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Sample records for sunflower oil hoso

  1. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS).

  2. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  3. Serum lipid profile and inflammatory markers in the aorta of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oils and oil-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) major and minor component anti-inflammatory effect on aorta was evaluated; Wistar rats were fed (9 weeks) on either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD supplemented with oils, i.e. EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), or oil-products modified to their phenolic content, i.e. phenolics deprived-EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. HCD induced dyslipidemia and resulted in higher aorta adhesion molecules levels at euthanasia. Groups receiving EVOO, EVOO(-), HOSO, HOSO(+) presented higher serum TC and LDL-c levels compared to cholesterol-fed rats; attenuation of aorta E-selectin levels was also observed. In EVOO/EVOO(-) groups, aorta vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was lower compared to HCD animals. SO/SO(+) diets had no effect on endothelial dysfunction amelioration. Overall, our results suggest that major and/or minor EVOO constituents improve aorta E-selectin and VCAM-1, while serum lipids do not benefit.

  4. Viscosity modification of high-oleic sunflower oil with polymeric additives for the design of new biolubricant formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinchia, L A; Delgado, M A; Valencia, C; Franco, J M; Gallegos, C

    2009-03-15

    Although most common lubricants contain mineral or synthetic oils as basestocks, new environmental regulations are demanding environmentally friendly lubricants. In this sense, vegetable oils represent promising alternatives to mineral-based lubricants because of their high biodegradability, good lubricity, and low volatility. However, their poor thermooxidative stability and the small range of viscosity represent a clear disadvantage to be used as suitable biolubricants. The main objective of this work was to develop new environmentally friendly lubricant formulations with improved kinematic viscosity values and viscosity thermal susceptibility. With this aim, a high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was blended with polymeric additives, such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymers, at different concentrations (0.5-5% w/w). Dynamic viscosity and density measurements were performed in a rotational rheometer and capillary densimeter, respectively, in a temperature range between 25 and 120 degrees C. An Arrhenius-like equation fits the evolution of viscosity with temperature fairly well. Both EVA and SBS copolymers may be satisfactorily used as additives to increase the viscosity of HOSO, thus improving the low viscosity values of this oil. HOSO viscosity increases with polymer concentration. Specifically, EVA/HOSO blends exhibit higher viscosity values, which are needed for applications such as lubrication of bearings and four-stroke engines. On the other hand, viscositythermal susceptibility of HOSO samples increases with EVA or SBS concentration.

  5. Frankfurter Type Sausage Production with Sunflower Oil Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    ERTAŞ, A. Hamdi; KARABAŞ, Gülay

    2014-01-01

    Some quality characteristics of frankfurter type sausages (with 30% total fat) produced by adding sunflower oil at different levels (10%, 20% and 30%) were determined and compared to control with 30% animal fat. Increasing of sunflower oil content resulted in lower process yield. Cholesterol content and water holding capacity of frankfurters also decreased at the levels of sunflower oil from 10 to 30% (P

  6. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  7. Development and utilization of sunflower genotypes with altered oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cvejić, Sandra; Jocić, Siniša; Miladinović, Dragana; Jocković, Milan; Imerovski, Ivana; Sakač, Zvonimir; Miklič, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower oil is among the highest quality oils of plant origin. The oil of standard sunflowers has an average of 10% saturated fatty acids, 20-30% oleic acid and 60-70% linoleic acid. The total content of tocopherols in standard sunflower oil is 700-1000 mg/kg with the predominant being alpha-tocopherol (vitamin-E). Following the trends of the food and non-food industries sunflower breeders have been able to significantly change the fatty acid composition of the oil. The oil of high-oleic hy...

  8. Base catalyzed transesterification of sunflower oil biodiesel | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, sunflower oil was investigated for biodiesel production. Sunflower is one of the leading oil seed crop, cultivated for the production of oil in the world. It has also been considered as an important crop for biodiesel production. Seeds for biodiesel production were procured from local farmers of Attock and ...

  9. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  10. Genomic Prediction of Sunflower Hybrids Oil Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Mangin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of hybrid performance using incomplete factorial mating designs is widely used in breeding programs including different heterotic groups. Based on the general combining ability (GCA of the parents, predictions are accurate only if the genetic variance resulting from the specific combining ability is small and both parents have phenotyped descendants. Genomic selection (GS can predict performance using a model trained on both phenotyped and genotyped hybrids that do not necessarily include all hybrid parents. Therefore, GS could overcome the issue of unknown parent GCA. Here, we compared the accuracy of classical GCA-based and genomic predictions for oil content of sunflower seeds using several GS models. Our study involved 452 sunflower hybrids from an incomplete factorial design of 36 female and 36 male lines. Re-sequencing of parental lines allowed to identify 468,194 non-redundant SNPs and to infer the hybrid genotypes. Oil content was observed in a multi-environment trial (MET over 3 years, leading to nine different environments. We compared GCA-based model to different GS models including female and male genomic kinships with the addition of the female-by-male interaction genomic kinship, the use of functional knowledge as SNPs in genes of oil metabolic pathways, and with epistasis modeling. When both parents have descendants in the training set, the predictive ability was high even for GCA-based prediction, with an average MET value of 0.782. GS performed slightly better (+0.2%. Neither the inclusion of the female-by-male interaction, nor functional knowledge of oil metabolism, nor epistasis modeling improved the GS accuracy. GS greatly improved predictive ability when one or both parents were untested in the training set, increasing GCA-based predictive ability by 10.4% from 0.575 to 0.635 in the MET. In this scenario, performing GS only considering SNPs in oil metabolic pathways did not improve whole genome GS prediction but

  11. Improving oxidative stability of soya and sunflower oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rosmarinus officinallis) and tert- butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) as possible antioxidants in sunflower and soya oil. Upon addition of 200 ppm of dried leaf extract, acetone extract yielded protection of the samples against oxidation more efficiently as ...

  12. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M. F.; Sanchez, Y.; Gomez, M.; Hernandez, F.; Veloso, M. C.; Pereira, P. A.; Mangrich, A. S.; Andrade, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours) than with air (8 hours). Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity. (Author) 34 refs.

  13. Gene effects and combining abilities for oil content in sunflower

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    Jocković Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide importance of sunflower oil, objective of this study was to evaluate gene effects and combining abilities of six sunflower open pollinated varieties. Varieties were crossed according to incomplete diallel method and produced fifteen F1 progenies. Comparing the mean values of F1 progenies to parents mean in most cases superdominance was expressed as a mode of inheritance. Nonetheless, dominance of better parent and partial dominance of better parent were also recorded as a mode of inheritance. GCA/SCA ratio indicated greater importance of non-additive genetic component in oil content expression. The genetic variance analysis showed that dominant component was more important and dominant genes prevailed compared to recessive genes for oil content in sunflower.

  14. Sunflower oil in the treatment of hot tar burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türegün, M; Oztürk, S; Selmanpakoğlu, N

    1997-08-01

    Hot tar burns compose a unique class of thermal injury, because removal of this highly sticky compound may be very difficult without inflicting additional tissue damage. Early removal of tar facilitates assessment of the burn and improves patient comfort. Although the use of many substances for the painless removal of tar has been described, we used sunflower oil effectively in the treatment of four tar burn patients. This first report describes the practical and successful use of sunflower oil which was easily obtained from the hospital kitchen.

  15. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  16. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Maruno, Mônica; Ferrari, Márcio; Topan, José Fernando

    2016-06-09

    The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w) was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w) employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB) derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  17. Thermal stability of oils added with avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) leaf extracts during the French potatoes frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Paula; García, Paula; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Robert, Paz

    2017-04-15

    Effect of the addition of avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) hydroalcoholic leaf extracts (AHE and OHE, respectively) on thermal stability of canola oil (CO) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) during French potatoes frying at 180°C was studied. The extracts were characterized by the total phenolic content, phenol chromatographic profiles and antioxidant activity. B-type trimer procyanidins were the major phenolic compounds identified in AHE. OHE showed higher phenol content, antioxidant activity regarding AHE. CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE decreased the formation of polar compounds and showed an anti-polymeric effect with respect to oils without extracts, whereas AHE extract showed a prooxidant effect on HOSO. Therefore, OHE showed an antioxidant effect on HOSO and CO under the studied conditions. In addition, all systems (CO+AHE, HOSO+AHE, CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE) increased the retention of tocopherols. These results demonstrate the potential utility of OHE as natural antioxidant for oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of Sunflower Oil Transesterification Process Using Sodium Methoxide

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    Sara KoohiKamali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methanolysis process of sunflower oil was investigated to get high methyl esters (biodiesel content using sodium methoxide. To reach to the best process conditions, central composite design (CCD through response surface methodology (RSM was employed. The optimal conditions predicted were the reaction time of 60 min, an excess stoichiometric amount of alcohol to oil ratio of 25%w/w and the catalyst content of 0.5%w/w, which lead to the highest methyl ester content (100%w/w. The methyl ester content of the mixture from gas chromatography analysis (GC was compared to that of optimum point. Results, confirmed that there was no significant difference between the fatty acid methyl ester content of sunflower oil produced under the optimized condition and the experimental value (P≥0.05. Furthermore, some fuel specifications of the resultant biodiesel were tested according to American standards for testing of materials (ASTM methods. The outcome showed that the methyl ester mixture produced from the optimized condition met nearly most of the important biodiesel specifications recommended in ASTM D 6751 requirements. Thus, the sunflower oil methyl esters resulted from this study could be a suitable alternative for petrol diesels.

  19. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  20. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  1. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Mazloom; Tariq, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dioctyltin diacetate (C 8 H 17 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dibutyltin oxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C 8 H 17 ) 2 SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C 6 H 5 ) 2 SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OH) 2 Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C 4 H 9 )Sn(=O)OH.xH 2 O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the presence of 1% dibutyltin diacetate as a catalyst and was compared their percentage conversions. The experimental yield for the conversion of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into biodiesel was found to be 71%, 51%, 50.78%, 40.90% and 39.66%, respectively. The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil into methyl esters was found to be increased up to 96% by increasing reaction time, without emulsion formation. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB), soybean oil biodiesel (SOB), neem oil biodiesel (NOB), rocket seed oil biodiesel (RSOB) and linseed oil biodiesel (LSOB) was confirmed by NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) and FT-IR analyses of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Transesterification of jojoba oil into biodiesel by tin and nano catalysts. • 1 weight % dibutyltin diacetate showed highest yield at 60 °C. • Catalytic conversion comparison of five oils using dibutyltin diacetate • The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil increased with time. • FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) characterization

  2. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  3. Biodiesel from sunflower oil in supercritical methanol with calcium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sunflower seed oil was subjected to the transesterification reaction with calcium oxide (CaO) in supercritical methanol for obtaining biodiesel. Methanol is used most frequently as the alcohol in the transesterification process. Calcium oxide (CaO) can considerably improve the transesterification reaction of sunflower seed oil in supercritical methanol. The variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction, such as the catalyst content, reaction temperature and the molar ratio of soybean oil to alcohol, were investigated and compared with those of non-catalyst runs. The catalytic transesterification ability of CaO is quite weak under ambient temperature. At a temperature of 335 K, the yield of methyl ester is only about 5% in 3 h. When CaO was added from 1.0% to 3.0%, the transesterification speed increased evidently, while when the catalyst content was further enhanced to 5%, the yield of methyl ester slowly reached to a plateau. It was observed that increasing the reaction temperature had a favorable influence on the methyl ester yield. In addition, for molar ratios ranging from 1 to 41, as the higher molar ratios of methanol to oil were charged, the greater transesterification speed was obtained. When the temperature was increased to 525 K, the transesterification reaction was essentially completed within 6 min with 3 wt% CaO and 41:1 methanol/oil molar ratio

  4. An alternative process for hydrogenation of sunflower oil

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    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Classic methodologies for hydrogenation of vegetable oils have traditionally been carried out by nickel catalysts under high pressure of H2 and high temperature. An alternative method for hydrogenation of sunflower oil using limonene and palladium-on-carbon was investigated in this study. The use of limonene as a hydrogen donor solvent was proposed in order to avoid high temperature and high-pressure conditions. The catalytic transfer of hydrogenation was studied by using 0.5 to 2% of Pd as a catalyst, a limonene:oil ratio of 3:1, and reaction times from 0.5 to 2 hours. Under these conditions, high selectivities for oleic acid and low concentrations of stearic acid were obtained.

  5. Impact of climate changes and correlations on oil fatty acids in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onemli, F.

    2012-01-01

    Sunflower oil is a major important vegetable oil because it is widely used in human nutrition and in many industrial productions depends on fatty acid composition. Field studies were conducted during in two years on the same soil to investigate changes of climate induced oil fatty acid composition of a traditional sunflower, and to obtain correlations among oil fatty acids. Seed oil content and twelve fatty acid percentages of sunflower oil were analyzed. Variations for years were significant for seed oil content and palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3), miristic (C14:0) and eicosenoic acids (C20:1). Higher temperatures during seed development in 2010 resulted with 68.38 % increasing in oleic content of the traditional sunflower hybrid. The highest negative correlations (r= -0.99) were noted between oleic and linoleic acids. (author)

  6. First stage of bio-jet fuel production: non-food sunflower oil extraction using cold press method

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    Xianhui Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of concerning petroleum price increasing and environmental impact, more attention is attracted to renewable resources for transportation fuels. Because not conflict with human and animal food resources, non-food vegetable oils are promising sources for developing bio-jet fuels. Extracting vegetable oil from oilseeds is the first critical step in the pathway of bio-jet fuel production. When sunflower seeds are de-hulled, there are always about 5%–15% broken seed kernels (fine meat particles left over as residual wastes with oil content up to 48%. However, the oil extracted from these sunflower seed residues is non-edible due to its quality not meeting food standards. Genetically modified sunflower grown on margin lands has been identified one of sustainable biofuel sources since it doesn't compete to arable land uses. Sunflower oils extraction from non-food sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats (seed de-hulling residue was carried out using a cold press method in this study. Characterization of the sunflower oils produced was performed. The effect of cold press rotary frequency on oil recovery and quality was discussed. The results show that higher oil recovery was obtained at lower rotary frequencies. The highest oil recovery for sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats in the tests were 75.67%, 89.74% and 83.19% respectively. The cold press operating conditions had minor influence on the sunflower oil quality. Sunflower meat oils produced at 15 Hz were preliminarily upgraded and distilled. The properties of the upgraded sunflower oils were improved. Though further study is needed for the improvement of processing cost and oil recovery, cold press has shown promising to extract oil from non-food sunflower seeds for future bio-jet fuel production.

  7. Optimizing conditions for enzymatic extraction of sunflower oil

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    Badr, F. H.

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was extracted with an enzymatic processes using different hydrolytic enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex, as compared to enzyme - free aqueous extraction. All the hydrolytic enzymes enhanced oil extraction from sunflower seeds. The most optimal conditions for oil extraction from sunflower seeds were: 2% enzyme concentration, 30% substrate concentration and 3 hrs period. Using Boganov and Buchkov equation showed that time must be prolonged to get higher yields. The maximum yield during 3 hrs extraction with enzymatic process ranged between 44,5%-57,1% of the soxhlet extractable oil. The potency of the investigated enzymes in extracting oil was in the following order: acid proteinase > cellulase > hemicellulase > animal proteinase > pectinex > pectinase when compared at the previous optimal conditions.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído mediante un proceso enzimático usando diferentes enzimas hidrolíticos: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinasa acida, pectinasa y pectinex, comparando con la extracción acuosa libre de enzima. Todos los enzimas hidrolíticos incrementan la extracción de aceites de semilla de girasol. Las condiciones óptimas para la extracción de aceite a partir de semillas de girasol fueron: 2% de concentración de enzima, 30% de concentración de sustrato y un período de 3 horas. La ecuación de Boganov y Buchkov mostró que el tiempo debe ser prolongado para alcanzar altos rendimientos. El máximo rendimiento durante tres horas de extracción con proceso enzimático osciló entre el 44,5%-57,1% del aceite extraído con soxhlet. La potencia de los enzimas investigados en la extracción de aceite siguió el orden: proteinasa acida > celulasa > hemicelulasa > proteinasa animal > pectinex > pectinasa cuando fue previamente comparado con las condiciones óptimas.

  8. Technological Desition of Extraction of Melanin from the Waste of Production of Sunflower-Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartushina, Yu N.; Nefedieva, E. E.; Sevriukova, G. A.; Gracheva, N. V.; Zheltobryukhov, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    The research was realized in the field of the technology for re-use of waste of sunflower-seed oil production. A technological scheme of production of melanin from sunflower husk as a waste was developed. Re-cycling will give the opportunity to reduce the amount of waste and to obtain an additional source of income.

  9. Seed yield and oil content of some sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to determine the effects of irrigation applied at different growth stages on yield, yield components and oil content of sunflower during 2002 and 2003. Sunflower cultivars Sanbro, Tarsan-1018 and Ozdemirbey were used as materials in the experiment which was designed in a split plot of ...

  10. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  11. BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE WOUNDS OF GOATS FOLLOWING TREATMENT OF SUNFLOWER OIL AND OLIVE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Anand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally created forty eight wounds of similar size and shape were randomly divided in to three groups, of 16 wounds in each group. Sunflower seed oil impregnated gauze were subjected to the wounds of goats belonging to group I, while Olive oil (Olea europaea impregnated gauze were subjected to the wounds of goats of group II and normal saline solution (control soaked gauze to the wounds of goats of group III. Healing tissues were collected from the junction of wound and intact skin from all the experimental wounds in each of the three groups on 3, 10, 15 and 25 days. Biochemical examinations of healing tissue were done for collagen, elastin, hexosamine and hydroxyproline. The level of collagen, elastin, hexosamine and hydroxyproline were significantly higher in group I followed by group II and then group III. It can be concluded that both sunflower oil and olive oil are effective for acceleration of wound healing and sunflower oil is more effective than olive oil.

  12. Regularities of filtration of sunflower oil with the use of vibroacoustic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bredikhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The residue in sunflower oil is a dispersed phase consisting of particulate products grinding sunflower seeds in the form of particles of the pulp, oil cake, meal, residual quantities of metals, pesticides. In the recycling process they are in the oil in suspension and negatively affect its quality. For research an experimental setup was developed allowing to change the angle of inclination of the filter element. The regularities of filtration were determined without preliminary purification of sunflower oil by centrifugation and after centrifugation. It is established, the contamination of centrifuged oil in the initial period is 14.6 times lower. After 10 minutes of treatment, it decreases by 62%, after 20 minutes – by 79.4%. With a 30-minute treatment, particles of 0.005-0.1 mm in size are removed to 90%, which is approximated to the refined oil in terms of contamination. The influence of vibration-acoustic action on sunflower oil during its filtration is shown. At the last stage of production, the peroxide index is reduced to 2-3 moles of active oxygen, and after 3 months of storage – from 11.8 to 7.7, which according to GOST corresponds to the highest-grade oil. The regularities of the filtration without pre-treatment of sunflower oil by centrifugation and after centrifugation. Shows the effect of vibroacoustic exposure on sunflower oil when filtering. The obtained data on the change of qualitative parameters of sunflower oil during its filtration in the field of vibroacoustic impact.

  13. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during deep frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rehab, F. M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA, Peroxide Value (PV, thiobarbituric acid value (TBA, iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC, color and viscosity were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 °C ± 5 °C, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25; while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24. Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05 decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process.

    Aceites de girasol se mezclaron con diferentes niveles de aceite de chufa prensado en frío. Se obtuvieron mezclas de aceite de chufa con girasol en las proporciones: 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30

  14. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  15. Amelioration of oxidative and inflammatory status in hearts of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with oils or oil-products with extra virgin olive oil components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Papalois, Apostolos; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) macro- and micro-constituents in heart oxidative and inflammatory status in a hypercholesterolemic rat model was evaluated. Fatty acid profile as well as α-tocopherol, sterol, and squalene content was identified directly in rat hearts to distinguish the effect of individual components or to enlighten the potential synergisms. Oils and oil-products with discernible lipid and polar phenolic content were used. Wistar rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet solely, or supplemented with one of the following oils, i.e., EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) or oil-products, i.e., phenolics-deprived EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], and HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. Dietary treatment lasted 9 weeks; at the end of the intervention blood and heart samples were collected. High-cholesterol-diet-induced dyslipidemia was shown by increase in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols. Dyslipidemia resulted in increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, while glutathione and interleukin 6 levels remained unaffected in all intervention groups. Augmentation observed in MDA and TNF-α was attenuated in EVOO, SO(+), and HOSO(+) groups. Heart squalene and cholesterol content remained unaffected among all groups studied. Heart α-tocopherol was determined by oil α-tocopherol content. Variations were observed for heart β-sitosterol, while heterogeneity was reported with respect to heart fatty acid profile in all intervention groups. Overall, we suggest that the EVOO-polar phenolic compounds decreased MDA and TNF-α in hearts of cholesterol-fed rats.

  16. The Application of Neural Networks in Balancing Production of Crude Sunflower Oil and Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Ivetic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to predict specific output characteristics of half finished goods (crude sunflower oil and meal on the basis of specific input variables (quality and composition of sunflower seeds, with the help of artificial neural networks. This is an attempt to predict the amount much more precisely than is the case with technological calculations commonly used in the oil industry. All input variables are representing the data received by the laboratory, and the output variables except category % of oil which is obtained by measuring the physical quantity of produced crude sunflower oil and sunflower consumed quantity of the processing quality. The correct prediction of the output variables contributes to better sales planning, production of sunflower oil, and better use of storage. Also, the correct prediction of technological results of the quality of crude oil and meal provides timely response and also preventing getting rancid and poor-quality oil, timely categorizing meal, which leads to proper planning and sales to the rational utilization of storage space, allows timely response technologists and prevents the growth of microorganisms in the meal.

  17. Dietary Fats and Oxidative Stress: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Coronary Artery Disease Subjects Consuming Coconut Oil/Sunflower Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Vasudevan, D M

    2018-01-01

    Coconut oil has been used by the people of Kerala as a cooking medium for several decades. Due to its alleged hypercholesterolemic activity, general population in recent times is shifting to cooking oils rich in polyunsaturated fats, the most popular being sunflower oil. The effect of long-term consumption of sunflower oil on oxidative stress in humans is not well investigated. We studied oxidative stress among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who were consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as a part of their routine diet. Men, aged 35-70 years, with established CAD, who presented to the hospital for routine cardiac evaluations, were enrolled in this observational study. Group 1 and 2 consisted of 73 and 80 subjects consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil respectively for over a period of 2 years. Lipid profile and parameters for oxidative stress were evaluated among them. Conventional lipid parameters did not differ significantly between the two groups. Mean vitamin C concentration was significantly reduced for subjects on sunflower oil compared to those consuming coconut oil ( P  = 0.044). Malondialdehyde was higher for sunflower oil consumers compared to coconut oil consumers ( P  coconut oil did not induce hypercholesterolemia compared to sunflower oil. On the other hand, sunflower oil group had elevated oxidative stress compared to coconut oil group.

  18. A randomized study of coconut oil versus sunflower oil on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with stable coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maniyal Vijayakumar

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Coconut oil even though rich in saturated fatty acids in comparison to sunflower oil when used as cooking oil media over a period of 2 years did not change the lipid-related cardiovascular risk factors and events in those receiving standard medical care.

  19. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. In vitro antioxidant activities of extract and oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed against sunflower oil autoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyam, K L; Teh, Y N; Tan, C P; Kamariah, L

    2012-08-01

    In order to overcome the stability problems of oils and fats, synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) have widespread use as food additives in many countries. Recent reports reveal that these compounds may be implicated in many health risks, including cancer and carcinogenesis. Hence, there is a move towards the use of natural antioxidants of plant origin to replace these synthetic antioxidants. In this study, roselle seed oil (RSO) and extract (RSE) were mixed with sunflower oil, respectively to monitor degradation rate and investigate antioxidant activity during accelerated storage. The antioxidant activity was found to stabilise sunflower oil of various samples and in the order of RSE>RSO>tocopherol>sunflower oil. The total percentage increased after 5 days of storage period in free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV) and anisidine value (AV). Total oxidation value (TOx) of sunflower oil supplemented with 1500 ppm RSE was 33.3%, 47.7%, 14.5%, and 45.5%, respectively. While the total percentage increased under different analysis methods, sunflower oil supplemented with 5% RSO was 17.2%, 60.4%, 36.2% and 59.0% in the order of FFA, PV, AV and TOTOX. Both RSO and RSE were found to be more effective in stabilisation of sunflower oil compared to tocopherol. Total phenolic content of RSE was 46.40 +/- 1.51 mg GAE/100g of oil while RSO was 12.51 +/- 0.15 mg GAE/ 100g of oil. The data indicates that roselle seed oil and seed extract are rich in phenolics and antioxidant activities and may be a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  1. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Winne Sia Chiaw; Ismail, Amin; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Wai, Ho Chun; Seng, Yim Hip

    2014-05-09

    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  2. [Use of flour from sunflower oil cake in the biosynthesis of antigungal antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukharevich, V M; Shvetsova, N N; Prodan, S I; Malkov, M A

    1977-04-01

    The possibility of replacing soybean meal and corn-steep liquor by food wastes of the oilpress industry and the meal of the sunflower oil cake in particular is discussed as applied to the fermentation media for production of antifungal antibiotics, such as levorin, mycoheptin, amphotericin. The studies showed that replacement of soybean meal by sunflower oil cake meal with simultaneous increasing of the amount of carbohydrates in the medium increased the levorin levels by 60--70 per cent as compared to the media used at present. When soybean meal and corn-steep liquor were simultaneously replaced by sunflower oil cake meal in amounts of 3--4 per cent the levels of mycoheptin in the fermentation broth increased by 30--65 per cent respectively. Replacement of soybean meal and corn-steep liquor by 3 per cent of sunflow oil cake meal in the medium used presently increased the amphotericin levels by 27 percent as compared to the control. Therefore, sunflower oil cake meal is a substitute of full value for soybean meal and corn-steep liquor in the fermentation media for production of antifungal antibiotics.

  3. Variability in sunflower oil quality for biodiesel production: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra-Irujo, Gustavo A.; Izquierdo, Natalia G.; Covi, Mauro; Nolasco, Susana M.; Quiroz, Facundo; Aguirrezabal, Luis A.N.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid composition of the feedstock, which varies among and within species, is the main determinant of biodiesel quality. In this work we analyze the variability in biodiesel quality (density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, cetane number and iodine value) obtained from sunflower oil, by means of a validated crop model that predicts the fatty acid composition of one high-oleic, and three traditional (high-linoleic) sunflower hybrids. The model was run with a 10-year average weather data from 56 weather stations in Argentina, and simulation results were compared to the biodiesel standards of Argentina, USA and Europe. We show that biodiesel produced from sunflower oil does not have one fixed quality, but different qualities depending on weather conditions and agricultural practices, and that intraspecific variation in biodiesel quality can be larger than interspecific differences. Our results suggest that (a) sunflower oil from high-oleic hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production (within limits of all analyzed standards), regardless of growing conditions and (b) sunflower oil from traditional hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production under the standards of Argentina and USA, while only certain hybrids grown in warm regions (e.g., Northern Argentina, Southern USA, China, India, Pakistan) are suitable for biodiesel production according to the European standard

  4. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  5. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla) peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Stella Sye Chee; Chang, Sui Kiat; Sia, Winne Chiaw Mei; Yim, Hip Seng

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic compounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm)  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C) for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the application of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  6. Model-free pyrolysis kinetics of sunflower seed and its de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özsin, Gamzenur; Kilic, Murat; Pütün, Ersan; Pütün, Ayşe E.

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower seed wastes from oil production are a potential biomass source for bio- energy production due to extensive and excessive oil production from sunflower seeds. Considering global energy requirement, pyrolysis seems a promising route for utilisation of such industrial biomass wastes. To develop, scale-up and operate pyrolysis plants efficiently, a fundamental understanding of pyrolysis behaviour and kinetics is essential. In this study, sunflower seeds and their waste cakes after extraction were evaluated as a potential biomass feedstock in pyrolysis process. In order to enlighten pyrolytic degradation behaviours, samples were pyrolysed under dynamic conditions from room temperature to 1000 °C using multiple heating rates. The main degradation regimes of the structures were characterized by high weight loss rates. Reaction kinetics was investigated with respect to conversion degree. It is anticipated that this study will be beneficial in optimizing the thermochemical processes, which may be utilize industrial biomass wastes. (full text)

  7. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

    Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de

  8. Productions of sunflower oil biodiesel and used cooking oil through heterogeneous catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, C A; Collazos, C A; Acuña, H E Castellanos; Fernandez, C P; Martínez, D Blanco; Cuervo, J A

    2017-01-01

    This document compares homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts used by production of biodiesel of sunflower oil and cooking oil used in frying. For this, NaOH was used as a catalyst homogeneous, and K 2 CO 3 and Na 2 CO 3 supported in gamma-alumina (K 2 CO 3 /γ Al 2 O 3 y Na 2 CO 3 /γ-Al 2 O 3 ) were synthesized as heterogeneous catalysts, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The transesterification tests were carried out for the sunflower oil and used cooking oil, in a reflux system, to different molar relations methanol/oil, depending on the type of oil and characterization of the same. The reflux system is performed at a temperature of 55-60°C for one hour. Finally, biofuel was characterized and the yield of the reaction was calculated. (paper)

  9. Productions of sunflower oil biodiesel and used cooking oil through heterogeneous catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, C. A.; Blanco Martínez, D.; Collazos, C. A.; Castellanos Acuña, H. E.; Cuervo, J. A.; Fernandez, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    This document compares homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts used by production of biodiesel of sunflower oil and cooking oil used in frying. For this, NaOH was used as a catalyst homogeneous, and K2CO3 and Na2CO3 supported in gamma-alumina (K2CO3/γ Al2O3 y Na2CO3 /γ-Al2O3) were synthesized as heterogeneous catalysts, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The transesterification tests were carried out for the sunflower oil and used cooking oil, in a reflux system, to different molar relations methanol/oil, depending on the type of oil and characterization of the same. The reflux system is performed at a temperature of 55-60°C for one hour. Finally, biofuel was characterized and the yield of the reaction was calculated.

  10. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  11. Dynamic changes of plasma acylcarnitine levels induced by fasting and sunflower oil challenge test in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, C. C.; de Almeida, I. T.; Jakobs, C.; Poll-The, B. T.; Duran, M.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic changes of plasma acylcarnitine levels in 1- to 7-y-old children during fasting and after the ingestion of sunflower oil were studied. Glucose, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, FFA, and individual plasma acylcarnitine levels were monitored in both conditions. Fasting experiments lasted

  12. Direct acetylation of sunflower oil in the presence of boron trioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lubrication properties of sunflower oil have been modified by epoxidation in the first step and acetylation of the obtained epoxide in the second step. Epoxidation has been followed in dichloromethane solution in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid as oxidizing agent and sulfuric acid as catalyst. The reaction ...

  13. A randomized study of coconut oil versus sunflower oil on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with stable coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Maniyal; Vasudevan, D M; Sundaram, K R; Krishnan, Sajitha; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Nandakumar, Sandya; Chandrasekhar, Rajiv; Mathew, Navin

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its pathological atherosclerotic process are closely related to lipids. Lipids levels are in turn influenced by dietary oils and fats. Saturated fatty acids increase the risk for atherosclerosis by increasing the cholesterol level. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of cooking oil media (coconut oil and sunflower oil) on lipid profile, antioxidant mechanism, and endothelial function in patients with established CAD. In a single center randomized study in India, patients with stable CAD on standard medical care were assigned to receive coconut oil (Group I) or sunflower oil (Group II) as cooking media for 2 years. Anthropometric measurements, serum, lipids, Lipoprotein a, apo B/A-1 ratio, antioxidants, flow-mediated vasodilation, and cardiovascular events were assessed at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. Hundred patients in each arm completed 2 years with 98% follow-up. There was no statistically significant difference in the anthropometric, biochemical, vascular function, and in cardiovascular events after 2 years. Coconut oil even though rich in saturated fatty acids in comparison to sunflower oil when used as cooking oil media over a period of 2 years did not change the lipid-related cardiovascular risk factors and events in those receiving standard medical care. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Influence of Palm Oil Addition on Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Muresan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Halva is one of the most popular food products of Middle Eastern and North African countries. Worldwide, the most known halva contains roasted sesame seeds, while usually in Eastern European countries the most appreciated is sunflower halva. However, even if sunflower halva is an appreciated product, it has currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers. Sunflower halva main issue is caused by the oil which separates at the surface during storage, determining a low commercial aspect of the product. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of palm oil addition on sunflower halva stability and texture. Five samples containing different oil percentages [w/w] (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% were prepared, as well as a control sample prepared using the standard recipe (no palm oil added. The texture of all samples was analyzed by an instrumental method, while the colloidal stability was determined by a gravimetric technique during 40 days of storage at two different temperatures (1-2ºC and 15-20ºC. After the storage test at 1-2oC, there were not significant differences between the samples, for all palm oil containing samples as well as for control the percentages of separated oil being below 0.6%. With respect to the control sample, the halva samples containing 1%, 4% and 5% of palm oil showed a decrease in their stability, while samples containing 2% and 3% showed an improved stability (3.44% and 1.78% of separated oil. During this study it was established that the sample containing 3% palm oil was the most favorable, regarding its textural properties, as well as its colloidal stability. 

  15. Life Cycle Assessment for Evaluating On-farm Energy Production: The Case of Sunflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to evaluate the production of sunflower oil as a source of bioenergy and its use on the farm. Representative farms of the Veneto Region were analyzed in order to evaluate the possibility of using different biofuels. The results showed that there are only a few feasible alternatives at farm level. The conversion of oil to biodiesel appeared unachievable because of the large number of hectares necessary for optimizing use of the transesterification equipment. A life cycle environmental analysis (LCA was applied to eight different farm types simulating the total replacement of diesel oil by pure vegetable oil (sunflower. The results were not uniform because, considering all the LCA impact categories, some of them turned to be worse than the original scenario (use of diesel oil but there was a substantial advantage for all the farm types in terms of reduction of substances with effects on climate change. Some farms, termed horticultural farm large, unspecialized farm large and unspecialized farm small, had a reduction of more than 99% in the substances with effects on climate change by changing from diesel oil to sunflower oil. The biofuel is not yet competitive as no free market exists for it, but it represents a practical way to avoid the shift of economic benefits from agriculture to industry, as happens with biodiesel production.

  16. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  17. Effect of Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Oil Sunflower in Salted Soil of Ningxia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAN Yin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining field trial with test analysis, a nitrogen(N, phosphorus(P2O5 and potassium(K2O fertilizer experiment of oil sunflowers was set to explore the influence of different ratio of N, P, K fertilizer on dry matter accumulation of oil sunflowers, nutrient absorption and accumulation, the yield and quality, etc in salted soil of the northern Ningxia, in order to provide scientific evidence for regulating and controlling of fertilization in the salted soil and enhancing the yields and quality of oil sunflowers. The results showed that: in the salted soil, the plant which had been disposed by N, P, K fertilizer had more advantages, the 1 000-grain weight, fruit quantity of each oil sunflower and yield per plant and hectare all increased significantly. Treatment of adding the organic fertilizer on the basis of N, P, K fertilizer could also increase the amount of N, P, K absorption significantly. At the same time, the application of N, P, K fertilizer would increase the fat content and reduce the protein, increase the oleic acid and stearic acid, reduce the content of linoleic acid and palmitic acid. The needs of nitrogen (N, phosphorus(P2O5 and potassium(K2O absorption of oil sunflower seeds were averagely 6.1~9.6, 3.2~3.8 kg and 12.3~13.7 kg, about 1:0.40~0.55:1.43~2.09 in ratio, 1:0.49:1.79 averagely in ratio.

  18. The sunflower genome provides insights into oil metabolism, flowering and Asterid evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badouin, Hélène; Gouzy, Jérôme; Grassa, Christopher J; Murat, Florent; Staton, S Evan; Cottret, Ludovic; Lelandais-Brière, Christine; Owens, Gregory L; Carrère, Sébastien; Mayjonade, Baptiste; Legrand, Ludovic; Gill, Navdeep; Kane, Nolan C; Bowers, John E; Hubner, Sariel; Bellec, Arnaud; Bérard, Aurélie; Bergès, Hélène; Blanchet, Nicolas; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Brunel, Dominique; Catrice, Olivier; Chaidir, Nadia; Claudel, Clotilde; Donnadieu, Cécile; Faraut, Thomas; Fievet, Ghislain; Helmstetter, Nicolas; King, Matthew; Knapp, Steven J; Lai, Zhao; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Lippi, Yannick; Lorenzon, Lolita; Mandel, Jennifer R; Marage, Gwenola; Marchand, Gwenaëlle; Marquand, Elodie; Bret-Mestries, Emmanuelle; Morien, Evan; Nambeesan, Savithri; Nguyen, Thuy; Pegot-Espagnet, Prune; Pouilly, Nicolas; Raftis, Frances; Sallet, Erika; Schiex, Thomas; Thomas, Justine; Vandecasteele, Céline; Varès, Didier; Vear, Felicity; Vautrin, Sonia; Crespi, Martin; Mangin, Brigitte; Burke, John M; Salse, Jérôme; Muños, Stéphane; Vincourt, Patrick; Rieseberg, Loren H; Langlade, Nicolas B

    2017-06-01

    The domesticated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., is a global oil crop that has promise for climate change adaptation, because it can maintain stable yields across a wide variety of environmental conditions, including drought. Even greater resilience is achievable through the mining of resistance alleles from compatible wild sunflower relatives, including numerous extremophile species. Here we report a high-quality reference for the sunflower genome (3.6 gigabases), together with extensive transcriptomic data from vegetative and floral organs. The genome mostly consists of highly similar, related sequences and required single-molecule real-time sequencing technologies for successful assembly. Genome analyses enabled the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the Asterids, further establishing the existence of a whole-genome triplication at the base of the Asterids II clade and a sunflower-specific whole-genome duplication around 29 million years ago. An integrative approach combining quantitative genetics, expression and diversity data permitted development of comprehensive gene networks for two major breeding traits, flowering time and oil metabolism, and revealed new candidate genes in these networks. We found that the genomic architecture of flowering time has been shaped by the most recent whole-genome duplication, which suggests that ancient paralogues can remain in the same regulatory networks for dozens of millions of years. This genome represents a cornerstone for future research programs aiming to exploit genetic diversity to improve biotic and abiotic stress resistance and oil production, while also considering agricultural constraints and human nutritional needs.

  19. A randomized controlled intervention with fish oil versus sunflower oil from 9 to 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders D; Michaelsen, Kim F; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    intake affects adipose tissue growth, we randomly allocated 154 healthy infants to daily supplementation with FO or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 mo of age and measured z-score changes in various anthropometric assessments of body size and skinfold thicknesses and plasma adipokine concentrations. Among...

  20. 15th International Sunflower Conference Synthesis of new derivatives from vegetable sunflower oil methyl esters via epoxydation and oxirane opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Xavier

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, epoxides have received increased attention because they are of interest both as end-products and as chemical intermediates; epoxidized oils, mainly High Oleic Sunflower Oil, and their ester derivatives have thus found important applications as plasticizers and additives for polyvinyl chloride (PVC. Epoxidized esters have been produced classically from High Oleic Sunflower Methyl Esters (HOSME using H2O2 and formic acid. The epoxidation reaches 90% on pilot scale (5kg. Epoxidized esters produced from HOSME have respectively hydroxyl values of 0, oxirane values of 5.2/4.5 and iodine values of 1.7/1.5. Cleavage trials of the oxirane group of the epoxidized esters with different reactants have been undertaken in order to produce on pilot scale new derivatives to be characterized and tested in different fields of application (lubrication, detergency and as chemical intermediates. Reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with an excess of oleic acid was conducted under atmospheric pressure without any catalyst and solvent. The oxirane opening leads to complete estolide formation: after neutralization, analytical controls (chemical values, GC and HPLC analysis indicate that the estolides are composed of a mixture of C36 (oleate of methyl hydroxystearate and C54 (di-oleate of methyl dihydroxystearate. Oxirane opening with alcohols (ethanol and octanol was preferentially performed by acid catalysis at 100°C under atmospheric pressure. Analytical controls show the formation of different etheralcohols and secondary products resulting from dehydration, transesterification and dimerization side-reactions. Cleavage reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with a primary amine (butylamine was conducted under pressure, at high temperature (180/200°C. Both transesterification and opening of the oxirane group occur under these conditions. Reaction products are composed of amides formed by transesterification and a mixture of fatty amines/imines obtained by ring opening as established

  1. Emission and Performance analysis of hydrotreated refined sunflower oil as alternate fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hemanandh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were conducted by using the hydrotreated refined sunflower oil as alternative fuel in a 4-stroke, stationary DI diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The effects of hydrotreated vegetable oil blends on diesel engine emission and performance were studied. The emission and performance were studied for different proportions such as HTSF B25 and HTSF B100 and at different loading conditions and comparison was made with petrodiesel. The emission and performance results of HTSF B25 and HTSF B100 showed that decrease in CO by 9% and 37%, HC by 42% and 55%, NOx by 10% and 18.18%, BSFC by 25% and 12.5%. The increase in brake thermal efficiency was by 10% and 38%. It was observed from the study that hydrotreatment of refined sunflower oil could be one of the best alternative fuels for the diesel engine.

  2. INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON GRAIN YIELD, OIL CONTENT AND OIL YIELD OF NEW OS SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS

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    Anto Mijić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of determining the influence of weather conditions on the yield components of sunflower, the results of three-year field trials are analysed in the paper. In the trials sown in Osijek in 2013, 2014 and 2015, there were 15 sunflower hybrids: two foreign hybrids and 13 hybrid combinations of the Agricultural Institute Osijek. In the period before sowing (January – March, the highest amount of precipitation was in 2013 (213.1 mm, then in 2015 (167.9 mm, and the lowest in 2014 (109.5 mm. In the growing period (April – September, the highest amount of precipitation (487.3 mm was in 2014, 475.7 mm in 2013, and in 2015 it was the lowest (251.6 mm. In 2013, during the growing period, the mean monthly air temperature was 19.1°C, in 2015 19.9°C, and in 2014 18.6°C. Of these years, statistically significant at the P=0.05, the highest value of the analysed traits was recorded in 2013: grain yield of 6.47 t ha-1, oil content 51.69% and oil yield 3.05 t ha-1. Grain yield, oil content and oil yield were lower in 2015, and the lowest in 2014. Matej, a newly recognized sunflower hybrid of the Agricultural Institute Osijek had the highest values of grain and oil yield (6.95 and 3.39 t ha-1, and by its oil content of 53.44%, it was in the third place. For high grain and oil yields of sunflower, in addition to the optimal air temperature, the amount and distribution of precipitation before and also during the growing season are very important.

  3. Antioxidant effect of mono- and dihydroxyphenols in sunflower oil with different levels of naturally present tocopherols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrádková, Iveta; Merkl, Roman; Šmidrkal, Jan; Kyselka, Jan; Filip, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mono- and dihydroxyphenolic acids and their alkyl esters were examined, with emphasis on the relationship between their molecular structure and antioxidant activity. Test media with different tocopherol level were used for determining the oxidative stability: original refined sunflower oil (total tocopherols 149.0 mg/kg), partially tocopherol-stripped sunflower oil (total tocopherols 8.7 mg/kg) and distilled fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as a tocopherol-free medium. The chemical reaction of tocopherols with diazomethane tested for the purpose to eliminate their antioxidant activity failed due to the negligible degree of methylation of hydroxyl group in the tocopherol molecule. Caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxyphenolic acids) and their alkyl esters were found to be more active antioxidants than monohydroxyphenolic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid), 2,5-dihydroxyphenolic acid (gentisic acid), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenolic acids (vanillic and ferulic acids) and their corresponding alkyl esters. Naturally present tocopherols in refined sunflower oil proved to have a synergistic effect on gentisic acid but not on its alkyl esters. In contrast, tocopherols showed an antagonistic effect on alkyl esters of caffeic acid, because their protection factors decreased with increasing level of tocopherols in the test medium. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of these alkyl esters decreased with increasing length of their alkyl chain in conformity with the polar paradox hypothesis. Practical applications: Tocopherols as naturally present antioxidants influence considerably the antioxidant activity of other antioxidants added to plant oils used as a test medium. Distilled fatty acid methyl esters prepared from refined sunflower oil may serve as an optimal tocopherol-free test medium. Some alkyl esters of phenolic acids were evaluated to be applicable as natural more lipophilic antioxidants in comparison with phenolic acids. PMID:23997655

  4. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winne Sia Chiaw Mei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05 higher than the control. Generally, the partially fractionated fraction was more effective than the crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA. Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  5. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Winne Sia Chiaw; Ismail, Amin; Mohd. Esa, Norhaizan; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Wai, Ho Chun; Seng, Yim Hip

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA). Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation. PMID:26784877

  6. Changes on the Solid Fat Content of Palm Oil/ Sunflower Oil Blends via Inter esterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suria Ramli; Azwani Mohd Lazim; Siti Aishah Hasbullah

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of binary blends containing refined-deodorized-bleached palm oil (RBDPO) and sunflower oil (SFO) were studied before and after chemical inter esterification at different temperature (110 degree Celsius (CIE1) and 80 degree Celsius (CIE2)) using sodium methoxide as catalyst. Thirty-three samples with different ratios were analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, fatty acid composition (FAC) and solid fat content (SFC) profile. Upon CIE, extensive rearrangements of fatty acids among triacylglycerol (TAG) were seen. Generally, CIE not induced enormous changes in the TAG compositions of ratio 8:2 and 5:5 of RBDPO:SFO blends. However, CIE induced enormous changes in the TAG compositions of the 9:1, 7:3, 6:4, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8 and 1:9 blends, which some of the TAGs were increasing while the other decreasing. These changes in TAG profiles resulted in some changes in the physical properties (especially SFC) of the blends. Generally, the SFC of inter esterified blend were decreased after CIE1 and increased after CIE2, except for sample 10:0, 8:2, 7:3, 5:5 and 9:1 which were decreased after CIE1 and CIE2. As a conclusion, CIE1 and CIE2 successfully changed the physicochemical characteristics of the binary blends. (author)

  7. Stabilizing effect of epoxidized sunflower oil as a secondary stabilizer for Ca/Hg stabilized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated triglyceride oil sunflower was epoxidized and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO was used as an organic thermal co-stabilizer for rigid poly(vinyl chloride (PVC in the presence of tricalcium dicitrate (Ca3(C6H5O72 and mercury (II acetate (Hg(CH3COO2. The thermo-oxidative degradation of PVC was studied in the presence of these ternary stabilizer systems at 170, 180, 190 and 200°C in N2 atmosphere. The effects of metal carboxylate combination Ca/Hg in the absence and in the presence of epoxidized sunflower oil on static heat treatment of PVC have been studied. The formation of polyene sequences was investigated by UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy and by comparing viscosity data obtained in the presence and in the absence of the additives. It was found that the additives retard the rate of degradation and reduce the extent of polymer chain scission associated with the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride. Synergistic effects were found when stabilizer was blended in 50:50 weight ratios with either. It was found that ESO exerted a stabilizing effect on the degradation of PVC. The activation energy for degraded PVC in absence of stabilizers was 38.6 kJ•mol–1 and in the presence of Ca/Hg and Ca/Hg/ESO were 53.3 and 64.7 kJ•mol–1 respectively. In order of compare the efficiency of the epoxidized sunflower oil with these metal soap stabilizers, thermal stabilities were evaluated on the basis of evolved hydrogen chloride determined by conductometry technique and degree of discoloration are discussed.

  8. French environmental communication on sunflower and rapeseed oils based on life cycle assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badey Laureen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The French “Grenelle” laws sparked a French national experiment trialling the environmental labelling of fast-moving consumer goods. The data required for this labelling scheme are generated by carrying out a life cycle assessment (LCA. The aim of this study is to provide all necessary information to fit the national experiment for two standard oils: sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. The complete oil life cycle was studied, from oilseed farming through to the end-of-life of the packaging. We focused heavily on the impacts of crushing and refining. The seed processing data was collected from different plants that are representative of the French crushing/refining industry and packaging site practice. The data inventory was used to calculate the identified environmental labelling indicators, i.e. greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water consumption. The production of 100g of refined bulk sunflower and rapeseed emits 89 and 127 g equivalent CO2 and consumes 1.7 L and 0.8 L of water, respectively. Most impacts on the studied indicators stem from the farming phase. Energy and water consumptions during crushing and refining also weigh on the studied indicators. The results of this study provide a relevant overview of all sunflower and rapeseed oils produced in France, and are usable as standard values for vegetable oil producers and users. Oil supply chain operators can use these values to compare to their own process values and gauge the improvements brought about by their ecodesign strategies. For example, using a biomass boiler, using less packaging, and making different choices on seed suppliers can lead to a lower set of impact values.

  9. Yield and acidity indices of sunflower and soybean oils in function of grain drying and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the best conditions for drying and storing soybeans and sunflower grains to maintain their quality. In the first experiment, the soybeans were found to have initial moisture contents of 25 and 19% (w.b. at different drying air temperatures (75, 90, 105, and 120°C. In the second step, the soybeans were evaluated after they were stored in paper bags and plastic polyethylene at temperatures of 3, 10 and 23°C for six months. In the third experiment, sunflower grains were tested after exposure to drying air temperatures of 45, 55, 65, and 75°C, and under storage conditions of 25°C and 50%, 20°C and 60%, 30°C and 40% RH over six months in paper bags and raffia. Drying the sunflower seeds at 45°C and storing them at 30°C and 40% RH led to higher oil yields and lower acid numbers. The oil that was extracted from the acid number was higher for soybean grains that were dried down from initial concentrations of 25% water at a drying air temperature of 120°C. The air temperature in storage at 3°C favored for yield and reduction of the soybean oil acidity.

  10. Dietary fat (virgin olive oil or sunflower oil) and physical training interactions on blood lipids in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, José L; Huertas, Jesús R; Ochoa, Julio J; Battino, Maurizio; Mataix, José; Mañas, Mariano

    2003-04-01

    We investigated whether the intake of virgin olive oil or sunflower oil and performance of physical exercise (at different states) affect plasma levels of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and fatty acid profile in rats. The study was carried out with six groups of male rats subjected for 8 wk to a diet based on virgin olive oil (three groups) or sunflower oil (three groups) as dietary fat. One group for each diet acted as sedentary control; the other two groups ran in a treadmill for 8 wk at 65% of the maximum oxygen consumption. One group for each diet was killed 24 h after the last bout of exercise and the other was killed immediately after the exercise performance. Triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and fatty acid profile were analyzed in plasma. Analysis of variance was used to test differences among groups. Animals fed on virgin olive oil had lower triacylglycerol and cholesterol values. Physical exercise reduced these parameters with both dietary treatments. Fatty acid profile showed higher monounsaturated fatty acid proportion in virgin olive fed oil animals and a higher omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion in sunflower oil fed animals. Physical exercise reduced the levels of monounsaturated fatty acids with both diets and increased the proportions of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results from the present study supported the idea that physical exercise and the intake of virgin olive oil are very good ways of reducing plasma triacylglycerols and cholesterol, which is desirable in many pathologic situations. Concerning findings on fatty acid profile, we had results similar to those of other investigators regarding the effect of different sources of dietary fat on plasma. The most interesting results came from the effect of physical exercise, with significant increases in the levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may contribute to the antithrombotic state and lower production of proinflammatory prostanoids attributed to

  11. Temperature and duration of heating of sunflower oil affect ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Privé , Florence; Combes, Sylvie; Cauquil, Laurent; Farizon, Yves; Enjalbert, Francis; Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle

    2010-01-01

    Sunflower oil heated at 110 or 150°C for 1, 3, or 6 h was incubated with ruminal content in order to investigate the effects of temperature and duration of heating of oil on the ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro. When increased, these 2 parameters acted together to decrease the disappearance of linoleic acid in the media by inhibiting the isomerization of linoleic acid, which led to a decrease in conjugated linoleic acids and trans-C18:1 production. Nevertheless, trans-10 iso...

  12. Effect of seed quality on oxidative stability of cold-pressed sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Etelka B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the storage time, content of the husk and impurities in the seed mass on the oxidative stability of the cold pressed sunflower oil. The oxidative stability of oil was analyzed by the RSM (Response Surface Methodology, where the response value (output of the model was the content of oxidation products measured via specific absorbance at 232 nm for conjugated dienes and 270 nm for conjugated trienes. Analyses were performed on the fresh oil samples and oil samples tempered under the Schaal-Oven’s test conditions (96 h at 63±2ºC. It was concluded that the seed storage time had significant impact on the primary (A1%232nm and secondary (A1%270nm oil oxidation products, both before (b1-p<0,001; b1-p=0,021 and after (b1-p=0,048; b1-p=0,033 the heating of oil. The content of impurities and husks in the seeds used for pressing also had an influence of the conjugated dienes and trienes contents in both, fresh and heated oil samples. However, their impact was not statistically significant. Interaction of seed storage time, the content of impurities and husks also exert some effect on the values of these quality parameters in the fresh oil as well as in the oil after the heat treatment, even though their influence is not significant. The obtained results have shown that the cold pressed sunflower oil had a good oxidative stability at temperatures up to 63±2ºC.

  13. Extraction of sunflower oil by twin screw extruder: screw configuration and operating condition effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartika, I.A. [FATETA-IPB, Bogor (Indonesia). Department of Agroindustrial Technology; Pontalier, P.Y.; Rigal, L. [Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle, UMR 1010 INRA/INP-ENSIACET, Toulouse (France)

    2006-12-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the screw configuration allowing oil extraction from sunflower seeds with a twin-screw extruder. Experiments were conducted using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Five screw profiles were examined to define the best performance (oil extraction yield, specific mechanical energy and oil quality) by studying the influence of operating conditions, barrel temperature, screw speed and feed rate. Generally, the position and spacing between two reversed screw elements affected oil extraction yield. An increase of oil extraction yield was observed as the reversed screw elements were moved with increased spacing between two elements and with smaller pitch elements. In addition, oil extraction yield increased as barrel temperature, screw speed and feed rate were decreased. Highest oil extraction yield (85%) with best cake meal quality (residual oil content lower than 13%) was obtained under operating conditions of 120 {sup o}C, 75 rpm and 19 kg/h. Furthermore, the operating parameters influenced energy input. A decrease in barrel temperature and feed rate followed by an increase in screw speed increased energy input, particularly specific mechanical energy input. Effect of the operating parameters on oil quality was less important. In all experiments tested, the oil quality was very good. The acid value was below 2 mg of KOH/g of oil and total phosphorus content was low, below 100 mg/kg. (author)

  14. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Process parameters optimization for synthesis of methyl ester from sunflower oil using Taguchi technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Senthilkumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, transesterification of sunflower oil for obtaining biodiesel was studied. Taguchi’s methodology (L9 orthogonal array was selected to optimize the most significant variables (methanol, catalyst concentration and stirrer speed in transesterification process. Experiments have conducted based on development of L9 orthogonal array by using Taguchi technique. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the regression equations were used to find the optimum yield of sunflower methyl ester under the influence of methanol, catalyst & stirrer speed. The study resulted in a maximum yield of sun flower methyl ester as 96% with the optimal conditions of methanol 110 ml with 0.5% by wt. of sodium hydroxide (NaOH stirred at 1200 rpm. The yield was analyzed on the basis of “larger is better”. Finally, confirmation tests were carried out to verify the experimental results.

  16. Effect of different drip irrigation regimes on yield and oil quality of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Metin SEZEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of different irrigation regimes on yield, yield components, oil yield and quality and water use of sunflower (Oleko variety irrigated with a drip system under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at the Alata Horticultural Research Institute, Tarsus Soil and Water Resources area in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Irrigation regimes consisted of three irrigation intervals (A1:= 25 mm; A2:= 50 mm; A3: = 75 mm of cumulative pan evaporation and six irrigation levels (I1=0.50, I2=0.75, I3=1.00 and I4=1.25. In addition, I5=PRD75 and I6=PRD50 treatments were considered. They received 75 and 50% of the full irrigation (I3 treatment from alternative laterals, respectively. Also, rainfed treatment is a control plot in the experiment. Maximum and minimum yields were obtained from the A2I4 and rainfed treatments, respectively in all experimental years. As the irrigation level value decreased the total yields in each irrigation interval also decreased. Seasonal irrigation amounts in the treatments varied from 199 mm to 563 mm in the experimental years. Seasonal evapotranspiration values in the treatments varied from 243 mm to 611 mm in the experimental years. Both irrigation amounts and irrigation frequencies had significantly effects on oil content of sunflower. The saturated (palmitic and stearic acid and unsaturated (oleic and linoleic acid fatty acid contents were significantly affected by water stress. In conclusion, A2I4 irrigation regime is recommended for sunflower production in the Mediterranean region in order to attain higher yields with improved quality. In case of water shortage, A2I13 irrigation regime is recommended to increase sunflower yield and quality.

  17. INTENSIFICATION OF MICROBIAL EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE ETHAPOLAN BIOSYNTHESIS ON MIXTURE OF MOLASSES AND SUNFLOWER OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to establish Acinetobacter sp. IMB B-7005 cultivation conditions, which provide the maximal synthesis of microbial exopolysaccharide ethapolan on a mixture of molasses and sunflower oil, and to explore the possibility of replacing refined oil in a mixture with molasses for waste one. On the basis of theoretical calculations of energy consumption for the synthesis of ethapolan and biomass, it was determined that the optimal molar ratio of the concentrations of energy-deficient (sucrose and energy-excessive (sunflower oil substrates in the mixture was 1.0:0.9. Experiments have shown that the highest values of exopolysaccharide synthesis were observed at a molar ratio of monosubstrates in mixture 1.0:1.1, which is as close as possible to the theoretically calculated one. It was shown that increasing concentration of molasses and refined oil in mixture from 1.0 to 1.5% was accompanied by increase in amount of synthesized exopolysaccharide and its synthesizing capacity by 1.2 and 1.3 times, respectively. The possibility of replacing refined oil in a mixture with molasses for various types of waste (after frying potatoes, meat, vegetables and mixed was established. The maximum parameters of exopolysaccharide synthesis (concentration 14 g/l, synthesizing capacity 3.5 g exopolysaccharide/g biomass were observed when using mixed waste oil for both inoculum obtaining and EPS biosynthesis. The obtained results testify to the possibility of development of universal technology for obtaining microbal exopolysaccharide ethapolan on a mixture of waste (molasses and waste oil independent of the type and provider of waste oil.

  18. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during the deep frying process; Estudios fisicoquimicos sobre mezclas de aceite de girasol con aceite de chufa prensado en frio durante el proceso de fritura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Rehah, F. M.; Anany, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA), Peroxide Value (PV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC), color and viscosity) were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 degree centigrade {+-} 5 degree centigrade, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25); while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24). Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W) proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process. (Author) 68 refs.

  19. Promoting Locally Fortified Sunflower Oil Using E-Vouchers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The vouchers, transmitted through cell phone text messages, will deliver subsidies to vulnerable groups. They will target lactating mothers, while jumpstarting demand for fortified oil. Findings to improve health outcomes During the course of the project, subsidies will be systematically withdrawn to observe producers' and ...

  20. Formation and evolution of monoepoxy fatty acids in thermoxidized olive and sunflower oils and quantitation in used frying oils from restaurants and fried-food outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Joaquín; Marmesat, Susana; Bordeaux, Olivier; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Dobarganes, Carmen

    2004-07-14

    The formation and evolution of monoepoxy fatty acids, arising from oleic and linoleic acids, were investigated in olive oil and conventional sunflower oil, representatives of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils, respectively, during thermoxidation at 180 degrees C for 5, 10, and 15 h. Six monoepoxy fatty acids, cis-9,10- and trans-9,10-epoxystearate, arising from oleic acid, and cis-9,10-, trans-9,10-, cis-12,13-, and trans-12,13-epoxyoleate, arising from linoleic acid, were analyzed by gas chromatography after oil derivatization to fatty acid methyl esters. Considerable amounts, ranging from 4.29 to 14.24 mg/g of oil in olive oil and from 5.10 to 9.44 mg/g of oil in sunflower oil, were found after the heating periods assayed. Results showed that the monoepoxides quantitated constituted a major group among the oxidized fatty acid monomers formed at high temperature. For similar levels of degradation, higher contents of the monoepoxides were found in olive oil than in sunflower oil. Ten used frying oils from restaurants and fried-food outlets in Spain were analyzed to determine the contents of the monoepoxides in real frying oil samples. Levels ranged from 3.37 to 14.42 mg/g of oil. Results show that, for similar degradation levels, the monoepoxides were more abundant in the monounsaturated oils than in the polyunsaturated oils.

  1. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Atena Poiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT, inhibition of oil oxidation (IO and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%, p-AV (29%; 40%, CD (45%; 30%, CT (41%; 36%, TOTOX (35%; 37%. GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  2. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...... a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid...

  3. Analysis and modelling of the factors controlling seed oil concentration in sunflower: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianasolo Fety Nambinina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower appears as a potentially highly competitive crop, thanks to the diversification of its market and the richness of its oil. However, seed oil concentration (OC – a commercial criterion for crushing industry – is subjected to genotypic and environmental effects that make it sometimes hardly predictable. It is assumed that more understanding of oil physiology combined with the use of crop models should permit to improve prediction and management of grain quality for various end-users. Main effects of temperature, water, nitrogen, plant density and fungal diseases were reviewed in this paper. Current generic and specific crop models which simulate oil concentration were found to be empirical and to lack of proper evaluation processes. Recently two modeling approaches integrating ecophysiological knowledge were developed by Andrianasolo (2014, Statistical and dynamic modelling of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. grain composition as a function of agronomic and environmental factors, Ph.D. Thesis, INP Toulouse: (i a statistical approach relating OC to a range of explanatory variables (potential OC, temperature, water and nitrogen stress indices, intercepted radiation, plant density which resulted in prediction quality from 1.9 to 2.5 oil points depending on the nature of the models; (ii a dynamic approach, based on “source-sink” relationships involving leaves, stems, receptacles (as sources and hulls, proteins and oil (as sinks and using priority rules for carbon and nitrogen allocation. The latter model reproduced dynamic patterns of all source and sink components faithfully, but tended to overestimate OC. A better description of photosynthesis and nitrogen uptake, as well as genotypic parameters is expected to improve its performance.

  4. Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-12-01

    The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only α-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of α-, γ-, and δ-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of γ-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies on the changes of biologically active complexes of sunflower oil, tard, and butter under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.; Stamatov, D.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations of changes in the biologically active complex of sunflower oil, lard and butter under the influence of gamma rays: The points examined are the effect of small, medium and large doses (10 4 , 10 6 and 10 7 ) of gamma rays (Co 60 ) and the after-effect on the carotenes, tocopherols, sterols and linoleic acid in sunflower oil, lard and butter. Under these conditions, only the carotenes and tocopherols are subjected to changes to the point of destruction. What was found is a good correlative connection between the changes in the tocopherols and the degree of oxidation of the corresponding fats. (orig.) [de

  6. Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Simon G; AlEnezi, Tareq; Sultan, Amani; Lavender, Tina; Chittock, John; Brown, Kirsty; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Natural oils are advocated and used throughout the world as part of neonatal skin care, but there is an absence of evidence to support this practice. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effect of olive oil and sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin. Nineteen adult volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis were recruited into two randomized forearm-controlled mechanistic studies. The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. These findings challenge the unfounded belief that all natural oils are beneficial for the skin and highlight the need for further research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Sumitra; Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-04-01

    Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student 't-' test. The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice with coconut oil and sunflower oil gave suboptimal benefits.

  8. Sunflower oil ozonation. Following of the reaction by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Gomez, Maritza F.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the technique of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance can be used for the pursuit of the reaction between the ozone and the unsaturated fatty acids. It's carried out the sunflower oil ozonization to different applied dose of ozone and the index of peroxides and the concentration of aldehydes are determined. The main reaction products were identified by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR 1 H). The intensities of the signs were used to follow the advance of the reaction between the ozone and the sunflower oil. It is was carried out until obtaining an index of peroxides of 1 202 mmol-equiv/kg. The intensities of the signs of the olefinic protons diminish with a gradual increment in the dose of applied ozone, but without ending up disappearing completely. The ozonides of Criegee obtained to applied dose of ozone of 107,1 mg/g were approximately bigger 7,4 times that those obtained at the beginning from the reaction to applied dose of ozone of 15,3 mg/g. The aldehydes protons were observed as a sign of weak intensity in all the spectra. The signs belonging to the olenifics protons of the hydroperoxides in d = 5,55 ppm increases with the increment of the applied dose of ozone. You concludes that to higher applied dose of ozone, haggler is the advance of the ozonization reaction, what belongs together with a bigger formation of oxygenated compounds

  9. Study of the application of sunflower oil in the process of drilling ABNT 1045 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Robert Pereira Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cutting fluids in machining, when chosen and applied adequately can contemplate in benefits during the manufacturing processes. The selected method should allow the cutting fluid to reach the closest possible of the cutting edge lubricating the chip-tool interface. The properties of the fluid are fundamental so that the same facilitates the machining process. However the fluid can represent a great problem for the environment and health of the operator. For that reason, several scientific and technological studies are constantly developed to investigate the performance and alternative applications of cutting fluids in machining operations. This work studies the effect of sunflower oil in the cutting forces for the drilling process of 1045 ABNT steel. The fluid was applied in the form MQL - Minimum Quantity Lubrication for different cutting conditions. The cutting speed, feed rate and the length of the hole were varied. Each one of the cutting variables two levels were used. The results suggest a good acting sunflower oil in the work accomplished.

  10. Spectroscopic Analysis of Heterogeneous Biocatalysts for Biodiesel Production from Expired Sunflower Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch Wembabazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study characterized heterogeneous biocatalyst synthesized from sucrose, saw dust, and chicken egg shells using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy coupled with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR technique. Acidic sulphonate (–SO3H groups were more visible in the spectrum generated for carbonized and sulphonated sucrose than in carbonized and sulphonated saw dust. This was highlighted further by the significantly higher conversion percentage achieved for sulphonated sucrose (62.5% than sulphonated saw dust (46.6% during esterification of expired sunflower oil (p=0.05. The spectra for calcinated egg shells also showed that the most active form of calcium oxide was produced at calcination temperature of 1000°C. This was confirmed in the single-step transesterification reaction in which calcium oxide generated at 1000°C yielded the highest biodiesel (87.8% from expired sunflower oil. The study further demonstrated the versatility of the FTIR technique in qualitative analysis of biodiesel and regular diesel by confirming the presence of specific characteristic peaks of diagnostic importance. These findings therefore highlight the potential of FTIR-ATR as an inexpensive, fast, and accurate diagnostic means for easy identification and characterization of different materials and products.

  11. Effect of chemically reduced palladium supported catalyst on sunflower oil hydrogenation conversion and selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Alshaibani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenation of sunflower oil was studied in order to improve the conversion and to reduce the trans-isomerization selectivity. The hydrogenation was performed using Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 prepared catalyst and Pd/Al2O3 commercial catalyst under similar conditions. The Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation and chemical reduction processes. It was characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis (BET, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The result of sunflower oil hydrogenation on Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst showed a 17% higher conversion and a 23% lower trans-isomerization selectivity compared to the commercial Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. The chemical reduction of palladium supported catalyst using potassium borohydride (KBH4 has affected the Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst’s structure and particle size. These most likely influenced its catalytic performance toward higher conversion and lower trans-isomerization selectivity.

  12. Ultrasonication Assisted Production of Biodiesel from Sunflower Oil by Using CuO: Mg Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Rintu; Jose, Sony; Joyprabu, H.; Johnson, I.

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel is a clean, renewable, biodegradable, eco-friendly and alternative fuel used in the diesel engine. The present work was carried out at constant operational conditions such as methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1, catalyst concentration 0.25%, 30 minute reaction time and the reaction temperature at 60°C. Biodiesel was synthesized by transesterification of sunflower oil (SFO) with methanol, using CuO: Mgas nanocatalyst. This nanocatalyst was prepared by quick precipitation method. The biodiesel yield of 71.78% was achieved under reaction condition. The presence of methyl ester groups at the produced biodiesel was confirmed using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The FAME conversion yield up to 82.83 % could be obtained under the operating conditions.

  13. In vitro mutagenicity assay (Ames test and phytochemical characterization of seeds oil of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelma de Mello Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the genotoxic potential of the oil of H. annuus L. (sunflower seeds via the Ames test as well as its oxidative properties and lipid composition. The pre-incubation method, system metabolic activation (S9 fraction and five S. typhimurium strains (TA97, TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA102 were employed for the Ames test. The oxidative stability and fatty acid composition were analyzed by standard methods and gas chromatography. A revertant analysis showed no significant differences between the treatment doses (10–200 μl/plate and the negative controls, regardless of S9+ and S9−, and included all of the S. typhimurium strains. Chromatographic analysis showed high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, followed by monounsaturated, saturated and total trans-isomers. Among the polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids predominated. The results suggest that the sunflower oil is not genotoxic as indicated by frameshift mutations and base pair substitutions regardless of the treatment dose, but shows dose-dependent toxicity. The oxidative properties of the sunflower oil were consistent with the requirements of national and international standards. However, its composition could also indicate phytotherapeutic properties. Keywords: Helianthus annuus L., Sunflower oil, Genetic toxicity, Gas chromatography

  14. Effects of Watering and Nitrogen Fertilization on Yield and Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Cropping Oil Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAN Jian-xin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment with split-plot design was conducted to study the effects of the interaction of water and nitrogen fertilization on the growth and yield of oil sunflower, water and nitrogen use efficiency of cropping oil sunflower. This experiment set three irrigation rate treatments, including high irrigation treatment (5 250 m3·hm-2, middle irrigation treatment (3 750 m3·hm-2, low irrigation treatment (2 250 m3·hm-2, and four nitrogen application rate treatments, covering no nitrogen fertilization treatment (0 kg·hm-2, low nitrogen application treatment (120 kg·hm-2, middle nitrogen application treatment (240 kg·hm-2 and high nitrogen application treatment (360 kg·hm-2. The results showed that the nitrogen absorption and nitrogen use efficiency of cropping oil sunflower increased as the irrigation rate increased. With the nitrogen application rate increased, the yield of cropping oil sunflower was increased when the nitrogen application rate was 0~240 kg·hm-2, but beyond the 240 kg·hm-2, there was no significant increase. With the irrigation rate increased, the water consumption amount of cropping oil sunflower increased all the time, but the water use efficiency increased first, and hen decreased. Besides there was no significant difference between 240 kg·hm-2 and 360 kg·hm-2 treatment. Under our experiment condition, during the cropping oil sunflower growth period, when the irrigation rate was 5 250 m3·hm-2 (high irrigation rate and the nitrogen ertilization was 360 m3·hm-2 (high nitrogen application rate, the yield of cropping oil sunflower was 3 598 kg·hm-2. When the irrigation rate was 3 750 m3·hm-2 (middle irrigation rate and the nitrogen fertilization was 240 m3·hm-2 (middle nitrogen application rate, the yield was 3 518 kg·hm-2, with the yield components similar with the high irrigation rate and high nitrogen application rate treatment. Considering various factors, middle irrigation rate and middle nitrogen

  15. Rapid Estimation of Tocopherol Content in Linseed and Sunflower Oils-Reactivity and Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevc, Tjaša; Levart, Alenka; Cigić, Irena Kralj; Salobir, Janez; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Cigić, Blaž

    2015-08-13

    The reactivity of tocopherols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was studied in model systems in order to establish a method for quantifying vitamin E in plant oils. The method was optimized with respect to solvent composition of the assay medium, which has a large influence on the course of reaction of tocopherols with DPPH. The rate of reaction of α-tocopherol with DPPH is higher than that of γ-tocopherol in both protic and aprotic solvents. In ethyl acetate, routinely applied for the analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP) of plant oils, reactions of tocopherols with DPPH are slower and concentration of tocopherols in the assay has a large influence on their molar reactivity. In 2-propanol, however, two electrons are exchanged for both α- and γ-tocopherols, independent of their concentration. 2-propanol is not toxic and is fully compatible with polypropylene labware. The chromatographically determined content of tocopherols and their molar reactivity in the DPPH assay reveal that only tocopherols contribute to the AOP of sunflower oil, whereas the contribution of tocopherols to the AOP of linseed oil is 75%. The DPPH assay in 2-propanol can be applied for rapid and cheap estimation of vitamin E content in plant oils where tocopherols are major antioxidants.

  16. Rapid Estimation of Tocopherol Content in Linseed and Sunflower Oils-Reactivity and Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Prevc

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of tocopherols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH was studied in model systems in order to establish a method for quantifying vitamin E in plant oils. The method was optimized with respect to solvent composition of the assay medium, which has a large influence on the course of reaction of tocopherols with DPPH. The rate of reaction of α-tocopherol with DPPH is higher than that of γ-tocopherol in both protic and aprotic solvents. In ethyl acetate, routinely applied for the analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP of plant oils, reactions of tocopherols with DPPH are slower and concentration of tocopherols in the assay has a large influence on their molar reactivity. In 2-propanol, however, two electrons are exchanged for both α- and γ-tocopherols, independent of their concentration. 2-propanol is not toxic and is fully compatible with polypropylene labware. The chromatographically determined content of tocopherols and their molar reactivity in the DPPH assay reveal that only tocopherols contribute to the AOP of sunflower oil, whereas the contribution of tocopherols to the AOP of linseed oil is 75%. The DPPH assay in 2-propanol can be applied for rapid and cheap estimation of vitamin E content in plant oils where tocopherols are major antioxidants.

  17. Effect of Sunflower and Marine Oils on Ruminal Microbiota, In vitro Fermentation and Digesta Fatty Acid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E. Vargas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC investigated the changes in the ruminal microbiota and anaerobic fermentation in response to the addition of different lipid supplements to a ruminant diet. A basal diet with no oil added was the control, and the treatment diets were supplemented with sunflower oil (2% only, or sunflower oil (2% in combination with fish oil (1% or algae oil (1%. Four fermentation units were used per treatment. RUSITEC fermenters were inoculated with rumen digesta. Substrate degradation, fermentation end-products (volatile fatty acids, lactate, gas, methane, and ammonia, and microbial protein synthesis were determined. Fatty acid profiles and microbial community composition were evaluated in digesta samples. Numbers of representative bacterial species and microbial groups were determined using qPCR. Microbial composition and diversity were based on T-RFLP spectra. The addition of oils had no effect on substrate degradation or microbial protein synthesis. Differences among diets in neutral detergent fiber degradation were not significant (P = 0.132, but the contrast comparing oil–supplemented diets with the control was significant (P = 0.039. Methane production was reduced (P < 0.05 with all oil supplements. Propionate production was increased when diets containing oil were fermented. Compared with the control, the addition of algae oil decreased the percentage C18:3 c9c12c15 in rumen digesta, and that of C18:2 c9t11 was increased when the control diet was supplemented with any oil. Marine oils decreased the hydrogenation of C18 unsaturated fatty acids. Microbial diversity was not affected by oil supplementation. Cluster analysis showed that diets with additional fish or algae oils formed a group separated from the sunflower oil diet. Supplementation with marine oils decreased the numbers of Butyrivibrio producers of stearic acid, and affected the numbers of protozoa, methanogens, Selenomonas ruminantium

  18. Physico-chemical attributes of seed oil from drought stressed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water deficit conditions on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of sunflower seed and seed oils were assessed. Two sunflower cultivars (Gulshan-98 and Suncross were sown in the field. The water stress treatment was applied at the vegetative or the reproductive stage. Analysis of the sunflower seed showed that the oil content decreased (a decline of 10.52% relative to the control significantly (p ≤ 0.05 due to water stress when imposed at either of the growth stages. Both of the sunflower cultivars studied showed differential responses to water stress with respect to oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. A significant negative correlation in oil oleic and linoleic acid was observed in cv. Gulshan-98 under water deficit conditions as compared to Suncross in which no such effect of water stress on oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Water deficit conditions caused a reduction in linolenic acid in Gulshan-98, whereas it remained unaffected in Suncross. The stearic acid content increased in cv. Gulshan-98 due to drought, whereas no effect due to water stress was observed on oil palmitic acid content in either sunflower cultivar. Overall, oil unsaturated fatty acids remained unchanged in the drought stressed or normally irrigated plants of both cultivars but saturated fatty acid increased in Gulshan-98. Individual (α, γ, and δ and total tocopherol contents in the seed oil increased significantly with the application of water stress in both cultivars. An assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of the oils of both sunflower cultivars revealed that drought stress caused a marked increase in the content of un-saponifiable matter (18.75% with respect to the control and a decrease in iodine value (5.87% with respect to the control, but saponifcation value, density, specific gravity and refractive index remained unchanged.El efecto de las condiciones de déficit de agua sobre las caracter

  19. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L. Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro, L.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T. capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 ºC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants were used and subjected to the same conditions. The best yield oil was obtained from the whole aerial part of T. capitata collected during the flowering phase. The major component of the oils was carvacrol. Relative high amounts of p-cymene, γ-terpinene and β-caryophyllene were also found. BHT revealed to be the best antioxidant when the olive oil was used. On sunflower oil, the antioxidant ability of BHT was not so evident, being the carvacrol-rich essential oils of T. capitata or carvacrol more important antioxidants.Se analizaron, mediante GC y GC/MS, los componentes volátiles de aceites aislados de las distintas partes de la Thymbra capitata, recogida en diferentes etapas de desarrollo. Se evaluó la actividad antioxidante de estos aceites de la T. capitata, midiendo el índice de peróxidos, en aceites de oliva y girasol, almacenados a 60 ºC. Estos índices de peróxidos se compararon con los obtenidos cuando no se agregó ningún antioxidante (control y cuando se utilizó BHT o carvacrol, en las mismas condiciones de almacenamiento. El mayor rendimiento en aceite se obtuvo de la parte aérea de T. capitata recogida durante la etapa de floración. El componente mayoritario de los aceites fue el carvacrol. También se encontraron, cantidades relativamente elevadas, de p-cimeno, γ-terpineno y β-cariofileno. El mejor antioxidante para el aceite de oliva resultó ser el BHT. En el aceite del girasol, la actividad antioxidante del BHT no fue tan evidente, mientras que el

  20. Antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil fractions obtained by molecular distillation and their effect on oxidative stability of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezza, Gabriela N; Borgarello, Ana V; Grosso, Nelson R; Fernandez, Héctor; Pramparo, María C; Gayol, María F

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil fractions obtained by molecular distillation (MD) and investigate their effect on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. MD fractions were prepared in a series of low-pressure stages where rosemary essential oil was the first feed. Subsequently, a distillate (D1) and residue (R1) were obtained and the residue fraction from the previous stage used as the feed for the next. The residue fractions had the largest capacity to capture free radicals, and the lowest peroxide values, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. The antioxidant activity of the fractions was due to oxygenated monoterpenes, specifically α-terpineol and cis-sabinene hydrate. Oxidative stability results showed the residues (R1 and R4) and butylated hydroxytoluene had greater antioxidant activity than either the distillate fractions or original rosemary essential oil. The residue fractions obtained by short path MD of rosemary essential oil could be used as a natural antioxidants by the food industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Milk drinks containing 5% traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) or specific structured lipid (SL) (both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid) were compared with respect to their particle size, viscosity and oxidative stability during storage. Furthermore, the effect...... drink could not be ascribed was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid and to a single factor, differences in the process applied to produce and purify the lipids. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the milk drink based on SL....... of adding potential antioxidants EDTA or gallic acid to the milk drink based on SL was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of the milk drinks: Milk drink based on SL oxidized faster than milk drink based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL milk...

  2. Assessment of process control parameters in the biochemical methane potential of sunflower oil cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, F.; Borja, R.; Rincon, B.; Jimenez, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study was conducted on the batch anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake (SuOC), solid waste derived from the extraction process of sunflower oil. A multi-reactor system was used to compare methane production from this waste at inoculum to substrate ratios (ISRs) of 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.8 and 0.5 (expressed as volatile solids (VS) basis). The tests were carried out at mesophilic temperature (35 deg. C) and run against a control of inoculum without substrate. The results obtained in the biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests showed that the ultimate methane yield (Y M,ult ) decreased considerably from 227±23 to 107±11 ml CH 4 at standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions g -1 VS added when the ISR decreased from 3.0 to 0.5, showing a clear influence of the ISR on the methane yield coefficient. The biodegradability (BD) of the waste also decreased from 86% to 41% when the ISR varied from 3.0 to 0.5. A net total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) yield of 39.2 mg N g -1 VS added was obtained, and this value was not influenced by the ISRs assayed, which demonstrated the appropriate operation of the hydrolytic-acidogenic stage of the overall digestion process. A clear imbalance of the methanogenic process was observed at the lowest ISRs studied (0.5 and 0.8) due to a considerable increase in CODs and TVFA in the digestates. The profile of VFA was also influenced by the ISR, typical of the proteinaceous substrates

  3. Composition of plasma and atheromatous plaque among coronary artery disease subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Rajesh, P C; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Nair, Shiv K; Vasudevan, D M

    2012-12-01

    Coconut oil, which is rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids, is the principal cooking medium of the people of Kerala, India. Replacement of saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat is effective in reducing serum cholesterol levels. However, the effect of substituting coconut oil with sunflower oil on the fatty acid composition of plaque has not been thoroughly investigated. We therefore evaluated and compared the fatty acid composition of plasma and plaque among subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium. Endarterectomy samples and plasma samples were obtained from subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafts (n = 71). The subjects were grouped based on the type of oil they were using as their cooking medium (coconut oil or sunflower oil). The fatty acid composition in the plaques and the plasma was determined by HPLC and the data were analyzed statistically. Sunflower oil consumers had elevated concentrations of linoleic acid (p = 0.001) in plasma, while coconut oil users had higher myristic acid levels (p = 0.011) in plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids did not differ significantly between the two groups in the plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids were detected in the plaques in both groups of subjects. In contrast to previous reports, long-chain saturated fatty acids dominated the lipid content of plaque in this population, and the fatty acid composition of plaque was not significantly different between the two groups. No correlation between fatty acids of plasma and plaque was observed in either group. A change in cooking medium, although it altered the plasma fatty acid composition, was not reflected in the plaque composition.

  4. Intensification of microbial exopolysaccharide ethapolan synthesis under Acinetobacter sp. IМV B-7005 cultivation on sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivahniuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction.Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS by the ability of their solutions to change the rheological properties of aqueous systems are widely used in various industries. In recent years, research on the use of industrial waste (including oil-containing to obtain practically valuable microbial metabolites intensified. Materials and methods.Cultivation of Acinetobactersp. IМV B-7005 strain was performed in liquid medium, containing as a carbon source sunflower oil (1−5 %, v/v, a source of nitrogen – ammonium nitrate (0.4−0.8 g/l, a source of pantothenate − multivitamin complex «Complevit» (0.00085 and0.00095 %. EPSconcentration was determined gravimetrically after precipitation with isopropanol, EPS-synthesizing ability − as a ratio of EPS concentration to biomass concentration, wich was expressed as g EPS / g biomass. Results and discussions. It was established that increasing the concentration of sunflower oil in basic medium for Acinetobacter sp. IMV B -7005 cultivation to 4−5% was accompanied by decrease of ethapolan synthesis compared with those in the medium containing lower (2−3 % substrate concentration. Increasing ammonium nitrate content to 0.6 g/l and/or pantothenate concentration to 0.00095% in a medium with 5% sunflower oil allowed to increase the amount of ethapolan synthesized up to 6.6−6.7 g/l, that is in 1.3−1.4 times higher than in the basic medium with the same concentration of the substrate but lower NH4NO3 (0.4 g/l and pantothenate (0.00085 %. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate the possibility of microbial polysaccharide ethapolan synthesis under Acinetobacter sp. ІMV B -7005 cultivation in the medium with a high content of sunflower oil. These data are the basis for the development of ethapolan technology using as a substrate fried oil.

  5. Using pre-heated sunflower oil as fuel in a diesel cycle engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delalibera, H.C.; Neto, P.H.W.; Martini, J. [State Univ. of Ponta Grossa (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which 100 per cent sunflower oil was used in a tractor to compare its performance with petroleum diesel. Work trials were carried out for 50 hours on a single cylinder direct injection micro-tractor. In the first trial (E-1), the temperature of the vegetable oil was the same as the air temperature of the engine, while in the second trial (E-2), the oil was heated to a temperature of about 90 degrees C. Only petrodiesel was used in the third (E-3) trial. The head gasket burned in the first test after 50 hours of operation. An increase in compression was noted during trials E-1 and E-2. The carbonized mass in the nozzle of the E-2 trial was 81.5 per cent lower than in the E-1 trial. The carbonized mass in the intake system of the E-2 trial was 51.7 per cent lower than in the E-1 trial. The exhaust system of the E-2 trial was 33.4 per cent lower than that of the E-1 trial. For the combustion chamber, the carbonization of the E-1 trial was nearly the same as in the E-2 trial. The hourly fuel consumption of the E-1 trial was 2.3 per cent higher than petrodiesel, while E-2 trial was 0.7 per cent higher than petrodiesel. In the first 2 tests, the lubricating oil was contaminated by vegetable oil fuel. In general, results from the first trial were better than results from the second trial.

  6. Modulation of salt (NaCl)-induced effects on oil composition and fatty acid profile of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Sibgha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a potential endogenous plant hormone that plays an important role in plant growth and development. Since sunflower yield and its seed oil yield are adversely affected by salinity, in this study the role of SA in modulating salt (NaCl)-induced effects on various yield and oil characteristics of sunflower was investigated. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment comprising two sunflower hybrid lines (Hysun-33 and SF-187), two NaCl levels (0 and 120 mmol L(-1)) and four SA levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L(-1)) was conducted. Salt stress markedly reduced yield, oil content, linoleic acid and δ-tocopherol in both sunflower lines, while it increased linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols. However, increasing levels of foliar-applied SA resulted in improved achene yield and hundred-achene weight in both lines. Foliar-applied SA caused a significant decrease in oil stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols in both lines under non-saline and saline conditions. Salt-induced harmful effects on achene yield and oil characteristics of sunflower could be alleviated by exogenous application of SA. High doses of SA caused a marked increase in sunflower achene oil content as well as some key fatty acids. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Combined fish oil and high oleic sunflower oil supplements neutralize their individual effects on the lipid profile of healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlais, Sani; El-Bistami, Dunia; El Rahi, Berna; Mattar, Mélanie A; Obeid, Omar A

    2013-09-01

    Both n-3 and n-9 fatty acids share a common metabolic pathway and can potentially and individually improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. Dietary n-6 is known to weaken the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids due to competition for the same enzymes. Still unclear is whether a similar competition exists between n-3 and n-9 fatty acids. Thus, a 12-week intervention study was conducted to investigate the effect of different combinations of fish oil and high-oleic sunflower oil (OSO) on healthy subjects. Included were five groups (98 subjects): three groups received a fixed amount of n-9 (8 g/day) with varying amounts of n-3 (1, 2 or 4 g/day), one group was given n-3 fatty acids only (2 g/day) and another was given n-9 only (8 g/day). We found that fish oil supplement (2 g/day) was able to decrease TAG by about 13 %, this effect was diminished with the co-ingestion of n-9 (OSO). Intake of OSO (8 g/day) reduced both total and LDL cholesterol by about 10 %, this effect was reduced by the addition of fish oil. Both fish oil and OSO failed to have any significant effect on both glycemic and blood pressure parameters. In conclusion; the impact of oleic acid (n-9) on total and LDL cholesterol was altered by the addition fish oil (n-3). These effects may have been the result of enzymatic competition between the two types of fatty acids.

  8. Monitoring the physicochemical features of sunflower oil and French fries during repeated microwave frying and deep-fat frying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydınkaptan, E.; Barutçu Mazı, I.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeated microwave frying at different power levels (360W, 600W, 900W) and deep-fat frying on sunflower oil and French fries. The intermittent batch frying cycle was repeated 15 times a day during five consecutive days. The fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties including free fatty acid (FFA), extinction coefficient (K270), total polar compound (TPC), color, viscosity, refractive index of the sunflower oil were determined each day. At the end of the frying period, the highest values of viscosity (76.29cp) and refractive index (1.4738) were detected in microwave frying at 900W power level. TPC level exceeded 25% after the third day of microwave frying at all power levels. The FFA values during microwave frying increased progressively from 0.157% to 0.320- 0.379% on the fifth day. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 37-53% more in the case of microwave frying. The oil quality during microwave frying did not have a significant impact on the oil absorption and total color change of the French fries. Microwave frying, even at higher levels, provided lower oil (8.60-12.32%wb) and moisture contents (35.47-41.24%) compared to deep frying. Microwave frying caused longer processing time and significantly higher levels of degradation of the sunflower oil at all power levels compared to deep frying. However, microwave frying has the advantage of reducing oil absorption. The oil content of French fries was lowered by 20-33% (wb) at the highest power level. [es

  9. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  10. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián González-Alonso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  11. The effects of heating temperatures and time on deformation energy and oil yield of sunflower bulk seeds in compression loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabutey, A.; Herak, D.; Sigalingging, R.; Demirel, C.

    2018-02-01

    The deformation energy (J) and percentage oil yield (%) of sunflower bulk seeds under the influence of heat treatment temperatures and heating time were examined in compression test using the universal compression testing machine and vessel diameter of 60 mm with a plunger. The heat treatment temperatures were between 40 and 100 °C and the heating time at specific temperatures of 40 and 100 °C ranged from 15 to 75 minutes. The bulk sunflower seeds were measured at a pressing height of 60 mm and pressed at a maximum force of 100 kN and speed of 5 mm/min. Based on the compression results, the deformation energy and oil yield increased along with increasing heat treatment temperatures. The results were statistically significant (p 0.05).

  12. Olive oil-diet improves the simvastatin effects with respect to sunflower oil-diet in men with increased cardiovascular risk: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Bastida, S; Gutiérrez-García, O; Carbajal, A

    2009-01-01

    Concomitant intake of statins together with certain foods may affect their therapeutic effects. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine the modulating effect of two culinary oils on the hypolipemic effect of statins. Twenty-five men with severe hypercholesterolemia and high estimate cardiovascular risk (> 20% according to the Adult Treatment Panel III of USA National Institutes of Health, ATP-III) were enrolled in an observational follow-up study to test lipoprotein profile changes after ix month 20-mg/d Simvastatin treatment. Thirteen volunteers using sunflower oil as the habitual culinary fat, and 12 using olive oil, were selected by non-probabilistic incidental sampling. Volunteers consent in follow their habitual diets and to maintain diet characteristics throughout the study. Diet was evaluated through the study by three 24-h recalls and a food frequency questionnaire. The energy contribution of fat (P = 0.019) and MUFA (P alcohol (P = 0.005) was higher in the sunflower oil-group. TC/HDL-cholesterol and the ATP-III 10-year risk percent decreased more (P alcohol intakes were adjusted. Data suggest that although Simvastatin is a very effective hypolipemic drug, olive oil-diets in preference to sunflower oil-diets must be consumed in patients with high cardiovascular risk.

  13. Food grade microemulsion systems: Sunflower oil/castor oil derivative-ethanol/water. Rheological and physicochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori Cortés, Noelia; Lorenzo, Gabriel; Califano, Alicia N

    2018-05-01

    Microemulsions are thermodynamically stable systems that have attracted considerable attention in the food industry as delivery systems for many hydrophobic nutrients. These spontaneous systems are highly dependent on ingredients and composition. In this work phase diagrams were constructed using two surfactants (Kolliphor RH40 and ELP), water, sunflower oil, and ethanol as cosurfactant, evaluating their physicochemical properties. Stability of the systems was studied at 25 and 60 °C, monitoring turbidity at 550 nm for over a month to identify the microemulsion region. Conductivity was measured to classify between water-in-oil and oil-in-water microemulsions. The phase diagram constructed with Kolliphor RH40 exhibited a larger microemulsion area than that formulated with Kolliphor ELP. All formulations showed a monomodal droplet size distribution with low polydispersity index (<0.30) and a mean droplet size below 20 nm. Systems with higher water content presented a Newtonian behavior; increasing the dispersed phase content produced a weak gel-like structure with pseudoplastic behavior under flow conditions that was satisfactorily modeled to obtain structural parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture in a Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.; Oeztuerk, E.; Can, Oe.; Conkur, E.S.; Nas, S.; Con, A.H.; Can, A.C.; Topcu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel to Diesel fuel No. 2, which can be generally produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. Since the prices of edible vegetable oils are higher than that of Diesel fuel No. 2, waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils are preferred as potential low priced biodiesel sources. In addition, it is possible to use soapstock, a by-product of edible oil production, for cheap biodiesel production. In this study, a methyl ester biodiesel was produced from a hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture using methanol, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide in a two stage process. The effects of the methyl ester addition to Diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder, turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) Diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that the hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the Diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends

  15. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitohy, M. Z.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S, temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study. Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído enzimáticamente con seis enzimas diferentes: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinase acida, pectinasa y pectinex bajo las condiciones siguientes: concentración de sustrato en tampón fosfato (0,5M, pH 5 30%, concentración enzimática 2% (E/S, temperatura 50°C y tiempo 3 horas. Los aceites obtenidos fueron analizados por sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y perfiles de ácidos grasos

  16. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  17. Detection of sunflower oil in extra virgin olive oil by fast differential scanning calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Boerrigter-Eenling, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an economically valuable product, due to its high quality and premium price. Therefore it is vulnerable for adulteration by means of the addition of cheaper vegetable oils. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been suggested as a fast technique for the

  18. Barium and sodium in sunflower plants cultivated in soil treated with wastes of drilling of oil well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jésus Sampaio Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the effects of the application of two types of oil drilling wastes on the development and absorption of barium (Ba and sodium (Na by sunflower plants. The waste materials were generated during the drilling of the 7-MGP-98D-BA oil well, located in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of: Control – without Ba application, comprising only its natural levels in the soil; Corrected control – with fertilization and without wastes; and the Ba doses of 300, 3000 and 6000 mg kg-1, which were equivalent to the applications of 16.6, 165.9 and 331.8 Mg ha-1 of waste from the dryer, and 2.6, 25.7 and 51.3 Mg ha-1 of waste from the centrifugal. Plants cultivated using the first dose of dryer waste and the second dose of centrifugal waste showed growth and dry matter accumulation equal to those of plants under ideal conditions of cultivation (corrected control. The highest doses of dryer and centrifugal wastes affected the development of the plants. The absorption of Ba by sunflower plants was not affected by the increase in the doses. Na proved to be the most critical element present in the residues, interfering with sunflower development.

  19. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (pcontent (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (pcontent specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  20. Conventional and in situ transesterification of sunflower seed oil for the production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgogianni, K.G.; Kontominas, M.G.; Pomonis, P.J. [Section of Industrial and Food Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina 45110-Ioannina (Greece); Avlonitis, D. [Department of Petroleum Technology, TEI of Chalkida, 34600-Kavala (Greece); Gergis, V. [Department of Food Technology, TEI of Athens, 12210-Egaleo (Greece)

    2008-05-15

    In the present work the alkaline transesterification of sunflower seed oil with methanol and ethanol, for the production of biodiesel fuel was studied. Both conventional and in situ transesterification were investigated using low frequency ultrasonication (24 kHz) and mechanical stirring (600 rpm). Use of ultrasonication in conventional transesterification with methanol gave high yields of methyl esters (95%) after a short reaction time (20 min) similar to those using mechanical stirring. Use of ultrasonication in conventional transesterification with ethanol gave similar yields to those using mechanical stirring but significantly lower than respective yields using methanol. In the in situ transesterification the use of ultrasonication and mechanical stirring led to similar high yields (95%) of methyl esters after approximately 20 min of reaction time. In the presence of ethanol use of ultrasonication led to high ester yields (98%) in only 40 min of reaction time while use of mechanical stirring gave lower yields (88%) even after 4 h of reaction time. In situ transesterification gave similar ester yields to those obtained by conventional transesterification being an alternative, efficient and economical process. In all cases a concentration of 2.0% NaOH gave higher ester yields. Reaction rate constants were calculated, using first order reaction kinetics, to be equal to 3.1 x 10{sup -} {sup 3} s{sup -} {sup 1} for conventional transesterification using methanol and 2.0% NaOH, and 9.5 x 10{sup -} {sup 4} s{sup -} {sup 1} using ethanol. (author)

  1. Combustion analysis of preheated crude sunflower oil in an IDI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, Mustafa; Ozsezen, Ahmet Necati; Turkcan, Ali [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    In this study, preheated crude sunflower oil (PCSO) was tested for combustion and emission properties against petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF) in a naturally aspirated, indirect injection (IDI) engine. The cylinder gas pressure and heat release curves for PCSO at 75 C were similar to those of PBDF. The ignition delays for the PCSO were longer and the start of injection timing was earlier than for PBDF. The difference in the average brake torque was a decrease of 1.36% for PCSO though this was statistically insignificant. The brake specific fuel consumption increased by almost 5% more or less in proportion to the difference in calorific value, so that the 1.06% increase in thermal efficiency was again statistically insignificant. The emission test results showed that the decreases in CO{sub 2} emissions and smoke opacity 2.05% and 4.66%, respectively; however, this was not statistically significant, though in line with the apparent increase in thermal efficiency. There was a significant 34% improvement in the emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons. Carbon monoxide increased by 1.77% again the result was not statistically significant given the small number of repeat tests. The use of PCSO does not have any negative effects on the engine performance and emissions in short duration engine testing. (author)

  2. Transesterification of Waste Cooking Sunflower Oil by Porcine Pancreas Lipase Using Response Surface Methodology for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Ebrahimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Biodiesel production from recycled vegetable oils is considered as an economically acceptable alternative for fossil fuels in the recent years. In this work, porcine pancreas lipase as an active catalyst in transesterification reaction of waste cooking sunflower oil with methanol for biodiesel production was used.Material and Methods: In order to define optimum process parameters and predict the best results, response surface methodology and the central composite design was performed. The effects of methanol to oil molar ratio, lipase concentration and reaction temperature on transesterification were investigated. Biodiesel production was carried out in 25 ml shake flasks at 180 rpm for 72 h.Results and Conclusion: Under optimal conditions, the biodiesel yield was 75% which was nearly consistent with the predicted yield of 76%. At optimal conditions the molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature, and lipase percent were determined as 3:1, 44°C and 4.4%, respectively. Due to relatively high obtained yield, biodiesel production from waste cooking sunflower oil has provided a sound environmental and commercial process.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  3. Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil

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    Gamel, T. H.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1 and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 °C. Frying process at 180 °C was also applied. The methanol phenolic extracts and the BHA were added to each oil at the following concentrations: 200 ppm rosemary extract; 200 ppm olive vegetable water extract; 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA; 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA and 200 ppm BHA. In general, antioxidant effect of phenolic additives of rosemary and of BHA was in the following order: 200 ppm rosemary extract > 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA > and 200 ppm BHA. The addition of 200 ppm vegetable water extract and 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA exhibited similar antioxidant effect to that of 200 ppm BHA.

    Extractos metanólicos de fenoles de hojas secas de romero y filtrados de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, en combinación con BHA, se añadieron al aceite de oliva (mezcla de aceite de oliva refinado y virgen, 3 a 1 y al aceite de girasol, evaluándose sus efectos antioxidantes usando condiciones aceleradas. Estas condiciones incluyeron el test del horno de oxidación (a 63 °C y el método de conductividad (Rancimat a 120 °C. También se aplicó al proceso de fritura a 180 °C. Los extractos metanólicos de fenoles y el BHA se añadieron a cada aceite en las siguientes concentraciones: 200 ppm de extracto de romero, 200 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, 100 ppm de extracto de romero + 100 ppm de BHA, 100 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación + 100 ppm de BHA y 200 ppm de BHA

  4. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidant activity of various plant extracts under ambient and accelerated storage of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh, Munir A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of 11 medicinally or economically important plant materials indigenous to Pakistan. The materials were extracted with 80% methanol and examined  for their antioxidant activity under different storage conditions using sunflower and soybean oils as oxidation substrates. Preliminary antioxidant activity assessment among the extracts was conducted with the TLC-test and by measuring percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. The rhizome of Iris germanica, leaves of Lawsonia alba, and M. oleifera, coffee (Coffee arabica beans, rice (Oryza sativa bran, wheat bran and oats (Avenis sativa groats and hull, which showed higher antioxidant activity among the extracts, were further evaluated using soybean and sunflower oils as oxidation substrates. The vegetable oils were stabilized with extracts at a dosage of 0.12% (w/w, and individually subjected to accelerated (65 oC, 15 days and ambient (6 months storage. The oxidative deterioration level was monitored for the measurement of antioxidant activity index (AI, peroxide value (PV, conjugated dienes and trienes contents. Overall, the extracts of coffee beans, oat groats and hull, Iris germanica and M. oleifera leaves were found to be the most effective in extending oxidative stability, and retarding PV, primary and secondary oxidation products of soybean and sunflower oils. The order of efficiency of the plant extracts for stabilization of the subject oils was as follows: oat groats and hull > coffee beans > M. oleifera leaves > Lawsonia alba > Iris germanica > rice bran > wheat bran. Significant differences in the antioxidant potential of some of the extracts for stabilization of substrate oils were observed under ambient and accelerated storage conditions and thus demonstrated a variable antioxidant prospective of the extracts under different analytical protocols.El presente trabajo se ha realizado para investigar la capacidad

  6. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies.

  7. Investigation of adulteration of sunflower oil with thermally deteriorated oil using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vilela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy based on attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis methods was used to monitor the adulteration of pure sunflower oil (SO with thermally deteriorated oil (TDO. Contrary to published research, in this work, SO was thermally deteriorated in the absence of foodstuff. SO samples were exposed to temperatures between 125 and 225°C from 6 to 24 h. Quantification of adulteration of SO with TDO, based on principal components regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLS-R, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA applied to mid-infrared spectra and to their first and second derivatives is reported for the first time. Infrared frequencies associated with the biochemical differences between TDO samples deteriorated in different conditions were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA. LDA was effective in the twofold classification presence/absence of TDO in adulterated SO (with 5% V/V of less of TDO. It provided 93.7% correct classification for the calibration set and 91.3% correct classification when cross-validated. A detection limit of 1% V/V of TDO in SO was determined. Investigation of an external set of samples allowed the evaluation of the predictability of the models. The regression coefficient (R2 for prediction was 0.95 and 0.96 and the RMSE was 2.1 and 1.9% V/V when using the PCR or PLS-R models, respectively, and the first derivative of spectra. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation of adulteration of SO with TDO based on PCR, PLS-R, and LDA has been reported so far.

  8. Shelf-life of fresh blueberries coated with quinoa protein/chitosan/sunflower oil edible film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, Lilian; Tapia, Cristián; Plasencia, Dora; Pastor, Ana; Castro-Mandujano, Olivio; López, Luis; Escalona, Victor H

    2016-01-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quinoa protein (Q), chitosan (CH) and sunflower oil (SO) as edible film material as well as the influence of this coating in extending the shelf-life of fresh blueberries stored at 4 °C and 75% relative humidity. These conditions were used to simulate the storage conditions in supermarkets and represent adverse conditions for testing the effects of the coating. The mechanical, barrier, and structural properties of the film were measured. The effectiveness of the coating in fresh blueberries (CB) was evaluated by changes in weight loss, firmness, color, molds and yeast count, pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids content. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the edible film were 0.45 ± 0.29 MPa and 117.2% ± 7%, respectively. The water vapor permeability was 3.3 × 10(-12) ± 4.0 × 10(-13) g s(-1) m(-1) Pa(-1). In all of the color parameters CB presented significant differences. CB had slight delayed fruit ripening as evidenced by higher titratable acidity (0.3-0.5 g citric acid 100 g(-1)) and lower pH (3.4-3.6) than control during storage; however, it showed reduced firmness (up to 38%). The use of Q/CH/SO as a coating in fresh blueberries was able to control the growth of molds and yeasts during 32 days of storage, whereas the control showed an increasing of molds and yeast, between 1.8 and 3.1 log cycles (between 20 and 35 days). © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Influence of sunflower seed oil or baby lotion on the skin barrier function of newborns: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanti, Varvara; Günther, Malise; Stroux, Andrea; Sawatzky, Sabine; Henrich, Wolfgang; Abou-Dakn, Michael; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2017-12-01

    Skin care influences skin barrier function during the first postnatal weeks. Although the use of natural oils in preterms has been investigated, there are currently no data comparing the effect of sunflower oil to an emollient on barrier development in healthy term newborns. In a prospective, randomized clinical study, 50 healthy full-term newborns aged ≤72 h were randomly assigned to two groups: group baby lotion (L, n=22) and sunflower seed oil (SSO, n=24). The skin barrier function was evaluated in three anatomical areas (front, abdomen, and thigh) by noninvasive assessment of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration (SCH), sebum, and skin pH at inclusion and after five weeks. In both groups, skin pH decreased and SCH increased statistically significantly in all measured areas at W5 compared to baseline. TEWL decreased statistically significantly on the forearm in both groups, on the upper leg in group L, and on the abdomen in group SSO. Both skin care regimes did not harm skin barrier function adaptation in healthy term neonates during the first five weeks of life. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Comparison of Effects of Gamma Radiation of Crude Oil Yield on Some Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havser ERTEM VAİZOĞULLAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of different doses gamma radiation on crude oil yield and moisture of different six variety sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. seeds. As materials, sunflower variety Ege-2001, Turay, AS-508, Tunca, TR-3080 and Tarsan-1018 seeds were used and irradiated with doses of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy gamma radiation. Irradiation was performed in a cesium (Ce137 Gammacell 3000 Elan source, dose rate about 9.75 Gy/min (2900 Ci in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in the department of the radiological. Moisture amount of seeds were also measured by AOCS standarts. Extraction of the seeds was done with soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether by hot continuous extraction for 6 hours.  It was found that the highest moisture rate in 100 Gy for all seeds variety. The moisture rate ranged between 3.00 and 9.68% in TR-3080 and Ege-2001, respectively. According to the our results, seed moisture content was affected by gamma radiation in a significant negative one-way. The significant reduction in seed moisture content (9.68% began at 100 Gy of gamma rays and continued to decline to up to 4.04% at 500 Gy. The crude oil yield showed not a important increase in 100 and 200 Gy doses. The result showed that the highest crude oil yield was also obtained from 400 Gy and 33.49% in Ege-2001 seeds.

  11. Monitoring biodiesel reactions of soybean oil and sunflower oil using ultrasonic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, M K K; Silva, C E R; Alvarenga, A V; Costa-Félix, R P B

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is an innovation that attempts to substitute diesel oil with biomass. The aim of this paper is to show the development of a real-time method to monitor transesterification reactions by using low-power ultrasound and pulse/echo techniques. The results showed that it is possible to identify different events during the transesterification process by using the proposed parameters, showing that the proposed method is a feasible way to monitor the reactions of biodiesel during its fabrication, in real time, and with relatively low- cost equipment

  12. Monitoring biodiesel reactions of soybean oil and sunflower oil using ultrasonic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M. K. K.; Silva, C. E. R.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Félix, R. P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is an innovation that attempts to substitute diesel oil with biomass. The aim of this paper is to show the development of a real-time method to monitor transesterification reactions by using low-power ultrasound and pulse/echo techniques. The results showed that it is possible to identify different events during the transesterification process by using the proposed parameters, showing that the proposed method is a feasible way to monitor the reactions of biodiesel during its fabrication, in real time, and with relatively low- cost equipment.

  13. The effect of sesame and sunflower oils on the plasma disposition of ivermectin in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokbulut, C; Karademir, U; Boyacioglu, M; McKellar, Q A

    2008-10-01

    The effect of sesame oil (SSO) and sunflower oil (SFO) (the excipients) on the plasma disposition of ivermectin (IVM) following intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) administration at a dosage of 200 microg/kg was investigated in goats. Ten clinically healthy crossbred goats were used in the study. The animals were allocated by weight and sex into two groups of five animals each. Group 1 (n = 5) received the drug and excipient by the i.v. route only and group 2 received drug and excipient by the s.c. route only. The study was designed according to a two-phase crossover design protocol. In the first phase three animals in group 1 were i.v. administered IVM (0.2 mg/kg) + SSO (1 mL) and the other two animals received IVM (0.2 mg/kg) + SFO (1 mL). In the second phase animals were crossed over and received the alternate excipient with IVM at the same dosages. In group 2 during the first phase, three animals were s.c. administered IVM (0.2 mg/kg) + SSO (1 mL) and the other two animals were received IVM (0.2 mg/kg) + SFO (1 mL). In the second phase animals were crossed over and received the alternate excipient with IVM at the same dosages. A 4-week washout period was allowed between the two phases. In group 2 significantly increased dermal thickness was observed at the s.c. injection site of the all animals which received IVM during phase I regardless of the excipient. There was almost no change observed at the injection site of any animal during the second phase of the study following s.c. administration. In group 2 the plasma concentrations of IVM in the second phase for both excipient combinations were much higher than the plasma concentrations following first administration and appeared to be related with the dermal changes. The mean plasma disposition of IVM in combination with SSO or SFO was similar following i.v. administration. Longer terminal elimination half-lives and resultant longer mean resident time were observed after s.c. administration of the both

  14. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Morsy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5 fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA, and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017 ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001 and acetate (p = 0.034 concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013 in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007 and milk fat content (p = 0.002. Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048 and feed efficiency (p = 0.046 compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05 milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021 C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3, without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  15. Cardiotoxicity induced by dietary oxidized sunflower oil in rats: pro- and antioxidant effects of α-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouaki, Fayrouz; Mazari, Azzedine; Kanane, Amel; Errahmani, Mohamed Brahim; Ammouche, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study highlighted the pro-oxidative functions of α-tocopherol (αT) on the heart antioxidant system and tissue histopathology of oxidized sunflower oil (OSO)-exposed rats.Four groups of male Wistar rats were fed with different diets: 1) control diet containing FSO (fresh sunflower oil); 2) diet containing 5 % OSO; 3) diet containing 5 % OSO, supplemented with 600 mg αT kg-1; and 4) diet containing 5 % OSO, supplemented with 1200 mg αT kg-1. The hearts were then isolated, and the antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed. Body weight and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities significantly decreased in groups fed with OSO, while the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level significantly increased. Administration of OSO with αT (600 mg · kg-1) returned the body weight values and LPO levels to similar values as the control group. The CAT and GPx activities increased but remained significantly lower compared to the control group. In the OSO group with αT (1200 mg · kg-1), the CAT and GPx activities also decreased, while LPO significantly increased. Heart tissue sections obtained from the groups revealed the presence of large areas of necrosis. This study suggested that OSO induced oxidative stress and that administration of a moderate dose of αT restored the antioxidant balance, but that high levels of αT supplementation result in a pro-oxidant effect.

  16. Production of biodiesel from sunflower oil using highly catalytic bimetallic gold–silver core–shell nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Madhuchanda; Dey, Binita; Talukdar, Jayanta; Chandra Kalita, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Bimetallic Gold–silver core–shell nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) were synthesized at room temperature, where gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) served as seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core–shell structure was examined by UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The catalytic activity of these nanoparticles toward biodiesel production from Sunflower oil through transesterification was studied. The confirmation for biofuel synthesis was performed using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy. Fuel properties are determined by standard ASTM (American society for Testing and Materials) protocols. Our observations show that at certain catalyst concentration, temperature and reaction time, highest yield of biodiesel (86.9%) is attained. The fuel properties of the synthesized biofuel are at par with standard biofuel. Further, the catalyst showed sustained activity for 3 cycles of transesterification. - Highlights: • Gold–silver core–shell NPs were used for biofuel synthesis from sunflower oil. • At the optimized condition, biodiesel yield of 86.9% was achieved. • Fuel properties of the biofuel synthesized are at par with standard biofuel. • The catalyst showed sustained activity for 3 cycles of transesterification

  17. Effects of different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating water stress is well documented. In order to study the effects of water stress and two different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower, a field experiment as split plot design with three replications was conducted in the Research Field Station, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran in 2011. Water stress treatments included control as 90% of field capacity (W1, 70% field capacity (W2 and 50% field capacity (W3 assigned to the main plots and two different mycorrhiza species, consisting of M1 = control (without any inoculation, M2 = Glumus mossea and M3 = Glumus etanicatum as sub plots. Results showed that by increasing water stress from control (W1 to W3 treatment, grain yield was significantly decreased. The reduction in the level of W3 was 15.05%. The content of potassium in seeds significantly decreased due to water stress but water stress upto W2 treatment increased the content of phosphorus, nitrogen and oil content of seeds. In between two species of mycorrhiza in sunflower plants, Glumus etanicatum had the highest effect on grain yield and these elements in seeds and increased both.

  18. Ridge sowing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in a minimum till system improves the productivity, oil quality, and profitability on a sandy loam soil under an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Ahmad; Suleman, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul; Sattar, Abdul; Wasaya, Allah; Ijaz, Muhammad; Nawaz, Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a major oilseed crop grown for its edible oil across the globe including Pakistan. In Pakistan, the production of edible oil is less than the required quantity; the situation is being worsened with the increasing population. Thus, there is dire need to grow those sunflower genotypes which perform better under a given set of agronomic practices. In this 2-year study, we compared four sunflower genotypes, viz., Armoni, Kundi, Sinji, and S-278 for their yield potential, oil contents, fatty acid composition, and profitability under three sowing methods, viz., bed sowing, line sowing, and ridge sowing and two tillage system, viz., plow till and minimum till. Among the sunflower genotypes, the genotype Armoni produced the highest plant height, number of leaves, head diameter, 1000-achene weight, and achene yield; the oil contents and oleic acid were the highest in genotype Sinji. Among the sowing methods, the highest number of leaves per plant, head diameter, number of achenes per head, achene yield, and oil contents were recorded in ridge sowing. Among the tillage systems, the highest head diameter 16. 2 cm, 1000-achene weight (57.2 g), achene yield (1.8 t ha -1 ), oil contents (35.2%), and oleic acid (15.2%) were recorded in minimum till sunflower. The highest net benefits and benefit to cost ratio were recorded in minimum till ridge sown Armoni genotype. In conclusion, the genotype Armoni should be grown on ridges to achieve the highest achene yield, oil contents, and net profitability.

  19. Oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils d baking process and storage of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of bread lipids during baking and storage reduces the nutritional value of the product and leads to the formation of off-flavors and off-odors. In this research, oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils during Brotchen bread baking process and storage was evaluated. Baking process caused a significant increase in oxidative indices such as peroxide, anisidine, Totox and thiobarbitoric acid values and free fatty acid content. However, storage of breads for 6 days in room temperature did not affect the value of the indices. Generaly, the value of the indices in bread containing rice bran oil was lower than those of the other breads, which indicated the higher oxidative stability of rice bran oil in baking process and storage. Pure oils treated in simulated baking process and storage had an oxidative quality similar to that of breads. This means that bread ingridients may not have an effect on oil oxidative stability. Bread containing rice bran oil gained also higher scores in sensory evaluation, which of course were in agree with its better oxidative status.

  20. Use of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics for the authentication of avocado oil in ternary mixtures with sunflower and soybean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sotelo, Paola; Hernández-Martínez, Maylet; Osorio-Revilla, Guillermo; Meza-Márquez, Ofelia Gabriela; García-Ochoa, Felipe; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhrí

    2016-07-01

    Avocado oil is a high-value and nutraceutical oil whose authentication is very important since the addition of low-cost oils could lower its beneficial properties. Mid-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was used to detect and quantify adulteration of avocado oil with sunflower and soybean oils in a ternary mixture. Thirty-seven laboratory-prepared adulterated samples and 20 pure avocado oil samples were evaluated. The adulterated oil amount ranged from 2% to 50% (w/w) in avocado oil. A soft independent modelling class analogy (SIMCA) model was developed to discriminate between pure and adulterated samples. The model showed recognition and rejection rate of 100% and proper classification in external validation. A partial least square (PLS) algorithm was used to estimate the percentage of adulteration. The PLS model showed values of R(2) > 0.9961, standard errors of calibration (SEC) in the range of 0.3963-0.7881, standard errors of prediction (SEP estimated) between 0.6483 and 0.9707, and good prediction performances in external validation. The results showed that mid-FTIR spectroscopy could be an accurate and reliable technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of avocado oil in ternary mixtures.

  1. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  2. Analysis of the technology of production of pressed sunflower oil at LLC Chernozemye and recommendations for improving its efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of the technological scheme of the stock-preparation shop, press shop and cleaning of worm-press oil at Chernozemye LLC, with an analysis of the main types of technological equipment operation and evaluation of problematic production sites is given. It has been established that during hulling and following separation into fractions in separators and sifts, favorable conditions are created for oiling the husks by contacting it while passing through a sieve together with a high-oiled crushed kernel and oilseed dust. To reduce the oil content of husks in the scheme, it is recommended to use hydrocyclones that direct the husk for the subsequent separation of the particles of the kernel and oil dust carried along with the husk. It was also revealed that the greatest content of waxes and waxlike substances in the oil, which significantly affect the transparency of commercial sunflower oil, is contained in the husks lipids, which partially pass into the oil during the processing of seeds. The content of waxes in oils is the higher, the more husk is contained in the kernel, and the higher the temperature of the pulp entering the pressing. In this case, the ratio of oleic and linoleic acids in low-oil varieties is 1:1, in high-oil varieties is 1:3. The heterogeneity of the grinding of the oil seed meal, resulting from the hulling of seeds, makes it difficult to uniformly moisten, warm and dry the pulp in the conditioner. The structure of the finished pulp is influenced by the primary structure of the oil seed meal, obtained during the process of grinding the seeds. The intensive coloring of the pulp, oil cake and ground oil-cake during the drying of oil seed meal is due to the high temperature (above 100 °C in the conditioner, which leads to an intensive course of the sugar-amino reactions, an increase in the total content of nitrogen and phosphorus. And this changes color and increases raw materials losses.

  3. Kinetic studies on the transesterification of sunflower oil with 1-butanol catalyzed by Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic aqueous-organic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of sunflower oil transesterification with 1-butanol using a homogeneous lipase (Rhizomucor miehei) in an aqueous-organic biphasic system were studied in a stirred batch reactor set-up. An initial screening study was performed to optimize relevant process conditions (enzyme

  4. Distribution of fatty acids from dietary oils into phospholipid classes of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Rocio; Pacheco, Yolanda M; Montero, Emilio; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Valentina; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2003-02-21

    Several studies have suggested that lipoprotein metabolism can be affected by lipoprotein phospholipid composition. We investigated the effect of virgin olive oil (VOO) and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) intake on the distribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TG), cholesteryl esters (CE) and phospholipid (PL) classes of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (TRL) from normolipidemic males throughout a 7 h postprandial metabolism. Particularly, changes in oleic acid (18:1n-9) concentration of PL were used as a marker of in vivo hydrolysis of TRL external monolayer. Both oils equally promoted the incorporation of oleic acid into the TG and CE of postprandial TRL. However, PL was enriched in oleic acid (18:1n-9) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) after VOO meal, whereas in stearic (18:0) and linoleic (18:2n-6) acids after HOSO meal. We also found that VOO produced TRL which PL 18:1n-9 content was dramatically reduced along the postprandial period. We conclude that the fatty acid composition of PL can be a crucial determinant for the clearance of TRL during the postprandial metabolism of fats.

  5. Determination of free radical scavenger agent efficiency in Syrian consumed sunflower oil using FT-IR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaf, A. W.; Al-Zier, A.

    2013-06-01

    Edible oils can be oxidized spontaneously by thermal process in the presence of atmospheric oxygen causing an oxidation to these oils and forming the hydroperoxides; this oxidative process is a major cause of cooking oils deterioration. Many synthetic or natural antioxidants additives have been used as free radical scavenger agent. In this work, Eugenol methylether has been used as free radical scavenger agent at three different concentrations to heated sunflower oil at 160°C for ten hours using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for analysis and evaluations. Before any additives, three characteristic absorption bands were observed at 3544, 3473 and 3290 cm-1 in heated oil. The recorded bands were assigned to 7Tthe unbounded7T, 7Tbounded 7Thydroperoxide or free alcohols 7Tgroups7T and to the O-H stretching alcohol associated group, respectively. After the addition of Eugenol methylether at 0.8 mL/L concentration, the bands intensity of hydroperoxide formation content is reduced. It has been shown that the free radical scavenger agent plays an acceptable role in reducing the hydroperoxide formation content as the result of thermal oxidation. It is proved that FTIR spectroscopy is an effective analytical tool for such investigatio (author).

  6. Optimization of sunflower oil methanolysis for the production of biodiesel and its characterization with spectroscopic techniques (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, M.; Ali, S.; Khalid, N.; Naureen, R.; Rafique, U.

    2011-01-01

    Esters from vegetable oils have attracted a great deal of interest as substitute for petrodiesel to reduce dependence on imported petroleum and provide an alternate and sustainable source for fuel with more benign environmental properties. In the present study biodiesel was prepared from sunflower seed oil by transesterification by alkali-catalyzed methanolysis. The fuel properties like kinematic viscosity, density, specific gravity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, acid number and colour comparison of sunflower oil biodiesel (SOB) were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 standards for biodiesel. The SOB was chemically characterized with analytical techniques like FT-IR, NMR (/sup 1/H and /sup 13/C). The chemical composition of SOB was determined by GC-MS. Various fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were identified by retention time data and verified by mass fragmentation patterns. The identified FAMEs were methyl dodecanoate (C/sub 12:0/), methyl tetradecanoate(C/sub 14:0/), methyl hexadecanoate (C/sub 16:0/), methyl 8,11-octadecadienoate (C/sub 18:2/), methyl 9-octadecenoate (C/sub 18:1/), methyl octadecanoate (C/sub 18:0/), methyl 11-eicosenoate (C/sub 20:1/), methyl eicosanoate (C/sub 20:0/), methyl 13-docosenoate(C/sub 22:1/), methyl docosenoate(C/sub 22:0/) and methyl tetracosanoate (C/sub 24:0/). The percentage conversion of triglycerides to corresponding methyl esters determined by /sup 1/H-NMR was 87.33 % which was quite in good agreement with the practically observed yield of 85.1 %. (author)

  7. Evaluation of stability and size distribution of sunflower oil-coated micro bubbles for localized drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Walter Duarte de Araujo; Schneider, Fábio Kurt; Morales, Rigoberto E M

    2012-09-20

    Micro bubbles were initially introduced as contrast agents for ultrasound examinations as they are able to modify the signal-to-noise ratio in imaging, thus improving the assessment of clinical information on human tissue. Recent developments have demonstrated the feasibility of using these bubbles as drug carriers in localized delivery. In micro fluidics devices for generation of micro bubbles, the bubbles are formed at interface of liquid gas through a strangulation process. A device that uses these features can produce micro bubbles with small size dispersion in a single step. A T-junction micro fluidic device constructed using 3D prototyping was made for the production of mono dispersed micro bubbles. These micro bubbles use sunflower oil as a lipid layer. Stability studies for micro bubbles with diameters different generated from a liquid phase of the same viscosity were conducted to evaluate whether micro bubbles can be used as drug carriers. The biocompatibility of coating layer, the ability to withstand environmental pressure variations combined with echogenicity, are key factors that they can safely play the role of drug transporters. The normal distribution curve with small dispersion of the diameter of bubbles validates the process of generating micro bubbles with low value of variation coefficient, i.e., 0.381 at 1.90%. The results also showed the feasibility of using sunflower oil as the lipid matrix with stable population of bubbles over 217 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 313.04 μm and 121 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 73.74 μm, considering bubbles with air as gaseous phase. The results indicate that the micro fluidic device designed can be used for producing micro bubbles with low variation coefficient using sunflower oil as a coating of micro bubbles. These carriers were stable for periods of time that are long enough for clinical applications even when regular air is used as the gas phase. Improved

  8. Evaluation of stability and size distribution of sunflower oil-coated micro bubbles for localized drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho WalterDuartedeAraujo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro bubbles were initially introduced as contrast agents for ultrasound examinations as they are able to modify the signal-to-noise ratio in imaging, thus improving the assessment of clinical information on human tissue. Recent developments have demonstrated the feasibility of using these bubbles as drug carriers in localized delivery. In micro fluidics devices for generation of micro bubbles, the bubbles are formed at interface of liquid gas through a strangulation process. A device that uses these features can produce micro bubbles with small size dispersion in a single step. Methods A T-junction micro fluidic device constructed using 3D prototyping was made for the production of mono dispersed micro bubbles. These micro bubbles use sunflower oil as a lipid layer. Stability studies for micro bubbles with diameters different generated from a liquid phase of the same viscosity were conducted to evaluate whether micro bubbles can be used as drug carriers. The biocompatibility of coating layer, the ability to withstand environmental pressure variations combined with echogenicity, are key factors that they can safely play the role of drug transporters. Results The normal distribution curve with small dispersion of the diameter of bubbles validates the process of generating micro bubbles with low value of variation coefficient, i.e., 0.381 at 1.90%. The results also showed the feasibility of using sunflower oil as the lipid matrix with stable population of bubbles over 217 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 313.04 μm and 121 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 73.74 μm, considering bubbles with air as gaseous phase. Conclusion The results indicate that the micro fluidic device designed can be used for producing micro bubbles with low variation coefficient using sunflower oil as a coating of micro bubbles. These carriers were stable for periods of time that are long enough for clinical

  9. Thermal and UV stability of β-carotene dissolved in peppermint oil microemulsified by sunflower lecithin and Tween 20 blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-05-01

    Microemulsions are suitable for simultaneous delivery of flavour oils and lipophilic bioactive compounds in transparent beverages. In the present study, the feasibility of delivering β-carotene in microemulsions formulated with peppermint oil and a blend of Tween® 20 and various amounts of sunflower lecithin was investigated. The poorly water- and oil-soluble β-carotene was dissolved in the transparent microemulsions that had particles smaller than 10nm and were stable during ambient storage for 65 d. The inclusion of β-carotene did not change the flow-behaviour and Newtonian viscosity. The degradation of β-carotene in microemulsions during ambient storage, ultraviolet radiation, and thermal treatments at 60 and 80 °C followed first order kinetics and was greatly suppressed when compared to the solution control. The antioxidant potential of peppermint oil and a greater content of lecithin in microemulsions enabled the better protection of β-carotene. The studied microemulsions may find various applications in manufacturing transparent beverages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidative stability of lard and sunflower oil supplemented with coffee extracts under storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budryn, Grażyna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stability of sunflower oil and lard supplemented with water extracts of green and roasted, Arabica and Robusta coffee beans was estimated. A decrease in the rate of fat oxidation reactions during the storage of samples for 12 weeks at ambient temperature which resulted from the addition of coffee extracts was evaluated using standard chemical methods such as the determination of peroxide and p-anisidine value and the assays of conjugated dienes and trienes as well as physical methods such as the determination of thermal profile by DSC. The sensory properties of all fat samples were also determined. These measurements showed that 0.1% water coffee extracts in fats decreased (p < 0.05 the quantities assayed by the chemical methods as compared to the control samples and approximately halved the rate of fat oxidation. In addition, the thermal profile analysis revealed that supplementing with coffee extracts reduced the extent of negative changes in the thermal properties of fats. The effectiveness of the tested coffee extracts decreased in the order: green Robusta > green Arabica > roasted Robusta > roasted Arabica.

    La estabilidad oxidativa de manteca y aceite de girasol suplementados con extractos acuosos de granos de café verde o tostado Arábica y Robusta fue estimada. Un descenso en la velocidad de las reacciones de oxidación de la grasa durante el almacenamiento de las muestras durante 12 semana a temperatura ambiente, que resulto de la adición de los extractos de café, fue evaluada usando métodos químicos estándares tales como la determinación de peróxidos y el índice de paranisidina y ensayos de dienos y trienos conjugados, así como métodos físicos tales como la determinación del perfil térmico por DSC. También las propiedades sensoriales de todas las grasas fueron estimadas. Estas medidas mostraron que extractos acuosos de café al 0.1% en la grasa decrecieron (p < 0.05 los valores obtenidos por los m

  11. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bullon

    Full Text Available Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats.Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations.The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  12. The effects of antioxidants and shelf life conditions on oxidation markers in a sunflower oil salad dressing emulsion (SOSDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Jeanine; Grypa, Roman; Ellingworth, John; Duodu, Kwaku G; De Kock, Henriëtta L

    2016-12-15

    The effects of levels of antioxidant [gallic acid or ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA)] in a sunflower oil salad dressing emulsion (SOSDE) and shelf life affecting conditions on aroma, anisidine values (AV) and peroxide values (PV) were determined. Aroma differences between products with different concentrations of antioxidants were more apparent for ambient than accelerated stored SOSDEs. Aroma differences were more noted between SOSDEs with different antioxidants than antioxidant concentrations per se. PV differences between accelerated stored SOSDEs with high and low EDTA concentrations were found. AV differences existed between SOSDEs with different gallic acid concentrations for both storage conditions, and for accelerated stored SOSDEs with different EDTA concentrations. The accelerated storage model is more suitable for SOSDEs with metal chelator antioxidants e.g. EDTA, than free radical scavenging antioxidants e.g. gallic acid. PV, AV and aroma of accelerated stored SOSDEs do not clearly predict ambient shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structurally modified pectin for targeted lipid antioxidant capacity in linseed/sunflower oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celus, Miete; Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; Kyomugasho, Clare; Maes, Ine; Van Loey, Ann M; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2018-02-15

    The present work explored the lipid antioxidant capacity of citrus pectin addition to 5%(w/v) linseed/sunflower oil emulsions stabilized with 0.5%(w/v) Tween 80, as affected by pectin molecular characteristics. The peroxide formation in the emulsions, containing tailored pectin structures, was studied during two weeks of storage at 35°C. Low demethylesterified pectin (≤33%) exhibited a higher antioxidant capacity than high demethylesterified pectin (≥58%), probably due to its higher chelating capacity of pro-oxidative metal ions (Fe 2+ ), whereas the distribution pattern of methylesters along the pectin chain only slightly affected the antioxidant capacity. Nevertheless, pectin addition to the emulsions caused emulsion destabilization probably due to depletion or bridging effect, independent of the pectin structural characteristics. These results evidence the potential of structurally modified citrus pectin as a natural antioxidant in emulsions. However, optimal conditions for emulsion stability should be carefully selected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lipoprotein profiles and serum peroxide levels of aged women consuming palmolein or oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, C; Ródenas, S; Merinero, M C; Rodríguez-Gil, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the hypercholesterolemic effects of a dietary exchange between 16:0 and 18:1 while 18:2 was at relatively lower level (approximately 4%) in aged women with initially high total serum cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values and with high intakes of dietary cholesterol. Subjects were assigned to two consecutive 28 d periods. In the first period all subjects followed an oleic acid-rich diet in the form of oleic acid-rich sunflower oil. This was followed by a second period rich in palmitic acid in the form of palmolein. Nutrient intakes, serum lipids, lipoproteins, antioxidant vitamins, peroxides and LDL-peroxides were measured at two dietary periods. Instituto de Nutrición y Bromatología (CSIC), Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología I (Nutrición) and Sección Departamental de Quimica Analítica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. The palmolein period led to an increase in TC (P or = 6.21 mmol/L or with TC 6.21 mmol/L than in women with TC < 6.21 mmol/L, but palmolein decreased serum and LDL-peroxide in hypercholesterolemics more than in the normocholesterolemics, resulting in serum and LDL-peroxide levels which theoretically are more adequate. Though palmolein increased LDL-C concentrations, it better protected LDL particles, mainly in women with high TC, against peroxidation than did oleic acid-rich sunflower oil.

  15. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Flaxseed Oil-in-Water Emulsions Fabricated from Sunflower Lecithins: Impact of Blending Lecithins with Different Phospholipid Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Chen, Fang; Wang, Xingguo; Jin, Qingzhe; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian

    2017-06-14

    There is great interest in the formulation of plant-based foods enriched with nutrients that promote health, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study evaluated the impact of sunflower phospholipid type on the formation and stability of flaxseed oil-in-water emulsions. Two sunflower lecithins (Sunlipon 50 and 90) with different phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels (59 and 90%, respectively) were used in varying ratios to form emulsions. Emulsion droplet size, charge, appearance, microstructure, and oxidation were measured during storage at 55 °C in the dark. The physical and chemical stability increased as the PC content of the lecithin blends decreased. The oxidative stability of emulsions formulated using Sunlipon 50 was better than emulsions formulated using synthetic surfactants (SDS or Tween 20). The results are interpreted in terms of the impact of emulsifier type on the colloidal interactions between oil droplets and on the molecular interactions between pro-oxidants and oil droplet surfaces.

  16. Transesterification of linoleic and oleic sunflower oils to biodiesel using CaO as a solid base catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Zlatica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to characterize biodiesel (i.e. methyl esters, MEs produced from linoleic and oleic sunflower oils (LSO and OSO, respectively by alkali transesterification with methanol and CaO as a heterogeneous catalyst under different reaction parameters. The parameters investigated were the methanol/oil molar ratio (4.5:1, 6:1, 7.5:1, 9:1 and 12:1 and the mass ratio of CaO to oil (2% and 3%. The physical and chemical properties of the feedstocks and MEs, like density at 15oC, kinematic viscosity at 40oC, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, cetane index, fatty acid (methyl ester composition, were determined in order to investigate the effects of LSO and OSO properties and reaction parameters on the product characteristics, yields and purity. The properties of feedstock had decisive effect on the physical and chemical properties of MEs as majority of them did not differ significantly under studied reaction conditions. The MEs produced generally met the criteria required for commercial biodiesel; in fact, the only exception was in the case of iodine value of ME produced from LSO. The product yields only slightly changed with the applied conditions; the highest yield (99.22% was obtained for ME-LSO produced at 6 mol% methanol to oil ratio, while the lowest one (93.20% was for ME-OSO produced under the lowest methanol/oil molar ratio (4.5:1. The applied catalyst amounts had similar influence on the oil conversion to biodiesel. The yields of ME-LSOs were in general somewhat higher than those obtained for ME-OSOs under the same conditions, which was attributed to the influence of the respective feedstocks' acid value and viscosity.

  17. Proteomic analysis of oil body membrane proteins accompanying the onset of desiccation phase during sunflower seed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    A noteworthy metabolic signature accompanying oil body (OB) biogenesis during oilseed development is associated with the modulation of the oil body membranes proteins. Present work focuses on 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE)-based analysis of the temporal changes in the OB membrane proteins analyzed by LC-MS/MS accompanying the onset of desiccation (20–30 d after anthesis; DAA) in the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Protein spots unique to 20–30 DAA stages were picked up from 2-D gels for identification and the identified proteins were categorized into 7 functional classes. These include proteins involved in energy metabolism, reactive oxygen scavenging, proteolysis and protein turnover, signaling, oleosin and oil body biogenesis-associated proteins, desiccation and cytoskeleton. At 30 DAA stage, exclusive expressions of enzymes belonging to energy metabolism, desiccation and cytoskeleton were evident which indicated an increase in the metabolic and enzymatic activity in the cells at this stage of seed development (seed filling). Increased expression of cruciferina-like protein and dehydrin at 30 DAA stage marks the onset of desiccation. The data has been analyzed and discussed to highlight desiccation stage-associated metabolic events during oilseed development. PMID:26786011

  18. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, F.; Abdul Qayyum, H. M.; Hussein, A. I.; Iqbal, S.

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 {mu}g/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO) with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis). The stabilized (treated with extract) and the control (without extract addition) SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60 degree centigrade for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day) storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation. (Author) 32 refs.

  19. [Suitability of four stomatal conductance models in agro-pastoral ecotone in North China: A case study for potato and oil sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming Xia; Wang, Jing; Tang, Jian Zhao; Yu, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Xue, Qing Yu; Chang, Qing; Tan, Mei Xiu

    2016-11-18

    The suitability of four popular empirical and semi-empirical stomatal conductance models (Jarvis model, Ball-Berry model, Leuning model and Medlyn model) was evaluated based on para-llel observation data of leaf stomatal conductance, leaf net photosynthetic rate and meteorological factors during the vigorous growing period of potato and oil sunflower at Wuchuan experimental station in agro-pastoral ecotone in North China. It was found that there was a significant linear relationship between leaf stomatal conductance and leaf net photosynthetic rate for potato, whereas the linear relationship appeared weaker for oil sunflower. The results of model evaluation showed that Ball-Berry model performed best in simulating leaf stomatal conductance of potato, followed by Leuning model and Medlyn model, while Jarvis model was the last in the performance rating. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) was 0.0331, 0.0371, 0.0456 and 0.0794 mol·m -2 ·s -1 , the normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) was 26.8%, 30.0%, 36.9% and 64.3%, and R-squared (R 2 ) was 0.96, 0.61, 0.91 and 0.88 between simulated and observed leaf stomatal conductance of potato for Ball-Berry model, Leuning model, Medlyn model and Jarvis model, respectively. For leaf stomatal conductance of oil sunflower, Jarvis model performed slightly better than Leuning model, Ball-Berry model and Medlyn model. RMSE was 0.2221, 0.2534, 0.2547 and 0.2758 mol·m -2 ·s -1 , NRMSE was 40.3%, 46.0%, 46.2% and 50.1%, and R 2 was 0.38, 0.22, 0.23 and 0.20 between simulated and observed leaf stomatal conductance of oil sunflower for Jarvis model, Leuning model, Ball-Berry model and Medlyn model, respectively. The path analysis was conducted to identify effects of specific meteorological factors on leaf stomatal conductance. The diurnal variation of leaf stomatal conductance was principally affected by vapour pressure saturation deficit for both potato and oil sunflower. The model evaluation suggested that the stomatal

  20. Microemulsions based on a sunflower lecithin-Tween 20 blend have high capacity for dissolving peppermint oil and stabilizing coenzyme Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Guan, Yongguang; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-01-28

    The objectives of the present study were to improve the capability of microemulsions to dissolve peppermint oil by blending sunflower lecithin with Tween 20 and to study the possibility of codelivering lipophilic bioactive compounds. The oil loading in microemulsions with 20% (w/w) Tween 20 increased from 3% (w/w) to 20% (w/w) upon gradual supplementation of 6% (w/w) lecithin. All microemulsions had particles of lecithin. Therefore, natural surfactant lecithin can reduce the use of synthetic Tween 20 to dissolve peppermint oil and protect the degradation of dissolved lipophilic bioactive components in transparent products.

  1. Influence of High Temperature and Duration of Heating on the Sunflower Seed Oil Properties for Food Use and Bio-diesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Angelo Maria; Capocasale, Marco; Zappia, Clotilde; Poiana, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Two important problems for the food industry are oil oxidation and oil waste after frying. Sunflower seed oil is one of the vegetable oils most commonly used in the food industry. Two variables were applied to the low oleic sunflower seed oil in this work i.e. heating temperature (180-210-240°C) and time of heating (15-30-60-120 minutes), to study from the edible point of view the variations of its physico-chemical properties. After 120 minutes heating at 240°C the following was found: refractive index (1.476), free acidity (0.35%), K232 (2.87), K270 (3.71), antiradical activity (45.90% inhibition), total phenols (523 mg kg -1 ), peroxide value (17.00 meq kg -1 ), p-anisidine value (256.8) and Totox (271.7), all of which showed a constant deterioration. In relation to the use as a feedstock for bio-diesel production, after 120 minutes heating at 240℃ the following was found: acid value 0.70 mg KOH g -1 oil, iodine value 117.83 g I 2 100 g -1 oil, oil stability index 0.67 h, kinematic viscosity (at 40°C) 77.85 mm 2 s -1 , higher heating value 39.86 MJ kg -1 , density 933.34 kg/m 3 and cetane number 67.04. The parameters studied in this work were influenced, in different ways, by the applied variables. Heating temperature between 180 and 210°C and 120 min heating duration were found to be the most appropriate conditions for sunflower seed oil both from the deep frying point of view and from a subsequent use as feedstock for bio-diesel production. In light of the vegetable oils' International standards for an edible use and for a bio-diesel production, findings of this work can be used to set heating temperature and heating duration to preserve as long possible the physico-chemical properties of a low oleic sunflower seed oil for both its edible use as a fat during cooking and for its re-use after frying.

  2. Thermal and electrical properties of polymers produced from methyl oleate and bio diesel of sunflower and linseed oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau, Aline; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Martini, Denise D.; Samios, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Polyesters were prepared from epoxidized biodiesel with different unsaturation degrees. The polymerisation was performed using epoxidized methyl esters of oleic acid (EPOAME), sunflower oil (EPSOME) and linseed oil (EPLOME) with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride and triethylamine. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated that reaction enthalpy was proportional to the unsaturation degree of each methyl ester. With an increase in unsaturation degree, the activation energy linearly decreased. The intermediate structures and the polyesters were characterised using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. The molecular weight of the polymers synthesised with EPOAME, EPSOME and EPLOME were, respectively, 2.5x103, 5.3x103 and 14x103 g/mol. The glass transition of the product obtained from EPOAME was -59 degree C. The polymers based on EPSOME and EPLOME exhibited higher Tg values, which were -11 and -6 degree C, respectively. Electric impedance measurements of the polyesters showed that an increase in unsaturation degree resulted in an increase in resistivity and a decrease in capacitance. (author)

  3. Multivariate optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and ascorbyl palmitate to stabilize sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2016-04-01

    The simultaneous optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (SAG) and ascorbyl palmitate (AP) in sunflower oil (SO) was performed using central composite and rotatable design coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and response surface methodology (RSM). The physicochemical parameters viz., peroxide value, anisidine value, free fatty acids, induction period, total polar matter, antioxidant capacity and conjugated diene value were considered as response variables. PCA reduced the original set of correlated responses to few uncorrelated principal components (PC). The PC1 (eigen value, 5.78; data variance explained, 82.53 %) was selected for optimization using RSM. The quadratic model adequately described the data (R (2) = 0. 91, p  0.05). The contour plot of PC 1 score indicated the optimal synergistic combination of 1289.19 and 218.06 ppm for SAG and AP, respectively. This combination of SAG and AP resulted in shelf life of 320 days at 25 °C estimated using linear shelf life prediction model. In conclusion, the versatility of PCA-RSM approach has resulted in an easy interpretation in multiple response optimizations. This approach can be considered as a useful guide to develop new oil blends stabilized with food additives from natural sources.

  4. Thermal oxidation process accelerates degradation of the olive oil mixed with sunflower oil and enables its discrimination using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Boqué, Ricard; Folcarelli, Rita; Busto, Olga; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, Javid

    2015-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of thermal treatment on the discrimination of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples from EVOO samples adulterated with sunflower oil. Two groups of samples were used. One group was analyzed at room temperature (25 °C) and the other group was thermally treated in a thermostatic water bath at 75 °C for 8 h, in contact with air and with light exposure, to favor oxidation. All samples were then measured with synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectra were acquired by varying the excitation wavelength in the region from 250 to 720 nm. In order to optimize the differences between excitation and emission wavelengths, four constant differential wavelengths, i.e., 20 nm, 40 nm, 60 nm and 80 nm, were tried. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to discriminate between pure and adulterated oils. It was found that the 20 nm difference was the optimal, at which the discrimination models showed the best results. The best PLS-DA models were those built with the difference spectra (75-25 °C), which were able to discriminate pure from adulterated oils at a 2% level of adulteration. Furthermore, PLS regression models were built to quantify the level of adulteration. Again, the best model was the one built with the difference spectra, with a prediction error of 1.75% of adulteration.

  5. Effect of dietary fish oil supplements alone or in combination with sunflower and linseed oil on ruminal lipid metabolism and bacterial populations in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairenius, P; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Muetzel, S; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Wallace, R J; Shingfield, K J

    2018-04-01

    Fish oil (FO) alters ruminal biohydrogenation causing trans fatty acid (FA) intermediates to accumulate, but the effects of 18-carbon polyunsaturated FA supply on ruminal long-chain FA metabolism and microbial communities in cattle fed FO are not well established. Four cows fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square with 21-d experimental periods to evaluate the effects of FO alone or in combination with plant oils high in 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 on rumen microbial ecology and flow of FA at the omasum. Treatments comprised a basal grass silage-based diet containing no additional oil (control) or supplements of FO (200 g/d) or FO (200 g/d) plus 500 g/d of sunflower oil (SFO) or linseed oil (LFO). Flow of FA was determined using the omasal sampling technique. The relative abundance of key biohydrogenating bacteria was assessed by quantitative PCR on 16S rRNA genes in omasal digesta. Fish oil-supplemented treatments increased the amounts of trans-18:1, trans-18:2, and 20- to 22-carbon polyunsaturated FA escaping the rumen. Relative to the control, oil supplements had no effect on the amount of 18:0 leaving the rumen, but LFO decreased the flow of 18:0 at the omasum compared with SFO. Both SFO and LFO increased trans-18:1 relative to FO, whereas LFO resulted in the highest trans-18:2 and 20- to 22-carbon FA flow. Supplements of FO plus plant oils shifted biohydrogenation toward trans-10 18:1 formation. Compared with FO alone, the ruminal metabolism of 22:6n-3 in the rumen of lactating cows is more extensive on diets containing higher amounts of 18-carbon polyunsaturated FA. However, the biohydrogenation of 22:5n-3 was less extensive in LFO than SFO, but showed no difference between FO and diets containing plant oils. Ruminal outflow of 20:5n-3 was not altered when plant oils were added to FO. Alterations in the amount of intermediates at the omasum or ruminal biohydrogenation pathways were not accompanied by major changes in analyzed bacterial populations

  6. Quality of pies obtained of the extraction of sunflower and crambe oil for biodiesel under different temperatures; Qualidade das tortas obtidas na extracao do oleo de girassol e crambe para biodiesel sob diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Tabata Zingano; Prado, Naimara Vieira do; Coelho, Silvia Renata Machado; Bischoff, Teodato Zingano [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil)], emails: tabatazbi@yahoo.com.br, nai_mara@hotmail.com, srmcoelho@unioeste.br, teodato_zb@hotmail.com; Figueiredo, Paulo Roberto Abreu de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Sunflower and crambe are viable alternatives to ethanol. Used in food production, the sunflower crop has economic, rustic and does not require specialized machinery. The crambe oil is concentrated enough, it is feasible to farm and is not edible. The extraction efficiencies of these oils gives to the heating and moisture content of grain. The aim of this study was to evaluate temperatures of oil extraction in sunflower and crambe as pies obtained. For oil extraction and acquisition of pies, we used a high pressure extruder press. The sunflower seed and crambe were extruded without heating and at temperatures of 50 and 70 deg C with three replicates for each treatment, estimated to be the pie, the amount of fat, protein and moisture. Increasing the temperature, we observed a reduction of moisture in sunflower cake, but this did not occur in seeds of crambe. For sunflower, the higher levels of lipids occurred for pie without heating, and for crambe, the higher levels of lipids occurred at 50 deg C. As for the protein, was found in both cultures, the highest level at 70 deg C. It is concluded that the extraction temperature alters the composition of oilseed cakes. (author)

  7. Spectacular Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author illustrates how she shares her love of sunflowers with her kindergarten and first-grade students through an interesting art lesson. Sunflowers are easy to grow, so the author started the lesson four months earlier with inexpensive seed packets. She planted many varieties, but she most likes the colors of the Mexican…

  8. Comparative analysis for the production of fatty acid alkyl esterase using whole cell biocatalyst and purified enzyme from Rhizopus oryzae on waste cooking oil (sunflower oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Bharathiraja; Sudalaiyadum Perumal, Ayyappasamy; Jayaraman, Jayamuthunagai; Mani, Jayakumar; Ramanujam, Praveenkumar

    2012-08-01

    The petroleum fuel is nearing the line of extinction. Recent research and technology have provided promising outcomes to rely on biodiesel as the alternative and conventional source of fuel. The use of renewable source - vegetable oil constitutes the main stream of research. In this preliminary study, Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) was used as the substrate for biodiesel production. Lipase enzyme producing fungi Rhizopus oryzae 262 and commercially available pure lipase enzyme were used for comparative study in the production of Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters (FAAE). The whole cell (RO 262) and pure lipase enzyme (PE) were immobilized using calcium alginate beads. Calcium alginate was prepared by optimizing with different molar ratios of calcium chloride and different per cent sodium alginate. Entrapment immobilization was done for whole cell biocatalyst (WCB). PE was also immobilized by entrapment for the transesterification reaction. Seven different solvents - methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, iso-propanol, iso-butanol and iso-amyl alcohol were used as the acyl acceptors. The reaction parameters like temperature (30°C), molar ratio (1:3 - oil:solvent), reaction time (24 h), and amount of enzyme (10% mass ratio to oil) were also optimized for methanol alone. The same parameters were adopted for the other acyl acceptors too. Among the different acyl acceptors - methanol, whose reaction parameters were optimized showed maximum conversion of triglycerides to FAAE-94% with PE and 84% with WCB. On the whole, PE showed better catalytic converting ability with all the acyl acceptor compared to WCB. Gas chromatography analysis (GC) was done to determine the fatty acid composition of WCO (sunflower oil) and FAAE production with different acyl acceptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  10. Sunflower disease compendium: Sunflower botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number one challenge for global sunflower production is diseases. Sunflower is the fifth largest oilseed crop grown in temperate and subtropical areas in 72 countries and on every continent, except Antarctica. This has facilitated the spread of diseases globally. Disease control can be by chemic...

  11. Statistical optimization of biodiesel production from sunflower waste cooking oil using basic heterogeneous biocatalyst prepared from eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Sh. El-Gendy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A statistical design of experiments DOE was applied to investigate biodiesel fuel BDF production process from sunflower waste cooking oil SWCO using heterogeneous bio-catalyst produced from eggshells ES. It was based on 3 level D-optimal design involving as factors methanol:oil M:O molar ratio, catalyst concentration (wt%, reaction time (min and mixing rate (rpm. Twenty runs were carried out. A predictive linear interaction model has been correlated finding out how significant the effects of these variables are in practice. LINGO software was used to find out the optimum values of the aforementioned variables for enhancing the process. According to the results obtained, the most dominant positive factor influencing the response variable (% BDF yield was M:O molar ratio followed by catalyst concentration (wt% and mixing rate in a decreasing order while the reaction time showed to have a negative effect on the yield. The maximum BDF yield (98.8% and 97.5%, predicted and experimental, respectively was obtained at M:O 6:1 M ratio, catalyst concentration 3 wt%, reaction time 30 min, mixing rate 350 rpm and 60 °C. Also response surface methodology RSM has been applied to study the interactive effects of independent variables on BDF yield. It was found that, the interaction between M:O and catalyst concentration (wt% has more significant effect than interaction between other variables. The activity of the produced bio-catalyst was comparable to that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. All the physicochemical characteristics of the produced BDF using the prepared bio-catalyst and its blends with petro-diesel fuel PDF are completely acceptable and meet most of the required standard specifications.

  12. The Effect of Massage Therapy by Sunflower Oil on Neonates for Length of Hospital Stay from the Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alizadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infants are the most sensitive and injury of people in society that will make the feature of our country so they are needed special attention to take care of their physical &mental health. According to many studies one of the intervention for decrease of length of stay (LOS in Intensive Care Unit (NICU is massage therapy by oil because of rapidly recovery & early discharge. The aim of this study was to the effect of massage on neonates in Nicu ward for decreasing of LOS. Materials & Methods:. This one- blinded clinical trial was conducted on 44 infants who were born within 30-37weeks gestational age with 1000-2500gr in Nicu of Arash & Shariati hospitals. The infants were assigned randomly into two group of sunflower oil massage &without massage. The massage is done one hour after milk when the infants were stable (heart rate-respiratory rate and color of their skin become control. Each massage was 15minute 3 times in every 2 hours in the afternoon for 5 days. Observation was tools of collecting data by researcher which done before &after every intervention by respiratory heart rate monitoring & pulse oximetry. Data were analyzed using the repeated measure ANOVA. Results: Within 5 days of following increasing pattern of infant weight in study group was significant (P=0.001 and comparison growth head circumference in 2 groups was not significant (P=0.01 about LOS variable within 5days massage was significant (P=0.04. Conclusion: Fortunately there were statistical significant difference between the infants weight and decreasing length of hospitalization in 2 groups , but difference between head circumference between 2 group was not significant.

  13. Influence of dietary replacement of sunflower oil with milk thistle (Silybum marianum oil on chicken meat quality and antioxidant status of liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research focused on the effects of dietary replacement of 3% sunflower oil (SO group with 3% milk thistle oil (MTO group on the technological quality of meat, such as pH value, colour (CIE L*, CIE a*, CIE b*, drip loss (%, shear force (N, and cooking loss (%, as well as on the content of fatty acid lipids in broiler breast and thigh muscles. Significant difference (P < 0.05 was determined for pHi, pHu, CIE a*, CIE b* values between groups, although the values for the stated indicators were within the standard range. Lipids of breast meat of the MTO group contained more arachidic acid (P < 0.001, octadecenoic acid isomer B (P = 0.047 and eicosatrienoic acid (P = 0.041, and less α-linolenic acid (P < 0.001 and Σn-3PUFA. Lipids of thigh meat of the MTO group contained more ΣSFA, myristoleic acid, eicosatrienoic acid (P < 0.05 and eicosenoic acid (P < 0.001, and less α-linolenic acid, and had narrower Σn-3/n-6 PUFA ratio than the SO group. According to the antioxidant status of broiler liver, there was significantly higher catalase activity determined in the MTO group.

  14. Optimization of hydrodynamic cavitations reactor efficiency for biodiesel production by response surface methods (Case study: Sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javadikia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Biofuels are considered as one of the largest sources of renewable fuels or replacement of fossil fuels. Combustion of plant-based fuels is the indirect use of solar energy. Biofuels significantly have less pollution than other fossil fuels and can easily generate from residual plant material. Waste and residues of foods and wastewater can also be a good source for biofuel production. Transesterification method (one of biodiesel production methods is the most common forms to produce mono-alkyl esters from vegetable oil and animal fats. The procedure aims are reduction the oil viscosity during the reaction between triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or without it. In this study, the method of transesterification with alkaline catalysts is used that it is the most common and most commercial biodiesel production method. In this study, configurations of made hydrodynamic cavitation reactor were studied to measure biodiesel fuel quality and enhanced device performance with optimum condition. The Design Expert software and response surface methodology were used to get this purpose. Materials and Methods Transesterification method was used in this study. The procedure aims were reduction of the oil viscosity during the reaction between triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or without it. Materials needed in the production of biodiesel transesterification method include: vegetable oil, alcohol and catalysts. The used oil in the production of biodiesel was sunflower oil, which was used 0.6 liters per each test in the production process base on titration method. Methanol with purity of 99.8 percent and the molar ratio of 6:1 to oil was used based on titration equation and according to the results of other researchers. The used catalyst in continuous production process was high-purity sodium hydroxide (99% that it is one of alkaline catalysts. Weight of hydroxide was 1% of the used oil weight in the

  15. The Effects of Massage with Coconut and Sunflower Oils on Oxygen Saturation of Premature Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome Treated With Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Valizadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays particular emphasis is placed on the developmental aspects of premature infants care. Massage therapy is one of the best-known methods of caring. Due to the minimal touch policy in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs, massaging is not usually performed on premature infants. However, there is not sufficient evidence to support the claim that newborn infants with complex medical conditions should not be massaged. This study aimed to determine the effects of massage with coconut and sunflower oils on oxygen saturation of infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial on 90 newborns who were admitted to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran. The infants were divided into control and massage therapy groups (massage with coconut and sunflower oils. Data was collected using a hospital documentation form. A 15-minute daily massage was performed for 3 days. Respiratory rate (RR, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 and oxygen saturation were measured 5 minutes before the massage, 3 times during the massage, and 5 minutes after the massage. The collected data was analyzed using a mixed model. Results: In comparison to coconut oil and control groups, mean oxygen saturation of sunflower oil group was improved. In addition, the coconut massage group showed lower oxygen saturation than the control group but was all values were within the normal range. Although massage decreased oxygen saturation, there was no need to increase FiO2. Conclusion: Massage therapy can provide developmental care for infants treated with NCPAP.

  16. Direct acetylation of sunflower oil in the presence of boron trioxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The separation was performed by washing with Ca(OH)2, filtering and heating for two hours. ... of 35 mg of the oil at 170 °C, for 50 min and in the air flow of 20 cm3 min-1 is equal to 65 ..... diluents used for biodegradable lubricants. JAOCS ...

  17. Sunflowers. Cultivation, processing, economic aspects. Sonnenblumen. Anbau, Verfahrenstechnik, Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, K [Landwirtschaftsschule, Alzey (Germany, F.R.); Hunger, A [Landes-, Lehr- und Forschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Weinbau und Gartenbau, Neustadt (Germany, F.R.); Weickel, J [Landespflanzenschutzamt Rheinland-Pfalz, Mainz (Germany, F.R.)

    1988-01-01

    Sunflowers are cultivated throughout the world, primarily for oil extraction but also as a birdseed, for eating, or for backing. Although some attempts have been made, they are hardly ever used as green fodder. Sunflowers grown for oil extraction usually have thin-shelled, black seeds. They have an oil fraction of 40 to 50% and a protein fraction of more than 20%. Sunflowers for other uses have large seeds with thick, striped shells. Their oil fraction is between 25 and 30%. (orig.).

  18. Studies on changes in patterns of fatty acids, sterols and tocopherols of oil during seed maturation of oil crops. Part I. Sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The variation of lipid constituents in maturing sunflower oil seeds has been investigated with the aim of determination of the proper harvesting time as well as the oil quality. Marked variations in fatty acid, sterol and tocopherol constituents of the oil were observed. Capillary gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were used in the analysis which enabled the determination of major as well as minor constituents in the oil. In addition, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used to confirm the structure of cycloartenol sterol. Postulations on the key compounds of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols were proposed in the frame of the main biosynthetic pathways. The proper harvesting time was found to be 118 days after plantation since the oil content was high and the constituents of the oil were balanced.

    Se ha investigado la variación de los constituyentes lipídicos en aceites de semillas de girasol en distintos estados de maduración, con el objetivo de determinar el tiempo de recolección apropiado así como la calidad del aceite. Se observaron variaciones apreciables en los ácidos grasos, esteroles y tocoferoles del aceite. La cromatografía gaseosa capilar y la cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia se usó en el análisis que permitió la determinación tanto de los componentes mayoritarios como minoritarios en el aceite. Además, se utilizó la cromatografía gaseosa acoplada a la espectrometría de masas para confirmar la estructura del esterol cicloartenol. Se han propuesto en el marco de la ruta biosintética principal postulados sobre los compuestos clave de ácidos grasos, esteroles y tocoferoles. Se encontró como tiempo de recolección apropiado el de 118 días después de la plantación, ya que el contenido de aceite fue elevado y los constituyentes fueron equilibrados.

  19. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, diet supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation with olive and sunflower oils on lipid profile and liver histology in rats fed high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duavy, Sandra Mara Pimentel; Salazar, Gerson Javier Torres; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Ecker, Assis; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2017-06-01

    To compare the effects of high-monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against the metabolic disorders elicited by a high-cholesterol diet (HC) in rats. Using in vivo dietary manipulation, rats were fed with different diets containing 4% soybean oil (cholesterol free diet) and 1% HC containing 12% olive oil (HC + OO) enriched with MUFA and 12% sunflower oil (HC + SO) enriched with PUFA for 60 d. Serum lipid levels and hepatic steatosis were evaluated after the treatment period. Comparatively, rats treated with HC + OO diet experienced a decrease in the serum LDL-C, VLDL-C and CT levels compared to those fed with HC + SO diet (P blood. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new line of seeds rich in phytosterols and conventional seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Marta R.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the chemical composition of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new seeds rich in phytosterols (IASP-18 and conventional seeds (HA-89. Results have shown that the total content of oil was much lower in the IASP-18 (18.1% than in the conventional (37.5% seeds. The extraction yield obtained by pressing was as low as 3% in the IASP-18 seeds and 37.5% in HA-89, while in the solvent extraction it was of the same order (~18 wt% on seeds extracted by pressing for the two types of seeds. No significant changes in the fatty acid composition were found between the oils extracted by the two procedures, but the pressed oils presented significantly lower acidity and larger content of the unsaponifiable fraction. Expressed as free sterols, the total sterols were 37–38% more concentrated in the oils extracted with solvent, reaching amounts of 13 700 and 6500 mg/kg in the IASP-18 and HA-89 oils, respectively. No substantial differences were found in the composition of total sterols analysed as free sterols between the oils extracted with the two procedures, but the contents of free sterols and sterol glycosides were much higher in the oils extracted with solvent.

  2. Analysis of oil content in sunflower seeds with nuclear magnetic ressonance and `SOXHLET` methods; Determinacao do teor de oleo em sementes de girassol pelos metodos de ressonancia magnetica nuclear e soxhlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao de Oleaginosas; Toledo, Nilva Maria Prestes de [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao Tecnica Experimental e Calculo; Teixeira, Joao Paulo Feijao [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fitoquimica; Suassuna Filho, Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept.de Fisica

    1993-12-31

    Individual and group of seeds of some sunflower populations were utilized in order to evaluate the feasibility of oil content evaluations by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance method (NMR). Correlation analysis with the extractive method (Soxhlet) was performed. The results showed that: the oil in the seeds behaved like a liquid in the NMR analysis; there was a high and positive correlation (r = 0,93) between NMR and Soxhlet; there was no correlation between seed weight and oil content; the observed variability in oil content among seeds of a plant were higher than between plants of a population; these values indicate the importance of making individual analysis of oil content by the NMR method for the sunflower breeding for oil content. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  4. Speciation of Selenium in Selenium-Enriched Sunflower Oil by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry/Electrospray-Orbitrap Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierla, Katarzyna; Flis-Borsuk, Anna; Suchocki, Piotr; Szpunar, Joanna; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2016-06-22

    The reaction of sunflower oil with selenite produces a complex mixture of selenitriglycerides with antioxidant and anticancer properties. To obtain insight into the identity and characteristics of the species formed, an analytical approach based on the combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with (78)Se-specific selenium detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) and high-resolution (100 000), high mass accuracy (HPLC-ICP MS for the separation of a complex mixture of selenospecies and a mathematical correction of the background signal was developed. The identical chromatographic conditions served for the sample introduction into electrospray MS. Two types of samples were analyzed: sunflower oil dissolved in isopropanol and methanol extract of the oil containing 65% selenium. HPLC-ICP MS showed 14 peaks, 11 of which could also be detected in the methanol extract. Isotopic patterns corresponding to molecules with one or two selenium atoms could be attributed by Orbitrap MS at the retention times corresponding to the HPLC-ICP MS peak apexes. Structural data for these species were acquired by MS(2) and MS(3) fragmentation of protonated or sodiated ions using high-energy collisional dissociation (HCD). A total of 11 selenium-containing triglycerol derivatives resulting from the oxidation of one or two double bonds of linoleic acid and analogous derivatives of glycerol-mixed linoleate(s)/oleinate(s) have been identified for the first time. The presence of these species was confirmed by the targeted analysis in the total oil isopropanol solution. Their identification corroborated the predicted elution order in reversed-phase chromatography: LLL (glycerol trilinoleate), LLO (glycerol dilinoleate-oleinate), LOO (glycerol linoleate-dioleinate), OOO (glycerol trioleinate), of which the extrapolation allowed for the prediction of the identity [glycerol dioleinate-stearate (OOS) and glycerol oleinate-distearate (OSS)] of the

  5. Agronomic characteristic of a dwarf germplasm sunflower line

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana; Tcekova Zoja

    2005-01-01

    A new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) dwarf line, HA-ARG-1, has been developed after interspecific hybridization between cultivated sunflower H. annuus and wild annual silver-leaf sunflower H. argophyllus. Plants were selected for reduced height and multiple branching characteristics. The agronomic, morphologic and oil content characteristics of the line were analyzed. Isolation of similar dwarfed lines illustrates the importance of using the wild sunflower germplasms in the development of sp...

  6. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids based on the bio-refinery concept using sunflower oil as an alternative solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne Sylvie; Tomao, Valérie; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    A green, inexpensive and easy-to-use method for carotenoids extraction from fresh carrots assisted by ultrasound was designed in this work. Sunflower oil was applied as a substitute to organic solvents in this green ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE): a process which is in line with green extraction and bio-refinery concepts. The processing procedure of this original UAE was first compared with conventional solvent extraction (CSE) using hexane as solvent. Moreover, the UAE optimal conditions for the subsequent comparison were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and ultra performance liquid chromatography--diode array detector--mass spectroscopy (UPLC-DAD-MS). The results showed that the UAE using sunflower as solvent has obtained its highest β-carotene yield (334.75 mg/l) in 20 min only, while CSE using hexane as solvent obtained a similar yield (321.35 mg/l) in 60 min. The green UAE performed under optimal extraction conditions (carrot to oil ratio of 2:10, ultrasonic intensity of 22.5 W cm(-2), temperature of 40 °C and sonication time of 20 min) gave the best yield of β-carotene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Incorporation of Sunflower Oil and d-alpha-tocopherol Effect on Mechanical Properties and Permeability of Corn Starch Composite Edible Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramono Putro Utomo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work sunflower oil (SO and vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol at three levels each (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15% (w/vtotal and (0.18%, 0.36% and 0.54% (w/vtotal were incorporated into corn starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapour transmission rate (WVTR properties. The addition of SO and vitamin E increased elongation at break of starch-based film while decreased tensile strength and WVTR of starch-based film. The best edible film obtained on addition of sunflower oil concentration of 0.15% and 0.54%, vitamin E with a value of 0.121 mm thickness, tensile strength of 65.38 kg/cm2, elongation at break 14.17% and WVTR 1144 g/m2 24 hours.

  8. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, T. P. V. B.; Mielke Neto, P.; Ansolin, M.; Follegatti-Romero, L. A.; Batista, E. A. C.; Meirelles, A. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements...

  9. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    T. P. V. B. Dias; P. Mielke Neto; L. A. Follegatti-Romero; E. A. C. Batista; A. J. A. Meirelles

    2015-01-01

    AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements ...

  10. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.: stabilization of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal, Shahid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93 was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol. The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis. The stabilized (treated with extract and the control (without extract addition SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60ºC for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation.El potencial antioxidante de extractos de metanol al 100% y el 80% de semillas de tres variedades de cebada (Jou 83, Jou 87 y Haider 93 fue evaluada. El rendimiento de los extractos de las semillas de cebada vario desde un 3.23% (Haider, 100% methanol a un 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% metanol. El contenido total de fenoles, la actividad atrapadora del radical DPPH (valores IC50 y la inhibición de la oxidación del ácido linoleico de los extractos de semilla de cebada (BSE fueron 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL y 62.6- 74.6%, respectivamente. La efectividad antioxidante de BSE fue tambi

  11. Fatty acid composition of soybean/sunflower mix oil, fish oil and butterfat applying the AOCS Ce 1j-07 method with a modified temperature program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson, L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC methods such as AOAC Fat in foods 966.06 (2005, AOCS Official Methods Ce 1h-05 (2005, Ce 1j-07 (2007, allow for analyzing the fatty acids (FAs in dietary fats using highly polar liquid phase capillary columns. However, there are still difficulties in completely separating butiric acid from solvent, FA critical pairs with similar polarity, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers, and long chainpolyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs. Therefore, the selection of the temperature program to be employed is important. This work aimed to improve the AOCS Ce 1j-07 Method for the FA composition of a mixture of soybean and sunflower oil, fish oil, and butterfat, using a modified temperature program, tested among five laboratories. It takes more time, but it allows to completely separate butyric acid from the solvent, trans-18:1 from cis-18:1, 20:1 isomers from 18:3 n-3, 22:1 n-9 from 20:4 n-6, 20:5 n-3 from 24:0 and the main CLA isomers, thus permitting FA quantification in fats and oils for different purposes such as nutritional labeling, quality control and research.Métodos por cromatografía gas-líquido, AOAC 966.06 (2005, AOCS Ce 1h-05 (2005, Ce 1j-07 (2007 permiten determinar ácidos grasos (AG en matrices grasas usando columnas capilares altamente polares y distintos programas de temperatura. No obstante, aún existen dificultades para separar ácido butírico del solvente, pares críticos de AG con polaridades similares, isómeros del ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA, AG de cadena larga poliinsaturados (LC-PUFAs. El objetivo fue mejorar el Método AOCS Ce 1j-07 aplicándolo a la composición en AG de mezcla de aceite soja/girasol, aceite de pescado, mantequilla, usando un programa de temperatura modificado, entre cinco laboratorios. El programa de temperatura elegido, si bien emplea más tiempo, permite separar completamente ácido butírico del solvente, trans-18:1 de cis-18:1, isómeros 20:1 de 18:3 n-3, 22:1 n-9 de 20:4 n-6

  12. Fatty acid composition and bacterial community changes in the rumen fluid of lactating sheep fed sunflower oil plus incremental levels of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Belenguer, A; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2012-02-01

    Supplementation of ruminant diets with plant oils and marine lipids is an effective strategy for lowering saturated fatty acid (FA) content and increasing the concentration of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 FA in ruminant milk. However, changes in populations of ruminal microorganisms associated with altered biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated FA are not well characterized. Twenty-five lactating Assaf ewes were allocated at random to 1 of 5 treatments composed of dehydrated alfalfa hay and concentrates containing no additional lipid (control), or supplemented with 25 g of sunflower oil and 0 (SO), 8 (SOMA(1)), 16 (SOMA(2)), or 24 (SOMA(3)) g of marine algae/kg of diet dry matter. On d 28 on diet, samples of rumen fluid were collected for lipid analysis and microbial DNA extraction. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of FA methyl esters. Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis, and real-time PCR was used to quantify the known Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce trans-11 18:1 or 18:0. Dietary supplements of sunflower oil alone or in combination with marine algae altered the FA profile of rumen fluid, which was associated with changes in populations of specific bacteria. Inclusion of marine algae in diets containing sunflower oil resulted in the accumulation of trans 18:1 and 10-O-18:0 and a marked decrease in 18:0 concentrations in rumen fluid. At the highest levels of supplementation (SOMA(2) and SOMA(3)), marine algae also promoted a shift in ruminal biohydrogenation pathways toward the formation of trans-10 18:1 at the expense of trans-11 18:1. Changes in the concentration of biohydrogenation intermediates were not accompanied by significant variations in the abundance of known cultivated ruminal bacteria capable of hydrogenating unsaturated FA. However, certain

  13. Modulating the properties of sunflower oil based novel emulgels using castor oil fatty acid ester: prospects for topical antimicrobial drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, B; Biswal, D; Uvanesh, K; Srivastava, A K; Bhattacharya, Mrinal K; Paramanik, K; Pal, K

    2015-04-01

    The current study describes the effect of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) on the properties of sunflower oil and span-40 based emulgels. The prepared emulgels contained PGPR in varied concentrations. The microstructure of the emulgels was characterized by bright-field microscopy. The molecular interactions amongst the components of the emulgels were studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The flow and mechanical behaviors of the emulgels were studied using cone-and-plate viscometer and static mechanical tester, respectively. The efficiency of the metronidazole-loaded emulgels as antimicrobial formulations was tested in vitro. E. coli was used as the model microorganism for the antimicrobial study. The emulgels were also explored for iontophoretic delivery applications. The biocompatibility of the emulgels was tested using human keratinocytes (HaCaT). The microscopic evaluation of the emulgels indicated formation of biphasic formulations. FTIR studies suggested a decrease in the hydrogen bonding amongst the components of the emulgels as the concentration of the PGPR was increased. Viscosity studies indicated shear-thinning property of the emulgels. An increase in the PGPR concentration resulted in the reduction in the mechanical properties of the emulgels. Incorporation of PGPR resulted in the decrease in the drug released (both passive and iontophoresis) from the emulgels. The emulgels were found to be cytocompatible in the presence of keratinocytes. The drug loaded emulgels showed good antimicrobial activity against E. coli. In gist, the developed emulgels can be tried for controlled delivery of antimicrobial drugs. The physical and the release properties of the emulgels can be modulated by incorporating PGPR in varied proportions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Soybean and sunflower oil-induced insulin resistance correlates with impaired GLUT4 protein expression and translocation specifically in white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Ana Cláudia; Anhê, Gabriel Forato; Eichler, Paula; Takahashi, Hilton Kenji; Furuya, Daniela Tomie; Okamoto, Maristela Mitiko; Curi, Rui; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres

    2010-03-01

    Free fatty acids are known for playing a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance. High fat intake is known for impairing insulin sensitivity; however, the effect of vegetable-oil injections have never been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of daily subcutaneous injections (100 microL) of soybean (SB) and sunflower (SF) oils, during 7 days. Both treated groups developed insulin resistance as assessed by insulin tolerance test. The mechanism underlying the SB- and SF-induced insulin resistance was shown to involve GLUT4. In SB- and SF-treated animals, the GLUT4 protein expression was reduced approximately 20% and 10 min after an acute in vivo stimulus with insulin, the plasma membrane GLUT4 content was approximately 60% lower in white adipose tissue (WAT). No effects were observed in skeletal muscle. Additionally, both oil treatments increased mainly the content of palmitic acid ( approximately 150%) in WAT, which can contribute to explain the GLUT4 regulations. Altogether, the present study collects evidence that those oil treatments might generate insulin resistance by targeting GLUT4 expression and translocation specifically in WAT. These alterations are likely to be caused due to the specific local increase in saturated fatty acids that occurred as a consequence of oil daily injections. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Fate of 14C-Chlorpyrifos Insecticide in Sunflower Seeds and Oil and the Effect of Processing According to Industrial Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Gawad, H.; Khatab, M.S.; Hegazi, B.

    2007-01-01

    Ethyl -1- 14 C-chlorpyrifos and some of its degradation products have been prepared for the present investigation. Sunflower plants were treated with 14 C-chlorpyrifos under conditions simulating local agricultural practice. 14 C-residue in seeds were determined at different time intervals. At harvest time about 8 % of 14 C-activity was associated with oil. The methanol soluble 14 C-residues accounted for 0.8 % of the total seed residues, while the cake contained about 80 % of the total residues. About 46 % of the 14 C-activity in the crude oil could be eliminated by simulated commercial processes locally used for oil refining. The refined oil had a 14 C- residue level of about 21 ppm. Chromatographic analysis of crude and refined oil revealed the presence of the parent compound together with three metabolites which were identified as chlorpyrifos oxon, desethyl chlorpyrifos, and desethyl chlorpyrifos oxon in addition to an unknown compound. Methanol extract of the cake revealed the presence of the parent compound and its oxon as free compounds. Acid hydrolysis of the conjugated metabolites in the methanol extract yielded desethyl chlorpyrifos and 3, 5, 6- trichloro-2-hydroxypyridine

  16. Mechanochemical synthesis of CaO•ZnO.K2CO3 catalyst: Characterization and activity for methanolysis of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesić Željka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to prepare CaO.ZnO catalyst which contain small amount of K2CO3 and analyze its activity for biodiesel synthesis. Catalyst was prepared using the following procedure: CaO and ZnO (molar ratio of 1:2, water and K2CO3 (in various amounts were mechanochemically treated and after milling heated at 700 oC in air atmosphere for obtaining mixed CaO•ZnO/xK2CO3 oxides (x = 0, 1, 2 and 4; mole of K2CO3 per 10 mole of CaO. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma (ICP, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS, particle size laser diffraction (PSLD distribution, solubility measurement of Ca, Zn and K ions in methanol as well as by determination of their alkalinity (Hammett indicator method. Prepared CaO•ZnO/xK2CO3 composite powders were tested as catalysts for methanolysis of sunflower oil at 70ºC using molar ratio of sunflower oil to methanol of 1:10 and with 2 mas% of catalyst based on oil weight. The presence of K2CO3 in prepared samples was found to increase the activity of catalyst, and that such effect is caused by homogeneous-heterogeneous catalysis of biodiesel synthesis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45001

  17. Effect of fish oil and sunflower oil on rumen fermentation characteristics and fatty acid composition of digesta in ewes fed a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2010-10-01

    Studies in ruminants have shown that supplementing the diet with a mixture of fish oil (FO) and sunflower oil (SO) enhances the concentration of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3 in milk because of alterations in ruminal biohydrogenation, but the intermediates formed under these conditions are not well characterized. Five ewes fitted with rumen cannula and fed a high concentrate diet were used to examine the effect of a mixture (30 g/kg of DM) of FO and SO (1:2, wt/wt) on temporal changes in rumen fermentation characteristics and the relative abundance of biohydrogenation intermediates in ruminal digesta collected after 0, 3, and 10 d on diet. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas-liquid chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of corresponding 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. Inclusion of FO and SO in the diet had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, or nutrient digestion, but altered the fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta, changes that were characterized by time-dependent decreases in 18:0 and 18:2 n-6 and the accumulation of trans 16:1, trans 18:1, 10-O-18:0, and trans 18:2. Lipid supplements enhanced the proportion of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 in digesta and resulted in numerical increases in cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid concentrations, but decreased the relative abundance of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid. Furthermore, detailed analysis revealed the appearance of several unique 20:1, 20:2, 22:1, 22:3, and 22:4 products in ruminal digesta that accumulated over time, providing the first indications of 20 and 22 carbon fatty acid intermediates formed during the biohydrogenation of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in sheep. In conclusion, FO and SO in a high concentrate diet caused a time-dependent inhibition of the complete

  18. Improvement of sunflower for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijanović Dijana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing sunflower (Heliianthus annuus L for consumption is becoming more and more attractive in the whole world and in our country, as well. The consumption of this product has been considerably increased because it is being used more and more in various forms: sunflower seed in a hull, hulled kernels fried or non-fried, salted or non-salted with addition of various spices. The sunflower kernel is used for preparing over 100 different food products: special types of bread, cakes, ice-cream, chocolate. In accordance with the trade demands, the aims of sunflower seeds for consumption improvement are: high productivity, greater content of proteins, lesser content of oil, oncreased mass of 1000 seeds, lesser portion of the hull easy nibbling, as well as tolerance to dominant diseases in the growing region. In the Agricultural and Technological Research Center in Zajecar, 4 genotypes of protein sunflower (two cultivars and two hybrids have been created so far. This study shows the results achieved in increasing the content of protein, the mass of 1000 seeds, decreasing the content of oil and hull of the new 90 hybrid combination. The hybrid combinations were obtained by crossing of the CMS and restorer lines.

  19. Effect of baking of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and frying of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) in olive and sunflower oil on their quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, Anastasios; Kotaras, Akylas; Mikras, Emmanouil

    2013-02-01

    Quality changes due to oven-baking of sardine for 20, 40, 50 and 60 min and due to deep frying of anchovy for 2, 3, 4 and 5 min in olive and sunflower oil were studied. Linear increase in total losses with the time of processing was observed. A linear inverse relationship was observed between moisture/lipid and moisture/protein due to time of baking of sardines and time of frying of anchovies (wet matter). However, no changes were detected in sardine samples due to time of baking (dry matter), while a reduction in proteins and ash followed by an increase in lipids was detected in fried anchovies due to time of frying (dry matter). The fatty acid profiles indicated that a rich in EPA + DHA (33.16%) and in ω-3/ω-6 ratio (9.40) baked sardines can be produced in 20 min at 200 °C. The fatty acid profiles of fried anchovies tremendously changed, indicating entirely different products. Olive oil is probably a better medium to fry fish products, since either the two beneficial fatty acids (EPA and DHA) detected at higher concentrations in anchovies fried in olive oil or the ω-3/ω-6 ratio remained at higher values (0.71-2.56). An increase of cholesterol and squalene content with increasing the time of baking was detected in sardine samples, probably due to decline of moisture content. On the contrary, cholesterol significantly reduced due to frying of anchovy in olive oil. Simultaneously squalene concentration significantly and linearly increased, from 3.87 mg/100 g in the unprocessed anchovies to 73.25 mg/100 g in the samples fried for 5 min, indicating its existence at beneficial levels, besides low cholesterol concentration detected in fried olive oil and squalene concentration gradually and linearly decreased, confirming the absorption from the anchovy samples. Similar was the changes of cholesterol and squalene in anchovies samples fried in sunflower oil.

  20. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes) by-products with sunflower oil using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Santos, Luis Eduardo; Pinzón-Zarate, Lina Ximena; González-Salcedo, Luis Octavio

    2015-11-01

    The present study reports on the extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit by-products with sunflower oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Three independent variables including ultrasonic intensity (764-1528, W/m(2)), temperature (25-45°C), and the extraction time (10-30 min). According to the results, the optimal UAE condition was obtained with an ultrasonic intensity of 1528 W/m(2), extraction temperature of 35°C and extraction time of 30 min. At these conditions, extraction maximum extraction of total carotenoids as 163.47 mg/100 g dried peel. The experimental values under optimal condition were in good consistent with the predicted values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Remediation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contaminated site by successive methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and sunflower oil enhanced soil washing - Portulaca oleracea L. cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Hu, Feng; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Jiang, Xin; Luo, Yongming; Yang, Xinlun

    2014-06-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed in this study to remediate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)-contaminated site. Elevated temperature (50 °C) combined with ultrasonication (35 kHz, 30 min) at 25 g L(-1) methyl-β-cyclodextrin and 100 mL L(-1) sunflower oil were effective in extracting OCPs from the soil. After four successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency for total OCPs, DDTs, endosulfans, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexanes, heptachlors, and chlordanes were all about 99%. The 4th washed soil with 3 months cultivation of Portulaca oleracea L. and nutrient addition significantly increase (p<0.05) the number, biomass carbon, nitrogen, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms. This implied that the microbiological functioning of the soil was at least partially restored. This combined cleanup strategy proved to be effective and environmental friendly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to the study of the modification of epoxidized sunflower oil by acrylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinislimane, Ratiba; Belhaneche-Bensemra, Naima

    2012-12-01

    Commercial sunflower oil was epoxidized at the laboratory-scale. The epoxidized sunflower oil (ESFO) was modified following the acrylation reaction. Modification was carried out simultaneously using acrylic acid (AA) and triethylamine (TEA). To optimize the reaction conditions, the effects of four temperatures (40, 60, 80, and 100 °C), the ESFO:AA (100:100) ratio, and 0.2% TEA were investigated. The rate of conversion was analyzed with both FT-IR and titration of the oxirane ring. After that, the temperature with the highest conversion was selected and used throughout for all modification reactions. Then, four ratios (100:100, 100:90, 100:80, and 100:75) of ESFO:AA were analyzed at four different concentrations of TEA (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5%) to determine the best estimate for both the ESFO:AA ratio and the catalyst concentration. Conversion rate was analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy by measuring the concentrations of ester, carbonyl, and alcohol groups. Moreover, oxirane-ring concentration was estimated using the titration method (with gentian violet as indicator) and FT-IR spectroscopy (epoxy ring absorptions at 1270 cm(-1) and 877 cm(-1)). Based on conversion yield, the optimum ESFO:AA ratio corresponds to 100:80; the best temperature reaction was at 60 °C, and the best TEA concentration was 0.2%. The critical amounts of reactants needed to reach maximum conversion were established. The final acid value of the acrylated ESFO after washing (pH = 7) was 2.1 mg potassium hydroxide (KOH)·g(-1). All results show that FT-IR spectroscopy is a simple, low-cost, rapid method for investigating the kinetics of a reaction.

  3. The effect of the soil pH on 134Cs transfer factors for soybean and sunflower plants; 134Cs fate in the extracted seed-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massas, I.; Skarlou, C.; Anoussis, J.; Haidouti, C.; Arapis, G.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of soil pH on 134 Cs TFs as well as the fate of 134 Cs in the extracted oil was studied in a greenhouse experiment with soybean and sunflower plants. A soil with pH 4.2 was used as a basis and its pH value has increased to 5.7, 6.5 and 7.6 (by the addition of different amounts of Ca(OH) 2 ). The lowest TF value was observed in the calcareous soil (pH 7.6), while the highest in the lowest pH (4.2) for the vegetative part and in the pH 6.5 for the edible part for both studied plants. TFs were practically the same for soya plants grown on the three lowest soil pH and reduced significantly only at pH 7.6 for either pods or other plant material. However, the lowest/highest TF was ∼ 4 for pods and ∼ 6 for the other plant material. For the sunflower plants while TFs for other plant material reduced from lowest to highest soil pH by only a factor of 2, for the seeds TFs remained rather constant. The difference in TF between the two studied species in each soil pH was in some cases higher than the difference due to pH effect. When an oil fraction (∼ 20 %) was extracted from seeds of both plants, no 134 Cs was detected. Refs. 4 (author)

  4. Changes in the rumen bacterial community in response to sunflower oil and fish oil supplements in the diet of dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenguer, A; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G

    2010-07-01

    Rumen microbial biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids has a major effect on the process of developing healthier dairy products. This study aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of diet supplementation with sunflower (SO) and fish (FO) oils on the rumen bacterial community in dairy sheep. First, 32 lactating ewes, divided in 8 lots of 4 animals each (2 lots per treatment), were fed a high-concentrate total mixed ration supplemented with 0, 2% SO, 1% FO, or 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 21 d, rumen fluid samples were taken from each lot for DNA extraction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In a second experiment, 5 cannulated ewes were first fed the same TMR, with the exception of a higher forage level, and then changed to the same diet supplemented with 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 0, 3, and 10 d, rumen content samples were taken for DNA extraction and FISH analysis (fluid). Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis (T-RFLP), and real-time PCR was used to quantify Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce vaccenic acid or stearic acid. In rumen fluid samples, total bacteria and clostridial clusters IX and XIV were analyzed by FISH. Dietary supplementation with SO plus FO seemed to induce important changes in the total bacteria and Butyrivibrio populations, and a high interindividual variation was observed, and the speed of the effect of the lipid supplementation depended on the individual microbial composition. Analysis by T-RFLP and FISH showed increases in cluster IX bacteria with SO plus FO supplementation, presumably Quinella-like microorganisms. The abundances of vaccenic acid- and stearic acid-producing Butyrivibrio relative to total bacteria, estimated by real time PCR, were low (0.28 and 0.18%, respectively, in rumen fluid, and 0.86 and 0.81% in rumen contents) and only that of SA-producing bacteria seemed to be reduced by diets containing FO, although differences were only

  5. Modeling and optimization of sunflower oil methanolysis over quicklime bits in a packed bed tubular reactor using the response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miladinović, Marija R.; Stamenković, Olivera S.; Banković, Predrag T.; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra D.; Jovanović, Dušan M.; Veljković, Vlada B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sunflower oil methanolysis in a continuous packed bed reactor was optimized. • Thermally-activated, low-cost quicklime bits were used as a catalyst. • Process was optimized by 3"3 full factorial design and Box-Behnken design. • Box-Behnken design is recommended for optimizing biodiesel production processes. • FAME content in the ester phase obtained under the optimum conditions was >98%. - Abstract: The effect of the residence time (i.e. liquid flow rate through the reactor), methanol-to-oil molar ratio and reaction temperature on the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content at the output of a continuous packed bed tubular reactor was modeled by the response surface methodology (RSM) combined with the 3"3 full factorial design (FFD) with replication or the Box-Behnken design (BBD) with five center points. The methanolysis of sunflower oil was carried out at the residence time of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h, the methanol-to-oil molar ratios of 6:1, 12:1 and 18:1 and the reaction temperature of 40, 50 and 60 °C under the atmospheric pressure. Based on the used experimental designs, the model equations containing only linear and two-factor interaction terms were developed for predicting the FAME content, which were validated through the use of the unseen data. Applying the analysis of variance (ANOVA), all three factors were shown to have a significant influence on the FAME content. Acceptable statistical predictability and accuracy resulted from both designs since the values of the coefficient of determination were close to unity while the values of the mean relative percentage deviation were relatively low (<±10%). In addition, both designs predicted the maximum FAME content of above 99%, which agreed closely with the actual FAME content (98.8%). The same optimal reaction temperature (60 °C) and residence time (2.0 h) were determined by both designs while the BBD model suggested a slightly lower methanol-to-oil molar ratio (12.2:1) than the 3"3 FFD

  6. Sunflower disease and insect pests in Pakistan: A review | Mukhtar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sun flower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important oil seed crops and potentially fit in agricultural system and oil production sector of Pakistan. Various diseases, insects and nematodes attack damage the sunflower crop, results a wide range of loss in production and yield. Sunflower is susceptible to diseases of ...

  7. Effects of the Soil Incorporation of Increasing Amounts of Non-Fermented Wet Pomace on the Oil Yield and Acid Profile of Sunflower Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural use of olive processing waste is a strategic resource in the integrated management of the agricultural system as it satisfies the two objectives of evacuating the olive-processing residue and using it beneficially for agricultural purposes. For such aims, a research was conducted in Bari (South of Italy to study the effects of the incorporation into the soil of increasing amounts of non-fermented wet pomace (WP (0, 17.5, 35, 70, 105, 140, 175, 210 Mg ha-1 on the oil yield and acid profile of sunflower seeds. The results obtained point out that the seed yield was negatively affected by the application of WP starting from 70 Mg ha-1; an opposite trend was observed for the seed oil yield. The incorporation of WP has also affected the oil fatty acids’ composition. Oleic and linoleic acids, the principal fatty acids (beyond 90% of total fatty acids, showed significant variations: from the control treatment to the one receiving the maximum application of waste, oleic acid decreased (-5.4%, linoleic acid increased (+ 6.6%, and the saturated fatty acids fraction decreased (-7.6%.

  8. New sunflower seeds with high contents of phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols have a positive nutritional impact because they contribute to reduce cholesterol levels in blood. Accordingly, foods rich in phytosterols are required in a healthy diet. Vegetable oils are the richest source of phytosterols in the diet, though sunflower oil has lower phytosterol content than other seed oils such as rapeseed and corn. Increasing phytosterol content in sunflower oil requires optimizing first selection procedures. In this way, the development of accurate methods for analyzing phytosterol content in seeds instead of oils has opened up recently the way for large-scale screening for this trait. Large variability for seed phytosterol content has been identified in sunflower germplasm, from which we have developed a line, IASP-18, with about twofold seed phytosterol content than conventional sunflower. The trait is expressed across environments. Genetic studies are underway to characterize its inheritance and assess the feasibility of introgressing genes for high phytosterol content into elite sunflower germplasm.

  9. Production, characterization and anticancer activity of Candida bombicola sophorolipids by means of solid state fermentation of sunflower oil cake and soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad, M. M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola NRRL Y- 17069 grown in a mixture of sunflower oil cake and crude soybean oil as economic substrates with different fermentation techniques was studied. The highest yield (49.5 g·100 g−1 substrates was obtained from solid state fermentation after employing a new concept for extraction by methanol (E I followed by ethyl acetate (E II, then partially purified with hexane (E III. The course of time of fermentation was also studied, and E I extracted of the 12th day showed the minimum surface tension (45 mN·m−1 at a critical micelle dilution (CMD of 10% concentration. The produced sophorolipids were characterized and confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The anticancer activity of the produced compounds was assessed against MCF-7, HepG2, A549, HCT116 cancer cell lines and the results revealed that E III and E IV (a mixture of E I & E III act as promising anticancer agents in HepG2 and A549 by inhibiting urokinase and histone deacetylase activities.Se estudió la producción de soforolípidos por Candida bombicola NRRL Y- 17069 cultiva con diferentes técnicas de fermentación en una mezcla de torta de girasol y aceite de soja crudo, como sustratos económicos. El rendimiento más alto (49,5 g·100 g−1 de sustrato se obtuvo por fermentación en estado sólido después de extraer con metanol (IE seguido de acetato de etilo (EII, y de purificación parcial con hexano (EIII. También se estudió el tiempo de fermentación, considerando que el extracto IE de 12 días mostró una tensión superficial mínima (45 mN·m−1 a una dilución micelar crítica (CMD de concentración 10 %. Los soforolípidos producidos se caracterizaron y se confirmaron mediante espectroscopia FTIR y RMN de 1H. La actividad anticancerígena de los compuestos producidos se evaluó en células MCF-7, HepG2, A549, líneas celulares de cáncer de HCT116 y los resultados revelaron que EIII y EIV (una mezcla de EI y EIII

  10. Comparison of the effects of flaxseed oil and sunflower seed oil consumption on serum glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, and lipid peroxidation in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Atefeh; Nikaein, Farzad; Babajafari, Siavash; Faghih, Shiva; Yarmohammadi, Hassan

    Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) increases the risk of type II diabetes and morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed oil (FO), as a functional food, is one of the major vegetal sources of essential omega-3 fatty acids. This study aimed to compare the effects of consumption of FO and sunflower seed oil (SO) on lipid peroxidation and other symptoms of MetSyn. This randomized controlled interventional trial was conducted on 60 volunteers aged 30 to 60 years who were diagnosed with MetSyn in Shiraz, Iran. The participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to SO (n = 30, receiving 25 mL/d SO) and FO (n = 30, receiving 25 ml/d FO) groups using block randomization. The diets were identical for all the participants. Blood pressure (BP), serum lipid, fasting blood sugar, and malondialdehyde were measured at baseline and at the end of week 7. The results showed no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding blood lipid levels and fasting blood sugar at the end of the study. However, significant reductions in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (5.6% in FO and 10.8% in SO), and triglyceride levels were seen within each group after treatment with FO and SO (P < .05). Nonetheless, between-group changes were significant (<0.05) for systolic BP (mean [±standard deviation {SD}] changes were -14.0 ± 22.41 in the FO group [P = .004] and 0.92 ± 8.70 in the SO group [P = .594]) and diastolic BP (mean [±SD] changes were -4.26 ± 7.44 in the FO group [P = .007] and 1.30 ± 6.91 in the SO group [P = .344]), but marginally significant (P = .053) for malondialdehyde level (mean [±SD] changes were -1.29 ± 1.48 in the FO group [P < .001] and -0.52 ± 1.34 in the SO group [P = .52]). A significant decrease in weight was also found in both groups. However, waist circumference decreased significantly only in the FO group at the end of the study (P < .05). Our results indicated

  11. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  12. Oxidative stability of refined olive and sunflower oils supplemented with lycopene-rich oleoresin from tomato peels industrial by-product, during accelerated shelf-life storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehili, Mouna; Choura, Sirine; Zammel, Ayachi; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami

    2018-04-25

    Tomato peels by-product from a Tunisian industry was used for the extraction of lycopene-rich oleoresin using hexane solvent maceration. Tomato peels oleoresin, TPO, exhibited competitive free radicals scavenging activity with synthetic antioxidants. The efficacy of TPO in stabilizing refined olive (ROO) and sunflower (RSO) oils was investigated for five months, under accelerated shelf-life, compared to the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). TPO was added to ROO and RSO at four different concentrations, namely 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/g and BHT standard at 200 µg/g. Lipid oxidation was tracked by measuring the peroxide value, acidity, conjugated dienes and trienes. Results suggested the highest efficiency of 250 µg/g and 2000 µg/g of TPO, referring to 5 µg/g and 40 µg/g of lycopene, for the oxidative stabilization of ROO and RSO, respectively. The protective effect of TPO against the primary oxidation of these refined oils was significantly correlated to their lycopene contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation, characterization, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of MgO-La2O3 nanocatalysts for biodiesel production from sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Nahid; Yaghobi, Nakisa; Ezzati, Rohollah

    2017-06-01

    A series of MgO-La2O3 nanocatalysts were prepared via a co-precipitation method and used for biodiesel production from sunflower oil. The results showed that with increasing Mg/La weight percent the catalytic activity increases obviously. Also the results showed that the catalyst with Mg/La = 60 wt.% (based on weight of La) is an optimal nanocatalyst. The best operational conditions were the CH3OH/oil = 18/1 at 338 K with mechanical stirring 700 rpm for 5 h. Furthermore, the optimal nanocatalyst showed high catalytic activity for biodiesel production and the biodiesel yield reached 97.7% under the optimal conditions. Furthermore, this nanocatalyst was used for 4 runs in biodiesel production without significant decrease of catalytic performance. Also kinetic and thermodynamic of reaction has been studied in the presence of optimal nanocatalyst. From the kinetic and thermodynamic studies, Ea = 77.6 kJ·mol-1, A = 3.5 × 107 l·mol-1 s-1, ΔrHθ = 162 kJ·mol-1 K-1, ΔrSθ = 0.54 kJ·mol-1 K-1 were obtained. Characterization of catalysts was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and N2 adsorption-desorption measurement methods.

  14. Formulation of Zero-Trans Crystalized Fats Produced from Palm Stearin and High Oleic Safflower Oil Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nydia E. Buitimea-Cantúa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High intake of trans fat is associated with several chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Fat blends, produced by direct blending process of palm stearin (PS with high oleic safflower oil (HOSO in different concentrations, were investigated. The effects of the PS addition (50, 70, or 90% and the rate of agitation (RA (1000, 2000, or 3000 rpm on physical properties, fatty acid profile (FAP, trans fatty acids (TFA, crystal structure, and consistency were researched. The blend containing 50% of each sort of oil (50% PS/50% HOSO showed that melting point and features were similar to the control shortening. The saturated fatty acids (SFA were higher followed by monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Significant differences in the content of palmitic and oleic acids among blends were observed. The 50% PS/50% HOSO blend contained higher oleic acid (42.9% whereas the 90% PS/10% HOSO was higher in palmitic acid (56.9%. The blending of PS/HOSO promoted the β crystal polymorphic forms. The direct blending process of equal amounts of PS and HOSO was an adequate strategy to formulate a new zero-trans crystallized vegetable fats with characteristics similar to commercial counterparts with well-balanced fats rich in both omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids.

  15. [Effects of different fertilization measures on N2O emission in oil sunflower field in irrigation area of upper Yellow River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Ji; Liu, Ru-liang; Yang, Zheng-li; Zhang, Ai-ping

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural soil has become the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N20). To estimate the impacts of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on N20 emission in a typical winter wheat-oil sunflower cropping system in the Ningxia irrigation area, we measured N20 fluxes using the static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method and monitored the seasonal dynamics of related factors. Our results showed that nitrogen addition in the previous crop field significantly stimulated N2O emissions during the following oil-sunflower cultivation, and the mean fluxes of N300-OM, N240-OM1/2, N300 and N240 were (34.16 ± 9.72), (39.69 ±10.70), (27.75 ±9.57) and (26.30 ± 8.52) µg . m-2 . h-1, respectively, which were 4.09, 4.75, 3.32 and 3.15 times of the control groups. The total cumulative N2O emissions of fertilizer treatments in growing season was as high as 796.7 to 1242.5 g . hm-2, which was 2.99 to 4.67 times of the control groups. During the growing season, the rates of N2O emission in each month organic and inorganic fertlizers combined treatments were similar at high levels. N2O emission in chemical fertilizer treatments gradually decreased, and the main period of N2O emission occurred at the beginning of growing season. Taking July for example, N2O emission accounted for 41.3% to 41. 8% of total cumulative amount. The amounts of N20 emission under organic and inorganic fertilizers combined treatments were significantly higher than under chemical fertilizer treatments. The N2O emissions were not significantly different between conventional and optimized applications of nitrogen fertilizer under the same fertilizing method, either between N300-OM and N240-OM1/2, or between N300 and N240. On account of the drought, N2O emission in each treatment was mainly affected by soil moisture. N2O emission had a significant positive correlation with soil ammonium nitrogen content under combined applications of organic and inorganic

  16. Van Gogh's Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein kindergarten students painted sunflowers. These beautiful and colorful sunflowers were inspired by the book "Camille and the Sunflowers" by Laurence Anholt, which does an amazing job of introducing young children to the art and life of Vincent van Gogh.

  17. SUNFLOWER SUPPLY INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gineo, Wayne M.; Sundquist, W. Burt

    1981-01-01

    This report is concerned with a discussion of the sunflower production sector. It summarizes and discusses the North American sunflower production sector in terms of area, acreage, total production, yields and prices. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of the potential level of sunflower production is made.

  18. Bovine Mammary Nutrigenomics and Changes in the Milk Composition due to Rapeseed or Sunflower Oil Supplementation of High-Forage or High-Concentrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Christine; Bernard, Laurence; Faulconnier, Yannick; Rouel, Jacques; de la Foye, Anne; Domagalski, Jordann; Chilliard, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition plays a crucial role in milk nutritional quality. Despite the known nutritional regulation of ruminant milk composition, the overall mammary mechanisms underlying this regulation are far from being understood. The aim of our study was to determine nutritional regulation of mammary transcriptomes in relation to the cow milk composition. Twelve cows received diets differing in the forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) and low forage (LF)] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk production and FA composition were determined. The gene expression profile was studied using RT-qPCR and a bovine microarray. Our results showed a higher amplitude of milk composition and mammary transcriptome responses to lipid supplementation with the LF-SO compared with the LF diet than with the HF-RS compared with the HF diet. Forty-nine differentially expressed genes, including genes involved in lipid metabolism, were identified with LF-SO versus LF, whereas RS supplementation to the HF diet did not affect the mammary transcriptome. This study highlights different responses to lipid supplementation of milk production and composition and mammary transcriptomes depending on the nature of lipid supplementation and the percentage of dietary concentrate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Biocatalytic Behaviour of Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae Lipase in the 1,3-Selective Ethanolysis of Sunflower Oil to Obtain a Biofuel Similar to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new biofuel similar to biodiesel was obtained in the 1,3-selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol using as biocatalyst a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL immobilized on Sepiolite, an inorganic support. The studied lipase was a low cost powdered enzyme preparation, Biolipase-R, from Biocon-Spain, a multipurpose additive used in food industry. In this respect, it is developed a study to optimize the immobilization procedure of these lipases on Sepiolite. Covalent immobilization was achieved by the development of an inorganic-organic hybrid linker formed by a functionalized hydrocarbon chain with a pendant benzaldehyde, bonded to the AlPO4 support surface. Thus, the covalent immobilization of lipases on amorphous AlPO4/sepiolite (20/80 wt % support was evaluated by using two different linkers (p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and benzylamine-terephthalic aldehyde, respectively. Besides, the catalytic behavior of lipases after physical adsorption on the demineralized sepiolite  was also evaluated. Obtained results indicated that covalent immobilization with the p-hydroxybenzaldehyde linker gave the best biocatalytic behavior. Thus, this covalently immobilized lipase showed a remarkable stability as well as an excellent capacity of reutilization (more than five successive reuses without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. This could allow a more efficient fabrication of biodiesel minimizing the glycerol waste production.

  20. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayati, Talib M.; Doyle, Aidan M.

    2015-02-01

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption-desorption porosimetry (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96-99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  1. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayati, Talib M., E-mail: talib-albyati@yahoo.com [University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Iraq); Doyle, Aidan M., E-mail: a.m.doyle@mmu.ac.uk [Manchester Metropolitan University, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption–desorption porosimetry (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96–99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  2. Fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat cooked sausages made with beef and chicken meat, tomato juice and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Í; Simşek, O; Işıklı, M

    2002-10-01

    Low-fat (5.9-10.3% fat) cooked sausages were produced with seven different formulations. Sausages produced with total replacement of fat with sunflower oil had significantly lower oleic acid (C18:1) and higher linoleic (C18:2) and behenic (C22:0) fatty acid contents. Their ratio of TUFA/TS was 3.65 compared to 0.95-1.14 for the other sausages. Also these sausages had the lowest moisture content, highest overall palatability and were less firm. Sausages with tomato juice had the lowest pH value, total aerobic count and nitrite content, but were firmer. Sausages produced with reduced beef contents had lower fat contents, lower stearic (C18:0) and higher oleic (C18:1) fatty acid contents than sausages of high beef content, their texture was very soft and had the lowest score for juiciness. Finally the sausages with chicken meat had the lowest fat and highest salt contents, and lower stearic (C18:0) and higher linoleic (C18:3) fatty acid contents than those made with beef . Also their colour was lighter, less red and more yellow and they had the lowest flavor intensity and overall acceptability.

  3. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albayati, Talib M.; Doyle, Aidan M.

    2015-01-01

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption–desorption porosimetry (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96–99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction

  4. Phytobenthos and phytoplankton community changes upon exposure to a sunflower oil spill in a South African protected freshwater wetland

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available a large area will hamper its recovery (Groenewold 1982). Since 70 vegetable oils and animal fats usually have few volatile fractions, and therefore 71 usually do not decrease in volume through evaporation as do many of the lighter 72 factions... of petroleum oils, most of the quantity of spilled vegetable oil and animal fats 73 remain in the environment (Rigger 1997). When this happens, there is a potential for 74 adverse impacts to environmentally sensitive areas. Factors that affect the 75...

  5. Purified phenolics from hydrothermal treatments of biomass: ability to protect sunflower bulk oil and model food emulsions from oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Enma; Moure, Andrés; Domínguez, Herminia; Gordon, Michael H; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2011-09-14

    The phenolic fractions released during hydrothermal treatment of selected feedstocks (corn cobs, eucalypt wood chips, almond shells, chestnut burs, and white grape pomace) were selectively recovered by extraction with ethyl acetate and washed with ethanol/water solutions. The crude extracts were purified by a relatively simple adsorption technique using a commercial polymeric, nonionic resin. Utilization of 96% ethanol as eluting agent resulted in 47.0-72.6% phenolic desorption, yielding refined products containing 49-60% w/w phenolics (corresponding to 30-58% enrichment with respect to the crude extracts). The refined extracts produced from grape pomace and from chestnut burs were suitable for protecting bulk oil and oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions. A synergistic action with bovine serum albumin in the emulsions was observed.

  6. Variability in oil tocopherol concentration and composition of traditional and high oleic sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L. in the Pampean region (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo, Carmen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Tocopherols are natural antioxidants that increase the stability of food fat and fulfill an important biological requirement in humans. There are no previous studies on the variability of tocopherol concentration and composition in the oil of sunflower traditional hybrids (TH and high oleic sunflower hybrids (HOH from different environments in Argentina. The objective of this work was to detect and  examine that variability. Seed samples were obtained from i seven TH grown in four locations (Experiment I and, ii five hybrids (three HOH and two traditional ones grown in three locations (Experiment II. Concentrations of total tocopherol in oil ranged from 634 to 1054 μg g oil–1. α-tocopherol accounted for 90.8 to 97% of the total tocopherols. Total and α-tocopherol concentrations were highly genetically determined (more than 80%. In Experiment I, a significant, although low in value, interaction between hybrid and location was found for total and α-tocopherol concentrations. In Experiment II, mean values for total tocopherol concentration in HOH and in each environment were larger than in TH. Significant differences for total and α-tocopherol concentration were not found among HOH and environments. The variation of tocopherol concentration for each hybrid across environments was higher than the variation among hybrids in the same environment. To obtain oil with high tocopherol concentration, both hybrid and environment must be selected.Los tocoferoles son antioxidantes naturales que aumentan la estabilidad de los aceites y cumplen una importante actividad biológica en humanos. No son conocidos estudios sobre la variabilidad del contenido y composición de tocoferoles en el aceite de híbridos de girasol tradicionales (HT y “alto oleico” (HAO sembrados en diferentes ambientes en Argentina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar y examinar esa variabilidad. Las semillas fueron obtenidas de a 7 HT sembrados en 4 localidades

  7. Sunflower seed: a potential source of food and feed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, T.; Ali, S.; Javed, M.A.; Javad, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical composition of seven varieties of sunflower seeds and seed fractions i.e., kernels, hulls and meals was determined. Sunflower meals (SFM) contained 44.00 to 49.52% crude protein, 1.25 to 1.50% fat, 3.43 to 6.75% crude fibre, 7.50 to 8.51% ash, 27.30 to 36.09% nitrogen free extract, 3.12 to 3.51% phytic acid and 2.45 to 3.01% chlorogenic acid. Fatty acid profile of sunflower oil with respect to other vegetable oils (i.e., soybean, mustard, canola, cotton, corn oils) and protein solubility profile of sunflower meal as compared to soybean and mustard meals, indicate that its oil and meal have a great nutritional potential. (author)

  8. A comparison of the European renewable energy directive default emission values with actual values from operating biodiesel facilities for sunflower, rape and soya oil seeds in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, C.; Barbanera, M.; Fantozzi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The European Union (EU) set a binding greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target for transportation biofuels and other bioliquids. In this study, the GHG emissions of biodiesel chain from sunflower, rapeseed and soybean were calculated in compliance with the European Union Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED). Input data used for the agricultural step were referred to the Umbrian region for sunflower and rapeseed and to the Veneto region for soybean, while data obtained from the main Italian biodiesel plants were employed for the processing step. Results showed that GHG emissions were higher than default values reported in the RED for sunflower and rapeseed and lower for soybean. Only sunflower biodiesel does not reach the minimum value of GHG saving (35%). The main differences with data used in the RED concern cultivation step, while the processing step has overall the same values of GHG emissions. Finally, three case studies were examined in order to identify possible improvements to make the analyzed supply chains more sustainable. -- Highlights: ► GHG balance of biodiesel from sunflower, rapeseed and soya was analyzed. ► Cultivation has the highest environmental impact for sunflower and rapeseed chains. ► Typical Italian data were adopted for cultivation and processing steps. ► GHG emissions were lower than RED default values for soya biodiesel. ► Cogeneration for the processing plant can greatly increase GHG saving.

  9. Main aspects of sunflower production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Cesar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world, since its grains have high oil content (38% to 50%, primarily used for the production of high quality oil. The production of sunflower increases the supply of protein meal for animal feeding, which enables the increase of protein production, more specifically meat, eggs and milk. Grain production systems in Brazil have peculiarities, since two to three different crops are grown in a special arrangement, in the same area and year. Notwithstanding the small cultivated area in Brazil of 62.3 thousand hectares, sunflower is used in succession or rotation with other grain crops such as soybean or maize, showing an enormous potential for expansion and can be cultivated from latitudes 33°S to 5°N, especially in the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Sunflower cultivation in succession to soybean as a second summer crop can also reduce environmental impacts because of the more efficient usage of production factors, such as land and sharing of agricultural inputs, machinery, infrastructure and workforce. The success of establishing the sunflower is associated with the adequate management of soil fertility, use of cultivars adapted to different environments, plant arrangement, seed quality and adequate phytosanitary management, among other factors. It also needs strategic actions, planning and, long-term research and technology diffusion.

  10. Genetic progress in sunflower crop in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, D N; Cargnelutti Filho, A; Lorentz, L H; Boligon, A A; Caraffa, M; Wartha, C A

    2017-04-13

    The sunflower has adaptability to growing regions with different climatic and soil characteristics, showing drought tolerance and high-quality oil production. The State of Rio Grande do Sul is the third largest sunflower producer in Brazil, with research related to the sunflower breeding initiated after the decade of 1950. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic progress for grain yield, oil content, and oil yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Data of grain yield, oil content, and oil yield obtained from 58 sunflower cultivar yield trials in 19 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul during the period from 2005 to 2014 were used. Genetic progress was studied according to the methodology proposed by Vencovsky and data from sunflower cultivar yield trials were used. Annual genetic progress of sunflower during the period of 10 years (2005-2014) was 132.46 kg⋅ha -1 ⋅year -1 for grain yield, -0.17%/year for oil content, and 48.11 kg⋅ha -1 ⋅year -1 for oil yield. The sunflower-breeding programs in the State of Rio Grande do Sul were efficient for the traits grain yield and oil yield and presented no efficiency for oil content.

  11. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE USE OF LOVAGE LEAVES TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS AND OIL BLENDS

    OpenAIRE

    GEIDA SEVDAGUL SULIMAN; SEMAGHIUL BIRGHILA; ANCA DUMBRAVA

    2018-01-01

    We studied four edible vegetable oils and nine oil blends based on refined sunflower oil, in order to improve the quality characteristics of sunflower oil. The oils used for blends were linseed oil, grapeseed oil, and coconut oil. The physico-chemical properties demonstrated the superior features for oil blends, like lower acidity (measured by acid value) and higher stability to autoxidation (measured by peroxide value and refractive index). The best combination for sunflower oil was with coc...

  12. Quantitative analysis of hydroperoxy-, keto- and hydroxy-dienes in refined vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Arturo; Marmesat, Susana; Dobarganes, M Carmen; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Velasco, Joaquín

    2012-03-16

    Quantitative analysis of the main oxidation products of linoleic acid - hydroperoxy-, keto- and hydroxy-dienes - in refined oils is proposed in this study. The analytical approach consists of derivatization of TAGs into FAMEs and direct analysis by HPLC-UV. Two transmethylation methods run at room temperature were evaluated. The reactants were KOH in methanol in method 1 and sodium methoxide (NaOMe) in method 2. Method 1 was ruled out because resulted in losses of hydroperoxydienes as high as 90 wt%. Transmethylation with NaOMe resulted to be appropriate as derivatization procedure, although inevitably also gives rise to losses of hydroperoxydienes, which were lower than 10 wt%, and formation of keto- and hydroxy-dienes as a result. An amount of 0.6-2.1 wt% of hydroperoxydienes was transformed into keto- and hydroxy-dienes, being the formation of the former as much as three times higher. The method showed satisfactory sensitivity (quantification limits of 0.3 μg/mL for hydroperoxy- and keto-dienes and 0.6 μg/mL for hydroxydienes), precision (coefficients of variation ≤ 6% for hydroperoxydienes and ≤ 15% for keto- and hydroxy-dienes) and accuracy (recovery values of 85(± 4), 99(± 2) and 97.0(± 0.6) % for hydroperoxy-, keto- and hydroxy-dienes, respectively). The method was applied to samples of high-linoleic (HLSO), high-oleic (HOSO) and high-stearic high-oleic (HSHOSO) sunflower oils oxidized at 40 °C. Results showed that the higher the linoleic-to-oleic ratio, the higher were the levels of hydroperoxy-, keto- and hydroxy-dienes when tocopherols were completely depleted, i.e. at the end of the induction period (IP). Levels of 23.7, 2.7 and 1.1 mg/g oil were found for hydroperoxy-, keto- and hydroxy-dienes, respectively, in the HLSO when tocopherol was practically exhausted. It was estimated that hydroperoxydienes constituted approximately 100, 95 and 60% of total hydroperoxides in the HLSO, HOSO and HSHOSO, respectively, along the IP. Copyright © 2012

  13. Characterization of calcium oxide catalysts from natural sources and their application in the transesterification of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Leandro Marques; Saboya, Rosana Maria Alves; Campelo, Natália de Sousa; Cecilia, Juan Antonio; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Cavalcante, Célio Loureiro; Vieira, Rodrigo Silveira

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic activities of calcium oxide obtained from natural sources (crab shell and eggshell) were characterized and evaluated in the transesterification of vegetable oil. These catalysts are mainly composed of calcium carbonate, which is partially converted into CaO after calcination (900°C for 2h). The catalysts have some advantages, such as abundant occurrence, low cost, porous structure, and nontoxic. The materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG/DTG, CO2-TPD, XPS, SEM, and BET methods. The thermal treatment produces small particles of CaCO3 and CaO that are responsible for the catalytic activity. The conversion from triglycerides to methyl ester was not observed in transesterification carried out using natural crab shell and eggshell. Under optimized reaction conditions, the conversions to YFAME using the calcined catalysts were: crab shell (83.10±0.27 wt.%) and eggshell (97.75±0.02 wt.%). These results, showed that these materials have promising viability in transesterification for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of FAME and FAEE via Alcoholysis of Sunflower Oil by Eversa Lipases Immobilized on Hydrophobic Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remonatto, Daniela; de Oliveira, J Vladimir; Manuel Guisan, J; de Oliveira, Débora; Ninow, Jorge; Fernandez-Lorente, Gloria

    2018-01-03

    The performance of two new commercial low-cost lipases Eversa® Transform and Eversa® Transform 2.0 immobilized in different supports was investigated. The two lipases were adsorbed on four different hydrophobic supports. Interesting results were obtained for both lipases and for the four supports. However, the most active derivative was prepared by immobilization of Eversa® Transform 2.0 on Sepabeads C-18. Ninety-nine percent of fatty acid ethyl ester was obtained, in 3 h at 40 °C, by using hexane as solvent, a molar ratio of 4:1 (ethanol/oil), and 10 wt% of immobilized biocatalyst. The final reaction mixture contained traces of monoacylglycerols but was completely free of diacylglycerols. After four reaction cycles, the immobilized biocatalyst preserved 75% of activity. Both lipases immobilized in Sepabeads C-18 were very active with ethanol and methanol as acceptors, but they were much more stable in the presence of ethanol.

  15. Response surface modeling of acid activation of raw diatomite using in sunflower oil bleaching by: Box-Behnken experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouci, M; Safa, M; Meddah, B; Aoues, A; Sonnet, P

    2015-03-01

    The optimum conditions for acid activation of diatomite for maximizing bleaching efficiency of the diatomite in sun flower oil treatment were studied. Box-Behnken experimental design combining with response surface modeling (RSM) and quadratic programming (QP) was employed to obtain the optimum conditions of three independent variables (acid concentration, activation time and solid to liquid) for acid activation of diatomite. The significance of independent variables and their interactions were tested by means of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95 % confidence limits (α = 0.05). The optimum values of the selected variables were obtained by solving the quadratic regression model, as well as by analyzing the response surface contour plots. The experimental conditions at this global point were determined to be acid concentration = 8.963 N, activation time = 11.9878 h, and solid to liquid ratio = 221.2113 g/l, the corresponding bleaching efficiency was found to be about 99 %.

  16. Development of a Lipid Particle for β-Carotene Encapsulation Using a Blend of Tristearin and Sunflower Oil: Choice of Lipid Matrix and Evaluation of Shelf Life of Dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela V. L. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid particles are colloidal carriers that have been studied for almost 20 years in the pharmaceutical field and recently have been investigated by food researchers due to their capacity to enhance the incorporation of lipophilic bioactives and their bioavailability in aqueous formulations. The aims of this study are to choose a suitable lipid matrix to produce solid lipid particles, which would be used to encapsulate β-carotene, and to evaluate the capacity of dispersions to protect the incorporated carotenoid. Bulk lipid mixtures of tristearin and sunflower oil were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and wide angle X-ray diffraction, and the mixture with the highest degree of structural disorganisation was chosen. β-Carotene was then encapsulated in solid lipid particles produced with this mixture, composed of 70 % tristearin and 30 % sunflower oil (6 % total lipid and stabilised with hydrogenated soy lecithin and Tween 80 (3 % total surfactant by hot pressure homogenisation. Two types of particles were produced, using one or two passages in the homogenisation step. Average particle size, zeta potential, thermal behaviour, crystallinity and β-carotene concentration were monitored over 4 months of storage (under refrigerated conditions. The results showed minor differences between the systems in terms of size distribution, although the particles produced with one passage through the homogeniser were slightly more efficient at protecting the β-carotene from degradation and also suffered few microstructural alterations after 4 months.

  17. Long storage stability of biodiesel from vegetable and used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrahim Bouaid; Mercedes Martinez; Jose Aracil [Complutense University, Madrid (Spain). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Biodiesel is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils. Production of biodiesel has grown tremendously in European Union in the last years. Though the commercial prospects for biodiesel have also grown, there remains some concern with respect to its resistance to oxidative degradation during storage. Due to the chemical structure of biodiesel the presence of the double bond in the molecule produce a high level of reactivity with the oxygen, especially when it placed in contact with air. Consequently, storage of biodiesel over extended periods may lead to degradation of fuel properties that can compromise fuel quality. This study used samples of biodiesel prepared by the process of transesterification from different vegetable oils: high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), high and low erucic Brassica carinata oil (HEBO and LEBO) respectively and used frying oil (UFO). These biodiesels, produced from different sources, were used to determine the effects of long storage under different conditions on oxidation stability. Samples were stored in white (exposed) and amber (not exposed) glass containers at room temperature. The study was conducted for a period of 30-months. At regular intervals, samples were taken to measure the following physicochemical quality parameters: acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), viscosity {nu}, iodine value (IV) and insoluble impurities (II). Results showed that AV, PV, {nu} and II increased, while IV decreased with increasing storage time of biodiesel samples. However, slight differences were found between biodiesel samples exposed and not exposed to daylight before a storage time of 12 months. But after this period the differences were significant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Influence of fatty acid composition on the formation of polar glycerides and polar fatty acids in sunflower oils heated at frying temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge, N.

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and high oleic sunflower oils as well as 50% mixture of both of them were heated at different temperatures under well-controlled conditions. Total polar compounds, the main groups of polar glycerides, total polar fatty acids, the main groups of polar fatty acids and the loss of initial fatty acids were quantitated. The most outstanding results demonstrated the primacy of the formation of glyceridic polymerization compounds during heating at high temperatures. After transesterification of the samples dimeric fatty acids was the most significant group of compounds obtained. As expected, linoleic acid was preferentially involved in the formation of polar fatty acids, although the participation of oleic acid became very important at low concentration of linoleic acid. Finally good statistical figures were obtained for the regression of polar fatty acids on polar compounds.

    Aceites de girasol convencional y alto oleico así como una mezcla al 50% de ambos fueron calentados a diferentes temperaturas bajo condiciones controladas. Se cuantificaron los compuestos polares totales, los grupos principales de glicéridos, ácidos grasos polares totales, los grupos principales de ácidos grasos polares y la pérdida de ácidos grasos iniciales. Los resultados más relevantes demostraron la primacía de la formación de compuestos de polimerización glicerídicos durante el calentamiento a altas temperaturas. Después de la transesterificación de las muestras, los ácidos diméricos constituyeron el grupo más significativo de compuestos obtenidos. Como era esperado, el ácido linoleico contribuyó preferentemente en la formación de los ácidos grasos polares, si bien la participación del ácido oleico fue muy importante a bajas concentraciones de ácido linoleico. Finalmente, se obtuvieron buenos resultados estadísticos para la regresión entre ácidos grasos polares y compuestos polares.

  19. Torrefaction of residues and by-products from sunflower chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use and standardisation is a key aspect for these fuel products. Torrefaction is an interesting process used to improve the quality of ligno-cellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of materials has been studied at first by thermo-gravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been employed in a bench top torrefaction reactor afterwards. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the process. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range is reduced making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60 %, 80 % and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64 %, 85 % and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks because of the different starting characteristics. Untreated oil cake and husks already show a good high heating value and the eventual torrefaction should be mild. On the contrary for sunflower stalks the process is more useful and could be more severe.

  20. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  1. Silky Sunflowers & Swirly Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In this article, second-graders create a sunflower drawing using pastel techniques that produce similar effects to Vincent van Gogh's brushstrokes. They also learn how layering colors and using white to lighten colors creates depth in their flowers.

  2. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  3. New Approach on Sunflower Seeds Processing: Kernel with Several Technological Applications, Husks Package, Different Fat Content Tahini and Halva Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is the basic oil-crop in Central and Eastern Europe. As sunflower seeds are mainly used for oil production, the most of the kernels available on the market show high oil content (>55%. Consequently, when sunflower kernel paste (tahini is used in different food products, oil exudation occurs.The aim of current work was to use entirely the sunflower seeds by partially defatting and obtaining different fat content sunflower pastes with multiple food applications, while using the husks for developing an ecological package. Sunflower kernels were industrially roasted in a continuous roasting drum.  Raw and roasted kernels were pressed at pilot plant scale by using a laboratory expeller. Partially defatted sunflower paste was obtained from the press cakes by employing a ball mill. Different fat content tahini samples were obtained by adding the required amount of oil to the partially defatted paste. Tahini samples fat content ranged from 45 to 60%. Tahini and halva were chosen as a study model. Decreasing tahini oil content increased its colloidal stability during storage, a similar trend being noticed when halva samples were stored. Moreover, halva texture analysis and sensory characteristics were assessed for selecting the optimum tahini oil content and thermal treatment. Various sunflower kernel food applications were proposed by obtaining the related prototypes at pilot plant scale: roasted sunflower kernel biscuits, sunflower spreadable cream filled biscuits, hummus, sunflower paste coated in chocolate, sunflower kernel chikki and bars, as well as an innovative ecological package based on the resulting sunflower husks and a starch adhesive. 

  4. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... photo-synthetically active radiation (PAR), yield components and oil contents to planting ... be fairly stable (Monteith, 1977; Gallagher and Biscoe, ... oil quality of sunflower under irrigated arid environmental ... tically for the analysis of variance (ANOVA). ..... in this study confirm the findings of many scientists.

  5. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2017-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi , or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  6. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2018-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  7. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Dimitrijevic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare

  8. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  9. Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

  10. 1H NMR and SPME-GC/MS study of hydrolysis, oxidation and other reactions occurring during in vitro digestion of non-oxidized and oxidized sunflower oil. Formation of hydroxy-octadecadienoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva-Echevarría, Bárbara; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Manzanos, María J; Guillén, María D

    2017-01-01

    Both fresh and slightly oxidized sunflower oils, as models of omega-6 rich lipids, were submitted to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and studied by 1 H NMR and SPME-GC/MS. Changes in lipolysis degree, lipid composition and oxidative level were studied by 1 H NMR. Three quantitative approaches were used and several equations were newly developed. In oxidized oil digestates slightly lower hydrolysis and a higher advance of oxidation took place during digestion. This latter was evidenced by a greater decrease of lipid unsaturation degree and enhanced generation of oxidation products (cis,trans-hydroperoxy-octadecadienoates, cis,trans- and trans,trans-hydroxy-octadecadienoates). For the first time, the generation of hydroxy-octadecadienoates during in vitro digestion is reported. Furthermore, SPME-GC/MS study of non-digested and digested samples headspaces confirmed that lipid oxidation occurred: abundances of volatile markers increased (including potentially toxic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes), especially in oxidized oils digestates. Markers of Maillard-type and esterification reactions were also detected in the digestates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gene transfer from wild Helianthus to sunflower: topicalities and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (2n=17 belongs to the Helianthus genus (Asteraceae. Wild Helianthus species display morphological variation for branching and stem number, for architecture and seed size, and for resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses due to which they thrive in different environments in North America. The genus is divided into botanical sections, two for annual as sunflower, and two for perennial species as Jerusalem artichoke that produces rhizomes (tubers. We explain the difficulties and successes obtained by crossing sunflower with these species to improve the agronomic traits of the sunflower crop. It is easier to cross the annual species than the perennials’ with sunflower. Several traits such as Cytoplasmic male sterility and restorer Rf-PET1 genes, Downy mildew resistance, Phomopsis resistance, Sclerotinia resistance, Rust resistance, and Orobanche resistance have already been introduced from annual species into sunflower crop, but the complex genomic organization of these species compared to sunflower limits their important potential. Perennial species are much more diverse, and their genomes display 2n, 4n, or 6n chromosomes for n 17. The realities of inter-specific hybridization are relatively disappointing due to the introgression lines that have low oil and low seed yield. We report here several attempts to introgress agronomic traits from these species to sunflower, and we present as a case study, an introgressed progenies from H. mollis, a diploid species with sessile small leaves. We constructed a preliminary genetic map with AFLP markers in 21 BC1 plants, and we then showed that some progenies display 6 to 44% of introgression from H. mollis. Although this study is promising due to the novel compact architecture of the progenies, we cannot estimate the transferability from H. mollis to other perennial Helianthus to improve sunflower.

  12. Sunflowers to decontaminate water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Sunflowers offer a new method of decontamination. 55 kilograms (dry weight) of sunflowers are able to decontaminate all the cesium 137 and the strontium 90 polluting a pond situated at one kilometer from Tchernobyl. These flowers are able to decrease 95% in 24 hours the uranium concentration in the american site of Ashtabula in Ohio getting this water from 350 parts by milliards to less than 5 parts by milliards. The radioactivity should stocked in the roots at concentrations 5 000 to 10 000 times higher than water concentration. The cost is cheaper than micro filtration and precipitation (2-6 dollars for 4 000 liters of water against 80 dollars for others technologies). when sunflowers are radioactive they can be reduced in dust and vitrified and stocked as solid radioactive wastes. (N.C.)

  13. Sunflower seed allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  14. Urea-nitrate combustion synthesis of MgO/MgAl2O4 nanocatalyst used in biodiesel production from sunflower oil: Influence of fuel ratio on catalytic properties and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani Vahid, Behgam; Haghighi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: As a base catalyst for biodiesel production, MgAl 2 O 4 spinel was successfully synthesized by combustion method with MgO, as the active phase, dispersed on the catalyst surface. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET-BJH, TGA and FTIR analyses, so as to optimize the concentration of urea (as fuel) in the combustion synthesis. Analyzing the effect of fuel ratio on the combustion synthesized MgAl 2 O 4 , it was revealed that the synthesized base catalyst with a fuel ratio of 1.5 was of the best specifications for biodiesel production process. Future researches may investigate the catalyst reusability and mild reaction conditions, so as to achieve more economical production of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Efficient synthesis of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel by solution combustion method. • Improvement of catalytic activity and stability by optimum ratio fuel. • Enhanced dispersion of MgO over MgAl 2 O 4 spinel. • Production of biodiesel over MgO/MgAl 2 O 4 at relatively mild reaction conditions. - Abstract: MgO/MgAl 2 O 4 nanocatalyst was synthesized by a simple, cost-effective and rapid method and used in biodiesel production from sunflower oil. MgAl 2 O 4 was synthesized by combustion method at different fuel ratios and then active phase of MgO was dispersed on the samples by impregnation method. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET-BJH, TGA and FTIR analyses, so as to optimize the concentration of urea (as fuel) in the combustion synthesis. The physicochemical properties of the nanocatalyst confirmed the sample synthesized with fuel ratio of 1.5 has high surface area, effective morphology and texture properties. Finally, in order to evaluate catalytic activity of the samples in biodiesel production, the transesterification reaction was performed. The results indicated the catalyst prepared by combustion synthesis with a fuel ratio of 1.5 was optimum specifications for biodiesel production. Using this

  15. Effect of saponified high fat sunflower oilcake and lipoic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are toxic to cellulolytic bacteria and are also saturated in the rumen. Stabilization of residual oil in sunflower oilcake by conversion into calcium salts would be advantageous. Alpha lipoic acid acts as an anti-oxidant to ...

  16. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.), etc. The total edible oil ... hybrids with high fertilizer requirements. The farmers are applying ... Crop growth and productivity can be discussed in terms of biomass ... the interactive effects of hybrids, planting geometries and nitrogen rates on ...

  17. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  18. Dragee product based on sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower kernel is rich in valuable nutritive compounds so it is suitable as a raw material for production of confectionery products. In this paper we evaluated the technological characteristics of the confectionery sunflower kernel with the aim of obtaining dragee products, and determining the final product quality and shelf life. The dragee product was obtained by panning sunflower kernel with savory powder mixture of spices in a dragee pan. The used sunflower seed has an even distribution of linear size and satisfactory dehulling characteristics. The savoury dragee product was in excellent category of sensory quality and showed stable colour and good shelf life in the period of three months.

  19. Backcrosses in interspecific hybridization in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlagić Jovanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When incorporating desirable traits (resistance to causal agents of various diseases from the wild relatives into the cultivated sunflower, some undesirable ones are introduced too (branching, small head diameter, low oil content, etc. To overcome this problem, backcrosses (F1 interspecific hybrids x cultivated sunflower are used, although very often desirable traits are lost in the process. Cytological analysis (meiosis and pollen viability and molecular markers (RAPD were used to estimate what portion of the parental species genome was present in (be interspecific hybrids of the F1 and BC1F1 generations. The results showed that the percentage of irregularities at meiosis increased from F1 to BC1F1 gen. They also indicated the presence of aneuploids and sterility in the cross between the hexaploid species H.rigidus and cultivated sunflower. The genetic distance between the parents was 83%, that between H.rigidus and the F1 hybrid 54 61%, and that between H.annuus and F1 hybrid 70-76%. In the BC1F1 generation, the genetic distance from Hannuus decreased to 58-66% and that from H.rigidus increased to 69-76%.

  20. Deadly Sunflower Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2018-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure is usually very effective at removing hazardous millimeter-sized debris from distant orbits around asteroidsand other small solar system bodies (Hamilton and Burns 1992). Theprimary loss mechanism, driven by the azimuthal component of radiationpressure, is eccentricity growth followed by a forced collision withthe central body. One large class of orbits, however, neatly sidestepsthis fate. Orbits oriented nearly perpendicular to the solar directioncan maintain their face-on geometry, oscillating slowly around a stableequilibrium orbit. These orbits, designated sunflower orbits, arerelated to terminator orbits studied by spacecraft mission designers(Broschart etal. 2014).Destabilization of sunflower orbits occurs only for particles smallenough that radiation pressure is some tens of percent the strength ofthe central body's direct gravity. This greatly enhanced stability,which follows from the inability of radiation incident normal to theorbit to efficiently drive eccentricities, presents a threat tospacecraft missions, as numerous dangerous projectiles are potentiallyretained in orbit. We have investigated sunflower orbits insupport of the New Horizons, Aida, and Lucy missions and find thatthese orbits are stable for hazardous particle sizes at asteroids,comets, and Kuiper belt objects of differing dimensions. Weinvestigate the sources and sinks for debris that might populate suchorbits, estimate timescales and equilibrium populations, and willreport on our findings.

  1. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  2. The thermo-mechano-chemical twin-screw reactor, a new perspective for the biorefinery of sunflower whole plant: aqueous extraction of oil and other biopolymers, and production of biodegradable fiberboards from cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evon Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biorefinery of sunflower whole plant was performed successfully using a thermo-mechano-chemical twin-screw reactor. This led to the aqueous extraction of oil and other biopolymers like proteins, pectins and non pectic sugars. It resulted in the overall fractionation of biomass, thus allowing a complete valorization of the input. This biorefinery process was not only efficient but it was also environment-friendly. In addition, it contributed to the production of different end products for various industrial applications. Firstly, the hydrophilic phase will be recycled to the process. Secondly, the densest oil-in-water emulsion is a promising candidate for the formulation of cosmetic creams. Thirdly, the upper hydrophobic phase will be usable for the waterproofing treatment of the surface of agromaterials by coating. Its demixing will also lead to the production of proteins with tensioactive properties. These will serve for the food industry. Lastly, the cake was a mixture of plasticized proteins and lignocellulosic fibers. It was thus considered as a natural composite. Its molding into cohesive fiberboards was conducted successfully using both thermopressing and compression molding processes. The self-bonded boards with high density will be suitable for use as load bearing boards in dry conditions (floor underlayers, interior partitions, furniture, etc.. Positioned in walls and ceilings, boards with medium and low density will contribute to the heat insulation of buildings. In addition, the bulk cake will be also usable as a loose fill insulation material. As proposed, this flow chart thus allows a valorization for all fractions originating from the twin-screw reactor.

  3. A quantum chemical calculation of the potential energy surface in the formation of HOSO 2 from OH + SO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitha, Sanyasi; Jewell, Linda L.; Piketh, Stuart J.; Fourie, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The formation of HOSO 2 from OH and SO 2 has been thoroughly investigated using several different methods (MP2=Full, MP2=FC, B3LYP, HF and composite G∗ methods) and basis sets (6-31G(d,p), 6-31++G(d,p), 6-31++G(2d,2p), 6-31++G(2df,2p) and aug-cc-pVnZ). We have found two different possible transition state structures, one of which is a true transition state since it has a higher energy than the reactants and products (MP2=Full, MP2=FC and HF), while the other is not a true transition state since it has an energy which lies between that of the reactants and products (B3LYP and B3LYP based methods). The transition state structure (from MP2) has a twist angle of the OH fragment relative to the SO bond of the SO 2 fragment of -50.0°, whereas this angle is 26.7° in the product molecule. Examination of the displacement vectors confirms that this is a true transition state structure. The MP2=Full method with a larger basis set (MP2=Full/6-31++G(2df,2p)) predicts the enthalpy of reaction to be -112.8 kJ mol -1 which is close to the experimental value of -113.3 ± 6 kJ mol -1, and predicts a rather high barrier of 20.0 kJ mol -1. When the TS structure obtained by the MP2 method is used as the input for calculating the energetics using the QCISD/6-31++G(2df,2p) method, a barrier of 4.1 kJ mol -1 is obtained (ZPE corrected). The rate constant calculated from this barrier is 1.3 × 10 -13 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. We conclude that while the MP2 methods correctly predict the TS from a structural point of view, higher level energy corrections are needed for estimation of exact barrier height.

  4. Oil Analysis by Fast DSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal analysis of Olive and Sunflower Oil is done by Fast DSC to evaluate its potential to replace DSC for adulteration detection. DSC measurements take hours, Fast DSC minutes. Peak temperatures of the crystallisation peak in cooling for different Olive and Sunflower Oils are both comparable to

  5. Deterioration of edible oils during food processing by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, F; Grondin, I; Shum Cheong Sing, A; Smadja, J

    2004-01-01

    During food emulsification and processing of sunflower oil (most used edible oil), a metallic and rancid odour has been detected only for insonated oil and foods. Some off-flavour compounds (hexanal and hept-2-enal) resulting from the sono-degradation of sunflower oil have been identified. A wide variety of analytical techniques (GC determination of fatty acids, UV spectroscopy, free fatty acids and GC/MS) were used to follow the quality of insonated sunflower oil and emulsion. Different edible oils (olive, sunflower, soybean, em leader ) show significant changes in their composition (chemical and flavour) due to ultrasound treatment.

  6. Integrated management of sunflower necrosis disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shirshikar S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower necrosis disease (SND) is a new threat for sunflower cultivation in India. The disease was observed during 1997 in Karnataka, a major sunflower growing state of India. Later, its occurrence was reported from almost all sunflower growing states of India, posing threat to sunflower cultivation. Presently no reliable resistant sources are available. The disease being viral in nature is very much difficult to combat by single approach. At Oilseeds Research Station, Latur (M.S.), India, ...

  7. Cultivation of sunflower and its utilization in livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.; Hussain, A.; Khan, S.

    2008-01-01

    The sunflower is valuable from economic, as well as ornamental point of view. Every part of the plant may be utilized for some economic purpose. The leaves form a cattle-food and the stems contain a fibre, which may be used successfully in making paper. (Khan and Rana, 1966). The leaves form a cattle-food and the stems contain a fibre, which may be used successfully in making paper. (Khan and Rana, 1966). The seed is rich in oil, which is said to be more near to olive oil, than any other vegetable oil known, and to be largely used as a substitute. In prewar days, sunflower seed was sometimes grown in this country, especially on sewage farms, as an economical crop for pheasants, as well as poultry. The flowers contain a yellow dye. The oil extracted from the seeds is of citron yellow colour and sweet in taste. Sunflower seeds have a high feedings value the analysis in round figures in 16 per cent albumen and 21 per cent fat. Being so rich in oil, they are too stimulating to use alone and should only be used in combination with other feeding stuffs. Mixed with oats in equal quantities, they make a perfectly balanced ration. (author)

  8. Nanoscale characteristics of triacylglycerol oils: phase separation and binding energies of two-component oils to crystalline nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Colin J; Razul, M Shajahan; Papp-Szabo, Erzsebet; Peyronel, Fernanda; Hanna, Charles B; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Pink, David A

    2012-01-01

    Fats are elastoplastic materials with a defined yield stress and flow behavior and the plasticity of a fat is central to its functionality. This plasticity is given by a complex tribological interplay between a crystalline phase structured as crystalline nanoplatelets (CNPs) and nanoplatelet aggregates and the liquid oil phase. Oil can be trapped within microscopic pores within the fat crystal network by capillary action, but it is believed that a significant amount of oil can be trapped by adsorption onto crystalline surfaces. This, however, remains to be proven. Further, the structural basis for the solid-liquid interaction remains a mystery. In this work, we demonstrate that the triglyceride liquid structure plays a key role in oil binding and that this binding could potentially be modulated by judicious engineering of liquid triglyceride structure. The enhancement of oil binding is central to many current developments in this area since an improvement in the health characteristics of fat and fat-structured food products entails a reduction in the amount of crystalline triacylglycerols (TAGs) and a relative increase in the amount of liquid TAGs. Excessive amounts of unbound, free oil, will lead to losses in functionality of this important food component. Engineering fats for enhanced oil binding capacity is thus central to the design of more healthy food products. To begin to address this, we modelled the interaction of triacylglycerol oils, triolein (OOO), 1,2-olein elaidin (OOE) and 1,2-elaidin olein (EEO) with a model crystalline nanoplatelet composed of tristearin in an undefined polymorphic form. The surface of the CNP in contact with the oil was assumed to be planar. We considered pure OOO and mixtures of OOO + OOE and OOO + EEO with 80% OOO. The last two cases were taken as approximations to high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). The intent was to investigate whether phase separation on a nanoscale took place. We defined an "oil binding capacity" parameter, B

  9. RXLR and CRN Effectors from the Sunflower Downy Mildew Pathogen Plasmopara halstedii Induce Hypersensitive-Like Responses in Resistant Sunflower Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Quentin; Buendia, Luis; Pecrix, Yann; Blanchet, Nicolas; Muños, Stéphane; Vear, Felicity; Godiard, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing downy mildew disease on sunflower, Helianthus annuus, an economically important oil crop. Severe symptoms of the disease (e.g., plant dwarfism, leaf bleaching, sporulation and production of infertile flower) strongly impair seed yield. Pl resistance genes conferring resistance to specific P. halstedii pathotypes were located on sunflower genetic map but yet not cloned. They are present in cultivated lines to protect them against downy mildew disease. Among the 16 different P. halstedii pathotypes recorded in France, pathotype 710 is frequently found, and therefore continuously controlled in sunflower by different Pl genes. High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from P. halstedii led us to identify potential effectors with the characteristic RXLR or CRN motifs described in other oomycetes. Expression of six P. halstedii putative effectors, five RXLR and one CRN, was analyzed by qRT-PCR in pathogen spores and in the pathogen infecting sunflower leaves and selected for functional analyses. We developed a new method for transient expression in sunflower plant leaves and showed for the first time subcellular localization of P. halstedii effectors fused to a fluorescent protein in sunflower leaf cells. Overexpression of the CRN and of 3 RXLR effectors induced hypersensitive-like cell death reactions in some sunflower near-isogenic lines resistant to pathotype 710 and not in susceptible corresponding lines, suggesting they could be involved in Pl loci-mediated resistances. PMID:28066456

  10. RXLR and CRN effectors from the sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii induce hypersensitive-like responses in resistant sunflower lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Gascuel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing downy mildew disease on sunflower, Helianthus annuus, an economically important oil crop. Severe symptoms of the disease (e.g. plant dwarfism, leaf bleaching, sporulation and production of infertile flower strongly impair seed yield. Pl resistance genes conferring resistance to specific P. halstedii pathotypes were located on sunflower genetic map but yet not cloned. They are present in cultivated lines to protect them against downy mildew disease. Among the 16 different P. halstedii pathotypes recorded in France, pathotype 710 is frequently found, and therefore continuously controlled in sunflower by different Pl genes. High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from P. halstedii led us to identify potential effectors with the characteristic RXLR or CRN motifs described in other oomycetes. Expression of six P. halstedii putative effectors, five RXLR and one CRN, was analysed by qRT-PCR in pathogen spores and in the pathogen infecting sunflower leaves and these six effectors were selected for functional analyses. We developed a new method for transient expression in sunflower plant leaves and showed for the first time subcellular localization of P. halstedii effectors fused to a fluorescent protein in sunflower leaf cells. Overexpression of the CRN and of 3 RXLR effectors induced hypersensitive-like cell death reactions in some sunflower near-isogenic lines resistant to pathotype 710 and not in susceptible corresponding lines, suggesting they could be involved in Pl loci-mediated resistances.

  11. Comportamento dos óleos de girassol, soja e milho em frituras de produto cárneo empanado pré-frito congelado Sunflower, soybean and corn oils behavior in frozen pre-fried coated meat product frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vieira Del Ré

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização crescente de alimentos rápidos determinou a expansão de uma indústria de produtos fritos e pré-fritos. A compreensão das mudanças que o óleo sofre durante os processos de fritura é importante, pois pode levar à otimização destes processos, e a melhoria da qualidade do óleo de fritura e do produto final. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar os níveis de alteração de diferentes óleos vegetais, girassol, soja e milho, no processo de fritura dos snacks produto cárneo empanado pré-frito congelado. As frituras foram conduzidas em temperatura de 180°C, relação superfície/volume (S/V de 0,3 cm-1 e tempo total de aquecimento de 12 horas. Nos snacks procederam-se as análises de teor de umidade e lipídios; nos óleos as determinações de compostos polares totais, ácidos graxos livres e índice de peróxidos. Nenhuma análise apresentou alteração acima dos limites recomendados por alguns países. Desta forma, concluiu-se que as condições estabelecidas no processo de fritura são seguras, indicando que todos os óleos foram adequados à fritura, sendo o óleo de milho de maior estabilidade oxidativa.The ever growing utilization of fast food determined the expansion of an industry of pre-fried and fried products. The understanding of the changes that the oil undergoes during the frying processes is outstanding because it may lead to the optimization of such processes as well as to improvements on the quality of both frying oil and the finished product. The purpose of the present study was to determine the alteration levels of different vegetable oils, sunflower, soybean and corn, in the frying process of snacks frozen pre-fried meat coated product. The frying sessions were carried out at 180ºC temperature, 0.3 cm-1surface/volume ratio and 12 hours overall heating time. As for the snacks, the moisture rate and lipids analyses were performed; for the oils, total polar compounds, free fatty acids and peroxide

  12. Lipídios modificados obtidos a partir de gordura do leite, óleo de girassol e ésteres de fitosteróis para aplicação em spreads Modified lipids obtained from milk fat, sunflower oil, and phytosterol esters for application in tablespreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Neves Rodrigues Ract

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to evaluate the modifications in milkfat properties with the addition of sunflower oil (SO and phytosterol esters (PE and chemical interesterification. Fatty acid composition, softening point and consistency were determined. The saturation degree of milkfat decreased with the addition of SO and PE. Consequently, milkfat presented lower softening point and consistency. Chemical interesterification caused an increase in softening point due to the formation of higher amounts of trissaturated triacylglycerols with rearrangement. The incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids from SO and PE by milkfat triacylglycerols after chemical reaction caused linearization of consistency curves.

  13. Different purification methods and quality of sunflower biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, A.L.M.T.; Park, K.J. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Agricultural Engineering; Ferrari, R.A.; Miguel, A.M.R.O. [Food Technology Inst., Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel is derived from triacylglycerides and is produced primarily through transesterification, a chemical reaction of vegetable oils with alcohol, methanol or ethanol. The cost of raw material should be considered since 85 per cent of production cost is related to vegetable oil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oil expression of sunflower seed. It also examined the sunflower crude oil as a raw material for biodiesel by transesterification in both laboratory and pilot scale studies. Three different biodiesel purification methods were examined. The best result for oil expelling (68.4 per cent) at the experimental stage was obtained for seeds with a moisture content of 6.9 per cent at 25 degrees C and at a screw speed of 114 rpm. For biodiesel production at the laboratory scale, the best result for oil expelling was 87.5 per cent. It was obtained with an ethanol:oil molar ratio of 4.7:1 and with a 4.42 per cent catalyst concentration related to the quantity of oil that had to be transesterified. The experimental condition was applied at a bigger scale with a batch stirred tank reactor. For purification with washing, the biodiesel yield was 84.2 per cent. Purification with silica resulted in a yield of 84.6 per cent. A better quality biofuel was obtained through distillation of biodiesel.

  14. Synthesis and refining of sunflower biodiesel in a cascade of continuous centrifugal contactor separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Abu Ghazali, Yusuf; van Ulden, Wouter; van de Bovenkamp, Hendrik; Teddy, T; Picchioni, Francesco; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from sunflower oil and methanol was studied in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effect of relevant process variables like oil and methanol flow rate, rotational speed and catalyst

  15. Development of sunflower germplasm with high delta-tocopherol content

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco L.; Pérez-Vich B.; Fernández-Martínez J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Tocopherols are the main compounds with antioxidant activity in oilseeds Sunflower seeds contain predominantly alpha-tocopherol, which accounts for more than 90% of the total tocopherols in the seeds. This tocopherol derivative possesses a maximum vitamin E or in vivo antioxidant activity, but it exerts a minimum in vitro protective action in oils and food containing them. Other tocopherol derivatives such as beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol are more powerful antioxidants than alpha-tocoph...

  16. Confectionery products (halva type obtained from sunflower: production technology and quality alterations. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mureşan, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower "halva" is a popular and widely enjoyed confectionery product specific to the countries of Eastern Europe. Conventional halva has historically been produced from sesame seeds in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, in the production of halva in Eastern Europe, sesame seeds have been largely replaced by sunflower seeds, due to the high availability of sunflower in this region and the comparable taste of the final product. Due to the importance of the cost of raw materials in the food industry, utilization of sunflower seeds in halva production may be of great interest worldwide because it offers the possibility of significantly lowering production costs. Nevertheless, oil separation and storage techniques must be perfected if sunflower halva is to fulfill its promise of becoming a cost effective alternative to sesame seed halva on a worldwide scale. The aims of this review are firstly, to describe the current state of sunflower halva technology, secondly, to isolate the main problems affecting the quality of the final product, and thirdly, to suggest areas of further research necessary to move sunflower halva production closer to reaching its full potential on the world market.

  17. The effects of agricultural subsidies on sunflower cultivation and farmers income: evidence from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of both premium support application on sunflower cultivation area, production amount and support payments on producer income are investigated. In this study it is concluded that premium supports are inefficient on increasing sunflower cultivation area and production whereas it is concluded that it has an important role on producer income and in the determination of the market price. In fact, from a survey that we have carried out, it emerges that the area-based support (diesel oil, fertilizer etc. support) together with premium support increase the revenue of sunflower up to 27.74% per unit area and the gross profit in the proportion of 98.87%. This study indicates that in order to increase the sunflower production in Turkey the amounts of sunflower premium support, diesel oil and fertilizer should be rearranged in compliance with current market conditions. Moreover, for other agricultural products, the use of certified seed should also be included into agricultural support programmes. Production on well irrigated areas should be widened and the use of oil crops varieties with high oil ratio should be extended. (author)

  18. Dietary High-Oleic Acid Soybean Oil Dose Dependently Attenuates Egg Yolk Content of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Laying Hens Fed Supplemental Flaxseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Robert G; Kukorowski, Alexandra N; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2018-02-01

    Chickens can hepatically synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) from α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n-3); however, the process is inefficient and competitively inhibited by dietary linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2 n-6). In the present study, the influence of dietary high-oleic acid (OLA; 18:1 n-9) soybean oil (HOSO) on egg and tissue deposition of ALA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthesized from dietary ALA was investigated in laying hens fed a reduced-LNA base diet supplemented with high-ALA flaxseed oil (FLAX). We hypothesized that reducing the dietary level of LNA would promote greater hepatic conversion of ALA to very long-chain (VLC; >20C) n-3 PUFA, while supplemental dietary HOSO would simultaneously further enrich eggs with OLA without influencing egg n-3 PUFA contents. Nine 51-week-old hens each were fed 0, 10, 20, or 40 g HOSO/kg diet for 12 weeks. Within each group, supplemental dietary FLAX was increased every 3 weeks from 0 to 10 to 20 to 40 g/kg diet. Compared to controls, dietary FLAX maximally enriched the total n-3 and VLC n-3 PUFA contents in egg yolk by 9.4-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively, while feeding hens 40 g HOSO/kg diet maximally attenuated the yolk deposition of ALA, VLC n-3 PUFA, and total n-3 PUFA by 37, 15, and 32%, respectively. These results suggest that dietary OLA is not neutral with regard to the overall process by which dietary ALA is absorbed, metabolized, and deposited into egg yolk, either intact or in the form of longer-chain/more unsaturated n-3 PUFA derivatives. © 2018 AOCS.

  19. Gamma radiation induced mutant for improved yield components in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elangovan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Sunflower has become an important oilseed in the Indian vegetable oil pool following its introduction from Russia in 1969. It can be used for all quality products useful to humans. The need for genetic variability and new useful gene sources has necessitated that sunflower breeders and geneticists utilize a wide range of germplasm in their breeding programmes. The induction of mutations in sunflower by physical and chemical mutagens has been practiced quite intensively in the last two decades. The results recorded to date suggest that utilization of mutagenesis could be a great advantage in improving the sunflower crop. An induced mutation programme was undertaken to generate variability in the variety 'Morden' using gamma rays. The certified and genetically pure seeds were irradiated with 50, 100, and 150 Gy gamma rays and used for further studies. Selection in M 2 generations, raised from different treatments, revealed the presence of an erectophylly leaf mutant from 50 Gy treatment. The isolated mutant showed improved yield components like head diameter, 100- seed weight and yield per plant. The mutant was a plant with short petiole length and erect leaves. This type of leaf get sunlight throughout the day. From morning to afternoon, the first half of the leaf gets sunlight, and from afternoon to evening the second half of the leaf gets sunlight. As a result of getting sunlight the whole day, the plant had more photosynthetic products and grew vigorously. Plant height, head diameter and 100-seed weight had direct effect on seed yield, and the number of leaves and stem diameter influenced the seed yield indirectly. In the M 3 generation, the mutant showed an almost two-fold increase over the parent variety for all investigated characters, except that of the yield per plant where there was a three-fold increase. The present investigation has shown that there are remarkable possibilities of increasing the yield components in sunflower by induced mutations

  20. FORTIFICATION OF SUNFLOWER PLANTS (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS FORTIFICATION OF SUNFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Škarpa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a trace element which in small amounts is necessary for human and animal nutrition. In the organism it helps a number of antioxidant enzymes to function normally. In many parts of the world, including the Central European region, its content in agricultural products is very low. Attempts are therefore made to increase its content and cover human requirements with biologically valuable products by incorporating selenium into the system of plant nutrition. In a vegetation trial established in 2010 and 2011 we explored the effect of foliar applications of Se (IV on achenes yields and on content of selenium in the seeds and the uptake of selenium by the sunflower stand. Solutions of sodium selenite at 0.16 and 0.5 g Se.he-1 were applied at rates 50 and 150 g Se.ha-1 at the beginning of elongation growth (stage R-1. Sunflower achenes yields were significantly influenced by the weather in the experimental years. In 2011 sunflower production was by 29.4% lower than in 2010. Se fortification in dose 50 g Se.ha-1 increased sunflower achenes yield by 3.1%. The higher dose of selenium (150 g Se.ha-1 reduced yields by 6.8% compared with the no-fertilized treatment. Due to the effect of foliar Se nutrition the content of selenium in sunflower achenes increased highly significantly from 123 µg.kg-1 to 6,004 µg.kg-1 of achenes. The weight of 1000 achenes, oil content and content of palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic acids were not significantly affected by selenium application. Fortification of Se increased stearic acid content from 3.16% to 3.47%.

  1. Characterization of the Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Valin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Georgiev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A male sterile two-linear sunflower hybrid was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo using the method of inter-linear hybridization. The mother component is line 10517 which possesses cytoplasmic male sterility, and the father component is line 10595R, a fertility restorer of branched type. Both parental forms have very good general and specific combining ability. Hybrid Valin is medium early, with vegetation period of 110 – 115 days, plant height 165 – 175 cm and head diameter 17 – 18 cm. The percent of kernel in seed is within the range of 65 – 73%. Seeds have absolute weight 50 – 55 g, and oil content in seed is 46 – 50%. The hybrid is resistant to lodging and moderately resistant to phoma and phomopsis. The resistance to downy mildew is as high as 95 % up to race 700, and the resistance to the parasite Orobanche is 100% (races A-F. In the breeding fields of DAI the hybrid went through threeyear testing according to a scheme and growing technology approved for this crop. During the first two years of the control testing it exceeded the mean standard by seed yield with 11.0% and 14.4%, respectively. During the third year, hybrid Valin was above the mean standard with 10.9% by seed yield and with 6.6% by oil yield in a unified competitive varietal testing. The maximum yield obtained at DAI was 4483 kg/ha, and the maximum oil content was 50.1%. In 2007 and 2008 hybrid Valin went through official testing within the structure of the Executive Agency of Variety Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control of Bulgaria. By the index seed yield, the exceeding of the mean standard was 23.6 % in the first year, and in the second the yield was with 1.4 % below the standard. Oil content was a little below the standard in both years. The aim of this investigation was to make as full as possible a characterization of the new registered sunflower hybrid Valin on the base of biological, phytopatological and

  2. Plant response to sunflower seeds to osmotic conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Barros de Morais

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seeds osmotic conditioning in seedlings emergence and plants performance of sunflower. Three lots of seeds sunflower (Catissol, was submited to osmotic conditioning with polyethylene glycol solution, –2,0 MPa in aerated system, under 15 ºC for 8 hour and then was evaluated for germination tests and vigour. Under filed conditions was conducted emergency evaluations of seedling, plants development as well as the productivity and seeds quality, and the accumulation of nutrients in the seeds. The osmotic conditioning improve the survival of seedling, the dry matter mass to aerial part of plants from 60 days after sowing and oil content, in lots with low seeds physiological quality. The osmotic conditioning not increase the seeds yield but promotes the vigour of seeds produced, regardless of the lot used for sowing seeds.

  3. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vear Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.

  4. CASTOR BEAN AND SUNFLOWER INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS IN ROW ARRANGEMENT: BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro de Miranda Pinto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment field was carried in the agricultural seasons 2008, 2009 and 2010, with aim of studying the response of castorbean (Ricinus communis L. intercropping with sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in row arrangement in the dryland farming conditions. In addition, it was evaluated the biological efficiency of plants in intercropping systems.The design used in the experiment was randomized block with seven treatement and four replications. The treatments were represented by rows of castor oil (Ma and sunflower (Gi listed below: 1Ma:1Gi; 1Ma:2Gi; 1Ma:3Gi; 2Ma:2Gi; 2Ma:3Gi; castor and sunflower in the monoculture. The efficiency of intercropping was measured by LER, ATER, LEC, average between LER and ATER, SPI and CoR. The grain yield of castor bean and sunflower were reduced in intercropped row arrangements. The row arrangement 1Ma:2Gi showed the smallest reduction of average productivity of castor beans and sunflower in the evaluation period of the experiment. The castor bean was the dominant crop in relation to sunflower.

  5. Biofuel potential production from the Orbetello lagoon macroalgae: A comparison with sunflower feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastianoni, Simone; Coppola, Fazio; Tiezzi, Enzo [Department of Chemical and Biosystems Sciences, Siena University, via della Diana, 2A, 53100 Siena (Italy); Colacevich, Andrea; Borghini, Francesca; Focardi, Silvano [Department of Environmental Sciences, Siena University, via Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    The diversification of different types and sources of biofuels has become an important energy issue in recent times. The aim of this work is to evaluate the use of two kinds of renewable feedstocks in order to produce biodiesel. We have analyzed the potential production of oil from two species of macroalgae considered as waste coming out from a lagoon system involved in eutrophication and from sunflower seeds. We have tested oil extraction yields of both feedstock. Furthermore, a comparison has been carried out based on the emergy approach, in order to evaluate the sustainability and environmental performance of both processes. The results show that, under present conditions, considering oil extraction yields, the production of oil from sunflower seeds is feasible, because of the lower value of transformity of the final product with respect to macroalgae. On the other hand, the results demonstrate that with improvements of oil extraction methodology, macroalgae could be considered a good residual biomass usable for biofuel production. (author)

  6. Monitoring the physicochemical features of sunflower oil and French fries during repeated microwave frying and deep-fat frying; Seguimiento de las características fisicoquímicas de aceite de girasol y patatas durante frituras repetidas mediante microondas y freidora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydınkaptan, E.; Barutçu Mazı, I.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeated microwave frying at different power levels (360W, 600W, 900W) and deep-fat frying on sunflower oil and French fries. The intermittent batch frying cycle was repeated 15 times a day during five consecutive days. The fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties including free fatty acid (FFA), extinction coefficient (K270), total polar compound (TPC), color, viscosity, refractive index of the sunflower oil were determined each day. At the end of the frying period, the highest values of viscosity (76.29cp) and refractive index (1.4738) were detected in microwave frying at 900W power level. TPC level exceeded 25% after the third day of microwave frying at all power levels. The FFA values during microwave frying increased progressively from 0.157% to 0.320- 0.379% on the fifth day. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 37-53% more in the case of microwave frying. The oil quality during microwave frying did not have a significant impact on the oil absorption and total color change of the French fries. Microwave frying, even at higher levels, provided lower oil (8.60-12.32%wb) and moisture contents (35.47-41.24%) compared to deep frying. Microwave frying caused longer processing time and significantly higher levels of degradation of the sunflower oil at all power levels compared to deep frying. However, microwave frying has the advantage of reducing oil absorption. The oil content of French fries was lowered by 20-33% (wb) at the highest power level. [Spanish] Se estudia los efectos de frituras repetidas mediante microondas a diferentes niveles de potencia (360W, 600W, 900W) y frituras en freidora sobre la estabilidad del aceite de girasol y la calidad de las patatas fritas. El ciclo de fritura intermitente se repitió 15 veces al día durante cinco días consecutivos. Se determinó el perfil de ácidos grasos y las propiedades fisicoquímicas incluyendo ácidos grasos libre (FFA), coeficiente de extinción (K270

  7. The condensed mutation in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, P.

    1978-01-01

    Three inbred lines of sunflower were treated with gamma rays. In the progeny of one of these lines, the desired dwarf mutation appeared with a high frequency (23%). The dwarfing was accompanied by various undesirable characteristics (lateness, poor seed production, etc.), for which correction through genetic diversification and selection is in progress. The ratio capitulum diameter/stem height has increased from 1/8 up to 1/3 [fr

  8. Sunflower growth according to seed inoculation with endophytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fernandes dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower crop has a great importance worldwide, due to the oil of excellent quality extracted from its seeds and in natura grains that are consumed in various ways. However, drought is one of the main environmental factors that limit its yield. An experiment was carried out under controlled greenhouse conditions, in a completely randomized experimental design, in order to determine the effect of endophytic bacteria inoculation (Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter cloacae on the growth and contents of nutrients and organic solutes, in sunflower leaves and roots under water deficit. Plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry biomass of shoot and roots, as well as contents of N, P, K, soluble carbohydrates, free proline, free amino acids and soluble proteins, were determined at 35 days after the plant emergence. The water deficit reduced plant growth regardless inoculation. However, under optimum conditions of soil moisture, the combination of both endophytic bacteria increased the sunflower growth. The water deficit also increased the N and K contents in leaves, as well as the organic solutes content in shoots, especially in inoculated plants. These results suggest that the inoculation of endophytic bacteria may increase the capacity of drought stressed plants to perform the osmotic adjustment through a higher accumulation of organic solutes, when compared to plants not inoculated.

  9. Utilization of sunflower seed in laying hen rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuzuki ET

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of sunflower seed inclusion (0, 1.4, 2.8, 4.2 and 5.6% in a laying hen diet containing corn, soybean meal, wheat meal and soybean oil as main ingredients on performance and egg quality. The evaluated variables were daily feed intake, average egg weight, feed conversion (kg.kg-1 and kg.dz-1, eggshell percentage, yolk color and Haugh unit. One hundred and sixty 25 week-old Lohmann laying hens were used in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications of eight birds per experimental unit. Four periods of 28 days were evaluated during 112 days. The inclusion of sunflower seed in the diet had no effect on production parameters during the experimental period. Thus, can be concluded that sunflower seed might be used at concentrations up to 5.6% in laying hen diets without affecting performance and egg quality.

  10. Characterization of some sunflower genotypes using ISSR markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrani, L.; Nabulsi, I.; MirAli, N.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is grown mostly as a source of vegetable oil of high quality and is especially used in food industry. It is generally produced by multinationals and sold as hybrids. Our research, based on two techniques (ISSR and RAPD), is considered as the first one to be interested in molecular characterization of sunflower genotypes in Syria. We used 25 ISSR primers and 13 RAPD primers to study 29 sunflower genotypes and two reference controls belonging to the same family (Calendula officinalis L. and Targets erecta L.). ISSR results revealed a low polymorphism when compared to other studies. We noticed also 11 genotypes genetically related where percent disagreement values (PDV) didn't exceed 1%, they are 7189 - 7191 - 7184 - 7183 - 443 - 441 - Ghab1 -Ghab2 - Ghab3 - Ghab4 - Ghab5 - Madakh halab - Sarghaya4 -Tarkibi knitra. Sarghaya4 and Tarkibi knitra have indeed the lowest yield and some common morphological characters. At the opposite, the genotype Hysum33 has the highest yield and is genetically distant from the other genotypes. All the genotypes could be used in QTL detection as we didn't notice any similarity between them. (author)

  11. Genetic variance of sunflower yield components - Heliantus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of sunflower breeding in Yugoslavia and abroad are increased seed yield and oil content per unit area and increased resistance to diseases, insects and stress conditions via an optimization of plant architecture. In order to determine the mode of inheritance, gene effects and correlations of total leaf number per plant, total leaf area and plant height, six genetically divergent inbred lines of sunflower were subjected to half diallel crosses. Significant differences in mean values of all the traits were found in the F1 and F2 generations. Additive gene effects were more important in the inheritance of total leaf number per plant and plant height, while in the case of total leaf area per plant the nonadditive ones were more important looking at all the combinations in the F1 and F2 generations. The average degree of dominance (Hi/D1/2 was lower than one for total leaf number per plant and plant height, so the mode of inheritance was partial dominance, while with total leaf area the value was higher than one, indicating super dominance as the mode of inheritance. Significant positive correlation was found: between total leaf area per plant and total leaf number per plant (0.285* and plant height (0.278*. The results of the study are of importance for further sunflower breeding work.

  12. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE USE OF LOVAGE LEAVES TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS AND OIL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEIDA SEVDAGUL SULIMAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied four edible vegetable oils and nine oil blends based on refined sunflower oil, in order to improve the quality characteristics of sunflower oil. The oils used for blends were linseed oil, grapeseed oil, and coconut oil. The physico-chemical properties demonstrated the superior features for oil blends, like lower acidity (measured by acid value and higher stability to autoxidation (measured by peroxide value and refractive index. The best combination for sunflower oil was with coconut oil (lower acidity, higher stability to autoxidation. For a supplementary improvement of properties, especially for the preservation of oils and oil blends, we tested the lovage (Levisticum officinale extract as additive. The obtained additivated mixtures demonstrated better quality characteristics, which recommend them for the human consumption.

  13. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet

  14. Genetic parameters, phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations and genetic variability on sunflower in the Brazilian Savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Grippi Lira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an annual crop that stands out for its production of high quality oil and for an efficient selection, being necessary to estimate the components of genetic and phenotypic variance. This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters, phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations and genetic variability on sunflower in the Brazilian Savannah, evaluating the characters grain yield (YIELD, days to start flowering (DFL based on flowering date in R5, chapter length (CL, weight of a thousand achenes (WTA, plant height (H and oil content (OilC of 16 sunflower genotypes. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, situated at 15º 35’ 30”S latitude, 47º 42’ 30”W longitude and 1.007m above sea level, in soil classified as dystroferric Oxisol. The experimental design used was a complete randomized block with four replicates. The nature for the effects of genotypes and blocks was fixed. Except for the character chapter length, genetic variance was the main component of the phenotypic variance among the genotypes, indicating high genetic variability and experimental efficiency with proper environmental control. In absolute terms, the genetic correlations were superior to phenotypic and environmental. The high values reported for heritability and selective accuracy indicated efficiency of phenotypic selection. Results showed high genetic variability among genotypes, which may contribute to the genetic improvement of sunflower.

  15. Effect of some Evaporation Matters on Storability of Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saidy, Aml E A; El-Hai, K M Abd

    This study focuses on finding compounds that are safe to humans and environment, such as propionic and acetic acids that may provide an alternative control of seed-borne pathogens and decrease seed deterioration during storage. The objectives of this study were to reduce sunflower seed deterioration and improve the viability of sunflower seed using environmentally safe organic acids. Propionic and acetic acids were applied on sunflower seed at different concentrations under laboratory conditions during different storage periods. After 6 months storage period, the viability of sunflower seed as well as morphological and physiological characteristics of seedlings were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Laboratory experiment was conducted in a factorial completely randomized design and randomized complete block design for greenhouse experiment. Propionic and acetic acids at different concentrations showed inhibitory effects on the presence of different fungal genera in all storage periods. Propionic acid was most effective followed by acetic acid. Increasing storage periods from 0-6 months significantly decreased germination percentage, germination energy, seedling characters, survived healthy seedlings and seed oil and protein percentages but dead and rotted seeds, as well as rotted seedlings were increased. Treating sunflower seeds with propionic acid (100%) improved germination criteria, seedling characters and seed chemical characters as well as survival seedlings and minimized the dead seeds, rotted seeds and rotted seedlings as compared with the control under all storage periods. Under greenhouse conditions, the maximum growth parameter and physiological characters (chlorophylls a, b, carotenoids and total phenols) were recorded from seed treated with 100% propionic acid after 6 months of storage. It may be concluded that propionic and acetic acids vapors can have considerable fungicidal activity against sunflower pathogens and improve seed viability

  16. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  17. Kinetics modeling of the drying of sunflower stem (Helianthus annuus L.) in a forced convection tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Flores, J.; Chávez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head), and its name is derived from the flower's shape and image, which is often used to capture the sun. The plant has a rough, broad, hairy stem, coarsely toothed, with rough leaves, and circular flower heads. The sunflower seeds are appreciated for their oil, which has become a widespread cooking ingredient. Leaves of the sunflower can be used as cattle feed, while the stems contain a fiber that may be used in paper production. Recently this flower has been used in phytoremediation of soils, contaminated with heavy metals. Sunflower has been probed as an efficient phytoextractor of chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, cadmium from soil. In this work we present the experimental results of the drying of the sunflower stem, cut in 100 mm longitudinal sections, with diameters in the range of 11-18 mm. The aim was to obtain a dry and easy-to-handle final product, since these plants were originally cultivated in order to extract heavy metals from a polluted soil. The dried stems could then be easily confined or sent to recycle premises to concentrate the metals. The drying process was done in forced convection within a hot air tunnel. The used temperature was 60 °C, the velocity of air was 3 m/s and the required times were 8 hours. The initial average wet mass was 28 g and the final value was 5 g, resulting in the aimed product.

  18. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  19. Thermal and electrical properties of polymers produced from methyl oleate and bio diesel of sunflower and linseed oils; Propriedades termicas e eletricas de polimeros produzidos a partir do oleato de metila e amostras de biodiesel do oleo de girassol e oleo de linhaca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, Aline; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Martini, Denise D.; Samios, Dimitrios [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, RS (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polyesters were prepared from epoxidized biodiesel with different unsaturation degrees. The polymerisation was performed using epoxidized methyl esters of oleic acid (EPOAME), sunflower oil (EPSOME) and linseed oil (EPLOME) with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride and triethylamine. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated that reaction enthalpy was proportional to the unsaturation degree of each methyl ester. With an increase in unsaturation degree, the activation energy linearly decreased. The intermediate structures and the polyesters were characterised using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. The molecular weight of the polymers synthesised with EPOAME, EPSOME and EPLOME were, respectively, 2.5x103, 5.3x103 and 14x103 g/mol. The glass transition of the product obtained from EPOAME was -59 degree C. The polymers based on EPSOME and EPLOME exhibited higher Tg values, which were -11 and -6 degree C, respectively. Electric impedance measurements of the polyesters showed that an increase in unsaturation degree resulted in an increase in resistivity and a decrease in capacitance. (author)

  20. Electrical Properties of Sunflower Achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Ján

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work contains the results of measuring the electrical properties of sunflower achenes. The interest in electrical properties of biological materials resulted in engineering research in this field. The results of measurements are used for determining the moisture content, the surface level of liquid and grainy materials, for controlling the presence of pests in grain storage, for the quantitative determination of mechanical damage, in the application of dielectric heating, and in many other areas. Electrical measurements of these materials are of fundamental importance in relation to the analysis of quantity of absorbed water and dielectric heating characteristics. It is a well-known fact that electrical properties of materials, namely dielectric constant and conductivity, are affected by the moisture content of material. This fact is important for the design of many commercial moisturetesting instruments for agricultural products. The knowledge of dielectric properties of materials is necessary for the application of dielectric heating. The aim of this work was to measure conductivity, dielectric constant and loss tangent on samples of sunflower achenes, the electrical properties of which had not been sufficiently measured. Measurements were performed under variable moisture content and the frequency of electric field ranging from 1 MHz to 16 MHz, using a Q meter with coaxial probe. It was concluded that conductivity, dielectric constant and loss tangent increased with increasing moisture content, and dielectric constant and loss tangent decreased as the frequency of electric field increased.

  1. New sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvejić Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl enabled the use of wider palette of herbicides to control effectively weeds during the growing season. Moreover, thanks to this tolerance, chemical control of broad-leaves weeds in sunflower, especially Cirsium arvense, is more efficient. The Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops offers four new hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl: NS SUMO SUN, NS SUMO STAR, NS SUMO SjAj and NS SUMO SOL, released in 2016. Hybrids belong to early and medium-early maturity groups; have high yield potential and high oil content. They are adapted for cultivation in different environmental conditions. All hybrids are resistant to broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr races from A-E and have a high level of tolerance to Phomopsis, white rot (Sclerotinia sclorotiorum, rust (Puccinia helianthi and others. The paper presents the results of seed and oil yield from the official trials of the Department of variety registration within the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia.

  2. Effect of two different plant growth regulators on production traits of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid ERNST

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant growth regulators (PGR are an organic compounds that modify plant physiological processes. PGR applied to the field crops promotes photosynthesis, stimulates plant growth, improves flowering and protects plants against unfavourable year weather conditions. Listed is an assumption to the yield of high quality. The effects of year weather conditions, biological material (hybrids and foliar application of two different PGR (Terra-Sorb® Foliar – containing free amino acids and Unicum® – containing Abiestins® on the yield-forming parameters, seed yield and the oil content in seeds of three selected hybrids of sunflower (NK Brio, NK Neoma, NK Ferti were studied in this paper. The field poly-factorial experiments were realized during two growing seasons of 2012 and 2013. The experimental area is situated in the maize-growing region (climatic region: warm; climatic sub-region: mild dry or dry; climatic zone: warm and dry, with mild winter and long sunshine and soil is silt loam Haplic Luvisol. The climatic conditions in chosen experimental years were different in quantities and distribution of precipitation at main growth period of sunflower plants (June to August and allows evaluating the yield stability between used hybrids and foliar treatments. The results showed that the application of selected PGR has contributed to an increase of sunflower seed yield, mainly through increase the weight of thousand seeds (rp = 0.761; P < 0.001. Similarly, oil content in seeds was significantly higher in treatments with PGR, especially with preparation Terra-Sorb® Foliar containing free amino acids. The study describes the relationship between quality (oil content in seeds and quantity (seed yield of sunflower production (rp = ‒0.41; P < 0.01. Results showed that PGR can be an important rationalization tool of the sunflower cultivation technology.

  3. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) leaves and roots under drought stress by RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chunbo; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Jing; Ma, Jun; Li, Cen; Zhou, Fei; Zhang, Shuquan; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Liguo; Li, Weizhong; Huang, Xutang

    2017-10-25

    Sunflower is recognized as one of the most important oil plants with strong tolerance to drought in the world. In order to study the response mechanisms of sunflower plants to drought stress, gene expression profiling using high throughput sequencing was performed for seedling leaves and roots (sunflower inbred line R5) after 24 h of drought stress (15% PEG 6000). The transcriptome assembled using sequences of 12 samples was used as a reference. 805 and 198 genes were identified that were differentially expressed in leaves and roots, respectively. Another 71 genes were differentially expressed in both organs, in which more genes were up-regulated than down-regulated. In agreement with results obtained for other crops or from previous sunflower studies, we also observed that nine genes may be associated with the response of sunflower to drought. The results of this study may provide new information regarding the sunflower drought response, as well as add to the number of known genes associated with drought tolerance.

  4. Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Daniel Gomes Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some people are born with the wish of being different: some want to be politicians to mark the History in their country, others want to be football players, others want to have an “ability” that makes them special, like flying, reading people’s minds, mind control, etc, but aren’t we perfect as we are? Normality is the only perfection in our lives, but the thirst for power prevents us from doing the right thing. Even if we have a good heart, we are always prone to corruption, so as to fulfill our thirst for power.  We have the example of some politicians and other people in charge of enterprises who had power but used it for their own good, even if that meant harming people others. The short story that I present is completely original, but it’s a criticism of the corruptive influence of power. We can say that “If you want to know a man, give him power”.

  5. Response and utilization of phosphorus by sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Reddy, P.; Sreenivasa Raju, A.; Prasad Rao, A.; Sultana, Fatima

    1997-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to find the response and utilization of applied P by sunflower at different levels of N, in the light soils of Andhra Pradesh using 32 P labelled fertilizer. The results of the experiment clearly brought out the significant effects of N and P application on the dry matter yield, per cent Pdff and P utilization of sunflower at flowering and seed yield at harvest

  6. Features of the rheological properties of dough with sunflower and cedar flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gaysina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Promising directions of development of assortment of flour confectionery products are currently creating new combinations, more extraordinary and interesting, the reduction in calories, increase the nutritional value, development of formulations of functional products. As enriching additives in the manufacture of pastry products can be used flour sunflower flour and cedar. Sunflower meal – one of the possible sources of increase of food value. The only raw material component of this product are sunflower seeds that have passed the purification from impurities and shell of the particles, with the subsequent removal of oil from them and grinding. In this torment, to the maximum extent maintained all the valuable biological active substances and vitamins. Sunflower flour is a complex product: it is good recommendation system of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, including fiber, vitamins, phospholipids and mineral substances. Cedar flour is characterized by high protein content (up to 48 % is well balanced in amino acids resultant composition contains b vitamins, food fibers, micro - and macroelements, necessary for life of the human body. Cedar flour has a good functional and technological properties In this paper we study the effect of cedar flour and sunflower meal on the rheological characteristics of dough. Effect of formulation components on the rheological properties of the test is evaluated in terms of water absorption of the flour, the duration of doughing, degree of its dilution and stability when mixing. It was found that the addition of 17% sunflower meal increases the viscosity of the dough and has a strengthening effect on the structure of the dough. Adding cedar flour in the amount of 20% caused the decrease in viscosity and getting more flexible dough.

  7. physical, chemical, technological and biological properties of some mutant oil seeds induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to evaluated sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds induced by gamma rays, as plant breeding unit, plant research department, radioisotope application division, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority Inshas. the obtained results indicate the following : chemical composition of mutant seeds: the radiation mutation caused a significant increase in both oil and ash content total carbohydrates showed a significant decreased in sesame seeds. radiation mutation induced significant increase in oil and protein content of sunflower and safflower seeds. while the total carbohydrate showed a significant decrease. physiochemical properties of oils extracted mutant seeds: the radiation mutation had no real effect on the refractive index and A.V of oils extracted from control and mutant sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds. while it caused a slight increase in red color and P.V. of sesame oil, the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of mutant sesame oil was not alter upon radiation mutation, but it induced a slight decrease in TBA of mutant sunflower and safflower oils. the unsaponifiable matter percentage of oils extracted from mutant sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds were slightly increased by radiation mutation .radiation mutation of seeds had no real effect on the total SFA and USFA of sesame oil. however, radiation mutation induced a remarkable changes in fatty acid profiles of sunflower and safflower oil as total SFA decreased, while USFA increased. Uric acid was only detected in oil extracted from mutant sunflower seeds

  8. Trace element and nutrient accumulation in sunflower plants two years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejón, P; Murillo, J M; Marañón, T; Cabrera, F; Soriano, M A

    2003-05-20

    The failure of a tailing pond dam at the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine (SW Spain) in April 1998 released a toxic spill affecting approximately 4300 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar valleys. Two years later, we have studied yield and concentration of mineral nutrients and trace elements in sunflower plants grown in the spill-affected soil, and in an adjacent unaffected soil as comparison. The study has been carried out in plants at seedling (V4) and mature (R8) stages. Shoot and root biomass of sunflower seedlings was significantly smaller in the affected soil than in the unaffected soil, but there was no significant difference at the mature stage. Oil production was greater in the spill-affected plants. We have not detected any 'fertilising' effect caused by the acid waters of the spill on the main nutrient (N, P and Ca) acquisition, as documented in 1998 for sunflower plants flooded by the spill. Sunflower plants growing in the spill-affected soil reached adequate levels of nutrients. None of the trace elements measured-As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Tl-reached levels either phytotoxic or toxic for humans or animals in seeds and the above-ground part of the spill-affected plants. We evaluate the potential use of sunflower plants for phytoremediation. The potential for phytoextraction is very low; however, it may be used for soil conservation. The production of oil (usable for industrial purposes) may add some value to this crop.

  9. Interaction between rancidity and organoleptic parameters of anchovy marinade (Engraulis encrasicolus L. 1758) include essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Hülya; Kocatepe, Demet; Keskin, İrfan; Altan, Can Okan; Köstekli, Bayram; Candan, Canan; Ceylan, Asuman

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the lipid oxidation and sensory attributes of anchovy marinated with 10% NaCl+4% alcohol vinegar+0.2% citric acid solution and 0.1% different essential oils. Group A Control: only sunflower seed oil, Group B: sunflower seed oil+0.1% rosemary oil, Group C: sunflower seed oil+0.1% coriander oil, Group D: sunflower seed oil+0.1% laurel oil and Group E: sunflower seed oil+0.1% garlic oil. During storage, lipid oxidation as indicated by the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) values of the control group were significantly higher than the other groups containing essential oils. The results showed that the essential oils have retarding effect on lipids oxidation. This effect was the highest in laurel oil during initial 3 months; and it was similar to laurel oil and rosemary oil in the fourth month; in all the essential oil added groups in 6 month. L*(brightness) values were similar for all groups in first fourth months but, at the last 2 months, group using laurel oil was found better. Yellowness (b*) was similar in all groups during the intial 3 months whereas, after that lower values in the groups that used laurel and rosemary oils were detected. The study concluded that marination with 0.1% laurel oil of anchovy can retard lipid oxidation and improve the sensory attributes of the product during refrigerated storage.

  10. Seed production for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, G.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  11. Effects of sunflower soap stocks on light lamb meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, C; Giráldez, J F; Morán, L; Mateo, J; Villalobos-Delgado, L H; Andrés, S; Bodas, R

    2017-08-01

    Thirty-two lambs were used to study the effect of sunflower soap stocks (SS), a by-product from the vegetable oil refinery industry, on meat chemical composition, fatty acid profile, volatile compounds, and consumer acceptability. Lambs were finished (average length of fattening period 35 ± 7.3 d, 26.8 ± 0.09 kg final BW) on a pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) with no SS (00SS) or including 15, 30 or 60 g SS/kg (15SS, 30SS, and 60SS, respectively). Sunflower soap stocks decreased the percentage of SFA, increased the proportion of -MUFA ( 0.05). Atherogenicity and saturation indexes decreased by 31% and 27%, respectively, in SS groups compared to control (linear 0.05). However, certain volatile compounds (benzene and toluene) and 10-18:1 fatty acid, known potential hazards for human health, were increased in meat from lambs fed TMR with SS. For this reason, only inclusion rates up to 15 g SS/kg TMR seem to sustain a satisfactory balance between beneficial and detrimental effects on lamb meat composition and quality.

  12. Functional properties of proteins isolated from industrially produced sunflower meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petia Ivanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein isolate 1 (PI1 and protein isolate 2 (PI2 were prepared from industrially produced sunflower meal by using isoelectric and ethanol precipitation respectively. The water absorption capacity of PI1 was 6 times higher than that of PI2 and was significantly reduced by the presence of 0.03 M and 0.25 M NaCl. Oil absorption capacity of both protein isolates was not influenced by NaCl supplementation. Foam capacity of PI1 and PI2 was pH-dependent. While the foam capacity of both isolates was improved by either 0.03 M or 0.25 M NaCl, the foam stability was negatively influenced by the addition of NaCl at all pH values with except for pH 4. Emulsifying activity of PI1 and PI2 was lowest at pH 4. The emulsions exhibited relatively high stability (> 90% under all studied conditions. Knowledge of the influence of pH and boundary concentrations of NaCl on the functionality of sunflower meal protein isolates could be beneficial for their future potential application in food industry.

  13. Thermal denaturation of sunflower globulins in low moisture conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouilly, A.; Orliac, O.; Silvestre, F.; Rigal, L.

    2003-01-01

    DSC analysis in pressure resisting pans of sunflower oil cake makes appear the endothermic peak of sunflower globulins denaturation. Its temperature decreases from 189.5 to 119.9 deg. C while the corresponding enthalpy increases from 2.6 to 3.3 J/g of sample, or from 6.7 to 12.2 J/g of dry protein, when the samples moisture content varies from 0 to 30.0% of the total weight. The plot of the denaturation temperature versus the moisture content is not linear but has a rounded global shape and seems to follow the hydration behavior of the proteins, modeled with the sorption isotherm. As it can be seen on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, protein corpuscles 'melt' after such a thermal treatment and large aggregates form by coagulation. Moisture dependence of the 'fusion' temperature of native proteic organization, in low moisture conditions, offers so a new characterization method for the use of vegetable proteins in agro-materials

  14. Thermal denaturation of sunflower globulins in low moisture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouilly, A.; Orliac, O.; Silvestre, F.; Rigal, L

    2003-03-05

    DSC analysis in pressure resisting pans of sunflower oil cake makes appear the endothermic peak of sunflower globulins denaturation. Its temperature decreases from 189.5 to 119.9 deg. C while the corresponding enthalpy increases from 2.6 to 3.3 J/g of sample, or from 6.7 to 12.2 J/g of dry protein, when the samples moisture content varies from 0 to 30.0% of the total weight. The plot of the denaturation temperature versus the moisture content is not linear but has a rounded global shape and seems to follow the hydration behavior of the proteins, modeled with the sorption isotherm. As it can be seen on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, protein corpuscles 'melt' after such a thermal treatment and large aggregates form by coagulation. Moisture dependence of the 'fusion' temperature of native proteic organization, in low moisture conditions, offers so a new characterization method for the use of vegetable proteins in agro-materials.

  15. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  16. Whole Plant Utilization of Sunflowers as a Renewable Source of Strategic Materials (Rubber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-14

    make an excellent hybrid. They are highly self-sterile, and are hybridized by hymenopterous pollinators, principally honey bees . The numerous species...composed largely of triglycerides) (Beard, 1981). There is currently considerable interest in the direct use of sunflower oil as a diesel fuel substitute ...to contain 11% crude protein , 33.5% crude fiber, 7% ether extract, and 9.5% ash, of which 0.83% was calcium and 0.32% phosphorus. In feeding trials

  17. New formulations of sunflower based bio-lubricants with high oleic acid content – VOSOLUB project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leao J. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available VOSOLUB project is a demonstration project supported by Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME that aims at testing under real operating conditions new formulations of sunflower-based biolubricants with high oleic acid content. These biolubricant formulations (including hydraulic fluids, greases, and neat oil metal-working fluids will be tested in three European demonstrating sites. Their technical performance will be evaluated and compared to corresponding mineral lubricants ones. In order to cover the demand for the sunflower base oil, a European SMEs network will be established to ensure the supply of the base at a competitive market price. Results presented concerns the base oil quality confirmed to be in accordance with the specification required, in particular on Free Fatty acid content, Phosphorus content, rancimat induction time and oleic acid content (ITERG. The oil characteristics specific for lubricant application analyzed by BfB Oil Research under normalized methods, match with lubricant specifications requirement such as viscosity, cold & hot properties, surface properties, anti-oxidant properties and thermal stability, anti-wear and EP properties, anti-corrosion properties Performance of the new biolubricant have been assessed by formulators and TEKNIKER First results on the use of new lubricant on real condition for rail Grease (produced by RS CLARE and tested with Sheffield Supertram, Hydraulic oil (produced by BRUGAROLAS and cutting oil (produced by MOTUL TECH and tested with innovative machining, turning are described.

  18. Exogenous application of abscisic acid may improve the growth and yield of sunflower hybrids under drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Iqbal, J.; Ibrahim, M.; Atta, S.; Ahmed, T.; Saleem, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower genotypes perform differently under different water regimes. Drought stress at various growth stages drastically reduces the growth, development and yield of sunflower hybrids. However, exogenous application of abscisic acid helps in mitigating drought stress by improving growth, development and yield of sunflower. In the present study, three sunflower hybrids viz. DK-4040 (large stature), S-278 (medium stature) and SF-187 (short stature) were exposed to varied irrigation regimes and abscisic acid application schedule i.e. T1: four irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at bud, flower initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray,T/sub 2/: three irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, T/sub 3/: three irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with 8 mu MABA spray at bud initiation, T/sub 4/: three irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at bud initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, T/sub 5/: three irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at bud initiation and at achene formation) and with 8 mu M ABA spray at flower initiation. Experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Design with factorial arrangement having three replications. ABA application at bud or at flower initiation under drought stress helped in mitigating the detrimental effects by improving growth and yield of sunflower hybrids. Enhancement in drought tolerance of sunflower genotypes was better when ABA was applied at bud initiation stage than that of at flower initiation stage under drought. Improvements in head diameter, achenes per head, 1000-achene weight, achene yield, oil yield, biological yield, harvest index, leaf area index and crop growth rate was recorded. Sunflower hybrid DK-4040 showed more improvement in drought tolerance byfoliar application of ABA under water deficit stress than that of the SF-187 and S-278. It is suggested that sunflower hybrid DK 4040

  19. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  20. Sunflower seeds as eliciting agents of Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; El-Houri, Rime B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sunflowers may cause dermatitis because of allergenic sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Contact sensitization to sunflower seeds has also been reported, but the allergens are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To analyse sunflower seeds for the presence of SLs and to assess the prevalence of sunflower...... sensitization in Compositae-allergic individuals. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: Sunflower-sensitive patients were identified by aimed patch testing. A dichloromethane extract of whole sunflower seeds was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS......: The prevalence of sensitivity to sunflower in Compositae-allergic individuals was 56%. A solvent wash of whole sunflower seeds yielded an extract containing SLs, the principal component tentatively being identified as argophyllin A or B, other SLs being present in minute amounts. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration...

  1. Genetic analysis of agro-morphological traits in promising hybrids of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam GOLABADI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective underlying sunflower breeding programs is to develop high-yielding productive F1 hybrid cultivars. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic control of some agro-morphological traits of new sunflower F1 hybrids. For this purpose, fourteen inbred lines of sunflower were crossed with three male sterile inbred lines. Their hybrids (14 hybrids were then evaluated against three control cultivars. The data thus obtained were analyzed using the nested model (North Carolina Design І as a completely randomized block design (CRBD with four replications. Analysis of variance showed that the hybrids were significantly different in all the traits studied, except for head and stem diameters. From among the hybrids evaluated, Cms19 × Rn1-81 was found to have the highest seed yield and oil content. Cluster analysis classified the hybrids into four different groups. Genetic analysis showed that days to maturity, seed weight, and oil content (% were under the additive gene action. Breeding strategies based on selection could be suggested for the improvement of these traits. Head angle, head diameter, seed yield, and oil yield were under the dominance gene action; breeding based on hybridization methods is, therefore, proposed for these traits. Finally, both additive and dominance gene actions were observed to play important roles in the genetic control of plant height and stem diameter.

  2. Fuel properties of biodiesel from vegetable oils and oil mixtures. Influence of methyl esters distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, G.; Sánchez, N.; Encinar, J.M.; González, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the quality of biodiesel produced by basic transesterification from several vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, high oleic sunflower, Cynara Cardunculus L., Brassica Carinata and Jatropha Curca) cultivated in Extremadura has been studied in detail. The influence of raw material composition on properties such as density, viscosity, cetane number, higher heating value, iodine and saponification values and cold filter plugging point has been verified. Other biodiesel properties such as acid value, water content and flash and combustion points were more dependent on characteristics of production process. Biodiesel produced by rapeseed, sunflower and high oleic sunflower oils transesterification have been biofuels with better properties according to Norm EN 14214. Finally, it has been tested that it is possible to use oils mixtures in biodiesel production in order to improve the biodiesel quality. In addition, with the same process conditions and knowing properties of biodiesel from pure oils; for biodiesel from oils mixtures, its methyl esters content, and therefore properties dependent this content can be predicted from a simple mathematical equation proposed in this work. - Highlights: • Biodiesel quality produced by basic transesterification from vegetable oils. • We examine influences of methyl esters distribution on biodiesel properties. • Biofuels from soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oils were with better properties. • Oils mixtures improve biodiesel quality to fulfill Norm EN 14214. • An equation to predict properties of biodiesel from oil mixtures is proposed

  3. A laboratory simulation of the carbonization of sunflower achenes and seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braadbaart, F. [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Earth Sciences-Geochemistry, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80021, 3058 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Wright, P.J. [Department of Anthropology, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Horst, J. van der; Boon, J.J. [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    The current project describes physical and chemical alterations that result from the thermal exposure of sunflower achenes and seeds. Specifically, achenes and seeds were heated at temperatures ranging from 130 to 600 C under anoxic conditions for 60 min. Changes were measured in mass, relative percentages of C and N, internal and external morphology, molecular composition by direct temperature-resolved mass spectrometry (DTMS) under EI conditions, and the reflectance on polished specimens. The main constituents of sunflower seeds are lipids and protein, while the pericarps or hulls enclosing the seeds have a ligno-cellulosic structure. The morphology of achenes and seeds remains intact following exposure which makes the identification of the residues possible. The results of the sunflower experiments were compared to previous experiments conducted with peas and wheat grains. Up to approximately 340 C, the molecular conversion of polysaccharide and protein rich peas and wheat grains follow similar pathways, while the lignin present in sunflower achenes follows its own unique pathway, resulting in a different molecular composition. At higher temperatures the molecular composition of the three propagules becomes identical. In addition the reflectance of the three propagules is identical confirming the similarity in molecular composition. Lipids show a different behaviour compared to the other three biopolymers; from 370 C no oils are observed in the heated specimens and the DTMS-EI measurements show no lipid markers. Apart from evaporation of the triacylglycerides it is suggested that steroids have a high resistance against thermal degradation and are converted into aromatic moieties. (author)

  4. Borneo: The new NS sunflower confectionary type hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, beside the basic direction in sunflower breeding, the creation of standard hybrids with high oil content with high seed and oil yield, hybrids are being created for special confectionery purposes directed towards the final kernel products. In this program, apart from breeding in order to improve main seed yield components, special attention is given to the increase of protein content and the quality with the decrease of seed oil content, to the increase of the weight of 1000 seeds and to the decrease of content of the shell. Two-line SC hybrid was created by crossing the cytoplasmatic male sterile line of the mother with a father line with fertility restoration genes. Borneo is a high protein confectionary type hybrid that has been registered in Slovakia (EU in 2009. It contains successfully combined genes responsible for high genetic potential for yield and valuable technical and technological seed traits. The hybrid is adequate for nutrition, dehuling and kernel production. Borneo is a medium early hybrid with the genetic potential for yield of over 4,5t/ha and its seed oil content is under 43%. .

  5. Registration of the sunflower oilseed maintainer genetic stocks HOLS1, HOLS2, HOLS3, and HOLS4, possessing genes for high oleic and low saturated fatty acids, and tolerance to imidazolinone herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the primary goals for the oilseed sunflower industry is to provide novel oil products for human consumption. One oil profile of particular interest is high oleic/ low saturated fat, because it combines high oxidative stability of the oil with a reduction in the fatty acids that are detriment...

  6. The sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Quentin; Martinez, Yves; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Vear, Felicity; Pichon, Magalie; Godiard, Laurence

    2015-02-01

    Downy mildew of sunflower is caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farlow) Berlese & de Toni. Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogen that attacks annual Helianthus species and cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Depending on the sunflower developmental stage at which infection occurs, the characteristic symptoms range from young seedling death, plant dwarfing, leaf bleaching and sporulation to the production of infertile flowers. Downy mildew attacks can have a great economic impact on sunflower crops, and several Pl resistance genes are present in cultivars to protect them against the disease. Nevertheless, some of these resistances have been overcome by the occurrence of novel isolates of the pathogen showing increased virulence. A better characterization of P. halstedii infection and dissemination mechanisms, and the identification of the molecular basis of the interaction with sunflower, is a prerequisite to efficiently fight this pathogen. This review summarizes what is currently known about P. halstedii, provides new insights into its infection cycle on resistant and susceptible sunflower lines using scanning electron and light microscopy imaging, and sheds light on the pathogenicity factors of P. halstedii obtained from recent molecular data. Kingdom Stramenopila; Phylum Oomycota; Class Oomycetes; Order Peronosporales; Family Peronosporaceae; Genus Plasmopara; Species Plasmopara halstedii. Sunflower seedling damping off, dwarfing of the plant, bleaching of leaves, starting from veins, and visible white sporulation, initially on the lower side of cotyledons and leaves. Plasmopara halstedii infection may severely impact sunflower seed yield. In spring, germination of overwintered sexual oospores leads to sunflower root infection. Intercellular hyphae are responsible for systemic plant colonization and the induction of disease symptoms. Under humid and fresh conditions, dissemination structures are produced by the pathogen on all

  7. 7 CFR 810.1801 - Definition of sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of sunflower seed. 810.1801 Section 810... STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Terms Defined § 810.1801 Definition of sunflower seed. Grain that, before the removal of foreign material, consists of 50.0 percent or...

  8. Loss of sunflower seeds to columbids in South Africa: economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey across the sunflower production region of South Africa during November 2003 to July 2005 estimated the loss of sunflower seeds to columbids (doves and pigeons, Aves: Columbidae). Farmers estimated that 12.7% of the national yield was lost to columbids. In a follow-up survey, 37 sunflower fields were visited ...

  9. The Influence and Compatibility of Vegetable Oils and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABC_2

    castor oil, sunflower oil, coconut oil and cottonseed oil respectively in different concentrations (10%, 20% and 30% w/w of drug) as permeation enhancers. The films were prepared by incorporating them along with plasticizer [2]. In all cases, 30% w/w concentration of permeation enhancer showed good release and this ...

  10. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases expressed at high levels in developing seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas Calerón, Mónica; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Mullen, Robert; Gidda, Satinder K; Salas, Joaquín J

    2014-03-01

    Long chain fatty acid synthetases (LACSs) activate the fatty acid chains produced by plastidial de novo biosynthesis to generate acyl-CoA derivatives, important intermediates in lipid metabolism. Oilseeds, like sunflower, accumulate high levels of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in their seeds to nourish the embryo during germination. This requires that sunflower seed endosperm supports very active glycerolipid synthesis during development. Sunflower seed plastids produce large amounts of fatty acids, which must be activated through the action of LACSs, in order to be incorporated into TAGs. We cloned two different LACS genes from developing sunflower endosperm, HaLACS1 and HaLACS2, which displayed sequence homology with Arabidopsis LACS9 and LACS8 genes, respectively. These genes were expressed at high levels in developing seeds and exhibited distinct subcellular distributions. We generated constructs in which these proteins were fused to green fluorescent protein and performed transient expression experiments in tobacco cells. The HaLACS1 protein associated with the external envelope of tobacco chloroplasts, whereas HaLACS2 was strongly bound to the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, both proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and recovered as active enzymes in the bacterial membranes. Both enzymes displayed similar substrate specificities, with a very high preference for oleic acid and weaker activity toward stearic acid. On the basis of our findings, we discuss the role of these enzymes in sunflower oil synthesis. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  11. Kinetics modeling of the drying of sunflower stem (Helianthus annuus L.) in a forced convection tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, R; Vaca, M; Terres, H; Lizardi, A; Morales, J; Flores, J; Chávez, S

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head), and its name is derived from the flower's shape and image, which is often used to capture the sun. The plant has a rough, broad, hairy stem, coarsely toothed, with rough leaves, and circular flower heads. The sunflower seeds are appreciated for their oil, which has become a widespread cooking ingredient. Leaves of the sunflower can be used as cattle feed, while the stems contain a fiber that may be used in paper production. Recently this flower has been used in phytoremediation of soils, contaminated with heavy metals. Sunflower has been probed as an efficient phytoextractor of chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, cadmium from soil. In this work we present the experimental results of the drying of the sunflower stem, cut in 100 mm longitudinal sections, with diameters in the range of 11-18 mm. The aim was to obtain a dry and easy-to-handle final product, since these plants were originally cultivated in order to extract heavy metals from a polluted soil. The dried stems could then be easily confined or sent to recycle premises to concentrate the metals. The drying process was done in forced convection within a hot air tunnel. The used temperature was 60 °C, the velocity of air was 3 m/s and the required times were 8 hours. The initial average wet mass was 28 g and the final value was 5 g, resulting in the aimed product

  12. The Effect of Dietary Oils on Growth Performance of Broilers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    chicks/group) and fed diets supplemented with 0.5% sunflower oil (Group A), ... improve performance and to decrease indices of inflammatory response in the ... protein synthesis and accretion in the skeletal muscle (Hentges et al., 1984).

  13. Transesterification of canola, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oil with methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, butanol and tert-butanol to biodiesel: Modelling of chemical equilibrium, reaction kinetics and mass transfer based on fatty acid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likozar, Blaž; Levec, Janez

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Modelling of chemical equilibrium, reaction kinetics and mass transfer for triglyceride transesterification with different alcohols based on fatty acid composition. - Highlights: • Catalysed transesterification to biodiesel with various oils, alcohols and catalysts. • Analysis of components and reactivity based on fatty acid composition of all species. • Simultaneous modelling of mass transfer, reaction kinetics and chemical equilibrium. • Diffusivities, distribution and mass transfer coefficients for individual components. • Correlation of kinetic parameters with molecular structure of reactants and products. - Abstract: Mechanism of alcoholysis (e.g. methanolysis) using different oils, alcohols and homogeneous base catalysts was utilized to devise chemical kinetics and thermodynamics based on fatty acid composition, differentiating among triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides and fatty acid alkyl esters (e.g. fatty acid alkyl esters, FAME) with bonded gadoleic, linoleic, linolenic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acid-originating substituents. Their concentrations were measured using an optimized high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Hydrodynamics and diffusion limitations in emulsion were considered in overall model by determining diffusivities, distribution coefficients, molar volumes, boiling points and viscosities of individual components. Pre-exponential factors and activation energies were related with structure of reactants, intermediates and products acknowledging number of carbons, double bonds and alkyl branches by linear and mixed response surface methodology. Developed model may be used with batch and continuous flow reactors, e.g. for novel micro-structured or industrial-scale process intensification, different vegetable or non-edible oils (waste cooking Jatropha or microalgae lipids)

  14. Response of sunflower hybrids to different nitrogen levels for physiological and agronomical traits under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, D.; Abbasi, F.M.; Ahmed, H.; Qamar, M.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower occupies main position among oil seed crops in Pakistan. Mostly indigenous sunflower hybrids are cultivated which give low achene and fodder yields. The issue related with these hybrids ascribed to lack of information about use of inputs and cultural practices. Judicious nitrogen use and suitable high yielding hybrid play key role in increasing sunflower productivity. Protein is the basic requirement of the metabolic processes for the vegetative, reproductive growth and yield of the crop. The protein is wholly dependent upon the amount of nitrogen fertilization available in soil for the plant use. A two year study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. The experiment was aimed to evaluate the effect of different nitrogen (N) levels (N = 0 kgha , N = 60 kgha , N = 0 1 2 -1 -1 -1 -1 80 kgha , N3 = 120 kgha , N4 = 180 kgha and N5 = 240 kgha ) on two sunflower hybrids, SMH-0907 and SMH-0917 to optimize the N levels for obtaining maximum yield on sustainable basis. Both hybrids were kept in the main plot while N levels in the sub plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications. -1 The results showed that the number of achene head , 100-achene weight and achene yield increased with increased N application. The increased levels of N -1 also enhanced the achene yield. The maximum achene yield (3170.8 kg ha ) was -1 -1 recorded at 180 kg N ha followed by 240 kg N ha . Minimum achene yield (2115 kg -1 ha ) was observed in control treatment (N ). Polynomial regression line showed 0-1 that the rate of yield increase was higher up to 180 kg N ha and become slow-1 thereafter. The hybrid SMH-0907 produced more achene (2736 kg ha ) as compared -1 to the hybrid SMH-0917 (2694 kg ha ). Results revealed that economized application of different doses of N can boost up the yield in both sunflower hybrids SMH-0907 and SMH-0917. These findings could be helpful in rationalizing most valuable inputs

  15. Analysis of performance and emissions of diesel engine using sunflower biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutunea, Dragos; Dumitru, Ilie

    2017-10-01

    The world consumption of fossil fuels is increasing rapidly and it affects the environment by green house gases causing health hazards. Biodiesel is emerging as an important promising alternative energy resource which can be used to reduce or even replace the usage of petroleum. Since is mainly derived from vegetable oil or animal fats can be produce for large scale by local farmers offering a great choice. However the extensive utilization of the biofuels can lead to shortages in the food chain. This paper analyzed the sunflower methyl ester (SFME) and its blends as an alternate source of fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel was prepared from sunflower oil in laboratory in a small biodiesel installation (30L) by base transesterification. A 4 cylinder Deutz F4L912 diesel engine was used to perform the tests on various blends of sunflower biodiesel. The emissions of CO, HC were lower than diesel fuel for all blends tested. The NOx emissions were higher due to the high volatility and high viscosity of biodiesel.

  16. Physical properties of sunflower grains after drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the physical properties of the grains is important for the optimization of post-harvest operations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of convective drying with different air temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75 °C the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The drying sunflower grains was performed in convection oven with forced air. In natural conditions, samples of 5 kg of pellets were used for each repetition drying. During the drying process, the grains samples were weighed periodically until they reach 10% (wet basis, w.b., then were subjected to evaluations of physical properties. According to the results it was observed that the porosity, apparent density, thousand kernel weight to the drag coefficient, roundness, sphericity and width of sunflower seed did not change with increasing temperature drying air. It was concluded that the drying air temperatures of 45 °C and 55 retained the initial physical characteristics of sunflower seeds. The temperature of the drying air of 75 °C had greater influence on changes in volumetric shrinkage of the grains.

  17. Nickel remediation by AM-colonized sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Keomany; Charest, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    This greenhouse study aimed to examine the contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on the uptake of and tolerance to nickel (Ni) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). We hypothesized that AM colonization increases Ni content and tolerance in sunflower grown under varying soil Ni concentrations. The combined effect of AM colonization and soil Ni input on the assimilation of nitrogen, in particular the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS), in sunflower plants was also investigated. A factorial experimental design was performed with sunflower cv. Lemon Queen, with or without the AM fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, and treated with 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg Ni kg(-1) dry soil (DS). The AM colonization significantly enhanced plant growth and Ni content, especially at the lower soil Ni treatments. Furthermore, the AM plants exposed to the highest soil Ni level of 400 mg Ni kg(-1) DS had a significantly higher shoot Ni extracted percentage than non-AM plants, suggesting that the AM symbiosis contributed to Ni uptake, then its translocation from roots to shoots. The AM colonization also significantly increased the GS activity in roots, this being likely an indicator of an enhanced Ni tolerance. These findings support the hypothesis that AM symbiosis contributes to an enhanced Ni plant uptake and tolerance and should be considered as part of phytoremediation strategies.

  18. Valorization of sunflower meal through the production of ethanol from the hemicellulosic fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Tavares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sunflower is among the major oil seeds crop grown in the world and the by-products generated during the seeds processing represent an attractive source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioprocesses. The conversion of lignocellulosic fibers into fermentable sugars has been considered as a promising alternative to increase the demand for ethanol. The present study aimed to establish the fermentation conditions for ethanol production by Scheffersomyces stipitis ATCC 58376 in sunflower meal hemicellulosic hydrolysate, through a 23 CCRD (Central Composite Rotational Design factorial design. Under the selected conditions (pH 5.25, 29 ºC and 198 rpm the final ethanol concentration was 13.92 g L-1 and the ethanol yield was 0.49 g g-1.

  19. Exploitation of genetic resources for improvement of unsaturated fatty acid in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, U.A.; Mehmood, K.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five inbred lines (Cytoplasmic male sterile and 12 fertility restorer) annuus synthesized at the oilseeds research institute Faisalabad. Pakistan were analyzed on gas chromatograph for their fatty acid status. The palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid ranged form 5.62-11.02% 1.09-3.08%, 21.40-50.70% and 40.60-69.10% respectively. The saturate fatty acid may increase the cholesterol level in the blood. This deposition of cholestrol in the blood vesels is a major cause of heart attack. By screening our germplasm on the basis of fatty acid profile, we can use their inbred lines having low percentage of saturated high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids which may benefit sunflower industry through increased consumer performance for a low saturated fatty acid sunflower products. RL-58, RL-52, ORI-85 and ORI-2 are recommended for the development of commercial hybrids with quality edible oil. (author)

  20. Sunflower: A potential fructan-bearing crop?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle eMartinez-Noel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain filling in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. mainly depends on actual photosynthesis, being the contribution of stored reserves in stems (sucrose, hexoses and starch rather low. Drought periods during grain filling often reduce yield. Increasing the capacity of stem to store reserves could help to increase grain filling and yield stability in dry years. Fructans improve water uptake in soils at low water potential, and allow the storage of large amount of assimilates per unit tissue volume that can be readily remobilized to grains. Sunflower is a close relative to Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L., which accumulates large amounts of fructan (inulin in tubers and true stems. The reason why sunflower does not accumulate fructans is obscure. Through a bioinformatics analysis of a sunflower transcriptome database, we found sequences that are homologous to dicotyledon and monocotyledon fructan synthesis genes. A HPLC analysis of stem sugar composition revealed the presence of low amounts of 1-kestose, while a drastic enhancement of endogenous sucrose levels by capitulum removal did not promote 1-kestose accumulation. This suggests that the regulation of fructan synthesis in this species may differ from the currently best known model, mainly derived from research on Poaceae, where sucrose acts as both a signaling molecule and substrate, in the induction of fructan synthesis. Thus, sunflower might potentially constitute a fructan-bearing species, which could result in an improvement of its performance as a grain crop. However, a large effort is needed to elucidate how this up to now unsuspected potential could be effectively

  1. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Jespersen, J.; Marckmann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P diets...... with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may attenuate...

  2. Solid biofuels production from agricultural residues and processing by-products by means of torrefaction treatment: the case of sunflower chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Duca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use. Their standardisation is going to be a key aspect to get good quality biofuels from those residues. Torrefaction is an interesting process to improve the physical and chemical properties of lignocellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks, husks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of these materials has been studied at first by thermogravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Afterwards, different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been tested in a bench top torrefaction reactor. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the treatment. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range reduces making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60%, 80% and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64%, 85% and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by the results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks due to their different original characteristics. Untreated oil press cake and husks, in fact, already show a good high heating value and, for this reason, their torrefaction should be mild to avoid an excessive ash concentration. On the contrary, for sunflower stalks the treatment is more useful and could be more severe.

  3. A green deep eutectic solvent dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DES-DLLME) for the UHPLC-PDA determination of oxyprenylated phenylpropanoids in olive, soy, peanuts, corn, and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Vincenzo; Genovese, Salvatore; Carlucci, Maura; Tiecco, Matteo; Germani, Raimondo; Preziuso, Francesca; Epifano, Francesco; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro

    2018-04-15

    A green dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using deep eutectic solvent (DES) as the extracting solvent has been developed and applied for the simultaneous quantification of ferulic acid, umbelliferone, boropinic acid, 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin, 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA), and auraptene in some vegetable oils using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with photodiode array detection (PDA). All parameters in the extraction step, including selection and loading of both extracting and dispersing solvents, amount of both extractant and disperser solvent were investigated and optimized. PhAA/TMG DES achieved higher recovery and enrichment factor compared to other DESs. The validated method showed good linearity with correlation coefficients, r 2 >0.9990 for all the analytes. Furthermore, this is the first time that eco-friendly solvents are used for the extraction of oxyprenylated phenylpropanoids and the corresponding extract analyzed with ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Light response of sunflower and canola as affected by plant density, plant genotype and N fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, A

    2017-08-01

    Crop response to light is an important parameter determining crop growth. Three field (split plots) experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of plant density, plant genotype and N fertilization on the light absorption and light extinction of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.). A detailed set of plant growth, light absorption and crop yield and oil related parameters were determined. Light was measured at noon during the sunny days with clear sky. In experiment I, although the plant density (PD) of 14 resulted in the highest rate of sunflower light absorption (31.37%) and light extinction (0.756), the highest rate of grain yield and grain oil yield was resulted at PD12 at 3639 and 1457.9kg/ha, respectively; as well as by genotype SUP.A. In experiment II (canola), PD80 resulted in the highest rate of light absorption (13.13%), light extinction (0.63), grain yield (2189.4kg/ha) and grain oil yield (556.54kg/ha). This was also the case for Genotype H. In experiment III (canola), although N150 resulted in the highest rate of light absorption (10.74%) and light extinction (0.48), the highest rate of grain yield (3413.6kg/ha) and grain oil yield (891.86kg/ha) was resulted at N100 as well as by Genotype H401. Results indicate how light properties, crop growth and yield of sunflower and canola can be affected by plant and environmental parameters, which are also of practical use by farmers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. SOLID BIOFUEL UTILIZATION IN VEGETABLE OIL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slusarenko V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with questions of creating at JSC “Alimentarmash "in the last 20 years the technological equipment for the production of vegetable oils from oilseeds: from the press for the final spin to mini oilfactory, using as an energy source for heating the liquid coolant (Thermal oil "Arian" of solid biofuels - husk of sunflower seeds.

  6. Influence of micronutrients and their method of application on yield and yield components of sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraich, A.A.K.; Gandahi, A.W.

    2016-01-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been recognized as a crop with high potentials that can successfully meet future oil requirements of the country. Formulation of micronutrients (MN) based fertilizer, in terms of application rate and method, and uptake of MN by sunflower has the ability not only to ensure nutrients availability to plants particularly in MN-limiting environments but also can manipulate the environmental hazards associated with over inorganic fertilization. To support this view, clear experimental evidence is still lacking. In addition, the current experiments aimed to evaluate the influence of MN and its method of application on yield and yield components of sunflower cultivars/hybrids. Three sunflower cultivars (HO-1, Hysun-39 and Ausigold-62) along with three MN (Z, B and Fe) and two application methods (soil and foliar) were used in the experiment. Three Zn application rate (3, 5 and 8 kg ha-1) along with 0.75 kg ha-1 B and 0.30 kg Fe ha-1 were used in four combinations such as 0-0-0, 0-0.75-0.30, 0-0.75-0.30, 3-0.75-0.30, 5-0.75-0.30, 8-0.75-0.30 kg Z, B and Fe ha-1, respectively. A control (no MN) treatment was also included for comparison. Two year averaged study exhibited that foliar application of Zn, B and Fe at rate of 8-0.30-0.75 kg ha-1 increased stem girth, head diameter, number of seeds head-1, seed weight head-1, seed index, oil content and seed yield by 21%, 27%, 13%, 34%, 19%, 24 and 31%, respectively over control. Among cultivars/hybrids, the hybrids HO-1 and Hysun-39 had taller plants, seed weight head-1, seeds head-1 and earlier in flowering and maturity. Flowering and maturity was delayed in Ausi Gold-62 with higher seed index and oil content. It is concluded that foliar application of micronutrients at the rate of 8+0.75+0.30 Zn, B and Fe kg ha-1 had substantially improved yield and yield related traits of sunflower cultivars HO-1, Hysun-39 and Ausi gold-62. (author)

  7. High oleic sunflower bio diesel: quality control and different purification methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighlinelli, A. L. M. T.; Ferrari, R. A.; Miguel, A. M. R. O.; Park, K. J.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to evaluate the production of bio diesel using ethanol and sunflower oil. The extraction of the sunflower oil was evaluated first. An experimental design was used to estimate the influence of the independent variables grain temperature (25 degree centigrade to 110 degree centigrade) and expelled rotation (85 to 119rpm) on the crude oil. The best result obtained was 68.38%, achieved with a rotation from 100 to 115rpm, grain temperature ranging from 25 degree centigrade to 30 degree centigrade and moisture content of around 7%. The next study consisted of transesterification, evaluating the influence of the ethanol, oil molar ratio and the catalyst concentration (sodium methylate) on the ester-rich phase yield. The highest yield was 98.39% obtained with a molar ratio of 9:1 and 3% catalyst. An experiment was then carried out on a small reactor and the bio diesel produced was purified by three different methods: acidified water, silica and distillation. The quality aspects of the purified bio diesel samples were evaluated according to the Brazilian specifications for bio diesel, and distillation was shown to be the best method of purification. (Author) 28 refs.

  8. Control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus sown offseason, after soybean crop (Glycine max, is affected by the competition imposed by volunteer plants. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crops. The sulfentrazone herbicide (75 g ha-1, 100 g ha-1 and 250 g ha-1 causes phytotoxicity to sunflower immediately after application, however, plants recover, with no yield losses. These doses do not cause the total death of volunteer soybean plants, but temporarily paralyzes their growth, avoiding the competition with the sunflower crop. The glufosinate ammonium and ametryn herbicides are effective in controlling volunteer soybean plants, however, symptoms of phytotoxicity in the sunflower crop are high, reflecting in losses of dry weight biomass and crop yield. The other treatments do not provide satisfactory control of volunteer soybean plants and even reduce the sunflower dry weight biomass and yield.

  9. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

  10. Stability of traditionally processed vegetable oils and their blends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to investigate the stability of traditionally processed palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SO) and sesame oil (SSO) and their blends as function of storage conditions by analysing their physicochemical properties which included acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value and ...

  11. Chemical, physical and tribological investigation of polymercaptanized soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymercaptanized soybean oil (PMSO) was investigated for its chemical, physical and tribological properties relative to soybean oil (SO) and also as a potential multi-functional lubricant additive in high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO). Analytical investigations showed that PMSO is obtained by convers...

  12. Sunflower (Helinathus annuus L.): A potential crop for environmental industry

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad M.N.V.

    2007-01-01

    Sunflower applications in phytotechnologies for the clean-up of inorganic and organic contaminants and pollutants are reviewed in this compilation. There have been several apprehensions on the application of phytoremediation technology. High bioproductivity and biomass yield are a must for the success of this strategy. The phytoextraction coefficient of sunflowers is high compared with many other species. Sunflower is a proven laboratory and field example for the emerging environmental indust...

  13. A modified commercial gas chromatograph for the continuous monitoring of the thermal degradation of sunflower oil and off-line solid phase extraction gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of released volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontañon, I; Sanz, J; Escudero, A; de Marcos, S; Ferreira, V; Galbán, J

    2015-04-03

    A homemade flow cell attached to a commercial Gas Chromatograph equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) has been designed for the continuous monitoring of volatile compounds released during heating edible oils. Analytical parameters such as mass of sample, temperature and flow rates have been optimized and the obtained results have been compared with the corresponding thermographs from standard TG systems. Results show that under optimum conditions, the profiles of volatiles released upon heating are comparable to the profiles of TG curves, suggesting that the FID based system could be an alternative to TGA. Additionally, volatiles have been retained in a Lichrolut EN(®) resin, eluted and analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. In this case, forty five compounds have been identified (acids, alcohols, alkanes, aldehydes, ketones and furans) and compared with the FID signals, working both in air or nitrogen atmosphere. It has been concluded that the oxidative thermal degradation is prevented in the presence of a nitrogen atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  15. Analysis of various quality attributes of sunflower and soybean plants by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy: Development and validation of calibration models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean and sunflower are summer annuals that can be grown as an alternative to corn and may be particularly useful in organic production systems for forage in addition to their traditional use as protein and/or oil yielding crops. Rapid and low cost methods of analyzing plant quality would be helpf...

  16. Genetic analysis of sunflower chlorophyll mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkina, E.V.; Guskov, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    The method of getting the chlorophyll mutations in sunflower was developed by Y.D. Beletskii in 1969 with the use of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH). Certain concentrations of NMH are known to induce plastid mutations in growing seeds, and their yield depends on the duration of the exposure. The given work presented studies on the influence of rifampicin (R) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) on the genetic activity NMH, as an inductor of plastid and nuclear mutations

  17. Genotype by environment interaction in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) to optimize trial network efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Barrios, P.; Castro, M.; Pérez, O.; Vilaró, D.; Gutiérrez, L.

    2017-07-01

    Modeling genotype by environment interaction (GEI) is one of the most challenging aspects of plant breeding programs. The use of efficient trial networks is an effective way to evaluate GEI to define selection strategies. Furthermore, the experimental design and the number of locations, replications, and years are crucial aspects of multi-environment trial (MET) network optimization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and performance of a MET network of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Specifically, we evaluated GEI in the network by delineating mega-environments, estimating genotypic stability and identifying relevant environmental covariates. Additionally, we optimized the network by comparing experimental design efficiencies. We used the National Evaluation Network of Sunflower Cultivars of Uruguay (NENSU) in a period of 20 years. MET plot yield and flowering time information was used to evaluate GEI. Additionally, meteorological information was studied for each sunflower physiological stage. An optimal network under these conditions should have three replications, two years of evaluation and at least three locations. The use of incomplete randomized block experimental design showed reasonable performance. Three mega-environments were defined, explained mainly by different management of sowing dates. Late sowings dates had the worst performance in grain yield and oil production, associated with higher temperatures before anthesis and fewer days allocated to grain filling. The optimization of MET networks through the analysis of the experimental design efficiency, the presence of GEI, and appropriate management strategies have a positive impact on the expression of yield potential and selection of superior cultivars.

  18. Nitrogen effects on growth and development of sunflower hybrids under agro-climatic conditions of malonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, W.; Ahmad, A.; Wajid, A.; Muhammad, D.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) on growth, development, yield and yield components of different sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids was evaluated under agro-climatic conditions of Multan during spring 2008 and 2009. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having three replications, keeping cultivars in the main plots and N levels in the subplots. The net plot size was 4.2 m x 5 m. The results showed that, with increasing N rates, there was increment in the biomass, yield and yield components while the oil contents were adversely affected. However, there was high seed yield in 2008 as compared to 2009. Among sunflower hybrids, Hysun-38 gave more yield as compared to other sunflower hybrids (Hysun-33, Pioneer 64A93), while in case of N levels, 180 kg ha/sup -1/ provided higher yield than other N rates (0, 60, 120, 240 kg ha/sup -1/) in both years of study especially during 2008. (author)

  19. Copper phytoextraction in tandem with oilseed production using commercial cultivars and mutant lines of sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbas, A; Mench, M; Herzig, R; Nehnevajova, E; Bes, C M

    2011-01-01

    Use of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for Cu phytoextraction and oilseed production on Cu-contaminated topsoils was investigated in afield trial at a former wood preservation site. Six commercial cultivars and two mutant lines were cultivated in plots with and without the addition of compost (5% w/w) and dolomitic limestone (0.2% w/w). Total soil Cu ranged from 163 to 1170 mg kg(-1). In soil solutions, Cu concentration varied between 0.16-0.93 mg L(-1). The amendment increased soil pH, reduced Cu exposure and promoted sunflower growth. Stem length, shoot and capitulum biomasses, seed yield, and shoot and leaf Cu concentrations were measured. At low total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass was higher in commercial cultivars, Le., Salut, Energic, and Countri, whereas competition and shading affected morphological traits of mutants. Based on shoot yield (7 Mg DW ha(-1)) and Cu concentration, the highest removal was 59 g Cu ha(-1). At high total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass peaked for mutants (e.g., 52 g Cu ha(-1) for Mutant 1 line) and cultivars Energic and Countri. Energic seed yield (3.9 Mg air-DW ha(-1)) would be sufficient to produce oil Phenotype traits and shoot Cu removal depended on sunflower types and Cu exposure.

  20. Screening of sunflower cultivars for metal phytoextraction in a contaminated field prior to mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehnevajova, Erika; Herzig, Rolf; Federer, Guido; Erismann, Karl-Hans; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    Sunflower can be used for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. Its high biomass production makes this plant species interestingfor phytoextraction and using sunflower oil for a technical purpose may improve the economic balance of phytoremediation. The aim of the present field study was to screen 15 commercial cultivars of Helianthus annuus L. grown on metal-contaminated soil, to find out the variety with the highest metal extraction, which can be further improved by mutation or in vitro breeding procedures. Two different fertilizers (ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate) were also used to enhance the bioavailability of metals in soil Highly significant differences were observed within tested varieties for metal accumulation and extraction efficiency. Furthermore, ammonium nitrate increased cadmium extraction, whereas ammonium sulphate enhanced zinc and lead uptake in most tested cultivars. In this field-based sunflower screening, we found enhanced cumulative Cd, Zn, and Pb extraction efficiency by a factor 4.4 for Salut cultivar. We therefore emphasize that prior to any classical breeding or genetic engineering enhancing metal uptake potential, a careful screening of various genotypes should be done to select the cultivar with the naturally highest metal uptake and to start the genetic improvement with the best available plant material.

  1. Μetal Uptake by Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Irrigated with Water Polluted with Chromium and Nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoikou, Vasiliki; Andrianos, Vangelis; Stasinos, Sotiris; Kostakis, Marios G; Attiti, Sofia; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2017-07-17

    The water aquifers of the regions of Asopos River in Viotia and Messapia in Evia (Greece) have been contaminated with hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and bivalent nickel (Ni (II)). Given that these areas are the two biggest tuber producing regions of Greece, in our previous work, the cross-contamination of the food chain with these two heavy metals was quantified. In the present study, the potential of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) cultivation in these regions is evaluated. The scope of our study was to investigate the uptake of chromium and nickel by sunflower, in a greenhouse experiment. The study included two cultivation periods of plants in six irrigation lines with different levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) ranging from 0 μg/L (control) to 10,000 μg/L. In all plant parts, statistically significant increased levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) were found when compared to control ones. Also, a positive correlation, both for Cr and Ni, between levels of heavy metals in irrigation water and plants was observed. Following European Food Safety Authority recommendations, the obtained oil was evaluated as safe for consumption, therefore, sunflower cultivation could be a valid bioremediation solution for the Asopos and Messapia regions.

  2. Physical properties of sunflower seeds during drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Adriana de Souza Smaniotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect that the moisture content has on the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The cultivar Olisun 3, with an initial moisture content of 34.1 (% wb, was used and then subjected to drying in an oven with forced air ventilation under three temperature conditions: 40, 60 and 80 °C. The reduction in the moisture content during drying was monitored by the gravimetric method until it reached a final moisture content of 8.0 ± 1.0 (% wb. The physical properties were analysed: the bulk density, true density, intergranular porosity and volumetric shrinkage of the mass and unit and terminal velocity. The reduction in the moisture content influenced the physical properties of sunflower seeds and caused a decrease in the intergranular porosity, bulk density and true density at all examined temperatures. The mass and volumetric contractions of the unit and reduction in shrinkage rates all increased with the drying of sunflower seeds at all studied temperatures. The terminal velocity increased as the moisture content of the grains increased, which was more evident at the drying temperature of 80 °C.

  3. Biodiesel production using waste frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpe, Trupti W.; Rathod, Virendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Waste sunflower frying oil is successfully converted to biodiesel using lipase as catalyst. → Various process parameters that affects the conversion of transesterification reaction such as temperature, enzyme concentration, methanol: oil ratio and solvent are optimized. → Inhibitory effect of methanol on lipase is reduced by adding methanol in three stages. → Polar solvents like n-hexane and n-heptane increases the conversion of tranesterification reaction. - Abstract: Waste sunflower frying oil is used in biodiesel production by transesterification using an enzyme as a catalyst in a batch reactor. Various microbial lipases have been used in transesterification reaction to select an optimum lipase. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration and solvent on the conversion of methyl ester have been studied. The Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme yielded the highest conversion. Using the P. fluorescens enzyme, the optimum conditions included a temperature of 45 deg. C, an enzyme concentration of 5% and a methanol:oil molar ratio 3:1. To avoid an inhibitory effect, the addition of methanol was performed in three stages. The conversion obtained after 24 h of reaction increased from 55.8% to 63.84% because of the stage-wise addition of methanol. The addition of a non-polar solvent result in a higher conversion compared to polar solvents. Transesterification of waste sunflower frying oil under the optimum conditions and single-stage methanol addition was compared to the refined sunflower oil.

  4. The result of sunflower and flax breeding in the Agricultural and Technological Research Center Zaječar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Agricultural & Technological Research Centar in Zajecar the work on improvement of sunflower were initiated in 1980s. Besides improvement, in relation to the main components of yield and high genetic potential for yield in improvement programmes of consuming genotypes of sunflower, there are some specific aims, such as: increasing the of 1000 seeds, reducing the portion of a shell, uniformity of the seed color and size. The latest achievements of the sunflower improvement carried out in the Centre in Zajecar are: obtaining the consuming-type hybrid PROTEINAC 94 (released in 1998, the hybrid JUNIOR (released in 2001, and the synthetic protein cultivar ZENIT (released in 2003. At the start of the 1990s, it was initiated the work on researching the agronomic characteristics of the existing assortment of oil-flax, as well as on preparation for plant improvement is to obtain high-yielding cultivars of brown and yellow seed color that can be used both for oil extraction and for consummation. During the research, a certain number of lines of oil-flax with positive characteristics were created. In 2003 the flax cultivar with the yellow color of seed, ZLATKO, was released. .

  5. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fernando Neto da; Prata, Antonio Salgado; Teixeira, Jorge Rocha

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NO x ) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NO x and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%. (Author)

  6. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto da Silva, Fernando; Salgado Prata, Antonio; Rocha Teixeira, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NO X ) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NO X and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%

  7. Results of presowing helium-neon-laser irradiation of sunflower seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetanova, K.

    1989-01-01

    In the period of 1983-1985 under non-irrigation, on calcareous chernozem a trial was carried out with the Start hybrid through single-, double-and triple irradiation of the seeds being stored for 1.8 and 16 days prior to sowing. It is found that the presowing helium-neon-laser irradiation of the sunflower seeds of the Start hybrid exerts a negative effect on the seed yield. Laser use does not stimulate the following: emerged seeds and percentage of the plants being in blossom in the beginning of the phase and after 7 days, seed moisture in harvesting and oil content in them

  8. Thermal neutron activation analysis of different varieties of mustard and sunflower seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Bhamare, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique has been used for the estimation of Mn, Na and K in different varietes of oil seeds of mustard and sunflower in India. The samples were irradiated in a 252 Cf source with neutron flux of ∼10 9 n s -1 and the analysis was done using a multichannel analyzer (MCA) coupled to high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Different varieties of seeds are found to have different concentrations of tracer elements when compared among themselves. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  9. Effects of Saline and Sodic Stress on Yield and Fatty Acid Profile in Sunflower Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the objectives concerned in this research, much importance has been attached to the assessment of the influence of soil type, irrigation water quality and leaching requirement on the production and composition in fatty acids of sunflower oil. The trial was run in 2001 on a sunflower crop (cv. HS 90 grown in cylindrical pots at the Campus of Bari University (Italy. 36 treatments obtained from the factorial combination of two clay soils with nine types of brackish water and two leaching fractions (10 and 20% were compared. The nine types of irrigation water were obtained by dissolving the proper amounts of NaCl and CaCl2 in de-ionized water, according to the factorial combination of three salt concentration levels (0.01, 0.032 and 0.064 M with three sodium levels (SAR = 5, 15 and 45. At ripening the main yield traits, oil yield and acid composition of seeds were analysed. At the highest salinity level about 70% yield reduction, in terms of seeds per plant was observed. The oil yield and the final acid composition of seeds were significantly affected by soil type, leaching requirement, salinity and the SAR levels of irrigation water. A progressive decline in oil yield was recorded as the salt concentration and sodium level of irrigation solutions increased. As to the fatty acid composition, a gradual increase in oleic and linolenic acid content and a corresponding decrease in the other fatty acids were found as the salinity and sodium levels of irrigation water increased. The oleic/linoleic acid ratio too increased as the salinity increased. The salt and sodium-induced stresses of irrigation water reduced the seed and oil yields while still favouring a progressive increase in the oleic acid content and a slight decrease of linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids, thus improving oil quality. The results point out both the influence of the soil and the positive effect of sodium and salt stress and of the leaching fraction on the food quality of

  10. Effects of Saline and Sodic Stress on Yield and Fatty Acid Profile in Sunflower Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Tarantino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the objectives concerned in this research, much importance has been attached to the assessment of the influence of soil type, irrigation water quality and leaching requirement on the production and composition in fatty acids of sunflower oil. The trial was run in 2001 on a sunflower crop (cv. HS 90 grown in cylindrical pots at the Campus of Bari University (Italy. 36 treatments obtained from the factorial combination of two clay soils with nine types of brackish water and two leaching fractions (10 and 20% were compared. The nine types of irrigation water were obtained by dissolving the proper amounts of NaCl and CaCl2 in de-ionized water, according to the factorial combination of three salt concentration levels (0.01, 0.032 and 0.064 M with three sodium levels (SAR = 5, 15 and 45. At ripening the main yield traits, oil yield and acid composition of seeds were analysed. At the highest salinity level about 70% yield reduction, in terms of seeds per plant was observed. The oil yield and the final acid composition of seeds were significantly affected by soil type, leaching requirement, salinity and the SAR levels of irrigation water. A progressive decline in oil yield was recorded as the salt concentration and sodium level of irrigation solutions increased. As to the fatty acid composition, a gradual increase in oleic and linolenic acid content and a corresponding decrease in the other fatty acids were found as the salinity and sodium levels of irrigation water increased. The oleic/linoleic acid ratio too increased as the salinity increased. The salt and sodium-induced stresses of irrigation water reduced the seed and oil yields while still favouring a progressive increase in the oleic acid content and a slight decrease of linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids, thus improving oil quality. The results point out both the influence of the soil and the positive effect of sodium and salt stress and of the leaching fraction on the food quality of

  11. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  12. 33 CFR 117.677 - Big Sunflower River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Sunflower River. 117.677 Section 117.677 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Mississippi § 117.677 Big Sunflower River. The draw of...

  13. Detection of the parasitic plant, Orobanche cumana on sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orobanche cumana broomrape is a parasitic plant described as an agricultural problem for sunflower production in many countries. In Tunisia, this pathogen was found parasitizing sunflower cultivars in some fields in the Béja region, for the first time during the 2009-2010 agricultural season. Clear O. cumana attachments ...

  14. Wild sunflower species as a genetic resource for resistance to sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) is a parasitic weed that causes economic damage in sunflower production in many countries, especially in Central and Eastern Europe, Spain, Turkey, Israel, Iran, Kazakhstan, and China. Genes for resistance to broomrape races A, B, C, D, and E are present in variet...

  15. Development of a bank for ultrasonic characterization of olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabra Gemayel, M.N.; Zaatar, Y.; Zaouk, D.; El Hajj, A.; Honein, E.; Assaad, J.

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil has long been renowned for its nutritional and healthy values. These values are being continuously verified by new scientific results. Not all olive oils found in the market are, however,authentic. One of the ways to cheat in olive oil is to mix it with other, cheaper oils. The aim of our study is to develop an ultrasonic measurement system that would quickly detect the fraud in the olive oil and thus protect and preserve this quality product. By using ultrasonic waves of frequency 1.7MHz in transmission through the oils, we have obtained promising results for detection of different mixtures of olive oil with pure sunflower oil. Our results have shown an increasing ultrasonic speed for an increasing percentage of sunflower oil in the mixture. (author)

  16. Mutation induction, evaluation and utilization for development of high yielding varieties in Indian mustard and sunflower: an overview of BARC work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambhulkar, S.J.; Shitre, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Mutation breeding programme in Indian mustard and sunflower at BARC has resulted into the development of wide spectrum of mutations for seed coat colour, chlorophyll, plant height, maturity, flower morphology, seed weight and oil content. In Indian mustard, TM1 and TM50 are high yielding yellow seed coat mutants, which were exploited in hybridisation to develop bold, yellow seed coat and high yielding genotypes. Light green leaf and variegated leaf are novel mutation in mustard. Putative mutants for drought tolerance have been isolated. Variability for zero erucic acid and zero glucosinolates genotypes have been developed in B. napus and B. juncea. In sunflower, high yielding black seed coat mutant were isolated. Extreme dwarf measuring only 11 cm is novel. Three high yielding varieties namely TM2, TM4, and TPM1 in mustard and one i.e.TAS82 in sunflower have been released for cultivation in collaboration with state agricultural universities. (author)

  17. Analysis of relations between crop temperature indices and yield of different sunflower hybrids foliar treated by biopreparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovár Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of biological active preparations (BAPs and remote-sensing control in the management of agronomic intervention are an important part of successful crop cultivation. The effects of foliar application of two BAPs (containing amino acids or Abiestins® on yield and yield-forming, as well eco-physiological traits calculated from infrared thermographs data (crop water stress index, CWSI and index of stomatal conductance, Ig of three hybrids of sunflower were studied in field poly-factorial experiments, realised during two years (2012 and 2013. The results showed that the application of selected BAPs has contributed to an increase of the sunflower yield, in particular through an increase in the weight of thousand seeds (rp = 0.761, P < 0.001. Similarly, oil content in achenes was significantly higher in treatments with BAPs, mainly with preparation containing free amino acids. The study describes the quantitative relationship between yield and quality of sunflower production (rp = −0.41, P < 0.01. Selected hybrids of sunflower in two growth stages showed the significant differences in CWSI and Ig (both at P < 0.01, respectively. An analysis of negative linear relation between the yield of achenes and CWSI (rp = −0.654, P < 0.001 confirmed that higher value of plant stress resulted in a smaller yield and vice-versa. The opposite trend was observed between yield and Ig index (rp = 0.576, P < 0.001. The data obtained from IR thermography can be used for monitoring the physiological health of sunflower plants, as well in potential prediction and control of yield.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Kai Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter. Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Zhong, Lily; Santiago, Juan Luis

    2017-12-27

    Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter). Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.

  20. Prediction of oil expression by uniaxial compression using time-varying oilseed properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargale, P. C.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Irudayaraj, J.

    2000-01-01

    and consolidation. The model was validated for extruded soy and for sunflower seeds. Material parameters were determined experimentally and predictions of oil recovery rates made for several levels of temperature, pressure and initial sample depth. Results indicated that while the model predicted the values of oil...... recovery for extruded soybean very well, the predictions were not satisfactory for sunflower seed samples. The higher error was attributed to material non-homogeneity and the presence of hulls in the sunflower seeds, which increased errors in measurement of the medium permeability function. The lack...

  1. High oleic sunflower biodiesel: quality control and different purification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pighinelli, Anna L.M.T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to evaluate the production of biodiesel using ethanol and sunflower oil. The extraction of the sunflower oil was evaluated first. An experimental design was used to estimate the influence of the independent variables grain temperature (25º to 110ºC and expeller rotation (85 to 119rpm on the crude oil. The best result obtained was 68.38%, achieved with a rotation from 100 to 115rpm, grain temperature ranging from 25º to 30ºC and moisture content of around 7%. The next study consisted of transesterification, evaluating the influence of the ethanol, oil molar ratio and the catalyst concentration (sodium methylate on the ester-rich phase yield. The highest yield was 98.39% obtained with a molar ratio of 9:1 and 3% catalyst. An experiment was then carried out on a small reactor and the biodiesel produced was purified by three different methods: acidified water, silica and distillation. The quality aspects of the purified biodiesel samples were evaluated according to the Brazilian specifications for biodiesel, and distillation was shown to be the best method of purification.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la producción de biodiesel usando etanol y aceite de girasol. La extracción del aceite de girasol fue evaluada primero. Un diseño experimental fue usado para estimar la influencia de las variables independientes: temperatura del grano (25º a 110ºC y rotación del expeller (85 a 119 rpm en la obtención del aceite crudo. El mejor resultado obtenido fue un 68,38%, conseguido con una rotación de 100 a 115 rpm, una temperatura del grano de 25º a 30ºC y un contenido de humedad de alrededor del 7%. El siguiente estudio mediante transesterificación, evaluó la influencia de la relación molar etanol: aceite y concentración de catalizador (metilato sódico en el rendimiento de la fase rica en esteres. El rendimiento más alto fue 98,39% obtenido con una relación molar de 9.1 y 3% de

  2. Identification of candidate genes associated with leaf senescence in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Moschen

    Full Text Available Cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., an important source of edible vegetable oil, shows rapid onset of senescence, which limits production by reducing photosynthetic capacity under specific growing conditions. Carbon for grain filling depends strongly on light interception by green leaf area, which diminishes during grain filling due to leaf senescence. Transcription factors (TFs regulate the progression of leaf senescence in plants and have been well explored in model systems, but information for many agronomic crops remains limited. Here, we characterize the expression profiles of a set of putative senescence associated genes (SAGs identified by a candidate gene approach and sunflower microarray expression studies. We examined a time course of sunflower leaves undergoing natural senescence and used quantitative PCR (qPCR to measure the expression of 11 candidate genes representing the NAC, WRKY, MYB and NF-Y TF families. In addition, we measured physiological parameters such as chlorophyll, total soluble sugars and nitrogen content. The expression of Ha-NAC01, Ha-NAC03, Ha-NAC04, Ha-NAC05 and Ha-MYB01 TFs increased before the remobilization rate increased and therefore, before the appearance of the first physiological symptoms of senescence, whereas Ha-NAC02 expression decreased. In addition, we also examined the trifurcate feed-forward pathway (involving ORE1, miR164, and ethylene insensitive 2 previously reported for Arabidopsis. We measured transcription of Ha-NAC01 (the sunflower homolog of ORE1 and Ha-EIN2, along with the levels of miR164, in two leaves from different stem positions, and identified differences in transcription between basal and upper leaves. Interestingly, Ha-NAC01 and Ha-EIN2 transcription profiles showed an earlier up-regulation in upper leaves of plants close to maturity, compared with basal leaves of plants at pre-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the H. annuus TFs characterized in this work could

  3. Identification of candidate genes associated with leaf senescence in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschen, Sebastian; Bengoa Luoni, Sofia; Paniego, Norma B; Hopp, H Esteban; Dosio, Guillermo A A; Fernandez, Paula; Heinz, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an important source of edible vegetable oil, shows rapid onset of senescence, which limits production by reducing photosynthetic capacity under specific growing conditions. Carbon for grain filling depends strongly on light interception by green leaf area, which diminishes during grain filling due to leaf senescence. Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the progression of leaf senescence in plants and have been well explored in model systems, but information for many agronomic crops remains limited. Here, we characterize the expression profiles of a set of putative senescence associated genes (SAGs) identified by a candidate gene approach and sunflower microarray expression studies. We examined a time course of sunflower leaves undergoing natural senescence and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to measure the expression of 11 candidate genes representing the NAC, WRKY, MYB and NF-Y TF families. In addition, we measured physiological parameters such as chlorophyll, total soluble sugars and nitrogen content. The expression of Ha-NAC01, Ha-NAC03, Ha-NAC04, Ha-NAC05 and Ha-MYB01 TFs increased before the remobilization rate increased and therefore, before the appearance of the first physiological symptoms of senescence, whereas Ha-NAC02 expression decreased. In addition, we also examined the trifurcate feed-forward pathway (involving ORE1, miR164, and ethylene insensitive 2) previously reported for Arabidopsis. We measured transcription of Ha-NAC01 (the sunflower homolog of ORE1) and Ha-EIN2, along with the levels of miR164, in two leaves from different stem positions, and identified differences in transcription between basal and upper leaves. Interestingly, Ha-NAC01 and Ha-EIN2 transcription profiles showed an earlier up-regulation in upper leaves of plants close to maturity, compared with basal leaves of plants at pre-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the H. annuus TFs characterized in this work could play important

  4. Effect of fish and oil nature on frying process and nutritional product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ansorena, D. (Diana); Guembe, A. (Ainhoa); Mendizabal, T. (Tatiana); Astiasarán, I. (Iciar)

    2010-01-01

    The modifications on a lean fish (cod-Gadus morhua) and a fatty fish (farmed salmon-Salmo salar) after the application of pan-frying using 2 types of oil with different lipid profile (extra virgin olive oil and sunflower oil) was the aim of this study. Fat content and total energetic value increased significantly after the frying process only in the lean fish, without relevant changes in the fatty fish. Extra virgin olive oil led to a higher fat absorption rate than sunflower oil in both fish...

  5. Biobased products from rubber, jatropha and sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Abu Ghazali, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    In dit proefschrift wordt onderzoek beschreven naar het identificeren van interessante producten uit de zaden van de rubber boom (Hevea brasiliensis). Deze zaden worden momenteel niet gebruikt en in vele rubberplantages gezien als afval. De zaden bestaan uit een harde schil (39 wt%) en een kern (61

  6. Promoting Locally Fortified Sunflower Oil Using E-Vouchers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... cell phone text messages, will deliver subsidies to vulnerable groups. ... The research team will track nutritional impacts through vitamin A status measurements. The project will provide evidence to support the private sector's potential to ...

  7. Common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) interference in soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, P.W.; Maddux, L.D.; Moshier, L.J.; Stahlman, P.W.

    1996-01-01

    Multiple weed species in the field combine to cause yield losses and can be described using one of several empirical models. Field studies were conducted to compare observed corn yield loss caused by common sunflower and shattercane populations with predicted yield losses modeled using a multiple species rectangular hyperbola model, an additive model, or the yield loss model in the decision support system, WeedSOFT, and to derive competitive indices for common sunflower and shattercane. Common sunflower and shattercane emerged with corn and selected densities established in field experiments at Scandia and Rossville, KS, between 2000 and 2002. The multiple species rectangular hyperbola model fit pooled data from three of five location–years with a predicted maximum corn yield loss of 60%. Initial slope parameter estimate for common sunflower was 49.2 and 4.2% for shattercane. A ratio of these estimates indicated that common sunflower was 11 times more competitive than shattercane. When common sunflower was assigned a competitive index (CI) value of 10, shattercane CI was 0.9. Predicted yield losses modeled for separate common sunflower or shattercane populations were additive when compared with observed yield losses caused by low-density mixed populations of common sunflower (0 to 0.5 plants m −2 ) and shattercane (0 to 4 plants m −2 ). However, a ratio of estimates of these models indicated that common sunflower was only four times as competitive as shattercane, with a CI of 2.5 for shattercane. The yield loss model in WeedSOFT underpredicted the same corn losses by 7.5%. Clearly, both the CI for shattercane and the yield loss model in WeedSOFT need to be reevaluated, and the multiple species rectangular hyperbola model is proposed. (author)

  8. An investigation of influence of solvent on the degradation kinetics of carotenoids in oil extracts of Calendula officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    DEJAN BEZBRADICA; JELA MILIC-ASKRABIC; SLOBODAN D. PETROVIC; SLAVICA SILER-MARINKOVIC

    2005-01-01

    The stability of carotenoids was studied in marigold oil extracts prepared with following solvents: Myritol 312®, paraffin oil, almond oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil, and soybean oil. The concentration of the carotenoids was determined by spectroscopic measurement at 450 nm. Degradation rate showed a first order dependence on the concentration of carotenoids with a faster first stage (which lasted 3550 days, depending on the solvent) and a slower second stage. The highest degra...

  9. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    OpenAIRE

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type t...

  10. BIOCATALYTIC METHODS IN THE SUNFLOWER BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY Candida antarctica LIPASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Priscilla de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of lipases in reactions of transformation of vegetable oil is against the principles of green chemistry, mainly because they are renewable and have a high efficiency and specificity in oleochemical reactions. Among the lipases studied stands out mainly Candida antarctica B (Novozym ® 435 and being marketed already immobilized in support of acrylic resin, has the advantage of being reused in the reactions. It was possible to optimize a system of transesterification by a continuous process, with which it was possible maximum conversion of substrate (sunflower oil in ethyl esters, and perform 87 cycles with the same enzyme without reducing the activity and 224 cycles, after the reduction of the activity. The system obtained are adequate to objectives and can be used in absence of organic solvent, it is only need the alcohol excess.

  11. Fluorescence Imaging in the Red and Far-Red Region during Growth of Sunflower Plantlets. Diagnosis of the Early Infection by the Parasite Orobanche cumana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Bustos, Carmen M.; Pérez-Bueno, María L.; Barón, Matilde; Molinero-Ruiz, Leire

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape, caused by the root holoparasite Orobanche cumana, is the main biotic constraint to sunflower oil production worldwide. By the time broomrape emerges, most of the metabolic imbalance has been produced by O. cumana to sunflower plants. UV-induced multicolor fluorescence imaging (MCFI) provides information on the fluorescence emitted by chlorophyll (Chl) a of plants in the spectral bands with peaks near 680 nm (red, F680) and 740 nm (far-red, F740). In this work MCFI was extensively applied to sunflowers, either healthy or parasitized plants, for the first time. The distribution of red and far-red fluorescence was analyzed in healthy sunflower grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. Fluorescence patterns were analyzed across the leaf surface and throughout the plant by comparing the first four leaf pairs (LPs) between the second and fifth week of growth. Similar fluorescence patterns, with a delay of 3 or 4 days between them, were obtained for LPs of healthy sunflower, showing that red and far-red fluorescence varied with the developmental stage of the leaf. The use of F680 and F740 as indicators of sunflower infection by O. cumana during underground development stages of the parasite was also evaluated under similar experimental conditions. Early increases in F680 and F740 as well as decreases in F680/F740 were detected upon infection by O. cumana. Significant differences between inoculated and control plants depended on the LP that was considered at any time. Measurements of Chl contents and final total Chl content supported the results of MCFI, but they were less sensitive in differentiating healthy from inoculated plants. Sunflower infection was confirmed by the presence of broomrape nodules in the roots at the end of the experiment. The potential of MCFI in the red and far-red region for an early detection of O. cumana infection in sunflower was revealed. This technique might have a particular interest for early phenotyping in sunflower breeding

  12. Carbon conversion efficiency and central metabolic fluxes in developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Ana P; Goffman, Fernando D; Ohlrogge, John B; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2007-10-01

    The efficiency with which developing sunflower embryos convert substrates into seed storage reserves was determined by labeling embryos with [U-(14)C6]glucose or [U-(14)C5]glutamine and measuring their conversion to CO2, oil, protein and other biomass compounds. The average carbon conversion efficiency was 50%, which contrasts with a value of over 80% previously observed in Brassica napus embryos (Goffman et al., 2005), in which light and the RuBisCO bypass pathway allow more efficient conversion of hexose to oil. Labeling levels after incubating sunflower embryos with [U-(14)C4]malate indicated that some carbon from malate enters the plastidic compartment and contributes to oil synthesis. To test this and to map the underlying pattern of metabolic fluxes, separate experiments were carried out in which embryos were labeled to isotopic steady state using [1-(13)C1]glucose, [2-(13)C1]glucose, or [U-(13)C5]glutamine. The resultant labeling in sugars, starch, fatty acids and amino acids was analyzed by NMR and GC-MS. The fluxes through intermediary metabolism were then quantified by computer-aided modeling. The resulting flux map accounted well for the labeling data, was in good agreement with the observed carbon efficiency, and was further validated by testing for agreement with gas exchange measurements. The map shows that the influx of malate into oil is low and that flux through futile cycles (wasting ATP) is low, which contrasts with the high rates previously determined for growing root tips and heterotrophic cell cultures.

  13. Type of vegetable oils used in cooking and risk of metabolic syndrome among Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Gayathri, Rajagopal; Praseena, Kallingal; Vijayalakshmi, Parthasarathy; Geetha, Gunasekaran; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Henry, Jeyakumar; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-03-01

    There is little data on the type of vegetable oil used and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Asian Indians. Food frequency questionnaire was used to document the type of cooking oil in 1875 adults in Chennai city. MS was assessed by new harmonizing criteria. The prevalence of MS was higher among sunflower oil users (30.7%) than palmolein (23.2%) and traditional oil (17.1%, p < 0.001) users. The higher prevalence of MS in sunflower oil group persisted even when stratified according to body mass index, except in obese groups. The risk of MS was further compounded by quantity of refined cereals consumed. Higher LA%E and linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid ratio in sunflower oil probably contributes to increased risk of MS.

  14. Effects of pan frying with different oils on some of the chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in chemical composition, cholesterol and fatty acids have been determined in raw and fried rainbow trout. Olive oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, margarine and butter were used in the frying process. Moisture content was decreased and protein, fat, ash and cholesterol contents were increased after frying. Differences ...

  15. Creating Sunflower Mutant Lines (Helianthus Annuus L.) Using Induced Mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encheva, J.

    2009-01-01

    Immature sunflower zygotic embryos of sunflower fertility restorer line 374 R were treated with ultrasound and gamma radiation before plating embryos to culture medium. All plants were isolated and self-pollinated for several generations. New sunflower forms with inherited morphological and biochemical changes were obtained. The genetic changes occurring during the mutation procedure included fourteen morphological and biochemical characters. In comparison to the check line 374 R, decreasing of the mean value of the indexes was registered for 33 % of the total number of characters and vise verse, significant increasing was observed for 60 %. Mutation for resistance to the local population of Orobanche cumana race A-E was obtained from the susceptible Bulgarian control line 374 R. Two investigated mutant lines possessed 100 % resistance to Orobanche and stable inheritance in the next generations. Our results showed that induced mutagenesis in sunflower can be successfully used to develop new lines useful for heterosis breeding

  16. Sunflower Beauty Contest : tsvetõ zimoi / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Lillekleitide võistlusest Sunflower Beauty Contest Tallinna klubis Decolte. Konkursi idee on florist Tatjana Tridvornovalt. Esimese koha sai Viimsi lilleäri lilleseadjate Meri-Liis Kõivu ja Triinu Põlderi lillekleit "Talvepruut"

  17. Whole-plant utilization of sunflowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R P [Univ. of Texas, Austin; Seiler, G J

    1984-01-01

    Forty-eight accessions representing 39 taxa of the genus Helianthus (sunflower) were collected from a common garden and whole plants examined for yields of non-polar extractables. (hydrocarbons, rubber, etc.), polar extractables (resins, sugars, etc.) and crude protein. This study revealed several promising species for obtaining hydrocarbons: H. agrestis, H. annuus, H. argophyllus, and H. arizonensis. Species highest in methanol extractables were H. ciliaris, H. leavigtus, H. occidentalis ssp. plantagineus, H. paradoxus, H. petiolaris, and H. silphioides. Species with greater than 16% protein yields were H. arizonensis, H. grosseserratus, H. neglectus, H. petiolaris ssp. fallax, and H. simulans. Since this genus is well known agronomically, the development of one of the species for whole-plant utilization may be easier than the domestication of some lesser-known genera. 42 references, 3 tables

  18. THE BIOLOGICAL CYCLE OF SUNFLOWER BROOMRAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUCA Maria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanchaceae is a dicot family, which consists of annual and perennial plants distributing from tropical to subarctic regions, predominately in temperate regions. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr. = Orobanche cernua Loefl. is a parasitic angiosperm that has been causing a great deal of damage to sunflower production in many countries, including Republic of Moldova. This parasitic angiosperm depends entirely on the host for its supply of water and nutrients. A thorough understanding of its biology, including detailed knowledge of the specific mechanisms of parasitism, is needed in order to develop novel control methods. Some main developmental steps are described for the root parasites: seed conditioning and germination, haustorium formation, penetration into host tissues, maturation of the parasite plant, and seed production. All these stages were studied in artificial and natural conditions.

  19. Do bees like Van Gogh's Sunflowers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Walker, Julian

    2006-06-01

    Flower colours have evolved over 100 million years to address the colour vision of their bee pollinators. In a much more rapid process, cultural (and horticultural) evolution has produced images of flowers that stimulate aesthetic responses in human observers. The colour vision and analysis of visual patterns differ in several respects between humans and bees. Here, a behavioural ecologist and an installation artist present bumblebees with reproductions of paintings highly appreciated in Western society, such as Van Gogh's Sunflowers. We use this unconventional approach in the hope to raise awareness for between-species differences in visual perception, and to provoke thinking about the implications of biology in human aesthetics and the relationship between object representation and its biological connotations.

  20. System for combustion of sunflower shells in industrial steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriev, Kh.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an economically efficient solution for reconstruction of steam generators with steam production over 5 t/h using foregoing cyclone chamber for sunflower shells combustion. For average fuel caloricity 9 445 ccal/kg and sunflower shells caloricity between 3 485 and 3 750 ccal/kg, the petroleum saving is 68.78% for an average boiler efficiency 4.6 t/h steam

  1. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Dal Belo Leite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different levels, which could be met by simulation models. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the crop model OILCROP-SUN to simulate sunflower development and growth under Brazilian conditions and to explore sunflower water- and nitrogen-limited, water-limited and potential yield and yield variability over an array of sowing dates in the northern region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For model calibration, an experiment was conducted in which two sunflower genotypes (H358 and E122 were cultivated in a clayey soil. Growth components (leaf area index, above ground biomass, grain yield and development stages (crop phenology were measured. A database composed of 27 sunflower experiments from five Brazilian regions was used for model evaluation. The spatial yield distribution of sunflower was mapped using ordinary kriging in ArcGIS. The model simulated sunflower grain productivity satisfactorily (Root Mean Square Error ≈ 13 %. Simulated yields were relatively high (1,750 to 4,250 kg ha-1 and the sowing window was fairly wide (Oct to Feb for northwestern locations, where sunflower could be cultivated as a second crop (double cropping at the end of the rainy season. The hybrid H358 had higher yields for all simulated sowing dates, growth conditions and selected locations.

  2. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.

  3. Acyl carrier proteins from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and their influence on FatA and FatB acyl-ACP thioesterase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Salas, Joaquín J

    2016-08-01

    The kinetics of acyl-ACP thioesterases from sunflower importantly changed when endogenous ACPs were used. Sunflower FatB was much more specific towards saturated acyl-ACPs when assayed with them. Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) are small (~9 kDa), soluble, acidic proteins involved in fatty acid synthesis in plants and bacteria. ACPs bind to fatty acids through a thioester bond, generating the acyl-ACP lipoproteins that are substrates for fatty acid synthase (FAS) complexes, and that are required for fatty acid chain elongation, acting as important intermediates in de novo fatty acid synthesis in plants. Plants, usually express several ACP isoforms with distinct functionalities. We report here the cloning of three ACPs from developing sunflower seeds: HaACP1, HaACP2, and HaACP3. These proteins were plastidial ACPs expressed strongly in seeds, and as such they are probably involved in the synthesis of sunflower oil. The recombinant sunflower ACPs were expressed in bacteria but they were lethal to the prokaryote host. Thus, they were finally produced using the GST gene fusion system, which allowed the apo-enzyme to be produced and later activated to the holo form. Radiolabelled acyl-ACPs from the newly cloned holo-ACP forms were also synthesized and used to characterize the activity of recombinant sunflower FatA and FatB thioesterases, important enzymes in plant fatty acids synthesis. The activity of these enzymes changed significantly when the endogenous ACPs were used. Thus, FatA importantly increased its activity levels, whereas FatB displayed a different specificity profile, with much high activity levels towards saturated acyl-CoA derivatives. All these data pointed to an important influence of the ACP moieties on the activity of enzymes involved in lipid synthesis.

  4. Phytoremediation of Lead and Cadmium Contaminated Soils using Sunflower Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Sewalem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytremediation has emerged as a practical approach to clean up metal-polluted soils. In this study the role of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants as a potential phytoremediator to soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb was investigated. Our results showed that the effect of Cd was stronger on the growth of the roots, while the effect of Pb was stronger on the shoots of sunflower seedlings. At the physiological level, Cd treatment was found to induce low levels of lipid peroxidation and membrane leakage with less affected photosynthesis in the leaves of the treated sunflower seedlings compared to the effects of Pb. The results presented here showed that a high amount of the total absorbed Cd (88.84% was accumulated in roots, while a high amount of the total absorbed Pb (71.39 was tranlocated to shoots of sunflower seedlings. Similar trends of Cd and Pb allocation between roots and shoots at the yield stage were recorded. We suggest here that sunflower plants may remediate Cd contaminated soils through phytostabilization, while may remediate Pb contaminated soils through phytoextraction. Finaly, the trace amounts of Cd and Pb that were accumulated in seeds recommends sunflower plants to be used safely and economically for cleaning up soils contaminated with Cd and/or Pb.

  5. A Review on Recycling of Sunflower Residue for Sustaining Soil Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Babu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture is now at the crossroads ecologically, economically, technologically, and socially due to soil degradation. Critical analysis of available information shows that problems of degradation of soil health are caused due to imbalanced, inadequate and promacronutrient fertilizer use, inadequate use or no use of organic manures and crop residues, and less use of good quality biofertilizers. Although sizeable amount of crop residues and manure is produced in farms, it is becoming increasingly complex to recycle nutrients, even within agricultural systems. Therefore, there is a need to use all available sources of nutrients to maintain the productivity and fertility at a required level. Among the available organic sources of plant nutrients, crop residue is one of the most important sources for supplying nutrients to the crop and for improving soil health. Sunflower is a nontraditional oil seed crop produced in huge amount of crop residue. This much amount of crop residues is neither used as feed for livestock nor suitable for fuel due to low energy value per unit mass. However, its residue contains major plant nutrients in the range from 0.45 to 0.60% N, 0.15 to 0.22% P, and 1.80 to 1.94% K along with secondary and micronutrients, so recycling of its residue in the soil may be one of the best alternative practices for replenishing the depleted soil fertility and improving the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil in the present era of production. However, some researchers have reported allelopathic effects of sunflower residue on different crops. So, selection of suitable crops and management practices may play an important role to manage the sunflower residue at field level.

  6. Seed yield and protein content in sunflower depending on stand density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balalić Igor M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of stand density on seed yield and protein content in sunflower hybrids. The field experiment was carried out at Rimski Šančevi location. Six NS sunflower hybrids were examined. Five hybrids are confectionery (NS Goliat, NS Slatki, NS Gricko, Vranac and Cepko, and one is used for bird food (NS-H-6485. The trial was arranged as randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replications. Sowing was done with six different densities (from 20,000 to 70,000 plants per hectare, with an increment of 10,000 plants per hectare. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the effect of hybrid, stand density and hybrid × stand density interation were highly significant for seed yield and protein content. The highest seed yield, on the basis of average for all densities, was found in NS-H-6485 (4.77 t ha-1 and in NS Gricko (4.43 t ha-1. Average seed yield of hybrids significantly increased up to 50,000 plants per ha-1, when it reached the value of 4.50 t ha-1, and then decreased. Significantly higher protein content, taking into account all stand densities, showed hybrid Cepko (16.94%. Protein content, above the overall average value, was achieved in hybrid Vranac (16.11%. The high­est protein content in the average for all six hybrids was at the lowest stand density (20,000 plants per ha-1, and then decreased up to higher densities. The results showed that stand density had significant effect on seed yield and protein content in sunflower hybrids. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31025: The development of new cultivars and improving the technology of producing oil plant species for different purposes

  7. Chemical composition of open pollinated and hybrid population of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisar, M.; Hussain, S.; Nausheen, A.; Siddique, F.

    2011-01-01

    Sunflower is the world fourth most important sources of edible oil. A lot of work has been done for varietal improvement through conventional breeding in Pakistan. Sunflower is the cash crop and is easily adapted to many region of Pakistan, genetic and agronomical improvement was needed so that economically valuable crop could be harvested. In the present work, 16 cultivars (open pollinated population 'OPP' and hybrid population 'HP' eight each) of sunflower was evaluated. The study was aimed at evaluating the mineral composition, estimation of moisture contents, measuring electrical conductivity and 100 seeds weight. The mineral composition was fractionated though Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, which indicate that Zn +2 was 8.54 and 9.35%; Cu/sup +2/ 0.5 and 0.02%; Mn/sup +2/ 3.48 and 9.72%; Co/sup +2/ 18.67 and 16.81%; Mg/sup +2/ 68.27 and 83.53%; Fe/sup +3/ 4.32 and 4.35% were estimated in HP and OPP respectively. Similarly, moisture contents 6.26 and 6.78%, and 1000-seeds weight 510.8 and 598 g were calculated in the HP and OPP respectively. In comparative picture the mineral concentration, moisture contents and 100 seeds weight in open pollinated population were high as compared to hybrid. A total of 11.7 % genetic diversity was observed in mineral composition of both the populations. The EC was high in HP ranging from 70. 85-137.8, while comparatively low in OPP ranged 46.81 - 120.18. (author)

  8. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of the type of oil phase on the self-assembly process of ¿-oryzanol + ß-sitosterol tubules in organogel systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawalha, H.I.M.; Margry, G.; Adel, den R.; Venema, P.; Bot, A.; Flöter, E.; Linden, van der E.

    2013-01-01

    Mixtures of ¿-oryzanol and ß-sitosterol were used to structure different oils (decane, limonene, sunflower oil, castor oil and eugenol). The ¿-oryzanol and ß-sitosterol mixtures self-assemble into double-walled hollow tubules (~10 nm in diameter) in the oil phase, which aggregate to form a network

  10. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2 curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively.

  11. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, S.

    2017-01-01

    Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF) proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV) visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2) curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively. [es

  12. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  13. Physiology, phenology and yield of sunflower (autumn) as affected by NPK fertilizer and hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, J.; Shah, S.U.

    2010-01-01

    The present field studies investigate the effect of NPK fertilizer on the physiology, phenology and yield response of sunflower hybrids at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan during autumn, 2000 and 2001. The response of sunflower hybrids (SF-187 and Parsun-1) were studied using low medium and high rate of NPK (0, 50, 100,150 kg ha/sup -1/) in factorial design with split plot arrangements. Days to R1 (button stage), R4 (inflorescence begins to open), R5.8 (80% anthesis) and R9 (physiological maturity) stages significantly (P<0.05) increased with an increase in fertilizer levels. Among the hybrids, Parsun-1 matured 4-5 days later than SF-187. Similarly, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), and dry matter accumulation (DMA) also significantly (P<0.05) increased with an increase in fertilizer levels. Maximum LAI, CGR, DMA and seed yield was produced by fertilizer treatments of 150:100:100 kg ha/sup -1/ during both the seasons. Oil content also varied with different combinations of NPK fertilizers which ranged from 37 to 39% during both the seasons. (author)

  14. Genetic control of some morphological mutants in sunflower [Helianthus annuus L.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabipour, A.; Sarrafi, A.; Yazdi-Samadi, B.

    2004-01-01

    Inheritance study of induced mutants is an important tool in genetic and breeding programs. Sunflower is one of the most important oil crops for which mutant collection is meager. Seeds of sunflower line AS-613 were irradiated with gamma rays and mutant phenotypes were traced until M4 generation. In M5 generation, the following traits were studied: dwarfing, branching, leaf shape, albinism, rosette, lack of apex and alternative leaves. In most cases, the mutated characters were controlled by a single recessive gene, while in two cases they were controlled by two recessive genes. In M5 progenies, segregation for two albino, one alternative leaves, one dwarfism, 5 branching, one rosette, 2 lacks of apex and 5 leaf shape mutants was recorded. Amongst five cases of branching, one was controlled by two recessive genes, where at least one homozygote recessive locus was necessary for branching. In one case, the lack of apex was controlled by two recessive genes and even only one dominant allele could provoke the normal plant [it

  15. Alleviation of adverse impact of cadmium stress in sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALLAH, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Hend, A.

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an important ornamental plant and good source of vegetable oil, widely accepted as potential promising plant for phytoremediation. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of cadmium on the growth and some biochemical attributes of sunflower and role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in assuaging the cadmium stress induced changes. Cadmium treatment reduced growth, chlorophyll contents and cell membrane stability. AMF inoculated plants showed increased growth, chlorophyll contents and cell membrane stability and also mitigated changes caused due to cadmium. Cadmium caused increase in lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide production. An increase in antioxidant enzyme activity was observed due to cadmium treatment which was further enhanced by inoculation of AMF. Increase in proline and total phenols due to cadmium stress was obvious. Cadmium stressed plants showed enhanced fatty acid content. AMF inoculated plants showed higher activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases which were reduced by cadmium stress. However palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3) reduced in cadmium treated plants and the negative impact of cadmium was mitigated by AMF. (author)

  16. Research on resistance to sunflower broomrape: an integrated vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Leonardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr. parasitization on sunflower was first observed at the end of the 19th century and has continued since then jeopardizing sunflower cultivation in many areas of Europe and Asia. A distinctive characteristic of the O. cumana-sunflower parasitic system is that it is mainly governed by a gene-for-gene interaction. This determines complete resistance in the host controlled by dominant alleles at a single locus, which facilitates the management of the resistance for hybrid seed production. But on the other hand avirulence in the parasite is also controlled by dominant alleles at a single gene. Monogenic, dominant resistance exerts a strong selection pressure on the parasite that maximizes the probability of overcoming resistance mechanisms in a short period of time. This has in fact resulted in a number of physiological races that periodically surpass all the available resistance sources. The spread of populations to new areas and the subsequent hybridization between populations is another mechanism creating genetic diversity in sunflower broomrape and allegedly recombination of avirulences genes. After more than one century of coexistence, genetic resistance to broomrape in sunflower has to be focused under an integrated approach that considers not only the characterization of resistance mechanisms in the host, but also the genetic and physiological bases of avirulence in the parasite. From the perspective of genetic resistance in sunflower, most important is not relying only on single dominant genes, but following instead pyramiding strategies. These should give priority to combining complementary mechanisms of resistance under both qualitative (vertical and quantitative (horizontal genetic control. These aspects are discussed in the paper.

  17. Analytical importance of determination of lipase activity for the express analysis of contamination by heavy metals of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Dyachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades becoming more sharply there is a problem of chemical and environmental monitoring and industrial inspection the content of toxic elements in food raw materials and foodstuff. At the same time there is a need to develop rapid methods, informative, integral, reflecting not only the safety but also the ecological purity of food raw materials. The method of determination of content of toxic elements on activity of its own lipase of in situ (AОL-method in seeds of oil-bearing crops, on the example of sunflower is offered. The system of mathematical assessment of analytical criteria of laboratory test used in clinical laboratory diagnostics was for this purpose adapted. Sunflower seeds in which established the maintenance of toxiferous elements served as an object of a research: Cd, Pb, As, Hg, by atomic absorption method on the KVANT-Z.ETA device. Further tests divided on clear, including high-quality and pollution-free, and polluted - naturally containing toxiferous elements and which are artificially contaminated. Definition of activity of a lipase of seeds was carried out by the standard titrimetric method. Decrease of the activity of enzyme was connected with the maintenance of toxiferous elements. Proceeding from the received results counted an analytical significance (sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of descriptiveness the positive and negative results of determination of level of maintenance of toxiferous elements in sunflower seeds by the AОL-method. The set values of analytical specificity of a method and predictive value of a positive take at the level of 77.3% and 71.4% respectively, do not allow to use the offered method for the quantitative analysis, however, analytical sensitivity at the level of 86.2% and the predictive value of the negative result at the level of 89.5%, allow to recommend the AOL-method for screening programs of chemical environmental monitoring and technological monitoring of a

  18. History of the race structure of Orobanche cumana and the breeding of sunflower for resistance to this parasitic weed: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinero-Ruiz, L.; Delavault, P.; Pérez-Vich, B.; Pacureanu-Joita, M.; Bulos, M.; Altieri, E.; Domínguez, J.

    2015-07-01

    Broomrape, caused by Orobanche cumana, has affected sunflowers since the early 20th century in Eastern Europe. Currently, it limits sunflower oil production in Southern and Eastern Europe and in some areas of Asia, causing around 50% seed losses when susceptible hybrids are grown. Covered in this review are aspects such as: biological processes that are common to Orobanche spp. and/or particular to O. cumana in sunflower, genetic resistance and its mechanisms, races of the parasite identified in different countries throughout the time and their increasing virulence, and breeding for resistance to some herbicides as a novel control option. The main purpose is to present an updated and, as far as possible, complete picture of the way both the parasitic weed and its host crop have evolved in time, and how they co-exist in the current agriculture. Additionally, we propose a system for determining the races of the parasite that can be internationally adopted from now. In the context of minimal harmful effects on the environment, changing patterns of land use in farming systems, and global environment changes, the final goal of this work is to provide all those interested in parasites from field crops and their integrated management compiled information on the sunflower – O. cumana system as a case study. (Author)

  19. History of the race structure of Orobanche cumana and the breeding of sunflower for resistance to this parasitic weed: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leire Molinero-Ruiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Broomrape, caused by Orobanche cumana, has affected sunflowers since the early 20th century in Eastern Europe. Currently, it limits sunflower oil production in Southern and Eastern Europe and in some areas of Asia, causing around 50% seed losses when susceptible hybrids are grown. Covered in this review are aspects such as: biological processes that are common to Orobanche spp. and/or particular to O. cumana in sunflower, genetic resistance and its mechanisms, races of the parasite identified in different countries throughout the time and their increasing virulence, and breeding for resistance to some herbicides as a novel control option. The main purpose is to present an updated and, as far as possible, complete picture of the way both the parasitic weed and its host crop have evolved in time, and how they co-exist in the current agriculture. Additionally, we propose a system for determining the races of the parasite that can be internationally adopted from now. In the context of minimal harmful effects on the environment, changing patterns of land use in farming systems, and global environment changes, the final goal of this work is to provide all those interested in parasites from field crops and their integrated management compiled information on the sunflower – O. cumana system as a case study.

  20. Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils.

  1. Fresh and matured lamb meat quality fed with sunflower seeds and vitamin E

    OpenAIRE

    Sales,Ronaldo Oliveira; Silva Sobrinho,Américo Garcia da; Zeola,Nivea Maria Brancacci Lopes; Lima,Natália Ludmila Lins; Manzi,Gabriela Milani; Almeida,Fabiana Alves de; Endo,Viviane

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate meat quality from Ile de France lamb fed diets supplemented with sunflower seeds and vitamin E. Thirty-two lamb weighing initially 15kg were housed in individual stalls and slaughtered when body weight reached 32kg. The treatments consisted of four experimental diets: D1) sugarcane + concentrate without sunflower seeds; D2) sugarcane + concentrate with sunflower seeds; D3) sugarcane + concentrate without sunflower seeds plus 1000mg vitamin E kg-1 diet...

  2. [Protective effect of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on myocardial infarction in New Zealand rabbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia-Espinoza, Edith; Herrera-Hurtado, Gianina Liseth del Carmen; Garrido-Jacobi, Saúl; Cárdenas-Peralta, Danitza; Martínez-Romero, Christian; Hernández-Figueroa, Pedro; Condori-Calizaya, Mary; La Barrera-Llacchua, Juan; Flores-Ángeles, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Determine the protective effect of oil Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) on myocardial infarction induced by epinephrine in New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were randomized into five groups (8 per group): blank, negative control, experimental 1 (10 mg / kg), experimental 2 (20 mg / kg) and three experimental (40 mg/ kg). Experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 received Helianthus annuus oil for two weeks. Epinephrine (2 mg/Kg) to the negative, Experimental Control 1, 2 and 3 groups was given over two consecutive days with an interval of 24 h after pretreatment with oil. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the rabbits were anesthetized and sacrificed. Serum troponin I and polymorphonuclear evaluated by .mu.m.sup.2. Significant difference between the negative control group and the experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 was found in the serum variables troponin I and polymorphonuclear by .mu.m.sup.2. Helianthus annuus oil at doses of 20 mg/kg has protective effect on myocardial infarction induced by epinephrine in New Zealand rabbits.

  3. Production and morphological components of sunflower on soil fertilized with cassava wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Suyane Marques Dantas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agroindustrial residues, such as cassava wastewater, have been used as soil fertilizers, reducing environmental pollution and recovering nutrients. The objective of this work was to evaluate production and morphological components and oil yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, hybrid Helio-250, fertilized with cassava wastewater. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Instituto Agronomico de Pernambuco, Vitória de Santo Antão, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. A randomized block experimental design was used, with six cassava wastewater rates (0, 8.5, 17.0, 34.0, 68.0 and 136 m3 ha-1 and four replications. The variables evaluated were shoot fresh and dry weight, capitulum fresh and dry weight, capitulum diameter, seed yield, oil yield and seed oil content. The use cassava wastewater as soil fertilizer improved the production and morphological variables evaluated, except the seed oil content, which decreased with application of cassava wastewater rates above 25 m3 ha-1.

  4. Guiding characteristics of sunflower-type fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Exian; Yan, Bei; Tan, Wei; Xie, Jianlan; Ge, Rui; Liu, Jianjun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the guiding characteristics of sunflower-type fiber (SFF) with 6-fold rotational symmetry are investigated theoretically using finite element method (FEM). The behavior of single-mode propagation in SFF is verified. Numerical results reveal that, the cutoff ratio for endlessly single-mode propagation in SFF is 0.575 which is larger than that of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and photonic quasi-crystal fiber (PQF). Moreover, SFF can present ultra-flattened near-zero chromatic dispersion, 0.249 ± 1.146 ps/nm/km, in a broadband of wavelength covering 1.20-1.84 μm over all the telecommunication wavelengths. In term of chromatic dispersion and confinement loss in the wavelength range from 1.00 to 2.00 μm, a comparison between SFF, PCF and PQF with same structure parameters is carried out. Importantly, the rotational symmetry, as a new manageable structure parameter beyond common air hole diameter and lattice constant, can be employed to manipulate the chromatic dispersion, confinement loss, effective mode area and non-linear coefficient and it dependences on these guiding characteristics are discussed in detail.

  5. Genetics of alternative splicing evolution during sunflower domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris C R; Tittes, Silas; Mendieta, J Paul; Collier-Zans, Erin; Rowe, Heather C; Rieseberg, Loren H; Kane, Nolan C

    2018-06-11

    Alternative splicing enables organisms to produce the diversity of proteins necessary for multicellular life by using relatively few protein-coding genes. Although differences in splicing have been identified among divergent taxa, the shorter-term evolution of splicing is understudied. The origins of novel splice forms, and the contributions of alternative splicing to major evolutionary transitions, are largely unknown. This study used transcriptomes of wild and domesticated sunflowers to examine splice differentiation and regulation during domestication. We identified substantial splicing divergence between wild and domesticated sunflowers, mainly in the form of intron retention. Transcripts with divergent splicing were enriched for seed-development functions, suggesting that artificial selection impacted splicing patterns. Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with 144 differential splicing cases revealed primarily trans -acting variation affecting splicing patterns. A large proportion of identified QTLs contain known spliceosome proteins and are associated with splicing variation in multiple genes. Examining a broader set of wild and domesticated sunflower genotypes revealed that most differential splicing patterns in domesticated sunflowers likely arose from standing variation in wild Helianthus annuus and gained frequency during the domestication process. However, several domesticate-associated splicing patterns appear to be introgressed from other Helianthus species. These results suggest that sunflower domestication involved selection on pleiotropic regulatory alleles. More generally, our findings indicate that substantial differences in isoform abundances arose rapidly during a recent evolutionary transition and appear to contribute to adaptation and population divergence.

  6. Drought Stress Responses of Sunflower Germplasm Developed after Wide Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumiana Dimova Vassilevska-Ivanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Response of sunflower germplasms viz. cultivated sunflower H. annuus and two breeding lines H. annuus x T. rotundifolia and H. annuus x V. encelioides developed after wide hybridization were used for identification of drought tolerant sunflower genotypes at the seedling growth stage. Three water stress levels of zero (control, -0.4, and -0.8 MPa were developed using polyethyleneglycol-6000 (PEG-6000. Physiological and biochemical stress determining parameters such as root and shoots length, fresh weight, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, guaiacol peroxidase (GPO, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and antioxidant metabolite content (total antioxidant capacity, total phenols and total flavonoids content were compared between seedlings of all three genotypes. Results revealed that sunflower genotypes have similar responses at two osmotic potentials for shoot and root length and fresh weight. The data also showed that drought stresss could induce oxidative stress, as indicated by the increase level of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase at -04 MPa in H. annuus cv 1114. Although the activity of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase was differentially influenced by drought, the changes of antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase subjected to drought stress follow a similar pattern in both breeding lines, indicating that similar defense systems might be involved in the oxidative stress injury in sunflowers. Increase in content of phenols and flavonoids were detected for all three genotypes under stress, which showed that these were major antioxidant metabolites in scavenging cellular H2O2.

  7. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade...

  8. The characteristics of polysaccharides fractions of sunflower obtained in dynamic mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhkamov, Kh.K.; Gorshkova, R.M.; Khalikova, S.

    2013-01-01

    Present article describes characteristics of polysaccharides fractions of sunflower obtained in dynamic mode. The decomposition of sunflower pectin was studied by means of continuous fractionation method in dynamic regime. It was found that the process is of extreme nature due to heterogeneity of its macromolecule structure. The additional information on macromolecule structure of sunflower pectin was obtained.

  9. Estimating demand and supply of edible oil in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Haq, Rashida

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the demand for edible oil in Pakistan and a dynamic supply response model to show price responsiveness by sunflower oilseed farmers. The demand for edible oil is estimated by using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique. It has been found that an increase in the consumption of edible oil is highly affected by urbanization, increase in per capita income, relative high price of its substitutes and the rapid growth of the population. In order to estimate supply response model ...

  10. Some results of applied interspecific hybridization in sunflower breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations on the interspecific hybridization in sunflower, aimed at developing a diversified initial selection material, were carried out Wild species of the diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid groups, varieties, hybrids, and selfed-lines of cultivated sunflower were used for crossings. To overcome incrossability between the species and sterility in the hybrids the method of f;cilitating of crossability by mutual gra'fting and gamma-rays treatment of seeds and pollen were applied. Results showed that: 1. By the method of interspecific hybridization forms might be produced resistant to more important diseases. 2. Interspecific hybridization in combination with other methods of selection might produce varieties and hybrids with a complex of valuable qualities. 3. Crossings between wild species and cultivated sunflower gave progenies with gene rale sterility. 4. The species H.tuberosus, H.scaberimus, H.arωphylus and H.lenticularis possess genes of full fertility restoration. (author)

  11. [Study of Chloroplast DNA Polymorphism in the Sunflower (Helianthus L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markina, N V; Usatov, A V; Logacheva, M D; Azarin, K V; Gorbachenko, C F; Kornienko, I V; Gavrilova, V A; Tihobaeva, V E

    2015-08-01

    The polymorphism of microsatellite loci of chloroplast genome in six Helianthus species and 46 lines of cultivated sunflower H. annuus (17 CMS lines and 29 Rf-lines) were studied. The differences between species are confined to four SSR loci. Within cultivated forms of the sunflower H. annuus, the polymorphism is absent. A comparative analysis was performed on sequences of the cpDNA inbred line 3629, line 398941 of the wild sunflower, and the American line HA383 H. annuus. As a result, 52 polymorphic loci represented by 27 SSR and 25 SNP were found; they can be used for genotyping of H. annuus samples, including cultural varieties: twelve polymorphic positions, of which eight are SSR and four are SNP.

  12. Dynamics of world oil crops market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the harvested area, oil crops are the second most important crops after cereals. Soybean is the most important oil crop in terms of production and trade of oilseeds and meals, and second most important in terms of production and trade of vegetable oils after palm oil. Dynamics of prices of derived oil crop products in the international market is conditioned by the relationship between supply and demand in the overall market of oil crops. The substitution of animal fats with vegetable oils in human nutrition, the expansion of biodiesel industry and intensification of livestock production have led to increased demand for oil crops. The objective of this paper was to identify trends in production, consumption and trade of soybeans, rapeseed and sunflower and their derived products.

  13. Resistance of sunflower hybrids to imazamox and tribenuron-methyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozic, D; Saric, M; Malidza, G

    2012-01-01

    The response of the imazamox resistant and susceptible sunflower hybrids Rimi and S to imazamox and of tribenuron-methyl resistant and susceptible hybrids Rsu and S to tribenuron-methyl was investigated both in a whole-plant bioassay and in field experiments. Plants were treated post-emergence wi......The response of the imazamox resistant and susceptible sunflower hybrids Rimi and S to imazamox and of tribenuron-methyl resistant and susceptible hybrids Rsu and S to tribenuron-methyl was investigated both in a whole-plant bioassay and in field experiments. Plants were treated post...

  14. Phytoremediation of Lead and Cadmium Contaminated Soils using Sunflower Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Sewalem; Soad Elfeky; Fatma El- Shintinawy

    2014-01-01

    Phytremediation has emerged as a practical approach to clean up metal-polluted soils. In this study the role of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) plants as a potential phytoremediator to soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) was investigated. Our results showed that the effect of Cd was stronger on the growth of the roots, while the effect of Pb was stronger on the shoots of sunflower seedlings. At the physiological level, Cd treatment was found to induce low levels of lipid pero...

  15. Environmentally friendly properties of vegetable oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gateau Paul

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements were carried out on Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters (VOME or FAME answering the most recent specifications. The products tested are RME (Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester, ERME (Erucic Rapeseed oil Methyl Esters, SME (Sunflower oil Methyl Esters, and HOSME (High Oleic Sunflower oil Methyl Esters. They contain more than 99.5% of fatty acid mono esters. The compositions are given. VOME are not volatile and they are not easily flammable. They are not soluble in water and they are biodegradable. According to the methods implemented for the determination of the German classification of substances hazardous to waters WGK, they are not toxic on mammals and unlike diesel fuel they are not toxic on fish, daphnia, algae and bacteria. The RME is not either toxic for shrimps. According to tests on rabbits, RME and SME are not irritating for the skin and the eyes. VOME display particularly attractive environmental properties.

  16. Breeding sunflower for drought tolerance: genetic variability for drought torrance in sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.K.; Ilyas, M.; Rehman, O.U.

    1994-01-01

    Five inbred lines and their all possible crosses excluding reciprocals were evaluated for tolerance to drought and effect of drought adversely influenced the traits of leaf area, days to maturity, head diameter, 100-achene weight and achene yield per plant, whereas number of leaves per plant and plant height were comparatively less affected. Average performance of sunflower cross/hybrids was far more better than parental lines. Inbred lines GIMSUN-420x-431 and GIMSUN-498x-477 produced higher achene yield under drought conditions and showed less loses than other. Effect of drought on various growth stages showed that button (R1 stage) was the most critical as compared to 50% flowering (R5 stage) and seed formation (R6 stage) which reduced leaf area, head diameter, 100-achene weight and achene yield per plant by 40-59, 32-14 and 31-07 percent respectively. (author)

  17. HOW PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE OILS ARE IMPROVED BY ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA AMARIEI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to find out whether the addition of essential oils determines better oxidation stability and positive change of sensory and hedonic perception of edible oils. The oxidation stability of sunflower, corn and grape seed oils was analyzed in the presence of antioxidants in essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and basil (Ocimum basilicum during storage, under conditions of accelerated oxidative processes (4 days, at 60 °C. The total phenolic compounds of these essential oils were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of basil, rosemary and thyme essential oils in comparison with known synthetic antioxidant L(+-ascorbic acid. The addition of essential oils to edible oils, the amounts proposed in analyses, determines a favorable influence on their oxidation stability as well as their taste. The influence of addition of essential oils on the taste of edible oils was studied in two products consumed mainly at breakfast, bread and spinach leaves. The results recommend the use of these plant extracts as additives in edible oils rather than synthetic antioxidants.

  18. Effects of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water on seed germination, seedling development, and biomass production of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina; de Souza, Paulo Sérgio Alves; Rigo, Michelle Machado; Cerqueira, Alexandre Andrade; de Paiva, Julieta L; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel Vidal

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate possible toxic effects of oil and other contaminants from oilfield-produced water from oil exploration and production, on seed germination, and seedling development of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). In comparison, as treated by electroflocculation, oilfield-produced water, with lower oil and organic matter content, was also used. Electroflocculation treatment of oilfield-produced water achieved significant removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (94 %), oil and grease (O&G) (96 %), color (97 %), and turbidity (99 %). Different O&G, COD, and salt levels of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water did not influence germination process and seedling biomass production. Normal seedlings percentage and vigor tended to decrease more intensely in O&G and COD levels, higher than 337.5 mg L(-1) and 1321 mg O2 L(-1), respectively, using untreated oilfield-produced water. These results indicate that this industrial effluent must be treated, in order to not affect adversely seedling development. This way, electroflocculation treatment appears as an interesting alternative to removing oil and soluble organic matter in excess from oilfield-produced water improving sunflower's seedling development and providing a friendly environmental destination for this wastewater, reducing its potential to harm water resources, soil, and biota.

  19. Association mapping in sunflower for sclerotinia head rot resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusari Corina M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sclerotinia Head Rot (SHR is one of the most damaging diseases of sunflower in Europe, Argentina, and USA, causing average yield reductions of 10 to 20 %, but leading to total production loss under favorable environmental conditions for the pathogen. Association Mapping (AM is a promising choice for Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL mapping, as it detects relationships between phenotypic variation and gene polymorphisms in existing germplasm without development of mapping populations. This article reports the identification of QTL for resistance to SHR based on candidate gene AM. Results A collection of 94 sunflower inbred lines were tested for SHR under field conditions using assisted inoculation with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Given that no biological mechanisms or biochemical pathways have been clearly identified for SHR, 43 candidate genes were selected based on previous transcript profiling studies in sunflower and Brassica napus infected with S. sclerotiorum. Associations among SHR incidence and haplotype polymorphisms in 16 candidate genes were tested using Mixed Linear Models (MLM that account for population structure and kinship relationships. This approach allowed detection of a significant association between the candidate gene HaRIC_B and SHR incidence (P  Conclusions These results suggest that AM will be useful in dissecting other complex traits in sunflower, thus providing a valuable tool to assist in crop breeding.

  20. A tripartite approach identifies the major sunflower seed albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Achala S; Franke, Bastian; Rosengren, Johan; Mylne, Joshua S

    2016-03-01

    We have used a combination of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches to identify the napin-type albumin genes in sunflower and define their contributions to the seed albumin pool. Seed protein content is determined by the expression of what are typically large gene families. A major class of seed storage proteins is the napin-type, water soluble albumins. In this work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the napin-type albumin content of the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by analyzing a draft genome, a transcriptome and performing a proteomic analysis of the seed albumin fraction. We show that although sunflower contains at least 26 genes for napin-type albumins, only 15 of these are present at the mRNA level. We found protein evidence for 11 of these but the albumin content of mature seeds is dominated by the encoded products of just three genes. So despite high genetic redundancy for albumins, only a small sub-set of this gene family contributes to total seed albumin content. The three genes identified as producing the majority of sunflower seed albumin are potential future candidates for manipulation through genetics and breeding.

  1. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in varieties of sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... The effect of single treatment with gamma-rays, sodium azide and combination treatments of gamma- rays and sodium azide on seed germination, seedling survival, pollen fertility and seed set in sunflower. (Helianthus annuus L.) M2 generation was studied in the varieties of USH-430 and SHSF-333.

  2. Association Mapping and the Genomic Consequences of Selection in Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jennifer R.; Nambeesan, Savithri; Bowers, John E.; Marek, Laura F.; Ebert, Daniel; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Knapp, Steven J.; Burke, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of large-scale population genomic analyses and trait-based mapping approaches has the potential to provide novel insights into the evolutionary history and genome organization of crop plants. Here, we describe the detailed genotypic and phenotypic analysis of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) association mapping population that captures nearly 90% of the allelic diversity present within the cultivated sunflower germplasm collection. We used these data to characterize overall patterns of genomic diversity and to perform association analyses on plant architecture (i.e., branching) and flowering time, successfully identifying numerous associations underlying these agronomically and evolutionarily important traits. Overall, we found variable levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome. In general, islands of elevated LD correspond to genomic regions underlying traits that are known to have been targeted by selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower. In many cases, these regions also showed significantly elevated levels of differentiation between the two major sunflower breeding groups, consistent with the occurrence of divergence due to strong selection. One of these regions, which harbors a major branching locus, spans a surprisingly long genetic interval (ca. 25 cM), indicating the occurrence of an extended selective sweep in an otherwise recombinogenic interval. PMID:23555290

  3. Structure of pectic polysaccharides from sunflower salts-soluble fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript discusses the structural features of pectin polysaccharides extracted from seedless sunflower head residues. The analysis using 1H, 13C and two-dimensional gHSQC NMR showed various numbers of methyl and hydroxyl groups attached to the anomeric carbons in the pectin backbone at differe...

  4. Effect of Dietary Inclussion of Antibiotics and Wild Sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of addition of penicillin, streptomycin and wild sunflower leaf in layer diet on the performance of hens was investigated. Forty (40) Shaver Brown layers at twenty four weeks of age were involved in a completely randomized design experiment. They were randomly allocated to give dietary treatments.

  5. Quantification of alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids in sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelochemicals in leaves, stems and roots of sunflower (cv Hysun 38) were determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for alkaloids and spectrophotometry for phenols and flavonoids. In the TLC, the highest Rf value was recorded in leaves, followed by roots and stems, a sequence that held true also for the quantity ...

  6. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were established at Research Farm, Bahauddin Zakariya University, (BZU) Multan, Pakistan, during the spring season of 2009 to study the interactive effect of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids in terms of growth, fraction of intercepted radiation (Fi), intercepted photo-synthetically active ...

  7. Tillage effects on soil. Physical properties and sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil physical properties and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) yield under convectional tillage (CT) and zero-tillage (Z,TJ. was monitored for 3 consecutive years in Ilorin, Southern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria (SGSZN). While bulk density of CT increased slightly over the years, significant decrease of 12 and 8% were ...

  8. Effect of growing degree days on autumn planted sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) having high degree of adaptability under wide range of climatic conditions, allow the crop to be productive in broad range of environments. Field experiments in autumn were laid out at Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan for two years (2007 and 2008), ...

  9. Allelopathic potential of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... The effect of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) variety, namely Hysun 38, on metals and of aqueous extracts of its leaves on germination in two varieties of wheat, namely Margalla 99 and Chakwall 97, were studied under laboratory conditions. In particular, the effect of leaf extract on hormones produced ...

  10. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Nunes Vieira da Silva, J.V.; Barbosa Justino, F.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different

  11. Cross reaction between P-61 sunflower seedlings oleosomal protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A true triacylglycerol lipase was detected in germinating sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings associated to oleosomes. This enzyme that has not yet been identified was partially purified as shown by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) (10%); two protein bands, P-61 and P-66 ...

  12. Sunflower proteins : overview of their physicochemical, structural and functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Pérez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing worldwide demand for proteins of both animal and plant origin. However, animal proteins are expensive in terms of both market price and environmental impact. Among alternative plant proteins, sunflower seeds are particularly interesting in view of their widespread availability in

  13. SUNflower +6 : a comparative study of the development of road safety in the SUNflower +6 countries : final report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary

  14. Effects of fatty acids composition and microstructure properties of fats and oils on textural properties of dough and cookie quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Amita; Khatkar, B S

    2018-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition and microstructure properties of fats and oils on the textural properties of cookie dough and quality attributes of cookies. Fatty acid composition and microstructure properties of six fats and oils (butter, hydrogenated fat, palm oil, coconut oil, groundnut oil, and sunflower oil) were analyzed. Sunflower oil was found to be the most unsaturated oil with 88.39% unsaturated fatty acid content. Coconut oil and palm oil differed from other fats and oils by having an appreciable amount of lauric acid (59.36%) and palmitic acid (42.14%), respectively. Microstructure size of all fats and oils ranged from 1 to 20 μm being the largest for coconut oil and the smallest for palm oil. In palm oil, small rod-shaped and randomly arranged microstructures were observed, whereas sunflower oil and groundnut oil possessed large, scattered ovule shaped microstructures. It was reported that sunflower oil produced the softest dough, the largest cookie spread and the hardest cookie texture, whereas hydrogenated fat produced the stiffest dough, the lowest spread and most tender cookies. Statistical analysis depicted that palmitic acid and oleic acid demonstrated a positive correlation with dough hardness. Linoleic acid exhibited positive link with cookie spread ratio (r = 0.836**) and breaking strength (r = 0.792**). Microstructure size showed a significant positive relationship with dough density (r = 0.792**), cookie density (r = 0.386*), spread ratio (r = 0.312*), and breaking strength (r = 0.303*).

  15. Determinants of edible oil choice by households in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Gurrappa Naidu; Suryaprakash, Satrasala

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the major determinants that influence the choice of edible oils by households across geographical zones in Tamil Nadu state, India. The primary data from 1,000 sample households were collected using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Multinomial logit model was fitted for determining the factors. The results revealed that education, income, and households with a history of health problems were the important determinants that influenced the choice of low-saturated-fat oils, whereas the larger size households and weaker section households preferred low-priced palm oil. Income and education levels in Tamil Nadu state surged ahead in recent years. In consonance to these changes the nontraditional low-saturated fat containing sunflower oil demand will increase in many folds in coming years. Hence, besides traditional oils, sunflower oil production has to be stepped up on "mission mode" through appropriate production programs to meet the present and future edible oil demand domestically.

  16. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fatty acid synthase complex: enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Thuillier, Irene; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Garcés, Rafael; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductases from sunflower. A major factor contributing to the amount of fatty acids in plant oils are the first steps of their synthesis. The intraplastidic fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in plants is catalysed by type II fatty acid synthase (FAS). The last step in each elongation cycle is carried out by the enoyl-[ACP]-reductase, which reduces the dehydrated product of β-hydroxyacyl-[ACP] dehydrase using NADPH or NADH. To determine the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds, two enoyl-[ACP]-reductase genes have been identified and cloned from developing seeds with 75 % identity: HaENR1 (GenBank HM021137) and HaENR2 (HM021138). The two genes belong to the ENRA and ENRB families in dicotyledons, respectively. The genetic duplication most likely originated after the separation of di- and monocotyledons. RT-qPCR revealed distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. Highest expression of HaENR1 was in roots, stems and developing cotyledons whereas that of H a ENR2 was in leaves and early stages of seed development. Genomic DNA gel blot analyses suggest that both are single-copy genes. In vivo activity of the ENR enzymes was tested by complementation experiments with the JP1111 fabI(ts) E. coli strain. Both enzymes were functional demonstrating that they interacted with the bacterial FAS components. That different fatty acid profiles resulted infers that the two Helianthus proteins have different structures, substrate specificities and/or reaction rates. The latter possibility was confirmed by in vitro analysis with affinity-purified heterologous-expressed enzymes that reduced the crotonyl-CoA substrate using NADH with different V max.

  17. Ovipositional preference and larval performance of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its larval parasitoids on resistant and susceptible lines of sunflower (Asterales: Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is one of the most destructive seed-feeding insect pests of sunflowers, causing significant economic yield losses in the northern Great Plains. In an attempt to understand host-plant resistance mechanisms for this pest, we field tested over several ...

  18. A diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil reduces the lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and increases the relative content of n-3 fatty acids in serum in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, I B; Vessby, B; Ohrvall, M; Nydahl, M

    1994-03-01

    The effects of 3 wk on a diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil were compared with those of a diet containing sunflower oil within a lipid-lowering diet. Ninety-five subjects with moderate hyperlipoproteinemia were randomly assigned to one of the two well-controlled diets prepared at the hospital kitchen. Total serum, low-density- and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 15%, 16%, and 11% (P oil diet and by 16%, 14%, and 13% (P oil diet. Serum triglycerides decreased more markedly (by 29%, P oil than on the rapeseed oil diet (14%, P oil diet but decreased on the sunflower oil diet. There was an increase in the alpha-tocopherol concentrations after both diets. The findings indicate that low erucic acid rapeseed oil can replace oils and fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids in a lipid-lowering diet.

  19. Heterotic effects in f/sub 1s/ and inbreeding depression in f/sub 2/ hybrids of sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, S.; Baloch, M.J.; Baloch, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    genetically diverse female lines of sunflower were crossed with male testers to get heterotic hybrids. studies were carried-out during 2008-2010 at experiment filed of agriculture research institute, tandojam, sindh, pakistan. six female lines like t-4-0319, pac-0505, ho-i, hysun-33, peshawar-93 and cms-03 and three testers i.e., pac-0306, pac-64-a and sf-187 were crossed in a line * tester mating design, thus 18 f1 and f2 hybrids were developed for evaluation of heterosis and inbreeding depression for days to initial flowering, days to maturity, leaves/plant, plant height (cm), head diameter (cm), 1000-achene weight (g), seed yield kg/ha and oil yield kg/ha. the experiment was conducted in a randomised completeb lock design with four replications. the analysis of variance revealed significant differences among parents, f1s and f2 hybrids for all the traits studied. the existence of significant genetic variability among the plant traits is particularly useful because variations in these traits would allow further improvement in sunflower seed yield and oil traits. the f1 hybrids ho-i * pac-0306 and ho-i pa * c-64-a exhibited desirable negative mid and better parent heterosis for days to initial flowering, days to maturity and plant height. these hybrids also manifested desirable positive heterotic effects for leaves/plant, head diameter, 1000-achene.s weight, seed yield and oil yield. inbreeding depression for phenological, seed yield and oil traits showed that desirable high inbreeding depression was observed in hybrids ho-i * p*ac-64-a, ho-i * pac-0306 and ho-i * sf-187 for days to initial flowering, similarly t-4-0319 * pac-0306, pac-0505 ± sf-187 and ho-i * pac-64-a explicated maximum but rewarding inbreeding depression for days to maturity. the f2 hybrids hysun-33 * sf-187 and peshawer-93 * pac-64-a may be the most desirable ones in the sense that they recorded comparatively moderate inbreeding depression with enough number of leaves to be productive if f2

  20. Growth and N2-fixation of dhaincha (Sesbania aculata) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in an inter cropping system using natural abundances of 15N and 13C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2010-06-01

    A field experiment on dhaincha (Sesbania aculata) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants grown in mono cropping and inter cropping systems was conducted to evaluate seed yield , oil content, dry matter production (DM), land equivalent ratio (LER), N- yield, competition for soil N uptake and N 2 -fixation using 13 C and 15 N natural abundance techniques. Three different combinations of sesbania (ses) and sunflower (sun) were investigated in the inter cropping system (1ses:1sun; 1ses:2sun, and 2ses:1sun, row ratio). The results showed that: From productivity standpoint, the 1ses:1sun surpassed the other treatments in terms of N and DM yields and exhibited a similar distribution of total DM and N uptake in the sesbania and sunflower plant species. The 1ses:2sun was next in order in terms of DM and N uptake showing also a similar distribution of total N in both plant species. On the other hand, the 1ses:2sun gave the greatest seed and oil production and together with 1ses:1sun treatment were satisfactory in terms of LER for DM in both species having almost similar values. However, the former treatment was more appropriate than the latter because of its higher LER value for seed and oil yield of sunflower plants. Nevertheless, 2ses:1sun treatment seemed not to be an appropriate treatment due to the divergence of LER values in both species, where sunflower plants had a low value as compared to sesbania. From ecological standpoint, the best treatment was 1ses:2sun which showed the greatest N 2 -fixation. Sesbania plants fixed almost identical amounts of atmospheric N 2 in both the mono cropping and inter cropping systems although the density of these plants in the latter was only 1/3 that of the former system. Moreover, soil N-uptake in the 1ses:2sun was the lowest among other treatments. These results give an advantage to the 1ses:2sun treatment over other treatments in terms of soil N consumption and N 2 fixation to meet sesbania's N requirements. %Δ 13 C in the

  1. Arsenic-contaminated soils. Phytotoxicity studies with sunflower and sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubun, Y.V.; Kosterin, P.V.; Zakharova, E.A.; Fedorov, E.E. [Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov (Russian Federation); Shcherbakov, A.A. [Saratov Military Inst. of Radiological, Chemical and Biological Defence, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Background, Aim and Scope. Environmental pollution caused by arsenic (As) is a major ecological problem. There has been intense worldwide effort to find As-hyperaccumulating plants that can be used in phytoremediation - the green-plant-assisted removal of chemical pollutants from soils. For phytoremediation, it is natural to prefer cultivated rather than wild plants, because their agriculture is well known. This study was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and sugar sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum Pers.) for soil-As contents of 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil, with sodium arsenite as a model contaminant. Methods. Plants were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days. Microfield experiments were conducted on experimental plots. To study the phytoremediation effect of the auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), we treated 1- and 3-day-old plant seedlings with water solutions of the auxins (concentrations of 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -7}, and 10{sup -9} g l{sup -1}). The soil and plant-biomass samples were analyzed for total As by using the color reaction of ammonium molybdate with As. Results and Discussion. Phytotoxicity studies showed that 100 mg as kg{sup -1} soil poisoned sunflower and sorghum growth by 50%. There was a linear correlation between soil-As content and As accumulation in the plants. Laboratory experiments showed that the soil-As content was reduced two- to threefold after sunflower had been grown with 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil for 30 days. Treatment of sunflower and sorghum seedlings with IAA and 2,4-D at a concentration of 10{sup -5} g l{sup -1} in microfield experiments enhanced the phytoremediation two- to fivefold as compared with untreated control plants. The best results were obtained with 3-day-old seedlings. Conclusion, Recommendation and Outlook. (a) Sunflower and sorghum are good candidates to remediate As-polluted soils. (b) Phytoremediation can be improved with IAA or 2

  2. CONTRIBUTIONS TO EVALUATION OF THE BIODEGRADABILITY BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND OTHER FUNGI’S OF SOME INSULATING OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral insulating oils used in electrical equipment because of their toxic organic substances and xenobiotic, represents a major risk to the environment - to accidental spills pollute soil, groundwater and surface water. By microbiological tests were evaluated the biodegradability of some insulating oils used in electrical equipment. The assays were performed in comparison with edible sunflower oil and with a control sample (culture medium - without oil. The experimental results indicate that the mineral oils are more readily biodegradable than synthetic ester oil and vegetable oils. It was also found that oils with high sulfur content are more readily biodegradable.

  3. Oilfield water treatment by electrocoagulation-reverse osmosis for agricultural use: effects on germination and early growth characteristics of sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo S A; Cerqueira, Alexandre A; Rigo, Michelle M; de Paiva, Julieta L; Couto, Rafael S P; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel V; Marques, Monica R C

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of oilfield water (OW), treated by a hybrid process of electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis (EC-RO), on seed germination and early growth characteristics of sunflower (Heliantus annus L.). In the EC step, tests were conducted with 28.6 A m -2 current density and 4 min. reaction time. In the RO step, the system was operated with 1 L min -1 constant flow and 2 MPa, 2.5 MPa and 3 MPa feed pressures. In all feed pressures, RO polymeric membranes achieved very high removals of chemical oxygen demand (up to 89%) and oils and greases (100%) from EC-treated effluent. In best feed pressure (2.5 MPa), turbidity, total dissolved salts, electrical conductivity, salinity, toxic ions and sodium adsorption ratio values attained internationally recognized standards for irrigation water. Using EC-RO (feed pressure:2.5 MPa) treated OW, germinated sunflower seeds percentage (86 ± 6%), speed of germination (30 ± 2) and biomass production (49 ± 5 mg) were statistically similar to control (distilled water) results. Vigor index average values obtained using OW treated by EC-RO (3871)were higher than that obtained by OW water treated by EC (3300). The results of this study indicate that EC-RO seems to be a promising alternative for treatment of OW aiming sunflower crops irrigation, since the use of this treated effluent did not affect adversely seed germination and seedling development, and improved seedling vigor. Furthermore, OW treatment by EC-RO reduces sodium levels into acceptable standards values avoiding soil degradation.

  4. Improving tolerance of sunflower and safflower during growth stages to salinity through foliar spray of nutrient solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, N.; Ahmad, R.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of salinity and foliar application of nutrient solutions on sunflower and safflower in vegetative and reproductive phases of the growth were investigated in Bio saline Research Field, University of Karachi, Pakistan. The seeds were sown in pots under non saline condition and saline water irrigation was started at three leaf stage after germination. Different concentration of saline water were made by dissolving 3g and 6g sea salt per litre of tap water, equivalent to an EC of 4.8 and 8.6 dS/m respectively. Nutrient solution (KNO/sub 3 /, H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/, Fe-EDTA or its mixture) was sprayed thrice, i.e., 45, 75 and 95 days after planting. KNO/sub 3/ was given at the rate 250 ppm and other H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/ and Fe-EDTA was given at the rate 5 ppm. Salinity caused a significant reduction in nutrient uptake, height, biomass and yield of both sunflower and safflower. Foliar application of macro and micro nutrients (i.e. KNO/sub 3/, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, Fe-EDTA and mixture of KNO/sub 3/ + H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + Fe-EDTA) partially minimized the salt induced deficiency and showed significant increase in height, fresh and dry biomass, number and weight of seeds, and amount of oil per sunflower and safflower plant irrespective to their growth under non saline or saline conditions. Among the nutrient solutions, mixture of KNO/sub 3/+ H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + Fe-EDTA seemed to be the most effective followed by H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/ and Fe-EDTA. These results suggested that foliar application of nutrients could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity by alleviating the adverse effects of salinity on growth and reproductive yield. (author)

  5. Effects of sunflower wax coating on physicochemical changes of mangifera indica L. in storage life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, R.K.; Sherazi, S.T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit has a relatively short storage life due to perishable nature. In order to increases the storage life of langra mangoes, fruits were coated with sunflower wax. Mangoes were stored at room and refrigerated temperature. Sunflower wax coating protects the mangoes in greater proportion to change their color, weight loss, moisture loss, pH and total soluble solids content. The sensorial panel also favors the grander role of sunflower wax coating. Application of sunflower wax coatings had no effect on vitamin C content of mangoes variety and could increases mango storage time around 30 days under regular storage conditions. Sunflower wax coating also inhibited the growth of micro-organisms. The data reveal that by applying a sunflower wax coating effectively prolongs the quality which attributes and extends the shelf life of mango. (author)

  6. Mutation induction in oil palm cultures using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohani Othman; Rajinder Singh; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2002-01-01

    Induced mutations have played an important role in the improvement of wide range of food crops, ornamental plants and oil crops such as sesame and sunflower. Based on these successes an attempt was made to employ the mutagenesis techniques to broaden the genetic variation in breeding materials of oil palm. Traits of interest are high yield, dwarfness and disease resistance. Embryogenic callus initiated from several high yielding clones were exposed to gamma irradiation for optimum dose determination. (Author)

  7. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altin, Recep; Cetinkaya, Selim; Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  8. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altin, Recep [Ministry of Education, Projects Coordination Unit, Ankara (Turkey); Cetinkaya, Selim [Gazi Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar [Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  9. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of Fluorescence Spectroscopy to Detect Adulteration of Edible Oil in Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) by Applying Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hina; Saleem, Muhammad; Anser, Muhammad Ramzan; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Bilal, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Due to high price and nutritional values of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), it is vulnerable to adulteration internationally. Refined oil or other vegetable oils are commonly blended with EVOO and to unmask such fraud, quick, and reliable technique needs to be standardized and developed. Therefore, in this study, adulteration of edible oil (sunflower oil) is made with pure EVOO and analyzed using fluorescence spectroscopy (excitation wavelength at 350 nm) in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. Fluorescent spectra contain fingerprints of chlorophyll and carotenoids that are characteristics of EVOO and differentiated it from sunflower oil. A broad intense hump corresponding to conjugated hydroperoxides is seen in sunflower oil in the range of 441-489 nm with the maximum at 469 nm whereas pure EVOO has low intensity doublet peaks in this region at 441 nm and 469 nm. Visible changes in spectra are observed in adulterated EVOO by increasing the concentration of sunflower oil, with an increase in doublet peak and correspondingly decrease in chlorophyll peak intensity. Principal component analysis showed a distinct clustering of adulterated samples of different concentrations. Subsequently, the PLS regression model was best fitted over the complete data set on the basis of coefficient of determination (R 2 ), standard error of calibration (SEC), and standard error of prediction (SEP) of values 0.99, 0.617, and 0.623 respectively. In addition to adulterant, test samples and imported commercial brands of EVOO were also used for prediction and validation of the models. Fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics showed its robustness to identify and quantify the specified adulterant in pure EVOO.

  11. Genome-wide identification of mononuclear cell DNA methylation sites potentially affected by fish oil supplementation in young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Martino, D; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the effects of n-3LCPUFA might be mediated through epigenetic mechanisms, especially DNA-methylation, during pregnancy and early life. A randomized trial was conducted in 133 9-mo-old, infants who received 3.8g/day of fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO) for 9 mo. In ...

  12. Molecular Fingerprints of the Human Fecal Microbiota From 9 to 18 Months Old and the Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Mølbak, Lars; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2011-01-01

    supplementation with 5mL of fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 months of age, stool samples were collected from 132 healthy Danish infants. Molecular fingerprints of the bacterial DNA were obtained by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Results: The T-RFLP profiles indicated...

  13. Purification and Characterization of Antioxidant Peptide from Sunflower Protein Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Qun Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower proteins were hydrolyzed with Flavourzyme for the production of antioxidant peptide. DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC were consecutively employed to purify a novel sunflower antioxidant peptide, and the ability to inhibit the autoxidation of pyrogallol was expressed as the antioxidative activity of the peptide. The amino acid sequence was identified as Ala-Cys-Ala-His-Asp-Lys-Val by a Q-Tof2 mass spectrometer. This novel peptide exhibited a high antioxidative activity of 79.42 U/mL, which is expected to protect against oxidative damage in living systems in relation to aging and carcinogenesis. Higher antioxidative activities were presumed mainly due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acids in its sequence.

  14. Role of proline to induce salinity tolerance in Sunflower (helianthus annusl.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Iftikhar, I.I.; Nawaz, H.; Nawaz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The potted experiment was conducted to determine the exogenous role of proline to induce salinity tolerance in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Salinity levels (0, 60 and 120 mmol) were created according to the saturation percentage of soil. Different levels (0, 30, 60 mmol) of proline were applied as a foliar spray on sunflower under saline and non saline conditions. Application of proline as a foliar spray ameliorated the toxic effects of salinity on growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of sunflower. Among different levels of proline, 60 mmol was found to be the most effective in ameliorating the toxic effects of salinity on sunflower. (author)

  15. Nutritional value, for pigs and rats, of sunflower oilcake meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    differences (P> 0.05) could be found in mean growth rate (0.77 kg/day and 0.80 kg/day) and ... Digestible energy, pigs, poultry, protein content, rats, relative nutritive value, sunflower oilcake meal, ... density of the meal is increased while the crude fibre content ..... two meals differed by only 3.5%, while a range of 6% to 28%.

  16. Phototropic solar tracking in sunflower plants: an integrative perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Briggs, Winslow R.

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the best-known plant movements, phototropic solar tracking in sunflower (Helianthus annuus), has not yet been fully characterized. Two questions are still a matter of debate. (1) Is the adaptive significance solely an optimization of photosynthesis via the exposure of the leaves to the sun? (2) Is shade avoidance involved in this process? In this study, these concepts are discussed from a historical perspective and novel insights are provided. Scope and Methods Results from the primary literature on heliotropic growth movements led to the conclusion that these responses cease before anthesis, so that the flowering heads point to the East. Based on observations on 10-week-old plants, the diurnal East–West oscillations of the upper fifth of the growing stem and leaves in relation to the position of the sun (inclusive of nocturnal re-orientation) were documented, and photon fluence rates on the leaf surfaces on clear, cloudy and rainy days were determined. In addition, the light–response curve of net CO2 assimilation was determined on the upper leaves of the same batch of plants, and evidence for the occurrence of shade-avoidance responses in growing sunflower plants is summarized. Conclusions. Only elongating, vegetative sunflower shoots and the upper leaves perform phototropic solar tracking. Photon fluence response and CO2 assimilation measurements cast doubt on the ‘photosynthesis-optimization hypothesis’ as the sole explanation for the evolution of these plant movements. We suggest that the shade-avoidance response, which maximizes light-driven CO2 assimilation, plays a major role in solar tracking populations of competing sunflower plants, and an integrative scheme of these growth movements is provided. PMID:26420201

  17. ACID VALUE OF VEGETABLE OILS AND POULTRY FEED AS AFECTED BY STORAGE PERIOD AND ANTIOXIDANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Hassan Khan, Bashir Mahmood Bhatti and Rozina Sardar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to assess acid values in soyabean, cotton seed and sunflower oil commonly used in poultry ration was conducted. It was observed that mean acid value of oils ~ept in open were significantly high (7.67 than oil kept in sealed form (1.296. The mean acid value was higher in soyabean oil (P<0.01 than the values in cotton seed oil and sunflower oil. While determining the effect of Santaquin, BHT and Oxistat as antioxidant, in the ration stored at 40 °C for 2 months, it was observed that the acid values in untreated control ration was 18.20 while with the added antioxidants were 4.88, 4.85 and 4.83, respectively showing a significant increase with each week of the storage.

  18. Activities of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) in microsomal preparations of developing sunflower and safflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaś, Walentyna; Sanchez Garcia, Alicia; Banaś, Antoni; Stymne, Sten

    2013-06-01

    The last step in triacylglycerols (TAG) biosynthesis in oil seeds, the acylation of diacylglycerols (DAG), is catalysed by two types of enzymes: the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT). The relative contribution of these enzymes in the synthesis of TAG has not yet been defined in any plant tissue. In the presented work, microsomal preparations were obtained from sunflower and safflower seeds at different stages of development and used in DGAT and PDAT enzyme assays. The ratio between PDAT and DGAT activity differed dramatically between the two different species. DGAT activities were measured with two different acyl acceptors and assay methods using two different acyl-CoAs, and in all cases the ratio of PDAT to DGAT activity was significantly higher in safflower than sunflower. The sunflower DGAT, measured by both methods, showed significant higher activity with 18:2-CoA than with 18:1-CoA, whereas the opposite specificity was seen with the safflower enzyme. The specificities of PDAT on the other hand, were similar in both species with 18:2-phosphatidylcholine being a better acyl donor than 18:1-PC and with acyl groups at the sn-2 position utilised about fourfold the rate of the sn-1 position. No DAG:DAG transacylase activity could be detected in the microsomal preparations.

  19. Influence of thiourea application on some physiological and molecular criteria of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants under conditions of heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akladious, Samia Ageeb

    2014-05-01

    High temperature is a major factor limiting the growth of plant species during summer. Understanding the mechanisms of plant tolerance to high temperature would help in developing effective management practices and heat-tolerant cultivars through breeding or biotechnology. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of thiourea in enhancing the tolerance of sunflower plants to heat stress. Sunflower plants were subjected to temperature stress by exposing plants to 35 or 45 °C for 12 h. Two levels of thiourea (10 and 20 mM) were applied before sowing (seed treatment). The results indicated that the plants exposed to temperature stress exhibited a significant decline in growth parameters, chlorophylls, relative leaf water content, oil content, leaf nutrient status, and nitrate reductase activity. Treatment with thiourea, especially when applied at 10 mM, improved the above parameters and induced non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants responsible for antioxidation. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that high-temperature treatments alone or in combination with thiourea were associated with the disappearance of some bands or the appearance of unique ones. The result of RAPD analysis using five primers showed variable qualitative and quantitative changes. These findings confirm the effectiveness of applying thiourea on alleviating heat injuries in sunflower plants.

  20. Expression of modified tocopherol content and profile in sunflower tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moral, Lidia; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2012-01-30

    Alpha-tocopherol is the predominant tocopherol form in sunflower seeds. Sunflower lines that accumulate increased levels of beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol in seeds as well as lines with reduced and increased total seed tocopherol content have been developed. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether the modified tocopherol levels are expressed in plant tissues other than seeds. Lines with increased levels of beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol in seeds also possessed increased levels of these tocopherols in leaves, roots and pollen. Correlation coefficients for the proportion of individual tocopherols in different plant tissues were significantly positive in all cases, ranging from 0.68 to 0.97. A line with reduced tocopherol content in seeds also showed reduced content in roots and pollen. Genetic modifications producing altered seed tocopherol profiles in sunflower are also expressed in leaves, roots and pollen. Reduced total seed tocopherol content is mainly expressed at the root and pollen level. The expression of tocopherol mutations in other plant tissues will enable further studies on the physiological role of tocopherols and could be of interest for early selection for these traits in breeding programmes. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Factors of honeybee colony performances on sunflower at apiary scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretzschmar André

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An observatory of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera, consisting of at least 200 colonies, divided into 10 apiaries of 20 colonies, was monitored for three years on sunflower honeyflow (2015–2017. The purpose of this observatory is to understand which factors control colony performance during sunflower honeyflow in south-western France. From the temporal dynamics of weight gain, statistical analysis reveals a hierarchy of factors. First, variability in apiary scale performance is an image of the effect of resource variability. But, in addition to this primordial factor, two other factors contribute very significantly to performance. On the one hand, the amount of capped brood and the number of bees at the time of the installation of the apiary: these two elements testify to the vitality of the colony. The second remarkable factor is the Varroa load, which strongly penalizes performance beyond a certain threshold. The negative effect of the Varroa load on the colony performance is minimized in case of abondant sunflower honey flow.

  2. Wild bees enhance honey bees’ pollination of hybrid sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Sarah S.; Kremen, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Pollinators are required for producing 15–30% of the human food supply, and farmers rely on managed honey bees throughout the world to provide these services. Yet honey bees are not always the most efficient pollinators of all crops and are declining in various parts of the world. Crop pollination shortages are becoming increasingly common. We found that behavioral interactions between wild and honey bees increase the pollination efficiency of honey bees on hybrid sunflower up to 5-fold, effectively doubling honey bee pollination services on the average field. These indirect contributions caused by interspecific interactions between wild and honey bees were more than five times more important than the contributions wild bees make to sunflower pollination directly. Both proximity to natural habitat and crop planting practices were significantly correlated with pollination services provided directly and indirectly by wild bees. Our results suggest that conserving wild habitat at the landscape scale and altering selected farm management techniques could increase hybrid sunflower production. These findings also demonstrate the economic importance of interspecific interactions for ecosystem services and suggest that protecting wild bee populations can help buffer the human food supply from honey bee shortages. PMID:16940358

  3. Wild bees enhance honey bees' pollination of hybrid sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Sarah S; Kremen, Claire

    2006-09-12

    Pollinators are required for producing 15-30% of the human food supply, and farmers rely on managed honey bees throughout the world to provide these services. Yet honey bees are not always the most efficient pollinators of all crops and are declining in various parts of the world. Crop pollination shortages are becoming increasingly common. We found that behavioral interactions between wild and honey bees increase the pollination efficiency of honey bees on hybrid sunflower up to 5-fold, effectively doubling honey bee pollination services on the average field. These indirect contributions caused by interspecific interactions between wild and honey bees were more than five times more important than the contributions wild bees make to sunflower pollination directly. Both proximity to natural habitat and crop planting practices were significantly correlated with pollination services provided directly and indirectly by wild bees. Our results suggest that conserving wild habitat at the landscape scale and altering selected farm management techniques could increase hybrid sunflower production. These findings also demonstrate the economic importance of interspecific interactions for ecosystem services and suggest that protecting wild bee populations can help buffer the human food supply from honey bee shortages.

  4. Genetics and mapping of the R₁₁ gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Seiler, G J; Vick, B A; Gulya, T J

    2012-09-01

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes to a 20 % yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an 'HA 89' backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), was identified as resistant to the newly emerged rust races. The aim of this study was to elucidate the inheritance of rust resistance and male fertility restoration and identify the chromosome location of the underlying genes in Rf ANN-1742. Chi-squared analysis of the segregation of rust response and male fertility in F(2) and F(3) populations revealed that both traits are controlled by single dominant genes, and that the rust resistance gene is closely linked to the restorer gene in the coupling phase. The two genes were designated as R ( 11 ) and Rf5, respectively. A set of 723 mapped SSR markers of sunflower was used to screen the polymorphism between HA 89 and the resistant plant. Bulked segregant analysis subsequently located R ( 11 ) on linkage group (LG) 13 of sunflower. Based on the SSR analyses of 192 F(2) individuals, R ( 11 ) and Rf5 both mapped to the lower end of LG13 at a genetic distance of 1.6 cM, and shared a common marker, ORS728, which was mapped 1.3 cM proximal to Rf5 and 0.3 cM distal to R ( 11 ) (Rf5/ORS728/R ( 11 )). Two additional SSRs were linked to Rf5 and R ( 11 ): ORS995 was 4.5 cM distal to Rf5 and ORS45 was 1.0 cM proximal to R ( 11 ). The advantage of such an introduced alien segment harboring two genes is its large phenotypic effect and simple inheritance, thereby facilitating their rapid deployment in sunflower breeding programs. Suppressed recombination was observed in LGs 2, 9

  5. Effectiveness of Biodiesel from Various Tropical Oil Crops on Lubricity Improvement of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chollacoop, Nuwong; Topaiboul, Subongkoj; Goodwin, Vituruch (Bioenergy Group, National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), Thailand Science Park, Pathumthani, 12120 (Thailand)). e-mail: nuwongc@mtec.or.th

    2008-10-15

    Ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) has been introduced worldwide with an aim to reduce emission. Since the desulfurization process for ULSD inadvertently reduces its lubricity, lubricity additive is needed. Biodiesel emerges as a potential candidate due to its excellent lubricity property and little sulfur content. In the present study, biodiesel from various energy crops available in Thailand was added at various amounts to ULSD to test the lubricity according to the CEC-F-06-A-96 standard (using High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig: HFRR [1]). It was found that when biodiesel from crude palm, jatropha, soybean, coconut, sunflower, rice, corn and sesame oils of less than 1% (by volume) is additized to ULSD, the lubricity is improved to meet the diesel standard. Further addition beyond 2% (by volume) does not improve lubricity remarkably, where the lubrication seems to saturate. Biodiesel improves lubricity property by film formation preventing mechanical contact between the rubbing surfaces, and the effectiveness varies among different feedstock oils. Biodiesel from crude palm oil, jatropha oil and coconut oil seemingly are superior lubricity additives in ULSD than that from soybean oil, sunflower oil, rice oil, corn oil and sesame oil. Keywords: biodiesel, bio-lubricants, palm oil, sunflower oil

  6. Peroxidized mineral oil increases the oxidant status of culture media and inhibits in vitro porcine embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, C A; Nohalez, A; Ceron, J J; Rubio, C P; Roca, J; Cuello, C; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Martinez, E A; Gil, M A

    2017-11-01

    The use of oils with undetected alterations is a long-recognized problem for in vitro embryo production systems. Since peroxides in oils have been associated with reduced embryo production outcomes, our goals were (1) to evaluate the effects of a batch of mineral oil (MO) that was suspected to be altered on the in vitro production of pig embryos and (2) to determine oil peroxide values throughout culture and the transfer of oxidant agents from oil to culture media. Sunflower oil, which has a completely different chemical composition than MO but a higher oxidative status, and unaltered MO were used as controls. Oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development were affected differently depending on the oil overlay used. While the suspected MO was not able to sustain in vitro maturation and fertilization, the oocytes incubated in the presence of sunflower oil were matured and fertilized similarly to those of the unaltered MO group. Moreover, the cleavage rate of presumed zygotes cultured under the suspected MO was severely reduced compared with those cultured under the other oils, and none of the cleaved embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Although the cleavage rates in the sunflower oil and unaltered MO groups were similar, embryos cultured under sunflower oil also failed to develop to the blastocyst stage. Our results revealed that the suspected MO and sunflower oil had similar levels of peroxides and that these levels were much higher than those of the unaltered MO. The total oxidant status was higher in media incubated under peroxidized oils than in fresh media or media incubated without an oil overlay or under unaltered MO, indicating that oxidant agents were transferred to the incubation media. However, unlike the sunflower oil group, the culture media incubated under the suspected MO had high levels of total oxidant status and low levels of hydrogen peroxide and reactive oxygen species, suggesting the presence of other unknown oxidant agents in

  7. Nongenotoxic effects and a reduction of the DXR-induced genotoxic effects of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower) seeds revealed by micronucleus assays in mouse bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Souza, Luiz Silva; Resende, Marielly Reis; Silva, Thaísla Andrielle da; Oliveira, Nelma de Mello Silva; Resck, Maria Cristina Costa; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Fiorini, João Evangelista

    2014-04-02

    This research evaluated the genotoxicity of oil and tincture of H. annuus L. seeds using the micronucleus assay in bone marrow of mice. The interaction between these preparations and the genotoxic effects of doxorubicin (DXR) was also analysed (antigenotoxicity test). Experimental groups were evaluated at 24-48 h post treatment with N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea (positive control - NEU), DXR (chemotherapeutic), NaCl (negative control), a sunflower tincture (THALS) and two sources of sunflower oils (POHALS and FOHALS). Antigenotoxic assay