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Sample records for sunflower river mississippi

  1. Occurrence and transport of nitrogen in the Big Sunflower River, northwestern Mississippi, October 2009-June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jeannie R.B.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    The Big Sunflower River Basin, located within the Yazoo River Basin, is subject to large annual inputs of nitrogen from agriculture, atmospheric deposition, and point sources. Understanding how nutrients are transported in, and downstream from, the Big Sunflower River is key to quantifying their eutrophying effects on the Gulf. Recent results from two Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes (SPARROW models), which include the Big Sunflower River, indicate minimal losses of nitrogen in stream reaches typical of the main channels of major river systems. If SPARROW assumptions of relatively conservative transport of nitrogen are correct and surface-water losses through the bed of the Big Sunflower River are negligible, then options for managing nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico may be limited. Simply put, if every pound of nitrogen entering the Delta is eventually delivered to the Gulf, then the only effective nutrient management option in the Delta is to reduce inputs. If, on the other hand, it can be shown that processes within river channels of the Mississippi Delta act to reduce the mass of nitrogen in transport, other hydrologic approaches may be designed to further limit nitrogen transport. Direct validation of existing SPARROW models for the Delta is a first step in assessing the assumptions underlying those models. In order to characterize spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen in the Big Sunflower River Basin, water samples were collected at four U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations located on the Big Sunflower River between October 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. Nitrogen concentrations were generally highest at each site during the spring of the 2010 water year and the fall and winter of the 2011 water year. Additionally, the dominant form of nitrogen varied between sites. For example, in samples collected from the most upstream site (Clarksdale), the concentration of organic nitrogen was generally higher than the concentrations of

  2. 33 CFR 117.677 - Big Sunflower River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Sunflower River. 117.677 Section 117.677 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Mississippi § 117.677 Big Sunflower River. The draw of...

  3. In Brief: Improving Mississippi River water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-10-01

    If water quality in the Mississippi River and the northern Gulf of Mexico is to improve, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs to take a stronger leadership role in implementing the federal Clean Water Act, according to a 16 October report from the U.S. National Research Council. The report notes that EPA has failed to use its authority to coordinate and oversee activities along the river. In addition, river states need to be more proactive and cooperative in efforts to monitor and improve water quality, and the river should be monitored and evaluated as a single system, the report indicates. Currently, the 10 states along the river conduct separate and widely varying water quality monitoring programs. ``The limited attention being given to monitoring and managing the Mississippi's water quality does not match the river's significant economic, ecological, and cultural importance,'' said committee chair David A. Dzombak, director of the Steinbrenner Institute for Environmental Education and Research at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa. The report notes that while measures taken under the Clean Water Act have successfully reduced much point source pollution, nutrient and sediment loads from nonpoint sources continue to be significant problems. For more information, visit the Web site: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12051.

  4. Mississippi National River and Recreation Area Water Trail Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    The Water Trail Plan describes the current conditions of and future plans for the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area (NRRA), a 72-mile stretch of the Mississippi River running through the Twin Cities region of Minnesota. In 2012, the NRRA...

  5. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of The Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    .... The six LTRMP study reaches are Pools 4 (excluding Lake Pepin), 8, 13, and 26 of the Upper Mississippi River, an unimpounded reach of the Mississippi River near Cape Girardeau, Missouri, and the La Grange Pool of the Illinois River...

  6. Inland Waters - Mississippi River Centerline - Headwaters to Gulf Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Mississippi River centerline data derived from USACE navigation sailing line (recommended track) data and on-screen digitized in areas of no data. Data set extends...

  7. Hydraulic Geometry Analysis of the Lower Mississippi River

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soar, Philip J; Thorne, Colin R; Harmar, Oliver P

    2005-01-01

    The hydraulic geometry of the Lower Mississippi River is primarily the product of the action of natural flows acting on the floodplain materials over centuries and millennia to form an alluvial forming a channel...

  8. Assessing the impacts of climate change and tillage practices on stream flow, crop and sediment yields from the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.B. Parajuli; P. Jayakody; G.F. Sassenrath; Y. Ouyang

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated climate change impacts on stream flow, crop and sediment yields from three differ-ent tillage systems (conventional, reduced 1–close to conservation, and reduced 2–close to no-till), in theBig Sunflower River Watershed (BSRW) in Mississippi. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) modelwas applied to the BSRW using observed stream flow and crop...

  9. 76 FR 53436 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Mississippi River, near the town of Luling, in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana. The sole purpose of a.... 14091-000] Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing... Mississippi River LLC (Northland) filed preliminary permit applications, pursuant to section 4(f) of the...

  10. 76 FR 53427 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Mississippi River, near the town of Killona, in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana. The sole purpose of a.... 14092-000] Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing... Mississippi River LLC (Northland) filed preliminary permit applications, pursuant to section 4(f) of the...

  11. 33 CFR 223.1 - Mississippi River Water Control Management Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., responsibilities and authority of the Mississippi River Water Control Management Board. (b) Applicability. This... control management within the Mississippi River Basin. (c) Objectives. The objectives of the Board are: (1...) Composition. The Mississippi River Water Control Management Board is a continuing board consisting of the...

  12. Sorption Characteristics of Sediments in the Upper Mississippi River System Above Lake Pepin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, W

    1999-01-01

    This technical note examines equilibrium phosphorus processes and sorption characteristics for sediments collected from the Minnesota River, immediately upstream from its confluence with the Upper Mississippi River (UMR...

  13. Morphodynamics of the Final 500 Kilometers of the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Xu, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Channel dynamics of alluvial rivers in their lower reaches can strongly influence deltaic development. In this study, we analyzed over 6,000 single-beam cross-sectional measurements surveyed in 1992, 2004, and 2013 in the last 500-km reach of the highly engineered Mississippi River, a.k.a. the lowermost Mississippi River (LmMR), starting from the river's Gulf outlet to its avulsion into the Atchafalaya River. We applied Inverse Distance Weighted interpolation to downscale the survey records into 10 x 10 m Digital Elevation Models. We assessed riverbed deformation from bank to bank and quantified georeferenced changes in riverbed sediment volume and mass. We intended to test the hypothesis that the lower reach of a large alluvial river can function as a conduit for sediment transport under the current engineering focus of navigation safety and flood control. Our analysis shows that in the past two decades, nearly 70% of the riverine sand is trapped within the LmMR, and that continuous riverbed aggradation occurred below the Mississippi-Atchafalaya diversion, presenting favorable backwater conditions for avulsion. Backwater effects have mainly controlled riverbed deformation in the LmMR, while flow reduction may have also contributed to channel aggradation in the uppermost and lowermost reaches. The study reveals the considerable complexity of geomorphic responses of a large alluvial river to human interventions, strongly suggesting that future river engineering and management need also to focus on strategies that will improve sediment transport to the downstream river delta.

  14. 75 FR 63086 - Great Mississippi Balloon Race and Fireworks Safety Zone; Lower Mississippi River, Mile Marker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... flying hot air balloons transiting across the Lower Mississippi River. Entry into this zone is prohibited... mariners from the safety hazards associated with a fireworks display and low flying hot air balloons... mariners from the safety hazards associated with a fireworks display and low flying hot air balloons...

  15. An Analysis of Freshwater Mussels (Unionidae) in the Quiver River and Bogue Phalia, Mississippi, 1994-95

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    .... The project area included a section of the Quiver River between its confluence with the Big Sunflower River immediately north of Highway 82 in Sunflower County to the Leflore-Tallahatchie county line...

  16. Development of A Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer Groundwater Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakullukcu, R. E.; Tsai, F. T. C.; Bhatta, D.; Paudel, K.; Kao, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer (MRAA) underlies the Mississippi River Valley of the northeastern Louisiana, extending from the north border of Louisiana and Arkansas to south central of Louisiana. The MRAA has direct contact with the Mississippi River. However, the interaction between the Mississippi River and the alluvial aquifer is largely unknown. The MRAA is the second most used groundwater source in Louisiana's aquifers with about 390 million gallons per day, which is about 25% of all groundwater withdrawals in Louisiana. MRAA is the major water source to agriculture in the northeastern Louisiana. The groundwater withdrawals from the MRAA increases annually for irrigation. High groundwater pumping has caused significant groundwater level decline and elevated salinity in the aquifer. Therefore, dealing with agricultural irrigation is the primary purpose for managing the MRAA. The main objective of this study is to develop a groundwater model as a tool for the MRAA groundwater management. To do so, a hydrostratigraphy model of the MRAA was constructed by using nearly 8,000 drillers' logs and electric logs collected from Louisiana Department of Natural Resources. The hydrostratigraphy model clearly shows that the Mississippi River cuts into the alluvial aquifer. A grid generation technique was developed to convert the hydrostratigraphy model into a MODFLOW model with 12 layers. A GIS-based method was used to estimate groundwater withdrawals for irrigation wells based on the crop location and acreage from the USDACropScape - Cropland Data Layer. Results from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model were used to determine potential recharge. NHDPlusV2 data was used to determine water level for major streams for the MODFLOW River Package. The groundwater model was calibrated using groundwater data between 2004 and 2015 to estimate aquifer hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, specific storage, river conductance, and surficial recharge.

  17. Future reservoir management under climate change for the Mississippi River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asnaashari, Ahmad; Gharabaghi, Bahram; McBean, Edward A.; Kunjikutty, Sobhalatha; Lehman, Paul; Wade, Winston

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of an ongoing research project designed to evaluate the effect of climate change on reservoir operation policies in the Mississippi Valley Conservation Authority. The study used the results from a first paper, including projected daily temperature and precipitation, for future streamflow calculation. This paper presented the development, calibration and validation of a rainfall-runoff NAM model for the Mississippi River watershed. The calibrated Mike11/NAM model was fed with predicted climatic data to generate long term future streamflow in the basin. Forecast flows were run in a Mike 11/HD model to estimate the corresponding lake levels. The storages and flows at Shabomeka Lake, Mazinaw Lake and Marble Lake were simulated. The results showed that climate change is likely to have implications for reservoir operations in the Mississippi River watershed, which will include changed water level regimes due to modifications in the projected future streamflow hydrograph to meet desired lake levels.

  18. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and by the year 2000. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier CBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. These research and education projects are particularly relevant to the US Department of Energy's programs aimed at addressing aquatic pollution problems associated with DOE National Laboratories. First year funding supported seven collaborative cluster projects and twelve initiation projects. This report summarizes research results for period December 1992--December 1993

  19. Changing Course: navigating the future of the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, S.

    2016-02-01

    Changing Course is a design competition to reimagine a more sustainable Lower Mississippi River Delta, bringing teams together from around the world to create innovative visions for one of America's greatest natural resources. Building off of Louisiana's Coastal Master Plan, and answering a key question from that plan, three winning teams (Baird & Associates, Moffatt & Nichol and Studio Misi-Ziibi) have generated designs for how the Mississippi River's water and sediment can be used to maximize rebuilding of delta wetlands while also continuing to meet the needs of navigation, flood protection, and coastal industries and communities. While each of the winning teams offered a different vision, all three identified the same key requirements as critical to sustaining the Mississippi River Delta today and into the future: Reconnecting the Mississippi River to its wetlands to help restore southeast Louisiana's first line of defense against powerful storms and rising sea levels. Planning for a more sustainable delta, including a gradual shift in population to create more protected and resilient communities. Protecting and maximizing the region's port and maritime activities, including a deeper more sustainable navigation channel upriver from Southwest Pass. Increasing economic opportunities in a future smaller delta through expanding shipping capacity, coastal restoration infrastructure, outdoor recreation and tourism and commercial fishing. This session will give a high level overview of the design competition process, results and common themes, similarities and differences in their designs, and how the ideas generated will inform coastal stakeholders and official government processes.

  20. 2009-2010 USACE Vicksburg District Lidar: Mississippi River Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR collected at 1.0 points per square meter (1.0m GSD) for the entire portion of the Mississippi River Delta in the Vicksburg District. This area was flown during...

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Mississippi River suspended sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raff, J.; Hites, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The Mississippi River Basin drains water from 41% of the conterminous U.S. and is a valuable resource that supplies food, transportation, and irrigation to more than 95 million people of the region. Discharge and runoff from industry, agriculture, and population centers have increased the loads of anthropogenic organic compounds in the river. There has been growing concern over the rising levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in air, sediment, biota, and humans, but there have been no studies to measure the concentrations of these chemicals in North America's largest river system. The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of PBDEs (15 congeners including BDE-209) and to identify possible sources within the Mississippi River Basin. We found PBDEs to be widespread throughout the region, rivaling PCBs in their extent and magnitude of contamination. We have also calculated the total amount of PBDEs released to the Gulf of Mexico in 2002.

  2. Fractionation of rare earth elements in the Mississippi River estuary and river sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, S. B.; Johannesson, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents the first set of data on the fractionation of rare earth elements (REE) in the mixing zone between the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico, as well as the fractionation of REE in the operationally defined fractions of Mississippi River sediments. This subject is particularly important because the Mississippi river is one of the world's major rivers, and contributes a substantial amount of water and sediment to the ocean. Hence, it is a major source of trace elements to the oceans. The geochemistry of the REE in natural systems is principally important because of their unique chemical properties, which prompt their application as tracers of mass transportation in modern and paleo-ocean environments. Another important consideration is the growth in the demand and utilization of REE in the green energy and technology industries, which has the potential to bring about a change in the background levels of these trace elements in the environment. The results of this study show a heavy REE enrichment of both the Mississippi River water and the more saline waters of the mixing zone. Our data demonstrate that coagulation and removal of REE in the low salinity region of the estuary is more pronounced among the Light REE ( 35% for Nd) compared to the Heavy REE. Remarkably, our data also indicate that REE removal in the Mississippi River estuary is significantly less than that observed in other estuaries, including the Amazon River system. We propose that the high pH/alkalinity of the Mississippi River is responsible for the greater stability of REE in the Mississippi River estuary. The results of sequential extraction of river sediments reveal different Sm/Nd ratios for the various fractions, which we submit implies different 143Nd/144Nd ratios of the labile fractions of the sediments. The possible impact of such hypothesized different Nd isotope signatures of labile fractions of the river sediments on Gulf of Mexico seawater is under investigation.

  3. Behavior of 226Ra in the Mississippi River mixing zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Daniel G.; Scott, Martha R.

    1986-12-01

    The behavior of 226Ra in the Mississippi River mixing zone is strongly nonconservative and includes desorption similar to that reported for the Hudson, Pee Dee, and Amazon rivers. However, dissolved and desorbed 226Ra concentrations in the Mississippi are 2 to 5 times greater than in the other rivers at the same salinity. Radium concentrations vary inversely with the water discharge rate. The 226Ra desorption maximum occurs at a salinity of 5.0, much lower than the 18 to 28 salinity values for the maxima of the other three rivers. High concentrations of dissolved 226Ra (up to 82 dpm per 100 L) and the low salinity values for the desorption maximum in the Mississippi River result from three major factors. Suspended sediments include a large fraction of montmorillonite, which gives the sediment a high cation exchange capacity, 0.54 meq/g. The average suspended sediment load is large, about 510 mg/L, and contains 1.9 dpm/g desorbable 226Ra. The dissolved 226Ra river water end-member (9.6 dpm per 100 L) is higher than in surface seawater. The annual contribution of 226Ra to the ocean from the Mississippi River is 3.7 × 1014 dpm/yr, based on data from three cruises. Evidence of flux of 226Ra from estuarine and shelf sediments is common in vertical profile sampling of the deltaic waters but is not reflected in calculations made with an "apparent" river water Ra value extrapolated to zero salinity.

  4. Predicting the Impacts of Climate Change on Runoff and Sediment Processes in Agricultural Watersheds: A Case Study from the Sunflower Watershed in the Lower Mississippi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkadiri, R.; Momm, H.; Yasarer, L.; Armour, G. L.

    2017-12-01

    Climatic conditions play a major role in physical processes impacting soil and agrochemicals detachment and transportation from/in agricultural watersheds. In addition, these climatic conditions are projected to significantly vary spatially and temporally in the 21st century, leading to vast uncertainties about the future of sediment and non-point source pollution transport in agricultural watersheds. In this study, we selected the sunflower basin in the lower Mississippi River basin, USA to contribute in the understanding of how climate change affects watershed processes and the transport of pollutant loads. The climate projections used in this study were retrieved from the archive of World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Phase 5 (CMIP5) project. The CMIP5 dataset was selected because it contains the most up-to-date spatially downscaled and bias corrected climate projections. A subset of ten GCMs representing a range in projected climate were spatially downscaled for the sunflower watershed. Statistics derived from downscaled GCM output representing the 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 time periods were used to generate maximum/minimum temperature and precipitation on a daily time step using the USDA Synthetic Weather Generator, SYNTOR. These downscaled climate data were then utilized as inputs to run in the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollution watershed model to estimate time series of runoff, sediment, and nutrient loads produced from the watershed. For baseline conditions a validated simulation of the watershed was created and validated using historical data from 2000 until 2015.

  5. 1996 Annual Status Report. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkhardt, Randy

    1997-01-01

    .... The six LTRMP study reaches are Pools 4 (excluding Lake Pepin), 8, 13, and 26 of the Upper Mississippi River, an unimpounded reach of the Mississippi River near Cape Girardeau, Missouri, and the La Grange Pool of the Illinois River...

  6. Integration of environmental and spectral data for sunflower stress determination. [Red River Valley, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillesand, T.; Seeley, M.

    1983-01-01

    Stress in sunflowers was assessed in western and northwestern Minnesota. Weekly ground observations (acquired in 1980 and 1981) were analyzed in concert with large scale aerial photography and concurrent LANDSAT data. Using multidate supervised and unsupervised classification procedures, it was found that all crops grown in association with sunflowers in the study area are spectrally separable from one another. Under conditions of extreme drought, severely stressed plants were differentiable from those not severely stressed, but between-crop separation was not possible. Initial regression analyses to estimate sunflower seed yield showed a sensitivity to environmental stress during the flowering and seed development stages. One of the most important biological factors related to sunflower production in the Red River Valley area was found to be the extent and severity of insect infestations.

  7. Nonnative Fishes in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Kevin S.; DeLain, Steven A.; Gittinger, Eric; Ickes, Brian S.; Kolar, Cindy S.; Ostendort, David; Ratcliff, Eric N.; Benson, Amy J.; Irons, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction, spread, and establishment of nonnative species is widely regarded as a leading threat to aquatic biodiversity and consequently is ranked among the most serious environmental problems facing the United States today. This report presents information on nonnative fish species observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program on the Upper Mississippi River System a nexus of North American freshwater fish diversity for the Nation. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Environmental Management Plan, is the Nation's largest river monitoring program and stands as the primary source of standardized ecological information on the Upper Mississippi River System. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program has been monitoring fish communities in six study areas on the Upper Mississippi River System since 1989. During this period, more than 3.5 million individual fish, consisting of 139 species, have been collected. Although fish monitoring activities of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program focus principally on entire fish communities, data collected by the Program are useful for detecting and monitoring the establishment and spread of nonnative fish species within the Upper Mississippi River System Basin. Sixteen taxa of nonnative fishes, or hybrids thereof, have been observed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program since 1989, and several species are presently expanding their distribution and increasing in abundance. For example, in one of the six study areas monitored by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program, the number of established nonnative species has increased from two to eight species in less than 10 years. Furthermore, contributions of those eight species can account for up to 60 percent of the total annual catch and greater than 80 percent of the observed biomass. These observations are critical because the Upper Mississippi River System stands as a nationally significant pathway for

  8. 78 FR 46258 - Safety Zone; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 662.8 to 663.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 662.8 to 663.9 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for all waters of the Upper Mississippi River, from mile 662.8 to 663.9, extending the entire width of the river. This safety...

  9. 75 FR 53193 - Safety Zone; Mississippi River, Mile 427.3 to 427.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Zone; Mississippi River, Mile 427.3 to 427.5 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for all waters of the Upper Mississippi River, Mile 427.3 to 427.5, extending the entire width of the river. This safety zone is needed to...

  10. 75 FR 41764 - Safety Zone; Mississippi River, Mile 840.0 to 839.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Mississippi River, Mile 840.0 to 839.8 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coat Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for all waters of the Upper Mississippi River, Mile 840.0 to 839.8, extending the entire width of the river. This safety zone is needed to...

  11. Dissolved Carbon Fluxes During the 2017 Mississippi River Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, J. H.; Xu, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Mississippi River drains approximately 3.2 million square kilometres of land and discharges about 680 cubic kilometres of water into the Northern Gulf of Mexico annually, acting as a significant medium for carbon transport from land to the ocean. A few studies have documented annual carbon fluxes in the river, however it is unclear whether floods can create riverine carbon pulses. Such information is critical in understanding the effects that extreme precipitation events may have on carbon transport under the changing climate. We hypothesize that carbon concentration and mass loading will increase in response to an increase in river discharge, creating a carbon pulse, and that the source of carbon varies from river rising to falling due to terrestrial runoff processes. This study investigated dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) loadings during the 2017 Mississippi River early-summer flood. Water samples were taken from the Mississippi River at Baton Rouge on the rising limb, crest, and falling limb of the flood. All samples were analysed for concentrations of DOC, DIC, and their respective isotopic signature (δ13C). Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) was also recorded in the field at each sampling trip. Additionally, the water samples were analysed for nutrients, dissolved metals, and suspended solids, and in-situ measurements were made on water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance. The preliminary findings suggest that carbon species responded differently to the flood event and that δ13C values were dependent on river flood stage. This single flood event transported a large quantity of carbon, indicating that frequent large pulses of riverine carbon should be expected in the future as climate change progresses.

  12. Mississippi River Hydrodynamic and Delta Management Study (MRHDM) - Geomorphic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Mississippi River @ Venice Daily stage 1960–present MVN Grand Pass Measured Q 1960–present MVN West Bay Diversion Measured Q 2004–present MVN...frequency during the study time period. The dredge history for the crossing locations was used to qualitatively inform the interpretation of the...pattern of deposition downstream of Venice , Louisiana, that was similarly identified by Sharp et al (2013) as part of the West Bay Sediment Diversion

  13. Temporal Analyses of Select Macroinvertebrates in the Upper Mississippi River System, 1992-1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauer, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    The annual variability in mayflies (Ephemeroptera), fingernail clams (Sphaeriidae), and midges (chironomidae) in six study areas of the Upper Mississippi River System from 1992 to 1995 was examined...

  14. Spatial Structure and Temporal Variation of Fish Communities in the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chick, John H; Ickes, Brian S; Pegg, Mark A; Barko, Valerie A; Hrabik, Robert A; Herzog, David P

    2005-01-01

    Variation in community composition (presence/absence data) and structure (relative abundance) of Upper Mississippi River fishes was assessed using data from the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program...

  15. Trends in suspended-sediment loads and concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin, 1950–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Sprague, Lori A.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in loads and concentrations of suspended sediment and suspended sand generally were downward for stations within the Mississippi River Basin during the 60-, 34-, and 12-year periods analyzed. Sediment transport in the lower Mississippi River has historically been, and continues to be, most closely correlative to sediment contributions from the Missouri River, which generally carried the largest annual suspended-sediment load of the major Mississippi River subbasins. The closure of Fort Randall Dam in the upper Missouri River in 1952 was the single largest event in the recorded historical decline of suspended-sediment loads in the Mississippi River Basin. Impoundments on tributaries and sediment reductions as a result of implementation of agricultural conservation practices throughout the basin likely account for much of the remaining Mississippi River sediment transport decline. Scour of the main-stem channel downstream from the upper Missouri River impoundments is likely the largest source of suspended sand in the lower Missouri River. The Ohio River was second to the Missouri River in terms of sediment contributions, followed by the upper Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers. Declines in sediment loads and concentrations continued through the most recent analysis period (1998–2009) at available Mississippi River Basin stations. Analyses of flow-adjusted concentrations of suspended sediment indicate the recent downward temporal changes generally can be explained by corresponding decreases in streamflows.

  16. Habits and Habitats of Fishes in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwick, R.; Janvrin, J.; Zigler, S.; Kratt, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River consists of 26 navigation pools that provide abundant habitat for a host of natural resources, such as fish, migratory waterfowl, non-game birds, deer, beaver, muskrats, snakes, reptiles, frogs, toads, salamanders, and many others. Of all the many different types of animals that depend on the river, fish are the most diverse with over 140 different species. The sport fishery is very diverse with at least 25 species commonly harvested. Fish species, such as walleyes, largemouth bass, bluegills, and crappies are favorites of sport anglers. Others such as common carp, buffalos, and channel catfish, are harvested by commercial anglers and end up on the tables of families all over the country. Still other fishes are important because they provide food for sport or commercial species. The fishery resources in these waters contribute millions of dollars to the economy annually. Overall, the estimate impact of anglers and other recreational users exceeds $1.2 billion on the Upper Mississippi River. The fisheries in the various reaches of the river of often are adversely affected by pollution, urbanization, non-native fishes, navigation, recreational boating, fishing, dredging, and siltation. However, state and federal agencies expend considerable effort and resources to manage fisheries and restore river habitats. This pamphlet was prepared to help you better understand what fishery resources exist, what the requirements of each pecies are, and how man-induced changes that are roposed or might occur could affect them.

  17. Aquifer depletion in the Lower Mississippi River Basin: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) is a nationally- and internationally-important region of intensive agricultural production that relies heavily on the underlying Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer (MRVAA) for row crop irrigation. Extensive irrigation coupled with the region’s geology ...

  18. 77 FR 28255 - Safety Zone; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 183.0 to 183.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... on the Upper Mississippi River. Discussion of Rule The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety...-AA00 Safety Zone; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 183.0 to 183.5 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for all waters of the...

  19. 75 FR 55272 - Safety Zone; Mississippi River, Mile 212.0 to 214.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Mississippi River, Mile 212.0 to 214.5 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for waters of the Upper Mississippi River, Mile 212.0 to 214.5, extending West of Portage Island to the right descending bank of the...

  20. Wetland Management Reduces Sediment and Nutrient Loading to the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restored riparian wetlands in the Upper Mississippi River basin have the potential to remove sediment and nutrients from tributaries before they flow into the Mississippi River. For 3 yr we calculated retention efficiencies of a marsh complex, which consisted of a restored marsh...

  1. 78 FR 78717 - Reservoirs at Headwaters of the Mississippi River; Use and Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Headwaters of the Mississippi River; Use and Administration AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION... administration of the reservoirs at the headwaters of the Mississippi River by deleting from the Code of Federal... values that differ from those currently codified in the Code of Federal Regulations. Deleting all...

  2. 78 FR 21537 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the Front Street 5K Run...

  3. 78 FR 69995 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the bridge owner time...

  4. 75 FR 81125 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... the Upper Mississippi River, mile 481.4, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow... Rock Island, Illinois to open on signal if at least 24 hours advance notice is given for 44 days from...

  5. 75 FR 76632 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Hannibal, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Hannibal, MO AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Hannibal Railroad Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 309.9, at Hannibal, Missouri. The deviation is necessary to allow...

  6. 77 FR 28488 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Hannibal, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Hannibal, MO AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... operating schedule that governs the Hannibal Railroad Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 309.9, at Hannibal, Missouri. The deviation is necessary to allow the replacement of eight wire rope...

  7. 78 FR 64887 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Hannibal, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Hannibal, MO AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... operating schedule that governs the Hannibal Railroad Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 309.9, at Hannibal, Missouri. The deviation is necessary to allow the bridge owner time to replace...

  8. Transport of plutonium by the Mississippi River system and other rivers in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.; Salter, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of fallout Pu has been studied in the sediments and water of the Mississippi River and eight other rivers. Plutonium content of the sediments is related to grain size and Fe and Mn content. Rivers in human climates show relatively high organic carbon (3 to 4%) and high /sup 239,240)Pu content (36 to 131 dpm/kg) in their suspended sediments. Dissolved Pu is very low in all the rivers; distribution coefficients vary from 10 4 to 10 5 . The 238 Pu//sup 239,240/Pu ratios are low in all the river sediments (∼.06) except the Miami River in Ohio, where ratios as high as 99 were measured. The high ratios originate from the Mound Laboratory Pu processing plant at Miamisburg, Ohio, and can be traced downstream to the junction with the Ohio River. Mississippi River suspended sediment shows a continual decrease of /sup 239,240/Pu content over a 7 year time period. An exponential curve best-fit through the data predicts a half time of decrease equal to 4.3 years. The decrease in Pu content of river sediment results from several factors: cessation of atmospheric weapons testing; transport of Pu to deeper levels of soil profiles; storage of sediment in flood plains and behind dams; and dilution by erosion by older, prebomb soil material. The amount of fallout Pu now removed from the Mississippi River drainage basin to the ocean is 11% as a maximum estimate. Most the fallout Pu in the Mississippi drainage basin will remain on the continent unless there are major changes in erosion and sediment transport patterns in the basin itself. 56 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  9. Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwell, Allison E; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H; Rhoads, Bruce L; Holmes, Robert R; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P; Jacobson, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km(2) agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding.

  10. Flood Control, Mississippi River at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    Rolette House (early 19th Century ) was the home of one of the most important and influential early settlers. Joseph Rolette, a French Canadian, was a...referred to as "the house on the mound" because it was built on a large Indian burial mound. in 1872, the home was remodeled into a Victorian styled...the Dakotas following the Civil War. It was also a fashionable stop- over for those traveling the Mississippi River by steamboat. 2.50 When the Second

  11. 1986 Flood Control and Navigation Maps of the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Leatherman Point, La. 42 294.3 Lower Limits, Ark. 22 605.0 21 622.0 Ledbetter Ldg., Miss. 20 Upper Limits, Ark. 19 655.3 S7 10 5 Lee Towhead. Mo...8217 """■"■■ CHARTS 5 CORPS OF ENGINEERS MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER mmmmmammm LEE ISLAND ^ SIARUNuC ÜANSNFR FLEETING AREA y^— AMES TOWHEAD . Morrison...ROCK LANDING Cambria Hollow ESlABLISHlJfeWWl White Sand Creek STRINGTOWN - FORT CHARTRES , 3^’ AND IVY LANDING FOfft CHARTRES BEND LT ^ Doymark

  12. Freshwater mussel assemblage structure in a regulated river in the Lower Mississippi river Alluvial Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    2007-01-01

    1. This paper documents a diverse, reproducing freshwater mussel community (20 species) in Lower Lake } an impounded, regulated portion of the Little Tallahatchie River below Sardis Dam in Panola Co., Mississippi, USA. 2. Despite being regulated and impounded, the lake has a heterogeneous array of habitats that differ markedly in mussel community attributes...

  13. Fish depth distributions in the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, K. J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of literature exists about depth distribution of fish in oceans, lakes and reservoirs, but less is known about fish depth distribution in large rivers. Most of the emphasis on fish distributions in rivers has focused on longitudinal and latitudinal spatial distributions. Knowledge on depth distribution is necessary to understand species and community habitat needs. Considering this void, our goal was to identify patterns in fish benthic distribution along depth gradients in the Lower Mississippi River. Fish were collected over 14 years in depths down to 27 m. Fish exhibited non-random depth distributions that varied seasonally and according to species. Species richness was highest in shallow water, with about 50% of the 62 species detected no longer collected in water deeper than 8 m and about 75% no longer collected in water deeper than 12 m. Although richness was highest in shallow water, most species were not restricted to shallow water. Rather, most species used a wide range of depths. A weak depth zonation occurred, not as strong as that reported for deep oceans and lakes. Larger fish tended to occur in deeper water during the high-water period of an annual cycle, but no correlation was evident during the low-water period. The advent of landscape ecology has guided river research to search for spatial patterns along the length of the river and associated floodplains. Our results suggest that fish assemblages in large rivers are also structured vertically. 

  14. Climatic control of Mississippi River flood hazard amplified by river engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Samuel E.; Giosan, Liviu; Therrell, Matthew D.; Remo, Jonathan W. F.; Shen, Zhixiong; Sullivan, Richard M.; Wiman, Charlotte; O’Donnell, Michelle; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.

    2018-04-01

    Over the past century, many of the world’s major rivers have been modified for the purposes of flood mitigation, power generation and commercial navigation. Engineering modifications to the Mississippi River system have altered the river’s sediment levels and channel morphology, but the influence of these modifications on flood hazard is debated. Detecting and attributing changes in river discharge is challenging because instrumental streamflow records are often too short to evaluate the range of natural hydrological variability before the establishment of flood mitigation infrastructure. Here we show that multi-decadal trends of flood hazard on the lower Mississippi River are strongly modulated by dynamical modes of climate variability, particularly the El Niño–Southern Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, but that the artificial channelization (confinement to a straightened channel) has greatly amplified flood magnitudes over the past century. Our results, based on a multi-proxy reconstruction of flood frequency and magnitude spanning the past 500 years, reveal that the magnitude of the 100-year flood (a flood with a 1 per cent chance of being exceeded in any year) has increased by 20 per cent over those five centuries, with about 75 per cent of this increase attributed to river engineering. We conclude that the interaction of human alterations to the Mississippi River system with dynamical modes of climate variability has elevated the current flood hazard to levels that are unprecedented within the past five centuries.

  15. Mississippi River streamflow measurement techniques at St. Louis, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastson, Chester C.; Holmes, Robert R.; Biedenham, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Streamflow measurement techniques of the Mississippi River at St. Louis have changed through time (1866–present). In addition to different methods used for discrete streamflow measurements, the density and range of discrete measurements used to define the rating curve (stage versus streamflow) have also changed. Several authors have utilized published water surface elevation (stage) and streamflow data to assess changes in the rating curve, which may be attributed to be caused by flood control and/or navigation structures. The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough review of the available flow measurement data and techniques and to assess how a strict awareness of the limitations of the data may affect previous analyses. It is concluded that the pre-1930s discrete streamflow measurement data are not of sufficient accuracy to be compared with modern streamflow values in establishing long-term trends of river behavior.

  16. Concentrations and transport of suspended sediment, nutrients, and pesticides in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River subbasin during the 2011 Mississippi River flood, April through July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Coupe, Richard H.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2014-01-01

    High streamflow associated with the April–July 2011 Mississippi River flood forced the simultaneous opening of the three major flood-control structures in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River subbasin for the first time in history in order to manage the amount of water moving through the system. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected samples for analysis of field properties, suspended-sediment concentration, particle-size, total nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and up to 136 pesticides at 11 water-quality stations and 2 flood-control structures in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River subbasin from just above the confluence of the upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers downstream from April through July 2011. Monthly fluxes of suspended sediment, suspended sand, total nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, and acetochlor were estimated at 9 stations and 2 flood-control structures during the flood period. Although concentrations during the 2011 flood were within the range of what has been observed historically, concentrations decreased during peak streamflow on the lower Mississippi River. Prior to the 2011 flood, high concentrations of suspended sediment and nitrate were observed in March 2011 at stations downstream of the confluence of the upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, which probably resulted in a loss of available material for movement during the flood. In addition, the major contributor of streamflow to the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River subbasin during April and May was the Ohio River, whose water contained lower concentrations of suspended sediment, pesticides, and nutrients than water from the upper Mississippi River. Estimated fluxes for the 4-month flood period were still quite high and contributed approximately 50 percent of the estimated annual suspended sediment, nitrate, and total phosphorus fluxes in 2011; the largest fluxes were estimated at

  17. Nitrogen and phosphorus in the Upper Mississippi River: Transport, processing, and effects on the river ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, J.N.; Richardson, W.B.

    2010-01-01

    Existing research on nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) can be organized into the following categories: (1) Long-term changes in nutrient concentrations and export, and their causes; (2) Nutrient cycling within the river; (3) Spatial and temporal patterns of river nutrient concentrations; (4) Effects of elevated nutrient concentrations on the river; and (5) Actions to reduce river nutrient concentrations and flux. Nutrient concentration and flux in the Mississippi River have increased substantially over the last century because of changes in land use, climate, hydrology, and river management and engineering. As in other large floodplain rivers, rates of processes that cycle nitrogen and phosphorus in the UMR exhibit pronounced spatial and temporal heterogeneity because of the complex morphology of the river. This spatial variability in nutrient processing creates clear spatial patterns in nutrient concentrations. For example, nitrate concentrations generally are much lower in off-channel areas than in the main channel. The specifics of in-river nutrient cycling and the effects of high rates of nutrient input on UMR have been less studied than the factors affecting nutrient input to the river and transport to the Gulf of Mexico, and important questions concerning nutrient cycling in the UMR remain. Eutrophication and resulting changes in river productivity have only recently been investigated the UMR. These recent studies indicate that the high nutrient concentrations in the river may affect community composition of aquatic vegetation (e. g., the abundance of filamentous algae and duckweeds), dissolved oxygen concentrations in off-channel areas, and the abundance of cyanobacteria. Actions to reduce nutrient input to the river include changes in land-use practices, wetland restoration, and hydrological modifications to the river. Evidence suggests that most of the above methods can contribute to reducing nutrient concentration in

  18. River Activism, “Levees-Only” and the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Randolph

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates media coverage of 19th and early 20th century river activism and its effect on federal policy to control the Mississippi River. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ “levees-only” policy—which joined disparate navigation and flood control interests—is largely blamed for the Great Flood of 1927, called the largest peacetime disaster in American history. River activists organized annual conventions, and later, professional lobbies organized media campaigns up and down the Mississippi River to sway public opinion and pressure Congress to fund flood control and river navigation projects. Annual river conventions drew thousands of delegates such as plantation owners, shippers, bankers, chambers of commerce, governors, congressmen, mayors and cabinet members with interests on the Mississippi River. Public pressure on Congress successfully captured millions of federal dollars to protect property, drain swamps for development, subsidize local levee districts and influence river policy.

  19. Denitrification in the Mississippi River network controlled by flow through river bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velez, Jesus D.; Harvey, Judson W.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Kiel, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Increasing nitrogen concentrations in the world’s major rivers have led to over-fertilization of sensitive downstream waters1, 2, 3, 4. Flow through channel bed and bank sediments acts to remove riverine nitrogen through microbe-mediated denitrification reactions5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. However, little is understood about where in the channel network this biophysical process is most efficient, why certain channels are more effective nitrogen reactors, and how management practices can enhance the removal of nitrogen in regions where water circulates through sediment and mixes with groundwater - hyporheic zones8, 11, 12. Here we present numerical simulations of hyporheic flow and denitrification throughout the Mississippi River network using a hydrogeomorphic model. We find that vertical exchange with sediments beneath the riverbed in hyporheic zones, driven by submerged bedforms, has denitrification potential that far exceeds lateral hyporheic exchange with sediments alongside river channels, driven by river bars and meandering banks. We propose that geomorphic differences along river corridors can explain why denitrification efficiency varies between basins in the Mississippi River network. Our findings suggest that promoting the development of permeable bedforms at the streambed - and thus vertical hyporheic exchange - would be more effective at enhancing river denitrification in large river basins than promoting lateral exchange through induced channel meandering. 

  20. Source, habitat and nutrient enrichment effects on decomposition of detritus in Lower Mississippi River Basin bayous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potential differences in storage and processing of detritus in agricultural landscapes may alter freshwater ecosystem function. We compared decomposition rates of maize (Zea mays) and willow oak (Quercus phellos) from three bayous located within the Lower Mississippi River Basin of NW Mississippi, ...

  1. Deep-sea coral record of human impact on watershed quality in the Mississippi River Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prouty, N.G.; Roark, E.B.; Koenig, A.E.; Demopoulos, A.W.J.; Batista, F.C.; Kocar, B.D.; Selby, D.; McCarthy, M.D.; Mienis, F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest drivers of historical nutrient and sediment transport into the Gulf of Mexico is the unprecedented scale and intensity of land use change in the Mississippi River Basin. These landscape changes are linked to enhanced fluxes of carbon and nitrogen pollution from the Mississippi

  2. Impact of Crop Conversions on Runoff and Sediment Output in the Lower Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momm, H.; Bingner, R. L.; Elkadiri, R.; Yaraser, L.; Porter, W.

    2017-12-01

    Farming management practices influence sediment and agrochemical loads exiting fields and entering downstream water bodies. These practices impact multiple physical processes responsible for sediment and nutrient detachment, transport, and deposition. Recent changes in farming practices in the Southern United States coincide with increased grain production, replacing traditional crops such as cotton with corn and soybeans. To grow these crops in the South, adapted crop management practices are needed (irrigation, fertilizer, etc.). In this study, the impact of grain crop adoption on hydrologic processes and non-point source pollutant production is quantified. A watershed located in the Big Sunflower River drainage basin (14,179 km2) - a part of the greater Lower Mississippi River basin - was selected due to its economic relevance, historical agricultural output, and depiction of recent farming management trends. Estimates of runoff and sediment loads were produced using the U.S. Department of Agriculture supported Annualized Agriculture Non-Point Source Pollution (AnnAGNPS) watershed pollution and management model. Existing physical conditions during a 16-year period (2000-2015) were characterized using 3,992 sub-catchments and 1,602 concentrated flow paths. Algorithms were developed to integrate continuous land use/land cover information, variable spatio-temporal irrigation practices, and crop output yield in order to generate a total of 2,922 unique management practices and corresponding soil-disturbing operations. A simulation representing existing conditions was contrasted with simulations depicting alternatives of management, irrigation practices, and temporal variations in crop yield. Quantification of anthropogenic impacts to water quality and water availability at a watershed scale supports the development of targeted pollution mitigation and custom conservation strategies.

  3. Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; D’Emidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3500 m3/s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. We characterize hydrodynamics and suspended sediment patterns of the Mississippi River plume using in-situ data collected during the historic flood. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area; and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Minimum accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. Our findings provide a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns that is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

  4. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of The Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 1,994 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1993...

  5. 2010 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic from Color Aerial Imagery of MISSISSIPPI RIVER - LAPLACE TO VENICE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative of MISSISSIPPI RIVER -...

  6. Landform-Sediment Assemblages Units of the Upper Mississippi River Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Wisconsinan and Holocene Landform-Sediment Assemblages of the Upper Mississippi River Valley. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of natural and cultural resources...

  7. Fishes in paleochannels of the Lower Mississippi River alluvial valley: A national treasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.

    2016-01-01

    Fluvial geomorphology of the alluvial valley of the Lower Mississippi River reveals a fascinating history. A prominent occupant of the valley was the Ohio River, estimated to have flowed 25,000 years ago over western Tennessee and Mississippi to join the Mississippi River north of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 750–800 km south of the present confluence. Over time, shifts in the Mississippi and Ohio rivers toward their contemporary positions have left a legacy of abandoned paleochannels supportive of unique fish assemblages. Relative to channels abandoned in the last 500 years, paleochannels exhibit harsher environmental conditions characteristic of hypereutrophic lakes and support tolerant fish assemblages. Considering their ecological, geological, and historical importance, coupled with their primordial scenery, the hundreds of paleochannels in the valley represent a national treasure. Altogether, these waterscapes are endangered by human activities and would benefit from the conservation attention afforded to our national parks and wildlife refuges.

  8. 76 FR 13422 - Lower Mississippi River Waterway Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... the Lower Mississippi River and its connecting navigable waterways, including the Gulf of Mexico. The... receive no salary, reimbursement of travel expenses, or other compensation from the Federal Government...

  9. Hydraulic Evaluation of Discharge Over Submerged Rock Wing Dams on the Upper Mississippi River

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendrickson, Jon

    1999-01-01

    .... This analysis was part of a study, done through the Corps of Engineers' Land Management System, to determine the impacts of zebra mussels on water quality and ecological conditions in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Wing dams...

  10. Environmental and Navigation Improvement Study of Wolf Island, Mississippi River, Miles 936.5 to 929

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davinroy, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... Army Corps of Engineers. The study was initiated in order to evaluate sedimentation trends in a major side channel of the Mississippi River and to access various structural design alternative impacts...

  11. 78 FR 16411 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the Quad City Heart...-366-9826. [[Page 16412

  12. Ecosystem effects in the Lower Mississippi River Basin: Chapter L in 2011 Floods of the Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Allen, Yvonne C.; Couvillion, Brady R.; McKee, Karen L.; Vervaeke, William C.

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 Mississippi River flood in the Lower Mississippi River Basin was one of the largest flood events in recorded history, producing the largest or next to largest peak streamflow for the period of record at a number of streamgages on the lower Mississippi River. Ecosystem effects include changes to wetlands, nutrient transport, and land accretion and sediment deposition changes. Direct effects to the wetland ecosystems in the Lower Mississippi River Basin were minimized because of the expansive levee system built to pass floodwaters. Nutrients carried by the Mississippi River affect water quality in the Lower Mississippi River Basin. During 2011, nutrient fluxes in the lower Mississippi River were about average. Generally, nutrient delivery of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers contributes to the size of the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on available limited post-flood satellite imagery, some land expansion in both the Wax Lake and Atchafalaya River Deltas was observed. A wetland sediment survey completed in June 2011 indicated that recent sediment deposits were relatively thicker in the Atchafalaya and Mississippi River (Birdsfoot) Delta marshes compared to marshes farther from these rivers.

  13. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Annual Status Report, 1999: Macroinvertebrate Sampling in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauer, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    In 1992, macroinvertebrate sampling was initiated in Pools 4, 8, 13, 26, and the Open River reach of the Mississippi River, and La Orange Pool of the Illinois River as part of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program...

  14. Syntectonic Mississippi River Channel Response: Integrating River Morphology and Seismic Imaging to Detect Active Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Alluvial rivers, even great rivers such as the Mississippi, respond to hydrologic and geologic controls. Temporal variations of valley gradient can significantly alter channel morphology, as the river responds syntectonically to attain equilibrium. The river will alter its sinuosity, in an attempt to maintain a constant gradient on a surface that changes slope through time. Therefore, changes of river pattern can be the first clue that active tectonics is affecting an area of pattern change. Here I present geomorphological and seismic imaging evidence of a previously unknown fault crossing the Mississippi river south of the New Madrid seismic zone, between Caruthersville, Missouri and Osceola, Arkansas, and show that both datasets support Holocene fault movement, with the latest slip occurring in the last 200 years. High resolution marine seismic reflection data acquired along the Mississippi river imaged a NW-SE striking north-dipping fault displacing the base of the Quaternary alluvium by 15 m with reverse sense of movement. The fault consistently deforms the Tertiary, Cretaceous and Paleozoic formations. Historical river channel planforms dating back to 1765 reveal that the section of the river channel across the fault has been characterized by high sinuosity and steep projected-channel slope compared to adjacent river reaches. In particular, the reach across the fault experienced a cutoff in 1821, resulting in a temporary lowering of sinuosity followed by an increase between the survey of 1880 and 1915. Under the assumption that the change in sinuosity reflects river response to a valley slope change to maintain constant gradient, I use sinuosity through time to calculate the change in valley slope since 1880 and therefore to estimate the vertical displacement of the imaged fault in the past 200 years. Based on calculations so performed, the vertical offset of the fault is estimated to be 0.4 m, accrued since at least 1880. If the base of the river alluvium

  15. 1994 Annual Status Report. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    .... The six LTRMP study reaches are Pools 4 (excluding Lake Pepin), 8,13, and 26 of the Upper Mississippi River, an unimpounded reach of the Mississippi River near Cape Girardeau, Missouri and the La Grange Pool of the Illinois River...

  16. 78 FR 15292 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge, across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the River Bandits 5K Run/Walk...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation...

  17. Use of Infrasound for evaluating potentially hazardous conditions for barge transit on the Mississippi River at Vicksburg, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, M. H.; Simpson, C. P.; Jordan, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Navigating the Mississippi River in Vicksburg, MS is known to be difficult for barge traffic in even the best of conditions due to the river's sharp bend 2 km north of the Highway 80 Bridge. When river levels rise, the level of difficulty in piloting barges under the bridge rises. Ongoing studies by the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) are investigating infrasound as a means to correlate the low frequency acoustics generated by the river with the presence of hazardous conditions observed during flood stage, i.e., rough waters and high currents, which may lead to barge-bridge impacts. The Denied Area Monitoring and Exploitation of Structures (DAMES) Array at the ERDC Vicksburg, MS campus is a persistent seismic-acoustic array used for structural monitoring and explosive event detection. The DAMES Array is located 4.3 km from the Mississippi River/Highway 80 Bridge junction and recorded impulsive sub-audible acoustic signals, similar to an explosive event, from barge-bridge collisions that occurred between 2011 and 2017. This study focuses on five collisions that occurred during January 2016, which resulted in closing the river for barge transit and the Highway 80 Bridge for rail transit for multiple days until safety inspections were completed. The Highway 80 Bridge in Vicksburg, MS is the only freight-crossing over the Mississippi River between Baton Rouge, LA and Memphis, TN, meaning delays from these closings have significant impacts on all transit of goods throughout the Southeastern United States. River basin data and regional meteorological data have been analyzed to find correlations between the river conditions in January 2016, and recorded infrasound data with the aim of determining the likelihood that hazardous conditions are present on the river. Frequency-wavenumber analysis was used to identify the transient signals associated with the barge-bridge impacts and calculate the backazimuth to their source. Then, with the use of

  18. Mitigation and enhancement techniques for the Upper Mississippi River system and other large river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, Rosalie A.; Morton, John M.; Mochalski, Jeffrey C.; Beall, Jonathan T.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive information is provided on techniques that can reduce or eliminate the negative impact of man's activities (particularly those related to navigation) on large river systems, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi River. These techniques should help resource managers who are concerned with such river systems to establish sound environmental programs. Discussion of each technique or group of techniques include (1) situation to be mitigated or enhanced; (2) description of technique; (3) impacts on the environment; (4) costs; and (5) evaluation for use on the Upper Mississippi River Systems. The techniques are divided into four primary categories: Bank Stabilization Techniques, Dredging and Disposal of Dredged Material, Fishery Management Techniques, and Wildlife Management Techniques. Because techniques have been grouped by function, rather than by structure, some structures are discussed in several contexts. For example, gabions are discussed for use in revetments, river training structures, and breakwaters. The measures covered under Bank Stabilization Techniques include the use of riprap revetments, other revetments, bulkheads, river training structures, breakwater structures, chemical soil stabilizers, erosion-control mattings, and filter fabrics; the planting of vegetation; the creation of islands; the creation of berms or enrichment of beaches; and the control of water level and boat traffic. The discussions of Dredging and the Disposal of Dredged Material consider dredges, dredging methods, and disposal of dredged material. The following subjects are considered under Fishery Management Techniques: fish attractors; spawning structures; nursery ponds, coves, and marshes; fish screens and barriers; fish passage; water control structures; management of water levels and flows; wing dam modification; side channel modification; aeration techniques; control of nuisance aquatic plants; and manipulated of fish populations. Wildlife Management

  19. HYDROLOGY, SUNFLOWER COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. Assessing Microplastic Loads in the Mississippi River and Its Major Tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenmueller, E. A.; Martin, K. M.; Conkle, J. L.; White, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Plastic debris is ubiquitous in marine environments and can cause significant harm to aquatic life when organisms become entangled in the plastic or mistake it for food. Macroplastic debris (plastic >5 mm in diameter) has received significant attention from the public, government agencies, and the scientific community. However, the majority of plastics in aquatic environments are microplastics (plastic Administration (NOAA) Marine Debris Program, has quantified and characterized microplastics (i.e., size, shape, and resin type) at the surface and at depth along the mainstem of the Mississippi River, including near major cities such as St. Louis and New Orleans, as well as in some of the Mississippi River's major tributaries (i.e., the Missouri River, Ohio River, and Illinois River). Sampling is ongoing, but our datasets will allow us to characterize: 1) total microplastic concentrations and loads, 2) spatial and temporal trends in microplastic abundances, and 3) land-use effects on microplastic levels across the Mississippi River watershed. Our data will also provide estimates of the total discharge of microplastics from the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. These efforts will provide a baseline for future research relating to the fate and effects of microplastics in aquatic environments and can guide federal and local policy makers in creating and assessing mitigation strategies to improve water quality.

  1. A Regional Survey of River-plume Sedimentation on the Mississippi River Delta Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, A. J.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Maloney, J. M.; Miner, M. D.; Chaytor, J. D.; Smith, J.

    2017-12-01

    Many studies of the Mississippi River and Delta (MRD) have shown historic declines in sediment load reaching the main river distributaries over the last few decades. Recent studies also reported that 50% of the suspended load during floods is sequestered within the delta. While the impact of declining sediment load on wetland loss is well documented, submarine sedimentary processes on the delta front during this recent period of declining sediment load are understudied. To better understand modern sediment dispersal and deposition across the Mississippi River Delta Front, 31 multicores were collected in June 2017 from locations extending offshore from Southwest Pass, South Pass, and Pass a Loutre (the main river outlets) in water depths of 25-280 m. Core locations were selected based on multibeam bathymetry and morphology collected by the USGS in May 2017; the timing of collection coincided with the end of annual peak discharge on the Mississippi River. This multi-agency survey is the first to study delta-front sedimentary processes regionally with such a wide suite of tools. Target locations for coring included the dominant depositional environments: mudflow lobes, gullies, and undisturbed prodelta. Cores were subsampled at 2 cm intervals and analyzed for Beryllium-7 activity via gamma spectrometry; in such settings, Be-7 can be used as a tracer of sediment recently delivered from fluvial origin. Results indicate a general trend of declining Be-7 activity with increasing distance from source, and in deeper water. Inshore samples near Southwest Pass show the deepest penetration depth of Be-7 into the sediment (24-26 cm), which is a preliminary indicator of rapid seasonal sedimentation. Nearshore samples from South Pass exhibited similar Be-7 penetration depths, with results near Pass a Loutre to 14-16 cm depth. Be-7 remains detectable to 2 cm in water 206 m deep, approximately 20 km from South Pass. Sediment dispersal remains impressive offshore from all three

  2. 33 CFR 207.320 - Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mississippi River, Twin City... § 207.320 Mississippi River, Twin City Locks and Dam, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn.; pool level. In... the Twin City Locks and Dam, Minneapolis, in the interest of navigation, and supersedes rules and...

  3. 76 FR 38975 - Safety Zone; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 856.0 to 855.0, Minneapolis, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 856.0 to 855.0, Minneapolis, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for all waters of the Upper Mississippi River, from Mile 856.0 to 855.0, Minneapolis, Minnesota, and...

  4. 77 FR 39393 - Special Local Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 842.0 to 840.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... is establishing a temporary special local regulation for all waters of the Upper Mississippi River... 1625-AA00 Special Local Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Mile 842.0 to 840.0 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary special local...

  5. Occurrence of the Rayed Creekshell, Anodontoides Radzatus, in the Mississippi River Basin: Implications For Conservation and Biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren; Keith Wright; Larry Shaffer

    2002-01-01

    We document the occurrence of the rayed creekshell (Anodontoides radiatus Conrad), a freshwater mussel (Unionidae), at eight sites in the upper Yazoo River drainage (lower Mississippi River Basin) in northern Mississippi. Previously, A. radiatus was thought to be restricted to Gulf Coast drainages as far west only as the...

  6. Impacts of reforestation upon sediment load and water outflow in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Theodor D. Leininger; Matt Moran

    2013-01-01

    Among the world’s largest coastal and river basins, the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMRAV)is one of the most disturbed by human activities. This study ascertained the impacts of reforestation on water outflow attenuation (i.e., water flow out of the watershed outlet) and sediment load reduction in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed (LYRW) within the LMRAV...

  7. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. McLachlan

    2003-12-01

    In December 1992, the CBR was awarded a five-year grant of $25M from the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project was an interdisciplinary, collaborative research and education project aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments. This project funded 15 collaborative cluster multi-year projects and 41 one-year initiation projects out of 165 submitted research proposals. This project was carried out by 134 research and technical support faculty from Xavier University (School of Arts and Sciences, and College of Pharmacy) and Tulane University (Schools of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Engineering, Medicine, and Public Health and Tropical Medicine), and 173 publications and 140 presentations were produced. More than 100 graduate and undergraduate students were trained through these collaborative cluster and initiation research projects. Nineteen Tulane graduate students received partial funding to conduct their own competitively-chosen research projects, and 28 Xavier undergraduate LIFE Scholars and 30 LIFE Interns were supported with DOE funding to conduct their mentored research projects. Studies in this project have defined: (1) the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, (2) the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and (3) the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The bayou and spoil banks of Bayou Trepagnier were mapped and analyzed in terms of risks associated with the levels of hydrocarbons and metals at specific sample sites. Data from contaminated sample sites have been incorporated into a large database and used in GIS analyses to track the fate and transport of heavy metals from spoil banks into the surrounding marsh. These data are crucial

  8. Evaluation of reforestation in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S.L.; Keeland, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    Only about 2.8 million ha of an estimated original 10 million ha of bottomland hardwood forests still exist in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) of the United States. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Forest Service, and state agencies initiated reforestation efforts in the late 1980s to improve wildlife habitat. We surveyed restorationists responsible for reforestation in the LMAV to determine the magnitude of past and future efforts and to identify major limiting factors. Over the past 10 years, 77,698 ha have been reforested by the agencies represented in our survey and an additional 89,009 ha are targeted in the next 5 years. Oaks are the most commonly planted species and bare-root seedlings are the most commonly used planting stock. Problems with seedling availability may increase the diversity of plantings in the future. Reforestation in the LMAV is based upon principles of landscape ecology; however, local problems such as herbivory, drought, and flooding often limit success. Broad-scale hydrologic restoration is needed to fully restore the structural and functional attributes of these systems, but because of drastic and widespread hydrologic alterations and socioeconomic constraints, this goal is generally not realistic. Local hydrologic restoration and creation of specific habitat features needed by some wildlife and fish species warrant attention. More extensive analyses of plantings are needed to evaluate functional success. The Wetland Reserve Program is a positive development, but policies that provide additional financial incentives to landowners for reforestation efforts should be seriously considered.

  9. A comparative study of the flux and fate of the Mississippi and Yangtze river sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Large rivers play a key role in delivering water and sediment into the global oceans. Large-river deltas and associated coastlines are important interfaces for material fluxes that have a global impact on marine processes. In this study, we compare water and sediment discharge from Mississippi and Yangtze rivers by assessing: (1 temporal variation under varying climatic and anthropogenic impacts, (2 delta response of the declining sediment discharge, and (3 deltaic lobe switching and Holocene sediment dispersal patterns on the adjacent continental shelves. Dam constructions have decreased both rivers’ sediment discharge significantly, leading to shoreline retreat along the coast. The sediment dispersal of the river-dominated Mississippi Delta is localized but for the tide-dominated Yangtze Delta is more diffuse and influenced by longshore currents. Sediment declines and relative sea level rises have led to coastal erosion, endangering the coasts of both rivers.

  10. A Hydrograph-Based Sediment Availability Assessment: Implications for Mississippi River Sediment Diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Rosen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mississippi River Delta Plain has undergone substantial land loss caused by subsidence, relative sea-level rise, and loss of connectivity to the Mississippi River. Many restoration projects rely on diversions from the Mississippi River, but uncertainty exists about the timing and the amount of actually available sediment. This study examined long-term (1980–2010 suspended sediment yield as affected by different hydrologic regimes to determine actual suspended sediment availability and how this may affect diversion management. A stage hydrograph-based approach was employed to quantify total suspended sediment load (SSL of the lower Mississippi River at Tarbert Landing during three river flow conditions: Peak Flow Stage (stage = 16.8 m, discharge >32,000 m3 s−1, High Flow Stage (stage = 14.6 m, discharge = 25,000–32,000 m3 s−1, and Intermediate Flow Stage (Stage = 12.1 m, discharge = 18,000–25,000 m3 s−1. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC and SSL were maximized during High Flow and Intermediate Flow Stages, accounting for approximately 50% of the total annual sediment yield, even though duration of the stages accounted for only one-third of a year. Peak Flow Stage had the highest discharge, but significantly lower SSC (p < 0.05, indicating that diversion of the river at this stage would be less effective for sediment capture. The lower Mississippi River showed significantly higher SSC (p < 0.0001 and SSL (p < 0.0001 during the rising than the receding limb. When the flood pulse was rising, Intermediate Flow and High Flow Stages showed greater SSC and SSL than Peak Flow Stage. Together, Intermediate Flow and High Flow Stages on the rising limb annually discharged 28 megatonnes over approximately 42 days, identifying this to be the best period for sediment capture and diversion.

  11. Thermal pollution impacts on rivers and power supply in the Mississippi River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Ariel; Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Macknick, Jordan E.; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Fekete, Balazs; Corsi, Fabio; Newmark, Robin

    2018-03-01

    Thermal pollution from power plants degrades riverine ecosystems with ramifications beyond the natural environment as it affects power supply. The transport of thermal effluents along river reaches may lead to plant-to-plant interferences by elevating condenser inlet temperatures at downstream locations, which lower thermal efficiencies and trigger regulatory-forced power curtailments. We evaluate thermal pollution impacts on rivers and power supply across 128 plants with once-through cooling technologies in the Mississippi River watershed. By leveraging river network topologies with higher resolutions (0.05°) than previous studies, we reveal the need to address the issue in a more spatially resolved manner, capable of uncovering diverse impacts across individual plants, river reaches and sub-basins. Results show that the use of coarse river network resolutions may lead to substantial overestimations in magnitude and length of impaired river reaches. Overall, there is a modest limitation on power production due to thermal pollution, given existing infrastructure, regulatory and climate conditions. However, tradeoffs between thermal pollution and electricity generation show important implications for the role of alternative cooling technologies and environmental regulation under current and future climates. Recirculating cooling technologies may nearly eliminate thermal pollution and improve power system reliability under stressed climate-water conditions. Regulatory limits also reduce thermal pollution, but at the expense of significant reductions in electricity generation capacity. However, results show several instances when power production capacity rises at individual plants when regulatory limits reduce upstream thermal pollution. These dynamics across energy-water systems highlight the need for high-resolution simulations and the value of coherent planning and optimization across infrastructure with mutual dependencies on natural resources to overcome

  12. Early Holocene pecan, Carya illinoensis, in the Mississippi River Valley near Muscatine, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, E. Arthur; Baker, R.G.; Nations, B.K.; Benn, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A fossil pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, from floodplain sediments of the Mississippi River near Muscatine, Iowa, was accelerator-dated at 7280 ?? 120 yr B.P. This discovery indicates that pecan was at or near its present northern limit by that time. Carya pollen profiles from the Mississippi River Trench indicate that hickory pollen percentages were much higher in the valley than at upland locations during the early Holocene. Pecan, the hickory with the most restricted riparian habitat, is the likely candidate for producing these peaks in Carya pollen percentages. Therefore, pecan may have reached its northern limit as early as 10,300 yr B.P. Its abundance in Early Archaic archaeological sites and the co-occurrence of early Holocene Carya pollen peaks with the arrival of the Dalton artifact complex in the Upper Mississippi Valley suggest that humans may have played a role in the early dispersal of pecan. ?? 1990.

  13. Early Holocene pecan, Carya illinoensis, in the Mississippi River Valley near Muscatine, Iowa*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, E. Arthur; Baker, Richard G.; Nations, Brenda K.; Benn, David W.

    1990-01-01

    A fossil pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, from floodplain sediments of the Mississippi River near Muscatine, Iowa, was accelerator-dated at 7280 ± 120 yr B.P. This discovery indicates that pecan was at or near its present northern limit by that time. Carya pollen profiles from the Mississippi River Trench indicate that hickory pollen percentages were much higher in the valley than at upland locations during the early Holocene. Pecan, the hickory with the most restricted riparian habitat, is the likely candidate for producing these peaks in Carya pollen percentages. Therefore, pecan may have reached its northern limit as early as 10,300 yr B.P. Its abundance in Early Archaic archaeological sites and the co-occurrence of early Holocene Carya pollen peaks with the arrival of the Dalton artifact complex in the Upper Mississippi Valley suggest that humans may have played a role in the early dispersal of pecan.

  14. Observations on the identification of larval and juvenile Scaphirhynchus spp. in the lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfield, Paul D.; Kuntz, Nathan M.; Schramm, Harold L.

    2013-01-01

    Scaphirhynchus albus (Pallid Sturgeon) and S. platorynchus (Shovelnose Sturgeon) are sympatric and not uncommon in the lower Mississippi River from the confluence of the Ohio River to the Gulf of Mexico, and in its distributary, the Atchafalaya River. Reports of sturgeon larvae have been rare in the Mississippi River but have been increasing with more effective collection methods. A suite of characters identified in hatchery-reared larval Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon from the Yellowstone and upper Missouri rivers has been used to distinguish larval Scaphirhynchus spp. In the Mississippi River; however, a large proportion of wild Scaphirhynchus spp. larvae are intermediate in these characters and have been identified by some as hybridized Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon. We applied three diagnostic characters developed from Missouri River sturgeon larvae to hatchery-reared progeny of Atchafalaya River Pallid Sturgeon and found them inadequate to identify most of the known Pallid sturgeon larvae. Additionally, fewer than 10% of a large sample of wild Scaphirhynchusspp. larvae from the lower Mississippi River conformed to either Pallid Sturgeon or Shovelnose Sturgeon at two or more of the characters. We also found a small mouth width relative to head width and a concave forward barbel position may be useful for the identification of 30% or more Scaphirhynchus spp. larvae and postlarval young-of-year as Shovelnose Sturgeon. Established adult character indices and diagnostic measurement proportionalities also failed to correctly identify any hatchery-reared Pallid Sturgeon juveniles recaptured 6–7 years following their release.

  15. Climatic and anthropogenic controls on Mississippi River floods: a multi-proxy palaeoflood approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, S. E.; Therrell, M. D.; Remo, J. W.; Giosan, L.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last century, many of the world's major rivers have been modified for the purposes of flood mitigation, power generation, and commercial navigation. Engineering modifications to the Mississippi River system have altered the river's sediment budget and channel morphology, but the influence of these modifications on flood risk is debated. Detecting and attributing changes in river discharge is challenging because instrumental streamflow records are often too short to evaluate the range of natural hydrological variability prior to the establishment of flood mitigation infrastructure. Here we show that multi-decadal trends of flood risk on the lower Mississippi River are strongly modulated by dynamical modes of climate variability, particularly the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), but that artificial channelization has greatly amplified flood magnitudes over the last century. Our results, based on a multi-proxy reconstruction of flood frequency and magnitude spanning the last five hundred years that combines sedimentary, tree-ring, and instrumental records, reveal that the magnitude of the 100-year flood has increased by 20% over the period of record, with 75% of this increase attributed to river engineering. We conclude that the interaction of human alterations to the Mississippi River system with dynamical modes of climate variability has elevated the current flood risk to levels that are unprecedented within the last five centuries.

  16. 77 FR 75079 - Safety Zone; Woldenburg Park, Mississippi River, New Orleans, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Woldenburg Park, Mississippi River, New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Captain of the Port New Orleans, under the authority... this rule, call or email LCDR Kenneth Blair, Sector New Orleans, U.S. Coast Guard; telephone (504) 365...

  17. Historical trajectories and restoration strategies for the Mississippi River alluvial valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice B. Hanberry; John M. Kabrick; Hong S. He; Brian J. Palik

    2012-01-01

    Unlike upland forests in the eastern United States, little research is available about the composition and structure of bottomland forests before Euro-American settlement. To provide a historical reference encompassing spatial variation for the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, we quantified forest types, species distributions, densities, and stocking of...

  18. 77 FR 69761 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Clinton, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0995] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Clinton, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the...

  19. 75 FR 1706 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket Number USCG-2009-1097] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District has...

  20. 75 FR 76279 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Burlington, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-1058] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Burlington, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a...

  1. 78 FR 72022 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2013-0964] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation from drawbridge regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the...

  2. 76 FR 79066 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Clinton, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2011-1018] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Clinton, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a...

  3. 76 FR 72308 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2011-1039] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a...

  4. 78 FR 76750 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Clinton, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2013-1008] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Clinton, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation from drawbridge regulations. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the...

  5. 75 FR 70817 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-1039] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a...

  6. 75 FR 78162 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Clinton, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-1084] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Clinton, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a...

  7. 77 FR 69759 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2012-1002] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the...

  8. 76 FR 6694 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Keokuk, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket Number USCG-2011-0029] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Keokuk, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has...

  9. 78 FR 42030 - Reservoirs at Headwaters of the Mississippi River; Use and Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Headwaters of the Mississippi River; Use and Administration AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION... proposing to amend the rules regarding use and administration of the reservoirs at the headwaters of the... Headwaters reservoirs containing minimum flow values that differ from those currently codified in the Code of...

  10. A Submersed Macrophyte Index of Condition for the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portions of the Upper Mississippi River are listed as impaired for aquatic life use under section 303(d) of the United States Clean Water Act by the State of Minnesota’s Pollution Control Agency and Wisconsin’s Department of Natural Resources for exceeding turbidity and eutrophic...

  11. Approaches to restoration of oak forests on farmed lowlands of the Mississippi River and its tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; Daniel C. Dey; John A. Stanturf; Brian Roy. Lockhart

    2010-01-01

    The lowlands associated with the Mississippi River and its tributaries historically supported extensive broadleaf forests that were particularly rich in oak (Quercus spp.) species. Beginning in the 1700s, deforestation for agriculture substantially reduced the extent of the original forest, and fragmented the remainder into small parcels. More...

  12. 77 FR 20716 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation...

  13. 77 FR 3607 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation...

  14. 78 FR 79312 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... deviation from the operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow.... Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation for the Rock Island Railroad and Highway...

  15. 75 FR 17561 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operations of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, Mile 482.9, Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is... Manager, Docket Operations, telephone (202) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island...

  16. 78 FR 18933 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the Quad City Marathon..., Docket Operations, telephone (202) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal...

  17. 76 FR 9223 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation...

  18. 75 FR 22228 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, Mile 482.9, Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is... Manager, Docket Operations, telephone (202) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island...

  19. 77 FR 5398 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation...

  20. 76 FR 9224 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation for the Rock Island...

  1. 75 FR 68974 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., has issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois... Operations, telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a...

  2. What would happen if the Mississippi River changed its course to the Atchafalaya?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Mississippi River Delta faces an uncertain future as sea level keeps rising while the land continues to subside. In its latest Master Plan draft of 2017, the Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority has outlined a $50 billion investment for 120 projects designed to build and maintain coastal Louisiana. These projects are all developed under the assumption that the Mississippi River (MR) would remain on its current course, which is artificially maintained through a control structure built in 1963 (also known as the Old River Control Structure, or ORCS) after it was realized that the river attempted to change its course back to its old river channel - the Atchafalaya River (AR). Since the ORCS is in operation of controlling only about 25% of the MR flow into the AR, little attention has been paid to the importance of possible riverbed changes downstream the avulsion node on the MR course switch. As one of the largest alluvial river in the world, the MR avulsed every 1,000-1,500 years in the past. Alluvial rivers avulse when two conditions are met: a sufficient in-channel aggradation and a major flood. In our ongoing study on sediment transport and channel morphology of the lower Mississippi River, we found that the first 30-mile reach downstream the ORCS has been experiencing rapid bed aggradation and channel narrowing in the past three decades. A mega flood could be a triggering point to overpower the man-made ORCS and allow the river abandon its current channel - the MR main stem. This is not a desirable path; however, nature has its own mechanism of choosing river flows, which do not bow to our expectation. The Missisippi River's flow is projected to increase in the future as global temperature continues to rise and hydrologic cycle intensifies. Additionally, rapid urbanization in the river basin will create conditions that foster the emergence of mega floods. It would be impractical to spend considerable resources for a river delta without

  3. Bed Degradation and Sediment Export from the Missouri River after Dam Construction and River Training: Significance to Lower Mississippi River Sediment Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, M. D.; Viparelli, E.; Sulaiman, Z. A.; Pettit, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    More than 40,000 dams have been constructed in the Mississippi River drainage basin, which has had a dramatic impact on suspended sediment load for the Mississippi delta. The most significant dams were constructed in the 1950s on the Missouri River in South Dakota, after which total suspended loads for the lower Mississippi River, some 2500 km downstream, were cut in half: gauging station data from the Missouri-Mississippi system show significant load reductions immediately after dam closure, followed by a continued downward trend since that time. The delta region is experiencing tremendous land loss in response to acceleration of global sea-level rise, and load reductions of this magnitude may place severe limits on mitigation efforts. Here we examine sediment export from the Missouri system due to bed scour. The US Army Corps of Engineers has compiled changes in river stage at constant discharge for 8 stations between the lowermost dam at Yankton, South Dakota and the Missouri-Mississippi confluence at St. Louis (a distance of 1250 river km), for the period 1930-2010, which we have updated to 2015. These data show two general reaches of significant bed degradation. The first extends from the last major dam at Yankton, South Dakota downstream 300 km to Omaha, Nebraska, where degradation in response to the dam exceeds 3 m. The second reach, with >2.5 m of degradation, occurs in and around Kansas City, Missouri, and has been attributed to river training activities. The reach between Omaha and Kansas City, as well as the lower Missouri below Kansas City, show River due to bed scour following dam construction and river training. This number equates to 20-25 million tons per year, which is sufficient to account for 30% of the total Missouri River load, and 15% of the total post-dam annual sediment load for the lower Mississippi River. For perspective, the quantity of sediment exported from the Missouri River due to bed scour is greater than the total load for all

  4. Performance measures for a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Keim, Richard F.; Chambers, Jim L.; Wood, William B.; Hartley, Stephen B.

    2017-06-09

    The use of freshwater diversions (river reintroductions) from the Mississippi River as a restoration tool to rehabilitate Louisiana coastal wetlands has been promoted widely since the first such diversion at Caernarvon became operational in the early 1990s. To date, aside from the Bonnet Carré Spillway (which is designed and operated for flood control), there are only four operational Mississippi River freshwater diversions (two gated structures and two siphons) in coastal Louisiana, and they all target salinity intrusion, shellfish management, and (or) the enhancement of the integrity of marsh habitat. River reintroductions carry small sediment loads for various design reasons, but they can be effective in delivering fresh­water to combat saltwater intrusion and increase the delivery of nutrients and suspended fine-grained sediments to receiving wetlands. River reintroductions may be an ideal restoration tool for targeting coastal swamp forest habitat; much of the area of swamp forest habitat in coastal Louisiana is undergo­ing saltwater intrusion, high rates of submergence, and lack of riverine flow leading to reduced concentrations of important nutrients and suspended sediments, which sustain growth and regeneration, help to aerate swamp soils, and remove toxic compounds from the rhizosphere.The State of Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restora­tion Authority (CPRA) has made it a priority to establish a small freshwater river diversion into a coastal swamp forest located between Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana, to reintroduce Mississippi River water to Maurepas Swamp. While a full understanding of how a coastal swamp forest will respond to new freshwater loading through a Mississippi River reintroduction is unknown, this report provides guidance based on the available literature for establishing performance measures that can be used for evaluating the effectiveness of a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

  5. Impacts of Declining Mississippi River Sediment Load on Subaqueous Delta Front Sedimentation and Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, J. M.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Miner, M. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Mississippi River delta system is undergoing unprecedented changes due to the effects of climate change and anthropogenic alterations to the river and its delta. Since the 1950s, the suspended sediment load of the Mississippi River has decreased by approximately 50% due to the construction of >50,000 dams in the Mississippi basin. The impact of this decreased sediment load has been observed in subaerial environments, but the impact on sedimentation and geomorphology of the subaqueous delta front has yet to be examined. To identify historic trends in sedimentation patterns, we compiled bathymetric datasets, including historical charts, industry and academic surveys, and NOAA data, collected between 1764 and 2009. Sedimentation rates are variable across the delta front, but are highest near the mouth of Southwest Pass, which carries the largest percentage of Mississippi River flow and sediment into the Gulf of Mexico. The progradation rate of Southwest Pass (measured at the 10 m depth contour) has slowed from 67 m/yr between 1764 and 1940 to 26 m/yr between 1940 and 1979, with evidence of further deceleration from 1979-2009. Decreased rates of progradation are also observed at South Pass and Pass A Loutre, with the 10 m contour retreating at rates >20 m/yr at both passes. Advancement of the delta front also decelerated in deeper water (15-90 m) offshore from Southwest Pass. In this area, from 1940-1979, depth contours advanced seaward 30 m/yr, but rates declined from 1979-2005. Furthermore, over the same area, the sediment accumulation rate decreased by 81% for the same period. The Mississippi River delta front appears to be entering a phase of decline, which will likely be accelerated by future upstream management practices. This decline has implications for offshore ecosystems, biogeochemical cycling, pollutant dispersal, mudflow hazard, and the continued use of the delta as an economic and population center.

  6. How Natural is the Dissolved Inorganic Composition of Mississippi River Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Johnson, S. T.; Meaux, S. J.; Brown, K.; Blum, M. J.; Allison, M. A.; Halder, J.; Wassenaar, L. I.; Cuesta, A. M.; Norris, E. S.; Wang, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    The dissolved inorganic composition of rivers provides insights into natural interactions between the hydrologic cycle and the "critical zone" of watersheds, and anthropogenic modifications thereof. For instance, major ion compositions allow us to infer how effectively weathering processes counteract increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Prerequisite to such assessments is the ability to detect and correct for anthropogenic modifications of river chemistry. An observatory campaign of the Mississippi River in New Orleans from July 2015 to October 2016 with an in-situ sensor system (LOBO-SUNA) and 161 discrete water sampling events reveals systematic changes in the dissolved ion and water stable isotope compositions, nutrient loading, and physical parameters of the Mississippi River. Monthly sampling has continued since as part of the Global Rivers Observatory. We compare this high-resolution data set to long-term data generated by the USGS at St. Francisville upstream of Baton Rouge, data from the USGS Baton Rouge gaging station and in-situ sensor system, as well as other historic data. Results reveal systematic changes in major ion composition in response to hydrologic conditions. In addition to annual and interannual changes, decadal trends in concentrations of certain major ions (Na, Mg, Ca) are consistent with anthropogenic activities in the drainage basin that are reminiscent of well-known, long-term changes in nutrient fluxes that affect the northern Gulf of Mexico. Our current working hypotheses to explain observed increases in Mg and Na concentrations, for example, are contaminations from road salt, from additives used in drinking and waste water treatment, as well as from groundwater pumping, particularly in the western part of the Mississippi River basin. Uncorrected, these changes impede our abilitiy to use the current chemical composition of Mississippi River water as a quantitative indicator of natural processes in the watershed.

  7. Dujiangyan: Could the ancient hydraulic engineering be a sustainable solution for Mississippi River diversions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. J.

    2016-02-01

    Dujiangyan, also known as the Dujiangyan Project, is a hydraulic engineering complex built more than 2260 years ago on the Mingjiang River near Chengdu in China's Sichuan Province. The complex splits the river into two channels, a so-called "inner river" (Leijiang) and an "outer river" (Waijiang) that carry variable water volumes and sediment loads under different river flow conditions. The inner river and its numerous distributary canals are primarily man-made for irrigation over the past 2000 years, while the outer river is the natural channel and flows southward before entering into the Yangtze River. Under normal flow, 60% of the Mingjiang River goes into the inner river for irrigating nearly 1 million hectares of agricultural land on the Chengdu plain. During floods, however, less than 40% of the Mingjiang River flows into the inner river. Under both flow conditions, about 80% of the riverine sediments is carried by the outer river and continues downstream. This hydrology is achieved through a weir work complex that comprises three major components: a V-shaped bypass dike in the center of the Mingjiang River (the Yuzui Bypass Dike, see photo below), a sediment diversion canal in the inner river below the bypass dike (the Feishayan Floodgate), and a flow control in the inner river below the sediment diversion canal (the Baopingkou Diversion Passage). Together with ancillary embankments, these structures have not only ensured a regular supply of silt-reduced water to the fertile Chengdu plain, but have provided great benefits in flood control, sediment transport, and water resources regulation over the past two thousand years. The design of this ancient hydraulic complex ingeniously conforms to the natural environment while incorporating many sophisticated techniques, reflecting the concept that humankind is an integral part of nature. As we are urgently seeking solutions today to save the sinking Mississippi River Delta, examination of the ancient engineering

  8. Bathymetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers near St. Louis, Missouri, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Bathymetric surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, on the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers in the vicinity of 12 bridges at 7 highway crossings near St. Louis, Missouri, in October 2010. A multibeam echo sounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 3,280 to 4,590 feet long and extending across the active channel of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. These bathymetric scans provide a snapshot of the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be used by the Missouri Department of Transportation to assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour.

  9. Simulating the effects of phosphorus limitation in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laurent

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico receives high dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus loads from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. The nutrient load results in high primary production in the river plumes and contributes to the development of hypoxia on the Louisiana shelf in summer. While phytoplankton growth is considered to be typically nitrogen-limited in marine waters, phosphorus limitation has been observed in this region during periods of peak river discharge in spring and early summer. Here we investigate the presence, spatio-temporal distribution and implications of phosphorus limitation in the plume region using a circulation model of the northern Gulf of Mexico coupled to a multi-nutrient ecosystem model. Results from a 7-yr simulation (2001–2007 compare well with several sources of observations and suggest that phosphorus limitation develops every year between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya deltas. Model simulations show that phosphorus limitation results in a delay and westward shift of a fraction of river-stimulated primary production. The consequence is a reduced flux of particulate organic matter to the sediment near the Mississippi delta, but slightly enhanced fluxes west of Atchafalaya Bay. Simulations with altered river phosphate concentrations (±50% show that significant variation in the spatial extent of phosphorus limitation (±40% in July results from changes in phosphate load.

  10. 1994 Annual Status Report. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,653 collections of fishes from stratified random sad permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1994...

  11. 1991 Annual Status Report. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1998-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,653 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1991...

  12. 1996 Annual Status Report. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkhardt, Randy

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,378 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1996...

  13. 1992 Annual Status Report: A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,221 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during I 992...

  14. 1997 Annual Status Report A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of The Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkhardt, Randy

    1998-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,797 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1997...

  15. 1998 Annual Status Report: A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkhardt, Randy

    2000-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,664 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1998...

  16. 1995 Annual Status Report. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,723 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1995...

  17. PHOTOGENERATION OF SINGLET OXYGEN AND FREE RADICALS IN DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER ISOLATED FROM THE MISSISSIPPI AND ATCHAFALAYA RIVER PLUMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The photoreactivity to UV light of ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected during cruises along salinity transects in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River plumes was examined by measuring photogenerated free radicals and singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) photosensiti...

  18. 2010 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic from Color Aerial Imagery of MISSISSIPPI RIVER - BATON ROUGE TO LAPLACE (NODC Accession 0074374)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative of MISSISSIPPI RIVER -...

  19. Effects of Increased Commercial Navigation Traffic on Freshwater Mussels in the Upper Mississippi River: Ten-Year Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    ... traffic at five historically prominent mussel beds in the upper Mississippi River (UMR). The purpose was to assess effects of increased navigation traffic caused by the newly completed Melvin Price Locks and Dam at Alton, IL...

  20. Modal Investment Comparison : The Impact of Upper Mississippi River Lock and Dam Shutdowns on State Highway Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    This project reviews southbound agricultural shipments from the Upper Mississippi River originating from the states of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin to understand the potential impacts of shifting barge shipments to the parallel ...

  1. Modeling the Response of Primary Production and Sedimentation to Variable Nitrate Loading in the Mississippi River Plume

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Rebecca E; Breed, Greg A; Dagg, Michael J; Lohrenz, Steven E

    2008-01-01

    ...% reduction in annual nitrogen discharge into the Gulf of Mexico. We developed an ecosystem model for the Mississippi River plume to investigate the response of organic matter production and sedimentation to variable nitrate loading...

  2. Preface: Bridging the gap between theory and practice on the upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinski, Kenneth S.

    1995-01-01

    In July 1994, the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) served as a nexus for coalescing scientific information and management issues related to worldwide floodplain river ecosystems. The objective of the conference ‘Sustaining the Ecological Integrity of Large Floodplain Rivers: Application of Ecological Knowledge to River Management’, was to provide presentations of current ideas from the scientific community. To translate the many lessons learned on other river systems to operational decisions on the UMR, a companion workshop for managers and the general public was held immediately after the conference.An immediate local need for such sharing has existed for several years, as the U.S. Corps of Engineers is currently planning commercial navigation activities that will influence the ecological integrity of the river over the next half century. Recently, other equally important management issues have surfaced, including managing the river as an element of the watershed, and assessing its ecological value as a system instead of a collection of parts (Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, 1993). Regional and state natural resource agencies are becoming more convinced that they need to address these issues within their own authorities, however spatially limited, rather than relying on the U.S. Corps of Engineers to manage the ecosystem as an adjunct to its purpose of navigation support.

  3. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Particulate and CDOM in the Mississippi River Bight (MRB) from Optical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Sa, Eurico; Miller, Richard; DelCastillo, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    NASA's projects for the Mississippi River Coastal Margin Study include Mississippi River Interdisciplinary Research (MiRIR) and NASA Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR). These projects, undertaken with the help of Tulane University and the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium (LUMCON) sampled water in the Gulf of Mexico to measure colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). This viewgraph presentation contains images of each program's sampling strategy and equipment.

  4. Dynamics of 30 large channel bars in the Lower Mississippi River in response to river engineering from 1985 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xu, Y. Jun

    2018-01-01

    Channel bars are a major depositional feature in alluvial rivers and their morphodynamics has been investigated intensively in the past several decades. However, relatively less is known about how channel bars in alluvial rivers respond to river engineering and regulations. In this study, we assessed 30-yr morphologic changes of 30 large emerged bars located in a 223 km reach of the highly regulated Lower Mississippi River from Vicksburg, Mississippi, to the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River diversion. Landsat imagery and river stage data between 1985 and 2015 were utilized to characterize bar morphologic features and quantify decadal changes. Based on bar surface areas estimated with the satellite images at different river stages, a rating curve was developed for each of the 30 bars to determine their volumes. Results from this study show that the highly regulated river reach favored the growth of mid-channel and attached bars, while more than half of the point bars showed degradation. Currently, the mid-channel and attached bars accounted for 38% and 34% of the total volume of the 30 bars. The average volume of a single mid-channel bar is over two times that of an attached bar and over four times that of a point bar. Overall, in the past three decades, the total volume of the studied 30 bars increased by 110,118,000 m3 (41%). Total dike length in a dike field was found mostly contributing to the bar volume increase. Currently, the emerged volume of the 30 bars was estimated approximately 378,183,000 m3. The total bar volume is equivalent to 530 million metric tons of coarse sand, based on an average measured bulk density of 1.4 t/m3 for the bar sediment. The findings show that these bars are large sediment reservoirs.

  5. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Alexander, Richard B.; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Schwarz, Gregory E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  6. Regional Effects of Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana María; Alexander, Richard B; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J; Robertson, Dale M; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-07-05

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  7. Extreme Mississippi River Floods in the Late Holocene: Reconstructions and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, S. E.; Giosan, L.; Donnelly, J. P.; Dee, S.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme flooding of the Mississippi River is costly in both economic and social terms. Despite ambitious engineering projects conceived in the early 20th century to mitigate damage from extreme floods, economic losses due to flooding have increased over recent years. Forecasting extreme flood occurrence over seasonal or longer time-scales remains a major challenge - especially in light of shifts in hydroclimatic conditions expected in response to continued greenhouse forcing. Here, we present findings from a series of paleoflood records that span the late Holocene derived from laminated sediments deposited in abandoned channels of the Mississippi River. These sedimentary archives record individual overbank floods as unique events beds with upward fining that we identify using grain-size analysis, bulk geochemistry, and radiography. We use sedimentological characteristics to reconstruct flood magnitude by calibrating our records against instrumental streamflow data from nearby gauging stations. We also use the Last Millennium Experiments of the Community Earth System Model (CESM-LME) and historical reanalysis data to examine the state of climate system around river discharge extremes. Our paleo-flood records exhibit strong non-stationarities in flood frequency and magnitude that are associated with fluctuations in the frequency of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), because the warm ENSO phase is associated with increased surface water storage of the lower Mississippi basin that leads to enhanced runoff delivery to the main channel. We also show that the early 20th century was a period of anomalously high flood frequency and magnitude due to the combined effects of river engineering and natural climate variability. Our findings imply that flood risk along the lower Mississippi River is tightly coupled to the frequency of ENSO, highlighting the need for robust projections of ENSO variability under greenhouse warming.

  8. Groundwater Discharge to Upper Barataria Basin Driven by Mississippi River Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, J. E.; Kim, J.; Johannesson, K. H.; Kolker, A.; Telfeyan, K.; Breaux, A.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater flow into deltaic wetlands occurs despite the heterogeneous and anisotropic depositional environment of deltas. Along the Mississippi River this groundwater flow is augmented by the vast alluvial aquifer and the levees which confine the river to a zone much more narrow than the historical floodplain. The effect of the levees has been to force the river stage to as much as 10 m above the adjacent back-levee wetlands. Consequently, the head difference created by higher river stages can drive groundwater flow into these wetlands, especially during flood seasons. We measured Rn-222 in the surface waters of a bayou draining a bottomland hardwood swamp in the lower Mississippi River valley over a 14-month period. With a half-life of 3.83 days and its conservative geochemical behavior, Rn-222 is a well-known tracer for groundwater inputs in both fresh and marine environments. Transects from the mouth to the headwaters of the bayou were monitored for Rn-222 in real-time using Rad-7s on a semi-monthly basis. We found that Rn-222 decreased exponentially from the swamp at the headwaters to the mouth of the bayou. Using a mass balance approach, we calculated groundwater inputs to the bayou headwaters and compared these discharge estimates to variations in Mississippi River stage. Groundwater inputs to the Barataria Basin, Louisiana, represent a significant fraction of the freshwater budget of the basin. The flow appears to occur through the sandy Point Bar Aquifer that lies adjacent to the river and underlies many of the freshwater swamps of the Basin. Tracer measurements throughout the Basin in these swamp areas appear to confirm our hypothesis about the outlet for groundwater in this deltaic environment.

  9. Transport of fallout plutonium to the ocean by the Mississippi River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.; Rotter, R.J.; Salter, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    Mississippi River suspended sediment shows a continual decrease of sup(239,240)Pu content over a seven-year time period. An exponential curve best-fit through the data predicts a half-time of decrease equal to 4.3 years. However, unsupported 210 Pb, a naturally occurring nuclide at steady state in the environment, maintains constant concentration over the same time period. The decrease in Pu content of river sediment results from several factors: cessation of atmospheric weapons testing; transport of Pu to deeper levels of soil profiles; storage of sediment in floodplains and behind dams; and dilution by erosion of older, prebomb soil material. Most of the fallout Pu in the Mississippi drainage basin will remain on the continent unless there are major changes in erosion and sediment transport patterns in the basin itself. (orig.)

  10. Strategies and equipment for sampling suspended sediment and associated toxic chemicals in large rivers - with emphasis on the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Stevens, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    A Lagrangian strategy for sampling large rivers, which was developed and tested in the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers of South America during the early 1980s, is now being applied to the study of toxic chemicals in the Mississippi River. A series of 15-20 cross-sections of the Mississippi mainstem and its principal tributaries is sampled by boat in downstream sequence, beginning upriver of St. Louis and concluding downriver of New Orleans 3 weeks later. The timing of the downstream sampling sequence approximates the travel time of the river water. Samples at each cross-section are discharge-weighted to provide concentrations of dissolved and suspended constituents that are converted to fluxes. Water-sediment mixtures are collected from 10-40 equally spaced points across the river width by sequential depth integration at a uniform vertical transit rate. Essential equipment includes (i) a hydraulic winch, for sensitive control of vertical transit rates, and (ii) a collapsible-bag sampler, which allows integrated samples to be collected at all depths in the river. A section is usually sampled in 4-8 h, for a total sample recovery of 100-120 l. Sampled concentrations of suspended silt and clay are reproducible within 3%.

  11. Biological fate, transport, and ecotoxicity of toxic and hazardous waste in the Mississippi River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelghani, A.; Hartley, W.; Bart, H.; Ide, C.; Ellgaard, E.; Sherry, T.; Devall, M.; Thien, L.; Horner, E.; Mizell, M.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the cluster investigators is to develop a dynamic model for the evaluation of the biological fate, transport, and ecotoxicity from multiple chemical contamination of the Mississippi River Basin. To develop this environmental model, FY 93-94 most of cluster investigators focused on Devil's Swamp Site (DSS), a cypress swamp which lies just Northwest of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, adjacent to the Mississippi River. The DSS which includes a man-made lake has contaminated sediment, water and biota. The DSS receives flood water from the Mississippi River during high flow periods and the Baton Rouge Bayou drains through the DSS. The DSS receives toxic substances and hazardous waste from a wide variety of surrounding industrial operations including an abandoned hazardous waste disposal facility. In addition, some investigators studied Bayou Trepangnier. This research cluster will continue studying Devil Swamp. The large number of investigators in this cluster resulted from incorporating related research proposals based on reviewer recommendations. The specific aims of the cluster for the first year were to conduct a physical, chemical, ecological survey and baseline toxicological characterization of the DSS from existing databases maintained by State and federal agencies, field studies (assessment) of sediment, air, water and biota, and laboratory screening studios. This assessment will provide critical information and focus for the next two years in-depth studies of critical transport and fate processes, ecotoxicity, biomarkers of effect, and uptake, metabolism and distribution of toxicants. The primary significant outcome of the cluster researchers will be the development of an ecological risk assessment model combining biotic and physical/chemical variables for DSS with a projection of model reliability and accuracy for use at other typical Mississippi River Basin sites

  12. Observations of Lower Mississippi River Estuarine Dynamics: Effects of the Salt Wedge on Sediment Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, M. T.; Allison, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The lowermost Mississippi River is subject to salt-wedge estuarine conditions during seasonally low flow, when seaward flow is unable to overcome density stratification. Previous studies in the Mississippi River salt wedge have shown the deposition of a fine sediment layer accumulating several mm/day beneath the reach where the salt wedge is present. Field studies were conducted during low flow in 2012-2015 utilizing ADCP, CTD, LISST, and physical samples to observe the physics of the salt wedge reach and to calculate rates and character of sediment trapping beneath the salt wedge. The field observations were summarized using a two-layer box-model representation of the reach to calculate water and sediment budgets entering, exiting, and stored within the reach. The salt wedge reach was found to be net depositional at rates up to 1.8 mm/day. The mechanism for transferring sediment mass from the downstream-flowing fluvial layer to the upstream-flowing marine layer appears to be flocculation, evidenced in LISST data by a spike in sediment particle diameters at the halocline. Applying reach-averaged rates of sediment trapping to a time-integrated model of salt-wedge position, we calculated annual totals ranging from 0.025 to 2.2 million tons of sediment deposited beneath the salt wedge, depending on salt-wedge persistence and upstream extent. Most years this seasonal deposit is remobilized during spring flood following the low-flow estuarine season, which may affect the timing of sediment delivery to the Gulf of Mexico, as well as particulate organic carbon, whose transport trajectory mirrors that of mineral sediment. These results are also relevant to ongoing dredging efforts necessary to maintain the economically-important navigation pathway through the lower Mississippi River, as well as planned efforts to use Mississippi River sedimentary resources to build land in the degrading Louisiana deltaic coast.

  13. Factors regulating year‐class strength of Silver Carp throughout the Mississippi River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Christopher J.; Weber, Michael J.; Pierce, Clay; Wahl, David H.; Phelps, Quinton E.; Camacho, Carlos A.; Colombo, Robert E.

    2018-01-01

    Recruitment of many fish populations is inherently highly variable inter‐annually. However, this variability can be synchronous at broad geographic scales due to fish dispersal and climatic conditions. Herein, we investigated recruitment synchrony of Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix across the Mississippi River basin. Year‐class strength (YCS) and synchrony of nine populations (max linear distance = 806.4 km) was indexed using catch‐curve residuals correlated between sites and related to local and regional climatic conditions. Overall, Silver Carp YCS was not synchronous among populations, suggesting local environmental factors are more important determinants of YCS than large‐scale environmental factors. Variation in Silver Carp YCS was influenced by river base flow and discharge variability at each site, indicating that extended periods of static local discharge benefit YCS. Further, river discharge and air temperature were correlated and synchronized among sites, but only similarities in river discharge was correlated with Silver Carp population synchrony, indicating that similarities in discharge (i.e., major flood) among sites can positively synchronize Silver Carp YCS. The positive correlation between Silver Carp YCS and river discharge synchrony suggests that regional flood regimes are an important force determining the degree of population synchrony among Mississippi River Silver Carp populations.

  14. A brief history and summary of the effects of river engineering and dams on the Mississippi River system and delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Wilson, Richard C.; Green, W. Reed

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Forecast Mekong project is providing technical assistance and information to aid management decisions and build science capacity of institutions in the Mekong River Basin. A component of this effort is to produce a synthesis of the effects of dams and other engineering structures on large-river hydrology, sediment transport, geomorphology, ecology, water quality, and deltaic systems. The Mississippi River Basin (MRB) of the United States was used as the backdrop and context for this synthesis because it is a continental scale river system with a total annual water discharge proportional to the Mekong River, has been highly engineered over the past two centuries, and the effects of engineering have been widely studied and documented by scientists and engineers. The MRB is controlled and regulated by dams and river-engineering structures. These modifications have resulted in multiple benefits including navigation, flood control, hydropower, bank stabilization, and recreation. Dams and other river-engineering structures in the MRB have afforded the United States substantial socioeconomic benefits; however, these benefits also have transformed the hydrologic, sediment transport, geomorphic, water-quality, and ecologic characteristics of the river and its delta. Large dams on the middle Missouri River have substantially reduced the magnitude of peak floods, increased base discharges, and reduced the overall variability of intraannual discharges. The extensive system of levees and wing dikes throughout the MRB, although providing protection from intermediate magnitude floods, have reduced overall channel capacity and increased flood stage by up to 4 meters for higher magnitude floods. Prior to major river engineering, the estimated average annual sediment yield of the Mississippi River Basin was approximately 400 million metric tons. The construction of large main-channel reservoirs on the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers, sedimentation in dike

  15. Corn-based ethanol production compromises goal of reducing nitrogen export by the Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Simon D; Kucharik, Christopher J

    2008-03-18

    Corn cultivation in the United States is expected to increase to meet demand for ethanol. Nitrogen leaching from fertilized corn fields to the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system is a primary cause of the bottom-water hypoxia that develops on the continental shelf of the northern Gulf of Mexico each summer. In this study, we combine agricultural land use scenarios with physically based models of terrestrial and aquatic nitrogen to examine the effect of present and future expansion of corn-based ethanol production on nitrogen export by the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers to the Gulf of Mexico. The results show that the increase in corn cultivation required to meet the goal of 15-36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by the year 2022 suggested by a recent U.S. Senate energy policy would increase the annual average flux of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export by the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers by 10-34%. Generating 15 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol by the year 2022 will increase the odds that annual DIN export exceeds the target set for reducing hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico to >95%. Examination of extreme mitigation options shows that expanding corn-based ethanol production would make the already difficult challenges of reducing nitrogen export to the Gulf of Mexico and the extent of hypoxia practically impossible without large shifts in food production and agricultural management.

  16. Managing the Mississippi River floodplain: Achieving ecological benefits requires more than hydrological connection to the river: Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harold; Richardson, William B.; Knights, Brent C.

    2015-01-01

    Floodplains are vital to the structure and function of river-floodplain ecosystems. Among the many ecological services provided by floodplains are nutrient cycling and seasonal habitats for fish, including spawning, nursery, foraging and wintering habitats. Connections between the river channel and floodplain habitats are essential to realize these ecological services, but spatial and temporal aspects of the connection and contemporary geomorphology must also be considered in restoration efforts. This chapter synthesizes available information to compare floodplain function and needed management strategies in two extensive reaches (upper impounded and lower free-flowing) of the Mississippi River, USA. The upper impounded reach is the 523-km reach from about Minneapolis, Minnesota to Clinton, Iowa. This reach has been impounded and channelized for navigation. Mean annual water-level fluctuation ranges from 1 to 2 m in the navigation pools in this reach. Floodplain environmental conditions that affect nitrogen cycling and fish production vary seasonally and longitudinally within and among navigation pools. Significant issues affecting ecological services include sedimentation, constrained water level fluctuations, island erosion and seasonal hypoxia. The lower free-flowing reach, the 1570-km reach from the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to the Gulf of Mexico, has no dams and average annual fluctuations of 7 m throughout most of the reach. Despite the substantial flood pulse, floodplain inundation is often brief and may not occur annually. Significant issues affecting floodplain ecological function are the short duration and thermal asynchrony of the flood pulse, sedimentation and loss of connection between the river channel and permanent/semi-permanent floodplain water bodies due to channel incision. Needs and strategies for floodplain enhancement to increase ecological services, particularly nitrogen cycling and fish production, differ along the

  17. High frequency measurement of nitrate concentration in the Lower Mississippi River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shuiwang; Powell, Rodney T.; Bianchi, Thomas S.

    2014-11-01

    Nutrient concentrations in the Mississippi River have increased dramatically since the 1950s, and high frequency measurements on nitrate concentration are required for accurate load estimations and examinations on nitrate transport and transformation processes. This three year record of high temporal resolution (every 2-3 h) data clearly illustrates the importance of high frequency sampling in improving load estimates and resolving variations in nitrate concentration with river flow and tributary inputs. Our results showed large short-term (days to weeks) variations in nitrate concentration but with no diurnal patterns. A repeatable and pronounced seasonal pattern of nitrate concentration was observed, and showed gradual increases from the lowest values in September (during base-flow), to the highest in June - which was followed by a rapid decrease. This seasonal pattern was only moderately linked with water discharge, and more controlled by nitrogen transformation/export from watershed as well as mixing patterns of the two primary tributaries (the upper Mississippi and the Ohio Rivers), which have distinctly different nitrate concentrations and flow patterns. Based on continuous in situ flow measurements, we estimated 554-886 × 106 kg of nitrate-N was exported from the Mississippi River system during years 2004-2006, which was <9% and <16% lower than U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) estimates using their LOADEST or composite methods, respectively. USGS methods generally overestimated nitrate loads during rising stages and underestimated the loads during falling stages. While changes in nitrate concentrations in large rivers are generally not as responsive to alterations in diurnal inputs and/or watershed hydrology as small rivers, high-frequency water quality sampling would help in monitoring short-term (days to weeks) variations in nutrient concentration patterns and thus improve the accuracy of nutrient flux estimates.

  18. Transient Flow through an Unsaturated Levee Embankment during the 2011 Mississippi River Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, N.; Stark, T.; Vahedifard, F.; Cadigan, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Mississippi River and corresponding tributaries drain approximately 3.23 million km2 (1.25 million mi2) or the equivalent of 41% of the contiguous United States. Approximately 2,600 km ( 1,600 miles) of earthen levees presently protect major urban cities and agricultural land against the periodic Mississippi River floods within the Lower Mississippi River Valley. The 2011 flood also severely stressed the levees and highlighted the need to evaluate the behavior of levee embankments during high water levels. The performance of earthen levees is complex because of the uncertainties in construction materials, antecedent moisture contents, hydraulic properties, and lack of field monitoring. In particular, calibration of unsaturated and saturated soil properties of levee embankment and foundation layers along with the evaluation of phreatic surface during high river stage is lacking. Due to the formation of sand boils at the Duncan Point Levee in Baton Rouge, LA during the 2011 flood event, a reconnaissance survey was conducted to collect pore-water pressures in the sand foundation using piezometers and identifying the phreatic surface at the peak river level. Transient seepage analyses were performed to calibrate the foundation and levee embankment material properties using field data collected. With this calibrated levee model, numerical experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of rainfall intensity and duration, progression of phreatic surface, and seasonal climate variability prior to floods on the performance of the levee embankment. For example, elevated phreatic surface from river floods are maintained for several months and can be compounded with rainfall to lead to slope instability.

  19. Hyalella azteca (Saussure) responses to Coldwater River backwater sediments in Mississippi, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Scott S; Lizotte, Richard E; Shields, F Douglas

    2009-10-01

    Sediment from three Coldwater River, Mississippi backwaters was examined using 28 day Hyalella azteca bioassays and chemical analyses for 33 pesticides, seven metals and seven PCB mixtures. Hydrologic connectivity between the main river channel and backwater varied widely among the three sites. Mortality occurred in the most highly connected backwater while growth impairment occurred in the other two. Precopulatory guarding behavior was not as sensitive as growth. Fourteen contaminants (seven metals, seven pesticides) were detected in sediments. Survival was associated with the organochlorine insecticide heptachlor.

  20. Carbon storage and late Holocene chronostratigraphy of a Mississippi River deltaic marsh, St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, H. W.

    1998-01-01

    Today, the causes, results, and time scale(s) of climate change, past and potential, are the focus of much research, news coverage, and pundit speculation. Many of the US government scientific agencies have some funds earmarked for research into past and (or) future climate change (National Science and Technology Council, 1997). The Mississippi Basin Carbon Project (MBCP) is part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) effort in global change research . The project is motivated by the need to increase our understanding of the role of terrestrial carbon in the global carbon cycle, particularly in the temperate latitudes of North America. The global land area between 30 O and 60 O N is thought to be a large sink for atmospheric CO2 (IPCC, 1996). The identity of this sink is unknown, but is in part the soil and sediment that makes up the upper several meters of the Earth's surface. The MBCP focuses on the Mississippi River basin, the third largest river system in the world (fig. 1), that drains an area of 3.3 x 10 6 km 2 (1.27 x 10 6 mi 2 ). The Mississippi River basin includes more than 40 percent of the land surface, and is the home of more than one-third of the population, of the conterminous United States. Because climate, vegetation, and land use vary greatly within the Mississippi River basin, the primary terrestrial sinks for carbon need to be identified and quantified for representative parts of the basin. The primary goal of the MBCP is to quantify the interactive effects of land-use, erosion, sedimentation, and soil development on carbon storage and nutrient cycles within the Mississippi River basin. The project includes spatial analysis of a wide variety of geographic data, estimation of whole-basin and sub-basin carbon and sediment budgets, development and implementation of terrestrial carbon-cycle models, and site-specific field studies of relevant processes. Areas can be studied and compared, and estimates can be made for whole-basin carbon storage and flux.

  1. Development of flood-inundation maps for the Mississippi River in Saint Paul, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Fallon, James D.; Lewis, Corby R.; Cooper, Diane F.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.3-mile reach of the Mississippi River in Saint Paul, Minnesota, were developed through a multi-agency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and in collaboration with the National Weather Service. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service site at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/inundation.php, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage at the Mississippi River at Saint Paul (05331000). The National Weather Service forecasted peak-stage information at the streamgage may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the Mississippi River by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the most recent stage-discharge relation at the Robert Street location (rating curve number 38.0) of the Mississippi River at Saint Paul (streamgage 05331000), as well as an approximate water-surface elevation-discharge relation at the Mississippi River at South Saint Paul (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers streamgage SSPM5). The model also was verified against observed high-water marks from the recent 2011 flood event and the water-surface profile from existing flood insurance studies. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 25 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals ranging from approximately bankfull stage to greater than the highest recorded stage at streamgage 05331000. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model, derived from high-resolution topography

  2. Tracing Mississippi River influences in estuarine food webs of coastal Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissel, Björn; Fry, Brian

    2005-08-01

    The Breton Sound estuary in southern Louisiana receives large amounts of Mississippi River water via a controlled diversion structure at the upstream end of the estuary. We used stable isotopes to trace spatial and seasonal responses of the downstream food web to winter and spring introductions of river water. Analysis of delta13C, delta15N, and delta34S in the common local consumers such as grass shrimp (Palaemonetes sp.), barnacles (Balanus sp.), and small plankton-feeding fish (bay anchovies, Anchoa mitchilli) showed that the diversion was associated with two of the five major source regimes that were supporting food webs: a river regime near the diversion and a river-influenced productive marsh regime farther away from the diversion. Mixing models identified a third river-influenced source regime at the marine end of the estuary where major natural discharge from the Bird's Foot Delta wraps around into estuarine waters. The remaining two source regimes represented typical estuarine conditions: local freshwater sources especially from precipitation and a brackish source regime representing higher salinity marine influences. Overall, the Mississippi River diversion accounted for 75% of food web support in the upper estuary and 25% in the middle estuary, with influence strongest along known flow pathways and closest to the diversion. Isotopes also traced seasonal changes in river contributions, and indicated increased plant community productivity along the major flow path of diversion water. In the Breton Sound estuary, bottom-up forcing of food webs is strongly linked to river introductions and discharge, occurring in spatial and temporal patterns predictable from known river input regimes and known hydrologic circulation patterns.

  3. Freshwater Ecosystem Services and Hydrologic Alteration in the Lower Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasarer, L.; Taylor, J.; Rigby, J.; Locke, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Flowing freshwater ecosystems provide a variety of essential ecosystem services including: consumptive water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural use; transportation of goods; maintenance of aquatic biodiversity and water quality; and recreation. However, freshwater ecosystem services can oftentimes be at odds with each other. For example, the over-consumption of water for agricultural production or domestic use may alter hydrologic patterns and diminish the ability of flowing waters to sustain healthy aquatic ecosystems. In the Lower Mississippi River Basin there has been a substantial increase in groundwater-irrigated cropland acreage over the past several decades and subsequent declines in regional aquifer levels. Changes in aquifer levels potentially impact surface water hydrology throughout the region. This study tests the hypothesis that flowing water systems in lowland agricultural watersheds within the Lower Mississippi River Basin have greater hydrologic alteration compared to upland non-agricultural watersheds, particularly with declines in base flow and an increase in extreme low flows. Long-term streamflow records from USGS gauges located in predominantly agricultural and non-agricultural watersheds in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee were evaluated from 1969 -2016 using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) software. Preliminary results from 8 non-agricultural and 5 agricultural watersheds demonstrate a substantial decline in base flow in the agricultural watersheds, which is not apparent in the non-agricultural watersheds. This exploratory study will analyze the trade-off between gains in agricultural productivity and changes in ecohydrological indicators over the last half century in diverse watersheds across the Lower Mississippi River Basin. By quantifying the changes in ecosystem services provided by flowing waters in the past, we can inform sustainable management pathways to better balance services in the future.

  4. Real-Time River Channel-Bed Monitoring at the Chariton and Mississippi Rivers in Missouri, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    Scour and depositional responses to hydrologic events have been important to the scientific community studying sediment transport as well as potential effects on bridges and other hydraulic structures within riverine systems. A river channel-bed monitor composed of a single-beam transducer was installed on a bridge crossing the Chariton River near Prairie Hill, Missouri (structure L-344) as a pilot study to evaluate channel-bed change in response to the hydrologic condition disseminated from an existing streamgage. Initial results at this location led to additional installations in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation at an upstream Chariton River streamgage location at Novinger, Missouri (structure L-534) and a Mississippi River streamgage location near Mehlville, Missouri (structures A-1850 and A-4936). In addition to stage, channel-bed elevation was collected at all locations every 15 minutes and transmitted hourly to a U.S. Geological Survey database. Bed elevation data for the Chariton River location at Novinger and the Mississippi River location near Mehlville were provided to the World Wide Web for real-time monitoring. Channel-bed data from the three locations indicated responses to hydrologic events depicted in the stage record; however, notable bedforms apparent during inter-event flows also may have affected the relation of scour and deposition to known hydrologic events. Throughout data collection periods, Chariton River locations near Prairie Hill and Novinger reflected bed changes as much as 13 feet and 5 feet. Nearly all of the bed changes correlated well with the hydrographic record at these locations. The location at the Mississippi River near Mehlville indicated a much more stable channel bed throughout the data collection period. Despite missing data resulting from damage to one of the river channel-bed monitors from ice accumulation at the upstream nose of the bridge pier early in the record, the record from the downstream

  5. Experimental Gravel Bar Habitat Creation in the Tombigbee River, Mississippi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Andrew C

    2006-01-01

    Prior to development of the Tennessee Tombigbee Waterway (TTW), the Tombigbee River was well-known for supporting a dense and diverse fauna, including sculpins, minnows, mussels, snails, worms, and immature insects...

  6. 77 FR 38780 - Proposed Reduction in Hours of Operation at the Mississippi River Twin Cities Locks Located in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Operation at the Mississippi River Twin Cities Locks Located in Minneapolis, MN AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DOD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The three locks in the Twin Cities... the Twin Cities locks is Section 4 of the River and Harbor Act of August 18, 1894 (28 Stat. 362), as...

  7. Synthetic organic agrochemicals in the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries: Distribution, transport and fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.; ,

    1992-01-01

    The Mississippi River and its major tributaries transport herbicides and their degradation products from agricultural areas in the mid-western U.S.A. These compounds include atrazine and its degradation products (desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine), simazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and alachlor and its degradation products (2-chloro-2',6'-diethylacetanilide, 2-hydroxy-2',6'-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline). These compounds were identified and confirmed by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Loads of these compounds were determined during five sampling trips in 1987-1989. Stream loads of these compounds indicated that atrazine and metolachlor were relatively conservative in downstream transport. Alachlor and its degradation products were generated from point and non-point sources. Seasonal variations and hydrologic conditions controlled the loads of these compounds in the Mississippi River. Cross-channel mixing was slow downstream from major river confluences, possibly requiring several hundred kilometers of downriver transit for completion. The annual transport of these compounds into the Gulf of Mexico was estimated to be < 2% of the annual application of each herbicide in the Midwest.The Mississippi River and its major tributaries transport herbicides and their degradation products from agricultural areas in the mid-western U.S.A. These compounds include atrazine and its degradation products (desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine), simazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and alachlor and its degradation products (2-chloro-2???,6???-diethylacetanilide, 2-hydroxy-2???,6???-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline). These compounds were identified and confirmed by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Loads of these compounds were determined during five sampling trips in 1987-1989. Stream loads of these compounds indicated that atrazine and metolachlor were relatively conservative in downstream transport. Alachlor and its degradation products

  8. What are the contemporary sources of sediment in the Mississippi River?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. A.; Roberge, L.; Church, M.; More, M.; Donner, S. D.; Leach, J.; Ali, K. F.

    2017-09-01

    Within the last two centuries, the Mississippi River basin has been transformed by changes in land use practices, dam construction, and training of the rivers for navigation. Here we analyze the contemporary patterns of fluvial sediment yield in the Mississippi River basin using all available data in order to assess the influence of regional land condition on the variation of sediment yield within the basin. We develop regional-scale relations between specific sediment yield (yield per unit area) and drainage area to reveal contemporary regional sediment yield patterns and source areas of riverine sediments. Extensive upland erosion before the development of soil conservation practices exported large amounts of sediment to the valleys and floodplains. We show that sediment today is sourced primarily along the river valleys from arable land, and from stream bank and channel erosion, with sediment yields from areas dominated by arable land 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of grassland dominated areas. Comparison with the "T factor," a commonly quoted measure of agricultural soil resilience suggests that the latter may not reflect contemporary soil loss from the landscape.

  9. Projected risk of population declines for native fish species in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, S.M.; Boma, P.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Conservationists are in need of objective metrics for prioritizing the management of habitats. For individual species, the threat of extinction is often used to prioritize what species are in need of conservation action. Using long-term monitoring data, we applied a Bayesian diffusion approximation to estimate quasi-extinction risk for 54 native fish species within six commercial navigation reaches along a 1350-km gradient of the upper Mississippi River system. We found a strong negative linear relationship between quasi-extinction risk and distance upstream. For some species, quasi-extinction estimates ranged from nearly zero in some reaches to one in others, suggesting substantial variability in threats facing individual river reaches. We found no evidence that species traits affected quasi-extinction risk across the entire system. Our results indicate that fishes within the upper Mississippi River system face localized threats that vary across river impact gradients. This suggests that conservation actions should be focused on local habitat scales but should also consider the additive effects on downstream conditions. We also emphasize the need for identification of proximate mechanisms behind observed and predicted population declines, as conservation actions will require mitigation of such mechanisms. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Distribution of agrochemicals in the lower Mississippi River and its tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Mississippi River and its tributaries drain extensive agricultural regions of the Mid-Continental United States. Millions of pounds of herbicides are applied annually in these areas to improve crop yields. Many of these compounds are transported into the river from point and nonpoint sources, and eventually are discharged into the Gulf of Mexico. Studies being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey along the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries, representing a 2000 km river reach, have confirmed that several triazine and acetanilide herbicides and their degradation products are ubiquitous in this riverine system. These compounds include atrazine and its degradation products desethyl and desisopropylatrazine, cyanazine, simazine, metolachlor, and alachlor and its degradation products 2-chloro-2',6'-diethylacetanilide, 2-hydroxy-2',6-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline. Loads of these compounds were determined at 16 different sampling stations. Stream-load calculations provided information concerning (a) conservative or nonconservative behavior of herbicides; (b) point sources or nonpoint sources; (c) validation of sampling techniques; and (d) transport past each sampling station.

  11. Estimating abundance without recaptures of marked pallid sturgeon in the Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenberg, Nicholas A; Hoover, Jan Jeffrey; Boysen, Krista; Killgore, K Jack

    2018-04-01

    Abundance estimates are essential for assessing the viability of populations and the risks posed by alternative management actions. An effort to estimate abundance via a repeated mark-recapture experiment may fail to recapture marked individuals. We devised a method for obtaining lower bounds on abundance in the absence of recaptures for both panmictic and spatially structured populations. The method assumes few enough recaptures were expected to be missed by random chance. The upper Bayesian credible limit on expected recaptures allows probabilistic statements about the minimum number of individuals present in the population. We applied this method to data from a 12-year survey of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the lower and middle Mississippi River (U.S.A.). None of the 241 individuals marked was recaptured in the survey. After accounting for survival and movement, our model-averaged estimate of the total abundance of pallid sturgeon ≥3 years old in the study area had a 1%, 5%, or 25% chance of being <4,600, 7,000, or 15,000, respectively. When we assumed fish were distributed in proportion to survey catch per unit effort, the farthest downstream reach in the survey hosted at least 4.5-15 fish per river kilometer (rkm), whereas the remainder of the reaches in the lower and middle Mississippi River hosted at least 2.6-8.5 fish/rkm for all model variations examined. The lower Mississippi River had an average density of pallid sturgeon ≥3 years old of at least 3.0-9.8 fish/rkm. The choice of Bayesian prior was the largest source of uncertainty we considered but did not alter the order of magnitude of lower bounds. Nil-recapture estimates of abundance are highly uncertain and require careful communication but can deliver insights from experiments that might otherwise be considered a failure. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. The impact of nitrogen contamination and river modification on a Mississippi River floodplain lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthic, Indu [Box 1099 Environmental Sciences Program, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (United States); Brugam, Richard B., E-mail: rbrugam@siue.edu [Box 1651 Department of Biological Sciences, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (United States); Retzlaff, William [Box 1099 Environmental Sciences Program, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (United States); Johnson, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen contamination has increased in ecosystems around the world (frequently termed the “nitrogen cascade”). Coke production for steel manufacturing is often overlooked as a source of nitrogen to natural ecosystems. We examined sediment cores from a Horseshoe Lake, a floodplain lake located just East of St. Louis Missouri (USA) to test whether a coking plant effluent could be traced using stable isotopes of nitrogen and diatom microfossils. The distribution of δ{sup 15}N values in surface sediment samples from the lake shows the highest values near the coking plant effluent. Stable isotopes of nitrogen from 4 sediment cores using a mixing model showed three sources of nitrogen since 1688 CE. The first source (active between 1688 and 1920 CE) had a calculated δ{sup 15}N value ranging between − 0.4 and 1.1‰ depending on the core. After 1920 a second source with a δ{sup 15}N ranging between 10.6 and 15.4‰ became active. The change in these sources coincides with the construction of a coking plant on the lake shore. A third source with a value approximately 7.0‰ was present at all times and represents background. The diatom microfossil assemblages present from 1688 CE to the late 1800s are dominated by the planktonic species Aulacoseira granulata and periphytic and benthic genera Gomphonema, Cocconeis, and Lyrella. After the late 1800s the diatom assemblages are dominated by Staurosira species indicating a shift of species from high flow riverine environments to epipelic species from a lake environment. Diatom microfossils seem to track the reduction in flooding due to leveeing of the floodplain and the isolation of the lake from the river. Our results show how stable isotopes of nitrogen can be used to track nitrogen inputs from industrial sources. Diatom changes corresponded with changes in connectivity between the Mississippi River and its floodplain. - Highlights: • Effluent from a steel plant increases fixed nitrogen input to a

  13. The impact of nitrogen contamination and river modification on a Mississippi River floodplain lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthic, Indu; Brugam, Richard B.; Retzlaff, William; Johnson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen contamination has increased in ecosystems around the world (frequently termed the “nitrogen cascade”). Coke production for steel manufacturing is often overlooked as a source of nitrogen to natural ecosystems. We examined sediment cores from a Horseshoe Lake, a floodplain lake located just East of St. Louis Missouri (USA) to test whether a coking plant effluent could be traced using stable isotopes of nitrogen and diatom microfossils. The distribution of δ 15 N values in surface sediment samples from the lake shows the highest values near the coking plant effluent. Stable isotopes of nitrogen from 4 sediment cores using a mixing model showed three sources of nitrogen since 1688 CE. The first source (active between 1688 and 1920 CE) had a calculated δ 15 N value ranging between − 0.4 and 1.1‰ depending on the core. After 1920 a second source with a δ 15 N ranging between 10.6 and 15.4‰ became active. The change in these sources coincides with the construction of a coking plant on the lake shore. A third source with a value approximately 7.0‰ was present at all times and represents background. The diatom microfossil assemblages present from 1688 CE to the late 1800s are dominated by the planktonic species Aulacoseira granulata and periphytic and benthic genera Gomphonema, Cocconeis, and Lyrella. After the late 1800s the diatom assemblages are dominated by Staurosira species indicating a shift of species from high flow riverine environments to epipelic species from a lake environment. Diatom microfossils seem to track the reduction in flooding due to leveeing of the floodplain and the isolation of the lake from the river. Our results show how stable isotopes of nitrogen can be used to track nitrogen inputs from industrial sources. Diatom changes corresponded with changes in connectivity between the Mississippi River and its floodplain. - Highlights: • Effluent from a steel plant increases fixed nitrogen input to a floodplain

  14. Status and trends of selected resources in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barry L.; Hagerty, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    Like other large rivers, the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) serves a diversity of roles. The UMRS provides commercial and recreational fishing, floodplain agriculture, drinking water for many communities, an important bird migration pathway, a variety of recreational activities, and a navigation system that transports much of the country's agricultural exports. These multiple roles present significant management challenges. Regular assessment of the condition of the river is needed to improve management plans and evaluate their effectiveness. This report provides a summary of the recent status (mean and range of conditions) and trends (change in direction over time) for 24 indicators of the ecological condition of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers using data collected through the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP). The 24 indicators were grouped into seven categories: hydrology, sedimentation, water quality, land cover, aquatic vegetation, invertebrates, and fish. Most of the data used in the report were collected between about 1993 and 2004, although some older data were also used to compare to recent conditions.Historical observations and current LTRMP data clearly indicate that the UMRS has been changed by human activity in ways that have diminished the ecological health of the river. The data indicate that status and trends differ among regions, and we expect that regional responses to various ecological rehabilitation techniques will differ as well. The continuing role of the LTRMP will be to provide the data needed to assess changes in river conditions and to determine how those changes relate to management actions, natural variation, and the overall ecological integrity of the river system.

  15. 33 CFR 165.812 - Security Zones; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA. 165.812 Section 165.812 Navigation..., Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA. (a) Location. Within the Lower Mississippi... Lower Mississippi River mile marker 96.0 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These moving security zones...

  16. Tracing historical trends of Hg in the Mississippi River using Hg concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions in a lake sediment core, Lake Whittington, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Pribil, Michael J.; Horowitz, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations and isotopic compositions of mercury (Hg) in a sediment core collected from Lake Whittington, an oxbow lake on the Lower Mississippi River, were used to evaluate historical sources of Hg in the Mississippi River basin. Sediment Hg concentrations in the Lake Whittington core have a large 10-15 y peak centered on the 1960s, with a maximum enrichment factor relative to Hg in the core of 4.8 in 1966. The Hg concentration profile indicates a different Hg source history than seen in most historical reconstructions of Hg loading. The timing of the peak is consistent with large releases of Hg from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), primarily in the late 1950s and 1960s. Mercury was used in a lithiumisotope separation process by ORNL and an estimated 128Mg (megagrams) of Hgwas discharged to a local stream that flows into the Tennessee River and, eventually, the Mississippi River. Mass balance analyses of Hg concentrations and isotopic compositions in the Lake Whittington core fit a binary mixing model with a Hg-rich upstream source contributing about 70% of the Hg to Lake Whittington at the height of the Hg peak in 1966. This upstream Hg source is isotopically similar to Hg isotope compositions of stream sediment collected downstream near ORNL. It is estimated that about one-half of the Hg released from the ORNL potentially reached the LowerMississippi River basin in the 1960s, suggesting considerable downstream transport of Hg. It is also possible that upstream urban and industrial sources contributed some proportion of Hg to Lake Whittington in the 1960s and 1970s.

  17. Sediment and nutrient trapping as a result of a temporary Mississippi River floodplain restoration: The Morganza Spillway during the 2011 Mississippi River Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Daniel; Schenk, Edward R.; Noe, Gregory; Benthem, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 Mississippi River Flood resulted in the opening of the Morganza Spillway for the second time since its construction in 1954 releasing 7.6 km3 of water through agricultural and forested lands in the Morganza Floodway and into the Atchafalaya River Basin. This volume, released over 54 days, represented 5.5% of the Mississippi River (M.R.) discharge and 14% of the total discharge through the Atchafalaya River Basin (A.R.B.) during the Spillway operation and 1.1% of the M.R. and 3.3% of the A.R.B. 2011 water year discharge. During the release, 1.03 teragrams (Tg) of sediment was deposited on the Morganza Forebay and Floodway and 0.26 Tg was eroded from behind the Spillway structure. The majority of deposition (86 %) occurred in the Forebay (upstream of the structure) and within 4 km downstream of the Spillway structure with minor deposition on the rest of the Floodway. There was a net deposition of 26 × 10−4 Tg of N and 5.36 × 10−4 Tg of P, during the diversion, that was equivalent to 0.17% N and 0.33% P of the 2011 annual M.R. load. Median deposited sediment particle size at the start of the Forebay was 13 μm and decreased to 2 μm 15 km downstream of the Spillway structure. Minimal accretion was found greater than 4 km downstream of the structure suggesting the potential for greater sediment and nutrient trapping in the Floodway. However, because of the large areas involved, substantial sediment mass was deposited even at distances greater than 30 km. Sediment and nutrient deposition on the Morganza Floodway was limited because suspended sediment was quickly deposited along the flowpath and not refreshed by incremental water exchanges between the Atchafalaya River (A.R.) and the Floodway. Sediment and nutrient trapping could have been greater and more evenly distributed if additional locations of hydraulic input from and outputs to the A.R. (connectivity) were added.

  18. Floodplain Impact on Riverine Dissolved Carbon Cycling in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelDuco, E.; Xu, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have shown substantial increases in the export of terrestrial carbon by rivers over the past several decades, and have linked these increases to human activity such as changes in land use, urbanization, and intensive agriculture. The Mississippi River (MR) is the largest river in North America, and is among the largest in the world, making its carbon export globally significant. The Atchafalaya River (AR) receives 25% of the Mississippi River's flow before traveling 189 kilometers through the largest bottomland swamp in North America, providing a unique opportunity to study floodplain impacts on dissolved carbon in a large river. The aim of this study was to determine how dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the AR change spatially and seasonally, and to elucidate which processes control carbon cycling in this intricate swamp river system. From May 2015 -May 2016, we conducted monthly river sampling from the river's inflow to its outflow, analyzing samples for DOC and DIC concentrations and δ 13C stable isotope composition. During the study period, the river discharged a total of 5.35 Tg DIC and a total of 2.34 Tg DOC into the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the mass inflow-outflow balance, approximately 0.53 Tg ( 10%) of the total DIC exported was produced within the floodplain, while 0.24 Tg ( 10%) of DOC entering the basin was removed. The AR was consistently saturated with pCO2 above atmospheric pressure, indicating that this swamp-river system acts a large source of DIC to the atmosphere as well as to coastal margins. Largest changes in carbon constituents occurred during periods of greatest inundation of the basin, and corresponded with shifts in isotopic composition that indicated large inputs of DIC from floodplains. This effect was particularly pronounced during initial flood stages. This study demonstrates that a major river with extensive floodplains in its coastal margin can act as an important source of DIC as well

  19. Annotated Directory of Threatened and Endangered Wildlife on Selected U.S. Army Installations East of the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    species was historically collected from the Illinois River, in waters around the installation. Higgins eye, Lampsilis higginsi (SE): Historically...triquetra (SE): Found in the Mississippi River, this species may occur in waters around the installation. Higgins eye, Lampsilis higginsi (FE, SE): Found in...tributaries of the Tennessee river, it may still be present in waters around the installation. 131 Cumberland monkeyface, Quadrula intermedia (FE, SE

  20. Sediment deposition and sources into a Mississippi River floodplain lake; Catahoula Lake, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latuso, Karen D.; Keim, Richard F.; King, Sammy L.; Weindorf, David C.; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2017-01-01

    Floodplain lakes are important wetlands on many lowland floodplains of the world but depressional floodplain lakes are rare in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley. One of the largest is Catahoula Lake, which has existed with seasonally fluctuating water levels for several thousand years but is now in an increasingly hydrologically altered floodplain. Woody vegetation has been encroaching into the lake bed and the rate of this expansion has increased since major human hydrologic modifications, such as channelization, levee construction, and dredging for improvement of navigation, but it remains unknown what role those modifications may have played in altering lake sedimentation processes. Profiles of thirteen 137Cs sediment cores indicate sedimentation has been about 0.26 cm y− 1 over the past 60 years and has been near this rate since land use changes began about 200 years ago (210Pb, and 14C in Tedford, 2009). Carbon sequestration was low (10.4 g m− 2 y− 1), likely because annual drying promotes mineralization and export. Elemental composition (high Zr and Ti and low Ca and K) and low pH of recent (sediments suggest Gulf Coastal Plain origin, but below the recent sediment deposits, 51% of sediment profiles showed influence of Mississippi River alluvium, rich in base cations such as K+, Ca2 +, and Mg2 +. The recent shift to dominance of Coastal Plain sediments on the lake-bed surface suggests hydrologic modification has disconnected the lake from sediment-bearing flows from the Mississippi River. Compared to its condition prior to hydrologic alterations that intensified in the 1930s, Catahoula Lake is about 15 cm shallower and surficial sediments are more acidic. Although these results are not sufficient to attribute ecological changes directly to sedimentological changes, it is likely the altered sedimentary and hydrologic environment is contributing to the increased dominance of woody vegetation.

  1. Geochemistry of bed and suspended sediment in the Mississippi river system: provenance versus weathering and winnowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, D Z; Ludington, Steve; Duval, J S; Taylor, H E

    2006-06-01

    Stream-bed sediment for the size fraction less than 150 microm, examined in 14,000 samples collected mostly from minor tributaries to the major rivers throughout the Mississippi River drainage system, is composed of 5 mineral fractions identified by factor analysis-Al-silicate minerals, quartz, calcite and dolomite, heavy minerals, and an Fe-Mn fraction. The Al-silicate fraction parallels its distribution in the regolith, emphasizing the local sediment source as a primary control to its distribution. Quartz and the heavy-mineral fraction, and associated trace elements, exhibit a complementary distribution to that of the Al-silicate fraction, with a level of enrichment in the bed sediment that is achieved through winnowing and sorting. The carbonate fraction has a distribution suggesting its dissolution during transport. Trace elements partitioned onto the Fe-Mn, possibly amorphous oxyhydride, fraction are introduced to the streams, in part, through human activity. Except for the heavy-mineral fraction, these fractions are identified in suspended sediment from the Mississippi River itself. Although comparison of the tributary bed sediment with the riverine suspended sediment is problematic, the geochemistry of the suspended sediment seems to corroborate the interpretation of the geochemistry of the bed sediment.

  2. Sedimentation in Lake Onalaska, Navigation Pool 7, upper Mississippi River, since impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschgen, C.E.; Jackson, G.A.; Muessig, L.F.; Southworth, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    Sediment accumulation was evaluated in Lake Onalaska, a 2800-ha backwater impoundment on the Upper Mississippi River. Computer programs were used to process fathometric charts and generate an extensive data set on water depth for the lake. Comparison of 1983 survey data with pre-impoundment (before 1937) data showed that Lake Onalaska had lost less than 10 percent of its original mean depth in the 46 years since impoundment. Previous estimates of sedimentation rates based on Cesium-137 sediment core analysis appear to have been too high. (DBO)

  3. Numerical model of the lowermost Mississippi River as an alluvial-bedrock reach: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viparelli, E.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Mohrig, D. C.; Parker, G.

    2012-12-01

    Recent field studies reveal that the river bed of the Lower Mississippi River is characterized by a transition from alluvium (upstream) to bedrock (downstream). In particular, in the downstream 250 km of the river, fields of actively migrating bedforms alternate with deep zones where a consolidated substratum is exposed. Here we present a first version of a one-dimensional numerical model able to capture the alluvial-bedrock transition in the lowermost Mississippi River, defined herein as the 500-km reach between the Old River Control Structure and the Gulf of Mexico. The flow is assumed to be steady, and the cross-section is divided in two regions, the river channel and the floodplain. The streamwise variation of channel and floodplain geometry is described with synthetic relations derived from field observations. Flow resistance in the river channel is computed with the formulation for low-slope, large sand bed rivers due to Wright and Parker, while a Chezy-type formulation is implemented on the floodplain. Sediment is modeled in terms of bed material and wash load. Suspended load is computed with the Wright-Parker formulation. This treatment allows either uniform sediment or a mixture of different grain sizes, and accounts for stratification effects. Bedload transport rates are estimated with the relation for sediment mixtures of Ashida and Michiue. Previous work documents reasonable agreement between these load relations and field measurements. Washload is routed through the system solving the equation of mass conservation of sediment in suspension in the water column. The gradual transition from the alluvial reach to the bedrock reach is modeled in terms of a "mushy" layer of specified thickness overlying the non-erodible substrate. In the case of a fully alluvial reach, the channel bed elevation is above this mushy layer, while in the case of partial alluvial cover of the substratum, the channel bed elevation is within the mushy layer. Variations in base

  4. Tracing nutrient sources in the Mississippi River Basin, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.; Chang, C.C.Y.; Wankel, S.D.; Hooper, R.P.; Frey, J.W.; Crain, A.S.; Delong, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Periodic hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico near the mouth of the Mississippi River is of increasing concern. The condition is thought to be primarily the result of nitrate delivered to the Gulf by the Mississippi River. However, as much as half of the nitrogen transported by large rivers to coastal areas is in dissolved or particulate organic form, with the remainder primarily as nitrate. Nitrate is thought to be conservatively transported in the Mississippi and other large rivers, but reduction can occur in marshy pools and backwater channels. Thus, it is important to examine all forms of nitrogen and their potential transformations, in both in groundwater and in riverine environments. To provide critically needed information for the development of management strategies to reduce N loads and enhance N attenuation mechanisms, we have been using isotopic techniques to investigate the sources and cycling of nutrients at a number of sites in the Mississippi Basin (which includes the Ohio and Missouri River Basins) since 1996, in collaboration with several national monitoring programs. One of our most noteworthy finding was that about half of the POM in the Mississippi (and other big rivers in the USA) is composed of plankton and/or heterotrophic bacteria. This suggests that in-situ productivity may be a significant source of bioavailable organic matter contributing to the hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Monthly samples from 19 river sites in the Basin sampled over 5 years showed that δ 15 N and δ 13 C were quite useful in discriminating among four major categories of POM: terrestrial soil, fresh terrestrial vegetation, aquatic macrophytes, and plankton/bacteria. The δ 13 C values for the sites ranged from about -35 to -20 per mille, and the δ 15 N values ranged from about -15 to +15 per mille. The isotopic data, along with ancillary chemical and hydrologic measurements, were also useful for documenting seasonal changes in in-situ processes. A pilot study in

  5. Tracking sedimentation from the historic A.D. 2011 Mississippi River flood in the deltaic wetlands of Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nicole S.; Horton, Benjamin P.; McKee, Karen L.; Jerolmack, Douglas; Falcini, Federico; Enache, Mihaela D.; Vane, Christopher H.

    2013-01-01

    Management and restoration of the Mississippi River deltaic plain (southern United States) and associated wetlands require a quantitative understanding of sediment delivery during large flood events, past and present. Here, we investigate the sedimentary fingerprint of the 2011 Mississippi River flood across the Louisiana coast (Atchafalaya Delta, Terrebonne, Barataria, and Mississippi River Delta basins) to assess spatial patterns of sedimentation and to identify key indicators of sediment provenance. The sediment deposited in wetlands during the 2011 flood was distinguished from earlier deposits based on biological characteristics, primarily absence of plant roots and increased presence of centric (planktonic) diatoms indicative of riverine origin. By comparison, the lithological (bulk density, organic matter content, and grain size) and chemical (stable carbon isotopes of bulk organic matter) properties of flood sediments were nearly identical to the underlying deposit. Flood sediment deposition was greatest in wetlands near the Atchafalaya and Mississippi Rivers and accounted for a substantial portion (37% to 85%) of the annual accretion measured at nearby monitoring stations. The amount of sediment delivered to those basins (1.1–1.6 g cm−2) was comparable to that reported previously for hurricane sedimentation along the Louisiana coast (0.8–2.1 g cm−2). Our findings not only provide insight into how large-scale river floods influence wetland sedimentation, they lay the groundwork for identifying previous flood events in the stratigraphic record.

  6. Dissolved and colloidal trace elements in the Mississippi River Delta outflow after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Moo-Joon; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Shiller, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippi River delta outflow region is periodically disturbed by tropical weather systems including major hurricanes, which can terminate seasonal bottom water hypoxia and cause the resuspension of shelf bottom sediments which could result in the injection of trace elements into the water column. In the summer of 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed over the Louisiana Shelf within a month of each other. Three weeks after Rita, we collected water samples in the Mississippi River delta outflow, examining the distributions of trace elements to study the effect of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. We observed limited stratification on the shelf and bottom waters that were no longer hypoxic. This resulted, for instance, in bottom water dissolved Mn being lower than is typically observed during hypoxia, but with concentrations still compatible with Mn–O2 trends previously reported. Interestingly, for no element were we able to identify an obvious effect of sediment resuspension on its distribution. In general, elemental distributions were compatible with previous observations in the Mississippi outflow system. Co and Re, which have not been reported for this system previously, showed behavior consistent with other systems: input for Co likely from desorption and conservative mixing for Re. For Cs, an element for which there is little information regarding its estuarine behavior, conservative mixing was also observed. Our filtration method, which allowed us to distinguish the dissolved (<0.02 μm) from colloidal (0.02–0.45 μm) phase, revealed significant colloidal fractions for Fe and Zn, only. For Fe, the colloidal phase was the dominant fraction and was rapidly removed at low salinity. Dissolved Fe, in contrast, persisted out to mid-salinities, being removed in a similar fashion to nitrate. This ability to distinguish the smaller Fe (likely dominantly organically complexed) from larger colloidal suspensates may be useful in better interpreting the

  7. Dissolved and colloidal trace elements in the Mississippi River delta outflow after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Moo-Joon; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Shiller, Alan M.

    2012-07-01

    The Mississippi River delta outflow region is periodically disturbed by tropical weather systems including major hurricanes, which can terminate seasonal bottom water hypoxia and cause the resuspension of shelf bottom sediments which could result in the injection of trace elements into the water column. In the summer of 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed over the Louisiana Shelf within a month of each other. Three weeks after Rita, we collected water samples in the Mississippi River delta outflow, examining the distributions of trace elements to study the effect of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. We observed limited stratification on the shelf and bottom waters that were no longer hypoxic. This resulted, for instance, in bottom water dissolved Mn being lower than is typically observed during hypoxia, but with concentrations still compatible with Mn-O2 trends previously reported. Interestingly, for no element were we able to identify an obvious effect of sediment resuspension on its distribution. In general, elemental distributions were compatible with previous observations in the Mississippi outflow system. Co and Re, which have not been reported for this system previously, showed behavior consistent with other systems: input for Co likely from desorption and conservative mixing for Re. For Cs, an element for which there is little information regarding its estuarine behavior, conservative mixing was also observed. Our filtration method, which allowed us to distinguish the dissolved (<0.02 μm) from colloidal (0.02-0.45 μm) phase, revealed significant colloidal fractions for Fe and Zn, only. For Fe, the colloidal phase was the dominant fraction and was rapidly removed at low salinity. Dissolved Fe, in contrast, persisted out to mid-salinities, being removed in a similar fashion to nitrate. This ability to distinguish the smaller Fe (likely dominantly organically complexed) from larger colloidal suspensates may be useful in better interpreting the bioavailablity

  8. Sediment Trapping by Emerged Channel Bars in the Lowermost Mississippi River during a Major Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of channel bars has been recognized as the most significant sediment response to the highly trained Mississippi River (MR. However, no quantitative study exists on the dynamics of emerged channel bars and associated sediment accumulation in the last 500-kilometer reach of the MR from the Gulf of Mexico outlet, also known as the lowermost Mississippi River. Such knowledge is especially critical for riverine sediment management to impede coastal land loss in the Mississippi River Delta. In this study, we utilized a series of satellite images taken from August 2010 to January 2012 to assess the changes in surface area and volume of three large emerged channel bars in the lowermost MR following an unprecedented spring flood in 2011. River stage data were collected to develop a rating curve of surface areas detected by satellite images with flow conditions for each of the three bars. A uniform geometry associated with the areal change was assumed to estimate the bar volume changes. Our study reveals that the 2011 spring flood increased the surface area of the bars by 3.5% to 11.1%, resulting in a total surface increase of 7.3%, or 424,000 m2. Based on the surface area change, we estimated a total bar volume increase of 4.4%, or 1,219,900 m3. This volume increase would be equivalent to a sediment trapping of approximately 1.0 million metric tons, assuming a sediment bulk density of 1.2 metric tons per cubic meter. This large quantity of sediment is likely an underestimation because of the neglect of subaqueous bar area change and the assumption of a uniform geometry in volume estimation. Nonetheless, the results imply that channel bars in the lowermost MR are capable of capturing a substantial amount of sediment during floods, and that a thorough assessment of their long-term change can provide important insights into sediment trapping in the lowermost MR as well as the feasibility of proposed river sediment diversions.

  9. Investigating the Effects of Land Cover Change on the Hydrology of the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, T. E.; Coe, M. T.; Lenters, J. D.; Kucharik, C. J.; Donner, S.; Foley, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    Humans have greatly altered the Earth's landscape since the beginning of sedentary agriculture. Through the conversion of forests and grasslands to croplands and pasture, human land use activities have changed biogeochemical cycles including the water cycle. Using IBIS, a global land surface model with 0.5-degree resolution (Foley et al., 1996; Kucharik et al., 2000), and HYDRA, a runoff-routing algorithm with 5-minute resolution (Coe, 2000), we have studied how land cover change may affect the hydrology of the Mississippi River Basin. The IBIS model describes physical, physiological, and ecological processes occurring in vegetative canopies and soils. Through forcing from climate data and vegetation and soil properties, IBIS simulates energy, water, and biogeochemical cycles at small time-steps (30-60 minutes). Lenters et al. (2000) have validated the IBIS-modeled water budget over the Mississippi River Basin at several scales and HYDRA-modeled discharge has been compared favorably to United States Geological Survey stream gauge data (Donner et al., 2001). This work extends those studies through use of an improved version of IBIS. The IBIS model has been calibrated for use over the continental United States through an improved phenology routine and the inclusion of corn and soybeans as land cover types. Results from a comparison of a control run of natural vegetation with experimental runs of corn and soybean cover will be shown.

  10. Effects of air temperature and discharge on Upper Mississippi River summer water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Brian R.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rogala, James T.

    2018-01-01

    Recent interest in the potential effects of climate change has prompted studies of air temperature and precipitation associations with water temperatures in rivers and streams. We examined associations between summer surface water temperatures and both air temperature and discharge for 5 reaches of the Upper Mississippi River during 1994–2011. Water–air temperature associations at a given reach approximated 1:1 when estimated under an assumption of reach independence but declined to approximately 1:2 when water temperatures were permitted to covary among reaches and were also adjusted for upstream air temperatures. Estimated water temperature–discharge associations were weak. An apparently novel feature of this study is that of addressing changes in associations between water and air temperatures when both are correlated among reaches.

  11. An Assessment of Regional Water Resources and Agricultural Sustainability in the Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer System of Mississippi and Arkansas Under Current and Future Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, J.; Reba, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Plain is a highly productive agricultural region for rice, soy beans, and cotton that depends heavily on irrigation. Development of the Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer (MRAA), one of the more prolific agricultural aquifers in the country, has traditionally been the primary source for irrigation in the region yielding over 1,100 Mgal/day to irrigation wells. Increasingly, the realities of changing climate and rapidly declining water tables have highlighted the necessity for new water management practices. Tail-water recovery and reuse is a rapidly expanding practice due in part to the efforts and cost-sharing of the NRCS, but regional studies of the potential for such practices to alleviate groundwater mining under current and future climate are lacking. While regional studies of aquifer geology have long been available, including assessments of regional groundwater flow, much about the aquifer is still not well understood including controls on recharge rates, a crucial component of water management design. We review the trends in regional availability of surface and groundwater resources, their current status, and the effects of recent changes in management practices on groundwater decline in Mississippi and Arkansas. Global and regional climate projections are used to assess scenarios of sustainable aquifer use under current land use and management along with the potential for more widely practiced surface water capture and reuse to alleviate groundwater decline. Finally, we highlight crucial knowledge gaps and challenges associated with the development of water management practices for sustainable agricultural use in the region.

  12. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Annual technical report, 30 December 1992--29 December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. In 1989, the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established as the umbrella organization which coordinates environmental research at both universities. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier DBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  13. Assessing Pyrite-Derived Sulfate in the Mississippi River with Four Years of Sulfur and Triple-Oxygen Isotope Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Bryan A; Bao, Huiming; Kohl, Issaku E

    2018-05-17

    Riverine dissolved sulfate (SO 4 2- ) sulfur and oxygen isotope variations reflect their controls such as SO 4 2- reduction and reoxidation, and source mixing. However, unconstrained temporal variability of riverine SO 4 2- isotope compositions due to short sampling durations may lead to mischaracterization of SO 4 2- sources, particularly for the pyrite-derived sulfate load. We measured the sulfur and triple-oxygen isotopes (δ 34 S, δ 18 O, and Δ' 17 O) of Mississippi River SO 4 2- with biweekly sampling between 2009 and 2013 to test isotopic variability and constrain sources. Sulfate δ 34 S and δ 18 O ranged from -6.3‰ to -0.2‰ and -3.6‰ to +8.8‰, respectively. Our sampling period captured the most severe flooding and drought in the Mississippi River basin since 1927 and 1956, respectively, and a first year of sampling that was unrepresentative of long-term average SO 4 2- . The δ 34 S SO4 data indicate pyrite-derived SO 4 2- sources are 74 ± 10% of the Mississippi River sulfate budget. Furthermore, pyrite oxidation is implicated as the dominant process supplying SO 4 2- to the Mississippi River, whereas the Δ' 17 O SO4 data shows 18 ± 9% of oxygen in this sulfate is sourced from air O 2 .

  14. Nursery stock quality as an indicator of bottomland hardwood forest restoration success in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Rosa C. Goodman; Emile S. Gardiner; K Frances Salifu; Ronald P. Overton; George Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Seedling morphological quality standards are lacking for bottomland hardwood restoration plantings in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA, which may contribute toward variable restoration success. We measured initial seedling morphology (shoot height, root collar diameter, number of first order lateral roots, fresh mass, and root volume), second year field...

  15. 78 FR 77592 - Safety Zone; Lower Mississippi River Mile 94.1-Mile 95.1; New Orleans, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lower Mississippi River Mile 94.1-Mile 95.1; New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard... zone is prohibited unless specifically authorized by the Captain of the Port New Orleans or a... temporary rule, call Lieutenant Commander (LCDR) Brandon Sullivan, Sector New Orleans, at (504) 365-2281 or...

  16. 78 FR 36660 - Safety Zone; Mississippi River Mile 95.5-Mile 96.5; New Orleans, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Mississippi River Mile 95.5-Mile 96.5; New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... of the Port New Orleans or a designated representative. DATES: This rule is effective from 9:45 p.m... email Lieutenant Commander (LCDR) Brandon Sullivan, Sector New Orleans, U.S. Coast Guard; telephone (504...

  17. Biomass production in the Lower Mississippi River Basin: Mitigating associated nutrient and sediment discharge to the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Miae; Zhang, Zhonglong; Wu, May

    2018-04-24

    A watershed model was developed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) that simulates nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loadings in the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB). The LMRB SWAT model was calibrated and validated using 21 years of observed flow, sediment, and water-quality data. The baseline model results indicate that agricultural lands within the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) are the dominant sources of nitrogen and phosphorus discharging into the Gulf of Mexico. The model was further used to evaluate the impact of biomass production, in the presence of riparian buffers in the LMRB, on suspended-sediment and nutrient loading discharge from the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. The interplay among land use, riparian buffers, crop type, land slope, water quality, and hydrology were anlyzed at various scales. Implementing a riparian buffer in the dominant agricultural region within the LMRB could reduce suspended sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus loadings at the regional scale by up to 65%, 38%, and 39%, respectively. Implementation of this land management practice can reduce the suspended-sediment content and improve the water quality of the discharge from the LMRB into the Gulf of Mexico and support the potential production of bioenergy and bio-products within the Mississippi River Basin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Quarterly project status report, 1 April--30 June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report contains a cluster of twenty separate project reports concerning the fate, environmental transport, and toxicity of hazardous wastes in the Mississippi River Basin. Some of topics investigated involve: biological uptake and metabolism; heavy metal immobilization; biological indicators; toxicity; and mathematical models.

  19. Estimating effects of reforestation on nitrogen and phosphorus load reductions in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Theodor D. Leininger; Matt Moran

    2015-01-01

    Surface water quality in the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) and the adjacent Gulf of Mexico has degraded over the past several decades primarily due to deforestation to agricultural lands and the loss of wetlands. This study investigated the benefits of reforestation upon nitrate–nitrogen (NO-3---N) and orthophosphate (PO3-...

  20. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Annual technical report, 30 December 1992--29 December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. In 1989, the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established as the umbrella organization which coordinates environmental research at both universities. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier DBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ``Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin`` project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  1. 78 FR 17643 - Greater Mississippi River Basin Water Management Board; Engineer Regulation No. 15-2-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... reorganized its command and control structure. This regulation revision reflects the current organizational structure and is aligned with water management activities during recent flood and drought events in the... inter- divisional coordination of water management activities within the Greater Mississippi River Basin...

  2. Enhancing mud supply from the Lower Missouri River to the Mississippi River Delta USA: Dam bypassing and coastal restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, G. Paul; Day, John W.; Rogers, J. David; Giosan, Liviu; Peyronnin, Natalie

    2016-12-01

    Sand transport to the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) remains sufficient to build wetlands in shallow, sheltered coastal bays fed by engineered diversions on the Mississippi River (MR) and its Atchafalaya River (AR) distributary. But suspended mud (silt & clay) flux to the coast has dropped from a mean of 390 Mt y-1 in the early 1950s, to 100 Mt y-1 since 1970. This fine-grained sediment travels deeper into receiving estuarine basins and plays a critical role in sustaining existing marshes. Virtually all of the 300 Mt y-1 of missing mud once flowed from the Missouri River (MOR) Basin before nearly 100 dams were built as part of the Pick-Sloan water development project. About 100 Mt y-1 is now intercepted by main-stem Upper MOR dams closed in 1953. But the remaining 200 Mt y-1 is trapped by impoundments built on tributaries to the Lower MOR in the 1950s and 1960s. Sediment flux during the post-dam high MOR discharge years of 1973, 1993 and 2011 approached pre-dam levels when tributaries to the Lower MOR, including the Platte and Kansas Rivers, contributed to flood flows. West bank tributaries drain a vast, arid part of the Great Plains, while those entering from the east bank traverse the lowlands of the MOR floodplain. Both provinces are dominated by highly erodible loess soils. Staunching the continued decline in MR fine-grained sediment flux has assumed greater importance now that engineered diversions are being built to reconnect the Lowermost MR to the MRD. Tributary dam bypassing in the Lower MOR basin could increase mud supply to the MRD by 100-200 Mt y-1 within 1-2 decades. Such emergency measures to save the MRD are compatible with objectives of the Missouri River Restoration and Platte River Recovery Programs to restore MOR riparian habitat for endangered species. Rapid mobilization to shunt fine-grained sediments past as many as 50 Lower MOR tributary dams in several U.S. states will undoubtedly require as much regional coordination and funding in the 21st

  3. An expanded model: flood-inundation maps for the Leaf River at Hattiesburg, Mississippi, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.8-mile reach of the Leaf River at Hattiesburg, Mississippi (Miss.), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Hattiesburg, City of Petal, Forrest County, Mississippi Emergency Management Agency, Mississippi Department of Homeland Security, and the Emergency Management District. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Leaf River at Hattiesburg, Miss. (station no. 02473000). Current conditions for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation by use of USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/. In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Leaf River at Hattiesburg, Miss. streamgage (02473000) and documented high-water marks from recent and historical floods. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 13 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1.0-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS

  4. Long-term Sediment Accumulation in Mid-channel Bars of the Upper Reach of the Lower Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Xu, Y. J.

    2016-02-01

    A recent study reported that about 44% of the total Mississippi River suspended load reaching the Old River Control Structure (ORCS) was trapped upstream of the Gulf of Mexico by overbank storage and channel bed aggradation. Considering an average annual sediment load of 120 million metric tons passing ORCS to the Mississippi River main channel, the trapped sediment load would be equivalent to annually rebuilding 44-km2 coastal land of 1 meter in depth, assuming a sedimentation bulk density of 1.2 tons m-3. No study has yet demonstrated such a high sediment accumulation rate within the confined river channel or on a floodplain area that surrounds the only unleeved stretch ( 30-km long) of the Lower Mississippi River downstream of ORCS. In this study, we utilized satellite images taken from 1983 to 2013 and analyzed changes in surface area of nine major mid-channel and point bars over a 130-km river reach from ORCS to Baton Rouge. Using river stage records and the estimated surface areas, we developed a stage - surface area rating curve for each of the bars and estimated changes in bar volume over time. We found that more than half of the bars have grown, while the others have shrunken in the past three decades. As a whole, there was a substantial net gain of surface area and volume accretion. Sediment trapping was most prevalent during the spring floods, especially during the period from 2007 to 2011 when two large floods occurred. This paper presents the channel morphological change and sediment accumulation rates under different flow conditions, and discusses their implications for the current understanding and practices of the Mississippi River sediment diversion.

  5. Cohesive Sedimentary Processes on River-Dominated Deltas: New Perspectives from the Mississippi River Delta Front, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, S. J.; Keller, G. P.; Obelcz, J.; Maloney, J. M.; Xu, K.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Miner, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    On river deltas dominated by proximal sediment accumulation (Mississippi, Huang He, others), the delta front region is commonly dominated by rapid accumulation of cohesive fluvial sediments, and mass-wasting processes that remobilize recently deposited sediments. Mass transport is preconditioned in sediments by high water content, biogenic gas production, over steepening, and is commonly triggered by strong wave loading and other processes. This understanding is based on extensive field studies in the 1970's and 80's. Recent studies of the Mississippi River Delta Front are yielding new perspectives on these processes, in a time of anthropogenically reduced sediment loads, rising sea level, and catastrophic deltaic land loss. We have synthesized many industry data sets collected since ca. 1980, and conducted new pilot field and modeling studies of sedimentary and morphodynamic processes. These efforts have yielded several key findings that diverge from historical understanding of this dynamic setting. First, delta distributary mouths have ceased seaward progradation, ending patterns that have been documented since the 18th century. Second, despite reduced sediment supply, offshore mass transport continues, yielding vertical displacements at rates of 1 m/y. This displacement is apparently forced by wave loading from storm events of near-annual return period, rather than major hurricanes that have been the focus of most previous studies. Third, core analysis indicates that this vertical displacement is occurring along failure planes >3 m in the seabed, rather than in more recently deposited sediments closer to the sediment-water interface. These seabed morphodynamics have the potential to destabilize both nearshore navigation infrastructure, and seabed hydrocarbon infrastructure offshore. As well, these findings raise more questions regarding the future seabed evolution offshore of major river deltas, in response to anthropogenic and climatic forcing.

  6. Spatial patterns of aquatic habitat richness in the Upper Mississippi River floodplain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason J.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions among hydrology and geomorphology create shifting mosaics of aquatic habitat patches in large river floodplains (e.g., main and side channels, floodplain lakes, and shallow backwater areas) and the connectivity among these habitat patches underpins high levels of biotic diversity and productivity. However, the diversity and connectivity among the habitats of most floodplain rivers have been negatively impacted by hydrologic and structural modifications that support commercial navigation and control flooding. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the rate of increase in patch richness (# of types) with increasing scale reflects anthropogenic modifications to habitat diversity and connectivity in a large floodplain river, the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). To do this, we calculated the number of aquatic habitat patch types within neighborhoods surrounding each of the ≈19 million 5-m aquatic pixels of the UMR for multiple neighborhood sizes (1–100 ha). For all of the 87 river-reach focal areas we examined, changes in habitat richness (R) with increasing neighborhood length (L, # pixels) were characterized by a fractal-like power function R = Lz (R2 > 0.92 (P z) measures the rate of increase in habitat richness with neighborhood size and is related to a fractal dimension. Variation in z reflected fundamental changes to spatial patterns of aquatic habitat richness in this river system. With only a few exceptions, z exceeded the river-wide average of 0.18 in focal areas where side channels, contiguous floodplain lakes, and contiguous shallow-water areas exceeded 5%, 5%, and 10% of the floodplain respectively. In contrast, z was always less than 0.18 for focal areas where impounded water exceeded 40% of floodplain area. Our results suggest that rehabilitation efforts that target areas with <5% of the floodplain in side channels, <5% in floodplain lakes, and/or <10% in shallow-water areas could improve habitat diversity across multiple scales in the UMR.

  7. Declining groundwater level caused by irrigation to row crops in the Lower Mississippi River Basin, Current Situation and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G.; Gao, F.; Ouyang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Mississippi River is North America's largest river and the second largest watershed in the world. It flows over 3,700 km through America's heartland to the Gulf of Mexico. Over 3 million hectares in the Lower Mississippi River Basin represent irrigated cropland and 90 percent of those lands currently rely on the groundwater supply. The primary crops grown in this region are soybean, corn, cotton, and rice. Increased water withdrawals for irrigating those crops and stagnant recharging jeopardize the long-term availability of the aquifer and place irrigation agriculture in the region on an unsustainable path. The objectives of this study were to: 1) analyze the current groundwater level in the Lower Mississippi River Basin based on the water table depth observed by Yazoo Mississippi Delta Joint Water Management District from 2000 and 2016; 2) determine trends of change in groundwater level under conventional and groundwater saving irrigation management practices (ET or soil moisture based full irrigation scheduling using all groundwater or different percentages of ground and surface water). The coupled SWAT and MODFLOW model was applied to investigate the trends. Observed results showed that the groundwater level has declined from 33 to 26 m at an annual decrease rate of 0.4 m in the past 17 years. Simulated results revealed that the groundwater storage was decreased by 26 cm/month due to irrigation in crop season. It is promising that the groundwater storage was increased by 23 cm/month, sometimes even 60 cm/month in crop off-growing season because of recharge from rainfall. Our results suggest that alternative ET or soil moisture based groundwater saving irrigation scheduling with conjunctive use of surface water is a sustainable practice for irrigated agriculture in in the Lower Mississippi River Basin.

  8. National-local land-use conflicts in floodways of the Mississippi River system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mathias Kondolf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts between national and local governments over land use in floodplains have been well documented in the US and elsewhere. The US National Flood Insurance Program offers subsidized flood insurance to communities that agree to prevent further development in floodplains, but the requirements are poorly enforced and local governments are commonly reluctant to restrain development on flood-prone lands. In this paper we highlight this problem in particularly sensitive areas: the floodways (or flood bypasses that are essential components of the Mississippi River flood control system. To properly operate the flood control system, the US Army Corps of Engineers must be able to divert flow from the mainstem Mississippi into the bypasses, thereby lowering stage in the main river, and thus minimizing flooding of cities and other vulnerable areas. However, operation of the Birds-Point-New Madrid Floodway in Missouri was compromised in 2011 by local opposition (and a legal challenge ultimately rejected by the US Supreme Court, and it was finally used to accommodate floodwaters. The West Atchafalaya Floodway in Louisiana experienced a threefold increase in the number of structures within the floodway from about 1970 to 2010. Because of the pattern of flooding, the West Atchafalaya Floodway was not needed in 2011, but if it is needed in the future, its operation may be compromised by the extensive encroachments within the floodway. Thus, operation of critical national infrastructure, designed to deal with floods on an interstate, river-basin scale, is compromised by land-use decisions made at the local level.

  9. Deep-sea coral record of human impact on watershed quality in the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Roark, E. Brendan; Koenig, Alan E.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Batista, Fabian C.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Selby, David; McCarthy, Matthew D.; Mienis, Furu

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest drivers of historical nutrient and sediment transport into the Gulf of Mexico is the unprecedented scale and intensity of land use change in the Mississippi River Basin. These landscape changes are linked to enhanced fluxes of carbon and nitrogen pollution from the Mississippi River, and persistent eutrophication and hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Increased terrestrial runoff is one hypothesis for recent enrichment in bulk nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values, a tracer for nutrient source, observed in a Gulf of Mexico deep-sea coral record. However, unambiguously linking anthropogenic land use change to whole scale shifts in downstream Gulf of Mexico biogeochemical cycles is difficult. Here we present a novel approach, coupling a new tracer of agro-industrialization to a multiproxy record of nutrient loading in long-lived deep-sea corals collected in the Gulf of Mexico. We found that coral bulk δ15N values are enriched over the last 150–200 years relative to the last millennia, and compound-specific amino acid δ15N data indicate a strong increase in baseline δ15N of nitrate as the primary cause. Coral rhenium (Re) values are also strongly elevated during this period, suggesting that 34% of Re is of anthropogenic origin, consistent with Re enrichment in major world rivers. However, there are no pre-anthropogenic measurements of Re to confirm this observation. For the first time, an unprecedented record of natural and anthropogenic Re variability is documented through coral Re records. Taken together, these novel proxies link upstream changes in water quality to impacts on the deep-sea coral ecosystem.

  10. Connecting the Mississippi River with Carbon Variability in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Z. G.; He, R.; Fennel, K.; Cai, W. J.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Huang, W. J.; Tian, H.; Ren, W.

    2016-02-01

    To understand the linkage between landuse/land-cover change within the Mississippi basin and the carbon dynamics in the Gulf of Mexico, a three-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model was used to the examine temporal and spatial variability of surface ocean pCO2 in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The model is driven by realistic atmospheric forcing, open boundary conditions from a data-assimilative global ocean circulation model, and freshwater and terrestrial nutrient and carbon input from major rivers provided by the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM). A seven-year model hindcast (2004-2010) was performed and was validated against the recently updated Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory global ocean carbon dataset. Model simulated seawater pCO2 and air-sea CO2 flux are in good agreement with in-situ measurements. An inorganic carbon budget was estimated based on the multi-year mean of the model results. Overall, the GoM is a sink of atmospheric CO2 with a flux of 0.92 × 1012 mol C yr-1, which, together with the enormous fluvial carbon input, is balanced by carbon export through the Loop Current. In a sensitivity experiment with all biological sources and sinks of carbon disabled surface pCO2 was elevated by 70 ppm, suggesting that biological uptake is the most important reason for the simulated CO2 sink. The impact from landuse and land-cover changes within the Mississippi River basin on coastal pCO2 dynamics is also discussed based on a scenario run driven by river conditions during the 1904-1910 provided by the DLEM model.

  11. Deep-sea coral record of human impact on watershed quality in the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N.; Roark, B.; Koenig, A.; Batista, F. C.; Kocar, B. D.; Selby, D. S.; Mccarthy, M. D.; Mienis, F.; Ross, S. W.; Demopoulos, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    One of the greatest drivers of historical nutrient and sediment transport into the Gulf of Mexico is the unprecedented scale and intensity of land use change in the Mississippi River Basin. These landscape changes are linked to enhanced fluxes of carbon and nitrogen pollution from the Mississippi River, and persistent eutrophication and hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Increased terrestrial runoff is one hypothesis for recent enrichment in bulk nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values, a tracer for nutrient source, observed in a Gulf of Mexico deep-sea coral record. However, unambiguously linking anthropogenic land use change to whole scale shifts in downstream Gulf of Mexico biogeochemical cycles is difficult. Here we present a novel approach, coupling a new tracer of agro-industrialization to a multiproxy record of nutrient loading in long-lived deep-sea corals collected in the Gulf of Mexico. We found that coral bulk δ15N values are enriched over the last 150-200 years relative to the last millennia, and compound-specific amino acid δ15N data indicate a strong increase in baseline δ15N of nitrate as the primary cause. Coral rhenium (Re) values are also strongly elevated during this period, suggesting that 34% of Re is of anthropogenic origin, consistent with Re enrichment in major world rivers. However, there are no pre-anthropogenic measurements of Re to confirm this observation. For the first time, an unprecedented record of natural and anthropogenic Re variability is documented through coral Re records. Taken together, these novel proxies link upstream changes in water quality to impacts on the deep-sea coral ecosystem.

  12. Large shift in source of fine sediment in the upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, P.; Gran, K.B.; Schottler, S.P.; Wilcock, P.R.; Day, S.S.; Jennings, C.; Lauer, J.W.; Viparelli, E.; Willenbring, J.K.; Engstrom, D.R.; Parker, G.

    2011-01-01

    Although sediment is a natural constituent of rivers, excess loading to rivers and streams is a leading cause of impairment and biodiversity loss. Remedial actions require identification of the sources and mechanisms of sediment supply. This task is complicated by the scale and complexity of large watersheds as well as changes in climate and land use that alter the drivers of sediment supply. Previous studies in Lake Pepin, a natural lake on the Mississippi River, indicate that sediment supply to the lake has increased 10-fold over the past 150 years. Herein we combine geochemical fingerprinting and a suite of geomorphic change detection techniques with a sediment mass balance for a tributary watershed to demonstrate that, although the sediment loading remains very large, the dominant source of sediment has shifted from agricultural soil erosion to accelerated erosion of stream banks and bluffs, driven by increased river discharge. Such hydrologic amplification of natural erosion processes calls for a new approach to watershed sediment modeling that explicitly accounts for channel and floodplain dynamics that amplify or dampen landscape processes. Further, this finding illustrates a new challenge in remediating nonpoint sediment pollution and indicates that management efforts must expand from soil erosion to factors contributing to increased water runoff. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Influence of hydrologic modifications on Fraxinus pennsylvanica in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Hugo K.W.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    We used tree-ring analysis to examine radial growth response of a common, moderately flood-tolerant species (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) to hydrologic and climatic variability for > 40 years before and after hydrologic modifications affecting two forest stands in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (USA): a stand without levees below dams and a stand within a ring levee. At the stand without levees below dams, spring flood stages decreased and overall growth increased after dam construction, which we attribute to a reduction in flood stress. At the stand within a ring levee, growth responded to the elimination of overbank flooding by shifting from being positively correlated with river stage to not being correlated with river stage. In general, growth in swales was positively correlated with river stage and Palmer Drought Severity Index (an index of soil moisture) for longer periods than flats. Growth decreased after levee construction, but swales were less impacted than flats likely because of differences in elevation and soils provide higher soil moisture. Results of this study indicate that broad-scale hydrologic processes differ in their effects on the flood regime, and the effects on growth of moderately flood-tolerant species such as F. pennsylvanica can be mediated by local-scale factors such as topographic position, which affects soil moisture.

  14. Ecosystem Design Principles for Restoring Deltaic Floodplains: Examples from Mississippi River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilley, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Mississippi River Deltaic Plain (MRDP) provides examples for many of the functions and feedbacks regarding how human river management has impacted source-sink processes in coastal deltaic basins, resulting in human settlements more at risk to flooding from coastal storms. The Atchafalaya Basin, with continued sediment delivery, compared to Terrebonne Basin, with reduced river inputs, allow us to test assumptions of how landward migration of fringe wetlands of coastal basins as result of river management over the last 75 years can provide insights to these complex issues. The average landward migration for Terrebonne Basin was nearly 17,000 m (17 km) compared to only 22 m in Atchafalaya Basin over the last 78 yrs (pmanagement decisions in deltaic coast. Restoration features focused on living shorelines may contribute to solutions to these non-linear feedbacks; but certain ecosystem design features have to be considered so such shorelines can adapt to relative sea level rise. Shorelines must have adaptive strategies compared to fixed hard structures - resulting on sediment management and redistribution as critical process to shoreline stabilization. Policies in US to encourage sediment placement associated with national dredge activities must be integrated to ecosystems services of fringe wetland restoration.

  15. 33 CFR 162.90 - White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... go adrift. Immediately after completion of the emergency mooring, the lockmaster of the first lock... of approach to unattended, normally open automatic, movable span bridges, the factor of river flow...

  16. Distribution and habitat use of king rails in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi River valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Abigail J.; Krementz, David G.

    2009-01-01

    The migratory population of the king rail (Rallus elegans) has declined dramatically during the past 40 years, emphasizing the need to identify habitat requirements of this species to help guide conservation efforts. To assess distribution and habitat use of king rails along the Illinois and Upper Mississippi valleys, USA, we conducted repeated call-broadcast surveys at 83 locations in 2006 and 114 locations in 2007 distributed among 21 study sites. We detected king rails at 12 survey locations in 2006 and 14 locations in 2007, illustrating the limited distribution of king rails in this region. We found king rails concentrated at Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge, an adjacent private Wetlands Reserve program site, and B. K. Leach Conservation Area, which were located in the Mississippi River floodplain in northeast Missouri. Using Program PRESENCE, we estimated detection probabilities and built models to identify habitat covariates that were important in king rail site occupancy. Habitat covariates included percentage of cover by tall (> 1 m) and short (wetlands that were characterized by high water-vegetation interspersion and little or no cover by woody vegetation. Our results suggest that biologists can improve king rail habitat by implementing management techniques that reduce woody cover and increase vegetation-water interspersion in wetlands.

  17. Mapping the change of Phragmites australis live biomass in the lower Mississippi River Delta marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina

    2017-07-28

    Multiyear remote sensing mapping of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was carried out as an indicator of live biomass composition of the Phragmites australis (hereafter Phragmites) marsh in the lower Mississippi River Delta (hereafter delta) from 2014 to 2017. Maps of NDVI change showed that the Phragmites condition was fairly stable between May 2014 and July 2015. From July 2015 to April 2016 NDVI change indicated Phragmites suffered a widespread decline in the live biomass proportion.  Between April and September 2016, most marsh remained unchanged from the earlier period or showed improvement; although there were pockets of continued decline scattered throughout the lower delta. From September 2016 to May 2017 a pronounced and widely exhibited decline in the condition of Phragmites marsh again occurred throughout the lower delta. This final NDVI change mapping supported field observations of Phragmites decline during the same period.

  18. Hazardous materials in Aquatic environments of the Mississippi River basin. Quarterly project status report, 1 January 1994--30 March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelghani, A.

    1994-06-01

    Projects associated with this grant for studying hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin are reviewed and goals, progress and research results are discussed. New, one-year initiation projects are described briefly.

  19. 1998 Annual Status Report: Submersed and Floating-Leaf Vegetation in Pools 4, 8, 13, and 26 and La Grange Pool of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Yao

    2001-01-01

    Aquatic vegetation was investigated in five navigation pools in the Upper Mississippi River System using a new protocol named 'stratified random sampling' or SRS protocol for the first time in 1998...

  20. 2010 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic from Color Aerial Imagery of MISSISSIPPI RIVER - LAPLACE TO VENICE (NODC Accession 0075830 and NODC Accession 0075829)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative of MISSISSIPPI RIVER -...

  1. A potential integrated water quality strategy for the Mississippi River Basin and the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, S; Faeth, P

    2001-11-22

    Nutrient pollution, now the leading cause of water quality impairment in the U.S., has had significant impact on the nation"s waterways. Excessive nutrient pollution has been linked to habitat loss, fish kills, blooms of toxic algae, and hypoxia (oxygen-depleted water). The hypoxic "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico is one of the most striking illustrations of what can happen when too many nutrients from inland watersheds reach coastal areas. Despite programs to improve municipal wastewater treatment facilities, more stringent industrial wastewater requirements, and agricultural programs designed to reduce sediment loads in waterways, water quality and nutrient pollution continues to be a problem, and in many cases has worsened. We undertook a policy analysis to assess how the agricultural community could better reduce its contribution to the dead zone and also to evaluate the synergistic impacts of these policies on other environmental concerns such as climate change. Using a sectorial model of U.S. agriculture, we compared policies including untargeted conservation subsidies, nutrient trading, Conservation Reserve Program extension, agricultural sales of carbon and greenhouse gas credits, and fertilizer reduction. This economic and environmental analysis is watershed-based, primarily focusing on nitrogen in the Mississippi River basin, which allowed us to assess the distribution of nitrogen reduction in streams, environmental co-benefits, and impact on agricultural cash flows within the Mississippi River basin from various options. The model incorporates a number of environmental factors, making it possible to get a more a complete picture of the costs and co-benefits of nutrient reduction. These elements also help to identify the policy options that minimize the costs to farmers and maximize benefits to society.

  2. A Potential Integrated Water Quality Strategy for the Mississippi River Basin and the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzie Greenhalgh

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient pollution, now the leading cause of water quality impairment in the U.S., has had significant impact on the nation’s waterways. Excessive nutrient pollution has been linked to habitat loss, fish kills, blooms of toxic algae, and hypoxia (oxygen-depleted water. The hypoxic “dead zone” in the Gulf of Mexico is one of the most striking illustrations of what can happen when too many nutrients from inland watersheds reach coastal areas. Despite programs to improve municipal wastewater treatment facilities, more stringent industrial wastewater requirements, and agricultural programs designed to reduce sediment loads in waterways, water quality and nutrient pollution continues to be a problem, and in many cases has worsened. We undertook a policy analysis to assess how the agricultural community could better reduce its contribution to the dead zone and also to evaluate the synergistic impacts of these policies on other environmental concerns such as climate change. Using a sectorial model of U.S. agriculture, we compared policies including untargeted conservation subsidies, nutrient trading, Conservation Reserve Program extension, agricultural sales of carbon and greenhouse gas credits, and fertilizer reduction. This economic and environmental analysis is watershed-based, primarily focusing on nitrogen in the Mississippi River basin, which allowed us to assess the distribution of nitrogen reduction in streams, environmental co-benefits, and impact on agricultural cash flows within the Mississippi River basin from various options. The model incorporates a number of environmental factors, making it possible to get a more a complete picture of the costs and co-benefits of nutrient reduction. These elements also help to identify the policy options that minimize the costs to farmers and maximize benefits to society.

  3. Water and sediment temperatures at mussel beds in the upper Mississippi River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Teresa J.; Sauer, Jennifer; Karns, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Native freshwater mussels are in global decline and urgently need protection and conservation. Declines in the abundance and diversity of North American mussels have been attributed to human activities that cause pollution, waterquality degradation, and habitat destruction. Recent studies suggest that effects of climate change may also endanger native mussel assemblages, as many mussel species are living close to their upper thermal tolerances. Adult and juvenile mussels spend a large fraction of their lives burrowed into sediments of rivers and lakes. Our objective was to measure surface water and sediment temperatures at known mussel beds in the Upper Mississippi (UMR) and St. Croix (SCR) rivers to estimate the potential for sediments to serve as thermal refugia. Across four mussel beds in the UMR and SCR, surface waters were generally warmer than sediments in summer, and were cooler than sediments in winter. This suggests that sediments may act as a thermal buffer for mussels in these large rivers. Although the magnitude of this effect was usually cause mortality in laboratory studies. These data suggest that elevated water temperatures resulting from global warming, thermal discharges, water extraction, and/or droughts have the potential to adversely affect native mussel assemblages.

  4. River-plume sedimentation and 210Pb/7Be seabed delivery on the Mississippi River delta front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Gregory; Bentley, Samuel J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Maloney, Jillian; Miner, Michael D.; Xu, Kehui

    2017-06-01

    To constrain the timing and processes of sediment delivery and submarine mass-wasting events spanning the last few decades on the Mississippi River delta front, multi-cores and gravity cores (0.5 and water depth in 2014. The cores were analyzed for radionuclide activity (7Be, 210Pb, 137Cs), grain size, bulk density, and fabric (X-radiography). Core sediments are faintly bedded, sparsely bioturbated, and composed mostly of clay and fine silt. Short-term sedimentation rates (from 7Be) are 0.25-1.5 mm/day during river flooding, while longer-term accumulation rates (from 210Pb) are 1.3-7.9 cm/year. In most cores, 210Pb activity displays undulatory profiles with overall declining activity versus depth. Undulations are not associated with grain size variations, and are interpreted to represent variations in oceanic 210Pb scavenging by river-plume sediments. The 210Pb profile of one gravity core from a mudflow gully displays uniform basal excess activity over a zone of low and uniform bulk density, interpreted to be a mass-failure event that occurred 9-18 years before core collection. Spatial trends in sediment deposition (from 7Be) and accumulation (from 210Pb) indicate that proximity to the river mouth has stronger influence than local facies (mudflow gully, depositional lobe, prodelta) over the timeframe and seabed depth represented by the cores (sediment deposition from river plumes coupled with infrequent tropical cyclone activity near the delta in the last 7 years (2006-2013), and by the location of most sediment failure surfaces (from mass flows indicated by parallel geophysical studies) deeper than the core-sampling depths of the present study.

  5. Challenges in merging fisheries research and management: The Upper Mississippi River experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, J.; Ickes, B.; Zigler, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) is a geographically diverse basin extending 10?? north temperate latitude that has produced fishes for humans for millennia. During European colonization through the present, the UMRS has been modified to meet multiple demands such as navigation and flood control. Invasive species, notably the common carp, have dominated fisheries in both positive and negative ways. Through time, environmental decline plus reduced economic incentives have degraded opportunities for fishery production. A renewed focus on fisheries in the UMRS may be dawning. Commercial harvest and corresponding economic value of native and non-native species along the river corridor fluctuates but appears to be increasing. Recreational use will depend on access and societal perceptions of the river. Interactions (e. g., disease and invasive species transmission) among fish assemblages within the UMRS, the Great Lakes, and other lakes and rivers are rising. Data collection for fisheries has varied in intensity and contiguousness through time, although resources for research and management may be growing. As fisheries production likely relies on the interconnectivity of fish populations and associated ecosystem processes among river reaches (e. g., between the pooled and unpooled UMRS), species-level processes such as genetics, life-history interactions, and migratory behavior need to be placed in the context of broad ecosystem- and landscape-scale restoration. Formal communication among a diverse group of researchers, managers, and public stakeholders crossing geographic and disciplinary boundaries is necessary through peer-reviewed publications, moderated interactions, and the embrace of emerging information technologies. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

  6. The effect of the 2011 flood on agricultural chemical and sediment movement in the lower Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, H.; Coupe, R.; Aulenbach, B.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme hydrologic events, such as floods, can overwhelm a surface water system's ability to process chemicals and can move large amounts of material downstream to larger surface water bodies. The Mississippi River is the 3rd largest River in the world behind the Amazon in South America and the Congo in Africa. The Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin grows much of the country's corn, soybean, rice, cotton, pigs, and chickens. This is large-scale modern day agriculture with large inputs of nutrients to increase yields and large applied amounts of crop protection chemicals, such as pesticides. The basin drains approximately 41% of the conterminous United States and is the largest contributor of nutrients to the Gulf of Mexico each spring. The amount of water and nutrients discharged from the Mississippi River has been related to the size of the low dissolved oxygen area that forms off of the coast of Louisiana and Texas each summer. From March through April 2011, the upper Mississippi River basin received more than five times more precipitation than normal, which combined with snow melt from the Missouri River basin, created a historic flood event that lasted from April through July. The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), collected samples from six sites located in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin, as well as, samples from the three flow-diversion structures or floodways: the Birds Point-New Madrid in Missouri and the Morganza and Bonnet Carré in Louisiana, from April through July. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediments, and particle size; results were used to determine the water quality of the river during the 2011 flood. Monthly loads for nitrate, phosphorus, pesticides (atrazine, glyphosate, fluometuron, and metolachlor), and sediment were calculated to quantify the movement of agricultural chemicals and sediment into the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient loads were

  7. Predicting the effects of proposed Mississippi River diversions on oyster habitat quality; application of an oyster habitat suitability index model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Conzelmann, Craig P.; Byrd, Jason D.; Roszell, Dustin P.; Bridevaux, Joshua L.; Suir, Kevin J.; Colley, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decelerate the rate of coastal erosion and wetland loss, and protect human communities, the state of Louisiana developed its Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast. The master plan proposes a combination of restoration efforts including shoreline protection, marsh creation, sediment diversions, and ridge, barrier island, and hydrological restoration. Coastal restoration projects, particularly the large-scale diversions of fresh water from the Mississippi River, needed to supply sediment to an eroding coast potentially impact oyster populations and oyster habitat. An oyster habitat suitability index model is presented that evaluates the effects of a proposed sediment and freshwater diversion into Lower Breton Sound. Voluminous freshwater, needed to suspend and broadly distribute river sediment, will push optimal salinities for oysters seaward and beyond many of the existing reefs. Implementation and operation of the Lower Breton Sound diversion structure as proposed would render about 6,173 ha of hard bottom immediately east of the Mississippi River unsuitable for the sustained cultivation of oysters. If historical harvests are to be maintained in this region, a massive and unprecedented effort to relocate private leases and restore oyster bottoms would be required. Habitat suitability index model results indicate that the appropriate location for such efforts are to the east and north of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet.

  8. Propagation and composition of the flood wave on the upper Mississippi River, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.

    1995-01-01

    During spring and summer 1993, record flooding inundated much of the upper Mississippi River Basin. The magnitude of the damages-in terms of property, disrupted business, and personal trauma was unmatched by any other flood disaster in United States history. Property damage alone is expected to exceed $10 billion. Damaged highways and submerged roads disrupted overland transportation throughout the flooded region. The Mississippi and the Missouri Rivers were closed to navigation before, during, and after the flooding. Millions of acres of productive farmland remained under water for weeks during the growing season. Rills and gullies in many tilled fields are the result of the severe erosion that occurred throughout the Midwestern United States farmbelt. The hydrologic effects of extended rainfall throughout the upper Midwestern United States were severe and widespread. The banks and channels of many rivers were severely eroded, and sediment was deposited over large areas of the basin's flood plain. Record flows submerged many areas that had not been affected by previous floods. Industrial and agricultural areas were inundated, which caused concern about the transport and fate of industrial chemicals, sewage effluent, and agricultural chemicals in the floodwaters. The extent and duration of the flooding caused numerous levees to fail. One failed levee on the Raccoon River in Des Moines, Iowa, led to flooding of the city's water treatment plant. As a result, the city was without drinking water for 19 days.As the Nation's principal water-science agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in a unique position to provide an immediate assessment of some of the hydrological effects of the 1993 flood. The USGS maintains a hydrologic data network and conducts extensive water-resources investigations nationwide. Long-term data from this network and information on local and regional hydrology provide the basis for identifying and documenting the effects of the flooding

  9. Growth laws for delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta: observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.

    2016-02-01

    River deltas are accumulations of sedimentary deposits delivered by rivers via a network of distributary channels. Worldwide they are threatened by environmental changes, including subsidence, global sea level rise and a suite of other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions, thereby reinitiating the delta cycle. While economically efficient, there are too few analogs of small deltas aside from laboratory studies, numerical modeling studies, theoretical approaches, and limited field driven observations. Anthropogenic crevasses in the modern delta are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for "rapid" channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Crevasse metrics were obtained using a combination of geospatial tools, extracting key parameters (bifurcation length and width, channel order and depth) that were non-dimensionalized and compared to river-dominated delta networks previously studied. Analysis showed that most crevasses in the MRD appear to obey delta growth laws and delta allometry relationships, suggesting that crevasses do exhibit similar planform metrics to larger Deltas; the distance to mouth bar versus bifurcation order demonstrated to be a very reasonable first order estimate of delta-top footprint. However, some crevasses exhibited different growth metrics. To better understand the hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls governing crevasse evolution in the MRD, we assess delta dynamics via a suite of field observations and numerical modeling in both well-established and newly constructed crevasses. Our analysis suggests that delta development is affected by the relative influence of external (upstream and downstream) and internal controls on the hydrodynamic and sediment transport patterns in these systems.

  10. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic communities during sewage decomposition in Mississippi river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korajkic, Asja; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; McMinn, Brian R; Baeza, Yoshiki Vazquez; VanTeuren, Will; Knight, Rob; Shanks, Orin C

    2015-02-01

    Microbial decay processes are one of the mechanisms whereby sewage contamination is reduced in the environment. This decomposition process involves a highly complex array of bacterial and eukaryotic communities from both sewage and ambient waters. However, relatively little is known about how these communities change due to mixing and subsequent decomposition of the sewage contaminant. We investigated decay of sewage in upper Mississippi River using Illumina sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA gene hypervariable regions and qPCR for human-associated and general fecal Bacteroidales indicators. Mixtures of primary treated sewage and river water were placed in dialysis bags and incubated in situ under ambient conditions for seven days. We assessed changes in microbial community composition under two treatments in a replicated factorial design: sunlight exposure versus shaded and presence versus absence of native river microbiota. Initial diversity was higher in sewage compared to river water for 16S sequences, but the reverse was observed for 18S sequences. Both treatments significantly shifted community composition for eukaryotes and bacteria (P treatments for both 16S (R = 0.50; P > 0.001) and 18S (R = 0.91; P = 0.001) communities. A comparison of 16S sequence data and fecal indicator qPCR measurements indicated that the latter was a good predictor of overall bacterial community change over time (rho: 0.804-0.814, P = 0.001). These findings suggest that biotic interactions, such as predation by bacterivorous protozoa, can be critical factors in the decomposition of sewage in freshwater habitats and support the use of Bacteroidales genetic markers as indicators of fecal pollution. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Application of a calibrated/validated Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender model to assess sediment and nutrient delivery from the Wildcat Creek Mississippi River Basin Initiative – Cooperative Conservation Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Wildcat Creek, a tributary to the Wabash River was identified by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as a priority watershed for its high sediment and nutrient loading contributions to the Mississippi River. As part of the Mississippi River Basin Initiative (MRBI), the incorpo...

  12. The Upper Mississippi River floodscape: spatial patterns of flood inundation and associated plant community distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason J.; Yin, Yao; Hoy, Erin E.

    2016-01-01

    Questions How is the distribution of different plant communities associated with patterns of flood inundation across a large floodplain landscape? Location Thirty-eight thousand nine hundred and seventy hectare of floodplain, spanning 320 km of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Methods High-resolution elevation data (Lidar) and 30 yr of daily river stage data were integrated to produce a ‘floodscape’ map of growing season flood inundation duration. The distributions of 16 different remotely sensed plant communities were quantified along the gradient of flood duration. Results Models fitted to the cumulative frequency of occurrence of different vegetation types as a function of flood duration showed that most types exist along a continuum of flood-related occurrence. The diversity of community types was greatest at high elevations (0–10 d of flooding), where both upland and lowland community types were found, as well as at very low elevations (70–180 d of flooding), where a variety of lowland herbaceous communities were found. Intermediate elevations (20–60 d of flooding) tended to be dominated by floodplain forest and had the lowest diversity of community types. Conclusions Although variation in flood inundation is often considered to be the main driver of spatial patterns in floodplain plant communities, few studies have quantified flood–vegetation relationships at broad scales. Our results can be used to identify targets for restoration of historical hydrological regimes or better anticipate hydro-ecological effects of climate change at broad scales.

  13. Analysis of thematic mapper simulator data acquired during winter season over Pearl River, Mississippi, test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. E.; Kalcic, M. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Digital processed aircraft-acquired thematic mapping simulator (TMS) data collected during the winter season over a forested site in southern Mississippi are presented to investigate the utility of TMS data for use in forest inventories and monitoring. Analyses indicated that TMS data are capable of delineating the mixed forest land cover type to an accuracy of 92.5 % correct. The accuracies associated with river bottom forest and pine forest were 95.5 and 91.5 % correct. The accuracies associated with river bottom forest and pine forest were 95.5 and 91.5 % correct, respectively. The figures reflect the performance for products produced using the best subset of channels for each forest cover type. It was found that the choice of channels (subsets) has a significant effect on the accuracy of classification produced, and that the same channels are not the most desirable for all three forest types studied. Both supervised and unsupervised spectral signature development techniques are evaluated; the unsupervised methods proved unacceptable for the three forest types considered.

  14. Developing a shared understanding of the Upper Mississippi River: the foundation of an ecological resilience assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouska, Kristen; Houser, Jeff N.; De Jager, Nathan R.; Hendrickson, Jon S.

    2018-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) is a large and complex floodplain river ecosystem that spans the jurisdictions of multiple state and federal agencies. In support of ongoing ecosystem restoration and management by this broad partnership, we are undertaking a resilience assessment of the UMRS. We describe the UMRS in the context of an ecological resilience assessment. Our description articulates the temporal and spatial extent of our assessment of the UMRS, the relevant historical context, the valued services provided by the system, and the fundamental controlling variables that determine its structure and function. An important objective of developing the system description was to determine the simplest, adequate conceptual understanding of the UMRS. We conceptualize a simplified UMRS as three interconnected subsystems: lotic channels, lentic off-channel areas, and floodplains. By identifying controlling variables within each subsystem, we have developed a shared understanding of the basic structure and function of the UMRS, which will serve as the basis for ongoing quantitative evaluations of factors that likely contribute to the resilience of the UMRS. As we undertake the subsequent elements of a resilience assessment, we anticipate our improved understanding of interactions, feedbacks, and critical thresholds will assist natural resource managers to better recognize the system’s ability to adapt to existing and new stresses.

  15. Mapping CDOM Concentration in Waters Influenced by the Mississippi River Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard L.; DelCastillo, Carlos E.; Powell, Rodney T.; DSa, Eurico; Spiering, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is often an important component of the organic carbon pool in river-dominated coastal margins. CDOM directly influences remote sensing applications through its strong absorption in the UV and blue regions of the spectrum. This effect can complicate the use of chlorophyll a retrieval algorithms and phytoplankton production models that are based on remotely sensed ocean color. As freshwater input is the principle source of CDOM in coastal margins, CDOM distribution can often be described by conservative mixing with open ocean waters and may serve as an optical tracer of riverine water. Hence, there is considerable interest in the ability to accurately measure and map CDOM concentrations as well as understand the processes that govern the optical properties and distribution of CDOM in coastal environments. We are examining CDOM dynamics in the waters influenced by the Mississippi River plume. Our program incorporates discrete samples, flow-through measurements, and remote sensing. CDOM absorption spectra of discrete samples are measured at sea using a portable, multiple pathlength waveguide system. A SAFire multi-spectral fluorescence meter provides spectral characterization of CDOM (fluorescence and absorption) using a ship flow-through system for continuous surface mapping. In situ reflectance spectra are obtained by a hand held spectroradiometer. Remotely sensed images are obtained from the SeaWiFS and CRIS (Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer) instruments. We describe here the instruments used, sampling protocols employed, and the relationships derived between in situ measurements and remotely sensed data for this optically complex environment.

  16. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Quarterly project status report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document references information pertaining to the presence of hazardous materials in the Mississippi River Basin. Topics discussed include: The biological fate, transport, and ecotoxicity of toxic and hazardous wastes; biological uptake and metabolism; sentinels of aquatic contamination; bioremediation; microorganisms; biomarkers of exposure and ecotoxicity; expert geographical information systems for assessing hazardous wastes in aquatic environments; and enhancement of environmental education at Tulane and Xavier

  17. Sediment-hosted contaminants and distribution patterns in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Ferina, Nicholas; Dreher, Chandra

    2002-01-01

    The Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers transport very large amounts of bedload and suspended sediments to the deltaic and coastal environments of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Absorbed onto these sediments are contaminants that may be detrimental to the environment. To adequately assess the impact of these contaminants it is first necessary to develop an understanding of sediment distribution patterns in these deltaic systems. The distribution patterns are defined by deltaic progradational cycles. Once these patterns are identified, the natural and industrial contaminant inventories and their depositional histories can be reconstructed. Delta progradation is a function of sediment discharge, as well as channel and receiving-basin dimensions. Fluvial energy controls the sediment distribution pattern, resulting in a coarse grained or sandy framework, infilled with finer grained material occupying the overbank, interdistributary bays, wetlands and abandoned channels. It has been shown that these fine-grained sediments can carry contaminants through absorption and intern them in the sediment column or redistribute them depending on progradation or degradation of the delta deposit. Sediment distribution patterns in delta complexes can be determined through high-resolution geophysical surveys and groundtruthed with direct sampling. In the Atchafalaya and Mississippi deltas, remote sensing using High-Resolution Single-Channel Seismic Profiling (HRSP) and Sidescan Sonar was correlated to 20-ft vibracores to develop a near-surface geologic framework that identifies variability in recent sediment distribution patterns. The surveys identified bedload sand waves, abandoned-channel back-fill, prodelta and distributary mouth bars within the most recently active portions of the deltas. These depositional features respond to changes in deltaic processes and through their response may intern or transport absorbed contaminants. Characterizing these features provides insight into the

  18. Spectacular Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author illustrates how she shares her love of sunflowers with her kindergarten and first-grade students through an interesting art lesson. Sunflowers are easy to grow, so the author started the lesson four months earlier with inexpensive seed packets. She planted many varieties, but she most likes the colors of the Mexican…

  19. Cumulative effects of restoration efforts on ecological characteristics of an open water area within the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, B.R.; Shi, W.; Houser, J.N.; Rogala, J.T.; Guan, Z.; Cochran-Biederman, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ecological restoration efforts in large rivers generally aim to ameliorate ecological effects associated with large-scale modification of those rivers. This study examined whether the effects of restoration efforts-specifically those of island construction-within a largely open water restoration area of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) might be seen at the spatial scale of that 3476ha area. The cumulative effects of island construction, when observed over multiple years, were postulated to have made the restoration area increasingly similar to a positive reference area (a proximate area comprising contiguous backwater areas) and increasingly different from two negative reference areas. The negative reference areas represented the Mississippi River main channel in an area proximate to the restoration area and an open water area in a related Mississippi River reach that has seen relatively little restoration effort. Inferences on the effects of restoration were made by comparing constrained and unconstrained models of summer chlorophyll a (CHL), summer inorganic suspended solids (ISS) and counts of benthic mayfly larvae. Constrained models forced trends in means or in both means and sampling variances to become, over time, increasingly similar to those in the positive reference area and increasingly dissimilar to those in the negative reference areas. Trends were estimated over 12- (mayflies) or 14-year sampling periods, and were evaluated using model information criteria. Based on these methods, restoration effects were observed for CHL and mayflies while evidence in favour of restoration effects on ISS was equivocal. These findings suggest that the cumulative effects of island building at relatively large spatial scales within large rivers may be estimated using data from large-scale surveillance monitoring programs. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Particle size distribution of main-channel-bed sediments along the upper Mississippi River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remo, Jonathan; Heine, Ruben A.; Ickes, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared pre-lock-and-dam (ca. 1925) with a modern longitudinal survey of main-channel-bed sediments along a 740-km segment of the upper Mississippi River (UMR) between Davenport, IA, and Cairo, IL. This comparison was undertaken to gain a better understanding of how bed sediments are distributed longitudinally and to assess change since the completion of the UMR lock and dam navigation system and Missouri River dams (i.e., mid-twentieth century). The comparison of the historic and modern longitudinal bed sediment surveys showed similar bed sediment sizes and distributions along the study segment with the majority (> 90%) of bed sediment samples having a median diameter (D50) of fine to coarse sand. The fine tail (≤ D10) of the sediment size distributions was very fine to medium sand, and the coarse tail (≥ D90) of sediment-size distribution was coarse sand to gravel. Coarsest sediments in both surveys were found within or immediately downstream of bedrock-floored reaches. Statistical analysis revealed that the particle-size distributions between the survey samples were statistically identical, suggesting no overall difference in main-channel-bed sediment-size distribution between 1925 and present. This was a surprising result given the magnitude of river engineering undertaken along the study segment over the past ~ 90 years. The absence of substantial differences in main-channel-bed-sediment size suggests that flow competencies within the highly engineered navigation channel today are similar to conditions within the less-engineered historic channel.

  1. Coupling Meteorological, Land Surface and Water Temperature Models in the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C.; Cooter, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Water temperature is a significant factor influencing of the stream ecosystem and water management especially under climate change. In this study, we demonstrate a physically based semi-Lagrangian water temperature model (RBM) coupled with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model and Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF) in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). The results of this coupling compare favorably with observed water temperature data at river gages throughout the MRB. Further sensitivity analysis shows that mean water temperatures increase by 1.3°C, 1.5°C, and 1.8°C in northern, central and southern MRB zones, respectively, under a hypothetical uniform air temperature increase of 3°C. If air temperatures increase uniformly by 6°C in this scenario, then water temperatures are projected to increase by 3.3°C, 3.5°C and 4.0°C. Lastly, downscaled air temperatures from a global climate model are used to drive the coupled VIC and RBM model from 2020 to 2099. Average stream temperatures from 2020 to 2099 increase by 1°C to 8°C above 1950 to 2010 average water temperatures, with non-uniform increases along the river. In some portions of the MRB, stream temperatures could increase above survival thresholds for several native fish species, which are critical components of the stream ecosystem. The increased water temperature accelerates harmful algal blooming which results in a larger dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Land Loss in Mississippi River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S.; Edmonds, D. A.; Robeson, S. M.; Ortiz, A. C.; Nienhuis, J.

    2017-12-01

    Land loss across the Louisiana coast is predicted to exceed 10,000 km2 by 2100. An estimated 18-24 billion tons of sediment is needed to offset land loss, but available sediment supply from the Mississippi River falls short. As a result, coastal restoration plans must target certain areas, which highlight the importance of understanding the processes and patterns of land loss. In this study, we use remote sensing to investigate and quantify land loss patterns, as well as the corresponding morphology of the land segments that are lost. Using Google Earth Engine, we combined over 10,000 time-series Landsat imagery in the Mississippi River Delta to create twelve, three-year composites from 1983 to 2016. We then spectrally unmixed each pixel into land and water percentages, and create land-water binaries. Stratifying by hydrologic unit code boundaries and local subsidence rates, we analyze the land loss pixels using landscape metrics. Our results show that the total loss from 1983-2016 for our area of interest was 908.02 km2 (loss of 5.84%) and total land area was 6855.63 km2 (49.97 % of total area) in 2016 compared to 7763.65 km2 (44.13%) in 1983 consistent with previous estimates for our study area. Land loss pixels have a low patch density (mean of 4.80 patches/ha) and high aggregation indices (mean of 47.15), which indicates that land-loss pixels tend to clump together. The shape index of these clumped pixels are also low (mean of 2.32), which points towards long, narrow patches and edges. Local indicator of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) areas was applied to determine areas of high positive autocorrelation within the loss pixels which reinforced loss across edges. Based on spatial metrics and subsidence grid based analysis on the temporal pattern of land loss pixels we find that i) land change (both growth and loss pixels) occurs along the marsh, lake and coastal edges rather than inland; ii) subsidence, though positively correlated with landloss, is no longer the

  3. Sunflower disease compendium: Sunflower botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number one challenge for global sunflower production is diseases. Sunflower is the fifth largest oilseed crop grown in temperate and subtropical areas in 72 countries and on every continent, except Antarctica. This has facilitated the spread of diseases globally. Disease control can be by chemic...

  4. Comparison of acoustic doppler current profiler and Price AA mechanical current meter measurements made during the 2011 Mississippi River Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Patrick; Mueller, David; Pratt, Thad

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippi River and Tributaries project performed as designed during the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood, with many of the operational decisions based on discharge targets as opposed to stage. Measurement of discharge at the Tarbert Landing, Mississippi range provides critical information used in operational decisions for the floodways located in Louisiana. Historically, discharge measurements have been made using a Price AA current meter and the mid-section method, and a long record exists based on these types of measurements, including historical peak discharges. Discharge measurements made using an acoustic Doppler current profiler from a moving boat have been incorporated into the record since the mid 1990's, and are used along with the Price AA mid-section measurements. During the 2011 flood event, both methods were used and appeared to provide different results at times. The apparent differences between the measurement techniques are due to complex hydrodynamics at this location that created large spatial and temporal fluctuations in the flow. The data and analysis presented herein show the difference between the two methods to be within the expected accuracy of the measurements when the measurements are made concurrently. The observed fluctuations prevent valid comparisons of data collected sequentially or even with different observation durations.

  5. Predictive Management of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Bruce C.; Carlson, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Prolific non-native organisms pose serious threats to ecosystems and economies worldwide. Nonnative bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), collectively referred to as Asian carps, continue to colonize aquatic ecosystems throughout the central United States. These species are r-selected, exhibiting iteroparous spawning, rapid growth, broad environmental tolerance, high density, and long-distance movement. Hydrological, thermal, and physicochemical conditions are favorable for establishment beyond the current range, rendering containment and control imperative. Ecological approaches to confine Asian carp populations and prevent colonization characterize contemporary management in the United States. Foraging and reproduction of Asian carps govern habitat selection and movement, providing valuable insight for predictive control. Current management approaches are progressive and often anticipatory but deficient in human dimensions. We define predictive management of Asian carps as synthesis of ecology and human dimensions at regional and local scales to develop strategies for containment and control. We illustrate predictive management in the Upper Mississippi River System and suggest resource managers integrate predictive models, containment paradigms, and human dimensions to design effective, socially acceptable management strategies. Through continued research, university-agency collaboration, and public engagement, predictive management of Asian carps is an auspicious paradigm for preventing and alleviating consequences of colonization in the United States.

  6. SPARROW models used to understand nutrient sources in the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) has been linked to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. To describe where and from what sources those loads originate, SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were constructed for the MARB using geospatial datasets for 2002, including inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and calibration sites throughout the MARB. Previous studies found that highest N and P yields were from the north-central part of the MARB (Corn Belt). Based on the MARB SPARROW models, highest N yields were still from the Corn Belt but centered over Iowa and Indiana, and highest P yields were widely distributed throughout the center of the MARB. Similar to that found in other studies, agricultural inputs were found to be the largest N and P sources throughout most of the MARB: farm fertilizers were the largest N source, whereas farm fertilizers, manure, and urban inputs were dominant P sources. The MARB models enable individual N and P sources to be defined at scales ranging from SPARROW catchments (∼50 km2) to the entire area of the MARB. Inputs of P from WWTPs and urban areas were more important than found in most other studies. Information from this study will help to reduce nutrient loading from the MARB by providing managers with a description of where each of the sources of N and P are most important, thus providing a basis for prioritizing management actions and ultimately reducing the extent of Gulf hypoxia.

  7. Habitat associations of chorusing anurans in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, J.S.; King, S.L.; Grace, J.B.; Walls, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    Amphibian populations have declined worldwide. To pursue conservation efforts adequately, land managers need more information concerning amphibian habitat requirements. To address this need, we examined relationships between anurans and habitat characteristics of wetlands in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV). We surveyed chorusing anurans in 31 wetlands in 2000 and 28 wetlands in 2001, and measured microhabitat variables along the shoreline within the week following each survey. We recorded 12 species of anurans during our study. Species richness was significantly lower in 2000 than 2001 (t-test, P < 0.001) and correlated with an ongoing drought. We found species richness to be significantly greater at lake sites compared to impoundment, swale, and riverine sites (ANOVA, P = 0.002). We used stepwise regression to investigate the wetland types and microhabitat characteristics associated with species richness of chorusing anurans. Microhabitat characteristics associated with species richness included dense herbaceous vegetation and accumulated litter along the shoreline. Individual species showed species-specific habitat associations. The bronze frog, American bullfrog, and northern cricket frog were positively associated with lake sites (Fisher's Exact Test, P < 0.05), however wetland type did not significantly influence any additional species. Using bivariate correlations, we found that six of the seven most common species had significant associations with microhabitat variables. Overall, our findings support the view that conservation and enhancement of amphibian communities in the LMAV and elsewhere requires a matrix of diverse wetland types and habitat conditions. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  8. Regional-scale controls on dissolved nitrous oxide in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P.A.; Griffis, T.J.; Baker, J.M.; Lee, X.; Crawford, John T.; Loken, Luke C.; Venterea, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt is one of the most intensive agricultural regions of the world and is drained by the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), which forms one of the largest drainage basins in the U.S. While the effects of agricultural nitrate (NO3-) on water quality in the UMR have been well documented, its impact on the production of nitrous oxide (N2O) has not been reported. Using a novel equilibration technique, we present the largest data set of freshwater dissolved N2O concentrations (0.7 to 6 times saturation) and examine the controls on its variability over a 350 km reach of the UMR. Driven by a supersaturated water column, the UMR was an important atmospheric N2O source (+68 mg N2ONm-2 yr-1) that varies nonlinearly with the NO3-concentration. Our analyses indicated that a projected doubling of the NO3-concentration by 2050 would cause dissolved N2O concentrations and emissions to increase by about 40%.

  9. An evening on the Mississippi River, or friendship as a shakeup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Sławek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present text is an interpretation of two dialogues taken from Herman Melville’s novel The Confidence-Man. His Masquerade. One of the main topics prevailing in the conversations of the main characters from the novel traveling on the Mississippi River onboard of the steamboat “Fidéle” is friendship. Friendship, placed within the context of such notions as confidence, identity, feeling of alienation and authority, can be defined as a pre-social relation taking shape not between members of a community, but on a person-to-person plane. Another important reference point is the term “utility”, important in the capitalist “world-system” (the term coined by I. Wallerstein, which requires us to consider friendship within the framework of economic and legal circumstances and the categories of gain and loss. A juxtaposition of friendship with nature makes it finally possible to show that the former notion originates in the latter one, but exceeds it. Scientific tools used for a description of the order of nature are not precise enough to define or determine friendship between people.

  10. Automated lidar-derived canopy height estimates for the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacek, Enrika

    2015-01-01

    Land cover/land use (LCU) classifications serve as important decision support products for researchers and land managers. The LCU classifications produced by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) include canopy height estimates that are assigned through manual aerial photography interpretation techniques. In an effort to improve upon these techniques, this project investigated the use of high-density lidar data for the Upper Mississippi River System to determine canopy height. An ArcGIS tool was developed to automatically derive height modifier information based on the extent of land cover features for forest classes. The measurement of canopy height included a calculation of the average height from lidar point cloud data as well as the inclusion of a local maximum filter to identify individual tree canopies. Results were compared to original manually interpreted height modifiers and to field survey data from U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of utilizing lidar data to more efficiently assign height modifier attributes to LCU classifications produced by the UMESC.

  11. Aerial-Photointerpretation of landslides along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W.-J.; Stohr, C.

    2000-01-01

    A landslide inventory was conducted along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers in the New Madrid Seismic Zone of southern Illinois, between the towns of Olmsted and Chester, Illinois. Aerial photography and field reconnaissance identified 221 landslides of three types: rock/debris falls, block slides, and undifferentiated rotational/translational slides. Most of the landslides are small- to medium-size, ancient rotational/translational features partially ob-scured by vegetation and modified by weathering. Five imagery sources were interpreted for landslides: 1:250,000-scale side-looking airborne radar (SLAR); 1:40,000-scale, 1:20,000-scale, 1:6,000-scale, black and white aerial photography; and low altitude, oblique 35-mm color photography. Landslides were identified with three levels of confidence on the basis of distinguishing characteristics and ambiguous indicators. SLAR imagery permitted identification of a 520 hectare mega-landslide which would not have been identified on medium-scale aerial photography. The leaf-off, 35-mm color, oblique photography provided the best imagery for confident interpretation of detailed features needed for smaller landslides.

  12. Vertical Strain Measured in the Mississippi River Delta Using Borehole Optical Fiber Strainmeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, W.; Allison, M. A.; Bridgeman, J.; Dixon, T. H.; Elliott, D.; Steckler, M. S.; Tornqvist, T. E.; Williams, K.; Wyatt, F. K.; Zumberge, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Three boreholes in the Mississippi River Delta, at a site 2 km from the river near Myrtle Grove, Louisiana, have been instrumented with optical fiber strainmeters. The boreholes extend to depths of 9 m, 24 m, and 37 m. Each contains an optical fiber strainmeter that records the displacement between a steel surface casing and a termination fixture cemented into the bottom of each borehole. The strainmeters consist of an optical fiber cable stretched to a length 0.2% longer than its unstressed condition. An optical interferometer is formed between each sensing fiber and a second optical fiber of equal length wrapped on a reference mandrel housed in a sonde in the wellhead casing. This arrangement relaxes stability requirements on the light source. A signal processing unit samples the interference fringe signals 50,000 times per second and calculates the optical phase shift, providing a displacement record precise to a few nm or strain sensitivity of better than 1 nanostrain. The sensors operate from solar power and transmit the data (decimated to 20 samples per second) to an archiving system via a cell phone modem. To mitigate against the effects of temperature variations, a second optical fiber sensor with a different temperature is operated in parallel with the first, sharing the same cable and processing sonde. Records from the two fibers allow the separation of optical length changes caused by temperature from the earth strain. The three individual systems provide an unprecedented measure of soil compaction. Over short periods we observe sub-micron signals such as teleseisms, and over the long term we have observed stability at the tenths of a mm level. The site has shown no compaction or subsidence greater than a few tenths of a mm over the last year, highlighting the value of strainmeters over other techniques that can not resolve such small signals. Two of the sensors began operating in July of 2016, the third began operation in May of 2017.

  13. Songbird use of floodplain and upland forests along the Upper Mississippi River corridor during spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Gray, Brian R.; Mckann, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River is thought to provide important stopover habitat for migrating landbirds because of its north-south orientation and floodplain forests. The river flows through the Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin and southeastern Minnesota where forests are plentiful, yet forests of the floodplain and Driftless Area uplands differ greatly in landscape setting, tree species composition, and topography. We compared landbird assemblages in these upland and floodplain forests over three springs, 2005–2007, using line-transect surveys at randomly selected areas in and within 16 km of the floodplain. We found more species of both transient and locally breeding migrants per survey in floodplain than in upland forest. Detections of transient neotropical migrants did not differ statistically by habitat. Detections of locally breeding neotropical and temperate-zone migrants and transient temperate-zone migrants were greater in floodplain than in upland forest. Between floodplain and upland forest, assemblages of locally breeding species, including neotropical and temperate-zone migrants (of which some individuals were in transit), differed substantially, but assemblages of transients (including both neotropical and temperate-zone migrants) did not differ as much. Only two species of transient migrants had clear affinities for floodplain forest, and none had an affinity for upland forest, whereas most locally breeding migrants had an affinity for either upland or floodplain forest. Within each spring, however, detections of transient neotropical migrants shifted from being greater in floodplain to greater in upland forests. This intraseasonal shift may be related to the phenology of certain tree species.

  14. Mississippi River and sea surface height effects on oil slick migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Falcini

    Full Text Available Millions of barrels of oil escaped into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM after the 20 April, 2010 explosion of Deepwater Horizon (DH. Ocean circulation models were used to forecast oil slick migration in the GoM, however such models do not explicitly treat the effects of secondary eddy-slopes or Mississippi River (MR hydrodynamics. Here we report oil front migration that appears to be driven by sea surface level (SSL slopes, and identify a previously unreported effect of the MR plume: under conditions of relatively high river discharge and weak winds, a freshwater mound can form around the MR Delta. We performed temporal oil slick position and altimeter analysis, employing both interpolated altimetry data and along-track measurements for coastal applications. The observed freshwater mound appears to have pushed the DH oil slick seaward from the Delta coastline. We provide a physical mechanism for this novel effect of the MR, using a two-layer pressure-driven flow model. Results show how SSL variations can drive a cross-slope migration of surface oil slicks that may reach velocities of order km/day, and confirm a lag time of order 5-10 days between mound formation and slick migration, as observed form the satellite analysis. Incorporating these effects into more complex ocean models will improve forecasts of slick migration for future spills. More generally, large SSL variations at the MR mouth may also affect the dispersal of freshwater, nutrients and sediment associated with the MR plume.

  15. Temporal and spatial patterns of sedimentation within the batture lands of the middle Mississippi River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remo, Jonathan W. F.; Ryherd, Julia; Ruffner, Charles M.; Therrell, Matthew D.

    2018-05-01

    Sediment deposition and storage are important functions of batture lands (the land between the channel's low-water elevation and the flood mitigation levee). However, sedimentation processes within these areas are not fully understood. In this paper, we explore the spatiotemporal patterns, rates, and volume of sedimentation within the batture lands along the middle Mississippi River (MMR; between the confluence of the Missouri and Ohio rivers) using three approaches: (1) comparison of historical to modern elevation data in order to estimate long-term (>100 yr) sedimentation rates; (2) estimation of medium- to short-term (sedimentation rates using dendrogeomorphological methods; and (3) geomorphic change detection (GCD) software to estimate short-term sedimentation rates ( 12 yr), spatial patterns of deposition, and volumes of geomorphic change within the batture lands. Comparison of long- to short-term sedimentation rates suggests up to a 300% increase in batture land sedimentation rates (from 6.2 to 25.4 mm yr-1) despite a substantial decrease in the MMR's suspended-sediment load (>70%) attributed largely to sediment trapping by dams during the second half of the twentieth century. The increase in MMR batture land sedimentation rates are attributed to at least two potential mechanisms: (1) the above average frequency and duration of low-magnitude floods (>2-yr and ≤5-yr flood) during the short-term assessment periods which allowed for more suspended sediment to be deposited within the batture lands; and (2) the construction of levees that substantially reduced the floodplain area ( 75%) available for storage of overbank deposits increasing the vertical accumulation and consequently the detectability of a given volume of sediment. The GCD estimated batture land sediment volumes were 9.0% of the suspended load at St. Louis. This substantial storage of sediment ( 8.5 Mt yr-1) along the MMR suggests batture lands are an important sink for suspended sediments.

  16. Growth laws for sub-delta crevasses in the Mississippi River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, T. A.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Straub, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    River deltas are threatened by environmental change, including subsidence, global sea level rise, reduced sediment inputs and other local factors. In the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) these impacts are exemplified, and have led to proposed solutions to build land that include sediment diversions to reinitiate the delta cycle. Deltas were studied extensively using numerical models, theoretical and conceptual frameworks, empirical scaling relationships, laboratory models and field observations. But predicting the future of deltas relies on field observations where for most deltas data are still lacking. Moreover, empirical and theoretical scaling laws may be influenced by the data used to develop them, while laboratory deltas may be influenced by scaling issues. Anthropogenic crevasses in the MRD are large enough to overcome limitations of laboratory deltas, and small enough to allow for rapid channel and wetland development, providing an ideal setting to investigate delta development mechanics. Here we assessed growth laws of sub-delta crevasses (SDC) in the MRD, in two experimental laboratory deltas (LD - weakly and strongly cohesive) and compared them to river dominated deltas worldwide. Channel and delta geometry metrics for each system were obtained using geospatial tools, bathymetric datasets, sediment size, and hydrodynamic observations. Results show that SDC follow growth laws similar to large river dominated deltas, with the exception of some that exhibit anomalous behavior with respect to the frequency and distance to a bifurcation and the fraction of wetted delta shoreline (allometry metrics). Most SDC exhibit a systematic decrease of non-dimensional channel geometries with increased bifurcation order, indicating that channels are adjusting to decreased flow after bifurcations occur, and exhibit linear trends for land allometry and width-depth ratio, although geometries decrease more rapidly per bifurcation order. Measured distance to bifurcations in SDC

  17. Tulane/Xavier University Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This progress report covers activities for the period January 1 - March 31, 1995 on project concerning 'Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin.' The following activities are each summarized by bullets denoting significant experiments/findings: biotic and abiotic studies on the biological fate, transport and ecotoxicity of toxic and hazardous waste in the Mississippi River Basin; assessment of mechanisms of metal-induced reproductive toxicity in quatic species as a biomarker of exposure; hazardous wastes in aquatic environments: biological uptake and metabolism studies; ecological sentinels of aquatic contamination in the lower Mississippi River system; bioremediation of selected contaminants in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin; a sensitive rapid on-sit immunoassay for heavy metal contamination; pore-level flow, transport, agglomeration and reaction kinetics of microorganism; biomarkers of exposure and ecotoxicity in the Mississippi River Basin; natural and active chemical remediation of toxic metals, organics and radionuclides in the aquatic environment; expert geographical information systems for assessing hazardous wastes in aquatic environments; enhancement of environmental education; and a number of just initiated projects including fate and transport of contaminants in aquatic environments; photocatalytic remediation; radionuclide fate and modeling from Chernobyl

  18. Estimation of Hydraulic Parameters and Aquifer Properties for a Managed Aquifer Recharge Pilot Study in The Lower Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeren, Y.; Rigby, J.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer (MRVAA) is the major irrigation water resource in the in the lower Mississippi River basin. MRVAA has been significantly depleted in the last two decades due to excessive pumping. A wide range of measures to ensure sustainable groundwater supply in the region is currently under investigation. One of the possible solution under consideration is to use Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) by artificial recharge. The proposed artificial recharge technique in this study is to collect water through bank filtration, transfer water via pipeline to the critically low groundwater areas by a set of injection wells. A pilot study in the area is underway to investigate the possibility of artificial recharge in the area. As part of this study, a pumping test was carried out on an existing irrigation well along banks of Tallahatchie River near Money, MS. Geophysical surveys were also carried out in the pilot study area. Hydraulic response of the observation wells was used to determine stream bed conductance and aquifer parameters. The collected hydraulic parameters and aquifer properties will provide inputs for small-scale, high-resolution engineering model for abstraction-injection hydraulics along river. Here, preliminary results of the pilot study is presented.

  19. Sand transport in the lower Mississippi River does not yield to dams: Applications for building deltaic land in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, J. A.; Viparelli, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Mississippi Delta is presently undergoing a catastrophic drowning, whereby 5000 km2 of low-lying wetlands have converted to open water. This land loss is primarily the result of: a) relative sea-level rise, occurring due to the combined effect of rapid subsidence associated with subsurface fluids extraction and eustatic rise; b) leveeing and damming of the river and its tributaries, which restricts sediment delivery to and dispersal within the delta; and c) severe excavation of the delta for navigation channels. It has been argued that continued net land loss of the Mississippi Delta is inevitable due to declining measured total (sand and mud) suspended sediment loads over the past 6 decades. However, recent research has documented that the key to delta growth is deposition of sand, which accounts for ~50-70% of modern and ancient (up to 9 m.a.) Mississippi Delta deposits, but comprises only ~20% of the sampled portion of the total load. Here we present new analysis of existing data to show that sand transport has not diminished since dam construction. Furthermore, we produce a numerical model based on the mass balance of bed material loads over the lower 1600 km of the Mississippi River to show that mining of sand from the channel bed continues to replenish downstream sand loads. For example, our model results indicate that it requires approximately 240 years for a reduced sand load to reach the delta apex. Furthermore, our calculations indicate that sand load at the delta apex is reduced by a noticeable amount (17%) only after about 600 years. We also show how channel bed elevations are predicted to change over the lower 1600 km of the river channel due to channel mining. Channel-bed degradation is greatest at the upstream end of the study reach and decreases downstream. After 300 years the wave of significant degradation has just passed ~800 km downstream, or roughly half of our model domain. These results are in contrast to the measurements which concern

  20. Major ions, nutrients, and trace elements in the Mississippi River near Thebes, Illinois, July through September 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Howard E.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Brinton, Terry I.; Roth, David A.; Moody, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive flooding in the upper Mississippi River Basin during summer 1993 had a significant effect on the water quality of the Mississippi River. To evaluate the change in temporal distribution and transport of dissolved constituents in the Mississippi River, six water samples were collected by a discharge-weighted method from July through September 1993 near Thebes, Illinois. Sampling at this location provided water-quality information from the upper Mississippi, the Missouri, and the Illinois River Basins. Dissolved major constituents that were analyzed in each of the samples included bicarbonate, calcium (Ca), carbonate (C03), chloride (Cl), dissolved organic carbon, magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), silica NOD, sodium (Na), and sulfate (S04). Dissolved nutrients included ammonium ion (NH4), nitrate (N03), nitrite (N02), and orthophosphate (P04) . Dissolved trace elements included aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), beryllium (Be), bromide (Br), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt, (Co), copper (Cu), fluoride (F), iron (Fe), lead, lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), strontium (Sr), thallium, uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Other physical properties of water that were measured included specific conductance, pH and suspended-sediment concentration (particle size, less than 63 micrometers). Results of this study indicated that large quantities of dissolved constituents were transported through the river system. Generally, pH, alkalinity, and specific conductance and the concentrations of B, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Na, S04, Sr, U, and V increased as water discharge decreased, while concentrations of F, Hg, and suspended sediment sharply decreased as water discharge decreased after the crest of the flood. Concentrations of other constituents, such as Al, As, Ba, Be, Co, Cu, Ni, N03, N02, NH4, P04, and Si02, varied with time as discharge decreased after the crest of the flood. For most constituents

  1. Energy Extraction from a Hypothetical MHK Array in a Section of the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, J.; James, S. C.; Roberts, J. D.; Jones, C. A.; Jepsen, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    The world is facing many challenges meeting the energy demands for the future. Growing populations and developing economies as well as increasing energy expenditures highlight the need for a spectrum of energy sources. Concerns about pollution and climate change have led to increased interest in all forms of renewable energy to stabilize or decrease consumption of fossil fuels. One promising renewable is marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy, which has the potential to make important contributions to energy portfolios of the future. However, a primary question remains: How much energy can be extracted from MHK devices in rivers and oceans without significant environmental effects? This study focuses on the potential energy extraction from different hypothetical MHK array configurations in a section of the Mississippi River located near to Scotlandville Bend, Louisiana. Bathymetry data, obtained from Free Flow Power Corporation (FFP) via the US Army Corps bathymetry survey library, were interpolated onto a DELFT3D curvilinear, orthogonal grid of the system using ArcGIS 9.3.1. Boundary conditions are constrained by the upstream and downstream river flow rates and gage heights obtained from USGS website. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements obtained from FFP are used for pre-array model validation. Energy extraction is simulated using momentum sinks recently coded into SNL-EFDC, which is an augmented version of US EPA’s Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). SNL-EFDC model includes a new module which considers energy removal by MHK devices and commensurate changes to the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate. As expected, average velocities decrease downstream of each MHK device due to energy extraction and blunt-body form drag from the MHK support structures. Changes in the flow field can alter sediment transport dynamics around and downstream of an MHK array; various hypothetical scenarios are examined. This

  2. Assessing subaqueous mudslide hazard on the Mississippi River delta front, Part 2: Insights revealed through high-resolution geophysical surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obelcz, J.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Maloney, J. M.; Miner, M. D.; Hanegan, K.; Keller, G.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico, including the subaqueous Mississippi River delta front (MRDF), has been productive for oil and gas development since the early 1900s. In 1969 cyclic seafloor wave loading associated with the passage of Hurricane Camille triggered subaqueous mudflows across the MRDF, destroying several offshore oil platforms. This incident spurred geophysical and geotechnical studies of the MRDF, which found that the delta front is prone to mass failures on gentle gradients (gas production, and (3) the frequent passage of tropical cyclones. In June 2014, a geophysical pilot study was conducted 8 km southwest of Southwest Pass, the distributary that currently receives the largest fraction of Mississippi River sediment supply. The resultant dataset encompasses 216 km of subbottom Chirp seismic profiles and a 60 km2 grid of bathymetry and sidescan data. Preliminary interpretation of these data shows the survey area can be classified into four primary sedimentary facies: mudflow gullies, mudflow lobes, undisturbed prodelta, and undisturbed delta front. Subbottom profiles reveal extensive biogenic gas from 20 to about 80 m water depths on the delta front; sidescan data show a variety of bottleneck slides, mudflow gullies and mudflow noses. Previous studies have attempted to constrain the periodicity and magnitude of subaqueous mudslides on the MRDF. However, large age gaps and varied resolution between datasets result in ambiguity regarding the cause and magnitude of observed bathymetric changes. We present high-temporal resolution MRDF bathymetric variations from 2005 (post Hurricane Katrina), 2009 (relatively quiescent storm period), and 2014 (post 2011 Mississippi River flood). These data yield better magnitude and timing estimates of mass movements. This exercise represents a first step towards (1) assembling a comprehensive geologic dataset upon which future MRDF geohazard assessments can be founded, and (2) understanding the dynamics of a massive

  3. Synthetic organic agrochemicals in the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries--Distribution, transport and fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Mississippi River and its major tributaries transport herbicides and their degradation products from agricultural areas in the mid-western U.S.A. These compounds include atrazine and its degradation products (desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine), simazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and alachlor and its degradation products (2-chloro-2′,6′-diethylacetanilide 2-hydroxy-2′,6′-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline). These compounds were identified and confirmed by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Loads of these compounds were determined during five sampling trips in 1987–1989. Stream loads of these compounds indicated that atrazine and metolachlor were relatively conservative in downstream transport. Alachlor and its degradation products were generated from point and non-point sources. Seasonal variations and hydrologic conditions controlled the loads of these compounds in the Mississippi River. Cross-channel mixing was slow downstream from major river confluences, possibly requiring several hundred kilometers of downriver transit for completion. The annual transport of these compounds into the Gulf of Mexico was estimated to be < 2% of the annual application of each herbicide in the Midwest.

  4. A retrospective analysis of trace metals, C, N and diatom remnants in sediments from the Mississippi River delta shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R. Eugene; Milan, C.S.; Rabalais, N.N.

    2004-01-01

    The development of oil and gas recovery offshore of the Mississippi River delta began in shallow water in the 1950s, expanded into deeper waters, and peaked in the 1990s. This area of the outer continental shelf (OCS) is the historical and present location of >90% of all US OCS oil and gas production and reserves. The juxtaposition of its 4000 producing platforms, recovering $10 billion yr -1 of oil, gas and produced water in the same area where about 28% of the US fisheries catch (by weight) is made and near 40% of the US coastal wetlands, makes this an area worth monitoring for regional pollutant loading. This loading may come from several sources, including sources related to OCS development, but also from the Mississippi River watershed. In this context, any contaminant loading on this shelf may be neither detectable nor significant against a background of climatic or biological variability. We examined the sedimentary record for indicators of industrial byproducts from OCS oil and gas development and of industrial products entering via the Mississippi River, primarily using vanadium (V) and barium (Ba) concentrations normalized for aluminum (Al). Barium is primarily used in drilling muds in the form of barite, whereas V is an important strengthening component of metal alloys, including steel. The fluctuations in the accumulation of Ba, but not V, were coincidental with the presumed use of barite. The fluctuations in V concentration in the sediments were coincidental with the national consumption of V. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in sediments fluctuate coincidentally with V, not Ba, thus indicating that the dominant source of these trace metals in offshore sediments were derived from riverine sources, and were not primarily from in situ industrial processes releasing them on the shelf. This is not to suggest that local site-specific contamination is not a significant management or health concern. The low oxygen (hypoxia; ≤2 mg l -1

  5. The quality of our Nation's waters: water quality in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, south-central United States, 1994-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Katz, Brian G.; Welch, Heather L.; Tollett, Roland W.; Fahlquist, Lynne S.

    2015-01-01

    About 8 million people rely on groundwater from the Mississippi embayment—Texas coastal uplands aquifer system for drinking water. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer also provides drinking water for domestic use in rural areas but is of primary importance to the region as a source of water for irrigation. Irrigation withdrawals from this aquifer are among the largest in the Nation and play a key role in the economy of the area, where annual crop sales total more than $7 billion. The reliance of the region on both aquifers for drinking water and irrigation highlights the importance of long-term management to sustain the availability and quality of these resources.

  6. Long-term agroecosystem research in the central Mississippi river basin: introduction, establishment, and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, E John; Lerch, Robert N; Kitchen, Newell R; Anderson, Stephen H; Baffaut, Claire; Sudduth, Kenneth A; Prato, Anthony A; Kremer, Robert J; Vories, Earl D; Myers, D Brent; Broz, Robert; Miles, Randall J; Young, Fred J

    2015-01-01

    Many challenges currently facing agriculture require long-term data on landscape-scale hydrologic responses to weather, such as from the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW), located in northeastern Missouri, USA. This watershed is prone to surface runoff despite shallow slopes, as a result of a significant smectitic clay layer 30 to 50 cm deep that restricts downward flow of water and gives rise to a periodic perched water table. This paper is the first in a series that documents the database developed from GCEW. The objectives of this paper are to (i) establish the context of long-term data and the federal infrastructure that provides it, (ii) describe the GCEW/ Central Mississippi River Basin (CMRB) establishment and the geophysical and anthropogenic context, (iii) summarize in brief the collected research results published using data from within GCEW, (iv) describe the series of papers this work introduces, and (v) identify knowledge gaps and research needs. The rationale for the collection derives from converging trends in data from long-term research, integration of multiple disciplines, and increasing public awareness of increasingly larger problems. The outcome of those trends includes being selected as the CMRB site in the USDA-ARS Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research (LTAR) network. Research needs include quantifying watershed scale fluxes of N, P, K, sediment, and energy, accounting for fluxes involving forest, livestock, and anthropogenic sources, scaling from near-term point-scale results to increasingly long and broad scales, and considering whole-system interactions. This special section informs the scientific community about this database and provides support for its future use in research to solve natural resource problems important to US agricultural, environmental, and science policy. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Patterns of forest succession and impacts of flood in the Upper Mississippi River floodplain ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Wu, Y.; Bartell, S.M.; Cosgriff, R.

    2009-01-01

    The widespread loss of oak-hickory forests and the impacts of flood have been major issues of ecological interest concerning forest succession in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) floodplain. The data analysis from two comprehensive field surveys indicated that Quercus was one of the dominant genera in the UMR floodplain ecosystem prior to the 1993 flood and constituted 14% of the total number of trees and 28% of the total basal area. During the post-flood recovery period through 2006, Quercus demonstrated slower recovery rates in both the number of trees (4%) and basal area (17%). In the same period, Carya recovered greatly from the 1993 flood in terms of the number of trees (11%) and basal area (2%), compared to its minor status before the flood. Further analyses suggested that different species responded to the 1993 flood with varying tolerance and different succession strategies. In this study, the relation of flood-caused mortality rates and DBH, fm(d), can be expressed in negative exponential functions for each species. The results of this research also indicate that the growth functions are different for each species and might also be different between pre- and post-flood time periods. These functions indicate different survival strategies and emergent properties in responding to flood impacts. This research enhances our understanding of forest succession patterns in space and time in the UPR floodplain. And such understanding might be used to predict long-term impacts of floods on UMR floodplain forest dynamics in support of management and restoration. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Fish assemblages in borrow-pit lakes of the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Killgore, K. J.; Hoover, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Borrow-pit lakes encompass about a third of the lentic water habitats (by area) in the active floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River, yet little is known about their fish assemblages. We investigated whether fish assemblages supported by borrow-pit lakes resembled those in oxbow lakes to help place the ecological relevance of borrow-pit lakes in context with that of natural floodplain lakes. In all, we collected 75 fish species, including 65 species in eight borrow-pit lakes, 52 species in four riverside oxbow lakes, and 44 species in eight landside oxbow lakes. Significant differences in several species richness metrics were evident between borrow-pit lakes and landside oxbow lakes but not between borrow-pit lakes and riverside oxbow lakes. All three lake types differed in fish assemblage composition. Borrow-pit lakes and riverside oxbow lakes tended to include a greater representation of fish species that require access to diverse environments, including lentic, lotic, and palustrine habitats; fish assemblages in landside oxbow lakes included a higher representation of lacustrine species. None of the fish species collected in borrow-pit lakes was federally listed as threatened or endangered, but several were listed as species of special concern by state governments in the region, suggesting that borrow-pit lakes provide habitat for sensitive riverine and wetland fish species. Differences in fish assemblages among borrow-pit lakes were linked to engineered morphologic features, suggesting that diversity in engineering can contribute to diversity in fish assemblages; however, more research is needed to match engineering designs with fish assemblage structures that best meet conservation needs.

  9. Mercury adsorption in the Mississippi River deltaic plain freshwater marsh soil of Louisiana Gulf coastal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Wang, Jim J; Xiao, Ran; Pensky, Scott M; Kongchum, Manoch; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2018-03-01

    Mercury adsorption characteristics of Mississippi River deltaic plain (MRDP) freshwater marsh soil in the Louisiana Gulf coast were evaluated under various conditions. Mercury adsorption was well described by pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models with maximum adsorption capacity of 39.8 mg g -1 . Additional fitting of intraparticle model showed that mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was controlled by both external surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. The partition of adsorbed mercury (mg g -1 ) revealed that mercury was primarily adsorbed into organic-bond fraction (12.09) and soluble/exchangeable fraction (10.85), which accounted for 63.5% of the total adsorption, followed by manganese oxide-bound (7.50), easily mobilizable carbonate-bound (4.53), amorphous iron oxide-bound (0.55), crystalline Fe oxide-bound (0.41), and residual fraction (0.16). Mercury adsorption capacity was generally elevated along with increasing solution pH even though dominant species of mercury were non-ionic HgCl 2 , HgClOH and Hg(OH) 2  at between pH 3 and 9. In addition, increasing background NaCl concentration and the presence of humic acid decreased mercury adsorption, whereas the presence of phosphate, sulfate and nitrate enhanced mercury adsorption. Mercury adsorption in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was reduced by the presence of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn with Pb showing the greatest competitive adsorption. Overall the adsorption capacity of mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was found to be significantly influenced by potential environmental changes, and such factors should be considered in order to manage the risks associated with mercury in this MRDP wetland for responding to future climate change scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating Land Subsidence Rates and Their Implications for Land Loss in the Lower Mississippi River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High subsidence rates, along with eustatic sea-level change, sediment accumulation and shoreline erosion have led to widespread land loss and the deterioration of ecosystem health around the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB. A proper evaluation of the spatial pattern of subsidence rates in the LMRB is the key to understanding the mechanisms of the submergence, estimating its potential impacts on land loss and the long-term sustainability of the region. Based on the subsidence rate data derived from benchmark surveys from 1922 to 1995, this paper constructed a subsidence rate surface for the region through the empirical Bayesian kriging (EBK interpolation method. The results show that the subsidence rates in the region ranged from 1.7 to 29 mm/year, with an average rate of 9.4 mm/year. Subsidence rates increased from north to south as the outcome of both regional geophysical conditions and anthropogenic activities. Four areas of high subsidence rates were found, and they are located in Orleans, Jefferson, Terrebonne and Plaquemines parishes. A projection of future landscape loss using the interpolated subsidence rates reveals that areas below zero elevation in the LMRB will increase from 3.86% in 2004 to 19.79% in 2030 and 30.88% in 2050. This translates to a growing increase of areas that are vulnerable to land loss from 44.3 km2/year to 240.7 km2/year from 2011 to 2050. Under the same scenario, Lafourche, Plaquemines and Terrebonne parishes will experience serious loss of wetlands, whereas Orleans and Jefferson parishes will lose significant developed land, and Lafourche parish will endure severe loss of agriculture land.

  11. Evaluation of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction, Middle Mississippi River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierauer, Jennifer; Pinter, Nicholas; Remo, Jonathan W. F.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryOne-dimensional hydraulic modeling and flood-loss modeling were used to test the effectiveness of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction along the Middle Mississippi River (MMR). Four levee scenarios were assessed: (1) the present-day levee configuration, (2) a 1000 m levee setback, (3) a 1500 m levee setback, and (4) an optimized setback configuration. Flood losses were estimated using FEMA's Hazus-MH (Hazards US Multi-Hazard) loss-estimation software on a structure-by-structure basis for a range of floods from the 2- to the 500-year events. These flood-loss estimates were combined with a levee-reliability model to calculate probability-weighted damage estimates. In the simplest case, the levee setback scenarios tested here reduced flood losses compared to current conditions for large, infrequent flooding events but increased flood losses for smaller, more frequent flood events. These increases occurred because levee protection was removed for some of the existing structures. When combined with buyouts of unprotected structures, levee setbacks reduced flood losses for all recurrence intervals. The "optimized" levee setback scenario, involving a levee configuration manually planned to protect existing high-value infrastructure, reduced damages with or without buyouts. This research shows that levee setbacks in combination with buyouts are an economically viable approach for flood-risk reduction along the study reach and likely elsewhere where levees are widely employed for flood control. Designing a levee setback around existing high-value infrastructure can maximize the benefit of the setback while simultaneously minimizing the costs. The optimized levee setback scenario analyzed here produced payback periods (costs divided by benefits) of less than 12 years. With many aging levees failing current inspections across the US, and flood losses spiraling up over time, levee setbacks are a viable solution for reducing flood exposure and flood levels.

  12. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Quarterly project status report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly project status report discusses research projects being conducted on hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River basin. We continued to seek improvement in our methods of communication and interactions to support the inter-disciplinary, inter-university collaborators within this program. In addition to the defined collaborative research teams, there is increasing interaction among investigators across projects. Planning for the second year of the project has included the development of our internal request for proposals, and refining the review process for selection of proposals for funding.

  13. Possible Links Among Iron Reduction, Silicate Weathering, and Arsenic Mobility in the Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrok, D. M.; Lenz, R. M.; Jennings, J. E.; Gentry, M. L.; Vinson, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer (LMRAA) is a critical groundwater resource for Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Part of the aquifer in Louisiana contains waters rich in Na, HCO3, Fe, and As. We hypothesize that CO2 generated from dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) within the aquifer acts to weather Na-bearing silicates, contributing Na and HCO3, which may influence the mobility of As. We examined the geochemistry of the aquifer using historical and new data collected from the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ). Major and trace element data were collected from about 25 wells in the LMRAA in Louisiana every three years from 2001-2016. Samples collected in 2016 were additionally analyzed for water isotopes and the δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Results suggest that groundwater in the LMRAA can be broken into two broad categories, (1) water with a molar Na/Cl ratio near 1 and/or high salinity, and (2) water with excess Na (i.e., the molar concentration of Na is greater than that of Cl) that is often higher in alkalinity (up to 616 mg/L as CaCO3), Fe (up to 21 mg/L), and sometimes As (up to 67 µg/L). Concentrations of dissolved Fe were found to correlate, at least weakly, with alkalinity and Na excess. Six of the approximately 25 wells historically sampled consistently had concentrations of As >10 µg/L. These locations generally correspond with groundwater characterized by higher Fe, alkalinity, and Na-excess. Initial results for δD and δ18O suggest that more isotopically depleted waters are sourced from the Mississippi River, whereas local precipitation recharges the aquifer farther from the river (δ18O ranged from -7.5‰ to -3.5‰). Part of the δ13C-DIC variation (-17.4‰ to -10.6‰) is consistent with pH modification (6.5-7.7) along differing horizontal and vertical flow paths in the aquifer. This geochemistry appears to be controlled in part by geology. Areas nearer to the current Mississippi River where

  14. Hazardous materials in aquatic environment of the Mississippi River basin. Quarterly progress report, July 1--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report is divided into four aspects relating to water pollution problems in the Mississippi River Basin. They are: collaborative cluster research projects, in which investigators employ a synergistic approach to the solution of problems; initiation research projects, in which a single investigator is involved ; technical support activities, which involve anything that is required to support the research; and the research training and education core, which is designed to develop courses with emphasis on environmental studies. This report presents the objectives and accomplishments of the various research projects for July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996.

  15. Linking Backbarrier Lacustrine Stratigraphy with Spatial Dynamics of Shoreline Retreat in a Rapidly Subsiding Region of the Mississippi River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, M.; Liu, K. B.; Bianchette, T. A.; Yao, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The shoreline along the northern Gulf of Mexico is rapidly retreating as coastal features of abandoned Mississippi River delta complexes erode and subside. Bay Champagne is located in the Caminada-Moreau headland, a region of shoreline west of the currently active delta that has one of the highest rates of retreat and land loss. As a result, this site has transitioned from a stable, circular inland lake several kilometers from the shore to a frequently perturbed, semi-circular backbarrier lagoon, making it ideal to study the environmental effects of progressive land loss. Analyses of clastic layers in a series of sediment cores collected at this site over the past decade indicate the lake was less perturbed in the past and has become increasingly more sensitive to marine incursion events caused by tropical cyclones. Geochemical and pollen analyses of these cores also reveal profound changes in environmental and chemical conditions in Bay Champagne over the past century as the shoreline has retreated. Through relating stratigraphy to spatial changes observed from satellite imagery, this study attempts to identify the tipping point at which Bay Champagne began the transition from an inland lake to a backbarrier environment, and to determine the rate at which this transition occurred. Results will be used to develop a model of the environmental transition experienced by a rapidly retreating coastline and to predict how other regions of the Mississippi River deltaic system could respond to future shoreline retreat.

  16. Water-quality assessment of part of the upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in an urban part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W.J.; Fong, A.L.; Harrod, Leigh; Dittes, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the spring of 1996, the Upper Mississippi River Basin Study Unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program drilled 30 shallow monitoring wells in a study area characterized by urban residential and commercial land uses. The monitoring wells were installed in sandy river-terrace deposits adjacent to the Mississippi River in Anoka and Hennepin Counties, Minnesota, in areas where urban development primarily occurred during the past 30 years.

  17. Temporal variability in terrestrially-derived sources of particulate organic carbon in the lower Mississippi River and its upper tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.; Wysocki, Laura A.; Stewart, Mike; Filley, Timothy R.; McKee, Brent A.

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we examined the temporal changes of terrestrially-derived particulate organic carbon (POC) in the lower Mississippi River (MR) and in a very limited account, the upper tributaries (Upper MR, Ohio River, and Missouri River). We used for the first time a combination of lignin-phenols, bulk stable carbon isotopes, and compound-specific isotope analyses (CSIA) to examine POC in the lower MR and upper tributaries. A lack of correlation between POC and lignin phenol abundances ( Λ8) was likely due to dilution effects from autochthonous production in the river, which has been shown to be considerably higher than previously expected. The range of δ 13C values for p-hydroxycinnamic and ferulic acids in POC in the lower river do support that POM in the lower river does have a significant component of C 4 in addition to C 3 source materials. A strong correlation between δ 13C values of p-hydroxycinnamic, ferulic, and vanillyl phenols suggests a consistent input of C 3 and C 4 carbon to POC lignin while a lack of correlation between these same phenols and POC bulk δ 13C further indicates the considerable role of autochthonous carbon in the lower MR POC budget. Our estimates indicate an annual flux of POC of 9.3 × 10 8 kg y -1 to the Gulf of Mexico. Total lignin fluxes, based on Λ8 values of POC, were estimated to be 1.2 × 10 5 kg y -1. If we include the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux (3.1 × 10 9 kg y -1) reported by [Bianchi T. S., Filley T., Dria K. and Hatcher, P. (2004) Temporal variability in sources of dissolved organic carbon in the lower Mississippi River. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta68, 959-967.], we get a total organic carbon flux of 4.0 × 10 9 kg y -1. This represents 0.82% of the annual total organic carbon supplied to the oceans by rivers (4.9 × 10 11 kg).

  18. Use of aquaculture ponds and other habitats by autumn migrating shorebirds along the lower Mississippi river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Sarah E; Krementz, David G

    2013-08-01

    Populations of many shorebird species are declining; habitat loss and degradation are among the leading causes for these declines. Shorebirds use a variety of habitats along interior migratory routes including managed moist soil units, natural wetlands, sandbars, and agricultural lands such as harvested rice fields. Less well known is shorebird use of freshwater aquaculture facilities, such as commercial cat- and crayfish ponds. We compared shorebird habitat use at drained aquaculture ponds, moist soil units, agricultural areas, sandbars and other natural habitat, and a sewage treatment facility in the in the lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) during autumn 2009. Six species: Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), Killdeer (Charadrius vociferous), Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus himantopus), and Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes), accounted for 92 % of the 31,165 individuals observed. Sewage settling lagoons (83.4, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 25.3-141.5 birds/ha), drained aquaculture ponds (33.5, 95 % CI 22.4-44.6 birds/ha), and managed moist soil units on public lands (15.7, CI 11.2-20.3 birds/ha) had the highest estimated densities of shorebirds. The estimated 1,100 ha of drained aquaculture ponds available during autumn 2009 provided over half of the estimated requirement of 2,000 ha by the LMAV Joint Venture working group. However, because of the decline in the aquaculture industry, autumn shorebird habitats in the LMAV may be limited in the near future. Recognition of the current aquaculture habitat trends will be important to the future management activities of federal and state agencies. Should these aquaculture habitat trends continue, there may be a need for wildlife biologists to investigate other habitats that can be managed to offset the current and expected loss of aquaculture acreages. This study illustrates the potential for freshwater aquaculture to

  19. Tree growth and recruitment in a leveed floodplain forest in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Hugo K.W.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a defining disturbance in floodplain forests affecting seed germination, seedling establishment, and tree growth. Globally, flood control, including artificial levees, dams, and channelization has altered flood regimes in floodplains. However, a paucity of data are available in regards to the long-term effects of levees on stand establishment and tree growth in floodplain forests. In this study, we used dendrochronological techniques to reconstruct tree recruitment and tree growth over a 90-year period at three stands within a ring levee in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (MAV) and to evaluate whether recruitment patterns and tree growth changed following levee construction. We hypothesized that: (1) sugarberry is increasing in dominance and overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) is becoming less dominant since the levee, and that changes in hydrology are playing a greater role than canopy disturbance in these changes in species dominance; and (2) that overcup oak growth has declined following construction of the levee and cessation of overbank flooding whereas that of sugarberry has increased. Recruitment patterns shifted from flood-tolerant overcup oak to flood-intolerant sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) after levee construction. None of the 122 sugarberry trees cored in this study established prior to the levee, but it was the most common species established after the levee. The mechanisms behind the compositional change are unknown, however, the cosmopolitan distribution of overcup oak during the pre-levee period and sugarberry during the post-levee period, the lack of sugarberry establishment in the pre-levee period, and the confinement of overcup oak regeneration to the lowest areas in each stand after harvest in the post-levee period indicate that species-specific responses to flooding and light availability are forcing recruitment patterns. Overcup oak growth was also affected by levee construction, but in contrast to our hypothesis, growth actually

  20. Alternative futures of dissolved inorganic nitrogen export from the Mississippi River Basin: influence of crop management, atmospheric deposition, and population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) export from the Mississippi River Basin contributes to seasonal hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). We explored monthly dissolved inorganic N (DIN) export to the GOM for a historical year (2002) and two future scenarios (year 2022) by linking macroeonomic energy, ag...

  1. Tulane/Xavier University hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Annual technical report, January 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-02

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. In 1989, the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established as the umbrella organization which coordinates environmental research at both universities. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier CBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. Summaries which describe objectives, goals, and accomplishments are included on ten collaborative cluster projects, two education projects, and six initiation projects. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Assessing the impacts of dams and levees on the hydrologic record of the Middle and Lower Mississippi River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remo, Jonathan W.F.; Ickes, Brian; Ryherd, Julia K.; Guida, Ross J.; Therrell, Matthew D.

    2018-01-01

    The impacts of dams and levees on the long-term (>130 years) discharge record was assessed along a ~1200 km segment of the Mississippi River between St. Louis, Missouri, and Vicksburg, Mississippi. To aid in our evaluation of dam impacts, we used data from the U.S. National Inventory of Dams to calculate the rate of reservoir expansion at five long-term hydrologic monitoring stations along the study segment. We divided the hydrologic record at each station into three periods: (1) a pre-rapid reservoir expansion period; (2) a rapid reservoir expansion period; and (3) a post-rapid reservoir expansion period. We then used three approaches to assess changes in the hydrologic record at each station. Indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA) and flow duration hydrographs were used to quantify changes in flow conditions between the pre- and post-rapid reservoir expansion periods. Auto-regressive interrupted time series analysis (ARITS) was used to assess trends in maximum annual discharge, mean annual discharge, minimum annual discharge, and standard deviation of daily discharges within a given water year. A one-dimensional HEC-RAS hydraulic model was used to assess the impact of levees on flood flows. Our results revealed that minimum annual discharges and low-flow IHA parameters showed the most significant changes. Additionally, increasing trends in minimum annual discharge during the rapid reservoir expansion period were found at three out of the five hydrologic monitoring stations. These IHA and ARITS results support previous findings consistent with the observation that reservoirs generally have the greatest impacts on low-flow conditions. River segment scale hydraulic modeling revealed levees can modestly increase peak flood discharges, while basin-scale hydrologic modeling assessments by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers showed that tributary reservoirs reduced peak discharges by a similar magnitude (2 to 30%). This finding suggests that the effects of dams and

  3. Nutrient Mass Balance for the Mobile River Basin in Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, D. A.; Harvill, J. S.; McMahon, G.

    2001-12-01

    The source and fate of nutrients in the Mobile River drainage basin are important water-quality concerns in Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. Land cover in the basin is 74 percent forested, 16 percent agricultural, 2.5 percent developed, and 4 percent wetland. A nutrient mass balance calculated for 18 watersheds in the Mobile River Basin indicates that agricultural non-point nitrogen and phosphorus sources and urban non-point nitrogen sources are the most important factors associated with nutrients in the streams. Nitrogen and phosphorus inputs from atmospheric deposition, crop fertilizer, biological nitrogen fixation, animal waste, and point sources were estimated for each of the 18 drainage basins. Total basin nitrogen inputs ranged from 27 to 93 percent from atmospheric deposition (56 percent mean), 4 to 45 percent from crop fertilizer (25 percent mean), animal waste (8 percent mean), and 0.2 to 11 percent from point sources (3 percent mean). Total basin phosphorus inputs ranged from 10 to 39 percent from atmospheric deposition (26 percent mean), 7 to 51 percent from crop fertilizer (28 percent mean), 20 to 64 percent from animal waste (41 percent mean), and 0.2 to 11 percent from point sources (3 percent mean). Nutrient outputs for the watersheds were estimated by calculating instream loads and estimating nutrient uptake, or withdrawal, by crops. The difference between the total basin inputs and outputs represents nutrients that are retained or processed within the basin while moving from the point of use to the stream, or in the stream. Nitrogen output, as a percentage of the total basin nitrogen inputs, ranged from 19 to 79 percent for instream loads (35 percent mean) and from 0.01 to 32 percent for crop harvest (10 percent mean). From 53 to 87 percent (75 percent mean) of nitrogen inputs were retained within the 18 basins. Phosphorus output ranged from 9 to 29 percent for instream loads (18 percent mean) and from 0.01 to 23 percent for crop harvest (7

  4. Geographic range and morphological and chromosomal variability of Carex molestiformis (Cyperaceae) east of the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carex molestiformis (frightful sedge), described in 1997 as an endemic to the Ozark and Ouachita Mountain regions, is newly collected from Georgia, Mississippi, and Ohio. Herbarium records have also confirmed this species from North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia bringing the overall range of...

  5. Fates of dissolved and particulate materials from the Mississippi river immediately after discharge into the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA, during a period of low wind stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagg, M. J.; Bianchi, T.; McKee, B.; Powell, R.

    2008-07-01

    In June 2003, we conducted a two-part field exercise to examine biogeochemical characteristics of water in the lower Mississippi river during the 4 days prior to discharge and in the Mississippi river plume over 2 days after discharge. Here we describe the fates of materials immediately after their discharge through Southwest Pass of the Mississippi delta into the northern Gulf of Mexico. Changes in surface water properties immediately after discharge were much larger and more rapid than changes prior to discharge. Total suspended matter (TSM) declined, probably due to sinking, dissolved macronutrients were rapidly diminished by mixing and biological uptake, and phytoplankton populations increased dramatically, and then declined. This decline appeared to begin at salinities of approximately 10 and was nearly complete by 15. A large increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) occurred over approximately the same salinity range. Weak winds (releasing large amounts of DOC. Macronutrients from the river were utilized by the river phytoplankton community in the extensive freshwater lens. This contrasted with the more typical situation in which river nutrients stimulate a marine phytoplankton bloom at salinities in the mid-20s. We concluded that the direct effects of dissolved and particulate bio-reactive materials discharged by the Mississippi river were spatially restricted at this time to low-salinity water, at least as surface phenomena. After being transported through the lower river essentially unaltered, these materials were biogeochemically processed within days and tens of km. More generally, the mixing rate of plume water with receiving oceanic water has profound effects on the food web structure and biogeochemical cycling in the plume.

  6. Patterns of foraging and distribution of bluegill sunfish in a Mississippi River backwater: Influence of macrophytes and predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, M.R.; Richardson, W.B.; Zigler, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the trophic interactions and spatial distributions of bluegills Lepomis macrochirus and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in a macrophyte bed in Lake Onalaska, a backwater lake in the upper Mississippi River. The diets of adult and age-0 bluegills were similar and changed seasonally probably in response to changes in life stages of macroinvertebrates (i.e. emergence of winged adults). Diets and diel patterns of abundance of bluegill suggest that age-0 and adults were feeding in the vegetated, littoral zone. Predation by age-0 largemouth bass appears to influence use of vegetated habitat by age-0 bluegills. In summer, when most age-0 bluegills were vulnerable to predation by age-0 largemouth bass, bluegill abundance was strongly correlated with vegetation biomass. In October and November, piscivory by age-0 largemouth bass was limited by gape. Consequently, the relationship between the abundance of age-0 bluegills and vegetation biomass was weakened because predation risk by age-0 largemouth bass was reduced.

  7. Distribution and food habits of young-of-the-year fishes in a backwater lake of the upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, L.E.; Huston, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution patterns and food habits of young-of-the-year (YOY) fishes in a lentic area adjacent to the main channel of Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River were studied. Habitats sampled grouped distinctly based on percent composition and abundance of YOY fishes with those having submergent vegetation dominated by a number of important sport species. In late spring, the grouping of stations depended on the presence or absence of newly transformed northern pike (Esox lucius). In early summer, stations did not differ as distinctly in composition, but in total abundance of young. Those stations with submergent vegetation had total catches which were more than double those elsewhere. By late summer, submergent and mixed vegetation stations formed a distinct assemblage influenced by the preponderance of three species of sunfishes. (DBO).

  8. Effects of barge traffic on distribution and survival of ichthyoplankton and small fishes in the upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Short-term impacts of commercial barge traffic on fish eggs, larvae, young-of-the-year (age-0) fishes, and small adults in the main channel of the upper Mississippi River were examined. Barge passages caused significant changes in the distribution of eggs and larvae in the study area. The mean catch of ichthyoplankton was reduced in both surface and bottom waters for 90 min after passage of vessels downstream. The effects of upstream traffic on catch ranged from nil in surface or bottom samples to short-term increases in surface samples immediately after passage. No consistent effect on the catch of age-0 or small adult fishes in surface or bottom trawls was evident.

  9. Natural and anthropogenic processes that concentrate Mn in rural and urban environments of the lower Mississippi River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, H.W.; Gonzales, C.R.; Powell, E.; Shah, A.; Mielke, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated natural processes and projected ethyl cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl fuel additives as sources of Mn accumulation in the environment. Data sets include fresh alluvium and sediments from the lower Mississippi River Delta and a soil metal survey of metropolitan New Orleans. The (1) railroad Mn, (2) industrial Mn, and (3) dynamic aquifer-stream transfer of Mn hypotheses were tested with the Mississippi River Delta data. Friction between Mn-rich steel wheels and rails contributes Mn (P=0.017) to the environment, supporting (1). Sediment loads of Mn were similar (P=0.77) upstream and downstream from the Louisiana industrial corridor, not supporting (2). The median Mn on the alluvium surface (59 mg/kg), in the aquifer (159 mg/kg), and in the riverbank aquifer discharge zone (513 mg/kg) support (3) as a mechanism for Mn enrichment of lay. The New Orleans soil metal survey data set shows a rural to urban increase of fourfold for Mn and three orders of magnitude for Pb. At 1999 .S. highway fuel use, 8.3 mg of Mn per L would yield 5000 metric tons of Mn annually. If 13% of Mn were emitted, 650 tons of Mn would become aerosols annually, while 87% or 4350 tons would remain in engines. The 1999 toxic release inventory for Mn shows 370 tons as total emissions compared to the potential of 390 and 260 tons from vehicles, respectively, in urban and rural areas. A precautionary lesson from the use of Pb as a fuel additive is that the use of Mn as a fuel additive would be associated with an increased risk or neonates exceeding the estimated total tolerable daily intake of .1-16.5μg Mn (especially in urban inner city environments) because neonates lack fully functional hepatic clearance for Mn

  10. Differences in breeding bird assemblages related to reed canary grass cover cover and forest structure on the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Gray, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    Floodplain forest of the Upper Mississippi River provides habitat for an abundant and diverse breeding bird community. However, reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea invasion is a serious threat to the future condition of this forest. Reed canary grass is a well-known aggressive invader of wetland systems in the northern tier states of the conterminous United States. Aided by altered flow regimes and nutrient inputs from agriculture, reed canary grass has formed dense stands in canopy gaps and forest edges, retarding tree regeneration. We sampled vegetation and breeding birds in Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest edge and interior areas to 1) measure reed canary grass cover and 2) evaluate whether the breeding bird assemblage responded to differences in reed canary grass cover. Reed canary grass was found far into forest interiors, and its cover was similar between interior and edge sites. Bird assemblages differed between areas with more or less reed canary grass cover (.53% cover breakpoint). Common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, black-capped chickadee Parus atricapillus, and rose-breasted grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus were more common and American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, great crested flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus, and Baltimore oriole Icterus galbula were less common in sites with more reed canary grass cover. Bird diversity and abundance were similar between sites with different reed canary grass cover. A stronger divergence in bird assemblages was associated with ground cover ,15%, resulting from prolonged spring flooding. These sites hosted more prothonotary warbler Protonotaria citrea, but they had reduced bird abundance and diversity compared to other sites. Our results indicate that frequently flooded sites may be important for prothonotary warblers and that bird assemblages shift in response to reed canary grass invasion.

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved organic matter quantity and quality in the Mississippi River Basin, 1997–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Sarah M.; Stets, Edward G.; Clow, David W.; Burns, Douglas A.; Aiken, George R.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Creed, Irena F.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Laudon, Hjalmar; Pellerin, Brian; Striegl, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have found insignificant or decreasing trends in time-series dissolved organic carbon (DOC) datasets, questioning the assumption that long-term DOC concentrations in surface waters are increasing in response to anthropogenic forcing, including climate change, land use, and atmospheric acid deposition. We used the weighted regressions on time, discharge, and season (WRTDS) model to estimate annual flow-normalized concentrations and fluxes to determine if changes in DOC quantity and quality signal anthropogenic forcing at 10 locations in the Mississippi River Basin. Despite increases in agriculture and urban development throughout the basin, net increases in DOC concentration and flux were significant at only 3 of 10 sites from 1997 to 2013 and ranged between −3.5% to +18% and −0.1 to 19%, respectively. Positive shifts in DOC quality, characterized by increasing specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm, ranged between +8% and +45%, but only occurred at one of the sites with significant DOC quantity increases. Basinwide reductions in atmospheric sulfate deposition did not result in large increases in DOC either, likely because of the high buffering capacity of the soil. Hydroclimatic factors including annual discharge, precipitation, and temperature did not significantly change during the 17-year timespan of this study, which contrasts with results from previous studies showing significant increases in precipitation and discharge over a century time scale. Our study also contrasts with those from smaller catchments, which have shown stronger DOC responses to climate, land use, and acidic deposition. This temporal and spatial analysis indicated that there was a potential change in DOC sources in the Mississippi River Basin between 1997 and 2013. However, the overall magnitude of DOC trends was not large, and the pattern in quantity and quality increases for the 10 study sites was not consistent throughout the basin.

  12. Bioassessment of mercury, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides in the Upper Mississippi River with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Rada, R.G.; Balogh, S.J.; Rupprecht, J.E.; Young, R.D.; Johnson, D.K.

    1999-12-15

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were sampled from artificial substrates deployed from May 30 to October 19, 1995, at 19 locks and dams from Minneapolis, MN, to Muscatine, IA. Analyses of composite tissue samples of zebra mussels revealed accumulation of mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during a 143-d exposure period. Concentrations of total Hg ranged from 2.6 to 6.1 ng/g wet weight and methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg) from 1.0 to 3.3 ng/g wet weight. About 50% of the mean total Hg in zebra mussels was CH{sub 3}Hg. Cadmium ranged from 76 to 213 ng/g wet weight. Concentrations of total PCBs in zebra mussels varied longitudinally, but the composition of PCB congeners was similar throughout the river. Chlordane and dieldrin were the only two pesticides detected of the 15 analyzed. Zebra mussels are sentinels of contaminant bioavailability in the Upper Mississippi River and may be an important link in the trophic transfer of contaminants in the river because of their increasing importance in the diets of certain fish and waterfowl.

  13. Nutrient cycling, connectivity, and free-floating plant abundance in backwater lakes of the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Jeff N.; Giblin, Shawn M.; James, William F.; Langrehr, H.A.; Rogala, James T.; Sullivan, John F.; Gray, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    River eutrophication may cause the formation of dense surface mats of free floating plants (FFP; e.g., duckweeds and filamentous algae) which may adversely affect the ecosystem. We investigated associations among hydraulic connectivity to the channel, nutrient cycling, FFP, submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV), and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in ten backwater lakes of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) that varied in connectivity to the channel. Greater connectivity was associated with higher water column nitrate (NO3-N) concentration, higher rates of sediment phosphorus (P) release, and higher rates of NO3-N flux to the sediments. Rates of sediment P and N (as NH4-N) release were similar to those of eutrophic lakes. Water column nutrient concentrations were high, and FFP tissue was nutrient rich suggesting that the eutrophic condition of the UMR often facilitated abundant FFP. However, tissue nutrient concentrations, and the associations between FFP biomass and water column nutrient concentrations, suggested that nutrients constrained FFP abundance at some sites. FFP abundance was positively associated with SAV abundance and negatively associated with dissolved oxygen concentration. These results illustrate important connections among hydraulic connectivity, nutrient cycling, FFP, SAV, and DO in the backwaters of a large, floodplain river.

  14. On the Use of Ocean Color Remote Sensing to Measure the Transport of Dissolved Organic Carbon by the Mississippi River Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelCastillo, Carlos E.; Miller, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the use of ocean color remote sensing to measure transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. From 2000 to 2005 we recorded surface measurements of DOC, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), salinity, and water-leaving radiances during five cruises to the Mississippi River Plume. These measurements were used to develop empirical relationships to derive CDOM, DOC, and salinity from monthly composites of SeaWiFS imagery collected from 1998 through 2005. We used river flow data and a two-end-member mixing model to derive DOC concentrations in the river end-member, river flow, and DOC transport using remote sensing data. We compared our remote sensing estimates of river flow and DOC transport with data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) from 1998 through 2005. Our remote sensing estimates of river flow and DOC transport correlated well (r2 0.70) with the USGS data. Our remote sensing estimates and USGS field data showed low variability in DOC concentrations in the river end-member (7-11%), and high seasonal variability in river flow (50%). Therefore, changes in river flow control the variability in DOC transport, indicating that the remote sensing estimate of river flow is the most critical element of our DOC transport measurement. We concluded that it is possible to use this method to estimate DOC transport by other large rivers if there are data on the relationship between CDOM, DOC, and salinity in the river plume.

  15. The influence of floodplain geomorphology and hydrologic connectivity on alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) habitat along the embanked floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Most, Merel; Hudson, Paul F.

    2018-02-01

    The floodplain geomorphology of large lowland rivers is intricately related to aquatic ecosystems dependent upon flood pulse dynamics. The alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) is native to the Lower Mississippi River and dependent upon floodplain backwater areas for spawning. In this study we utilize a geospatial approach to develop a habitat suitability index for alligator gar that explicitly considers hydrologic connectivity and the floodplain geomorphology along a frequently inundated segment of the Lower Mississippi River. The data sets include Landsat imagery, a high-resolution LiDAR digital elevation model (DEM), National Hydrography Dataset (NHD), and hydrologic and geomorphic data. A habitat suitability index is created based on the extent and frequency of inundation, water depth, temperature, and vegetation. A comparison between the remote sensing approach and the NHD revealed substantial differences in the area and location of water bodies available for alligator gar spawning. The final habitat suitability index indicates that a modest proportion (19%) of the overall embanked floodplain is available for alligator gar spawning. Opportunities exist for management efforts to utilize engineered and natural geomorphic features to facilitate hydrologic connectivity at flow levels below flood stage that would expand the habitat of alligator gar across the floodplain. The study results have direct implications regarding environmental restoration of the Lower Mississippi, an iconic example of an embanked meandering river floodplain.

  16. Groundwater discharge to the Mississippi River and groundwater balances for the Interstate 94 Corridor surficial aquifer, Clearwater to Elk River, Minnesota, 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Lorenz, David L.; Kessler, Erich W.; Berg, Andrew M.; Sanocki, Chris A.

    2017-12-13

    The Interstate 94 Corridor has been identified as 1 of 16 Minnesota groundwater areas of concern because of its limited available groundwater resources. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, completed six seasonal and annual groundwater balances for parts of the Interstate 94 Corridor surficial aquifer to better understand its long-term (next several decades) sustainability. A high-precision Mississippi River groundwater discharge measurement of 5.23 cubic feet per second per mile was completed at low-flow conditions to better inform these groundwater balances. The recharge calculation methods RISE program and Soil-Water-Balance model were used to inform the groundwater balances. For the RISE-derived recharge estimates, the range was from 3.30 to 11.91 inches per year; for the SWB-derived recharge estimates, the range was from 5.23 to 17.06 inches per year.Calculated groundwater discharges ranged from 1.45 to 5.06 cubic feet per second per mile, a ratio of 27.7 to 96.4 percent of the measured groundwater discharge. Ratios of groundwater pumping to total recharge ranged from 8.6 to 97.2 percent, with the longer-term groundwater balances ranging from 12.9 to 19 percent. Overall, this study focused on the surficial aquifer system and its interactions with the Mississippi River. During the study period (October 1, 2012, through November 30, 2014), six synoptic measurements, along with continuous groundwater hydrographs, rainfall records, and a compilation of the pertinent irrigation data, establishes the framework for future groundwater modeling efforts.

  17. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin Project management. Technical quarterly progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, J.; Ide, C.F.; O`Connor, S.

    1996-08-01

    This quarterly report summarizes accomplishments for the Project examining hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Among the many research areas summarized are the following: assessment of mechanisms of metal-induced reproductive toxicity in aquatic species as a biomarker of exposure; hazardous wastes in aquatic environment;ecological sentinels of aquatic contamination in the lower Mississippi River System; remediation of selected contaminants; rapid on-site immunassay for heavy metal contamination; molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicity induced by retinoids and retinoid-like molecules; resuseable synthetic membranes for the removal of aromatic and halogenated organic pollutants from waste water; Effects of steroid receptor activation in neurendocrine cell of the mammalian hypothalamus; modeling and assessment of environmental quality of louisiana bayous and swamps; enhancement of environmental education. The report also contains a summary of publications resulting from this project and an appendix with analytical core protocals and target compounds and metals.

  18. Organic Geochemistry of Sediments in Nearshore Areas of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers: I. General Organic Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, William H.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lerch, Harry E.; Corum, Margo D.; Bates, Anne L.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents results on the general organic characteristics of sediment cores collected from the coastal zone of the Mississippi River system, including distributions of the important nutrient elements (C, N, P, and S). This was part of a larger study conducted from 2001-2005 to examine the delivery of sediment-associated contaminants to the Gulf of Mexico by the Mississippi River system, funded by the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program. Companion reports emphasize organic contaminants (Rosenbauer and others, 2006), and metals (Swarzenski and others, 2006). The level of contamination within the deltaic system of the Mississippi River system was determined through the collection of sediment cores from interdistributary bays, and offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, including the zone of hypoxia. Results provide the basis for reconstructing contaminant inventories from which to develop historic perspectives on nutrient loading and hypoxia, and to better understand how sediment-hosted contaminants either directly or indirectly move through biota and ultimately affect ecosystem health. Concentrations of C, N, P, and S in sediments varied by a factor of 10 between sites, and in down core profiles. Nearshore cores collected in 2001 proved to have erratic downcore C, N, P, and S profiles and sediment deposition rates, suggesting a high energy regime controlled more by variability in river flow rather than by geochemical processes and reactions within the system. These results focused further coring activities further offshore. Atomic C/N ratios suggest that organic matter deposited at all sites is a mix of microbial (algal) and terrestrial (vascular plant) remains, but with algal material dominant. Concentrations of total sulfur in sediments from cores in the zone of hypoxia were often higher than those in nearby zones with oxic water columns. Corresponding atomic C/S ratios were typically lower in sediments from sites in the zone of hypoxia compared to nearby

  19. Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers on the periphery of Missouri, June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Bathymetric and velocimetric data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, in the vicinity of 8 bridges at 7 highway crossings of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers on the periphery of Missouri from June 3 to 11, 2014. A multibeam echosounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 1,525 to 1,640 feet longitudinally, and extending laterally across the active channel from bank to bank during low- to moderate-flow conditions. These bathymetric surveys indicate the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be useful to the Missouri Department of Transportation as a low- to moderate-flow comparison to help assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour during floods.

  20. Geochemistry and mineralogy of late Quaternary loess in the upper Mississippi River valley, USA: Provenance and correlation with Laurentide Ice Sheet history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel; Bettis, E. Arthur; Skipp, Gary L.

    2018-01-01

    The midcontinent of North America contains some of the thickest and most extensive last-glacial loess deposits in the world, known as Peoria Loess. Peoria Loess of the upper Mississippi River valley region is thought to have had temporally varying glaciogenic sources resulting from inputs of sediment to the Mississippi River from different lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Here, we explore a new method of determining loess provenance using K/Rb and K/Ba values (in K-feldspars and micas) in loess from a number of different regions in North America. Results indicate that K/Rb and K/Ba values can distinguish loess originating from diverse geologic terrains in North America. Further, different loess bodies that are known to have had the same source sediments (using other criteria) have similar K/Rb and K/Ba values. We also studied three thick loess sections in the upper Mississippi River valley region. At each site, the primary composition of the loess changed over the course of the last glacial period, and K/Rb and K/Ba values parallel changes in carbonate mineral content and clay mineralogy. We thus confirm conclusions of earlier investigators that loess composition changed as a result of the shifting dominance of different lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and the changing course of the Mississippi River. We conclude that K/Rb and K/Ba values are effective, robust, and rapid indicators of loess provenance that can be applied to many regions of the world.

  1. Geochemistry and mineralogy of late Quaternary loess in the upper Mississippi River valley, USA: Provenance and correlation with Laurentide Ice Sheet history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Bettis, E. Arthur; Skipp, Gary L.

    2018-05-01

    The midcontinent of North America contains some of the thickest and most extensive last-glacial loess deposits in the world, known as Peoria Loess. Peoria Loess of the upper Mississippi River valley region is thought to have had temporally varying glaciogenic sources resulting from inputs of sediment to the Mississippi River from different lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Here, we explore a new method of determining loess provenance using K/Rb and K/Ba values (in K-feldspars and micas) in loess from a number of different regions in North America. Results indicate that K/Rb and K/Ba values can distinguish loess originating from diverse geologic terrains in North America. Further, different loess bodies that are known to have had the same source sediments (using other criteria) have similar K/Rb and K/Ba values. We also studied three thick loess sections in the upper Mississippi River valley region. At each site, the primary composition of the loess changed over the course of the last glacial period, and K/Rb and K/Ba values parallel changes in carbonate mineral content and clay mineralogy. We thus confirm conclusions of earlier investigators that loess composition changed as a result of the shifting dominance of different lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and the changing course of the Mississippi River. We conclude that K/Rb and K/Ba values are effective, robust, and rapid indicators of loess provenance that can be applied to many regions of the world.

  2. Relation of periphyton and benthic invertebrate communities to environmental factors and land use at selected sites in part of the upper Mississippi River basin, 1996-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZumBerge, Jeremy Ryan; Lee, Kathy E.; Goldstein, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River Basin is one of the hydrologic systems selected for study by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. NAWQA utilizes a multi-disciplinary approach to explain factors that affect water quality. Part of the NAWQA design addresses the relation of land use and environmental factors to periphyton and benthic invertebrate communities in streams.

  3. Quality of Shallow Groundwater and Drinking Water in the Mississippi Embayment-Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System and the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, South-Central United States, 1994-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Kingsbury, James A.; Tollett, Roland W.; Seanor, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system is an important source of drinking water, providing about 724 million gallons per day to about 8.9 million people in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, and Alabama. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer ranks third in the Nation for total withdrawals of which more than 98 percent is used for irrigation. From 1994 through 2004, water-quality samples were collected from 169 domestic, monitoring, irrigation, and public-supply wells in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in various land-use settings and of varying well capacities as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical properties and about 200 water-quality constituents, including total dissolved solids, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radon, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, pesticide degradates, and volatile organic compounds. The occurrence of nutrients and pesticides differed among four groups of the 114 shallow wells (less than or equal to 200 feet deep) in the study area. Tritium concentrations in samples from the Holocene alluvium, Pleistocene valley trains, and shallow Tertiary wells indicated a smaller component of recent groundwater than samples from the Pleistocene terrace deposits. Although the amount of agricultural land overlying the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer was considerably greater than areas overlying parts of the shallow Tertiary and Pleistocene terrace deposits wells, nitrate was rarely detected and the number of pesticides detected was lower than other shallow wells. Nearly all samples from the Holocene alluvium and Pleistocene valley trains were anoxic, and the reducing conditions in these aquifers likely result in denitrification of nitrate. In contrast, most samples from the

  4. Assessment of Suspended Sand Availability under Different Flow Conditions of the Lowermost Mississippi River at Tarbert Landing during 1973–2013

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    Sanjeev Joshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid land loss in the Mississippi River Delta Plain has led to intensive efforts by state and federal agencies for finding solutions in coastal land restoration in the past decade. One of the proposed solutions includes diversion of the Mississippi River water into drowning wetland areas. Although a few recent studies have investigated flow-sediment relationships in the Lowermost Mississippi River (LmMR, defined as the 500 km reach from the Old River Control Structure to the river’s Gulf outlet, it is unclear how individual sediment fractions behave under varying flow conditions of the river. The information can be especially pertinent because the quantity of coarse sands plays a critical role for the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River deltaic development. In this study, we utilized long-term (1973–2013 records on discharge and sediments at Tarbert Landing of the LmMR to assess sand behavior and availability under different river flow regimes, and extreme sand transport events and their recurrence. We found an average annual sand load (SL of 27.2 megatonnes (MT during 1973 and 2013, varying largely from 3.37 to 52.30 MT. For the entire 41-year study period, a total of approximately 1115 MT sand were discharged at Tarbert Landing, half of which occurred during the peak 20% flow events. A combination of intermediate, high and peak flow stages (i.e., river discharge was ≥18,000 cubic meter per second produced about 71% of the total annual SL within approximately 120 days of a year. Based on the long-term sediment assessment, we predict that the LmMR has a high likelihood to transport 4 to 446 thousand tonnes of sand every day over the next 40 years, during which annual sand loads could reach a maximum of 51.68 MT. Currently, no effective plan is in place to utilize this considerably high sand quantity and we suggest that river engineering and sediment management in the LmMR consider practices of hydrograph-based approach for maximally capturing

  5. INFLUENCE OF SNOWFALL ON BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF FREE-FLYING BALD EAGLES (HALIAEETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS) IN THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER VALLEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Ronald A; Reichart, Letitia M; Mandernack, Brett A; Solensky, Matthew; Schoenebeck, Casey W; Redig, Patrick T

    2017-10-01

    Lead poisoning of scavenging raptors occurs primarily via consumption of game animal carcasses containing lead, which peaks during fall firearm hunting seasons. We hypothesized that snowfall would mitigate exposure by concealing carcasses. We categorized blood lead level (BLL) for a subsample of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Upper Mississippi River Valley and described BLL with respect to age, sex, and snowfall. We captured Bald Eagles overwintering in the Upper Mississippi River Valley (n=55) between December 1999 and January 2002. Individual BLL ranged from nondetectable to 335 μg/dL, with 73% of the samples testing positive for acute exposure to lead. Eagle BLL did not significantly differ between age or sex, but levels were higher immediately following the hunting season, and they were lower when the previous month's snowfall was greater than 11 cm. This study suggests a window of time between the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) hunting season and the onset of snow when the population experienced peak exposure to lead. Combining these findings with existing research, we offer a narrative of the annual lead exposure cycle of Upper Mississippi River Valley Bald Eagles. These temporal associations are necessary considerations for accurate collection and interpretation of BLL.

  6. Characterization of labile organic carbon in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain: Relationships to carbon functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodla, Syam K. [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wang, Jim J., E-mail: jjwang@agcenter.lsu.edu [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); DeLaune, Ronald D. [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, School of the Coast and Environment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Adequate characterization of labile organic carbon (LOC) is essential to the understanding of C cycling in soil. There has been very little evaluation about the nature of LOC characterizations in coastal wetlands, where soils are constantly influenced by different redox fluctuations and salt water intrusions. In this study, we characterized and compared LOC fractions in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain using four different methods including 1) aerobically mineralizable C (AMC), 2) cold water extractable C (CWEC), 3) hot water extractable C (HWEC), and 4) salt extractable C (SEC), as well as acid hydrolysable C (AHC) which includes both labile and slowly degradable organic C. Molecular organic C functional groups of these wetland soils were characterized by {sup 13}C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The LOC and AHC increased with soil organic C (SOC) regardless of wetland soil type. The LOC estimates by four different methods were positively and significantly linearly related to each other (R{sup 2} = 0.62-0.84) and with AHC (R{sup 2} = 0.47-0.71). The various LOC fractions accounted for {<=} 4.3% of SOC whereas AHC fraction represented 16-49% of SOC. AMC was influenced positively by O/N-alkyl and carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C, whereas CWEC and SEC fractions were influenced only positively by carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C in SOC. On the other hand, HWEC fraction was found to be only influenced positively by carbonyl C, and AHC positively by O/N-alkyl and alkyl C but negatively by aromatic C groups in SOC. Overall these relations suggested different contributions of various molecular organic C moieties to LOC in these wetlands from those often found for upland soils. The presence of more than 50% non-acid hydrolysable C suggested the dominance of relatively stable SOC pool that would be sequestered in these Mississippi River deltaic plain coastal wetland soils. The results have important implications to the

  7. Are two systemic fish assemblage sampling programmes on the upper Mississippi River telling us the same thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukerschein, J.T.; Bartels, A.D.; Ickes, B.S.; Pearson, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    We applied an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) used on Wisconsin/Minnesota waters of the upper Mississippi River (UMR) to compare data from two systemic sampling programmes. Ability to use data from multiple sampling programmes could extend spatial and temporal coverage of river assessment and monitoring efforts. We normalized for effort and tested fish community data collected by the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-Great Rivers Ecosystems (EMAP-GRE) 2004–2006 and the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) 1993–2006. Each programme used daytime electrofishing along main channel borders but with some methodological and design differences. EMAP-GRE, designed for baseline and, eventually, compliance monitoring, used a probabilistic, continuous design. LTRMP, designed primarily for baseline and trend monitoring, used a stratified random design in five discrete study reaches. Analysis of similarity indicated no significant difference between EMAP-GRE and LTRMP IBI scores (n=238; Global R= 0.052; significance level=0.972). Both datasets distinguished clear differences only between 'Fair' and 'Poor' condition categories, potentially supporting a 'pass–fail' assessment strategy. Thirteen years of LTRMP data demonstrated stable IBI scores through time in four of five reaches sampled. LTRMP and EMAPGRE IBI scores correlated along the UMR's upstream to downstream gradient (df [3, 25]; F=1.61; p=0.22). A decline in IBI scores from upstream to downstream was consistent with UMR fish community studies and a previous, empirically modelled human disturbance gradient. Comparability between EMAP-GRE (best upstream to downstream coverage) and LTRMP data (best coverage over time and across the floodplain) supports a next step of developing and testing a systemic, multi-metric fish index on the UMR that both approaches could inform.

  8. Holocene Record of Major and Trace Components in the Sediments of an Urban Impoundment on the Mississippi River: Lake Pepin, Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Walter E.

    2009-01-01

    Lake Pepin is a natural impoundment formed by damming of the Mississippi River about 9,180 radiocarbon years ago (19,600 calendar years) by an alluvial fan deposited by the Chippewa River, a tributary of the Mississippi in Wisconsin. Unique among 26 Mississippi River impoundments, Lake Pepin has stratigraphically preserved Holocene materials, including pollutants, that have been transported down the Mississippi. This natural Holocene record can then be compared to changes that have occurred since European settlement (ca. AD 1830), and since enactment of clean air and water legislation. The most immediate response to settlement in the sediments of Lake Pepin was an increase in bulk-sediment accumulation rate. This was accompanied by gradual increases in concentrations of phosphorus (P), and organic carbon (OC), followed by dramatic increases in these elements beginning about 1940. The increase in P was far greater than any of the minor fluctuations in P that occurred throughout the Holocene, but the increase in OC was comparable to an increase in OC that occurred in the mid-Holocene. The concentrations of several metals (for example, cadmium [Cd], and lead [Pb]) also are elevated in recent sediments. Increased Cd concentrations lasted only about two decades during the industrial era between World War II and the enactment of clean water standards in the 1970s. Increased Pb emissions, on the other hand, occurred over more than 100 years, first from burning of coal and smelting of lead ores, and then, beginning in the 1930s, burning of leaded gasoline. Concentrations of Pb in the sediments of Lake Pepin decreased to about two times preindustrial levels within a decade of enactment of unleaded gasoline restrictions.

  9. HYDRAULICS, SUNFLOWER COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  10. The Central Role of the Mississippi River and its Delta in the Oceanography, Ecology and Economy of the Gulf of Mexico: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Chu, P. Y.; Taylor, C.; Roberts, B. J.; Renfro, A. A.; Peyronnin, N.; Fitzpatrick, C.

    2017-12-01

    While it has long been recognized that the Mississippi River is the largest source of freshwater, nutrients and sediments to the Gulf of Mexico, many questions remain unanswered about the impacts of the material on oceanography of the system. Here we report on the results of a regional synthesis study that examined how the Mississippi River and its delta influence the oceanography, ecology and the economy of the Gulf of Mexico. By employing a series of expert-opinion working groups, and using multi-dimensional numerical physical oceanographic models coupled to in-situ environmental data, this project is working to quantify how variability in discharge, meteorological forcings, and seasonal conditions influence the spatial distribution of the Mississippi River plume and its influence. Results collected to date indicate that the dimensions of the river plume are closely coupled to discharge, but in a non-linear fashion, that incorporates fluxes, flow distributions, offshore and meteorological forcings in the context of the local bathymetry. Ongoing research is using these human and numerical tools to help further elucidate the impacts of this river on the biogeochemistry of the region, and the distribution of key macrofauna. Further work by this team is examining how the delta's impacts on the ecology of the region, and the role that the delta plays as both a source of material for key offshore fauna, and a barrier to dispersal. This information is being used to help further the development of a research agenda for the northern Gulf of Mexico that will be useful through the mid-21st century.

  11. Regional Sediment Analysis of Mississippi River Sediment Transport and Hydrographic Survey Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thorne, Colin

    2002-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of human occupation and development of watersheds, combined with engineering works on river channels have significantly disrupted the dynamic equilibrium of many stream systems and ecosystem...

  12. Nitrate Uptake Capacity and Efficiency of Upper Mississippi River Flow-Regulated Backwaters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William F; Richardson, William B; Soballe, David M

    2007-01-01

    In-stream uptake and processing of nitrate nitrite-N may be improved in large river systems by increasing hydrological connectivity between the main channel and adjoining backwaters, wetlands, and floodplain areas...

  13. Elevation - Mobile LiDAR - Mississippi River Navigation Feature Data Acquisition

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — There are three tasks associated with this delivery order: Task 1: Elevations of the Low Steel for bridge superstructures on the following rivers: St. Croix between...

  14. 76 FR 60076 - Lower Mississippi River Waterway Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... navigable waterways, including the Gulf of Mexico. 1. Five members representing River Port Authorities... consecutive terms. All members serve at their own expense and receive no salary reimbursement of travel...

  15. Exploring relationships among land ownership, agricultural land use, and native fish species richness in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason J.

    2012-01-01

    The general effects of agriculture on in-stream fish communities in the Upper Midwestern United States have been well studied for nearly three decades (Karr et al. 1985; Nerbonne and Vondracek 1991; Zimmerman et al. 2001; Goldstein and Meador 2005). Specific impacts include: lowered water levels, sediment loading and nutrient enrichment, loss of riparian habitat, changes to channel morphometry and physical habitat, and changes to the forage base. As part of the National Fish Habitat Action Plan (NFHAP), an initiative to protect, restore, and enhance the nation's fish and aquatic communities, the Fishers and Farmers Partnership specifically focuses on working with agricultural producers to help protect and restore aquatic resources in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) (Fig. 1). Successful protection and/or restoration will require the partnership and local conservation agencies to effectively communicate and work with local landowners. However, roughly 43% of the agricultural lands in the UMRB are not operated by those who own the land (National Agricultural Statistics Service 2009) and this is expected to increase as heirs of farm estates now reside greater distances from their home farms than ever before (Arbuckle 2010).

  16. Effects of flood inundation and invasion by Phalaris arundinacea on nitrogen cycling in an Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Whitney; DeJager, Nathan R.; Strauss, Eric A.; Thomsen, Meredith

    2017-01-01

    Although floodplains are thought to serve as important buffers against nitrogen (N) transport to aquatic systems, frequent flooding and high levels of nutrient availability also make these systems prone to invasion by exotic plant species. Invasive plants could modify the cycling and availability of nutrients within floodplains, with effects that could feedback to promote the persistence of the invasive species and impact N export to riverine and coastal areas. We examined the effect of flooding on soil properties and N cycling at a floodplain site in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River with 2 plant communities: mature native forest (Acer saccharinum) and patches of an invasive grass (Phalaris arundinacea). Plots were established within each vegetation type along an elevation gradient and sampled throughout the summers of 2013 and 2014. Spatial trends in flooding resulted in higher soil organic matter, porosity, and total nitrogen and carbon in low elevations. Nutrient processes and NH4+ and NO3− availability, however, were best explained by vegetation type and time after flooding. Phalaris plots maintained higher rates of nitrification and higher concentrations of available NH4+ and NO3−. These results suggest that invasion by Phalarismay make nitrogen more readily available and could help to reinforce this species' persistence in floodplain wetlands. They also raise the possibility that Phalaris may decrease floodplain N storage capacity and influence downstream transport of N to coastal zones.

  17. Spatial variability in nutrient transport by HUC8, state, and subbasin based on Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin SPARROW models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.; Schwarz, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) has been linked to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. With geospatial datasets for 2002, including inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and monitored loads throughout the MARB, SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) watershed models were constructed specifically for the MARB, which reduced simulation errors from previous models. Based on these models, N loads/yields were highest from the central part (centered over Iowa and Indiana) of the MARB (Corn Belt), and the highest P yields were scattered throughout the MARB. Spatial differences in yields from previous studies resulted from different descriptions of the dominant sources (N yields are highest with crop-oriented agriculture and P yields are highest with crop and animal agriculture and major WWTPs) and different descriptions of downstream transport. Delivered loads/yields from the MARB SPARROW models are used to rank subbasins, states, and eight-digit Hydrologic Unit Code basins (HUC8s) by N and P contributions and then rankings are compared with those from other studies. Changes in delivered yields result in an average absolute change of 1.3 (N) and 1.9 (P) places in state ranking and 41 (N) and 69 (P) places in HUC8 ranking from those made with previous national-scale SPARROW models. This information may help managers decide where efforts could have the largest effects (highest ranked areas) and thus reduce hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico.

  18. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in fish fillet homogenates: method validation and application to fillet homogenates from the Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinsky, Michelle Duval; Jacoby, Cliffton B; Reagen, William K

    2011-01-10

    We report herein a simple protein precipitation extraction-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method, validation, and application for the analysis of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C7-C12), perfluorinated sulfonic acids (C4, C6, and C8), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in fish fillet tissue. The method combines a rapid homogenization and protein precipitation tissue extraction procedure using stable-isotope internal standard (IS) calibration. Method validation in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) fillet tissue evaluated the following: (1) method accuracy and precision in both extracted matrix-matched calibration and solvent (unextracted) calibration, (2) quantitation of mixed branched and linear isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) with linear isomer calibration, (3) quantitation of low level (ppb) perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the presence of high level (ppm) PFOS, and (4) specificity from matrix interferences. Both calibration techniques produced method accuracy of at least 100±13% with a precision (%RSD) ≤18% for all target analytes. Method accuracy and precision results for fillet samples from nine different fish species taken from the Mississippi River in 2008 and 2009 are also presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in fish fillet homogenates: Method validation and application to fillet homogenates from the Mississippi River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinsky, Michelle Duval; Jacoby, Cliffton B.; Reagen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    We report herein a simple protein precipitation extraction-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method, validation, and application for the analysis of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C7-C12), perfluorinated sulfonic acids (C4, C6, and C8), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in fish fillet tissue. The method combines a rapid homogenization and protein precipitation tissue extraction procedure using stable-isotope internal standard (IS) calibration. Method validation in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) fillet tissue evaluated the following: (1) method accuracy and precision in both extracted matrix-matched calibration and solvent (unextracted) calibration, (2) quantitation of mixed branched and linear isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) with linear isomer calibration, (3) quantitation of low level (ppb) perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the presence of high level (ppm) PFOS, and (4) specificity from matrix interferences. Both calibration techniques produced method accuracy of at least 100 ± 13% with a precision (%RSD) ≤18% for all target analytes. Method accuracy and precision results for fillet samples from nine different fish species taken from the Mississippi River in 2008 and 2009 are also presented.

  20. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in fish fillet homogenates: Method validation and application to fillet homogenates from the Mississippi River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinsky, Michelle Duval, E-mail: mmalinsky@mmm.com [3M Environmental Laboratory, 3M Center, Building 0260-05-N-17, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States); Jacoby, Cliffton B.; Reagen, William K. [3M Environmental Laboratory, 3M Center, Building 0260-05-N-17, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States)

    2011-01-10

    We report herein a simple protein precipitation extraction-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method, validation, and application for the analysis of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C7-C12), perfluorinated sulfonic acids (C4, C6, and C8), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) in fish fillet tissue. The method combines a rapid homogenization and protein precipitation tissue extraction procedure using stable-isotope internal standard (IS) calibration. Method validation in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) fillet tissue evaluated the following: (1) method accuracy and precision in both extracted matrix-matched calibration and solvent (unextracted) calibration, (2) quantitation of mixed branched and linear isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) with linear isomer calibration, (3) quantitation of low level (ppb) perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the presence of high level (ppm) PFOS, and (4) specificity from matrix interferences. Both calibration techniques produced method accuracy of at least 100 {+-} 13% with a precision (%RSD) {<=}18% for all target analytes. Method accuracy and precision results for fillet samples from nine different fish species taken from the Mississippi River in 2008 and 2009 are also presented.

  1. Nitrogen delivery from the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin to the Gulf of Mexico: magnitude, attribution, and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Xu, R.; Yang, J.; Zhang, B.; Yao, Y.; Pan, S.; Cai, W. J.; Lohrenz, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), as one of the largest hypoxic zone in the world, is near the outlet of the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) that contributed to the increased fluxes of agriculturally derived nitrogen (N) since the 1950s. This increase of N exports could be primarily attributed to anthropogenic N inputs into the MARB (e.g., N fertilizer application), climate (e.g., precipitation), and land use change. A long-term data of monthly/annual dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) exports from the MARB to the GOM had been released by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) since the 1970s. However, on one hand, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) also plays an active role in supplying N for phytoplankton and bacteria in aquatic ecosystems; on the other hand, monitoring data provided by the USGS could not attribute the contributions of various factors to this N increase in the northern GOM. Here, we used a coupled hydrological-biogeochemical model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, to examine changes in DIN (ammonium and nitrate) and DON exports from the MARB to the GOM during 1901 2014. Meanwhile, we investigated how climate variability, land use change, land management, and atmospheric chemistry affected the annual and seasonal patterns of N export in the study area.

  2. Seasonal effects of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on sediment denitrification rates in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruesewitz, Denise A.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Bernot, Melody J.; Richardson, William B.; Strauss, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) have altered the structure of invaded ecosystems and exhibit characteristics that suggest they may influence ecosystem processes such as nitrogen (N) cycling. We measured denitrification rates seasonally on sediments underlying zebra mussel beds collected from the impounded zone of Navigation Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River. Denitrification assays were amended with nutrients to characterize variation in nutrient limitation of denitrification in the presence or absence of zebra mussels. Denitrification rates at zebra mussel sites were high relative to sites without zebra mussels in February 2004 (repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA), p = 0.005), potentially because of high NO3-N variability from nitrification of high NH4+ zebra mussel waste. Denitrification rates were highest in June 2003 (RM ANOVA, p 3-N concentrations during the study (linear regression, R2 = 0.72, p p ≤ 0.01). Examining how zebra mussels influence denitrification rates will aid in developing a more complete understanding of the impact of zebra mussels and more effective management strategies of eutrophic waters.

  3. Screening Mississippi River Levees Using Texture-Based and Polarimetric-Based Features from Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Dabbiru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of synthetic aperture radar remote sensing data for earthen levee mapping with an emphasis on finding the slump slides on the levees. Earthen levees built on the natural levees parallel to the river channel are designed to protect large areas of populated and cultivated land in the Unites States from flooding. One of the signs of potential impending levee failure is the appearance of slump slides. On-site inspection of levees is expensive and time-consuming; therefore, a need to develop efficient techniques based on remote sensing technologies is mandatory to prevent failures under flood loading. Analysis of multi-polarized radar data is one of the viable tools for detecting the problem areas on the levees. In this study, we develop methods to detect anomalies on the levee, such as slump slides and give levee managers new tools to prioritize their tasks. This paper presents results of applying the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL’s Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR quad-polarized L-band data to detect slump slides on earthen levees. The study area encompasses a portion of levees of the lower Mississippi River in the United States. In this paper, we investigate the performance of polarimetric and texture features for efficient levee classification. Texture features derived from the gray level co-occurrence (GLCM matrix and discrete wavelet transform were computed and analyzed for efficient levee classification. The pixel-based polarimetric decomposition features, such as entropy, anisotropy, and scattering angle were also computed and applied to the support vector machine classifier to characterize the radar imagery and compared the results with texture-based classification. Our experimental results showed that inclusion of textural features derived from the SAR data using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT features and GLCM features provided

  4. Changing Course - The Moffatt & Nichol Team Solution- A "Systems Approach" to a consolidated and sustainable Lower Mississippi River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, J. P.; Twilley, R.; Shelden, J.; Carney, J.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Agre, C.

    2016-02-01

    In response to the Changing Course Design Competition a bold, innovative "systems approach" to link the specific needs of the region's ecosystem, economy and community is proposed. "The Giving Delta" plan empowers the Mississippi River's seasonal natural flood pulse to maximized sediment capture in order to build and maintain wetlands, mitigate the effects of climate change and subsidence, and to slow the inevitable marine transgression of the Delta. Sediment capture is optimized by a series of sediment retention strategies and passive sediment diversion structures, as well as establishing a new deep draft navigation channel connected to the Barataria Bay shoreline littoral zone 40 miles north of the current channel.This paradigm shift from "flood control" to "controlled floods", connects the River's natural flood pulse to the coastal landscape. Using hydraulic residence time in the basin as a design and operational criteria for these controlled and passive structures, balances estuarine recovery and system response tolerance in order to determine the magnitude of the peak flows possible without intolerable salinity suppression in the receiving basins. Seasonal salinity gradients can be established that enable the diversion program to operate in harmony with and promote regional fisheries. On an annual basis, fisheries, communities and ecosystems will adapt to seasonally changing conditions. This plan is not designed to completely rebuild the wetlands that have been lost over the last century. Instead, the design encourages wetland adaptation to accelerated sea level rise in the coastal basins. With this plan, the basin ecologies would "self-organize" in parallel to the human settlement's natural ability to adapt and change to this long-term vision, as a new, consolidated and sustainable Delta emerges. By establishing a framework of implementation over 100 years, incremental adaptation minimizes individual uncertainty and costs within each human generation.

  5. Van Gogh's Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein kindergarten students painted sunflowers. These beautiful and colorful sunflowers were inspired by the book "Camille and the Sunflowers" by Laurence Anholt, which does an amazing job of introducing young children to the art and life of Vincent van Gogh.

  6. SUNFLOWER SUPPLY INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gineo, Wayne M.; Sundquist, W. Burt

    1981-01-01

    This report is concerned with a discussion of the sunflower production sector. It summarizes and discusses the North American sunflower production sector in terms of area, acreage, total production, yields and prices. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of the potential level of sunflower production is made.

  7. Water-quality assessment of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin- Polychlorinated biphenyls in common carp and walleye fillets, 1975-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Anderson, Jesse P.

    1998-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) fillets from rivers in the Upper Mississippi River Basin upstream of the outlet of Lake Pepin are summarized. PCB concentrations in common carp and walleye fillets collected from rivers in the UMIS during 1975-95 by the Minnesota Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program (MFCMP) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) were analyzed. PCBs in fish tissue are of concern because PCBs are potentially toxic, teratogenic, and are linked to poor fetal development and endocrine disruption in fish and other animals including humans, that consume fish. This summary was part of an analysis of historical data for the Upper Mississippi River (UMIS) study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The UMIS study unit is a 47,000 square-mile basin that includes the drainage of the Mississippi River upstream of the outlet of Lake Pepin and encompasses the Twin Cities metropolitan area. PCB concentrations for individual samples at all sites ranged from 0.07 to 33.0 milligrams per kilograms (mg/kg) for common carp and from 0.07 to 9.8 mg/kg for walleye during 1975-95. During 1975-79 and 1980-87, 10 and 4 percent of walleye samples and 45 and 36 percent of common carp samples, respectively, exceeded the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline of 2 mg/kg PCB in fish tissue. PCB concentrations in individual common carp and walleye samples were below 2 mg/kg after 1987. Median PCB concentrations at individual sites and within stream segments were generally greatest in common carp and walleye from Mississippi River segments in the TCMA during 1975-79 and 1980-87. There was a significant difference among lipid-normalized PCB (LNPCB) concentrations in common carp, considering all stream segments combined, during all three time periods (1975-79, 1980-87, and 1988-95). LNPCB concentrations in common carp and walleye at

  8. Impact of Sub-grid Soil Textural Properties on Simulations of Hydrological Fluxes at the Continental Scale Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Samaniego, L. E.; Livneh, B.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of soil hydraulic properties such as porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity is required to accurately model the dynamics of near-surface hydrological processes (e.g. evapotranspiration and root-zone soil moisture dynamics) and provide reliable estimates of regional water and energy budgets. Soil hydraulic properties are commonly derived from pedo-transfer functions using soil textural information recorded during surveys, such as the fractions of sand and clay, bulk density, and organic matter content. Typically large scale land-surface models are parameterized using a relatively coarse soil map with little or no information on parametric sub-grid variability. In this study we analyze the impact of sub-grid soil variability on simulated hydrological fluxes over the Mississippi River Basin (≈3,240,000 km2) at multiple spatio-temporal resolutions. A set of numerical experiments were conducted with the distributed mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM) using two soil datasets: (a) the Digital General Soil Map of the United States or STATSGO2 (1:250 000) and (b) the recently collated Harmonized World Soil Database based on the FAO-UNESCO Soil Map of the World (1:5 000 000). mHM was parameterized with the multi-scale regionalization technique that derives distributed soil hydraulic properties via pedo-transfer functions and regional coefficients. Within the experimental framework, the 3-hourly model simulations were conducted at four spatial resolutions ranging from 0.125° to 1°, using meteorological datasets from the NLDAS-2 project for the time period 1980-2012. Preliminary results indicate that the model was able to capture observed streamflow behavior reasonably well with both soil datasets, in the major sub-basins (i.e. the Missouri, the Upper Mississippi, the Ohio, the Red, and the Arkansas). However, the spatio-temporal patterns of simulated water fluxes and states (e.g. soil moisture, evapotranspiration) from both simulations, showed marked

  9. Impacts of the Anomalous Mississippi River Discharge and Diversions on Phytoplankton Blooming in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico in August 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Brendan Sean

    On April 20, 2010 a tragic explosion aboard the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling rig marked the beginning of one of the worst environmental disasters in history. For 87 days oil and gas were released into the Gulf of Mexico. In August 2010, anomalous phytoplankton activity was identified in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico, using the Fluorescence Line Height (FLH) ocean color product. The FLH anomaly was bound by approximately 30--28° North and 90--86° West and there was a suggestion that this anomaly may have occurred due to the presence of oil. This study was designed to examine alternative explanations and to determine what influence the Mississippi River and the freshwater diversions, employed in the response efforts, may have had on the development of the FLH anomaly. The combination of the anomalously high flow rate in the Mississippi River observed in June-August 2010, the use of freshwater diversions, and three severe storms increased the flow of water through the adjoining marshes. We propose that these conditions reduced the residence time of water and nutrients on the wetlands, and likely mobilized nutrients leading to increased fresh water and nutrients being discharge to the coasts around the Mississippi Delta. Salinity contour maps created from data collected by ships operating in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico showed that the 31 isohaline was upwards of 250km east of the Mississippi River Birds Foot Delta in August 2010. The American Seas (AmSeas) numerical circulation model was used to examine the dispersal and distribution of water parcels from the Mississippi River and freshwater diversions. Two virtual particle seeding locations were used to trace particles to obtain a measure of the percentage of particles entering a Region of Interest (ROI) located in the center of the FLH anomaly, i.e. 150 km east of the Mississippi Delta. All environmental data examined suggest that the eastward dispersal of the Mississippi River water including that

  10. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    commercially valuable tree species: silver maple (Acer saccharinum), American elm (Ulmus americana), slippery elm (Ulmus rubrea), green ash (Fraxinus...this division is generally birch, elm , and cotton wood, all the cliffs being bordered by cedars. The navigation, as far as the Iowa River is good, but

  11. Spatially explicit habitat models for 28 fishes from the Upper Mississippi River System (AHAG 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Brian S.; Sauer, J.S.; Richards, N.; Bowler, M.; Schlifer, B.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental management actions in the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) typically require pre-project assessments of predicted benefits under a range of project scenarios. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) now requires certified and peer-reviewed models to conduct these assessments. Previously, habitat benefits were estimated for fish communities in the UMRS using the Aquatic Habitat Appraisal Guide (AHAG v.1.0; AHAG from hereon). This spreadsheet-based model used a habitat suitability index (HSI) approach that drew heavily upon Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1980) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The HSI approach requires developing species response curves for different environmental variables that seek to broadly represent habitat. The AHAG model uses species-specific response curves assembled from literature values, data from other ecosystems, or best professional judgment. A recent scientific review of the AHAG indicated that the model’s effectiveness is reduced by its dated approach to large river ecosystems, uncertainty regarding its data inputs and rationale for habitat-species response relationships, and lack of field validation (Abt Associates Inc., 2011). The reviewers made two major recommendations: (1) incorporate empirical data from the UMRS into defining the empirical response curves, and (2) conduct post-project biological evaluations to test pre-project benefits estimated by AHAG. Our objective was to address the first recommendation and generate updated response curves for AHAG using data from the Upper Mississippi River Restoration-Environmental Management Program (UMRR-EMP) Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) element. Fish community data have been collected by LTRMP (Gutreuter and others, 1995; Ratcliff and others, in press) for 20 years from 6 study reaches representing 1,930 kilometers of river and >140 species of fish. We modeled a subset of these data (28 different

  12. Proximate versus ultimate limiting nutrients in the Mississippi River Plume and Implications for Hypoxia Reductions through Nutrient Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel, Katja; Laurent, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    A large hypoxic area (15,000 km2 on average) forms every summer over the Texas-Louisiana shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico due to decay of organic matter that is primarily derived from nutrient inputs from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River System. Efforts are underway to reduce the extent of hypoxic conditions through nutrient management in the watershed; for example, an interagency Hypoxia Task Force is developing Action Plans with input from various stakeholders that set out targets for hypoxia reduction. An open question is how far nutrient loads would have to be decreased in order to produce the desired reductions in hypoxia and when these would be measurable given significant natural variability. We have simulated a large number of multi-year nutrient load reduction scenarios with a regional biogeochemical model for the region. The model is based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), explicitly includes nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) species as inorganic nutrients, and has been shown to realistically reproduce the key processes responsible for hypoxia generation. We have quantified the effects of differential reductions in river N and P loads on hypoxic extent. An assessment of the effects of N versus P reductions is important because, thus far, nutrient management efforts have focused on N, yet P is known to limit primary production in spring and early summer. A debate is ongoing as to whether targets for P reductions should be set and whether nutrient reduction efforts should focus solely on P, which results primarily from urban and industrial point sources and is uncoupled from agricultural fertilizer application. Our results strongly indicate that N is the 'ultimate' limiting nutrient to primary production determining the areal extent and duration of hypoxic conditions in a cumulative sense, while P is temporarily limiting in spring. Although reductions in river P load would decrease hypoxic extent in early summer, they would have a much

  13. Proximate and Ultimate Limiting Nutrients in the Mississippi River Plume: Implications for Hypoxia Reduction Through Nutrient Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel, K.; Laurent, A.

    2016-02-01

    A large hypoxic area (15,000 km2 on average) forms every summer over the Texas-Louisiana shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico due to decay of organic matter that is primarily derived from nutrient inputs from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River System. Efforts are underway to reduce the extent of hypoxic conditions through nutrient management in the watershed; for example, an interagency Hypoxia Task Force is developing Action Plans with input from various stakeholders that set out targets for hypoxia reduction. An open question is by how much nutrient loads would have to be decreased in order to produce the desired reductions in hypoxia and when these would be measurable over natural variability. We have performed a large number of multi-year nutrient load reduction scenarios with a regional biogeochemical model for the region. The model is based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), explicitly includes nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) species as inorganic nutrients, and has been shown to realistically reproduce the key processes responsible for hypoxia generation. We have quantified the effects of differential reductions in river N and P loads on hypoxic extent. An assessment of the effects of N versus P reductions is important because, thus far, nutrient management efforts have focused on N, yet P is known to limit primary production in spring and early summer. A debate is ongoing as to whether targets for P reductions should be set and whether nutrient reduction efforts should focus solely on P, which results primarily from urban and industrial point sources and is uncoupled from agricultural fertilizer application. Our results strongly indicate that N is the `ultimate' limiting nutrient to primary production determining the areal extent and duration of hypoxic conditions in a cumulative sense, while P is temporarily limiting in spring. Although reductions in river P load would decrease hypoxic extent in early summer, they would have a much smaller effect

  14. Bend-scale geomorphic classification and assessment of the Lower Missouri River from Sioux City, Iowa, to the Mississippi River for application to pallid sturgeon management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Colvin, Michael E.; Bulliner, Edward A.; Pickard, Darcy; Elliott, Caroline M.

    2018-06-07

    Management actions intended to increase growth and survival of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) age-0 larvae on the Lower Missouri River require a comprehensive understanding of the geomorphic habitat template of the river. The study described here had two objectives relating to where channel-reconfiguration projects should be located to optimize effectiveness. The first objective was to develop a bend-scale (that is, at the scale of individual bends, defined as “cross-over to cross-over”) geomorphic classification of the Lower Missouri River to help in the design of monitoring and evaluation of such projects. The second objective was to explore whether geomorphic variables could provide insight into varying capacities of bends to intercept drifting larvae. The bend-scale classification was based on geomorphic and engineering variables for 257 bends from Sioux City, Iowa, to the confluence with the Mississippi River near St. Louis, Missouri. We used k-means clustering to identify groupings of bends that shared the same characteristics. Separate 3-, 4-, and 6-cluster classifications were developed and mapped. The three classifications are nested in a hierarchical structure. We also explored capacities of bends to intercept larvae through evaluation of linear models that predicted persistent sand area or catch per unit effort (CPUE) of age-0 sturgeon as a function of the same geomorphic variables used in the classification. All highly ranked models that predict persistent sand area contained mean channel width and standard deviation of channel width as significant variables. Some top-ranked models also included contributions of channel sinuosity and density of navigation structures. The sand-area prediction models have r-squared values of 0.648–0.674. In contrast, the highest-ranking CPUE models have r-squared values of 0.011–0.170, indicating much more uncertainty for the biological response variable. Whereas the persistent sand model documents that

  15. Modeling and assessing field irrigation water use in a canal system of Hetao, upper Yellow River basin: Application to maize, sunflower and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongyang; Xu, Xu; Hao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    Water saving in irrigation is a key issue in the upper Yellow River basin. Excessive irrigation leads to water waste, water table rising and increased salinity. Land fragmentation associated with a large dispersion of crops adds to the agro-hydrological complexity of the irrigation system. The model HYDRUS-1D, coupled with the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach (dualKc), was applied to simulate the water and salt movement processes. Field experiments were conducted for maize, sunflower and watermelon crops in the command area of a typical irrigation canal system in Hetao Irrigation District during 2012 and 2013. The model was calibrated and validated in three crop fields using two-year experimental data. Simulations of soil moisture, salinity concentration and crop yield fitted well with the observations. The irrigation water use was then evaluated and results showed that large amounts of irrigation water percolated due to over-irrigation but their reuse through capillary rise was also quite large. That reuse was facilitated by the dispersion of crops throughout largely fragmented field, thus with fields reusing water percolated from nearby areas due to the rapid lateral migration of groundwater. Beneficial water use could be improved when taking this aspect into account, which was not considered in previous researches. The non-beneficial evaporation and salt accumulation into the root zone were found to significantly increase during non-growth periods due to the shallow water tables. It could be concluded that when applying water saving measures, close attention should be paid to cropping pattern distribution and groundwater control in association with irrigation scheduling and technique improvement.

  16. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    and acuatic species, especially the annual plants. Re-seeding occurred during periods of floods in the spring and fall, but good aquatic I beds were...Hoardes of emergent insects often cause nuisance problems for river residents, motorists and towboat personnel (Fremling 1960, 1968, 1970). Nymphal...The insects are a nuisance to most people and the increase in the nayfly population mny be considered to be uctrimc.ntal. Th.2 insects are excellent

  17. GREAT I Study of the Upper Mississippi River. Technical Appendixes. Volume 6. Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Engineers, St. Paul District 1s. NUMBER OF PAGES * 1135 USPO & Custom House, St. Paul, MN 55101 , I4. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(I different hrm ...the purpose of this proposal that the viewer would either be the highway traveler ( automobile ) or the river traveler (recreational craft). An attempt...P.S. - Parking spaces; automobile and boat trailer L.L. - Boat launching lanes B.A. - Beach area, acres * -163-- GREAT I Recreation Needs

  18. Operation and Maintenance Pools 24, 25, and 26 Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    eight species, plus eight additional taxa identi- fied to genus only, were collected from these seven sites. Only eight species occurred at three or...occidentalis) 2 3 Shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) 2 2 Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) 2 0 Persimmon ( Diospyros virginiana) 1 3 River birch (Betula nigra) 1 2...turtles, red-eared turtles, and map turtles were commonly observed in wetland areas. Four species of water snakes ( Genus Natrix) frequently utilized

  19. Impact of Wetland Decline on Decreasing Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations along the Mississippi River Continuum

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Shuiwang; He, Yuxiang; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Ward, Nicholas D.; Guo, Laodong

    2017-01-01

    Prior to discharging to the ocean, large rivers constantly receive inputs of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from tributaries or fringing floodplains and lose DOC via continuous in situ processing along distances that span thousands of kilometers. Current concepts predicting longitudinal changes in DOC mainly focus on in situ processing or exchange with fringing floodplain wetlands, while effects of heterogeneous watershed characteristics are generally ignored. We analyzed results from a 17-ye...

  20. Carbon storage in the Mississippi River delta enhanced by environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Michael R.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Mohrig, David; Hutchings, Jack A.; Kenney, William F.; Kolker, Alexander S.; Curtis, Jason H.

    2017-11-01

    River deltas have contributed to atmospheric carbon regulation throughout Earth history, but functioning in the modern era has been impaired by reduced sediment loads, altered hydrologic regimes, increased global sea-level rise and accelerated subsidence. Delta restoration involves environmental engineering via river diversions, which utilize self-organizing processes to create prograding deltas. Here we analyse sediment cores from Wax Lake delta, a product of environmental engineering, to quantify the burial of organic carbon. We find that, despite relatively low concentrations of organic carbon measured in the cores (about 0.4%), the accumulation of about 3 T m-2 of sediment over the approximate 60 years of delta building resulted in the burial of a significant amount of organic carbon (16 kg m-2). This equates to an apparent organic carbon accumulation rate of 250 +/- 23 g m-2 yr-1, which implicitly includes losses by carbon emissions and erosion. Our estimated accumulation rate for Wax Lake delta is substantially greater than previous estimates based on the top metre of delta sediments and comparable to those of coastal mangrove and marsh habitats. The sedimentation of carbon at the Wax Lake delta demonstrates the capacity of engineered river diversions to enhance both coastal accretion and carbon burial.

  1. Surface complexation modeling for predicting solid phase arsenic concentrations in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.S.U.; Davis, R.K.; Steele, K.F.; Kim, B.; Hays, P.D.; Kresse, T.M.; Fazio, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The potential health impact of As in drinking water supply systems in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the state of Arkansas, USA is significant. In this context it is important to understand the occurrence, distribution and mobilization of As in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. Application of surface complexation models (SCMs) to predict the sorption behavior of As and hydrous Fe oxides (HFO) in the laboratory has increased in the last decade. However, the application of SCMs to predict the sorption of As in natural sediments has not often been reported, and such applications are greatly constrained by the lack of site-specific model parameters. Attempts have been made to use SCMs considering a component additivity (CA) approach which accounts for relative abundances of pure phases in natural sediments, followed by the addition of SCM parameters individually for each phase. Although few reliable and internally consistent sorption databases related to HFO exist, the use of SCMs using laboratory-derived sorption databases to predict the mobility of As in natural sediments has increased. This study is an attempt to evaluate the ability of the SCMs using the geochemical code PHREEQC to predict solid phase As in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in Arkansas. The SCM option of the double-layer model (DLM) was simulated using ferrihydrite and goethite as sorbents quantified from chemical extractions, calculated surface-site densities, published surface properties, and published laboratory-derived sorption constants for the sorbents. The model results are satisfactory for shallow wells (10.6. m below ground surface), where the redox condition is relatively oxic or mildly suboxic. However, for the deep alluvial aquifer (21-36.6. m below ground surface) where the redox condition is suboxic to anoxic, the model results are unsatisfactory. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Reconnaissance level study Mississippi storm surge barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ledden, M.; Lansen, A.J.; De Ridder, H.A.J.; Edge, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a reconnaissance level study of a storm surge barrier in the Mississippi River. Historical hurricanes have shown storm surge of several meters along the Mississippi River levees up to and upstream of New Orleans. Future changes due to sea level rise and subsidence will further

  3. Bottomland oak afforestation in the lower Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; Brian Roy Lockhard

    2007-01-01

    The 11 million hectare Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV), which is the geologic floodplain of the lower Mississippi River, is a prominent physiographic region in the southern United States. Seven states (Arkansas, Louisiana, Missis- 1 sippi, Missouri, Kentucky, Illinois, and Tennessee) border the lower stretch of the II River, and have a portion of their land...

  4. Hydrological effects of the increased CO2 and climate change in the Upper Mississippi River Basin using a modified SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Liu, S.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.

    2012-01-01

    Increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change may significantly impact the hydrological and meteorological processes of a watershed system. Quantifying and understanding hydrological responses to elevated ambient CO2 and climate change is, therefore, critical for formulating adaptive strategies for an appropriate management of water resources. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to assess the effects of increased CO2 concentration and climate change in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB). The standard SWAT model was modified to represent more mechanistic vegetation type specific responses of stomatal conductance reduction and leaf area increase to elevated CO2 based on physiological studies. For estimating the historical impacts of increased CO2 in the recent past decades, the incremental (i.e., dynamic) rises of CO2 concentration at a monthly time-scale were also introduced into the model. Our study results indicated that about 1–4% of the streamflow in the UMRB during 1986 through 2008 could be attributed to the elevated CO2 concentration. In addition to evaluating a range of future climate sensitivity scenarios, the climate projections by four General Circulation Models (GCMs) under different greenhouse gas emission scenarios were used to predict the hydrological effects in the late twenty-first century (2071–2100). Our simulations demonstrated that the water yield would increase in spring and substantially decrease in summer, while soil moisture would rise in spring and decline in summer. Such an uneven distribution of water with higher variability compared to the baseline level (1961–1990) may cause an increased risk of both flooding and drought events in the basin.

  5. Population dynamics of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) during the initial invasion of the Upper Mississippi River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Hightower, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document and model the population dynamics of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), USA, for five consecutive years (1992-1996) following their initial discovery in September 1991. Artificial substrates (concrete blocks, 0.49 m2 surface area) were deployed on or around the first of May at two sites within each of two habitat types (main channel border and contiguous backwater). Blocks were removed monthly (30 ?? 10 d) from the end of May to the end of October to obtain density and growth information. Some blocks deployed in May 1995 were retrieved in April 1996 to obtain information about overwinter growth and survival. The annual density of zebra mussels in Pool 8 of the UMR increased from 3.5/m2 in 1992 to 14,956/m 2 in 1996. The average May-October growth rate of newly recruited individuals, based on a von Bertalanffy growth model fitted to monthly shell-length composition data, was 0.11 mm/d. Model estimates of the average survival rate varied from 21 to 100% per month. Estimated recruitment varied substantially among months, with highest levels occurring in September-October of 1994 and 1996, and in July of 1995. Recruitment and density in both habitat types increased by two orders of magnitude in 1996. Follow-up studies will be necessary to assess the long-term stability of zebra mussel populations in the UMR; this study provides the critical baseline information needed for those future comparisons. ?? Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Malacological Society of London 2006.

  6. New High-Resolution Multibeam Mapping and Seismic Reflection Imaging of Mudflows on the Mississippi River Delta Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, J. D.; Baldwin, W. E.; Danforth, W. W.; Bentley, S. J.; Miner, M. D.; Damour, M.

    2017-12-01

    Mudflows (channelized and unconfined debris flows) on the Mississippi River Delta Front (MRDF) are a recognized hazard to oil and gas infrastructure in the shallow Gulf of Mexico. Preconditioning of the seafloor for failure results from high sedimentation rates coupled with slope over-steepening, under-consolidation, and abundant biogenic gas production. Cyclical loading of the seafloor by waves from passing major storms appears to be a primary trigger, but the role of smaller (more frequent) storms and background oceanographic processes are largely unconstrained. A pilot high-resolution seafloor mapping and seismic imaging study was carried out across portions of the MRDF aboard the R/V Point Sur from May 19-26, 2017, as part of a multi-agency/university effort to characterize mudflow hazards in the area. The primary objective of the cruise was to assess the suitability of seafloor mapping and shallow sub-surface imaging tools in the challenging environmental conditions found across delta fronts (e.g., variably-distributed water column stratification and wide-spread biogenic gas in the shallow sub-surface). More than 600 km of multibeam bathymetry/backscatter/water column data, 425 km of towed chirp data, and > 500 km of multi-channel seismic data (boomer/mini-sparker sources, 32-channel streamer) were collected. Varied mudflow (gully, lobe), pro-delta morphologies, and structural features, some of which have been surveyed more than once, were imaged in selected survey areas from Pass a Loutre to Southwest Pass. The present location of the SS Virginia, which has been moving with one of the mudflow lobes since it was sunk in 1942, was determined and found to be 60 m SW of its 2006 position, suggesting movement not linked to hurricane-induced wave triggering of mudflows. Preliminary versions these data were used to identify sediment sampling sites visited on a cruise in early June 2017 led by scientists from LSU and other university/agency partners.

  7. Evaluation of Drought Implications on Ecosystem Services: Freshwater Provisioning and Food Provisioning in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Omani, Nina; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Wei, Xiaomei

    2017-05-08

    Drought is one of the most widespread extreme climate events with a potential to alter freshwater availability and related ecosystem services. Given the interconnectedness between freshwater availability and many ecosystem services, including food provisioning, it is important to evaluate the drought implications on freshwater provisioning and food provisioning services. Studies about drought implications on streamflow, nutrient loads, and crop yields have been increased and these variables are all process-based model outputs that could represent ecosystem functions that contribute to the ecosystem services. However, few studies evaluate drought effects on ecosystem services such as freshwater and food provisioning and quantify these services using an index-based ecosystem service approach. In this study, the drought implications on freshwater and food provisioning services were evaluated for 14 four-digit HUC (Hydrological Unit Codes) subbasins in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), using three drought indices: standardized precipitation index ( SPI ), standardized soil water content index ( SSWI ), and standardized streamflow index ( SSI ). The results showed that the seasonal freshwater provisioning was highly affected by the precipitation deficits and/or surpluses in summer and autumn. A greater importance of hydrological drought than meteorological drought implications on freshwater provisioning was evident for the majority of the subbasins, as evidenced by higher correlations between freshwater provisioning and SSI 12 than SPI 12. Food provisioning was substantially affected by the precipitation and soil water deficits during summer and early autumn, with relatively less effect observed in winter. A greater importance of agricultural drought effects on food provisioning was evident for most of the subbasins during crop reproductive stages. Results from this study may provide insights to help make effective land management decisions in responding to

  8. Confocal microscopy as a useful approach to describe gill rakers of Asian species of carp and native filter-feeding fishes of the upper Mississippi River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liza R. Walleser,; D.R. Howard,; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand potential diet overlap among exotic Asian species of carp and native species of filter-feeding fishes of the upper Mississippi River system, microscopy was used to document morphological differences in the gill rakers. Analysing samples first with light microscopy and subsequently with confocal microscopy, the three-dimensional structure of gill rakers in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix,Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Dorosoma cepedianum was more thoroughly described and illustrated than previous work with traditional microscopy techniques. The three-dimensional structure of gill rakers in Ictiobus cyprinellus was described and illustrated for the first time.

  9. Spatial scaling of core and dominant forest cover in the Upper Mississippi and Illinois River floodplains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason J.

    2011-01-01

    Different organisms respond to spatial structure in different terms and across different spatial scales. As a consequence, efforts to reverse habitat loss and fragmentation through strategic habitat restoration ought to account for the different habitat density and scale requirements of various taxonomic groups. Here, we estimated the local density of floodplain forest surrounding each of ~20 million 10-m forested pixels of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois River floodplains by using moving windows of multiple sizes (1–100 ha). We further identified forest pixels that met two local density thresholds: 'core' forest pixels were nested in a 100% (unfragmented) forested window and 'dominant' forest pixels were those nested in a >60% forested window. Finally, we fit two scaling functions to declines in the proportion of forest cover meeting these criteria with increasing window length for 107 management-relevant focal areas: a power function (i.e. self-similar, fractal-like scaling) and an exponential decay function (fractal dimension depends on scale). The exponential decay function consistently explained more variation in changes to the proportion of forest meeting both the 'core' and 'dominant' criteria with increasing window length than did the power function, suggesting that elevation, soil type, hydrology, and human land use constrain these forest types to a limited range of scales. To examine these scales, we transformed the decay constants to measures of the distance at which the probability of forest meeting the 'core' and 'dominant' criteria was cut in half (S 1/2, m). S 1/2 for core forest was typically between ~55 and ~95 m depending on location along the river, indicating that core forest cover is restricted to extremely fine scales. In contrast, half of all dominant forest cover was lost at scales that were typically between ~525 and 750 m, but S 1/2 was as long as 1,800 m. S 1/2 is a simple measure that (1) condenses information derived from multi

  10. Transportation Lines on the Mississippi River System and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway; Transportation Series 4; 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    EMERALD SEA0SE C_ 133 -.664 17&0 340 3F0 110 𔃺 22js !3 12 t Lo DO 1971 GULF S6*śSE T 66 1010 1100 250 250 90 50 15uC 7C 1530 , -AS,_ 0 DO 1970INDIAN...130 Do 933 1053 1950 3S0 3-0 90 290 - ISOS 1.S. COvkas 19,7 !91. 115-119 00 175 - 1950 - 3S5 99 L6 - 2Q.3, 33 1993 (29 1v0 IVE LOGIN CC, L.ILT J02...WR, C., 4 SONS 2 CHARTERS To OTHERS 4ISSISSIPPI RIVER BYSTEM 33 EMERALD MARINE SERVICE, INC. 2 TOWING AND DRY CARGT 06 INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY Of

  11. Approaches to restoration of oak forests on farmed lowlands of the Mississippi river and its tributaries (Avances en la restauración de bosques de roble en tierras bajas agrícolas del Río Mississippi y sus tributaries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.S. Gardiner; D.C. Dey; John Stanturf; B.R. Lockhart

    2010-01-01

    The lowlands associated with the Mississippi River and its tributaries historically supported extensive broadleaf forests that were particularly rich in oak (Quercus spp.) species. Beginning in the 1700s, deforestation for agriculture substantially reduced the extent of the original forest, and fragmented the remainder into small parcels. More recently, declines in...

  12. The Effect of Mississippi River Discharge on the Concentration and Composition of Particulate Matter along the Texas-Louisiana Shelf during Summers 2012 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M. J.; Zuck, N.; Gardner, W. D.

    2016-02-01

    Flow from the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River System generally peaks during the spring freshet, discharging nutrient-rich fresh water and sediment into the northern Gulf of Mexico. The peak discharge varies year to year as a result of varying drought or flood conditions in the Mississippi watershed. When compared to an 8-year climatological average, summer 2012 is characterized by low discharge into the northern Gulf of Mexico, whereas summer 2013 is characterized by average discharge conditions. Water samples were collected during four cruises during June and August of 2012 and 2013 to assess the changes in concentration and composition of bulk particulate matter. While no consistent relationship between particulate matter composition and hypoxia was observed, there are several statistically significant seasonal and inter-annual changes in the concentration and composition of particulate matter associated with varying river discharge. There is also evidence that some sub-pycnocline turbidity and chlorophyll-a may be due to in situ primary productivity, rather than settled plankton containing chlorophyll-a.

  13. Spatial and temporal trends of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in fish fillets and water collected from pool 2 of the Upper Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsted, John L; Holem, Ryan; Hohenstein, Gary; Lange, Cleston; Ellefson, Mark; Reagen, William; Wolf, Susan

    2017-11-01

    In 2011, poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were analyzed in surface water and fish fillet samples taken from Pool 2 of the Upper Mississippi River, a 33-mile stretch inclusive of the Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota (USA) metropolitan area. Approximately 100 each of bluegill, freshwater drum, smallmouth bass, and white bass were sampled within the study area. Surface water samples were also collected from each of the 10 sampling reaches established for the study. Water and fillet samples were analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C4-C12), perfluorinated sulfonic acids (C4, C6, and C8), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was observed with the greatest frequency in fish fillets and ranged from 3.0 to 760 ng/g wet weight. Mean (geometric) PFOS concentrations in bluegill, freshwater drum, smallmouth bass, and white bass were 20, 28, 29, and 58 ng/g wet weight, respectively. When compared with fish data collected in 2009, a significant reduction (p fish PFOS concentrations are consistent with ongoing efforts to effectively control sources of PFASs to the Mississippi River. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3138-3147. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  14. Large increase in dissolved inorganic carbon flux from the Mississippi River to Gulf of Mexico due to climatic and anthropogenic changes over the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Yang, Jia; Pan, Shufen; Cai, Wei-Jun; Lohrenz, Steven E; He, Ruoying; Hopkinson, Charles S

    2015-04-01

    It is recognized that anthropogenic factors have had a major impact on carbon fluxes from land to the ocean during the past two centuries. However, little is known about how future changes in climate, atmospheric CO 2 , and land use may affect riverine carbon fluxes over the 21st century. Using a coupled hydrological-biogeochemical model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, this study examines potential changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) export from the Mississippi River basin to the Gulf of Mexico during 2010-2099 attributable to climate-related conditions (temperature and precipitation), atmospheric CO 2 , and land use change. Rates of annual DIC export are projected to increase by 65% under the high emission scenario (A2) and 35% under the low emission scenario (B1) between the 2000s and the 2090s. Climate-related changes along with rising atmospheric CO 2 together would account for over 90% of the total increase in DIC export throughout the 21st century. The predicted increase in DIC export from the Mississippi River basin would alter chemistry of the coastal ocean unless appropriate climate mitigation actions are taken in the near future.

  15. Plan of study to determine if the isotopic ratios [delta]15 N and [delta]18 O can reveal the sources of nitrate discharged by the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Kendall, Carol; Goolsby, Donald A.; Boyer, Laurie L.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrate and other nutrients discharged from the Mississippi River basin are suspected of causing a zone of depleted dissolved oxygen (hypoxic zone) in the Gulf of Mexico each summer. The hypoxic zone may have an adverse effect on aquatic life and commercial fisheries. Commercial fertilizers are the dominant source of nitrogen input to the Mississippi basin. Other nitrogen sources include animal waste, fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by legumes, precipitation, domestic and industrial effluent, and the soil. The inputs of nitrogen from most of these sources to the Mississippi basin can be estimated and the outputs in surface water can be measured. However, nitrogen from each source is affected differently by physical, chemical, and biological processes that control nitrogen cycling in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Hence, the relative contributions from the various sources of nitrogen to nitrate load in the Mississippi River are unknown because the different sources may not contribute proportionally to their inputs in the basin. It may be possible to determine the relative contributions of the major sources of nitrate in river water using the stable isotopic ratios d15N and d18O of the nitrate ion. A few researchers have used the d15N and/or d18O isotope ratios to determine sources of nitrate in ground water, headwater catchments, and small rivers, but little is known about the isotopic composition of nitrate in larger rivers. The objective of this study is to measure the isotopic composition of nitrate and suspended organic matter in the Mississippi River and its major tributaries, in discharge to the Gulf of Mexico, and in streamflow from smaller watersheds that have distinct sources of nitrogen (row crops, animal wastes, and urban effluents) or are minimally impacted by man (undeveloped). Samples from seven sites on the Mississippi River and its tributaries and from 17 sites in smaller watersheds within the Mississippi River basin will be analyzed for d15N and

  16. Abundance, stable isotopic composition, and export fluxes of DOC, POC, and DIC from the Lower Mississippi River during 2006–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yihua; Guo, Laodong; Wang, Xuri; Aiken, George R.

    2015-01-01

    Sources, abundance, isotopic compositions, and export fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved and colloidal organic carbon (DOC and COC), and particulate organic carbon (POC), and their response to hydrologic regimes were examined through monthly sampling from the Lower Mississippi River during 2006–2008. DIC was the most abundant carbon species, followed by POC and DOC. Concentration and δ13C of DIC decreased with increasing river discharge, while those of DOC remained fairly stable. COC comprised 61 ± 3% of the bulk DOC with similar δ13C abundances but higher percentages of hydrophobic organic acids than DOC, suggesting its aromatic and diagenetically younger status. POC showed peak concentrations during medium flooding events and at the rising limb of large flooding events. While δ13C-POC increased, δ15N of particulate nitrogen decreased with increasing discharge. Overall, the differences in δ13C between DOC or DIC and POC show an inverse correlation with river discharge. The higher input of soil organic matter and respired CO2 during wet seasons was likely the main driver for the convergence of δ13C between DIC and DOC or POC, whereas enhanced in situ primary production and respiration during dry seasons might be responsible for their isotopic divergence. Carbon export fluxes from the Mississippi River were estimated to be 13.6 Tg C yr−1 for DIC, 1.88 Tg C yr−1 for DOC, and 2.30 Tg C yr−1 for POC during 2006–2008. The discharge-normalized DIC yield decreased during wet seasons, while those of POC and DOC increased and remained constant, respectively, implying variable responses in carbon export to the increasing discharge.

  17. Annual dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorous loads for the Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia River basins, 1968-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2006-01-01

    Annual stream-water loads were calculated near the outlet of four of the larger river basins (Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia) in the United States for dissolved nitrite plus nitrate (NO2 + NO3) and total phosphorus using LOADEST load estimation software. Loads were estimated for the period 1968-2004; although loads estimated for individual river basins and chemical constituent combinations typically were for shorter time periods due to limitations in data availability. Stream discharge and water-quality data for load estimates were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with additional stream discharge data for the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The loads were estimated to support national assessments of changes in stream nutrient loads that are periodically conducted by Federal agencies (for example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and other water- and land-resource organizations. Data, methods, and results of load estimates are summarized herein; including World Wide Web links to electronic ASCII text files containing the raw data. The load estimates are compared to dissolved NO2 + NO3 loads for three of the large river basins from 1971 to 1998 that the USGS provided during 2001 to The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment (The Heinz Center) for a report The Heinz Center published during 2002. Differences in the load estimates are the result of using the most up-to-date monitoring data since the 2001 analysis, differences in how concentrations less than the reporting limit were handled by the load estimation models, and some errors and exclusions in the 2001 analysis datasets (which resulted in some inaccurate load estimates).

  18. Assessment of chevron dikes for the enhancement of physical-aquatic habitat within the Middle Mississippi River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remo, Jonathan W. F.; Khanal, Anish; Pinter, Nicholas

    2013-09-01

    Blunt-nosed chevron dikes, a new invention now being widely constructed on the Middle Mississippi River (MMR), have been justified as a tool for enhancing physical-aquatic habitat. Chevron dikes were initially designed to concentrate flow, induce channel scour, and thus facilitate river navigation. More recently, these structures have been justified, in part, for promoting habitat heterogeneity. The ability of chevrons to create and diversify physical-aquatic habitat, however, has not been empirically evaluated. To assess the ability of chevrons to create and diversify physical-aquatic habitat, we compiled hydrologic and geospatial data for three channel reference conditions along a 2.0 km (∼140 ha) reach of the MMR where three chevrons were constructed in late 2007. We used the hydrologic and hydraulic data to construct detailed 2-D hydrodynamic models for three reference condition: historic (circa 1890), pre-chevron, and post-chevron channel conditions. These models documented changes in depths and flow dynamics for a wide range of in-channel discharges. Depth-velocity habitat classes were used to assess change in physical-aquatic habitat patches and spatial statistical tools in order to evaluate the reach-scale habitat patch diversity. Comparisons of pre- and post-chevron conditions revealed increases in deep to very deep (>3.0 m) areas of slow moving (3.0 m], low velocity [<0.6 m/s]). Chevron construction also created some (0.8-3.8 ha) shallow-water habitat (0-1.5 m depth with a 0-0.6 m/s velocity) for flows ⩽2.0 × MAF and contributed to an 8-35% increase in physical-aquatic-habitat diversity compared to pre-chevron channel conditions. However, modeling of the historic reference condition (less engineered channel, circa 1890) revealed that the historical physical-aquatic-habitat mosaic consisted of a wider and shallower channel with: 45-390% more shallow-water habitat (2.4-11.0 ha) and 22-83% more physical-aquatic-habitat diversity, but little over

  19. Evidence for Upward Flow of Saline Water from Depth into the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer in Southeastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, D.; Paul, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater salinization is occurring in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial (MRVA) aquifer in southeastern Arkansas (SE AR). Water samples from the MRVA aquifer in Chicot and Desha counties have yielded elevated Cl-concentrations with some as high as 1,639 mg/L. Considering that the MRVA aquifer is the principle source of irrigation water for the agricultural economy of SE AR, salinization needs to be addressed to ensure the sustainability of crop, groundwater, and soil resources in the area. The origin of elevated salinity in MRVA aquifer was investigated using spatial and factor analysis of historical water quality data, and sampling and tracer analysis of groundwater from irrigation, municipal, and flowing industrial wells in SE AR. Spatial analysis of Cl- data in relation to soil type, geomorphic features and sand-blow density indicate that the Cl- anomalies are more closely related to the sand-blow density than soil data, suggesting an underlying tectonic control for the distribution of salinity. Factor analysis of historical geochemical data from the MRVA and underlying Sparta aquifer shows dilute and saline groups, with saline groups weighted positively with Cl- or Na+ and Cl-. Tracer data suggest a component of evaporatively evolved crustal water of pre-modern age has mixed with younger, fresher meteoric sources in SE AR to create the saline conditions in the MRVA aquifer. Stable hydrogen and oxygen values of waters sampled from the Tertiary Sparta and MRVA aquifers deviate from the global and local meteoric water lines along an evaporative trend (slope=4.4) and mixing line with Eocene Wilcox Group groundwaters. Ca2+ and Cl- contents vary with Br- along mixing trends between dilute MRVA water and Jurassic Smackover Formation pore fluids in southern AR. Increasing Cl- content with C-14 age in MRVA aquifer groundwater suggests that the older waters are more saline. Helium isotope ratios decrease with He gas content for more saline water, consistent with

  20. Runoff and leaching of metolachlor from Mississippi River alluvial soil during seasons of average and below-average rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Lloyd M; Appelboom, Timothy W; Fouss, James L

    2009-02-25

    The movement of the herbicide metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] via runoff and leaching from 0.21 ha plots planted to corn on Mississippi River alluvial soil (Commerce silt loam) was measured for a 6-year period, 1995-2000. The first three years received normal rainfall (30 year average); the second three years experienced reduced rainfall. The 4-month periods prior to application plus the following 4 months after application were characterized by 1039 +/- 148 mm of rainfall for 1995-1997 and by 674 +/- 108 mm for 1998-2000. During the normal rainfall years 216 +/- 150 mm of runoff occurred during the study seasons (4 months following herbicide application), accompanied by 76.9 +/- 38.9 mm of leachate. For the low-rainfall years these amounts were 16.2 +/- 18.2 mm of runoff (92% less than the normal years) and 45.1 +/- 25.5 mm of leachate (41% less than the normal seasons). Runoff of metolachlor during the normal-rainfall seasons was 4.5-6.1% of application, whereas leaching was 0.10-0.18%. For the below-normal periods, these losses were 0.07-0.37% of application in runoff and 0.22-0.27% in leachate. When averages over the three normal and the three less-than-normal seasons were taken, a 35% reduction in rainfall was characterized by a 97% reduction in runoff loss and a 71% increase in leachate loss of metolachlor on a percent of application basis. The data indicate an increase in preferential flow in the leaching movement of metolachlor from the surface soil layer during the reduced rainfall periods. Even with increased preferential flow through the soil during the below-average rainfall seasons, leachate loss (percent of application) of the herbicide remained below 0.3%. Compared to the average rainfall seasons of 1995-1997, the below-normal seasons of 1998-2000 were characterized by a 79% reduction in total runoff and leachate flow and by a 93% reduction in corresponding metolachlor movement via these routes

  1. Bathymetric and velocimetric surveys at highway bridges crossing the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers near St. Louis, Missouri, May 23–27, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2017-09-26

    Bathymetric and velocimetric data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, near 13 bridges at 8 highway crossings of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers in the greater St. Louis, Missouri, area from May 23 to 27, 2016. A multibeam echosounder mapping system was used to obtain channel-bed elevations for river reaches ranging from 1,640 to 1,970 feet longitudinally and extending laterally across the active channel from bank to bank during low to moderate flood flow conditions. These bathymetric surveys indicate the channel conditions at the time of the surveys and provide characteristics of scour holes that may be useful in the development of predictive guidelines or equations for scour holes. These data also may be useful to the Missouri Department of Transportation as a low to moderate flood flow comparison to help assess the bridges for stability and integrity issues with respect to bridge scour during floods.Bathymetric data were collected around every pier that was in water, except those at the edge of water, and scour holes were observed at most surveyed piers. The observed scour holes at the surveyed bridges were examined with respect to shape and depth.The frontal slope values determined for scour holes observed in the current (2016) study generally are similar to recommended values in the literature and to values determined for scour holes in previous bathymetric surveys. Several of the structures had piers that were skewed to primary approach flow, as indicated by the scour hole being longer on the side of the pier with impinging flow, and some amount of deposition on the leeward side, as typically has been observed at piers skewed to approach flow; however, at most skewed piers in the current (2016) study, the scour hole was deeper on the leeward side of the pier. At most of these piers, the angled approach flow was the result of a deflection or contraction of flow caused by a spur dike

  2. Increasing Mississippi river discharge throughout the twenty-first century influenced by changes in climate, land use and atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, B.; Tian, H.; Ren, W.; Yang, J.; Yang, Q.; He, R.; Cai, W. J.; Lohrenz, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that changes in temperature and precipitation (hereafter climate change) would influence river discharge, but the relative importance of climate change, land use, and elevated atmospheric CO2 have not yet been fully investigated. Here we examined how river discharge in the Mississippi River basin in the 21st century might be influenced by these factors using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model driven by atmospheric CO2, downscaled GCMs climate and land use scenarios. Our results suggest that river discharge would be substantially enhanced (10.7-59.8%) by the 2090s compared to the recent decade (2000s), though large discrepancies exist among different climate, atmospheric CO2, and land use change scenarios. Our factorial analyses further indicate that the combined effects of land use change and human-induced atmospheric CO2 elevation on river discharge would outweigh climate change effect under the high emission scenario (A2) of Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change. Our study offers the first attempt to project potential changes in river discharge in response to multiple future environmental changes. It demonstrates the importance of land use change and atmospheric CO2 concentrations in projecting future changes in hydrologic processes. The projected increase river discharge implies that riverine fluxes of carbon, nutrients and pesticide from the MRB to the coastal regions would increase in the future, and thus may influence the states of ocean acidification and hypoxia and deteriorate ocean water quality. Further efforts will also be needed to account for additional environmental factors (such as nitrogen deposition, tropospheric ozone pollution, dam construction, etc.) in projecting changes in the hydrological cycle.

  3. Occurence of the Quagga Mussel Dreissena bugensis and the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorha in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript reports on a range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel in the Great Rivers of the Upper Missippi River Basin. This research will be of interest to great river ecologists and to invasive species specialists.

  4. Market Anatomy of a Drought: Modeling Barge and Corn Market Adaptation to Reduced Rainfall and Low Mississippi River Water Levels During the 2012 Midwestern U.S. Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B.; Characklis, G. W.; Thurman, W. N.

    2015-12-01

    In mid 2012, a severe drought swept across the Midwest, the heartland of corn production in the U.S. When the drought persisted into late Fall, corn markets were affected in two distinct ways: (1) reduced rainfall led to projected and actual corn yields that were lower than expected and (2) navigation restrictions, a result of low water levels on the Mississippi River, disrupted barge transportation, the most common and inexpensive mode for moving corn to many markets. Both (1) and (2) led to significant financial losses, but due to the complexity of the economic system and the coincidence of two different market impacts, the size of the role that low water levels played wass unclear. This is important, as losses related to low water levels are used to justify substantial investments in dredging activities on the Mississippi River. An "engineering" model of the system, suggests that low water levels should drive large increases in barge and corn prices, while some econometric models suggest that water levels explain very little of the changes in barge rates and corn prices. Employing a model that integrates both the engineering and economic elements of the system indicates that corn prices and barge rates during the drought display spatial and temporal behavior that is difficult to explain using either the engineering or econometric models alone. This integrated model accounts for geographic and temporal variations in drought impacts and identifies unique market responses to four different sets of conditions over the drought's length. Results illustrate that corn and barge price responses during the drought were a product of comingled, but distinct, reactions to both supply changes and navigation disruptions. Results also provide a more structured description of how the economic system that governs corn allocation interacts with the Mississippi River system during drought. As both public and private parties discuss potential managerial or infrastructural methods

  5. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  6. Discharge controls on the sediment and dissolved nutrient transport flux of the lowermost Mississippi River: Implications for export to the ocean and for delta restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Mead A.; Pratt, Thad C.

    2017-12-01

    Lagrangian longitudinal surveys and fixed station data are utilized from the lowermost Mississippi River reach in Louisiana at high and low discharge in 2012-2013 to examine the changing stream power, sediment transport capacity, and nitrate conveyance in this backwater reach of the river. Nitrate appears to remain conservative through the backwater reach at higher discharges (>15,000 m3/s), thus, nitrate levels supplied from the catchment are those exported to the Gulf of Mexico, fueling coastal hypoxia. At lower discharges, interaction with fine sediments and organic matter stored on the bed due to estuarine and tidal processes, likely elevates nitrate levels prior to entering the Gulf: a further 1-2 week long spike in nitrate concentrations is associated with the remobilization of this sediments during the rising discharge phase of the Mississippi. Backwater characteristics are clearly observed in the study reach starting at river kilometer 703 (Vicksburg) in both longitudinal study periods. Stream power at the lowermost station is only 16% of that at Vicksburg in the high discharge survey, and 0.6% at low flow. The high-to-low discharge study differential in unit stream power at a station increases between Vicksburg and the lowermost station from a factor of 3 to 47-50 times. At high discharge, ∼30% of this energy loss can be ascribed to the removal of water to the Atchafalaya at Old River Control. Suspended sediment flux decreases downstream in the studied reach in both studies: the lowermost station has 75% of the flux at Vicksburg in the high discharge study, and 0.9% in the low discharge study. The high discharge values, given that this study was conducted during the highest rising hydrograph of the water year, are augmented by sediment resuspended from the bed that was deposited in the previous low discharge phase. Examination of this first detailed field observation studies of the backwater phenomenon in a major river, shows that observed suspended

  7. Sneaky Submarine Landslides, and how to Quantify them: A Case Study from the Mississippi River Delta Front Contrasting Geophysical and Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obelcz, J.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Wood, W. T.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Maloney, J. M.; Miner, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    The highly publicized subsidence and decline of the Mississippi River Delta Front's (MRDF) subaerial section has recently precipitated studies of the subaqueous MRDF to assess whether it too is subsiding and regressing landward. These studies have largely focused on the area offshore the most active current distributary of the Mississippi River, Southwest Pass, during a decade (post-Hurricane Rita 2005-2014) of relatively quiescent Gulf of Mexico hurricane activity. Utilizing repeat swath bathymetric surveys, it was determined that submarine landslides not associated with major (category ≥ 3) passage are important drivers of downslope sediment transport on the MRDF. Volumetrically, sediment flux downslope without major hurricane influence is approximately half that during a given hurricane-influenced year (5.5 x 105 and 1.1 x 106 m3, respectively). This finding is notable and warrants comparison with other settings to assess the global impact on the source-to-sink budget of small but frequent landslides, but the resource-intensive repeat geophysical surveys required make it a prohibitive option at the margin and global scale. One option to quantify small-scale submarine slope failures while reducing required data acquisition is to utilize machine learning algorithms (MLAs) to intelligently estimate the occurrence and magnitude of submarine landslides based on correlated physical and geological parameters. Here, the MRDF volumetric changes described above are parsed into training and validation data, and physical and geological parameters associated with slope failure (such as porosity, steep slopes, high rates of sedimentation, and presence of gas in pore water) known from prior coring and seafloor mapping expeditions serve as potential predictive variables. The resulting submarine landslide spatial distribution and magnitude maps output by the MLAs are compared to those obtained through geophysical surveys, providing a proof of concept that machine learning can

  8. Paleoreconstruction of organic carbon inputs to an oxbow lake in the Mississippi River watershed: Effects of dam construction and land use change on regional inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.; Galy, Valier; Rosenheim, Brad E.; Shields, Michael; Cui, Xingqian; Van Metre, Peter

    2015-10-01

    We use a dated sediment core from Lake Whittington (USA) in the lower Mississippi River to reconstruct linkages in the carbon cycling and fluvial sediment dynamics over the past 80 years. Organic carbon (OC) sources were characterized using bulk (δ13C, ramped pyrolysis-oxidation (PyrOx) 14C, δ15N, and TN:OC ratios) and compound-specific (lignin phenols and fatty acids, including δ13C and 14C of the fatty acids) analyses. Damming of the Missouri River in the 1950s, other hydrological modifications to the river, and soil conservation measures resulted in reduced net OC export, in spite of increasing OC concentrations. Decreasing δ13C values coincided with increases in δ15N, TN:OC ratios, long-chain fatty acids, and lignin-phenol concentrations, suggesting increased inputs of soil-derived OC dominated by C3 vegetation, mainly resulting from changes in farming practices and crop distribution. However, ramped PyrOx 14C showed no discernible differences downcore in thermochemical stability, indicating a limited impact on soil OC turnover.

  9. Paleoreconstruction of organic carbon inputs to an oxbow lake in the Mississippi River watershed: Effects of dam construction and land use change on regional inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.; Galy, Valier; Rosenheim, Brad E.; Shields, Michael; Cui, Xingquan; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    We use a dated sediment core from Lake Whittington (USA) in the lower Mississippi River to reconstruct linkages in the carbon cycling and fluvial sediment dynamics over the past 80 years. Organic carbon (OC) sources were characterized using bulk (δ13C, ramped pyrolysis-oxidation (PyrOx) 14C, δ15N, and TN:OC ratios) and compound-specific (lignin phenols and fatty acids, including δ13C and 14C of the fatty acids) analyses. Damming of the Missouri River in the 1950s, other hydrological modifications to the river, and soil conservation measures resulted in reduced net OC export, in spite of increasing OC concentrations. Decreasing δ13C values coincided with increases in δ15N, TN:OC ratios, long-chain fatty acids, and lignin-phenol concentrations, suggesting increased inputs of soil-derived OC dominated by C3 vegetation, mainly resulting from changes in farming practices and crop distribution. However, ramped PyrOx 14C showed no discernible differences downcore in thermochemical stability, indicating a limited impact on soil OC turnover.

  10. Silky Sunflowers & Swirly Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In this article, second-graders create a sunflower drawing using pastel techniques that produce similar effects to Vincent van Gogh's brushstrokes. They also learn how layering colors and using white to lighten colors creates depth in their flowers.

  11. The 129iodine bomb pulse recorded in Mississippi River Delta sediments: results from isotopes of I, Pu, Cs, Pb, and C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, S. D.; Santschi, P. H.; Moran, J. E.; Sharma, P.

    2000-03-01

    129I ( t1/2 = 1.56 × 10 7 yr) has both natural as well as anthropogenic sources. Anthropogenic sources from nuclear reprocessing discharges and bomb test fallout have completely overwhelmed the natural signal on the surface of the earth in the last 50 years. However, the transfer functions in and out of environmental compartments are not well known due to temporal variations in the sources of 129I and to a lack of knowledge regarding the forms of iodine. From a vertical profile of 129I/ 127I ratios in sediments located in the Mississippi Delta region in approximately 60 meters water depth, the 129I input function to this region was reconstructed. Dates in the core were assigned based on the plutonium peak at 20 cm depth (assumed to have been deposited in 1963) and the excess 210Pb profile in the same depth interval, and below that, based on the steadily decreasing 240Pu/ 239Pu ratios from a ratio of 0.18 at 22 cm to 0.05 at 57 cm depth, the 1953 horizon. These low 240Pu/ 239Pu values are attributed to low yield, close-in, tropospherically transported bomb fallout produced from the Nevada test site in the early 1950s, which had a value of about 0.035, and strongly suggest a terrestrial source for Pu isotopes. 129I/ 127I ratios increased from 2 × 10 -10 at 3 cm to 4 × 10 -10 at 20 cm, and from there decreased monotonously to pre-anthropogenic values at 53 cm and below. 129I concentrations ranged from 8-13 × 10 6 atoms/g in the top 20 cm, and decreased to values of less than 1 × 10 6 atoms/g below 50 cm. Atom ratios of 129I/ 137Cs, decay corrected to 1962, the year of maximum radionuclide production, are about 0.3, very close to the production ratios of about 0.2 during atomic bomb tests. This evidence, combined with other observations, strongly suggests that 129I in Mississippi River Delta sediments originates from atomic bomb fallout eroded from soils of the Mississippi River drainage basin, with little alteration of the isotopic ratios during transport from

  12. Predicting the impacts of Mississippi River diversions and sea-level rise on spatial patterns of eastern oyster growth rate and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Qin; La Peyre, Megan K.; Hu, Kelin; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2017-01-01

    There remains much debate regarding the perceived tradeoffs of using freshwater and sediment diversions for coastal restoration in terms of balancing the need for wetland restoration versus preserving eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) production. Further complicating the issue, climate change-induced sea-level rise (SLR) and land subsidence are also expected to affect estuarine water quality. In this study, we developed a process-based numerical modeling system that couples hydrodynamic, water quality, and oyster population dynamics. We selected Breton Sound Estuary (BSE) (∼2740 km2) in the eastern Mississippi River Deltaic Plain since it is home to several of the largest public oyster seed grounds and private leases for the Gulf coast. The coupled oyster population model was calibrated and validated against field observed oyster growth data. We predicted the responses of oyster population in BSE to small- (142 m3 s−1) and large-scale (7080 m3 s−1) river diversions at the Caernarvon Freshwater Diversion structure planned in the 2012 Coastal Master Plan (Louisiana) under low (0.38 m) and high (1.44 m) relative sea-level rise (RSLR = eustatic SLR + subsidence) compared to a baseline condition (Year 2009). Model results showed that the large-scale diversion had a stronger negative impact on oyster population dynamics via freshening of the entire estuary, resulting in reduced oyster growth rate and production than RSLR. Under the large-scale diversion, areas with optimal oyster growth rates (>15 mg ash-free dry weight (AFDW) oyster−1 wk−1) and production (>500 g AFDW m−2 yr−1) would shift seaward to the southeastern edge of the estuary, turning the estuary into a very low oyster production system. RSLR however played a greater role than the small-scale diversion on the magnitude and spatial pattern of oyster growth rate and production. RSLR would result in an overall estuary-wide decrease in oyster growth rate and production as a

  13. Overview of the evolution of clay mineralogy in the Gulf of Mexico: implications for regional climate and drainage history of the Mississippi and Brazos-Trinity Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adatte, T.; John, C. M.; Flemings, P. B.; Behrmann, J.

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we present the overview and preliminary results of the analysis of clay minerals in two mini basins drilled during IODP Expedition 308. The goal of our project is to explore the vertical and temporal trends in clay mineralogy in the Ursa Basin and the Brazos-Trinity basin #4. The Brazos-Trinity basin was the sink for sands and clays carried by the Brazos and Trinity Rivers, while the Ursa basin was the sink for sediments carried by the Mississippi river. Reconstructing clay minerals (phyllosilicates turbidity current deposition (controlled mainly by sea-level changes and thus glacio-eustasy). Finally, a major focusing point of Expedition 308 was sediment physical properties in an overpressured basin. Because each clay mineral specie has a specific average grain sizes, physical properties and cation exchange capacity, the clay mineral composition of the sediment investigated here (dominated by clay-sized particles) may partly control how these sediments react to changes in pressure and temperature. Thus, clay mineral data could contribute to our understanding of the physical properties of the sediments in overpressured basins, and collaborations with geotechnical scientist are planned.

  14. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  15. Sunflowers to decontaminate water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Sunflowers offer a new method of decontamination. 55 kilograms (dry weight) of sunflowers are able to decontaminate all the cesium 137 and the strontium 90 polluting a pond situated at one kilometer from Tchernobyl. These flowers are able to decrease 95% in 24 hours the uranium concentration in the american site of Ashtabula in Ohio getting this water from 350 parts by milliards to less than 5 parts by milliards. The radioactivity should stocked in the roots at concentrations 5 000 to 10 000 times higher than water concentration. The cost is cheaper than micro filtration and precipitation (2-6 dollars for 4 000 liters of water against 80 dollars for others technologies). when sunflowers are radioactive they can be reduced in dust and vitrified and stocked as solid radioactive wastes. (N.C.)

  16. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Rice, Clifford P.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Oskouie, Ali K.

    2015-01-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  17. Temporal changes in spatial patterns of submersed macrophytes in two impounded reaches of the Upper Mississippi River, USA, 1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, Nathan R.; Yin, Yao

    2011-01-01

    We examined temporal changes in spatial patterns of submersed aquatic macrophytes during a recent three-fold increase in macrophyte abundance and in response to the cumulative effects of management actions (island construction and water level management) and changes in regional environmental conditions (turbidity) in two navigation pools of the Upper Mississippi River, Pool 8 (managed) and Pool 13 (unmanaged). We used cross-correlograms to quantify changes in the degree and range of spatial correlation between submersed macrophytes and depth across the impounded portions of the two pools from 1998-2009. Along with increases in abundance, we observed gradual expansion of submersed macrophytes into deeper water in both pools. However, we detected no temporal change in spatial patterns in Pool 13, where the range of spatial correlation was ~ 1500-2500 m in length in the downriver direction and ~ 500-1000 m in length in the crossriver direction. We initially detected similar ranges of spatial correlation in Pool 8, but over time the range of correlation in the cross river direction increased from ~ 500 m in 1998 to ~ 2000 m by 2009. Thus, the expansion of submersed macrophytes into deeper water areas in Pool 8 appears to have occurred in the cross-river direction and led to increases in patch size and a more symmetrical patch configuration. Hence, very similar temporal changes in submersed macrophyte abundance corresponded with different diffusion dynamics and spatial patterns in the two pools. We hypothesize that management actions altered spatial patterns of depth, water flow and/or wind fetch and led to the differences in spatial patterns reported here.

  18. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E; Rice, Clifford P; Minarik, Thomas A; Oskouie, Ali K

    2015-06-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  19. Concentrations, loads, and yields of select constituents from major tributaries of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers in Iowa, water years 2004-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Jessica D.

    2012-01-01

    Excess nutrients, suspended-sediment loads, and the presence of pesticides in Iowa rivers can have deleterious effects on water quality in State streams, downstream major rivers, and the Gulf of Mexico. Fertilizer and pesticides are used to support crop growth on Iowa's highly productive agricultural landscape and for household and commercial lawns and gardens. Water quality was characterized near the mouths of 10 major Iowa tributaries to the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers from March 2004 through September 2008. Stream loads were calculated for select ions, nutrients, and sediment using approximately monthly samples, and samples from storm and snowmelt events. Water-quality samples collected using standard streamflow-integrated protocols were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Statistical data summaries of sample data used parametric and nonparametric techniques to address potential bias related to censored data and multiple levels of censoring of data below analytical detection limits. Constituent stream loads were computed using standard pre-defined models in S-LOADEST that include streamflow and time terms plus additional terms for streamflow variability and streamflow anomalies. Streamflow variability terms describe the difference in streamflow from recent average conditions, whereas streamflow anomaly terms account for deviations from average conditions from long- to short-term sequentially. Streamflow variability or anomaly terms were included in 44 of 80 site/constituent individual models, demonstrating the usefulness of these terms in increasing accuracy of the load estimates. Constituent concentrations in Iowa streams exhibit streamflow, seasonal, and spatial patterns related to the landform and climate gradients across the studied basins. The streamflow-concentration relation indicated dilution for ions such as chloride and sulfate. Other constituent concentrations, such as dissolved organic carbon and

  20. Sunflower seed allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  1. Effects of reducing nutrient loads to surface waters within the Mississippi River Basin and the Gulf of Mexico: Topic 4 Report for the Integrated Assessment on Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Brezonik, Patrick L.; Bierman, Jr., Victor J.; Alexander , Richard; Anderson, James; Barko, John; Dortch, Mark; Hatch, Lorin; Hitchcock , Gary L.; Keeney, Dennis; Mulla, David; Smith, Val; Walker, Clive; Whitledge, Terry; Wiseman, Jr., William J.

    1999-01-01

    The overall goal of this assessment was to evaluate the effects of nutrient-source reductions that may be implemented in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) to reduce the problem of low oxygen conditions (hypoxia) in the nearshore Gulf of Mexico. Such source reductions would affect the quality of surface waters—streams, rivers, and reservoirs—in the drainage basin itself, as well as nearshore Gulf waters. The task group’s work was divided into addressing the effects of nutrient-source reduction...

  2. Bathymetric and Velocimetric Survey and Assessment of Habitat for Pallid Sturgeon on the Mississippi River in the Vicinity of the Proposed Interstate 70 Bridge at St. Louis, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    A bathymetric and velocimetry survey was conducted on the Mississippi River in the vicinity of a proposed new bridge for Interstate 70 at St. Louis, Missouri. A multibeam echo sounder mapping system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler were used to obtain channel-bed elevations and vertically averaged and near-bed velocities for a 3,545-foot (1,080-meter) long reach of the Mississippi River approximately 1,935 feet (590 meters) wide from the Illinois to Missouri banks. Data from the 2009 survey were used to determine the conditions of the benthic habitat in the vicinity of the proposed Interstate 70 bridge. The channel-bed elevations ranged from approximately 346 feet (105.46 meters) to 370 feet (112.78 meters) above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 in a majority of the channel except for the channel banks. Large dune features up to 12.5 feet (3.81 meters) high were present in the middle of the channel, and numerous smaller dunes and many ripples as smaller features were superimposed on the larger dunes. However, it is uncertain if the large dune features present in mid-channel are long-term features or an artifact of the seasonal flooding on the Mississippi River. A substantial scour depression was present on the right descending bank (Missouri side) near the downstream end of the study area, as well as other smaller scour holes near the instream barge mooring structures on the Missouri bank. The vertically averaged velocities acquired with the acoustic Doppler current profiler ranged from approximately 2 feet per second (0.61 meters per second) along the channel margins to approximately 7.0 feet per second (2.13 meters per second) in the main channel, with an average velocity of 5.5 feet per second (1.68 meters per second) in mid-channel. The orientation of the vertically averaged velocity vectors showed flow crossing from the Illinois bank to the Missouri bank from upstream to downstream in the study area, which was confirmed by the orientation of

  3. 76 FR 336 - Notice of NEPA Public Scoping Meeting Information for the Great Lakes and Mississippi River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... site: Use the Web comment function found at http://www.glmris.anl.gov ; NEPA Scoping Meeting: USACE is... Street, Ypsilanti, MI. 8. Tuesday, February 8, 2011: National Great Rivers Museum (Adjacent to Melvin...

  4. Upper Mississippi River Land Use Allocation Plan. Master Plan for Public Use Development and Resource Management. Parts 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    most common understo wood nettle , poison ivy, wild grape, Dominant overstory species in better-di BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES are American elm, silver maple...aquatic vegetation associated with er of commonness. The most backwater areas are examples of such low-capability es are woodbine, wood nettle , class...and of aquatic invertebrates. Benthic organisms, partic- River) in the river’s side chani ularly aquatic insects and freshwater mussels, are border

  5. Identify temporal trend of air temperature and its impact on forest stream flow in Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley using wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Parajuli, Prem B; Li, Yide; Leininger, Theodor D; Feng, Gary

    2017-08-01

    Characterization of stream flow is essential to water resource management, water supply planning, environmental protection, and ecological restoration; while air temperature variation due to climate change can exacerbate stream flow and add instability to the flow. In this study, the wavelet analysis technique was employed to identify temporal trend of air temperature and its impact upon forest stream flows in Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMRAV). Four surface water monitoring stations, which locate near the headwater areas with very few land use disturbances and the long-term data records (60-90 years) in the LMRAV, were selected to obtain stream discharge and air temperature data. The wavelet analysis showed that air temperature had an increasing temporal trend around its mean value during the past several decades in the LMRAV, whereas stream flow had a decreasing temporal trend around its average value at the same time period in the same region. Results of this study demonstrated that the climate in the LMRAV did get warmer as time elapsed and the streams were drier as a result of warmer air temperature. This study further revealed that the best way to estimate the temporal trends of air temperature and stream flow was to perform the wavelet transformation around their mean values. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Streamflow in the upper Mississippi river basin as simulated by SWAT driven by 20{sup th} century contemporary results of global climate models and NARCCAP regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takle, Eugene S.; Jha, Manoj; Lu, Er; Arritt, Raymond W.; Gutowski, William J. [Iowa State Univ. Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    We use Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) when driven by observations and results of climate models to evaluate hydrological quantities, including streamflow, in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) for 1981-2003 in comparison to observed streamflow. Daily meteorological conditions used as input to SWAT are taken from (1) observations at weather stations in the basin, (2) daily meteorological conditions simulated by a collection of regional climate models (RCMs) driven by reanalysis boundary conditions, and (3) daily meteorological conditions simulated by a collection of global climate models (GCMs). Regional models used are those whose data are archived by the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Results show that regional models correctly simulate the seasonal cycle of precipitation, temperature, and streamflow within the basin. Regional models also capture interannual extremes represented by the flood of 1993 and the dry conditions of 2000. The ensemble means of both the GCM-driven and RCM-driven simulations by SWAT capture both the timing and amplitude of the seasonal cycle of streamflow with neither demonstrating significant superiority at the basin level. (orig.)

  7. Temporal characteristics of coherent flow structures generated over alluvial sand dunes, Mississippi River, revealed by acoustic doppler current profiling and multibeam echo sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, John A.; Oberg, Kevin A.; Best, Jim L.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Simmons, S. M.; Johnson, K.K.; Malzone, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the flow in the lee of a large sand dune located at the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, USA. Stationary profiles collected from an anchored boat using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) were georeferenced with data from a real-time kinematic differential global positioning system. A multibeam echo sounder was used to map the bathymetry of the confluence and provided a morphological context for the ADCP measurements. The flow in the lee of a low-angle dune shows good correspondence with current conceptual models of flow over dunes. As expected, quadrant 2 events (upwellings of low-momentum fluid) are associated with high backscatter intensity. Turbulent events generated in the lower lee of a dune near the bed are associated with periods of vortex shedding and wake flapping. Remnant coherent structures that advect over the lower lee of the dune in the upper portion of the water column, have mostly dissipated and contribute little to turbulence intensities. The turbulent events that occupy most of the water column in the upper lee of the dune are associated with periods of wake flapping.

  8. Spatial and temporal relationships between the invasive snail Bithynia tentaculata and submersed aquatic vegetation in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Alicia M.; DeJager, Nathan R.; Haro, Roger J.; Sandland, Greg J.

    2017-01-01

    Bithynia tentaculata is an invasive snail that was first reported in Lake Michigan in 1871 and has since spread throughout a number of freshwater systems of the USA. This invasion has been extremely problematic in the Upper Mississippi River as the snails serve as intermediate hosts for several trematode parasites that have been associated with waterfowl mortality in the region. This study was designed to assess the abundance and distribution of B. tentaculata relative to submersed aquatic vegetation as macrophytes provide important nesting and food resources for migrating waterfowl. Temporal changes in both vegetation and snail densities were compared between 2007 and 2015. Between these years, B. tentaculata densities have nearly quadrupled despite minor changes in vegetation abundance, distribution and composition. Understanding the spatial distribution of B. tentaculata in relation to other habitat features, including submersed vegetation, and quantifying any further changes in the abundance and distribution of B. tentaculata over time will be important for better identifying areas of risk for disease transmission to waterfowl.

  9. Export of Terrestrially-Derived Organic Matter from the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico Sediments as Determined by Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.; Ware, S. A.; Vaughn, D.; Waggoner, D. C.; Bianchi, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment samples extending from the main channel of the Mississippi River to edge of the continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico were extracted to recover humic acids from the organic matter and subjected to molecular level characterization by electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS). The data show that sedimentary organic matter at the river mouth contains humic substances with a predominantly terrestrial signature resembling those obtained from soils. Condensed aromatic molecules and carboxyl rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM) typify the major structures observed. The CRAM-like molecules persist progressing seaward into the Gulf while the condensed aromatic molecules diminish in relative abundance. This trend is characteristic of traditional mixing of allochthonous terrestrial with autochthonous source materials, consistent with published isotope and lignin phenol biomarker data. Alternatively, the trend could also be explained by oxidative degradation of mainly terrestrial organic matter whereby the condensed aromatic molecules would be selectively oxidized. CRAM molecules would then become selectively enriched as one progresses from the channel to the continental shelf. Laboratory studies show that aromatic molecules (like those in lignin) subjected to oxidative degradation mainly by hydroxyl radical attack, either biologically or non-biologically, undergo molecular rearrangement via ring-opening to form reactive species. These can interact with nucleophilic molecules such as peptides and sulfur-containing species and/or can undergo cycloaddition reactions to produce CRAM-like species. This latter explanation suggests that the main source of organic matter in this coastal depocenter is terrestrial and that autochthonous organic matter contributes little to sedimentary organic matter.

  10. [Effects of different fertilization measures on N2O emission in oil sunflower field in irrigation area of upper Yellow River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Ji; Liu, Ru-liang; Yang, Zheng-li; Zhang, Ai-ping

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural soil has become the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N20). To estimate the impacts of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on N20 emission in a typical winter wheat-oil sunflower cropping system in the Ningxia irrigation area, we measured N20 fluxes using the static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method and monitored the seasonal dynamics of related factors. Our results showed that nitrogen addition in the previous crop field significantly stimulated N2O emissions during the following oil-sunflower cultivation, and the mean fluxes of N300-OM, N240-OM1/2, N300 and N240 were (34.16 ± 9.72), (39.69 ±10.70), (27.75 ±9.57) and (26.30 ± 8.52) µg . m-2 . h-1, respectively, which were 4.09, 4.75, 3.32 and 3.15 times of the control groups. The total cumulative N2O emissions of fertilizer treatments in growing season was as high as 796.7 to 1242.5 g . hm-2, which was 2.99 to 4.67 times of the control groups. During the growing season, the rates of N2O emission in each month organic and inorganic fertlizers combined treatments were similar at high levels. N2O emission in chemical fertilizer treatments gradually decreased, and the main period of N2O emission occurred at the beginning of growing season. Taking July for example, N2O emission accounted for 41.3% to 41. 8% of total cumulative amount. The amounts of N20 emission under organic and inorganic fertilizers combined treatments were significantly higher than under chemical fertilizer treatments. The N2O emissions were not significantly different between conventional and optimized applications of nitrogen fertilizer under the same fertilizing method, either between N300-OM and N240-OM1/2, or between N300 and N240. On account of the drought, N2O emission in each treatment was mainly affected by soil moisture. N2O emission had a significant positive correlation with soil ammonium nitrogen content under combined applications of organic and inorganic

  11. Water quality and quantity in the context of large-scale cellulosic biofuel production in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLoocke, A.; Bernacchi, C. J.; Twine, T. E.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Numerous socio-economic and environmental pressures have driven the need to increase domestic renewable energy production in the Midwest. The primary attempt at addressing this need has been to use maize; however, the leaching of residual nitrate from maize fertilizer into runoff drives the formation of the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic or "Dead" zone which can have significant environmental impacts on the marine ecosystems. As a result of the threat to benthic organisms and fisheries in this region, The Mississippi Basin/Gulf of Mexico Task Force has set in place goals to reduce the size of the hypoxic zone from the current size of ~ 20,000 km2 to nitrate (DIN) export would have to decrease by 30 to 55% to meet this goal. An alternative option to meet the renewable energy needs while reducing the environmental impacts associated with DIN export is to produce high-yielding, low fertilizer input perennial grasses such as switchgrass and miscanthus. Miscanthus and switchgrass have been shown to greatly reduce nitrate leaching at the plot scale, even during the establishment phase. This reduction in leaching is attributed to the perennial nature and the efficient recycling of nutrients via nutrient translocation. While these feedstocks are able to achieve higher productivity than maize grain with fewer inputs, they require more water, presenting the potential for environmental impacts on regional hydrologic cycle, including reductions in streamflow. The goal of this research is to determine the change in streamflow in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) and the export of nitrogen from fertilizer to the Gulf of Mexico. To address this goal, we adapted a vegetation model capable of simulating the biogeochemistry of current crops as well as miscanthus and switchgrass, the Integrated Biosphere Simulator - agricultural version (Agro-IBIS) and coupled it with a hydrology model capable of simulating streamflow and nitrogen export, the Terrestrial Hydrology Model with

  12. IBRD sonar scour monitoring project : real-time river channel-bed monitoring at the Chariton and Mississippi Rivers in Missouri, 2007-09, final report, January 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Scour and depositional responses to hydrologic events have been important to the scientific community studying sediment transport as well as potential effects on bridges and other hydraulic structures within riverine systems. A river channel-bed moni...

  13. Limnological Monitoring on the Upper Mississippi River System, 1993-1996: Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Havana Field Station

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soballe, David

    2002-01-01

    .... The flood in spring 1995 receded sooner than in 1993. However, the 137 m (450.66 feet) peak on May 31, 1995, was the third highest river elevation recorded at Havana, Illinois. Low dissolved oxygen levels in the main channel were also notable in 1993-1996 with concentrations at or below 5 mg/L observed each year.

  14. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  15. Dragee product based on sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower kernel is rich in valuable nutritive compounds so it is suitable as a raw material for production of confectionery products. In this paper we evaluated the technological characteristics of the confectionery sunflower kernel with the aim of obtaining dragee products, and determining the final product quality and shelf life. The dragee product was obtained by panning sunflower kernel with savory powder mixture of spices in a dragee pan. The used sunflower seed has an even distribution of linear size and satisfactory dehulling characteristics. The savoury dragee product was in excellent category of sensory quality and showed stable colour and good shelf life in the period of three months.

  16. Dredging effects on selected nutrient concentrations and ecoenzymatic activity in two drainage ditch sediments in the lower Mississippi River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Moore

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural drainage ditches are conduits between production acreage and receiving aquatic systems. Often overlooked for their mitigation capabilities, agricultural drainage ditches provide an important role for nutrient transformation via microbial metabolism. Variations in ecoenzyme activities have been used to elucidate microbial metabolism and resource demand of microbial communities to better understand the relationship between altered nutrient ratios and microbial activity in aquatic ecosystems. Two agricultural drainage ditches, one in the northeast portion of the Arkansas Delta and the other in the lower Mississippi Delta, were monitored for a year. Sediment samples were collected prior to each ditch being dredged (cleaned, and subsequent post-dredging samples occurred as soon as access was available. Seasonal samples were then collected throughout a year to examine effects of dredging on selected nutrient concentrations and ecoenzymatic activity recovery in drainage ditch sediments. Phosphorus concentrations in sediments after dredging decreased 33–66%, depending on ditch and phosphorus extraction methodology. Additionally, ecoenzymatic activity was significantly decreased in most sediment samples after dredging. Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis activity, an estimate of total microbial activity, decreased 56–67% after dredging in one of the two ditches. Many sample sites also had significant phosphorus and ecoenzymatic activity differences between the post-dredge samples and the year-long follow-up samples. Results indicate microbial metabolism in dredged drainage ditches may take up to a year or more to recover to pre-dredged levels. Likewise, while sediment nutrient concentrations may be decreased through dredging and removal, runoff and erosion events over time tend to quickly replenish nutrient concentrations in replaced sediments. Understanding nutrient dynamics and microbial metabolism within agricultural drainage ditches is

  17. Deadly Sunflower Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2018-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure is usually very effective at removing hazardous millimeter-sized debris from distant orbits around asteroidsand other small solar system bodies (Hamilton and Burns 1992). Theprimary loss mechanism, driven by the azimuthal component of radiationpressure, is eccentricity growth followed by a forced collision withthe central body. One large class of orbits, however, neatly sidestepsthis fate. Orbits oriented nearly perpendicular to the solar directioncan maintain their face-on geometry, oscillating slowly around a stableequilibrium orbit. These orbits, designated sunflower orbits, arerelated to terminator orbits studied by spacecraft mission designers(Broschart etal. 2014).Destabilization of sunflower orbits occurs only for particles smallenough that radiation pressure is some tens of percent the strength ofthe central body's direct gravity. This greatly enhanced stability,which follows from the inability of radiation incident normal to theorbit to efficiently drive eccentricities, presents a threat tospacecraft missions, as numerous dangerous projectiles are potentiallyretained in orbit. We have investigated sunflower orbits insupport of the New Horizons, Aida, and Lucy missions and find thatthese orbits are stable for hazardous particle sizes at asteroids,comets, and Kuiper belt objects of differing dimensions. Weinvestigate the sources and sinks for debris that might populate suchorbits, estimate timescales and equilibrium populations, and willreport on our findings.

  18. Stages and Discharges of the Mississippi River and Tributaries and Other Watersheds in the New Orleans District for 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    SINNIN465 2 14 28 50 92 34 69 33 36 PINK SLUFF 35 37 0 v 41 so KAMA G4165MVILLS 3 4 45 48 Ir 49 MONROE. 4 $141ampowal Cxsf GENERAL LOCATION MAP N .,g...AND a4. .~.Tfz ~ ~ 9 N. f .".*-9*-.- . ..| 270 DAILY STAGES FOR 1979 CALCASIEU RIVER SALT WATER BARRIER CHANNEL AT LAKE CHARLES, LA. ( FLOY . W

  19. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, Upper and Lower St. Anthony Falls Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    occasionally with pines . barrens and aspen-oak),and Aspen-Oak Land: aspen, generally dense, but small in transition zones most places, with scattered...activities has led to a vegetational gradation from the extensive mixed pine -hardwood forests bejeweled with numerous lakes and streams in the northeast, to...occurs along the right bank from the Plymouth Avenue Bridge upstream nearly to the Burlington Northern Rail- , road Bridge next to the new West River

  20. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  1. Century-long increasing trend and variability of dissolved organic carbon export from the Mississippi River basin driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Tian, Hanqin; Cai, Wei-Jun; Lohrenz, Steven E.; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Huang, Wei-Jen; Yang, Jia; Tao, Bo; Pan, Shufen; He, Ruoying

    2016-09-01

    There has been considerable debate as to how natural forcing and anthropogenic activities alter the timing and magnitude of the delivery of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the coastal ocean, which has ramifications for the ocean carbon budget, land-ocean interactions, and coastal life. Here we present an analysis of DOC export from the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico during 1901-2010 as influenced by changes in climate, land use and management practices, atmospheric CO2, and nitrogen deposition, through the integration of observational data with a coupled hydrologic/biogeochemical land model. Model simulations show that DOC export in the 2000s increased more than 40% since the 1900s. For the recent three decades (1981-2010), however, our simulated DOC export did not show a significant increasing trend, which is consistent with observations by U.S. Geological Survey. Our factorial analyses suggest that land use and land cover change, including land management practices (LMPs: i.e., fertilization, irrigation, tillage, etc.), were the dominant contributors to the century-scale trend of rising total riverine DOC export, followed by changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen deposition, and climate. Decadal and interannual variations of DOC export were largely attributed to year-to-year climatic variability and extreme flooding events, which have been exacerbated by human activity. LMPs show incremental contributions to DOC increase since the 1960s, indicating the importance of sustainable agricultural practices in coping with future environmental changes such as extreme flooding events. Compared to the observational-based estimate, the modeled DOC export was 20% higher, while DOC concentrations were slightly lower. Further refinements in model structure and input data sets should enable reductions in uncertainties in our prediction of century-long trends in DOC.

  2. Estimation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya river plume regions using above-surface hyperspectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weining; Yu, Qian; Tian, Yong Q.; Chen, Robert F.; Gardner, G. Bernard

    2011-02-01

    A method for the inversion of hyperspectral remote sensing was developed to determine the absorption coefficient for chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya river plume regions and the northern Gulf of Mexico, where water types vary from Case 1 to turbid Case 2. Above-surface hyperspectral remote sensing data were measured by a ship-mounted spectroradiometer and then used to estimate CDOM. Simultaneously, water absorption and attenuation coefficients, CDOM and chlorophyll fluorescence, turbidities, and other related water properties were also measured at very high resolution (0.5-2 m) using in situ, underwater, and flow-through (shipboard, pumped) optical sensors. We separate ag, the absorption coefficient a of CDOM, from adg (a of CDOM and nonalgal particles) based on two absorption-backscattering relationships. The first is between ad (a of nonalgal particles) and bbp (total particulate backscattering coefficient), and the second is between ap (a of total particles) and bbp. These two relationships are referred as ad-based and ap-based methods, respectively. Consequently, based on Lee's quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA), we developed the so-called Extended Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA-E) to decompose adg, using both ad-based and ap-based methods. The absorption-backscattering relationships and the QAA-E were tested using synthetic and in situ data from the International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group (IOCCG) as well as our own field data. The results indicate the ad-based method is relatively better than the ap-based method. The accuracy of CDOM estimation is significantly improved by separating ag from adg (R2 = 0.81 and 0.65 for synthetic and in situ data, respectively). The sensitivities of the newly introduced coefficients were also analyzed to ensure QAA-E is robust.

  3. The 2017 Fertilizer Emissions Airborne Study (FEAST): Quantifying N2O emissions from croplands and fertilizer plants in the Mississippi River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, E. A.; Gvakharia, A.; Smith, M. L.; Conley, S.; Frauhammer, K.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrous Oxide (N2O) is a crucial atmospheric trace gas that drives 21st century stratospheric ozone depletion and substantively impacts climate. Anthropogenic emissions drive the global imbalance and annual growth of N2O, and the dominant anthropogenic source is fertilizer production and application, both of which have large uncertainties. In this presentation we will discuss the FEAST campaign, a study designed to demonstrate new approaches to quantify N2O emissions from fertilizer production and usage with aircraft measurements. In the FEAST campaign we deployed new instrumentation along with experienced flight sensors onboard the Scientific Aviation Mooney aircraft to make 40 hours of continuous 1Hz measurements of N2O, CO2, CO, H2O, CH4, O3, T, and winds. The Mississippi River Valley provided an optimal target as this location includes significant fertilizer production facilities as well as large cropland areas (dominated by corn, soy, rice, and cotton) with substantive fertilizer application. By leveraging our payload and unique airborne capabilities we directly observe and quantify N2O emissions from individual fertilizer production facilities (as well as CO2 and CH4 emissions from these same facilities). We are also able to quantify N2O fluxes from large cropland areas ( 100's km) employing a mass balance approach, a first for N2O, and will show results highlighting differences between crop types and amounts of applied fertilizer. The ability to quantify fluxes of croplands at 100km scale enables new understanding of processes controlling emissions at spatial scales that has eluded prior studies that either rely on extrapolation of small (flux chamber, towers), or work on 1,000+ km spatial scales (regional-global inversions from atmospheric measurements).

  4. Comparing sulfur and oxygen isotope variability of sulfate in the Mississippi River during high and low discharge from 2009-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, B.; Kohl, I. E.; Bao, H.

    2011-12-01

    S and O isotope compositions of ocean and river sulfate, SO42-, reflect Earth surface processes and can thus be used to understand the Earth's dynamic past. It has been estimated that riverine SO42- is 22% evaporite (SO42-riv-evap), 11% oxidative weathering (SO42-riv-ow), and 54% atmospheric and agricultural pollution [1]. Two parameters are poorly constrained: 1) the ratio of SO42-riv-evap to SO42-riv-ow, and 2) the extent of human influence on SO42- flux. Furthermore, for isotopic modeling, natural riverine SO42- O and S isotope compositions, δ18OSO4-riv and δ34SSO4-riv, have large measured ranges (e.g. δ18OSO4-riv from -2% to +7% [2]) that are based on limited empirical data with variable and unconstrained influence from human activities. In the lower Mississippi River Basin (MRB) we have sampled river water SO42- biweekly since 2009. Our isotope dataset is used in conjunction with US Geological Survey and US Army Corps of Engineers SO42- concentration and river discharge data. In comparison to MRB low discharge periods, the periods of annual high water discharge are characterized by 1) a doubling in water discharge 2) a concomitant high MRB SO42- flux (>1100 kg/s) 3) an average SO42- concentration at 85% of the low discharge concentrations and 4) a more constrained variability of SO42- isotope composition. The δ18OSO4-riv ranges from +3.2% to +5.5% at high discharge and from +2.6% to +8.8% at low discharge. The δ34SSO4-riv ranges from -4.3% to -0.4 at high discharge and from -6.3% to -0.2% at low discharge. Atmospheric SO42- is estimated from 2009 National Atmospheric Deposition Program maps to contribute only ~10% of total MRB SO42-. We conclude that during annual high discharge a large river basin such as the MRB is less sensitive to variable sub-basin input and that average MRB SO42- isotope composition is best represented by a δ18OSO4-riv value of ~+4.0% and δ34SSO4-riv value of ~-3.0%. MRB SO42- concentration during high discharge is diluted less

  5. Examination of Direct Discharge Measurement Data and Historic Daily Data for Selected Gages on the Middle Mississippi River, 1861-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    An examination of data from two continuous stage and discharge streamgages and one continuous stage-only gage on the Middle Mississippi River was made to determine stage-discharge relation changes through time and to investigate cause-and-effect mechanisms through evaluation of hydraulic geometry, channel elevation and water-surface elevation data. Data from discrete, direct measurements at the streamgages at St. Louis, Missouri, and Chester, Illinois, during the period of operation by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1933 to 2008 were examined for changes with time. Daily stage values from the streamgages at St. Louis (1861-2008) and Chester (1891-2008) and the stage-only gage at Cape Girardeau, Missouri (1896-2008), throughout the historic period of record also were examined for changes with time. Stage and discharge from measurements and stage-discharge relations at the streamgages at St. Louis and Chester indicate that stage for a given discharge has changed with time at both locations. An apparent increase in stage for a given discharge at increased flows (greater than flood stage) likely is caused by the raising of levees on the flood plains, and a decrease in stage for a given discharge at low flows (less than one-half flood stage) likely is caused by a combination of dikes in the channel that deepen the channel thalweg at the end of the dikes, and reduced sediment flux into the Middle Mississippi River. Since the 1960s at St. Louis, Missouri, the stage-discharge relations indicated no change or a decrease in stage for a given discharge for all discharges, whereas at Chester, Illinois, the stage-discharge relations indicate increasing stage for a given discharge above bankfull because of sediment infilling of the overflow channel. Top width and average velocity from measurements at a given discharge for the streamgage at St. Louis, Missouri, were relatively constant through time, with the only substantial change in top width resulting from the change in

  6. Influence of Wing Dam Notching on Aquatic Macroinvertebrates in Pool 13, Upper Mississippi River: The Prenotching Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    the recovery stages. In the River Endrick in Scotland, Maitland t 30 (1964, cited by Hynes 1970) reported that winter flooding reduced the invertebrate...pp. Maddock, T., Jr. 1972. Hydrologic behavior of stream channels. Trans. 37th North Amer. Wildl. and Nat. Res. Conf. 37: 366-374. Maitland , P.S. 1964...0* * 9 0 * * - .4 - a , 9 II - IA .93 - 9 *99 9 - .7 - .*. a’ - .0 -4 CI C - - S a * a A - IAN 0 a’ U41 - N 0’ (4 U. a -) 9 0 379 199 0 NC 0 0 s-u’ 00

  7. Integrated management of sunflower necrosis disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shirshikar S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower necrosis disease (SND) is a new threat for sunflower cultivation in India. The disease was observed during 1997 in Karnataka, a major sunflower growing state of India. Later, its occurrence was reported from almost all sunflower growing states of India, posing threat to sunflower cultivation. Presently no reliable resistant sources are available. The disease being viral in nature is very much difficult to combat by single approach. At Oilseeds Research Station, Latur (M.S.), India, ...

  8. Forecasting landscape effects of Mississippi River diversions on elevation and accretion in Louisiana deltaic wetlands under future environmental uncertainty scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Steyer, Gregory D.; Couvillion, Brady R.; John M. Rybczyk,; Beck, Holly J.; William J. Sleavin,; Ehab A. Meselhe,; Mead A. Allison,; Ronald G. Boustany,; Craig J. Fischenich,; Victor H. Rivera-Monroy,

    2014-01-01

    Large sediment diversions are proposed and expected to build new wetlands to alleviate the extensive wetland loss (5,000 km2) affecting coastal Louisiana during the last 78 years. Current assessment and prediction of the impacts of sediment diversions have focused on the capture and dispersal of both water and sediment on the adjacent river side and the immediate outfall marsh area. However, little is known about the effects of sediment diversions on existing wetland surface elevation and vertical accretion dynamics in the receiving basin at the landscape scale. In this study, we used a spatial wetland surface elevation model developed in support of Louisiana's 2012 Coastal Master Plan to examine such landscape-scale effects of sediment diversions. Multiple sediment diversion projects were incorporated in the model to simulate surface elevation and vertical accretion for the next 50 years (2010-2060) under two environmental (moderate and less optimistic) scenarios. Specifically, we examined landscape-scale surface elevation and vertical accretion trends under diversions with different geographical locations, diverted discharge rates, and geomorphic characteristics of the receiving basin. Model results indicate that small diversions ( 1,500 m3 s-1) are required to achieve landscape-level benefits to promote surface elevation via vertical accretion to keep pace with rising sea level.

  9. Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are

  10. BASEMAP Framework Submission for SUNFLOWER COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  11. Restoring the Mississippi River Basin from the Catchment to the Coast Defines Science and Policy Issues of Ecosystem Services Associated with Alluvial and Coastal Deltaic Floodplains: Soil Conservation, Nutrient Reduction, Carbon Sequestration, and Flood Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilley, R.

    2014-12-01

    Large river systems are major economic engines that provide national economic wealth in transporting commerce and providing extensive agriculture production, and their coastal deltas are sites of significant ports, energy resources and fisheries. These coupled natural and social systems from the catchment to the coast depend on how national policies manage the river basins that they depend. The fundamental principle of the Mississippi River Basin, as in all basins, is to capitalize on the ability of fertile soil that moves from erosional regions of a large watershed, through downstream regions of the catchment where sediment transport and storage builds extensive floodplains, to the coastal region of deposition where deltas capture sediment and nutrients before exported to the oceans. The fate of soil, and the ability of that soil to do work, supports the goods and services along its path from the catchment to the coast in all large river basin and delta systems. Sediment is the commodity of all large river basin systems that together with the seasonal pulse of floods across the interior of continents provide access to the sea forming the assets that civilization and economic engines have tapped to build national and global wealth. Coastal landscapes represent some of the most altered ecosystems worldwide and often integrate the effects of processes over their entire catchment, requiring systemic solutions to achieve restoration goals from alluvial floodplains upstream to coastal deltaic floodplains downstream. The urgent need for wetland rehabilitation at landscape scales has been initiated through major floodplain reclamation and hydrologic diversions to reconnect the river with wetland processes. But the constraints of sediment delivery and nutrient enrichment represent some critical conflicts in earth surface processes that limit the ability to design 'self sustaining' public work projects; particularly with the challenges of accelerated sea level rise. Only

  12. Treating floodplain lakes of large rivers as study units for variables that vary within lakes; an evaluation using chlorophyll a and inorganic suspended solids data from floodplain lakes of the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, B.R.; Rogala, J.R.; Houser, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Contiguous floodplain lakes ('lakes') have historically been used as study units for comparative studies of limnological variables that vary within lakes. The hierarchical nature of these studies implies that study variables may be correlated within lakes and that covariate associations may differ not only among lakes but also by spatial scale. We evaluated the utility of treating lakes as study units for limnological variables that vary within lakes based on the criteria of important levels of among-lake variation in study variables and the observation of covariate associations that vary among lakes. These concerns were selected, respectively, to ensure that lake signatures were distinguishable from within-lake variation and that lake-scale effects on covariate associations might provide inferences not available by ignoring those effects. Study data represented chlorophyll a (CHL) and inorganic suspended solids (ISS) data from lakes within three reaches of the Upper Mississippi River. Sampling occurred in summer from 1993 through 2005 (except 2003); numbers of lakes per reach varied from 7 to 19, and median lake area varied from 53 to 101 ha. CHL and ISS levels were modelled linearly, with lake, year and lake x year effects treated as random. For all reaches, the proportions of variation in CHL and ISS attributable to differences among lakes (including lake and lake x year effects) were substantial (range: 18%-73%). Finally, among-lake variation in CHL and ISS was strongly associated with covariates and covariate effects that varied by lakes or lake-years (including with vegetation levels and, for CHL, log(ISS)). These findings demonstrate the utility of treating floodplain lakes as study units for the study of limnological variables and the importance of addressing hierarchy within study designs when making inferences from data collected within floodplain lakes.

  13. Effect of freshwater mussels on the vertical distribution of anaerobic ammonia oxidizers and other nitrogen-transforming microorganisms in upper Mississippi river sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Black

    2017-07-01

    .001 decreased with mussels. Co-occurrence of 2-fold increases in Candidatus Brocadia and Nitrospira in shallow sediments suggests that mussels may enhance microbial niches at the interface of oxic–anoxic conditions, presumably through biodeposition and burrowing. Furthermore, it is likely that the niches of Candidatus Nitrososphaera and nitrite- and nitrate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidizers were suppressed by mussel biodeposition and sediment aeration, as these phylotypes require low ammonium concentrations and anoxic conditions, respectively. As far as we know, this is the first study to characterize freshwater mussel impacts on microbial diversity and the vertical distribution of N-cycle microorganisms in upper Mississippi river sediment. These findings advance our understanding of ecosystem services provided by mussels and their impact on aquatic biogeochemical N-cycling.

  14. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin Study Unit, Minnesota and Wisconsin- Nutrients, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton, and suspended sediment in streams, 1996-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroening, Sharon E.; Lee, Kathy E.; Goldstein, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Stream water-quality data from part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin Study Unit (Study Unit) from 1995 through 1998 was used to describe the distribution of nutrients, chlorophyll a, phytoplankton, and suspended sediment; and the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on reported concentrations, loads, and yields. During the study period, streamflows generally were near to greater than average. Agricultural land cover, particularly on tile-drained soils, had the most substantial influence on nutrients, chlorophyll a, and suspended sediment in the Study Unit. The greatest concentrations and yields of total nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, dissolved nitrite nitrogen, total organic plus ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment were measured in a stream representing agricultural land cover on tile-drained soils. Total nitrogen yields also were about 6 times greater in a stream representing agricultural land cover on tile-drained soils than in a stream representing agricultural land cover on naturally welldrained soils.

  15. Improvement of sunflower for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijanović Dijana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing sunflower (Heliianthus annuus L for consumption is becoming more and more attractive in the whole world and in our country, as well. The consumption of this product has been considerably increased because it is being used more and more in various forms: sunflower seed in a hull, hulled kernels fried or non-fried, salted or non-salted with addition of various spices. The sunflower kernel is used for preparing over 100 different food products: special types of bread, cakes, ice-cream, chocolate. In accordance with the trade demands, the aims of sunflower seeds for consumption improvement are: high productivity, greater content of proteins, lesser content of oil, oncreased mass of 1000 seeds, lesser portion of the hull easy nibbling, as well as tolerance to dominant diseases in the growing region. In the Agricultural and Technological Research Center in Zajecar, 4 genotypes of protein sunflower (two cultivars and two hybrids have been created so far. This study shows the results achieved in increasing the content of protein, the mass of 1000 seeds, decreasing the content of oil and hull of the new 90 hybrid combination. The hybrid combinations were obtained by crossing of the CMS and restorer lines.

  16. Organic Contaminants Associated With Suspended Sediment Collected During Five Cruises of the Mississippi River and Its Principal Tributaries, May 1988 to June 1990

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rostad, Colleen E; Bishop, LaDonna M; Ellis, Geoffrey S; Leiker, Thomas J; Monsterleet, Stephanie G; Pereira, Wilfred E

    1993-01-01

    ... sediment smaller than 63 micrometers. Sample collection involved pumping discharge- weighted volumes of river water along a cross section of the river into a continuous-flow centrifuge to isolate the suspended sediment...

  17. Characterization of the Suspended-Sediment Regime and Bed-Material Gradation of the Mississippi River Basin. Potamology Program (P-I). Report 1, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Subbasin ac- count for about seven percent of the damages within the Ohio River Basin. The Kanawha River is formed by the confluence of the New and...stream progress downstream. The Canadian River has its headwaters in the Sangre de Cristo Range of northeastern New Mexico and flows southward across the...C9l,Cl03,C104,Cl15 at Rowan, Iowa (d,s,m) . ....... C91,Cl03,Cl04,Cl16 Jefferson River near Twin Bridges, Mont . (d,s,m

  18. Outlook for Mississippi Alluvial Valley forests: a subregional report from the Southern Forest Futures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner

    2015-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley, which can be broadly subdivided into the Holocene Deposits section and the Deltaic Plain section, is a 24.9-million-acre area generally approximating the alluvial floodplain and delta of the lower Mississippi River. Its robust agricultural economy is maintained by a largely rural population, and recreational resources draw high...

  19. The condensed mutation in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, P.

    1978-01-01

    Three inbred lines of sunflower were treated with gamma rays. In the progeny of one of these lines, the desired dwarf mutation appeared with a high frequency (23%). The dwarfing was accompanied by various undesirable characteristics (lateness, poor seed production, etc.), for which correction through genetic diversification and selection is in progress. The ratio capitulum diameter/stem height has increased from 1/8 up to 1/3 [fr

  20. Recalibration of a ground-water flow model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in Southeastern Arkansas, 1918, with simulations of hydraulic heads caused by projected ground-water withdrawals through 2049

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Gregory P.; Clark, Brian R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, encompassing parts of Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee supplies an average of 5 billion gallons of water per day. However, withdrawals from the aquifer in recent years have caused considerable drawdown in the hydraulic heads in southeastern Arkansas and other areas. The effects of current ground-water withdrawals and potential future withdrawals on water availability are major concerns of water managers and users as well as the general public. A full understanding of the behavior of the aquifer under various water-use scenarios is critical for the development of viable water-management and alternative source plans. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg District, and the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission developed and calibrated a ground-water flow model for the Mississippi River valley alluvial aquifer in southeastern Arkansas to simulate hydraulic heads caused by projected ground-water withdrawals. A previously published ground-water flow model for the alluvial aquifer in southeastern Arkansas was updated and recalibrated to reflect more current pumping stresses with additional stress periods added to bring the model forward from 1982 to 1998. The updated model was developed and calibrated with MODFLOW-2000 finite difference numerical modeling and parameter estimation software. The model was calibrated using hydraulic-head data collected during 1972 and 1982 and hydraulic-head measurements made during spring (February to April) of 1992 and 1998. The residuals for 1992 and 1998 have a mean absolute value of 4.74 and 5.45 feet, respectively, and a root mean square error of 5.9 and 6.72 feet, respectively. The effects of projected ground-water withdrawals were simulated through 2049 in three predictive scenarios by adding five additional stress periods of 10 years each. In the three scenarios

  1. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in three different land-use areas, 1996-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Alison L.

    2000-01-01

    The surficial sand and gravel aquifer is susceptible to effects from land-use in the Upper Mississippi River Basin study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The purpose of this report is to describe the ground-water quality and the assessment of how different land-uses affect the shallow ground-water quality in the surficial sand and gravel aquifer. Ground-water quality was compared in three different land-use areas; an urban residential/commercial area on the edge of the Anoka Sand Plain in a portion of the Twin Cities metropolitan area (urban study), an intensive agricultural area in the Anoka Sand Plain (agricultural study), and a forested area in the Bemidji-Bagley Sand Plain (forested study). Ground water was sampled and analyzed for about 200 constituents, including physical parameters, major ions, selected trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, selected pesticides, selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and tritium. The urban study wells were sampled during June and July 1996. The agricultural study wells were sampled during May and September 1998. The forested study wells were sampled during June 1998.

  2. Relationship of weed shiner and young-of-year bluegill and largemouth bass abundance to submersed aquatic vegetation in Navigation Pools 4, 8, and 13 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1998-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLain, Steven A.; Popp, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic vegetation provides food resources and shelter for many species of fish. This study found a significant relationship between increases in submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) in four study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and increases in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of weed shiners (Notropis texanus) and age-0 bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) when all of the study reaches were treated collectively using Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) vegetation and fish data for 1998–2012. The selected fishes were more abundant in study reaches with higher SAV frequencies (Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4) and less abundant in reaches with lower SAV frequencies (Pool 13 and Upper Pool 4). When each study reach was examined independently, the relationship between SAV frequency and CPUE of the three species was not significant in most cases, the primary exception being weed shiners in Lower Pool 4. Results of this study indicate that the prevalence of SAV does affect relative abundance of these vegetation-associated fish species. However, the poor annual relationship between SAV frequency and age-0 relative abundance in individual study reaches indicates that several other factors also govern age-0 abundance. The data indicate that there may be a SAV frequency threshold in backwaters above which there is not a strong relationship with abundance of these fish species. This is indicated by the high annual CPUE variability of the three selected fishes in backwaters of Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4 when SAV exceeded certain frequencies.

  3. Carbon Storage of bottomland hardwood afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Valley, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David T. Shoch; Gary Kaster; Aaron Hohl; Ray Souter

    2009-01-01

    The emerging carbon market is an increasingly important source of finance for bottomland hardwood afforestation in the Lower Mississippi River Valley (LMV). Notwithstanding, there is a scarcity of empirical...

  4. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  5. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet

  6. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  7. Waterborne Commerce of the United States Calendar Year 1987. Part 2. Waterways and Harbors Gulf Coast, Mississippi River System and Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-31

    8,�,000_ 01857S3’ 387 ,010 038,200’ 3,0 6,610 2,660,639 BIOS CORN... STELE SCSCRA--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------61,98 5 1,856 160,367 TENNE3SEE RIVER, 7199., ALA...STEEL PRLARY FORMS-----------------------------------------------------------------------------3 8,33,096---------- 3337 I1O0 AND STELE PIPEI ANDATND E

  8. Electrical Properties of Sunflower Achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Ján

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work contains the results of measuring the electrical properties of sunflower achenes. The interest in electrical properties of biological materials resulted in engineering research in this field. The results of measurements are used for determining the moisture content, the surface level of liquid and grainy materials, for controlling the presence of pests in grain storage, for the quantitative determination of mechanical damage, in the application of dielectric heating, and in many other areas. Electrical measurements of these materials are of fundamental importance in relation to the analysis of quantity of absorbed water and dielectric heating characteristics. It is a well-known fact that electrical properties of materials, namely dielectric constant and conductivity, are affected by the moisture content of material. This fact is important for the design of many commercial moisturetesting instruments for agricultural products. The knowledge of dielectric properties of materials is necessary for the application of dielectric heating. The aim of this work was to measure conductivity, dielectric constant and loss tangent on samples of sunflower achenes, the electrical properties of which had not been sufficiently measured. Measurements were performed under variable moisture content and the frequency of electric field ranging from 1 MHz to 16 MHz, using a Q meter with coaxial probe. It was concluded that conductivity, dielectric constant and loss tangent increased with increasing moisture content, and dielectric constant and loss tangent decreased as the frequency of electric field increased.

  9. Water-Quality and Biological Assessment of the Iowa River and Tributaries Within and Contiguous to the Meskwaki Settlement of the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.; McVay, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    In cooperation with the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation), the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year baseline assessment of the chemical and biological quality of streams within the Meskwaki Settlement in central Iowa. The Meskwaki Nation is a federally recognized tribe that wishes to establish water-quality standards to safeguard the integrity of surface waters and aquatic biota within the settlement for the health and welfare of the tribal community. The settlement is drained by the Iowa River and four tributaries (Onion, Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks). Water-quality samples were collected at three sites on the Iowa River, two sites on Onion Creek, and one site each on Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks from April 2006 through July 2007. Biological and habitat assessments were conducted at all three sites on the Iowa River and the downstream-most site on Onion Creek from June through August 2007. Analysis of physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace compounds, bacteria, and total suspended solids in water, and trace metals and organic compounds in streambed sediment provided information about the effects of anthropogenic (human related) activities on the water quality of settlement streams. Analysis of biological samples collected during the summer of 2007, including fish community, benthic macroinvertebrates, and periphyton samples, as well as physical habitat characteristics, provided information on the effects of water quality on the condition of the aquatic environment. The majority of surface water sampled within the settlement was predominately a calcium bicarbonate type. Nitrates (nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) primary drinking-water Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 ug/L in 19 of 36 samples from sites on the Iowa River and Raven and Bennett Creeks but not in samples from Onion and Cattail Creeks. None of the samples analyzed for pesticides, trace

  10. Mississippi River: Study of Alternatives for Rehabilitation of Lock and Dam Number 1. Minneapolis, Minnesota. Volume 3. Appendices B-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    ADA34 023 MSSISSIPPI RVER: STUDOFALERNATVESOR 1/4 REHABILIATION OF LOCK AND D..U) CORPS OF ENGINEERS ST A SR P UNCLASSIFED PALM STPU DITIT AR7 / 132...AFACIFA4 Slh9qFAC,- 6 I0. "A e 6250 , 3 VW~- 41Mj,4, 4 04X, 4950 , 5 SCp * 295" , 6, 496Vs, .3502 S 00-, 55oolo,, ,e-. o’so b, Swl~.-/~o~ 41 N //Z-V...the concrete specimen. Selected portions wurc examined in immersion oils under the petrographic microscope. CONC LUSIONS River Wall, Drill Hole No. 74

  11. Mississippi and Louisiana Estuarine Areas. Freshwater Diversion to Lake Pontchartrain Basin and Mississippi Sound. Feasibility Study. Volume 4. Public Views and Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    looked at carefully. He said he recognized the dieback in the Louisiana marshes because of levee systems and the displacement of fishermen after seeing...noted these systems were created and Ined by great river systems like the Mississippi and Amazon Rivers. - huition to productivity extends far out to

  12. Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Daniel Gomes Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some people are born with the wish of being different: some want to be politicians to mark the History in their country, others want to be football players, others want to have an “ability” that makes them special, like flying, reading people’s minds, mind control, etc, but aren’t we perfect as we are? Normality is the only perfection in our lives, but the thirst for power prevents us from doing the right thing. Even if we have a good heart, we are always prone to corruption, so as to fulfill our thirst for power.  We have the example of some politicians and other people in charge of enterprises who had power but used it for their own good, even if that meant harming people others. The short story that I present is completely original, but it’s a criticism of the corruptive influence of power. We can say that “If you want to know a man, give him power”.

  13. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  14. Response and utilization of phosphorus by sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Reddy, P.; Sreenivasa Raju, A.; Prasad Rao, A.; Sultana, Fatima

    1997-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to find the response and utilization of applied P by sunflower at different levels of N, in the light soils of Andhra Pradesh using 32 P labelled fertilizer. The results of the experiment clearly brought out the significant effects of N and P application on the dry matter yield, per cent Pdff and P utilization of sunflower at flowering and seed yield at harvest

  15. The Mississippi CCS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doug Cathro

    2010-09-30

    The Mississippi CCS Project is a proposed large-scale industrial carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) project which would have demonstrated advanced technologies to capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. Specifically, the Mississippi CCS Project was to accelerate commercialization of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage from industrial sources by leveraging synergy between a proposed petcoke to Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) plant that is selected for a Federal Loan Guarantee and would be the largest integrated anthropogenic CO{sub 2} capture, transport, and monitored sequestration program in the U.S. Gulf Coast Region. The Mississippi CCS Project was to promote the expansion of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the Mississippi, Alabama and Louisiana region which would supply greater energy security through increased domestic energy production. The capture, compression, pipeline, injection, and monitoring infrastructure would have continued to sequester CO{sub 2} for many years after the completion of the term of the DOE agreement. The objectives of this project were expected to be fulfilled through two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive project basis for a competitive Renewal Application process to proceed into Phase 2 - Design, Construction and Operations. Phase 1 included the studies that establish the engineering design basis for the capture, compression and transportation of CO{sub 2} from the MG SNG Project, and the criteria and specifications for a monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) plan at the Soso oil field in Mississippi. The overall objective of Phase 2, was to execute design, construction and operations of three capital projects: the CO{sub 2} capture and compression equipment, the Mississippi CO{sub 2} Pipeline to Denbury's Free State Pipeline, and an MVA system at the Soso oil field.

  16. Fish tissue contamination in the mid-continental great rivers of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The great rivers of the central United States (Upper Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio rivers) are significant economic and cultural resources, but their ecological condition is not well quantified. The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Great River Ecosystems (EMAP...

  17. Validation of eDNA markers for New Zealand mudsnail surveillance and initial eDNA monitoring at Mississippi River Basin sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkes, Christopher; Turnquist, Keith N.; Rees, Christopher B.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of newly developed New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum; NZMS) genetic markers for environmental (eDNA) analysis of water were compared across two laboratories. The genetic markers were tested in four quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays targeting two regions of the NZMS mitochondrial genome, specifically the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (coi) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes. In a blind study, analysts tested each sample eight times with each assay. There were 10 expected-negative samples from the Black River in La Crosse, Wisconsin, 10 expected-positive samples from the Black Earth Creek in Black Earth, Wisconsin, and 10 known-positive samples from the Black River spiked with NZMS DNA. Previously extracted samples, kept at the Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, were pooled by sample location and then equal quantities were distributed between the Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center and the Molecular Conservation Genetics Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point for analysis. The assays tested were (1) the assay targeting cytb with a minor groove binder probe described by Goldberg and others (2013), (2) the cytb assay with a modified double-quenched probe, (3) an assay targeting coi with a double-quenched probe, and (4) a duplex reaction combining the modified cytb assay and the coi assay. Samples were considered positive for the presence of NZMS DNA when quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification and probe signal was higher than the normalized threshold value above baseline fluorescence. For the duplex assay, samples were considered positive only when both probe signals were higher than the normalized threshold value above baseline fluorescence. Positive results were then confirmed by sequencing the products.

  18. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Mississippi and Florida airborne survey, Jackson quadrangle of Mississippi and Louisiana. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    The Jackson quadrangle covers a region largely within the Mississippi River flood plain. In the extreme northern Gulf Coastal Physiographic Province. Underlying Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments of the Mississippi Embayment are relatively thick. Exposed sediments are largely Quaternary in age, though older Cenozoic material of both marine and nonmarine origin are exposed in areas adjacent to the flood plain in the east. A search of the available literature revealed no known uranium deposits. Seventy-three uranium anomalies were detected and are discussed briefly. None were considered significant, and most appeared to be of cultural origin. Magnetic data appears to be in agreement with existing structural interpretations of the region

  19. Drowning of the Mississippi Delta due to insufficient sediment supply and global sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Michael D.; Roberts, Harry H.

    2009-07-01

    Over the past few centuries, 25% of the deltaic wetlands associated with the Mississippi Delta have been lost to the ocean. Plans to protect and restore the coast call for diversions of the Mississippi River, and its associated sediment, to sustain and build new land. However, the sediment load of the Mississippi River has been reduced by 50% through dam construction in the Mississippi Basin, which could affect the effectiveness of diversion plans. Here we calculate the amount of sediment stored on the delta plain for the past 12,000 years, and find that mean storage rates necessary to construct the flood plain and delta over this period exceed modern Mississippi River sediment loads. We estimate that, in the absence of sediment input, an additional 10,000-13,500km2 will be submerged by the year 2100 owing to subsidence and sea-level rise. Sustaining existing delta surface area would require 18-24billiontons of sediment, which is significantly more than can be drawn from the Mississippi River in its current state. We conclude that significant drowning is inevitable, even if sediment loads are restored, because sea level is now rising at least three times faster than during delta-plain construction.

  20. Channel, Floodplain, And Wetland Responses To Floods And Overbank Sedimentation, 1846-2006, Halfway Creek Marsh, Upper Mississippi Valley, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversion of upland forest and prairie vegetation to agricultural land uses, following Euro-American settlement in the Upper Mississippi River System, led to accelerated runoff and soil erosion that subsequently transformed channels, floodplains, and wetlands on bottomlands. Ha...

  1. Sunflower seeds as eliciting agents of Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; El-Houri, Rime B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sunflowers may cause dermatitis because of allergenic sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Contact sensitization to sunflower seeds has also been reported, but the allergens are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To analyse sunflower seeds for the presence of SLs and to assess the prevalence of sunflower...... sensitization in Compositae-allergic individuals. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: Sunflower-sensitive patients were identified by aimed patch testing. A dichloromethane extract of whole sunflower seeds was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS......: The prevalence of sensitivity to sunflower in Compositae-allergic individuals was 56%. A solvent wash of whole sunflower seeds yielded an extract containing SLs, the principal component tentatively being identified as argophyllin A or B, other SLs being present in minute amounts. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration...

  2. Agronomic characteristic of a dwarf germplasm sunflower line

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana; Tcekova Zoja

    2005-01-01

    A new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) dwarf line, HA-ARG-1, has been developed after interspecific hybridization between cultivated sunflower H. annuus and wild annual silver-leaf sunflower H. argophyllus. Plants were selected for reduced height and multiple branching characteristics. The agronomic, morphologic and oil content characteristics of the line were analyzed. Isolation of similar dwarfed lines illustrates the importance of using the wild sunflower germplasms in the development of sp...

  3. The sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Quentin; Martinez, Yves; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Vear, Felicity; Pichon, Magalie; Godiard, Laurence

    2015-02-01

    Downy mildew of sunflower is caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farlow) Berlese & de Toni. Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogen that attacks annual Helianthus species and cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Depending on the sunflower developmental stage at which infection occurs, the characteristic symptoms range from young seedling death, plant dwarfing, leaf bleaching and sporulation to the production of infertile flowers. Downy mildew attacks can have a great economic impact on sunflower crops, and several Pl resistance genes are present in cultivars to protect them against the disease. Nevertheless, some of these resistances have been overcome by the occurrence of novel isolates of the pathogen showing increased virulence. A better characterization of P. halstedii infection and dissemination mechanisms, and the identification of the molecular basis of the interaction with sunflower, is a prerequisite to efficiently fight this pathogen. This review summarizes what is currently known about P. halstedii, provides new insights into its infection cycle on resistant and susceptible sunflower lines using scanning electron and light microscopy imaging, and sheds light on the pathogenicity factors of P. halstedii obtained from recent molecular data. Kingdom Stramenopila; Phylum Oomycota; Class Oomycetes; Order Peronosporales; Family Peronosporaceae; Genus Plasmopara; Species Plasmopara halstedii. Sunflower seedling damping off, dwarfing of the plant, bleaching of leaves, starting from veins, and visible white sporulation, initially on the lower side of cotyledons and leaves. Plasmopara halstedii infection may severely impact sunflower seed yield. In spring, germination of overwintered sexual oospores leads to sunflower root infection. Intercellular hyphae are responsible for systemic plant colonization and the induction of disease symptoms. Under humid and fresh conditions, dissemination structures are produced by the pathogen on all

  4. Predictability of surface currents and fronts off the Mississippi Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, N.D.; Rouse, L.J.; Wiseman, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dynamic coastal region of the lower Mississippi River was examined under varying conditions of wind, river discharge and circulation patterns of the Gulf of Mexico. Nearly 7,000 deep-sea merchant vessels enter the port complex each year and the area boasts the highest concentration of offshore drilling rigs, rendering the Mississippi delta and adjacent coastal areas vulnerable to risk from oil spills. Satellite imagery has been useful in tracking movements of the Mississippi river plume as recognizable turbidity and temperature fronts are formed where river waters encounter ambient shelf waters. Oil spill modelers often base their predictions of oil movement on the surface wind field and surface currents, but past studies have indicated that this can be overly simplistic in regions affected by river flow because river fronts have significant control over the movement of oil in opposition to prevailing winds. Frontal zones, such as those found where river waters meet oceanic waters, are characterized by strong convergence of surface flow. These frontal zones can provide large and efficient traps or natural booms for spilled oil. In an effort to facilitate cleanup operations, this study made use of the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) AVHRR satellite imagery of temperature and reflectance to study front locations and their variability in space and time. The main objectives were to quantify surface temperature structure and locations of fronts throughout the year using satellite image data, to map the structure of the Mississippi sediment plume and to assess the forcing factors responsible for its variability over space and time. The final objective was to use in-situ measurements of surface currents together with satellite image data to better understand surface flow in this region of strong and variable currents. It was concluded that the main factors controlling circulation in the Mississippi River outflow region are river discharge and

  5. Range extensions of three crayfishes (Faxonius yanahlindus, F. placidus, and F. erichsonianus) into Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan B. Adams; Robert L. Jones

    2018-01-01

    We report 3 new state crayfish records from the Tennessee River drainage in Tishomingo County, Mississippi: 1 is a re-identification of previously published material, and 2 are from unpublished collections. Faxonius yanahlindus (Spinywrist Crayfish), recently described from the middle Tennessee River drainage in northwest Alabama and southern...

  6. Spatial patterns of lacustrine fish assemblages in a catchment of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Caroline S.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Goetz, Daniel B.; Kroger, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In the alluvial valley of the lower Mississippi River, floodplain lakes form isolated aquatic fragments that retain differing degrees of connectivity to neighbouring rivers. Within these floodplain lakes it was hypothesized that fish species composition, relative abundance, and biodiversity metrics would be shaped largely by aquatic connectivity within a catchment.

  7. Main aspects of sunflower production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Cesar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world, since its grains have high oil content (38% to 50%, primarily used for the production of high quality oil. The production of sunflower increases the supply of protein meal for animal feeding, which enables the increase of protein production, more specifically meat, eggs and milk. Grain production systems in Brazil have peculiarities, since two to three different crops are grown in a special arrangement, in the same area and year. Notwithstanding the small cultivated area in Brazil of 62.3 thousand hectares, sunflower is used in succession or rotation with other grain crops such as soybean or maize, showing an enormous potential for expansion and can be cultivated from latitudes 33°S to 5°N, especially in the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Sunflower cultivation in succession to soybean as a second summer crop can also reduce environmental impacts because of the more efficient usage of production factors, such as land and sharing of agricultural inputs, machinery, infrastructure and workforce. The success of establishing the sunflower is associated with the adequate management of soil fertility, use of cultivars adapted to different environments, plant arrangement, seed quality and adequate phytosanitary management, among other factors. It also needs strategic actions, planning and, long-term research and technology diffusion.

  8. 7 CFR 810.1801 - Definition of sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of sunflower seed. 810.1801 Section 810... STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Terms Defined § 810.1801 Definition of sunflower seed. Grain that, before the removal of foreign material, consists of 50.0 percent or...

  9. Frankfurter Type Sausage Production with Sunflower Oil Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    ERTAŞ, A. Hamdi; KARABAŞ, Gülay

    2014-01-01

    Some quality characteristics of frankfurter type sausages (with 30% total fat) produced by adding sunflower oil at different levels (10%, 20% and 30%) were determined and compared to control with 30% animal fat. Increasing of sunflower oil content resulted in lower process yield. Cholesterol content and water holding capacity of frankfurters also decreased at the levels of sunflower oil from 10 to 30% (P

  10. Loss of sunflower seeds to columbids in South Africa: economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey across the sunflower production region of South Africa during November 2003 to July 2005 estimated the loss of sunflower seeds to columbids (doves and pigeons, Aves: Columbidae). Farmers estimated that 12.7% of the national yield was lost to columbids. In a follow-up survey, 37 sunflower fields were visited ...

  11. Physical properties of sunflower grains after drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the physical properties of the grains is important for the optimization of post-harvest operations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of convective drying with different air temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75 °C the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The drying sunflower grains was performed in convection oven with forced air. In natural conditions, samples of 5 kg of pellets were used for each repetition drying. During the drying process, the grains samples were weighed periodically until they reach 10% (wet basis, w.b., then were subjected to evaluations of physical properties. According to the results it was observed that the porosity, apparent density, thousand kernel weight to the drag coefficient, roundness, sphericity and width of sunflower seed did not change with increasing temperature drying air. It was concluded that the drying air temperatures of 45 °C and 55 retained the initial physical characteristics of sunflower seeds. The temperature of the drying air of 75 °C had greater influence on changes in volumetric shrinkage of the grains.

  12. Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

  13. Nickel remediation by AM-colonized sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Keomany; Charest, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    This greenhouse study aimed to examine the contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on the uptake of and tolerance to nickel (Ni) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). We hypothesized that AM colonization increases Ni content and tolerance in sunflower grown under varying soil Ni concentrations. The combined effect of AM colonization and soil Ni input on the assimilation of nitrogen, in particular the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS), in sunflower plants was also investigated. A factorial experimental design was performed with sunflower cv. Lemon Queen, with or without the AM fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, and treated with 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg Ni kg(-1) dry soil (DS). The AM colonization significantly enhanced plant growth and Ni content, especially at the lower soil Ni treatments. Furthermore, the AM plants exposed to the highest soil Ni level of 400 mg Ni kg(-1) DS had a significantly higher shoot Ni extracted percentage than non-AM plants, suggesting that the AM symbiosis contributed to Ni uptake, then its translocation from roots to shoots. The AM colonization also significantly increased the GS activity in roots, this being likely an indicator of an enhanced Ni tolerance. These findings support the hypothesis that AM symbiosis contributes to an enhanced Ni plant uptake and tolerance and should be considered as part of phytoremediation strategies.

  14. Sunflower: A potential fructan-bearing crop?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle eMartinez-Noel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain filling in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. mainly depends on actual photosynthesis, being the contribution of stored reserves in stems (sucrose, hexoses and starch rather low. Drought periods during grain filling often reduce yield. Increasing the capacity of stem to store reserves could help to increase grain filling and yield stability in dry years. Fructans improve water uptake in soils at low water potential, and allow the storage of large amount of assimilates per unit tissue volume that can be readily remobilized to grains. Sunflower is a close relative to Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L., which accumulates large amounts of fructan (inulin in tubers and true stems. The reason why sunflower does not accumulate fructans is obscure. Through a bioinformatics analysis of a sunflower transcriptome database, we found sequences that are homologous to dicotyledon and monocotyledon fructan synthesis genes. A HPLC analysis of stem sugar composition revealed the presence of low amounts of 1-kestose, while a drastic enhancement of endogenous sucrose levels by capitulum removal did not promote 1-kestose accumulation. This suggests that the regulation of fructan synthesis in this species may differ from the currently best known model, mainly derived from research on Poaceae, where sucrose acts as both a signaling molecule and substrate, in the induction of fructan synthesis. Thus, sunflower might potentially constitute a fructan-bearing species, which could result in an improvement of its performance as a grain crop. However, a large effort is needed to elucidate how this up to now unsuspected potential could be effectively

  15. Mississippi River Headwaters Lakes in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    2.368.00, well below the national poverty level. Unemployment, alcoholism , illiteracy and other social blights are pervasive problems among Indian...germination seeds and by the release of nutrients that accompanies the oxydation and drying of sediments. Effects of Low Lake Stage on Wild Rice 3.10 Wild

  16. Flood Control, Mississippi River, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    in 4ega/ td to pages 2 and 58 conceAruing lte.6den-tiat 6tuctmtes on BaA~von 1t6Land (PCtite 1): The BoaAd o6 Pank Comm"ZsioneA., and the Commnon...La Crosse.TFhe proper spelling of the park is Houska. p. 54. Please specify in the title of this sectiox4 and in Ihq ito- ductory tex that it is

  17. Organic-Carbon Sequestration in Soil/Sediment of the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain - Data; Landscape Distribution, Storage, and Inventory; Accumulation Rates; and Recent Loss, Including a Post-Katrina Preliminary Analysis (Chapter B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, Helaine W.; Buell, Gary R.; Britsch, Louis D.; McGeehin, John P.; Robbins, John A.; Wrenn, John H.; Dillon, Douglas L.; Fries, Terry L.; Morehead, Nancy R.

    2007-01-01

    Soil/sediment of the Mississippi River deltaic plain (MRDP) in southeastern Louisiana is rich in organic carbon (OC). The MRDP contains about 2 percent of all OC in the surface meter of soil/sediment in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). Environments within the MRDP differ in soil/sediment organic carbon (SOC) accumulation rate, storage, and inventory. The focus of this study was twofold: (1) develop a database for OC and bulk density for MRDP soil/sediment; and (2) estimate SOC storage, inventory, and accumulation rates for the dominant environments (brackish, intermediate, and fresh marsh; natural levee; distributary; backswamp; and swamp) in the MRDP. Comparative studies were conducted to determine which field and laboratory methods result in the most accurate and reproducible bulk-density values for each marsh environment. Sampling methods included push-core, vibracore, peat borer, and Hargis1 sampler. Bulk-density data for cores taken by the 'short push-core method' proved to be more internally consistent than data for samples collected by other methods. Laboratory methods to estimate OC concentration and inorganic-constituent concentration included mass spectrometry, coulometry, and loss-on-ignition. For the sampled MRDP environments, these methods were comparable. SOC storage was calculated for each core with adequate OC and bulk-density data. SOC inventory was calculated using core-specific data from this study and available published and unpublished pedon data linked to SSURGO2 map units. Sample age was estimated using isotopic cesium (137Cs), lead (210Pb), and carbon (14C), elemental Pb, palynomorphs, other stratigraphic markers, and written history. SOC accumulation rates were estimated for each core with adequate age data. Cesium-137 profiles for marsh soil/sediment are the least ambiguous. Levee and distributary 137Cs profiles show the effects of intermittent allochthonous input and/or sediment resuspension. Cesium-137 and 210Pb data gave the most

  18. Control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus sown offseason, after soybean crop (Glycine max, is affected by the competition imposed by volunteer plants. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crops. The sulfentrazone herbicide (75 g ha-1, 100 g ha-1 and 250 g ha-1 causes phytotoxicity to sunflower immediately after application, however, plants recover, with no yield losses. These doses do not cause the total death of volunteer soybean plants, but temporarily paralyzes their growth, avoiding the competition with the sunflower crop. The glufosinate ammonium and ametryn herbicides are effective in controlling volunteer soybean plants, however, symptoms of phytotoxicity in the sunflower crop are high, reflecting in losses of dry weight biomass and crop yield. The other treatments do not provide satisfactory control of volunteer soybean plants and even reduce the sunflower dry weight biomass and yield.

  19. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

  20. Sunflowers. Cultivation, processing, economic aspects. Sonnenblumen. Anbau, Verfahrenstechnik, Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, K [Landwirtschaftsschule, Alzey (Germany, F.R.); Hunger, A [Landes-, Lehr- und Forschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Weinbau und Gartenbau, Neustadt (Germany, F.R.); Weickel, J [Landespflanzenschutzamt Rheinland-Pfalz, Mainz (Germany, F.R.)

    1988-01-01

    Sunflowers are cultivated throughout the world, primarily for oil extraction but also as a birdseed, for eating, or for backing. Although some attempts have been made, they are hardly ever used as green fodder. Sunflowers grown for oil extraction usually have thin-shelled, black seeds. They have an oil fraction of 40 to 50% and a protein fraction of more than 20%. Sunflowers for other uses have large seeds with thick, striped shells. Their oil fraction is between 25 and 30%. (orig.).

  1. Sunflower (Helinathus annuus L.): A potential crop for environmental industry

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad M.N.V.

    2007-01-01

    Sunflower applications in phytotechnologies for the clean-up of inorganic and organic contaminants and pollutants are reviewed in this compilation. There have been several apprehensions on the application of phytoremediation technology. High bioproductivity and biomass yield are a must for the success of this strategy. The phytoextraction coefficient of sunflowers is high compared with many other species. Sunflower is a proven laboratory and field example for the emerging environmental indust...

  2. Holocene Evolution and Sediment Provenance of Horn Island, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, N.; Wallace, D. J.; Miner, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    As one of the most stable islands in the Mississippi-Alabama barrier island chain, Horn Island provides critical habitat, plays an important role in regulating estuarine conditions in the Mississippi Sound, and helps to attenuate wave energy and storm surge for the mainland. The provenance of sediments comprising Horn Island is largely unknown and has implications for mode of island genesis and evolution. The existing literature proposes that island chain formation was initiated by bar emergence from a subaqueous spit that grew laterally westward from Dauphin Island in the east. Decelerating sea level rise 4,000 to 5,000 years ago facilitated island formation. This proposed mode of formation is supported by a lone radiocarbon date from lagoonal sediments below Horn Island, suggesting the system formed after 4,615 ± 215 years BP. Rivers supplying suspended sediment include the Mississippi, Pascagoula, Mobile and Apalachicola, but the variable nature of their paths and sediment supply means that Horn Island has received differing amounts of sediment from these proximal rivers throughout the Holocene. To analyze the stratigraphy and sediment characteristics of Horn Island, we will utilize 24 vibracores (up to 6 meters in length) from offshore Horn Island that were obtained by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and 9 onshore drill cores (up to 28 meters in length) from the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality. High-resolution LiDAR data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 2010 will be used to describe modern geomorphic barrier environments. We will employ down-core x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence analyses to identify mineralogical and chemical signatures that potentially correspond to unique signatures of the fluvial sources of proximal rivers. New radiocarbon ages will be used to constrain the timing of island formation and alterations in sediment supply. High-resolution shallow geophysical data will provide

  3. Μetal Uptake by Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Irrigated with Water Polluted with Chromium and Nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoikou, Vasiliki; Andrianos, Vangelis; Stasinos, Sotiris; Kostakis, Marios G; Attiti, Sofia; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2017-07-17

    The water aquifers of the regions of Asopos River in Viotia and Messapia in Evia (Greece) have been contaminated with hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and bivalent nickel (Ni (II)). Given that these areas are the two biggest tuber producing regions of Greece, in our previous work, the cross-contamination of the food chain with these two heavy metals was quantified. In the present study, the potential of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) cultivation in these regions is evaluated. The scope of our study was to investigate the uptake of chromium and nickel by sunflower, in a greenhouse experiment. The study included two cultivation periods of plants in six irrigation lines with different levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) ranging from 0 μg/L (control) to 10,000 μg/L. In all plant parts, statistically significant increased levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) were found when compared to control ones. Also, a positive correlation, both for Cr and Ni, between levels of heavy metals in irrigation water and plants was observed. Following European Food Safety Authority recommendations, the obtained oil was evaluated as safe for consumption, therefore, sunflower cultivation could be a valid bioremediation solution for the Asopos and Messapia regions.

  4. Development and utilization of sunflower genotypes with altered oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cvejić, Sandra; Jocić, Siniša; Miladinović, Dragana; Jocković, Milan; Imerovski, Ivana; Sakač, Zvonimir; Miklič, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower oil is among the highest quality oils of plant origin. The oil of standard sunflowers has an average of 10% saturated fatty acids, 20-30% oleic acid and 60-70% linoleic acid. The total content of tocopherols in standard sunflower oil is 700-1000 mg/kg with the predominant being alpha-tocopherol (vitamin-E). Following the trends of the food and non-food industries sunflower breeders have been able to significantly change the fatty acid composition of the oil. The oil of high-oleic hy...

  5. Genetic analysis of sunflower chlorophyll mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkina, E.V.; Guskov, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    The method of getting the chlorophyll mutations in sunflower was developed by Y.D. Beletskii in 1969 with the use of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH). Certain concentrations of NMH are known to induce plastid mutations in growing seeds, and their yield depends on the duration of the exposure. The given work presented studies on the influence of rifampicin (R) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) on the genetic activity NMH, as an inductor of plastid and nuclear mutations

  6. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  7. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2. Dockets Nos. 50-416 and 50-417, Mississippi Power and Light Company; Middle South Energy, Inc., South Mississippi Electric Power Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    Supplement 2 to the Safety Evaluation Report for Mississippi Power and Light Company, et. al, joint application for licenses to operate the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, located on the east bank of the Mississippi River near Port Gibson, in Claiborne County, Mississippi, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time of publication of the Safety Evaluation Report

  8. Backcrosses in interspecific hybridization in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlagić Jovanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When incorporating desirable traits (resistance to causal agents of various diseases from the wild relatives into the cultivated sunflower, some undesirable ones are introduced too (branching, small head diameter, low oil content, etc. To overcome this problem, backcrosses (F1 interspecific hybrids x cultivated sunflower are used, although very often desirable traits are lost in the process. Cytological analysis (meiosis and pollen viability and molecular markers (RAPD were used to estimate what portion of the parental species genome was present in (be interspecific hybrids of the F1 and BC1F1 generations. The results showed that the percentage of irregularities at meiosis increased from F1 to BC1F1 gen. They also indicated the presence of aneuploids and sterility in the cross between the hexaploid species H.rigidus and cultivated sunflower. The genetic distance between the parents was 83%, that between H.rigidus and the F1 hybrid 54 61%, and that between H.annuus and F1 hybrid 70-76%. In the BC1F1 generation, the genetic distance from Hannuus decreased to 58-66% and that from H.rigidus increased to 69-76%.

  9. Physical properties of sunflower seeds during drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Adriana de Souza Smaniotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect that the moisture content has on the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The cultivar Olisun 3, with an initial moisture content of 34.1 (% wb, was used and then subjected to drying in an oven with forced air ventilation under three temperature conditions: 40, 60 and 80 °C. The reduction in the moisture content during drying was monitored by the gravimetric method until it reached a final moisture content of 8.0 ± 1.0 (% wb. The physical properties were analysed: the bulk density, true density, intergranular porosity and volumetric shrinkage of the mass and unit and terminal velocity. The reduction in the moisture content influenced the physical properties of sunflower seeds and caused a decrease in the intergranular porosity, bulk density and true density at all examined temperatures. The mass and volumetric contractions of the unit and reduction in shrinkage rates all increased with the drying of sunflower seeds at all studied temperatures. The terminal velocity increased as the moisture content of the grains increased, which was more evident at the drying temperature of 80 °C.

  10. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment Dynamics in the Mississippi Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, D. N.; Skarke, A. D.; Silwal, S.; Dash, P.

    2016-02-01

    The Mississippi Sound is a semi-enclosed estuary between the coast of Mississippi and a chain of offshore barrier islands with relatively shallow water depths and high marine biodiversity that is wildly utilized for commercial fishing and public recreation. The discharge of sediment-laden rivers into the Mississippi Sound and the adjacent Northern Gulf of Mexico creates turbid plumes that can extend hundreds of square kilometers along the coast and persist for multiple days. The concentration of suspended sediment in these coastal waters is an important parameter in the calculation of regional sediment budgets as well as analysis of water-quality factors such as primary productivity, nutrient dynamics, and the transport of pollutants as well as pathogens. The spectral resolution, sampling frequency, and regional scale spatial domain associated with satellite based sensors makes remote sensing an ideal tool to monitor suspended sediment dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Accordingly, the presented research evaluates the validity of published models that relate remote sensing reflectance with suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), for similar environmental settings, with 51 in situ observations of SSC from the Mississippi Sound. Additionally, regression analysis is used to correlate additional in situ observations of SSC in Mississippi Sound with coincident observations of visible and near-infrared band reflectance collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Aqua satellite, in order to develop a site-specific empirical predictive model for SSC. Finally, specific parameters of the sampled suspended sediment such as grain size and mineralogy are analyzed in order to quantify their respective contributions to total remotely sensed reflectance.

  11. Groundwater availability of the Mississippi embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Hart, Rheannon M.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater is an important resource for agricultural and municipal uses in the Mississippi embayment. Arkansas ranks first in the Nation for rice and third for cotton production, with both crops dependent on groundwater as a major source of irrigation requirements. Multiple municipalities rely on the groundwater resources to provide water for industrial and public use, which includes the city of Memphis, Tennessee. The demand for the groundwater resource has resulted in groundwater availability issues in the Mississippi embayment including: (1) declining groundwater levels of 50 feet or more in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in parts of eastern Arkansas from agricultural pumping, (2) declining groundwater levels of over 360 feet over the last 90 years in the confined middle Claiborne aquifer in southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana from municipal pumping, and (3) litigation between the State of Mississippi and a Memphis water utility over water rights in the middle Claiborne aquifer. To provide information to stakeholders addressing the groundwater-availability issues, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program supported a detailed assessment of groundwater availability through the Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study (MERAS). This assessment included (1) an evaluation of how these resources have changed over time through the use of groundwater budgets, (2) development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends, and (3) application of statistical tools to evaluate the importance of individual observations within a groundwater-monitoring network. An estimated 12 million acre-feet per year (11 billion gallons per day) of groundwater was pumped in 2005 from aquifers in the Mississippi embayment. Irrigation constitutes the largest groundwater use, accounting for approximately 10 million acre-feet per year (9 billion gallons per day) in 2000 from the Mississippi

  12. Base catalyzed transesterification of sunflower oil biodiesel | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, sunflower oil was investigated for biodiesel production. Sunflower is one of the leading oil seed crop, cultivated for the production of oil in the world. It has also been considered as an important crop for biodiesel production. Seeds for biodiesel production were procured from local farmers of Attock and ...

  13. Sunflower disease and insect pests in Pakistan: A review | Mukhtar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sun flower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important oil seed crops and potentially fit in agricultural system and oil production sector of Pakistan. Various diseases, insects and nematodes attack damage the sunflower crop, results a wide range of loss in production and yield. Sunflower is susceptible to diseases of ...

  14. Detection of the parasitic plant, Orobanche cumana on sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orobanche cumana broomrape is a parasitic plant described as an agricultural problem for sunflower production in many countries. In Tunisia, this pathogen was found parasitizing sunflower cultivars in some fields in the Béja region, for the first time during the 2009-2010 agricultural season. Clear O. cumana attachments ...

  15. Initial estimates of hurricane Katrina impacts of Mississippi gulf coast forest resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick A. Glass; Sonja N. Oswalt

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina pummeled the Gulf Coast of Mississippi on August 29, 2005. The eye wall of the storm passed directly over Hancock and Pearl River Counties. Harrison, Jackson, Stone, and George Counties on the windward side of the hurricane's path sustained severe damage before the storm's strength dissipated as it moved farther inland (fig. 1).

  16. Wild sunflower species as a genetic resource for resistance to sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) is a parasitic weed that causes economic damage in sunflower production in many countries, especially in Central and Eastern Europe, Spain, Turkey, Israel, Iran, Kazakhstan, and China. Genes for resistance to broomrape races A, B, C, D, and E are present in variet...

  17. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, SUNFLOWER COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  18. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Mississippi and Florida airborne survey, Natchez quadrangle of, of Mississippi and Louisiana. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    The Natchez quadrangle covers a region within and adjacent to the Mississippi River flood plain in the northern Gulf Coastal Physiographic Province. The underlying Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments of the Mississippi Embayment are extremely thick and contain many piercement structures. Exposed sediments consist largely of recent alluvium in the flood plain area, and Cenozoic sediments of marine and nonmarine origin in adjacent areas. A search of available literature revealed no known uranium deposits in the area. Eighty-three uranium anomalies were found, using the selection criteria set forth in Appendix A, and are discussed briefly. None were considered significant, and most appeared to be of cultural origin. Magnetic data suggests extremely deep sources, and some possible structural complexity in the source area

  19. New sunflower seeds with high contents of phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols have a positive nutritional impact because they contribute to reduce cholesterol levels in blood. Accordingly, foods rich in phytosterols are required in a healthy diet. Vegetable oils are the richest source of phytosterols in the diet, though sunflower oil has lower phytosterol content than other seed oils such as rapeseed and corn. Increasing phytosterol content in sunflower oil requires optimizing first selection procedures. In this way, the development of accurate methods for analyzing phytosterol content in seeds instead of oils has opened up recently the way for large-scale screening for this trait. Large variability for seed phytosterol content has been identified in sunflower germplasm, from which we have developed a line, IASP-18, with about twofold seed phytosterol content than conventional sunflower. The trait is expressed across environments. Genetic studies are underway to characterize its inheritance and assess the feasibility of introgressing genes for high phytosterol content into elite sunflower germplasm.

  20. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS).

  1. Restoring Oaks in the Missouri River Floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Dey; John Kabrick; Jennifer Grabner; Mike Gold

    2001-01-01

    Restoration of native vegetation and hydrologic regimes in the Mississippi and Missouri River floodplains is problematic because they are among the most altered ecosystems in North America (Noss et al. 1995), and because of the competing demands placed on these river ecosystems by commercial, private and social interests. Since the 1780s, more than half (53 percent) of...

  2. Multivariate analysis of the influences of oceanic and meteorological processes on suspended particulate matter distributions in Mississippi coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S. J.; Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Dzwonkowski, B.; Dykstra, S. L.; Wallace, D. J.; Church, I.; Wiggert, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Mississippi Sound is influenced by a high volume of sediment discharge from the Biloxi River, Mobile Bay via Pas aux Herons, Pascagoula River, Pearl River, Wolf River, and Lake Pontchartrain through the Rigolets. The river discharge, variable wind speed, wind direction and tides have a significant impact on the turbidity and transport of sediments in the Sound. Level 1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data is processed to extract the remote sensing reflectance at the wavelength of 645 nm and binned into an 8-day composite at a resolution of 500 m. The study uses a regional ocean color algorithm to compute suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration based on these 8-day composite images. Multivariate analysis is applied between the SPM and time series of tides, wind, turbidity and river discharge measured at federal and academic institutions' stations and moorings. The multivariate analysis also includes in situ measurements of suspended sediment concentration and advective exchanges through the Mississippi Sound's tidal inlets between the coastal shelf and the nearshore estuarine waters. Mechanisms underlying the observed spatiotemporal distribution of SPM, including material exchange between the Sound and adjacent shelf waters, will be explored. The results of this study will contribute to current understanding of exchange mechanisms and pathways with the Mississippi Bight via the Mississippi Sound's tidal inlets.

  3. Common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) interference in soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, P.W.; Maddux, L.D.; Moshier, L.J.; Stahlman, P.W.

    1996-01-01

    Multiple weed species in the field combine to cause yield losses and can be described using one of several empirical models. Field studies were conducted to compare observed corn yield loss caused by common sunflower and shattercane populations with predicted yield losses modeled using a multiple species rectangular hyperbola model, an additive model, or the yield loss model in the decision support system, WeedSOFT, and to derive competitive indices for common sunflower and shattercane. Common sunflower and shattercane emerged with corn and selected densities established in field experiments at Scandia and Rossville, KS, between 2000 and 2002. The multiple species rectangular hyperbola model fit pooled data from three of five location–years with a predicted maximum corn yield loss of 60%. Initial slope parameter estimate for common sunflower was 49.2 and 4.2% for shattercane. A ratio of these estimates indicated that common sunflower was 11 times more competitive than shattercane. When common sunflower was assigned a competitive index (CI) value of 10, shattercane CI was 0.9. Predicted yield losses modeled for separate common sunflower or shattercane populations were additive when compared with observed yield losses caused by low-density mixed populations of common sunflower (0 to 0.5 plants m −2 ) and shattercane (0 to 4 plants m −2 ). However, a ratio of estimates of these models indicated that common sunflower was only four times as competitive as shattercane, with a CI of 2.5 for shattercane. The yield loss model in WeedSOFT underpredicted the same corn losses by 7.5%. Clearly, both the CI for shattercane and the yield loss model in WeedSOFT need to be reevaluated, and the multiple species rectangular hyperbola model is proposed. (author)

  4. Gene transfer from wild Helianthus to sunflower: topicalities and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (2n=17 belongs to the Helianthus genus (Asteraceae. Wild Helianthus species display morphological variation for branching and stem number, for architecture and seed size, and for resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses due to which they thrive in different environments in North America. The genus is divided into botanical sections, two for annual as sunflower, and two for perennial species as Jerusalem artichoke that produces rhizomes (tubers. We explain the difficulties and successes obtained by crossing sunflower with these species to improve the agronomic traits of the sunflower crop. It is easier to cross the annual species than the perennials’ with sunflower. Several traits such as Cytoplasmic male sterility and restorer Rf-PET1 genes, Downy mildew resistance, Phomopsis resistance, Sclerotinia resistance, Rust resistance, and Orobanche resistance have already been introduced from annual species into sunflower crop, but the complex genomic organization of these species compared to sunflower limits their important potential. Perennial species are much more diverse, and their genomes display 2n, 4n, or 6n chromosomes for n 17. The realities of inter-specific hybridization are relatively disappointing due to the introgression lines that have low oil and low seed yield. We report here several attempts to introgress agronomic traits from these species to sunflower, and we present as a case study, an introgressed progenies from H. mollis, a diploid species with sessile small leaves. We constructed a preliminary genetic map with AFLP markers in 21 BC1 plants, and we then showed that some progenies display 6 to 44% of introgression from H. mollis. Although this study is promising due to the novel compact architecture of the progenies, we cannot estimate the transferability from H. mollis to other perennial Helianthus to improve sunflower.

  5. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Mississippi single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  6. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Mississippi and Florida airborne survey: Mobile quadrangle of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The Mobile quadrangle covers 5000 square miles of land east of the Mississippi River delta area. The area overlies thick sections of the Gulf of Mexico Basin. Surficial exposures are dominated by Recent and Pleistocene sediment. A search of available literature revealed no known uranium deposits. A total of 41 uranium anomalies were detected and are discussed briefly in this report. None were considered significant and all appear to relate to cultural features. Magnetic data appears to be in agreement with existing structural interpretations of the area

  7. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Mississippi and Florida airborne survey: Baton Rouge quadrangle, Louisiana and Mississippi. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The Baton Rouge quadrangle covers 8250 square miles in the Mississippi River delta area. The area overlies thick sections of the Gulf of Mexico Basin. Surficial exposures are dominated by Recent and Pleistocene sediment. A search of available literature revealed no known uranium deposits. A total of 87 uranium anomalies were detected and are discussed briefly in this report. None were considered significant and all appear to relate to cultural features. Magnetic data appears to be in agreement with existing structural interpretations of the area

  8. Improving oxidative stability of soya and sunflower oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rosmarinus officinallis) and tert- butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) as possible antioxidants in sunflower and soya oil. Upon addition of 200 ppm of dried leaf extract, acetone extract yielded protection of the samples against oxidation more efficiently as ...

  9. Creating Sunflower Mutant Lines (Helianthus Annuus L.) Using Induced Mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encheva, J.

    2009-01-01

    Immature sunflower zygotic embryos of sunflower fertility restorer line 374 R were treated with ultrasound and gamma radiation before plating embryos to culture medium. All plants were isolated and self-pollinated for several generations. New sunflower forms with inherited morphological and biochemical changes were obtained. The genetic changes occurring during the mutation procedure included fourteen morphological and biochemical characters. In comparison to the check line 374 R, decreasing of the mean value of the indexes was registered for 33 % of the total number of characters and vise verse, significant increasing was observed for 60 %. Mutation for resistance to the local population of Orobanche cumana race A-E was obtained from the susceptible Bulgarian control line 374 R. Two investigated mutant lines possessed 100 % resistance to Orobanche and stable inheritance in the next generations. Our results showed that induced mutagenesis in sunflower can be successfully used to develop new lines useful for heterosis breeding

  10. Sunflower seed: a potential source of food and feed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, T.; Ali, S.; Javed, M.A.; Javad, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical composition of seven varieties of sunflower seeds and seed fractions i.e., kernels, hulls and meals was determined. Sunflower meals (SFM) contained 44.00 to 49.52% crude protein, 1.25 to 1.50% fat, 3.43 to 6.75% crude fibre, 7.50 to 8.51% ash, 27.30 to 36.09% nitrogen free extract, 3.12 to 3.51% phytic acid and 2.45 to 3.01% chlorogenic acid. Fatty acid profile of sunflower oil with respect to other vegetable oils (i.e., soybean, mustard, canola, cotton, corn oils) and protein solubility profile of sunflower meal as compared to soybean and mustard meals, indicate that its oil and meal have a great nutritional potential. (author)

  11. Sunflower Beauty Contest : tsvetõ zimoi / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Lillekleitide võistlusest Sunflower Beauty Contest Tallinna klubis Decolte. Konkursi idee on florist Tatjana Tridvornovalt. Esimese koha sai Viimsi lilleäri lilleseadjate Meri-Liis Kõivu ja Triinu Põlderi lillekleit "Talvepruut"

  12. Whole-plant utilization of sunflowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R P [Univ. of Texas, Austin; Seiler, G J

    1984-01-01

    Forty-eight accessions representing 39 taxa of the genus Helianthus (sunflower) were collected from a common garden and whole plants examined for yields of non-polar extractables. (hydrocarbons, rubber, etc.), polar extractables (resins, sugars, etc.) and crude protein. This study revealed several promising species for obtaining hydrocarbons: H. agrestis, H. annuus, H. argophyllus, and H. arizonensis. Species highest in methanol extractables were H. ciliaris, H. leavigtus, H. occidentalis ssp. plantagineus, H. paradoxus, H. petiolaris, and H. silphioides. Species with greater than 16% protein yields were H. arizonensis, H. grosseserratus, H. neglectus, H. petiolaris ssp. fallax, and H. simulans. Since this genus is well known agronomically, the development of one of the species for whole-plant utilization may be easier than the domestication of some lesser-known genera. 42 references, 3 tables

  13. THE BIOLOGICAL CYCLE OF SUNFLOWER BROOMRAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUCA Maria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanchaceae is a dicot family, which consists of annual and perennial plants distributing from tropical to subarctic regions, predominately in temperate regions. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr. = Orobanche cernua Loefl. is a parasitic angiosperm that has been causing a great deal of damage to sunflower production in many countries, including Republic of Moldova. This parasitic angiosperm depends entirely on the host for its supply of water and nutrients. A thorough understanding of its biology, including detailed knowledge of the specific mechanisms of parasitism, is needed in order to develop novel control methods. Some main developmental steps are described for the root parasites: seed conditioning and germination, haustorium formation, penetration into host tissues, maturation of the parasite plant, and seed production. All these stages were studied in artificial and natural conditions.

  14. Do bees like Van Gogh's Sunflowers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Walker, Julian

    2006-06-01

    Flower colours have evolved over 100 million years to address the colour vision of their bee pollinators. In a much more rapid process, cultural (and horticultural) evolution has produced images of flowers that stimulate aesthetic responses in human observers. The colour vision and analysis of visual patterns differ in several respects between humans and bees. Here, a behavioural ecologist and an installation artist present bumblebees with reproductions of paintings highly appreciated in Western society, such as Van Gogh's Sunflowers. We use this unconventional approach in the hope to raise awareness for between-species differences in visual perception, and to provoke thinking about the implications of biology in human aesthetics and the relationship between object representation and its biological connotations.

  15. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2017-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi , or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  16. System for combustion of sunflower shells in industrial steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriev, Kh.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an economically efficient solution for reconstruction of steam generators with steam production over 5 t/h using foregoing cyclone chamber for sunflower shells combustion. For average fuel caloricity 9 445 ccal/kg and sunflower shells caloricity between 3 485 and 3 750 ccal/kg, the petroleum saving is 68.78% for an average boiler efficiency 4.6 t/h steam

  17. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2018-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  18. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Dimitrijevic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare

  19. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Dal Belo Leite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different levels, which could be met by simulation models. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the crop model OILCROP-SUN to simulate sunflower development and growth under Brazilian conditions and to explore sunflower water- and nitrogen-limited, water-limited and potential yield and yield variability over an array of sowing dates in the northern region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For model calibration, an experiment was conducted in which two sunflower genotypes (H358 and E122 were cultivated in a clayey soil. Growth components (leaf area index, above ground biomass, grain yield and development stages (crop phenology were measured. A database composed of 27 sunflower experiments from five Brazilian regions was used for model evaluation. The spatial yield distribution of sunflower was mapped using ordinary kriging in ArcGIS. The model simulated sunflower grain productivity satisfactorily (Root Mean Square Error ≈ 13 %. Simulated yields were relatively high (1,750 to 4,250 kg ha-1 and the sowing window was fairly wide (Oct to Feb for northwestern locations, where sunflower could be cultivated as a second crop (double cropping at the end of the rainy season. The hybrid H358 had higher yields for all simulated sowing dates, growth conditions and selected locations.

  20. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.