speed up the training of radiation physics for students with no radiation risk. Software coded possesses the nature of radiation and radiation transport with the help of Monte Carlo method. In this software, experimental parameters can be changed manually by the user and experimental results can be followed synchronous in an MCA (Multi Channel Analyzer) or an SCA (Single Channel Analyzer). Results obtained in experiments can be analyzed by these MCA or SCA panels. Virtual radiation laboratory which is developed in this study with reliable results and unlimited experimentation capability seems as an useful educational material. Moreover, new type of experiments can be integrated to this software easily and as a result, virtual laboratory can be extended.

  18. Demonstration with Energy and Daylighting Assessment of Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Window Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh

    2012-03-31

    skylights during the months of May, June, July, August and 1.9 times higher than the thermochromic skylight during the months of March, April, September, October. Calculated illuminance levels were much more consistent as compared to the existing constant tint skylights installed at LinEl Signature. This allows for a more comfortable interior space in regard to glare discomfort and interior lighting control. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was contracted to characterize the performance of the thermochromic interlayer and thermochromic window systems. Thermochromic interlayer was characterized with spectrometer equipment. The thermochromic window systems were characterized using LBNL’s Advanced Window Test Facility. A copy of the report can be found in the Appendix. Iowa State University was contracted to compare thermochromic window technology to constant tint technology. Iowa State University conducted the testing at the Energy Resource Station (ERS). The ERS has the ability to simultaneously test side-by-side competing building technologies. The building is equipped with two identical air handling units, each with its own dedicated and identical chiller. One air handling unit supplies the four test rooms designated as the A rooms and the other unit serves the four test rooms designated as the B rooms. There is one A test room and one B test rooms arranged as pairs in a side-by-side design with each pair having a different exposure. There is a pair of test rooms that face the south, an east and west facing pair. Each of the test rooms is a mirror image of its match with identical construction. The rooms are unoccupied; however, the capability to impose false loads on the rooms exists. The false loads and room lighting can be scheduled to simulate various usage patterns. A copy of the report can be found in the Appendix. GARD Analytics was contracted to compare EnergyPlus building simulations to the data recorded at the Iowa ERS. The goal of this research was to

  19. Interrelated experiments in laboratory and space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Many advances in understanding space plasma phenomena have been linked to insight derived from theoretical modelling and/or laboratory experiments. Here are discussed advances for which laboratory experiments played an important role. How the interpretation of the space plasma data was influenced by one or more laboratory experiments is described. The space-motivation of laboratory investigations and the scaling of laboratory plasma parameters to space plasma conditions are discussed. Examples demonstrating how laboratory experiments develop physical insight, benchmark theoretical models, discover unexpected behaviour, establish observational signatures, and pioneer diagnostic methods for the space community are presented. The various device configurations found in space-related laboratory investigations are outlined. A primary objective of this review is to articulate the overlapping scientific issues that are addressable in space and lab experiments. A secondary objective is to convey the wide range of laboratory and space plasma experiments involved in this interdisciplinary alliance. The interrelation ship between plasma experiments in the laboratory and in space has a long history, with numerous demonstrations of the benefits afforded the space community by laboratory results. An experiment's suitability and limitations for investigating space processes can be quantitatively established using dimensionless parameters. Even with a partial match of these parameters, aspects of waves, instabilities, nonlinearities, particle transport, reconnection, and hydrodynamics are addressable in a way useful to observers and modelers of space phenomena. Because diagnostic access to space plasmas, laboratory-experimentalists awareness of space phenomena, and efforts by theorists and funding agencies to help scientists bridge the gap between the space and laboratory communities are increasing, the range of laboratory and space plasma experiments with overlapping scientific

  20. Water bath hyperthermia is a simple therapy for psoriasis and also stimulates skin tanning in response to sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreham, D.R.; Gasmann, H.C.; Mitchel, R.E.J

    1994-07-01

    An eight week trial, involving superficial hyperthermia delivered biweekly via simple water bath immersion, was tested for its ability to clear mild to moderate psoriatic lesions. Seven patients were treated and three cases rapidly improved. In the remaining patients, the treatment frequency was increased to alternate days; two cases improved significantly, one patient showed a partial response, and the fourth had no visible change (this was the only patient taking concurrent drug therapy - etretinate). In addition to resolving psoriatic lesions, water bath hyperthermia also reduced edema (swelling) and relieved pruritus (itching) in all patients, both during the treatment period and for up to several months after lesions had returned. Lesion reappearance occurred within one to three months after the last heat treatment. We retreated one patient and produced a second complete remission. These results indicate that simple repetitive water bath hyperthermia alone is effective in the treatment of psoriatic lesions in heatable locations. An unexpected side effect was enhanced melanin content (tanning) in all areas where hyperthermia treated skin was exposed to sunlight. (author)

  1. Sunlight mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using redox phytoprotein and their application in catalysis and colorimetric mercury sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khan Behlol Ayaz; Senthilnathan, Rajendran; Megarajan, Sengan; Anbazhagan, Veerappan

    2015-10-01

    Owing to the benign nature, plant extracts mediated green synthesis of metal nanoparticles (NPs) is rapidly expanding. In this study, we demonstrated the successful green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by utilizing natural sunlight and redox protein complex composed of ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) and ferredoxin (FD). The capping and stabilization of the AgNPs by the redox protein was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Light and redox protein is the prerequisite factor for the formation of AgNPs. The obtained result shows that the photo generated free radicals by the redox protein is responsible for the reduction of Ag(+) to Ag(0). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of spherical AgNPs with size ranging from 10 to 15 nm. As-prepared AgNPs exhibit excellent catalytic activity toward the degradation of hazardous organic dyes, such as methylene blue, methyl orange and methyl red. These bio-inspired AgNPs is highly sensitive and selective in sensing hazardous mercury ions in the water at micromolar concentration. In addition, FNR/FD extract stabilized AgNPs showed good antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However, for highly efficient CPV (concentrated photovoltaic) system, the literature is lacking for energy management and optimization algorithm and tool for standalone operation. In this paper, a system with CPV and electrolyser is presented where beam irradiance of sunlight is harnessed to convert the instantaneously generated electricity into useful Hydrogen/Oxygen gas, where they can be stored and re-used for downstream applications such as the fuel cells, etc. The multi-variable design and multi-objective optimization strategies are proposed and presented for a standalone operation of the CPV-Hydrogen system as well as their system performances, particularly electrical rating of CPV based upon the real weather data of Singapore. - Highlights: • Design modelling and energy management strategy is proposed for CPV-Hydrogen system. • Micro GA does multi-variable and multi-objective optimization for standalone operation. • Design is verified and analysed for minimum cost, zero PSFT and optimal storage. • Performance of each component is presented for different real weather data conditions. • Proposed design approach is applicable in all regions with low and high DNI.

  3. Sunlight assisted photocatalytic degradation of Indigo Carmine using eco-friendly synthesized CdSnO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok V. Borhade

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study I have developed an eco-friendly mechanochemical solid state method with green chemistry approach for the synthesis of CdSnO3. The photocatalyst was characterized to carry out physicochemical characterization by various analytical techniques like, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Ultraviolet diffused reflectance Spectroscopy (UV-DRS, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Tunnelling Electron Microscopy (TEM and Brunauer–Emmett– Teller (BET surface area. The synthesized CdSnO3 particles had an average size of 105 nm with band gap 3.17 eV. The surface area by BET isotherm method highlight for the synthesized photocatalyst (SBET is 54.45 m2/g, with pore volume (Vp is 0.021 cc/g, and pore diameter (Dp is 24.85 Aº. Photocatalytic activity of CdSnO3 was demonstrated by degradation of Indigo carmine dye under influence of sunlight in aqueous solution

  4. Hierarchical FeTiO3-TiO2 hollow spheres for efficient simulated sunlight-driven water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taoran; Chen, Yajie; Tian, Guohui; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Ren, Zhiyu; Zhou, Wei; Fu, Honggang

    2015-10-14

    Oxygen generation is the key step for the photocatalytic overall water splitting and considered to be kinetically more challenging than hydrogen generation. Here, an effective water oxidation catalyst of hierarchical FeTiO3-TiO2 hollow spheres are prepared via a two-step sequential solvothermal processes and followed by thermal treatment. The existence of an effective heterointerface and built-in electric field in the surface space charge region in FeTiO3-TiO2 hollow spheres plays a positive role in promoting the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. Surface photovoltage, transient-state photovoltage, fluorescence and electrochemical characterization are used to investigate the transfer process of photoinduced charge carriers. The photogenerated charge carriers in the hierarchical FeTiO3-TiO2 hollow spheres with a proper molar ratio display much higher separation efficiency and longer lifetime than those in the FeTiO3 alone. Moreover, it is suggested that the hierarchical porous hollow structure can contribute to the enhancement of light utilization, surface active sites and material transportation through the framework walls. This specific synergy significantly contributes to the remarkable improvement of the photocatalytic water oxidation activity of the hierarchical FeTiO3-TiO2 hollow spheres under simulated sunlight (AM1.5).

  5. Integrating a Silicon Solar Cell with a Triboelectric Nanogenerator via a Mutual Electrode for Harvesting Energy from Sunlight and Raindrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiang; Sun, Na; Liu, Jiawei; Wen, Zhen; Sun, Xuhui; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Sun, Baoquan

    2018-03-27

    Solar cells, as promising devices for converting light into electricity, have a dramatically reduced performance on rainy days. Here, an energy harvesting structure that integrates a solar cell and a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) device is built to realize power generation from both sunlight and raindrops. A heterojunction silicon (Si) solar cell is integrated with a TENG by a mutual electrode of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film. Regarding the solar cell, imprinted PEDOT:PSS is used to reduce light reflection, which leads to an enhanced short-circuit current density. A single-electrode-mode water-drop TENG on the solar cell is built by combining imprinted polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as a triboelectric material combined with a PEDOT:PSS layer as an electrode. The increasing contact area between the imprinted PDMS and water drops greatly improves the output of the TENG with a peak short-circuit current of ∼33.0 nA and a peak open-circuit voltage of ∼2.14 V, respectively. The hybrid energy harvesting system integrated electrode configuration can combine the advantages of high current level of a solar cell and high voltage of a TENG device, promising an efficient approach to collect energy from the environment in different weather conditions.

  6. Absorption of Sunlight by Water Vapor in Cloudy Conditions: A Partial Explanation for the Cloud Absorption Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, D.

    1997-01-01

    The atmospheric radiative transfer algorithms used in most global general circulation models underestimate the globally-averaged solar energy absorbed by cloudy atmospheres by up to 25 W/sq m. The origin of this anomalous absorption is not yet known, but it has been attributed to a variety of sources including oversimplified or missing physical processes in these models, uncertainties in the input data, and even measurement errors. Here, a sophisticated atmospheric radiative transfer model was used to provide a more comprehensive description of the physical processes that contribute to the absorption of solar radiation by the Earth's atmosphere. We found that the amount of sunlight absorbed by a cloudy atmosphere is inversely proportional to the solar zenith angle and the cloud top height, and directly proportional to the cloud optical depth and the water vapor concentration within the clouds. Atmospheres with saturated, optically-thick, low clouds absorbed about 12 W/sq m more than clear atmospheres. This accounts for about 1/2 to 1/3 of the anomalous ab- sorption. Atmospheres with optically thick middle and high clouds usually absorb less than clear atmospheres. Because water vapor is concentrated within and below the cloud tops, this absorber is most effective at small solar zenith angles. An additional absorber that is distributed at or above the cloud tops is needed to produce the amplitude and zenith angle dependence of the observed anomalous absorption.

  7. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Piotti

    Full Text Available Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor. The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the

  8. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the presence of the

  9. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  10. Evaluation of sunlight induced structural changes and their effect on the photocatalytic activity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} for the degradation of phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslam, M. [Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Ismail, Iqbal M.I. [Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Salah, Numan [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chandrasekaran, S. [Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Qamar, M.Tariq [Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Hameed, A., E-mail: afmuhammad@kau.edu.sa [Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); National Centre for Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • The interaction of UV photons of sunlight induces defects in V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. • The photon induced defects promotes the trapping and transfer of excited electrons. • The nature of the substituent at 2-position affects the degradation process. • The formation of the intermediates is influenced by the nature of substituents. • The released ions are subjected further transformation. - Abstract: Despite knowing the fact that vanadium pentoxide is slightly soluble in aqueous medium, its photocatalytic activity was evaluated for the degradation of phenol and its derivatives (2-hydroxyphenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2-aminophenol and 2-nitrophenol) in natural sunlight exposure. The prime objective of the study was to differentiate between the homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysis incurred by dissolved and undissolved V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in natural sunlight exposure. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was synthesized by chemical precipitation procedure using Triton X-100 as morphology mediator and characterized by DRS, PLS, Raman, FESEM and XRD. A lower solubility of ∼5% per 100 ml of water at 23 °C was observed after calcination at 600 °C. The study revealed no contribution of the dissolved V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in the photocatalytic process. In sunlight exposure, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder exhibited substantial activity for the degradation, however, a low mineralization of phenolic substrates was observed. The initial low activity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} followed by a sharp increase both in degradation and mineralization in complete spectrum sunlight exposure, was further investigated that revealed the decrease in the bandgap and the reduction in the particle size with the interaction of UV photons (<420 nm) as this effect was not observable in the exposure of visible region of sunlight. The role of the chemically different substituents attached to an aromatic ring at 2-positions and the secondary interaction of released ions during the degradation process with the reactive

  11. Effect of sunlight radiation, rainfall and droplet spectra of sprays on persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis deposits after application of DiPel 76AF formulation onto conifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, A.; Sundaram, K.M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Effect of sunlight radiation, rainfall and droplet spectra of sprays on per ‐sistence of a Bacillus thuringiensis subspp. kurstaki (Btk) formulation, DiPel? 76AF, was examined after application onto spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] foliage. The investigation consisted of three studies: (i) Study I: a laboratory microcosm study to examine the photostability of DiPel 76AF deposits on foliage after different periods of exposure to two radiation intensities, (ii) Study II: a laboratory microcosm study to examine the rainfastness of foliar deposits after exposure to different amounts of rainfall consisting of two separate droplet spectra, and (iii) Study III: a field microcosm study to investigate the influence of two different droplet spectra of DiPel 76AF sprays on foliar persistence of Btk under natural weathering conditions. In all studies, persistence of Btk was investigated both by bioassay [using spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens)] and total protein assay.The findings of Study I indicated that bioactivity of foliar deposits decreased with increasing duration of exposure to radiation, and with increasing radiation intensity. The half‐life (DT 50 , the exposure period required for 50% of the initial bioactivity to disappear) was 5.1 d for the low intensity, and 3.9 d for the higher intensity. In contrast with the bioassay results, the total protein levels [determined by the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method] showed no decrease with increasing duration of exposure, or with increasing radiation intensity.The findings of Study II indicated that bioactivity of foliar deposits decreased with increasing cumulative rainfall. A new term, RF 50 [the amount of rain (in mm) required to washoff 50% of the initial deposit], was introduced to understand the relationship between rainfall intensity and reduction in bioactivity. When the same amount of rain was applied in different droplet sizes, the RF 50 value was high (5.2 mm) for the small rain droplets

  12. REACHING THE COMPUTING HELP DESK

    CERN Multimedia

    Miguel MARQUINA; Roger WOOLNOUGH; IT/User Support

    1999-01-01

    The way to contact the Computing Help Desk (also known as 'UCO' and hosted by IT Division as an entry point for general computing issues) has been streamlined in order to facilitate access to it. A new telephone line and email address have been set: Phone number: 78888Email: Helpdesk@cern.chhopefully easier to remember. Both entries are operational since last December. The previous number and email address remain valid and have been turned into aliases of the above. However we encourage using the latter at your convenience from now on. For additional information please see the article published at the CERN Computing Newsletter 233:http://consult.cern.ch/cnl/233/art_uco.htmlDo not hesitate to contact us (by email to User.Relations@cern.ch) for additional information or feedback regarding this matter.Nicole Cremel, Miguel Marquina, Roger WoolnoughIT/UserSupport

  13. REACHING THE COMPUTING HELP DESK

    CERN Multimedia

    Miguel Marquina

    2000-01-01

    You may find it useful to glue the information below, e.g. near/at your computer, for those occasions when access to computer services is not possible. It presents the way to contact the Computing Help Desk (hosted by IT Division as an entry point for general computing issues). Do not hesitate to contact us (by email to User.Relations@cern.ch) for additional information or feedback regarding this matter.Your contact for general computing problems or queriesPhone number:(+41 22 76) 78888Opening Hours:From Monday to Friday 8:30-17:30Email:Helpdesk@cern.chWeb:http://consult.cern.ch/service/helpdeskMiguel MarquinaIT Division/UserSupport

  14. Principle of Care and Giving to Help People in Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkers, René; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Theories of moral development posit that an internalized moral value that one should help those in need-the principle of care-evokes helping behaviour in situations where empathic concern does not. Examples of such situations are helping behaviours that involve cognitive deliberation and planning, that benefit others who are known only in the abstract, and who are out-group members. Charitable giving to help people in need is an important helping behaviour that has these characteristics. Therefore we hypothesized that the principle of care would be positively associated with charitable giving to help people in need, and that the principle of care would mediate the empathic concern-giving relationship. The two hypotheses were tested across four studies. The studies used four different samples, including three nationally representative samples from the American and Dutch populations, and included both self-reports of giving (Studies 1-3), giving observed in a survey experiment (Study 3), and giving observed in a laboratory experiment (Study 4). The evidence from these studies indicated that a moral principle to care for others was associated with charitable giving to help people in need and mediated the empathic concern-giving relationship. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Personality published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Association of Personality Psychology.

  15. Modern clinical laboratory diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakhovskij, I.S.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory diagnosis is auxillary medical discipline studying specific laboratory symptoms of diseases, revealed by investigations of materials taken from patients. The structure of laboratory servie in our country and abroad, items of laboratory investigations, organizational principles are described. Attention is being given to the cost of analyses, the amount of conducted investigations, methods of result presentation, problems of accuracy, quality control and information content

  16. Mobile spectrometric laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isajenko, K.A.; Lipinski, P.

    2002-01-01

    The article presents the Mobile Spectrometric Laboratory used by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection since year 2000. The equipment installed in the Mobile Laboratory and its uses is described. The results of international exercises and intercalibrations, in which the Laboratory participated are presented. (author)

  17. Intervention: Help a Loved One Overcome Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intervention: Help a loved one overcome addiction An intervention can motivate someone to seek help for alcohol or drug misuse, compulsive eating, or ... successful. By Mayo Clinic Staff It's challenging to help a loved one struggling with any type of ...

  18. Quality assurance handbook for measurement laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvin, W.L.

    1984-10-01

    This handbook provides guidance in the application of quality assurance to measurement activities. It is intended to help those persons making measurements in applying quality assurance to their work activities by showing how laboratory practices and quality assurance requirements are integrated to provide control within those activities. The use of the guidance found in this handbook should help provide consistency in the interpretation of quality assurance requirements across all types of measurement laboratories. This handbook also can assist quality assurance personnel in understanding the relationships between laboratory practices and quality assurance requirements. The handbook is composed of three chapters and several appendices. Basic guidance is provided by the three chapters. In Chapter 1, the role of quality assurance in obtaining quality data and the importance of such data are discussed. Chapter 2 presents the elements of laboratory quality assurance in terms of practices that can be used in controlling work activities to assure the acquisition of quality data. Chapter 3 discusses the implementation of laboratory quality assurance. The appendices provide supplemental information to give the users a better understanding of the following: what is quality assurance; why quality assurance is required; where quality assurance requirements come from; how those requirements are interpreted for application to laboratory operations; how the elements of laboratory quality assurance relate to various laboratory activities; and how a quality assurance program can be developed

  19. Energy Materials Research Laboratory (EMRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energy Materials Research Laboratory at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) creates a cross-disciplinary laboratory facility that lends itself to the...

  20. ADEQUATE UV EXPOSURES FOR HEALTHY LIFE: IN SITU MONITORING AND MODEL CALCULATION OF THE VITAMIN-D-SYNTHETIC CAPACITY OF SUNLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Terenetskaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D which is formed upon UV solar radiation in human skin is essential in many physiological functions. To estimate beneficial vitamin-D-synthetic capacity of sunlight a bio-equivalent UV dosimeter that is based on the same molecular photochemistry from which vitamin D is photosynthesized in human skin has been developed. The examples of an in situ monitoring of the vitamin-D-synthetic capacity of sunlight using an in vitro model of vitamin D synthesis are presented, and various operational principles of the UV biodosimeter are discussed. In addition, reliable algorithm is presented for direct calculation of previtamin D3 accumulation using the photoreaction mathematical model with solar UV spectra as input data. Critical dependence of previtamin D3 accumulation on cloudiness and aerosols is demonstrated.

  1. Response to comment on paper examining the feasibility of changing New York state's energy infrastructure to one derived from wind, water, and sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.; Howarth, Robert W.; Delucchi, Mark A.; Scobie, Stan R.; Barth, Jannette M.; Dvorak, Michael J.; Klevze, Megan; Katkhuda, Hind; Miranda, Brian; Chowdhury, Navid A.; Jones, Rick; Plano, Larsen; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Jacobson et al. (2013, hereinafter J13), presented the technical and economic feasibility of converting New York States' all-purpose energy infrastructure (electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, industry) to one powered by wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) producing electricity and electrolytic hydrogen. Gilbraith et al. (2013) question several aspects of our approach. Unfortunately, Gilbraith et al. inaccurately portray what we stated and referenced and ignore many recent supporting studies. They also refer to previous misplaced critiques of our earlier global WWS study but fail to reference the responses to those critiques, Delucchi and Jacobson (2011b) and Jacobson and Delucchi (2013). We fully stand by the conclusions of both the previous and present studies. - Highlights: • New York State's all-purpose energy can be derived from wind, water, and sunlight. • The main limitations are social and political, not technical or economic. • This response to commentary reaffirms these conclusions

  2. Helping You Help Me: The Role of Diagnostic (In)congruence in the Helping Process within Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Colin M.; Pillemer, Julianna; Amabile, Teresa M.

    2014-01-01

    Through an inductive, multi-method field study at a major design firm, we investigated the helping process in project work and how that process affects the success of a helping episode, as perceived by help-givers and/or -receivers. We used daily diary entries and weekly interviews from four project teams, and a separate sample of critical incident interviews, to induce process models of successful and unsuccessful helping episodes. We found that, in unsuccessful episodes, help-givers and -re...

  3. Effects of P25 TiO2 Nanoparticles on the Free Radical-Scavenging Ability of Antioxidants upon Their Exposure to Simulated Sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Chong, Yu; Fu, Peter P; Xia, Qingsu; Croley, Timothy R; Lo, Y Martin; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2017-11-15

    Although nanosized ingredients, including TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs), can be found in a wide range of consumer products, little is known about the effects these particles have on other active compounds in product matrices. These NPs can interact with reactive oxygen species (ROS), potentially disrupting or canceling the benefits expected from antioxidants. We used electron spin resonance spectrometry to assess changes in the antioxidant capacities of six dietary antioxidants (ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, glutathione, cysteine, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate) during exposure to P25 TiO 2 and/or simulated sunlight. Specifically, we determined the ability of these antioxidants to scavenge 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical, superoxide radical, and hydroxyl radical. Exposure to simulated sunlight alone did not lead to noticeable changes in radical-scavenging abilities; however, in combination with P25 TiO 2 NPs, the scavenging abilities of most antioxidants were weakened. We found glutathione to be the most resistant to treatment with sunlight and NPs among these six antioxidants.

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of nanocellulose supported zinc oxide composite for RhB dye as well as ciprofloxacin drug under sunlight/visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavker, Neha; Sharma, Manu

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesised from zinc acetate di-hydrate via co-precipitation method. Nanocellulose was isolated from agrowaste using chemo-mechanical treatments and characterized. Nanocellulose supported zinc oxide composites were prepared through in-situ method by adding different amounts of nanocellulose. The photocatalytic efficiency of pure Zno and nanocellulose supported ZnO was calculated using RhB dye under visible light and sun light. The composites which had nanocellulose in greater ratio showed higher degradation efficiency in sunlight rather than visible light for both; dye and drug. All the composites showed high rate of photodegradation compared to bare ZnO and bare nanocellulose. The enhancement in photocatalytic activity was observed maximum where the amount of cellulose was maximum. The maximum observed rate was 0.025 min-1 using Ciprofloxacin drug due to the increase in lifetime of Z4 sample delaying the electron and hole pair recombination. The degrading efficiency of nanocellulose supported zinc oxide (NC/ZnO) composite for RhB was found to be 35% in visible, 76% in sunlight and 75% for ciprofloxacin under sunlight.

  5. Preservation of glutamic acid-iron chelate into montmorillonite to efficiently degrade Reactive Blue 19 in a Fenton system under sunlight irradiation at neutral pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhujian [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Wu, Pingxiao, E-mail: pppxwu@scut.edu.cn [School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Gong, Beini; Yang, Shanshan; Li, Hailing [School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Ziao; Cui, Lihua [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • G–Fe chelate molecules were well preserved into montmorillonite. • The product shows an excellent catalytic activity under sunlight at neutral pH value. • G–Fe–Mt is a promising catalyst for advanced oxidation processes. - Abstract: To further enhance the visible light responsive property and the chemical stability of Fe/clay mineral catalysts, glutamic acid-iron chelate intercalated montmorillonite (G–Fe–Mt) was developed. The physiochemical properties of G–Fe–Mt were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), etc. The results showed that glutamic acid-iron chelates were successfully intercalated into the gallery of montmorillonite and the intercalated glutamic acid-iron chelate molecules were well preserved. The product G–Fe–Mt displayed excellent catalytic performance in heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction under sunlight irradiation at acidic and neutral pH values. The chelation and the visible light responsiveness of glutamic acid produce a synergistic effect leading to greatly enhanced sunlight-Fenton reaction catalyzed by the heterogeneous G–Fe–Mt under neutral pH. G–Fe–Mt is a promising catalyst for advanced oxidation processes.

  6. Effect of solution temperature, light intensity and light in combination with sunlight using mirror duct on growth of leaf lettuce (Lactuca savtiva L. cv. 'Greenwave')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, H.; Kushida, M.; Fujinuma, W.; Sekine, M.; Kaiho, K.; Arai, H.; Shibusawa, S.

    2004-01-01

    Leaf lettuce crops (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Greenwave') were grown in a plant production system using a Mirror Duct which intensified sunlight and transferred it to the inside of buildings. This system was expected to reduce the operational energy and lighting cost. The experiments were conducted under four photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPF) of 140,160, 180, and 200 micro mol mE-2 sE-1, in two light conditions, fluorescent light only and fluorescent light plus sunlight transferred with the Mirror Duct, and were repeated five times in total from August 2002 to July 2003. Five different solution temperatures were finally obtained through all the experiments due to temperature changes inside the experiment facility. Variance was analyzed to estimate the effect of these environmental factors on the growth of leaf lettuce. It was found that the fresh weight of leaf lettuce increased as PPF increased and the rate of increase of weight was 0.6 to 1.0 g per unit PPF in both 17.4 deg C and 23.5 deg C solution temperatures; the solution temperature had a significant effect upon the fresh weight; and a difference in fresh weight at harvest of between 40 and 60 g was observed between 17.4 deg C and 23.5 deg C solution temperatures. The light containing 10% sunlight was not effective for increasing fresh weight at harvest compared to the fluorescent lamp

  7. Relevance of sunscreen application method, visible light and sunlight intensity to free-radical protection: A study of ex vivo human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    With the continued rise in skin cancers worldwide there is a need for effective skin protection against sunlight damage. It was shown previously that sunscreens, which claimed UVA protection (SPF 20+), provided limited protection against UV-induced ascorbate radicals in human skin. Here the results of an electron spin resonance (ESR) investigation to irradiate ex vivo human skin with solar-simulated light are reported. The ascorbate radical signal in the majority of skin samples was directly proportional to the irradiance over relevant sunlight intensities (0.9-2.9 mW cm(-2)). Radical production (substratum-corneum) by UV (wavelengths 400 nm) was approximately 67% and 33% respectively. Ascorbate radicals were in steady state concentration at low irradiance (approximately 1 mW cm(-2) equivalent to UK sunlight), but at higher irradiance (approximately 3 mW cm(-2)) decreased with time, suggesting ascorbate depletion. Radical protection by a four star-rated sunscreen (with UVA protection) was optimal when applied as a thin film (40-60% at 2 mg cm(-2)) but less so when rubbed into the skin (37% at 4 mg cm(-2) and no significant protection at 2 mg cm(-2)), possibly due to cream filling crevices, which reduced film thickness. This study validates ESR determinations of the ascorbate radical for quantitative protection measurements. Visible light contribution to radical production, and loss of protection when sunscreen is rubbed into skin, has implications for sunscreen design and use for the prevention of free-radical damage.

  8. An integrated effect of protein intake at breakfast and morning exposure to sunlight on the circadian typology in Japanese infants aged 2-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Miyo; Takeuchi, Hitomi; Taniwaki, Nozomi; Noji, Teruki; Harada, Tetsuo

    2009-09-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) intake at breakfast promotes morning-typed circadian typology and higher sleep quality in Japanese children aged 0-6 yrs (Harada et al., 2007). This effect may be accelerated by morning exposure to sunlight, which has not yet been tested. This study aimed to investigate such an effect in Japanese children. In May, 2006, an integrated questionnaire was administered to 0-6-year-old children attending one of 12 kindergartens. 906 parents answered the questionnaire for their children and themselves (response rate: 67.4%). The integrated questionnaire included the revised version for children of the Morningness-Eveningness (M-E) Questionnaire and questions on sleep, nutritional balance, mental health, and sunlight exposure. Analysis was made on data from 744 children aged 2-6 (385 girls, 359 boys) whose average M-E score was 20.6+/-3.46. Children who had breakfast at regular times tended to be more morning-typed and were less frequently angry (p=0.001) and depressed (p=0.007). Children who had nutritionally well-balanced breakfasts tended to be more morning-typed (pbreakfast might be a strong zeitgeber for circadian oscillators of children, and the morning-type driving effect of protein intake could be accelerated by morning exposure to sunlight.

  9. Evaluation of the effects of repeated hand washing, sunlight, smoke and dirt on the persistence of deltamethrin on insecticide-treated nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayedi, M H; Lines, J D; Haghdoost, A A; Vatandoost, M H; Rassi, Y; Khamisabady, K

    2008-08-01

    Field studies were carried out in Iran to evaluate the effect of various factors (washing, sun, smoke, dust and dirt) on the residual insecticidal activity of PermaNet (a brand of long-lasting insecticidal net), and on nets conventionally treated with deltamethrin (K-O Tab), using bioassay tests. Thirty-two nets were washed five or 15 times, and eight nets were not washed at all. Nets were washed vigorously in cold tap water (17 degrees C, pH 8.9) with a detergent. Hand rubbing continued for 3min. After washing, some nets were exposed to dense smoke from a dung-hay fire for 3min and were also left exposed to the dusty wind between washes. One group of nets was exposed to the sunlight for the full 3-d interval between washes; another was exposed to sunlight for just 3h after each wash; two other groups were kept in the shade. There was a significantly greater loss of activity in nets exposed to the sun throughout the 3-d interval between washes: that is, for a total of 15 to 45 d. However, short sunlight exposure (maximum 3h between washes) during drying did not have any effect. We did not find any significant effect of exposure to dirt, dust and smoke after washing. It is concluded that the effect of sun is much smaller than that of washing, and that drying nets for a few hours in the sun is not harmful.

  10. Application of Ammonium Bechromate and Potassium Bechromate as PhotoSensitive Emulsion to Sunlight Irradiation on Printing Screen for Textile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso-Sastrosoeparno

    2000-01-01

    The paste of photo sensitive emulsion that has been used in thepreparation for producing ready used printing screen contained two materials,namely the paste from monomer solution to be polymerized for strengtheningthe printing screen, and material for photo sensitive emulsion, usingammonium or potassium bichromate as common agent. From the previous studyabout producing printing screen from polyester, by using vinyl alcohol (VA)and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) as polymeric material, as well as ammoniumbichromate as photo sensitive emulsion, has obtained the best combination forpolymer mixture from 80% of vinyl alcohol and 20% of polyvinyl acetate. Inthis research study, the same activity will be subjected to either ammoniumor potassium bichromate, with assumption that there will be differentproperties between ammonium and potassium cations which might have influenceto the printing screen from polyester. Some various mixture of VA and PVAc aspolymeric materials were carried out in this study, and to each of thepolymeric paste was added the photo sensitive emulsion, either ammoniumbe-chromate or potassium bichromate, stirring to homogeneous condition,coating the surface of flat printing screen, allow to dry in the dark room(no light), apply to sunlight irradiation for few minutes, and followed bycuring process to become ready used as printing screen. The printing screenproduced in this experiment was then subjected to various testing, such asstiffness, strength retention and shearing strength in either length andwidth directions of the screen. It was shown from the testing results thatthe coated screen with potassium bichromate as photo sensitive emulsion willgain better properties in stiffness, strength retention as well as shearingstrength, in all polymeric mixtures, compared to the ones with ammoniumbe-chromate. (author)

  11. Screening of Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. conidia with exposure to simulated sunlight and a range of temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley-Davies, J.; Moore, D.; Prior, C.

    1996-01-01

    Conidia of 14 isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium flavoviride and M. anisopliae were formulated by suspending in paraffinic oil or as dry powder. Non-indicating silica gel was added to both formulations which were stored at 13 °C for at least 2 wk before exposure to a range of temperatures: −10°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40° and 50° to determine the effects of temperature of storage on viability. At 50° the isolate studied in most detail (M. flavoviride, IMI 330189) initially showed a gradual decline in viability with 73% germination for oil samples after 60 d from an initial level of 93%, whereas the dry samples typically showed higher germination rates (initially 96% germination, dropping to 80% after 60 d). Subsequently there was a rapid decline and both oil formulated and dry conidia had lost almost all viability by 90 d. Samples of IMI 330189 stored dry or in oil, at 40° and below showed > 79% germination after 90 d. M. flavoviride 191–660 exhibited the highest temperature tolerance with >40% germination of the dry stored conidia after 90 d at 50°. Some isolates of both B. bassiana and Metarhizium spp. showed markedly lower tolerance of high temperatures. Samples stored dry usually showed greater percentage germination than samples in oil for all isolates, at all temperatures. The isolates were also exposed to 4, 8, 16 and 24 h uv light from a sunlight simulator at 40°. Conidial viability decreased markedly in all isolates with increasing uv exposure. Germination ranged between 10 and 50% after 24 h exposure to uv, 191–660 retaining highest viability. (author)

  12. Roadmaps for powering the world, U.S., and individual states for all purposes with wind, water, and sunlight (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2013-12-01

    Global warming, air pollution, and energy insecurity are three of the most significant problems facing the world today. This talk discusses these problems and technical and economic plans to solve them by powering 100% of the world, individual countries, and states for all purposes, including electricity, transportation, industry, and heating/cooling, with wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) together with efficiency measures, within 20-40 years. Specific plans for New York State and California are discussed. For California, the plan contemplates all new energy powered with WWS by 2020, 80-85% of existing energy replaced by 2030, and 100% replaced by 2050. Electrification plus modest efficiency measures would reduce California's end-use power demand ~44% and stabilize energy prices since WWS fuel costs are zero. Even without additional efficiency improvements, remaining all-purpose 2030 end-use demand could be met with 25% onshore and 10% offshore wind, 15% concentrated solar, 15% utility-scale PV, 10% residential PV, 15% commercial/government PV, 5% geothermal, 0.5% wave, 0.5% tidal, and 4% hydroelectric. These percentages will shift upon implementation. Converting would create ~137,000 net permanent jobs, decrease ~16,000 (4,800-29,600) state air pollution deaths/yr, and avoid 131 (39-296) billion/yr in health costs (6.9% of California's 2010 gross domestic product), repaying the 1 trillion capital cost for 573 GW installed power within ~7.3 yr. California's emission decreases would reduce 2050 U.S. and global climate costs by ~6 and 60 billion/yr, respectively.

  13. PRODUCTIVITY OF MICROALGAE CHLORELLA VULGARIS IN LABORATORY CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Patyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Algae biomass is increasingly regarded as a potential resource that could be used to produce biofuels, electricity and heat. Algae contain a lot of nutrients, so they can be used as food for humans and livestock. Because of their valuable composition (many nutrients they are used as supplements of balanced diet, in turn taking into account their biosorption abbility they are used to detoxification of human body. Algae cultivation does not demand large areas of land to expose cells to sunlight, so their production rate is higher than vascular plants. Moreover algae cultivation lets to achieve high biomass concentration. Important cultivation factors are: illumination (light intensity is an important factor because it drives photosynthesis, CO2 supply, culture medium and mixing. The experimental research was conducted using Chlorella vulgaris BA 002 strain. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of biomass growth in laboratory condition.

  14. Commercialization of a DOE Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, Barry A.

    2008-01-01

    capabilities as a niche market play to success. The niche was further defined by preservation of the ability to handle samples contaminated with radiological materials and those with classification concerns. These decisions enabled early marketing plans to be built on existing clientele and provided an identifiable group to which future marketing could be expanded. Finally, recruitment of key players with commercial laboratory experience proved to be a key factor for success. This experience base was valuable in avoiding early mistakes in the laboratory startup phase and provided some connection to a commercial client base. As the business has grown, professionals with commercial laboratory experience have been recruited and offered ownership in the business as an incentive for joining the group. If the process were to be repeated, early involvement of an individual with commercial sales experience would be helpful in broadening the base of commercial clients. An increased emphasis on research funding such as funding received from Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) sources would be used to form a portion of the economic base for the business. More partnerships with businesses whose services compliment those of the laboratory would expand available client base. More flexible staffing arrangements would be negotiated early on as a cost-control measure. In conclusion, the re-industrialization concept can be successful. Candidates for re-industrialization must be chosen by matching services to be offered to market needs. Implementation is best accomplished by entrepreneurs who personally profit from a successful operation of the business

  15. Laboratory EXAFS using photographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, S K; Gaur, A; Johari, A; Shrivastava, B D

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory EXAFS facilities have been used since long. However, EXAFS data analysis has not been reported as yet for the spectra recorded photographically. Though from our laboratory we have been reporting various studies employing X-ray spectrographs using the photographic method of registration of EXAFS spectra, but the data has never been analyzed using the Fourier transformation method and fitting with standards. This paper reports the study of copper metal EXAFS spectra at the K-edge recorded photographically employing a 400 mm curved mica crystal Cauchois type spectrograph with 0.5 kW tungsten target X-ray tube. The data obtained in digital form with the help of a microphotometer has been processed using EXAFS data analysis programs Athena and Artemis. The experimental data for copper metal foil have been fitted with the theoretical standards. The results have been compared with those obtained from another laboratory EXAFS set up employing 12 kW Rigaku rotating anode, Johansson-type spectrometer with Si(311) monochromator crystal and scintillation counter. The results have also been compared with those obtained from SSRL. The parameters obtained for the first two shells from the photographic method are comparable with those obtained from the other two methods. The present work shows that the photographic method of registering EXAFS spectra in laboratory set up using fixed target X-ray tubes can also be used for getting structural information at least for the first two coordination shells.

  16. Laboratory EXAFS using photographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, S K [Government College, Badnawar (Dhar)-454660 (India); Gaur, A; Johari, A; Shrivastava, B D, E-mail: joshisantoshk@yahoo.co [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain-456010 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Laboratory EXAFS facilities have been used since long. However, EXAFS data analysis has not been reported as yet for the spectra recorded photographically. Though from our laboratory we have been reporting various studies employing X-ray spectrographs using the photographic method of registration of EXAFS spectra, but the data has never been analyzed using the Fourier transformation method and fitting with standards. This paper reports the study of copper metal EXAFS spectra at the K-edge recorded photographically employing a 400 mm curved mica crystal Cauchois type spectrograph with 0.5 kW tungsten target X-ray tube. The data obtained in digital form with the help of a microphotometer has been processed using EXAFS data analysis programs Athena and Artemis. The experimental data for copper metal foil have been fitted with the theoretical standards. The results have been compared with those obtained from another laboratory EXAFS set up employing 12 kW Rigaku rotating anode, Johansson-type spectrometer with Si(311) monochromator crystal and scintillation counter. The results have also been compared with those obtained from SSRL. The parameters obtained for the first two shells from the photographic method are comparable with those obtained from the other two methods. The present work shows that the photographic method of registering EXAFS spectra in laboratory set up using fixed target X-ray tubes can also be used for getting structural information at least for the first two coordination shells.

  17. Investigating Student Perceptions of the Chemistry Laboratory and Their Approaches to Learning in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Spencer Granett

    This dissertation explores student perceptions of the instructional chemistry laboratory and the approaches students take when learning in the laboratory environment. To measure student perceptions of the chemistry laboratory, a survey instrument was developed. 413 students responded to the survey during the Fall 2011 semester. Students' perception of the usefulness of the laboratory in helping them learn chemistry in high school was related to several factors regarding their experiences in high school chemistry. Students' perception of the usefulness of the laboratory in helping them learn chemistry in college was also measured. Reasons students provided for the usefulness of the laboratory were categorized. To characterize approaches to learning in the laboratory, students were interviewed midway through semester (N=18). The interviews were used to create a framework describing learning approaches that students use in the laboratory environment. Students were categorized into three levels: students who view the laboratory as a requirement, students who believe that the laboratory augments their understanding, and students who view the laboratory as an important part of science. These categories describe the types of strategies students used when conducting experiments. To further explore the relationship between students' perception of the laboratory and their approaches to learning, two case studies are described. These case studies involve interviews in the beginning and end of the semester. In the interviews, students reflect on what they have learned in the laboratory and describe their perceptions of the laboratory environment. In order to encourage students to adopt higher-level approaches to learning in the laboratory, a metacognitive intervention was created. The intervention involved supplementary questions that students would answer while completing laboratory experiments. The questions were designed to encourage students to think critically about the

  18. Turning Sunlight into Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    various forms such as direct solar radiation, wind, wave power, rain (in the form of hydropower), photosynthesis and ocean thermal gradients. Among .... good scope for cost reduction, is that of organic solar cells or organic photovoltaic devices ...

  19. Sunlight in Cyberspace?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    While we witness a growing belief in transparency as an ideal solution to a wide range of societal problems, we know less about the practical workings of transparency as it guides conduct in organizational and regulatory settings. This article argues that transparency efforts involve much more than...... the provision of information and other forms of ‘sunlight’, and are rather a matter of managing visibilities than providing insight and clarity.......

  20. Biosafety and biosecurity in veterinary laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Melissa R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brass, Van Hildren [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Here, with recent outbreaks of MERS-Cov, Anthrax, Nipah, and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, much emphasis has been placed on rapid identification of infectious agents globally. As a result, laboratories are building capacity, conducting more advanced and sophisticated research, increasing laboratory staff, and establishing collections of dangerous pathogens in an attempt to reduce the impact of infectious disease outbreaks and characterize disease causing agents. With this expansion, the global laboratory community has started to focus on laboratory biosafety and biosecurity to prevent the accidental and/or intent ional release o f these agents. Laboratory biosafety and biosecurity systems are used around the world to help mit igate the risks posed by dangerous pathogens in the laboratory. Veterinary laboratories carry unique responsibilities to workers and communities to safely and securely handle disease causing microorganisms. Many microorganisms studied in veterinary laboratories not only infect animals, but also have the potential to infect humans. This paper will discuss the fundamentals of laboratory biosafety and biosecurity.

  1. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  2. Electro-Deposition Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  3. Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)�is a scientific facility funded by DOE to create and implement innovative processes for environmental clean-up and...

  4. Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Outpatient clinical laboratory services are paid based on a fee schedule in accordance with Section 1833(h) of the Social Security Act. The clinical laboratory fee...

  5. Environment | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Argonne National Laboratory Toggle Navigation Toggle Search Energy Environment Laboratory About Safety News Careers Education Community Diversity Directory Energy Environment National Security User Facilities Science Work with Us Environment Atmospheric and Climate Science Ecological

  6. Product Evaluation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory offers the services of highly trained and experienced specialists that have a full complement of measuring equipment. It is equipped with two optical...

  7. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  8. Building the Korogwe Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Richard, Jean Pierre

    2011-01-01

    An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania.......An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania....

  9. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to a...

  10. Energy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Argonne National Laboratory Toggle Navigation Toggle Search Energy Batteries and Energy Storage Energy Systems Modeling Materials for Energy Nuclear Energy Renewable Energy Smart Laboratory About Safety News Careers Education Community Diversity Directory Energy Environment National

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lab has a proud history and heritage of almost 70 years of science and innovation. The people at the Laboratory work on advanced technologies to provide the best...

  12. High Bay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory is a specially constructed facility with elevated (37 feet) ceilings and an overhead catwalk, and which is dedicated to research efforts in reducing...

  13. Geometric Design Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Geometric Design Laboratory (GDL) is to support the Office of Safety Research and Development in research related to the geometric design...

  14. Detroit District Laboratory (DET)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesDET-DO Laboratory is equipped with the usual instrumentation necessary to perform a wide range of analyses of food, drugs and cosmetics. Program...

  15. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  16. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  17. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  18. Philadelphia District Laboratory (PHI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesPHI-DO Pharmaceutical Laboratory specializes in the analyses of all forms and types of drug products.Its work involves nearly all phases of drug...

  19. Energetics Laboratory Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These energetic materials laboratories are equipped with explosion proof hoods with blow out walls for added safety, that are certified for safe handling of primary...

  20. Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is an astronaut training facility and neutral buoyancy pool operated by NASA and located at the Sonny Carter Training Facility,...

  1. Protective Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory is a 40 by 28 by 9 foot facility that is equipped with tools for the development of various items of control technology related to the transmission...

  2. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  3. Keeping a Laboratory Notebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Anne

    1982-01-01

    Since the keeping of good records is essential in the chemistry laboratory, general guidelines for maintaining a laboratory notebook are provided. Includes rationale for having entries documented or witnessed. (Author/JN)

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia National Laboratories: Missions:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Systems & Assessments: About Us Sandia National Laboratories Exceptional service in ; Security Weapons Science & Technology Defense Systems & Assessments About Defense Systems & Information Construction & Facilities Contract Audit Sandia's Economic Impact Licensing & Technology

  5. Paying it forward: How helping others can reduce the psychological threat of receiving help

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, K.; van Leeuwen, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows that receiving help could be psychologically harmful for recipients, and passing on help to others after receiving help ("helping forward") is a good strategy to improve and restore help recipients' self-competence. Participants (N=87) received autonomy- or dependency-oriented help

  6. Personalized laboratory medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Mancini, I.

    2015-01-01

    diagnostic tools and expertise and commands proper state-of-the-art knowledge about Personalized Medicine and Laboratory Medicine in Europe, the joint Working Group "Personalized Laboratory Medicine" of the EFLM and ESPT societies compiled and conducted the Questionnaire "Is Laboratory Medicine ready...... in "omics"; 2. Additional training for the current personnel focused on the new methodologies; 3. Incorporation in the Laboratory of new competencies in data interpretation and counselling; 4. Improving cooperation and collaboration between professionals of different disciplines to integrate information...

  7. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  8. The Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J.; Beltran, B.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Irastorza, I.G.; Gomez, H.; Luzon, G.; Martinez, M.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedon, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Torres, L.; Villar, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the forthcoming enlargement of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) which will allow to host new international Astroparticle Physics experiments and therefore to broaden the European underground research area. The new Canfranc Underground Laboratory will operate in coordination (through the ILIAS Project) with the Gran Sasso (Italy), Modane (France) and Boulby (UK) underground laboratories

  9. HUMAN RELATIONS LABORATORY TRAINING STUDENT NOTEBOOK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springport High School, MI.

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE OF THIS NOTEBOOK IS TO HELP THOSE STUDENTS INTERESTED IN TAKING PART IN THE SPRINGPORT HIGH SCHOOL HUMAN RELATIONS TRAINING LABORATORIES TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THEMSELVES, SOCIETY, AND HUMAN EMOTIONS SO THAT THEY MAY DEVELOP SOCIALLY AND EMOTIONALLY. THE SUBJECT MATTER OF THE NOTEBOOK IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR MAJOR AREAS--(1)…

  10. Treatment of neonatal jaundice with filtered sunlight in Nigerian neonates: study protocol of a non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Tina M; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Vreman, Hendrik J; Wong, Ronald J; Brearley, Ann M; Vaucher, Yvonne E; Stevenson, David K

    2013-12-28

    Severe neonatal jaundice and its progression to kernicterus is a leading cause of death and disability among newborns in poorly-resourced countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The standard treatment for jaundice using conventional phototherapy (CPT) with electric artificial blue light sources is often hampered by the lack of (functional) CPT devices due either to financial constraints or erratic electrical power. In an attempt to make phototherapy (PT) more readily available for the treatment of pathologic jaundice in underserved tropical regions, we set out to test the hypothesis that filtered sunlight phototherapy (FS-PT), in which potentially harmful ultraviolet and infrared rays are appropriately screened, will be as efficacious as CPT. This prospective, non-blinded randomized controlled non-inferiority trial seeks to enroll infants with elevated total serum/plasma bilirubin (TSB, defined as 3 mg/dl below the level recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for high-risk infants requiring PT) who will be randomly and equally assigned to receive FS-PT or CPT for a total of 616 days at an inner-city maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Two FS-PT canopies with pre-tested films will be used. One canopy with a film that transmits roughly 33% blue light (wavelength range: 400 to 520 nm) will be used during sunny periods of a day. Another canopy with a film that transmits about 79% blue light will be used during overcast periods of the day. The infants will be moved from one canopy to the other as needed during the day with the goal of keeping the blue light irradiance level above 8 μW/cm²/nm. FS-PT will be as efficacious as CPT in reducing the rate of rise in bilirubin levels. Secondary outcome: The number of infants requiring exchange transfusion under FS-PT will not be more than those under CPT. This novel study offers the prospect of an effective treatment for infants at risk of severe neonatal jaundice and avoidable exchange transfusion in

  11. Reusable sunlight activated photocatalyst Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and its significant antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiyagarajan, Shankar; Singh, Sarika; Bahadur, D., E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in

    2016-04-15

    A simple and surfactant free soft chemical approach is adopted for the successful synthesis of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} nanoparticles (NPs) at room temperature. The obtained Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} NPs are nearly spherical in shape with a size of 250 ± 50 nm. These NPs are highly efficient for the degradation of three organic dyes (methylene blue, rhodamine B and methyl orange) under four different types of light sources. In this case, the superior photocatalytic activity is mainly driven by singlet oxygen radicals and it is confirmed through the electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping technique, using several quenchers/sources. Notably, these NPs have the ability to absorb large portion of solar spectrum and therefore it displays higher efficiency under sunlight as compared to UV-C light and a 60 W household compact fluorescence lamp (CFL). Furthermore, these NPs exhibit excellent colloidal stability and recycling capability for the degradation of dyes. In addition, it possesses significant antibacterial activity with complete inhibition of bacterial pathogen, Escherichia coli at a very low concentration (0.01 mg/mL) after a mere 15 min of incubation time. The inhibition of bacterial growth is also suggested from the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in E. coli by fluorescence microscopy. Thus, these NPs may provide a potential outcome for the environmental remediation. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of the mechanism involved in photodegradation of organic dyes and inhibition of bacterial growth using Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Excellent catalytic activity for dyes degradation under different light sources. • Mechanism involving catalyst mediated ROS generation in photocatalysis suggested. • Good recycling capability of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} even after the fifth cycles. • Extraordinary antibacterial activity of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} after a very short incubation time. • Detection of intracellular

  12. Characterizing the Laboratory Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DeMates, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sartor, Dale [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Laboratories are estimated to be 3-5 times more energy intensive than typical office buildings and offer significant opportunities for energy use reductions. Although energy intensity varies widely, laboratories are generally energy intensive due to ventilation requirements, the research instruments used, and other health and safety concerns. Because the requirements of laboratory facilities differ so dramatically from those of other buildings, a clear need exists for an initiative exclusively targeting these facilities. The building stock of laboratories in the United States span different economic sectors, include governmental and academic institution, and are often defined differently by different groups. Information on laboratory buildings is often limited to a small subsection of the total building stock making aggregate estimates of the total U.S. laboratories and their energy use challenging. Previous estimates of U.S. laboratory space vary widely owing to differences in how laboratories are defined and categorized. A 2006 report on fume hoods provided an estimate of 150,000 laboratories populating the U.S. based in part on interviews of industry experts, however, a 2009 analysis of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) generated an estimate of only 9,000 laboratory buildings. This report draws on multiple data sources that have been evaluated to construct an understanding of U.S. laboratories across different sizes and markets segments. This 2016 analysis is an update to draft reports released in October and December 2016.

  13. Tips to Help You Get Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Step in the Right Direction Tips to Help You Get Active View or Print All Sections ... and quality of life. Being more active may help you manage your weight. Starting Physical Activity Healthy ...

  14. Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough Language: English (US) ... Emails Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, ...

  15. Help, Resources and Information: National Opioids Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Search Help, Resources and Information National Opioids Crisis Search Search Need Help? Call the National Helpline ... HHS 5-POINT STRATEGY TO COMBAT THE OPIOIDS CRISIS BETTER ADDICTION PREVENTION, TREATMENT, AND RECOVERY SERVICES BETTER ...

  16. Self-Help Groups and Professional Helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgopal, Pallassana R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Suggests innovative solutions for mutual benefits for self-help groups and the professionals. Through a derivative paradigm the role of the professional helper within self-help groups is presented. (Author/BL)

  17. Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe July 2014 Print this issue Health Capsule Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile En español Send us your comments A carefully structured, moderate physical activity program helped vulnerable older people maintain their mobility. ...

  18. Anticipated Guilt for Not Helping and Anticipated Warm Glow for Helping Are Differently Impacted by Personal Responsibility to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Arvid; Jungstrand, Amanda Å.; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    One important motivation for people behaving prosocially is that they want to avoid negative and obtain positive emotions. In the prosocial behavior literature however, the motivations to avoid negative emotions (e.g., guilt) and to approach positive emotions (e.g., warm glow) are rarely separated, and sometimes even aggregated into a single mood-management construct. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anticipated guilt if not helping and anticipated warm glow if helping are influenced similarly or differently when varying situational factors related to personal responsibility to help. Helping scenarios were created and pilot tests established that each helping scenario could be formulated both in a high-responsibility version and in a low-responsibility version. In Study 1 participants read high-responsibility and low-responsibility helping scenarios, and rated either their anticipated guilt if not helping or their anticipated warm glow if helping (i.e., separate evaluation). Study 2 was similar but here participants rated both their anticipated guilt if not helping and their anticipated warm glow if helping (i.e., joint evaluation). Anticipated guilt was clearly higher in the high-responsibility versions, but anticipated warm glow was unaffected (in Studies 1a and 1b), or even higher in the low-responsibility versions (Study 2). In Studies 3 (where anticipated guilt and warm glow were evaluated separately) and 4 (where they were evaluated jointly), personal responsibility to help was manipulated within-subjects. Anticipated guilt was again constantly higher in the high-responsibility versions but for many types of responsibility-manipulations, anticipated warm glow was higher in the low-responsibility versions. The results suggest that we anticipate guilt if not fulfilling our responsibility but that we anticipate warm glow primarily when doing over and beyond our responsibility. We argue that future studies investigating motivations for helping

  19. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  20. 6 FAQs About Helping Someone Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people want to help their friends and loved ones quit smoking. But, they often don't know how. Here are 6 frequently asked questions about how to help someone quit smoking to help you get the information you need.

  1. Helping Youth Decide: A Workshop Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Donna Marie; Boo, Katherine

    This guide was written to complement the publication "Helping Youth Decide," a manual designed to help parents develop effective parent-child communication and help their children make responsible decisions during the adolescent years. The workshop guide is intended to assist people who work with families to provide additional information and…

  2. Meteorology/Oceanography Help - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › Help › Meteorology/Oceanography Help USNO Logo USNO Info Meteorology/Oceanography Help Send an e-mail regarding meteorology or oceanography products. Privacy Advisory Your E-Mail

  3. Safety culture assessment among laboratory personnel of a petrochemical company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shekari

    2014-05-01

    .Conclusion: Strong and positive safety culture among laboratory personnel would prevent incidence of many occupational accidents. In another word, it would help organizations to facilitate access to higher standards.

  4. improving the implementation of pre-laboratory flow charts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    accountability and helping students to develop team work skills and lastly the post laboratory ... subject areas, and higher self-esteem. Another .... and communicate only cursorily with one another, avoiding the interactions that lead to most of.

  5. Quality system for Medical laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj K.C.

    2015-03-01

    :2012 (Medical laboratories – Requirements for quality and competence was released. ISO 15189 is a globally recognized standard that help medical laboratories to develop their quality management systems and assess their competence. The standard is concerned with improving patient safety, risk mitigation and operational efficiency within medical laboratories, where they directly impact upon the continuum of care. To help it achieve this, ISO 15189 specifies quality criteria relating to both technical and managerial competence.Accreditation not only helps patients but also health care organization. It stimulates to seek for continuous improvement and enables the health care organization in demonstrating commitment to quality of care. Furthermore it raises community confidence in the services provided along with international recognition of services. Ultimately it increases revenue of the institution.Accreditation benefits all stake holders, patients/customers are the biggest beneficiary. It results in high quality of care and patients/customer safety as they get services by credentialed staff.Accreditation ensures that rights of patients are respected and protected and their satisfaction is regularly evaluated.Thus, Accreditation can be the single most important approach for improving the quality of health care structures. In an accreditation system, institutional resources, processes and outcome are evaluated continuously to ensure quality of services is maintained and improved on the basis of appropriated standards and regulatory requirements.

  6. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  7. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  8. Sunlight based irradiation strategy for rapid green synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract and their antibacterial potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Lori; Arunachalam, J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We report green synthetic route for the production crystalline silver nanoparticles using garlic as both reducing and stabilizing agent. → Synthesis has been achieved by exposing the solution mixture of [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] + and aqueous garlic extract under sunlight. → Role of light in the synthesis process has been investigated and is discussed in detail. → The antibacterial effect of the synthesized silver nanoparticles has been assessed against both Gram classes of bacteria. → Synthesized silver colloidal solutions were found to be stable for a very long period and retained their bactericidal potential. - Abstract: A green synthetic route for the production of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic extract is being reported for the first time. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by exposing a mixture of 0.1 M [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ] + and diluted aqueous garlic extract under bright sunlight for 15 min. The garlic extract components served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles while the sunlight acted as catalyst in the synthesis process. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer; transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GA-XRD) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectrometry. The nanoparticles were found to be poly-dispersed in nature, spherical in shape and of 7.3 ± 4.4 nm in size. The FTIR analysis was suggestive of proteins as capping agents around the nanoparticles. The yield of synthesized nanoparticles was calculated to be approximately 80% by dry weight and 85% ICP-AES method. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains, as measured using well diffusion assay. Most importantly, the silver colloidal solutions thus synthesized were found to be stable for a very long period (more than a year) and retained

  9. A comprehensive investigation of tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO{sub 4} with enhanced photocatalytic performance under sun-light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yangyang; Tan, Guoqiang, E-mail: tan3114@163.com; Dong, Guohua; Ren, Huijun; Xia, Ao

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4} with enhanced photocatalytic activity was synthesized. • Gd doping can induce the phase transition from monoclinic to tetragonal BiVO{sub 4}. • GdVO{sub 4} seeds as crystal nucleus dominate the formation of tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4}. • Tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4} exhibits the excellent separation of electrons and holes. • The contribution of high photocatalytic activity under sun-light is from UV-light. - Abstract: Tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO{sub 4} having enhanced photocatalytic activity have been synthesized by a facile microwave hydrothermal method. The structural analysis indicates that Gd doping can induce the phase transition from monoclinic to tetragonal BiVO{sub 4}. The reaction results in precursor solutions imply that tetragonal GdVO{sub 4} seeds as crystal nucleus are the original and determined incentives to force the formation of tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4}. The influences of the surface defect, band structure, and BET surface area on the improved photocatalytic activities of tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO{sub 4} are investigated systematically. The results demonstrate that the more surface oxygen deficiencies as active sites and the excellent mobility and separation of photogenerated electrons and holes are beneficial to the enhancement of the photocatalytic performance of tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4}. The RhB photodegradation experiments indicate that the contribution of high photocatalytic activities under simulated sun-light is mainly from UV-light region due to the tetragonal structure feature. The best photocatalytic performance is obtained for tetragonal 10 at% Gd-BiVO{sub 4}, of which the RhB degradation rate can reach to 96% after 120 min simulated sun-light irradiation. The stable tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4} with efficient mineralization will be a promising photocatalytic material applied in water purification.

  10. Synthesis of Ag-decorated porous TiO{sub 2} nanowires through a sunlight induced reduction method and its enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yun-Chang; Dai, Xin-Rong [Anhui & Huaihe river institute of hydraulic research, Hefei, Anhui 230088 (China); Hu, Xiao-Ye, E-mail: hxy821982@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, and Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Huang, Su-Zhen [Institute of plasma physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Jin, Zhen, E-mail: ftbjin@hotmail.com [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The Ag-decorated porous TiO{sub 2} nanowires were succefully synthesized. • A sunlight induced ethanol reduction method for Ag decoration has been reported. • The Ag-decorated porous TiO{sub 2} nanowires exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity. • The photodegradation ratio of the as-prepared product is much higher than that of P25. - Abstract: In this work, Ag-decorated porous TiO{sub 2} nanowires were successfully synthesized via a facile and low-cost sunlight induced reduction method. The cooperation of sunlight irradiation and ethanol reduction results the formation and decoration of the Ag nanoparticles on the porous TiO{sub 2} nanowires. The structure of the Ag-decorated porous TiO{sub 2} nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurements. It can be seen that the Ag nanoparticles are well dispersed within the porous TiO{sub 2} nanowires. The as-prepared Ag-decorated porous TiO{sub 2} nanowires exhibits excellent photocatalytic properties. The photocatalytic tests show that 10 ppm methylene blue can be photodegraded within 60 min. And the photodegradation ratio of the Ag-decorated porous TiO{sub 2} nanowires much higher than that of P25 and porous TiO{sub 2} nanowires. Moreover, the Ag-decorated porous TiO{sub 2} nanowires also reveal good photocatalytic activity towards to other organic pollutions, such as phenol and R6G. Therefore, it is believed that the Ag-decorated porous TiO{sub 2} nanowires can be used as a potential high performance photocatalyst in wastewater treatment.

  11. Long-term decline of the canopy-forming algae Gelidium corneum, associated to extreme wave events and reduced sunlight hours, in the southeastern Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Angel; Chust, Guillem; Fontán, Almudena; Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Uyarra, María C.

    2018-05-01

    Canopy-forming macroalgae are experiencing large biogeographical shifts due to climate change. One of them (Gelidium corneum) has shown a dramatic decline in biomass in northern Spain, in the past 20 years. We investigate here two most plausible hypotheses to explain its decline: (i) a combination of increasing wave energy and decrease of irradiance in the growth season; and (ii) a combination of increasing light in summer and decreasing nutrient concentration. Using a dataset of biomass and environmental variables (1993-2016), in three sectors and three water depths, we have determined that the variables explaining more biomass variability were: suspended solids, nitrate, sunlight hours, significant wave height threshold exceedances (Hs5m), temperature, silicate, and nitrite. When undertaking multiple regression analyses for the whole depth range, only the model including sunlight hours with Hs5m was selected, being highly significant (p algae from the substratum during the growth season. The decline rate in biomass with time, at each sector and depth, was highly correlated (p < 0.001) to the wave energy flux received at each depth, which was higher at 5 m in all sectors, decreasing with depth. In turn, nutrients, instead of decreasing, have increased, and only nitrate presented a significant negative correlation with G. corneum biomass, which was not significant after detrending. The significant (p = 0.001) increase in rainfall over the studied period can explain the increase of those nutrients. Hence, we question whether the effect of nutrients is such, as already described. The most likely factor explaining the decline of this macroalga was the combination of sunlight hours decrease and Hs5m increase.

  12. Facile synthesis of BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/reduced graphene oxide photocatalyst with highly efficient and stable natural sunlight photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Limin; Dong, Shuying; Li, Qilu; Feng, Jinglan; Pi, Yunqing; Liu, Menglin [School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environmental and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Sun, Jingyu, E-mail: sunjy-cnc@pku.edu.cn [Center for Nanochemistry (CNC), College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sun, Jianhui, E-mail: sunjh@htu.cn [School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environmental and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • A dual Bi-based ball-shaped material BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} were facilely synthesized. • The composition effect of BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO hybrid were probed for the first time. • The photocatalytic performances were evaluated upon natural sunlight irradiation. • The composites showed a twofold augmentation in the degradation efficiency. • The hybrid photocatalyst can be easily recycled for three times. - Abstract: A facile and efficient route for the controllable synthesis of BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures by hydrolysis method was reported, where the as-prepared BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was subsequently incorporated with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets to form BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites. The obtained BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites were well characterized with the aid of various techniques to probe their crystallographic, morphological, chemical and optical properties. Photocatalytic capacities of the pure BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites have been investigated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB)-contained wastewater under natural sunlight irradiation. A twofold augmentation of degradation efficiency was in turn observed for BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites compared with that of pure BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} under the natural sunlight irradiation. The optimum conditions, the effects of the active species and stabilities in photocatalytic performances of the BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites have also been probed.

  13. Evidence for three types of x-ray damage repair in yeast and sensitivity of totally repair deficient strains to sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Game, J.C.; Schild, D.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Mutants of yeast that confer sensitivity to x-rays are known to fall into two epistasis groups, called here the RAD51 and RAD18 groups, which are each thought to control a different type of x-ray repair. They examine here the role of genes in a third repair pathways in x-ray repair. RAD1 and RAD3 are known to be important in the repair of pyrimidine dimers after uv-irradiation. They find that these genes can also play an important role in x-ray repair, but that this role is only exposed when both the other pathways of x-ray repair are blocked. Double mutants blocked in the RAD51 and RAD18 pathways are significantly less x-ray sensitive than triple mutants blocked in these pathways but also mutant in either the RAD1 or RAD3 genes. In a related experiment, they tested the importance of DNA repair in nature by determining the sensitivity to natural unfiltered sunlight of a strain lacking all known DNA repair pathways. They constructed a quadruple mutant strain containing RAD1-1, RAD18-2, RAD51-1 and PHR1-1. The latter mutation blocks the cell's ability to photoreactivate uv damage. They found that this strain was so sensitive to sunlight that less than three seconds' exposure would cause an average of one lethal hit per cell, and survival was less than 2% after ten seconds' exposure. Wild type yeast at sea level showed no killing after thirty minutes. the quadruple mutant is approximately one thousand times more sensitive to sunlight than the related wild type

  14. Sunlight based irradiation strategy for rapid green synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract and their antibacterial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Lori [National Center for Chemical Characterization of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL-PO, Hyderabad 500 062 (India); Arunachalam, J., E-mail: aruncccm@rediffmail.com [National Center for Chemical Characterization of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL-PO, Hyderabad 500 062 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We report green synthetic route for the production crystalline silver nanoparticles using garlic as both reducing and stabilizing agent. {yields} Synthesis has been achieved by exposing the solution mixture of [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and aqueous garlic extract under sunlight. {yields} Role of light in the synthesis process has been investigated and is discussed in detail. {yields} The antibacterial effect of the synthesized silver nanoparticles has been assessed against both Gram classes of bacteria. {yields} Synthesized silver colloidal solutions were found to be stable for a very long period and retained their bactericidal potential. - Abstract: A green synthetic route for the production of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic extract is being reported for the first time. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by exposing a mixture of 0.1 M [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and diluted aqueous garlic extract under bright sunlight for 15 min. The garlic extract components served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles while the sunlight acted as catalyst in the synthesis process. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer; transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GA-XRD) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectrometry. The nanoparticles were found to be poly-dispersed in nature, spherical in shape and of 7.3 {+-} 4.4 nm in size. The FTIR analysis was suggestive of proteins as capping agents around the nanoparticles. The yield of synthesized nanoparticles was calculated to be approximately 80% by dry weight and 85% ICP-AES method. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains, as measured using well diffusion assay. Most importantly, the silver colloidal solutions thus synthesized were found to be stable for

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Different Co-Antioxidants on the Photochemical- and Functional-Stability of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate in Topical Creams Exposed to Simulated Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Scalia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The catechin (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG exhibits high antioxidant activity and it has been reported to provide protection of the skin against damage induced by solar UV radiation. However, EGCG is highly unstable under sunlight. The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of the co-antioxidant agents vitamin E, butylated hydroxytoluene, vitamin C and a-lipoic acid for their potential to protect the catechin from photochemical degradation. Model creams (oil-in-water emulsions containing EGCG (1%, w/w alone or combined with equimolar concentrations of co-antioxidant were exposed to a solar simulator at an irradiance corresponding to natural sunlight. Photodegradation was evaluated by HPLC-UV and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Addition of the co-antioxidants vitamin C and a-lipoic acid to the formulation significantly reduced the light-induced decomposition of EGCG from 76.9 ± 4.6% to 20.4 ± 2.7% and 12.6 ± 1.6%, respectively. Conversely, butylated hydroxytoluene had no effect (EGCG loss, 78.1 ± 4.6% and vitamin E enhanced the EGCG photolysis to 84.5 ± 3.4%. The functional stability of the catechin in the creams exposed to the solar simulator was also evaluated by measuring the in vitro antioxidant activity. Following irradiation, the reduction of the EGCG formulation antioxidant power was lower (21.8% than the extent of degradation (76.9%, suggesting the formation of photoproducts with antioxidant properties. The influence of the examined co-antioxidants on the functional stability of the catechin under simulated sunlight paralleled that measured for the EGCG photodecomposition, a-lipoic acid exerting the greatest stabilising effect (antioxidant activity decrease, 1.4%. These results demonstrated that a-lipoic acid is an effective co-antioxidant agent for the stabilization of EGCG in dermatological products for skin photoprotection.

  16. COMMERCIALLY ORIENTED CLINICAL LABORATORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, W. Max

    1964-01-01

    Out-of-state flat-rate mail order contract laboratories operating from states which have little or no legal control over them can do business in California without obedience to regulations that govern laboratories located within the state. The flat-rate contract principle under which some out-of-state laboratories operate is illegal in California. The use of such laboratories increases physician liability. Legislation for the control of these laboratories is difficult to construct, and laws which might result would be awkward to administer. The best remedy is for California physicians not to use an out-of-state laboratory offering contracts or conditions that it could not legally offer if it were located in California. PMID:14165875

  17. Helping Behavior in Executives' Global Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Stewart; Mors, Marie Louise; McDonald, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on research on helping behavior in networks at the upper echelons, we develop and test theory about helping behavior in senior executive networks. We examine the location and relational dependence of the network contact. Our results reveal that executives are more likely to perceive...... insiders in their network to be helpful, but geographic location has no effect on expectations of receiving help. With regards to relational dependence: executives who are more dependent on their contacts are more likely to perceive them to be helpful. We also look at whether perceived helpfulness affects...... an executive’s willingness to engage in risky new business development -- an important performance indicator - and indeed find that those executives that perceive their networks to be helpful are more likely to be willing to take risky decisions. We test these arguments using primary data on 1845 relationships...

  18. eComLab: remote laboratory platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontual, Murillo; Melkonyan, Arsen; Gampe, Andreas; Huang, Grant; Akopian, David

    2011-06-01

    Hands-on experiments with electronic devices have been recognized as an important element in the field of engineering to help students get familiar with theoretical concepts and practical tasks. The continuing increase the student number, costly laboratory equipment, and laboratory maintenance slow down the physical lab efficiency. As information technology continues to evolve, the Internet has become a common media in modern education. Internetbased remote laboratory can solve a lot of restrictions, providing hands-on training as they can be flexible in time and the same equipment can be shared between different students. This article describes an on-going remote hands-on experimental radio modulation, network and mobile applications lab project "eComLab". Its main component is a remote laboratory infrastructure and server management system featuring various online media familiar with modern students, such as chat rooms and video streaming.

  19. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Established to investigate, integrate, testand verifyperformance and technology readiness offuel cell systems and fuel reformers for use with...

  20. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  1. Metallurgical Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to increase basic knowledge of metallurgical processing for controlling the microstructure and mechanical properties of metallic aerospace alloys and...

  2. Biochemical Neuroscience Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This biochemistry lab is set up for protein analysis using Western blot, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, immunohistochemistry, and bead-based immunoassays. The...

  3. Applied Neuroscience Laboratory Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located at WPAFB, Ohio, the Applied Neuroscience lab researches and develops technologies to optimize Airmen individual and team performance across all AF domains....

  4. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include:Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory)elevate...

  5. Materials Behavior Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to evaluate mechanical properties of materials including metals, intermetallics, metal-matrix composites, and ceramic-matrix composites under typical...

  6. Free Surface Hydrodynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Investigates processes and interactions at the air-sea interface, and compares measurements to numerical simulations and field data. Typical phenomena of...

  7. Interactive virtual optical laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Yang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    Laboratory experiences are essential for optics education. However, college students have limited access to advanced optical equipment that is generally expensive and complicated. Hence there is a need for innovative solutions to expose students to advanced optics laboratories. Here we describe a novel approach, interactive virtual optical laboratory (IVOL) that allows unlimited number of students to participate the lab session remotely through internet, to improve laboratory education in photonics. Although students are not physically conducting the experiment, IVOL is designed to engage students, by actively involving students in the decision making process throughout the experiment.

  8. Sediment Core Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments.DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  9. Virtual Reality Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs basic and applied research in interactive 3D computer graphics, including visual analytics, virtual environments, and augmented reality (AR). The...

  10. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  11. Shallow Water Acoustic Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where high-frequency acoustic scattering and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures...

  12. Laboratory for Structural Acoustics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where acoustic radiation, scattering, and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures are...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliom, Laura R.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has identified technology transfer to U.S. industry as a laboratory mission which complements our national security mission and as a key component of the Laboratory's future. A number of technology transfer mechanisms - such as CRADA's, licenses, work-for-others, and consortia - are identified and specific examples are given. Sandia's experience with the Specialty Metals Processing Consortium is highlighted with a focus on the elements which have made it successful. A brief discussion of Sandia's potential interactions with NASA under the Space Exploration Initiative was included as an example of laboratory-to-NASA technology transfer. Viewgraphs are provided.

  14. Structural Dynamics Laboratory (SDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Structural dynamic testing is performed to verify the survivability of a component or assembly when exposed to vibration stress screening, or a controlled simulation...

  15. Chemical research at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is a research and development laboratory located 25 miles southwest of Chicago, Illinois. It has more than 200 programs in basic and applied sciences and an Industrial Technology Development Center to help move its technologies to the industrial sector. At Argonne, basic energy research is supported by applied research in diverse areas such as biology and biomedicine, energy conservation, fossil and nuclear fuels, environmental science, and parallel computer architectures. These capabilities translate into technological expertise in energy production and use, advanced materials and manufacturing processes, and waste minimization and environmental remediation, which can be shared with the industrial sector. The Laboratory`s technologies can be applied to help companies design products, substitute materials, devise innovative industrial processes, develop advanced quality control systems and instrumentation, and address environmental concerns. The latest techniques and facilities, including those involving modeling, simulation, and high-performance computing, are available to industry and academia. At Argonne, there are opportunities for industry to carry out cooperative research, license inventions, exchange technical personnel, use unique research facilities, and attend conferences and workshops. Technology transfer is one of the Laboratory`s major missions. High priority is given to strengthening U.S. technological competitiveness through research and development partnerships with industry that capitalize on Argonne`s expertise and facilities. The Laboratory is one of three DOE superconductivity technology centers, focusing on manufacturing technology for high-temperature superconducting wires, motors, bearings, and connecting leads. Argonne National Laboratory is operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Quantification in histopathology-Can magnetic particles help?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchels, John; Hawkins, Peter; Luxton, Richard; Rhodes, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Every year, more than 270,000 people are diagnosed with cancer in the UK alone; this means that one in three people worldwide contract cancer within their lifetime. Histopathology is the principle method for confirming cancer and directing treatment. In this paper, a novel application of magnetic particles is proposed to help address the problem of subjectivity in histopathology. Preliminary results indicate that magnetic nanoparticles cannot only be used to assist diagnosis through improving quantification but also potentially increase throughput, hence offering a way of dramatically reducing costs within the routine histopathology laboratory

  17. Laboratory automation in clinical bacteriology: what system to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, A; Prod'hom, G; Faverjon, F; Rochais, Y; Greub, G

    2016-03-01

    Automation was introduced many years ago in several diagnostic disciplines such as chemistry, haematology and molecular biology. The first laboratory automation system for clinical bacteriology was released in 2006, and it rapidly proved its value by increasing productivity, allowing a continuous increase in sample volumes despite limited budgets and personnel shortages. Today, two major manufacturers, BD Kiestra and Copan, are commercializing partial or complete laboratory automation systems for bacteriology. The laboratory automation systems are rapidly evolving to provide improved hardware and software solutions to optimize laboratory efficiency. However, the complex parameters of the laboratory and automation systems must be considered to determine the best system for each given laboratory. We address several topics on laboratory automation that may help clinical bacteriologists to understand the particularities and operative modalities of the different systems. We present (a) a comparison of the engineering and technical features of the various elements composing the two different automated systems currently available, (b) the system workflows of partial and complete laboratory automation, which define the basis for laboratory reorganization required to optimize system efficiency, (c) the concept of digital imaging and telebacteriology, (d) the connectivity of laboratory automation to the laboratory information system, (e) the general advantages and disadvantages as well as the expected impacts provided by laboratory automation and (f) the laboratory data required to conduct a workflow assessment to determine the best configuration of an automated system for the laboratory activities and specificities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Oxytocin Administration on Receiving Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J; Woolley, Joshua D; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2017-11-27

    Receiving help can be a "mixed blessing." Despite the many psychosocial benefits it can carry, it sometimes has negative psychological consequences, such as loss in self-esteem or enhanced guilt. It is, therefore, important to understand the factors that modify responses to receiving help from others. We explored the role of the hormone oxytocin (OT) on affective and social responses to receiving help, given the putative role of OT in social bonding and attunement. To this end, we manipulated whether help was received from a same-sex interaction partner (confederate) versus a control condition, crossed with a double-blind administration of intranasal OT (vs. placebo), and examined subjective and observer-rated participant responses to help. We observed significant interactions between OT and the help manipulation. In the placebo condition, receiving help from the interaction partner compared with the control condition had negative consequences, such that participants reported greater negative affect and came to view themselves and their interaction partners more negatively after interacting together on several tasks. What is important, however, is that OT administration buffered against these negative subjective responses to receiving help. Further, outside observers rated participants who received OT administration as expressing greater happiness and gratitude in response to help, relative to those who received placebo. In sum, in the context of receiving help from a stranger, oxytocin administration fostered more positive affective and social responses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Chemistry Students' Challenges in Using MBL's in Science Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Hakan Yavuz

    Understanding students' challenges about using microcomputer based laboratories (MBLs) would provide important data in understanding the appropriateness of using MBLs in high school chemistry laboratories. Identifying students' concerns about this technology will in part help educators identify the obstacles to science learning when using this…

  20. Kinetics of Carbaryl Hydrolysis: An Undergraduate Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Darryl

    2015-01-01

    Kinetics is an important part of undergraduate environmental chemistry curricula and relevant laboratory exercises are helpful in assisting students to grasp concepts. Such exercises are also useful in general chemistry courses because students can see relevance to real-world issues. The laboratory exercise described here involves determination of…