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Sample records for sunflower oil diet

  1. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  2. Olive oil-diet improves the simvastatin effects with respect to sunflower oil-diet in men with increased cardiovascular risk: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Bastida, S; Gutiérrez-García, O; Carbajal, A

    2009-01-01

    Concomitant intake of statins together with certain foods may affect their therapeutic effects. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine the modulating effect of two culinary oils on the hypolipemic effect of statins. Twenty-five men with severe hypercholesterolemia and high estimate cardiovascular risk (> 20% according to the Adult Treatment Panel III of USA National Institutes of Health, ATP-III) were enrolled in an observational follow-up study to test lipoprotein profile changes after ix month 20-mg/d Simvastatin treatment. Thirteen volunteers using sunflower oil as the habitual culinary fat, and 12 using olive oil, were selected by non-probabilistic incidental sampling. Volunteers consent in follow their habitual diets and to maintain diet characteristics throughout the study. Diet was evaluated through the study by three 24-h recalls and a food frequency questionnaire. The energy contribution of fat (P = 0.019) and MUFA (P alcohol (P = 0.005) was higher in the sunflower oil-group. TC/HDL-cholesterol and the ATP-III 10-year risk percent decreased more (P alcohol intakes were adjusted. Data suggest that although Simvastatin is a very effective hypolipemic drug, olive oil-diets in preference to sunflower oil-diets must be consumed in patients with high cardiovascular risk.

  3. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Sumitra; Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-04-01

    Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student 't-' test. The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice with coconut oil and sunflower oil gave suboptimal benefits.

  4. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  5. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  6. Lipoprotein profiles and serum peroxide levels of aged women consuming palmolein or oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, C; Ródenas, S; Merinero, M C; Rodríguez-Gil, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the hypercholesterolemic effects of a dietary exchange between 16:0 and 18:1 while 18:2 was at relatively lower level (approximately 4%) in aged women with initially high total serum cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values and with high intakes of dietary cholesterol. Subjects were assigned to two consecutive 28 d periods. In the first period all subjects followed an oleic acid-rich diet in the form of oleic acid-rich sunflower oil. This was followed by a second period rich in palmitic acid in the form of palmolein. Nutrient intakes, serum lipids, lipoproteins, antioxidant vitamins, peroxides and LDL-peroxides were measured at two dietary periods. Instituto de Nutrición y Bromatología (CSIC), Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología I (Nutrición) and Sección Departamental de Quimica Analítica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. The palmolein period led to an increase in TC (P or = 6.21 mmol/L or with TC 6.21 mmol/L than in women with TC < 6.21 mmol/L, but palmolein decreased serum and LDL-peroxide in hypercholesterolemics more than in the normocholesterolemics, resulting in serum and LDL-peroxide levels which theoretically are more adequate. Though palmolein increased LDL-C concentrations, it better protected LDL particles, mainly in women with high TC, against peroxidation than did oleic acid-rich sunflower oil.

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation with olive and sunflower oils on lipid profile and liver histology in rats fed high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duavy, Sandra Mara Pimentel; Salazar, Gerson Javier Torres; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Ecker, Assis; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2017-06-01

    To compare the effects of high-monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against the metabolic disorders elicited by a high-cholesterol diet (HC) in rats. Using in vivo dietary manipulation, rats were fed with different diets containing 4% soybean oil (cholesterol free diet) and 1% HC containing 12% olive oil (HC + OO) enriched with MUFA and 12% sunflower oil (HC + SO) enriched with PUFA for 60 d. Serum lipid levels and hepatic steatosis were evaluated after the treatment period. Comparatively, rats treated with HC + OO diet experienced a decrease in the serum LDL-C, VLDL-C and CT levels compared to those fed with HC + SO diet (P blood. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, diet supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  9. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bullon

    Full Text Available Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats.Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations.The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  10. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  11. Effect of fish oil and sunflower oil on rumen fermentation characteristics and fatty acid composition of digesta in ewes fed a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2010-10-01

    Studies in ruminants have shown that supplementing the diet with a mixture of fish oil (FO) and sunflower oil (SO) enhances the concentration of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3 in milk because of alterations in ruminal biohydrogenation, but the intermediates formed under these conditions are not well characterized. Five ewes fitted with rumen cannula and fed a high concentrate diet were used to examine the effect of a mixture (30 g/kg of DM) of FO and SO (1:2, wt/wt) on temporal changes in rumen fermentation characteristics and the relative abundance of biohydrogenation intermediates in ruminal digesta collected after 0, 3, and 10 d on diet. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas-liquid chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of corresponding 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. Inclusion of FO and SO in the diet had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, or nutrient digestion, but altered the fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta, changes that were characterized by time-dependent decreases in 18:0 and 18:2 n-6 and the accumulation of trans 16:1, trans 18:1, 10-O-18:0, and trans 18:2. Lipid supplements enhanced the proportion of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 in digesta and resulted in numerical increases in cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid concentrations, but decreased the relative abundance of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid. Furthermore, detailed analysis revealed the appearance of several unique 20:1, 20:2, 22:1, 22:3, and 22:4 products in ruminal digesta that accumulated over time, providing the first indications of 20 and 22 carbon fatty acid intermediates formed during the biohydrogenation of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in sheep. In conclusion, FO and SO in a high concentrate diet caused a time-dependent inhibition of the complete

  12. Changes in the rumen bacterial community in response to sunflower oil and fish oil supplements in the diet of dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenguer, A; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G

    2010-07-01

    Rumen microbial biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids has a major effect on the process of developing healthier dairy products. This study aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of diet supplementation with sunflower (SO) and fish (FO) oils on the rumen bacterial community in dairy sheep. First, 32 lactating ewes, divided in 8 lots of 4 animals each (2 lots per treatment), were fed a high-concentrate total mixed ration supplemented with 0, 2% SO, 1% FO, or 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 21 d, rumen fluid samples were taken from each lot for DNA extraction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In a second experiment, 5 cannulated ewes were first fed the same TMR, with the exception of a higher forage level, and then changed to the same diet supplemented with 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 0, 3, and 10 d, rumen content samples were taken for DNA extraction and FISH analysis (fluid). Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis (T-RFLP), and real-time PCR was used to quantify Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce vaccenic acid or stearic acid. In rumen fluid samples, total bacteria and clostridial clusters IX and XIV were analyzed by FISH. Dietary supplementation with SO plus FO seemed to induce important changes in the total bacteria and Butyrivibrio populations, and a high interindividual variation was observed, and the speed of the effect of the lipid supplementation depended on the individual microbial composition. Analysis by T-RFLP and FISH showed increases in cluster IX bacteria with SO plus FO supplementation, presumably Quinella-like microorganisms. The abundances of vaccenic acid- and stearic acid-producing Butyrivibrio relative to total bacteria, estimated by real time PCR, were low (0.28 and 0.18%, respectively, in rumen fluid, and 0.86 and 0.81% in rumen contents) and only that of SA-producing bacteria seemed to be reduced by diets containing FO, although differences were only

  13. Bovine Mammary Nutrigenomics and Changes in the Milk Composition due to Rapeseed or Sunflower Oil Supplementation of High-Forage or High-Concentrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Christine; Bernard, Laurence; Faulconnier, Yannick; Rouel, Jacques; de la Foye, Anne; Domagalski, Jordann; Chilliard, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition plays a crucial role in milk nutritional quality. Despite the known nutritional regulation of ruminant milk composition, the overall mammary mechanisms underlying this regulation are far from being understood. The aim of our study was to determine nutritional regulation of mammary transcriptomes in relation to the cow milk composition. Twelve cows received diets differing in the forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) and low forage (LF)] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk production and FA composition were determined. The gene expression profile was studied using RT-qPCR and a bovine microarray. Our results showed a higher amplitude of milk composition and mammary transcriptome responses to lipid supplementation with the LF-SO compared with the LF diet than with the HF-RS compared with the HF diet. Forty-nine differentially expressed genes, including genes involved in lipid metabolism, were identified with LF-SO versus LF, whereas RS supplementation to the HF diet did not affect the mammary transcriptome. This study highlights different responses to lipid supplementation of milk production and composition and mammary transcriptomes depending on the nature of lipid supplementation and the percentage of dietary concentrate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Jespersen, J.; Marckmann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P diets...... with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may attenuate...

  15. Frankfurter Type Sausage Production with Sunflower Oil Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    ERTAŞ, A. Hamdi; KARABAŞ, Gülay

    2014-01-01

    Some quality characteristics of frankfurter type sausages (with 30% total fat) produced by adding sunflower oil at different levels (10%, 20% and 30%) were determined and compared to control with 30% animal fat. Increasing of sunflower oil content resulted in lower process yield. Cholesterol content and water holding capacity of frankfurters also decreased at the levels of sunflower oil from 10 to 30% (P

  16. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  17. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

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    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  18. Development and utilization of sunflower genotypes with altered oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cvejić, Sandra; Jocić, Siniša; Miladinović, Dragana; Jocković, Milan; Imerovski, Ivana; Sakač, Zvonimir; Miklič, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower oil is among the highest quality oils of plant origin. The oil of standard sunflowers has an average of 10% saturated fatty acids, 20-30% oleic acid and 60-70% linoleic acid. The total content of tocopherols in standard sunflower oil is 700-1000 mg/kg with the predominant being alpha-tocopherol (vitamin-E). Following the trends of the food and non-food industries sunflower breeders have been able to significantly change the fatty acid composition of the oil. The oil of high-oleic hy...

  19. Dietary Fats and Oxidative Stress: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Coronary Artery Disease Subjects Consuming Coconut Oil/Sunflower Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Vasudevan, D M

    2018-01-01

    Coconut oil has been used by the people of Kerala as a cooking medium for several decades. Due to its alleged hypercholesterolemic activity, general population in recent times is shifting to cooking oils rich in polyunsaturated fats, the most popular being sunflower oil. The effect of long-term consumption of sunflower oil on oxidative stress in humans is not well investigated. We studied oxidative stress among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who were consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as a part of their routine diet. Men, aged 35-70 years, with established CAD, who presented to the hospital for routine cardiac evaluations, were enrolled in this observational study. Group 1 and 2 consisted of 73 and 80 subjects consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil respectively for over a period of 2 years. Lipid profile and parameters for oxidative stress were evaluated among them. Conventional lipid parameters did not differ significantly between the two groups. Mean vitamin C concentration was significantly reduced for subjects on sunflower oil compared to those consuming coconut oil ( P  = 0.044). Malondialdehyde was higher for sunflower oil consumers compared to coconut oil consumers ( P  coconut oil did not induce hypercholesterolemia compared to sunflower oil. On the other hand, sunflower oil group had elevated oxidative stress compared to coconut oil group.

  20. Base catalyzed transesterification of sunflower oil biodiesel | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, sunflower oil was investigated for biodiesel production. Sunflower is one of the leading oil seed crop, cultivated for the production of oil in the world. It has also been considered as an important crop for biodiesel production. Seeds for biodiesel production were procured from local farmers of Attock and ...

  1. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS).

  2. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  3. Genomic Prediction of Sunflower Hybrids Oil Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Mangin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of hybrid performance using incomplete factorial mating designs is widely used in breeding programs including different heterotic groups. Based on the general combining ability (GCA of the parents, predictions are accurate only if the genetic variance resulting from the specific combining ability is small and both parents have phenotyped descendants. Genomic selection (GS can predict performance using a model trained on both phenotyped and genotyped hybrids that do not necessarily include all hybrid parents. Therefore, GS could overcome the issue of unknown parent GCA. Here, we compared the accuracy of classical GCA-based and genomic predictions for oil content of sunflower seeds using several GS models. Our study involved 452 sunflower hybrids from an incomplete factorial design of 36 female and 36 male lines. Re-sequencing of parental lines allowed to identify 468,194 non-redundant SNPs and to infer the hybrid genotypes. Oil content was observed in a multi-environment trial (MET over 3 years, leading to nine different environments. We compared GCA-based model to different GS models including female and male genomic kinships with the addition of the female-by-male interaction genomic kinship, the use of functional knowledge as SNPs in genes of oil metabolic pathways, and with epistasis modeling. When both parents have descendants in the training set, the predictive ability was high even for GCA-based prediction, with an average MET value of 0.782. GS performed slightly better (+0.2%. Neither the inclusion of the female-by-male interaction, nor functional knowledge of oil metabolism, nor epistasis modeling improved the GS accuracy. GS greatly improved predictive ability when one or both parents were untested in the training set, increasing GCA-based predictive ability by 10.4% from 0.575 to 0.635 in the MET. In this scenario, performing GS only considering SNPs in oil metabolic pathways did not improve whole genome GS prediction but

  4. Improving oxidative stability of soya and sunflower oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rosmarinus officinallis) and tert- butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) as possible antioxidants in sunflower and soya oil. Upon addition of 200 ppm of dried leaf extract, acetone extract yielded protection of the samples against oxidation more efficiently as ...

  5. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M. F.; Sanchez, Y.; Gomez, M.; Hernandez, F.; Veloso, M. C.; Pereira, P. A.; Mangrich, A. S.; Andrade, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours) than with air (8 hours). Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity. (Author) 34 refs.

  6. Gene effects and combining abilities for oil content in sunflower

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    Jocković Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide importance of sunflower oil, objective of this study was to evaluate gene effects and combining abilities of six sunflower open pollinated varieties. Varieties were crossed according to incomplete diallel method and produced fifteen F1 progenies. Comparing the mean values of F1 progenies to parents mean in most cases superdominance was expressed as a mode of inheritance. Nonetheless, dominance of better parent and partial dominance of better parent were also recorded as a mode of inheritance. GCA/SCA ratio indicated greater importance of non-additive genetic component in oil content expression. The genetic variance analysis showed that dominant component was more important and dominant genes prevailed compared to recessive genes for oil content in sunflower.

  7. Sunflower oil in the treatment of hot tar burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türegün, M; Oztürk, S; Selmanpakoğlu, N

    1997-08-01

    Hot tar burns compose a unique class of thermal injury, because removal of this highly sticky compound may be very difficult without inflicting additional tissue damage. Early removal of tar facilitates assessment of the burn and improves patient comfort. Although the use of many substances for the painless removal of tar has been described, we used sunflower oil effectively in the treatment of four tar burn patients. This first report describes the practical and successful use of sunflower oil which was easily obtained from the hospital kitchen.

  8. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  9. Dietary fat (virgin olive oil or sunflower oil) and physical training interactions on blood lipids in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, José L; Huertas, Jesús R; Ochoa, Julio J; Battino, Maurizio; Mataix, José; Mañas, Mariano

    2003-04-01

    We investigated whether the intake of virgin olive oil or sunflower oil and performance of physical exercise (at different states) affect plasma levels of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and fatty acid profile in rats. The study was carried out with six groups of male rats subjected for 8 wk to a diet based on virgin olive oil (three groups) or sunflower oil (three groups) as dietary fat. One group for each diet acted as sedentary control; the other two groups ran in a treadmill for 8 wk at 65% of the maximum oxygen consumption. One group for each diet was killed 24 h after the last bout of exercise and the other was killed immediately after the exercise performance. Triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and fatty acid profile were analyzed in plasma. Analysis of variance was used to test differences among groups. Animals fed on virgin olive oil had lower triacylglycerol and cholesterol values. Physical exercise reduced these parameters with both dietary treatments. Fatty acid profile showed higher monounsaturated fatty acid proportion in virgin olive fed oil animals and a higher omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion in sunflower oil fed animals. Physical exercise reduced the levels of monounsaturated fatty acids with both diets and increased the proportions of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results from the present study supported the idea that physical exercise and the intake of virgin olive oil are very good ways of reducing plasma triacylglycerols and cholesterol, which is desirable in many pathologic situations. Concerning findings on fatty acid profile, we had results similar to those of other investigators regarding the effect of different sources of dietary fat on plasma. The most interesting results came from the effect of physical exercise, with significant increases in the levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may contribute to the antithrombotic state and lower production of proinflammatory prostanoids attributed to

  10. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Maruno, Mônica; Ferrari, Márcio; Topan, José Fernando

    2016-06-09

    The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w) was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w) employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB) derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  11. Effect of Sunflower and Marine Oils on Ruminal Microbiota, In vitro Fermentation and Digesta Fatty Acid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E. Vargas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC investigated the changes in the ruminal microbiota and anaerobic fermentation in response to the addition of different lipid supplements to a ruminant diet. A basal diet with no oil added was the control, and the treatment diets were supplemented with sunflower oil (2% only, or sunflower oil (2% in combination with fish oil (1% or algae oil (1%. Four fermentation units were used per treatment. RUSITEC fermenters were inoculated with rumen digesta. Substrate degradation, fermentation end-products (volatile fatty acids, lactate, gas, methane, and ammonia, and microbial protein synthesis were determined. Fatty acid profiles and microbial community composition were evaluated in digesta samples. Numbers of representative bacterial species and microbial groups were determined using qPCR. Microbial composition and diversity were based on T-RFLP spectra. The addition of oils had no effect on substrate degradation or microbial protein synthesis. Differences among diets in neutral detergent fiber degradation were not significant (P = 0.132, but the contrast comparing oil–supplemented diets with the control was significant (P = 0.039. Methane production was reduced (P < 0.05 with all oil supplements. Propionate production was increased when diets containing oil were fermented. Compared with the control, the addition of algae oil decreased the percentage C18:3 c9c12c15 in rumen digesta, and that of C18:2 c9t11 was increased when the control diet was supplemented with any oil. Marine oils decreased the hydrogenation of C18 unsaturated fatty acids. Microbial diversity was not affected by oil supplementation. Cluster analysis showed that diets with additional fish or algae oils formed a group separated from the sunflower oil diet. Supplementation with marine oils decreased the numbers of Butyrivibrio producers of stearic acid, and affected the numbers of protozoa, methanogens, Selenomonas ruminantium

  12. Optimization of Sunflower Oil Transesterification Process Using Sodium Methoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara KoohiKamali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methanolysis process of sunflower oil was investigated to get high methyl esters (biodiesel content using sodium methoxide. To reach to the best process conditions, central composite design (CCD through response surface methodology (RSM was employed. The optimal conditions predicted were the reaction time of 60 min, an excess stoichiometric amount of alcohol to oil ratio of 25%w/w and the catalyst content of 0.5%w/w, which lead to the highest methyl ester content (100%w/w. The methyl ester content of the mixture from gas chromatography analysis (GC was compared to that of optimum point. Results, confirmed that there was no significant difference between the fatty acid methyl ester content of sunflower oil produced under the optimized condition and the experimental value (P≥0.05. Furthermore, some fuel specifications of the resultant biodiesel were tested according to American standards for testing of materials (ASTM methods. The outcome showed that the methyl ester mixture produced from the optimized condition met nearly most of the important biodiesel specifications recommended in ASTM D 6751 requirements. Thus, the sunflower oil methyl esters resulted from this study could be a suitable alternative for petrol diesels.

  13. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  14. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Mazloom; Tariq, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dioctyltin diacetate (C 8 H 17 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dibutyltin oxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C 8 H 17 ) 2 SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C 6 H 5 ) 2 SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OH) 2 Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C 4 H 9 )Sn(=O)OH.xH 2 O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the presence of 1% dibutyltin diacetate as a catalyst and was compared their percentage conversions. The experimental yield for the conversion of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into biodiesel was found to be 71%, 51%, 50.78%, 40.90% and 39.66%, respectively. The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil into methyl esters was found to be increased up to 96% by increasing reaction time, without emulsion formation. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB), soybean oil biodiesel (SOB), neem oil biodiesel (NOB), rocket seed oil biodiesel (RSOB) and linseed oil biodiesel (LSOB) was confirmed by NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) and FT-IR analyses of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Transesterification of jojoba oil into biodiesel by tin and nano catalysts. • 1 weight % dibutyltin diacetate showed highest yield at 60 °C. • Catalytic conversion comparison of five oils using dibutyltin diacetate • The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil increased with time. • FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) characterization

  15. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  16. Biodiesel from sunflower oil in supercritical methanol with calcium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sunflower seed oil was subjected to the transesterification reaction with calcium oxide (CaO) in supercritical methanol for obtaining biodiesel. Methanol is used most frequently as the alcohol in the transesterification process. Calcium oxide (CaO) can considerably improve the transesterification reaction of sunflower seed oil in supercritical methanol. The variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction, such as the catalyst content, reaction temperature and the molar ratio of soybean oil to alcohol, were investigated and compared with those of non-catalyst runs. The catalytic transesterification ability of CaO is quite weak under ambient temperature. At a temperature of 335 K, the yield of methyl ester is only about 5% in 3 h. When CaO was added from 1.0% to 3.0%, the transesterification speed increased evidently, while when the catalyst content was further enhanced to 5%, the yield of methyl ester slowly reached to a plateau. It was observed that increasing the reaction temperature had a favorable influence on the methyl ester yield. In addition, for molar ratios ranging from 1 to 41, as the higher molar ratios of methanol to oil were charged, the greater transesterification speed was obtained. When the temperature was increased to 525 K, the transesterification reaction was essentially completed within 6 min with 3 wt% CaO and 41:1 methanol/oil molar ratio

  17. An alternative process for hydrogenation of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Classic methodologies for hydrogenation of vegetable oils have traditionally been carried out by nickel catalysts under high pressure of H2 and high temperature. An alternative method for hydrogenation of sunflower oil using limonene and palladium-on-carbon was investigated in this study. The use of limonene as a hydrogen donor solvent was proposed in order to avoid high temperature and high-pressure conditions. The catalytic transfer of hydrogenation was studied by using 0.5 to 2% of Pd as a catalyst, a limonene:oil ratio of 3:1, and reaction times from 0.5 to 2 hours. Under these conditions, high selectivities for oleic acid and low concentrations of stearic acid were obtained.

  18. A diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil reduces the lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and increases the relative content of n-3 fatty acids in serum in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, I B; Vessby, B; Ohrvall, M; Nydahl, M

    1994-03-01

    The effects of 3 wk on a diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil were compared with those of a diet containing sunflower oil within a lipid-lowering diet. Ninety-five subjects with moderate hyperlipoproteinemia were randomly assigned to one of the two well-controlled diets prepared at the hospital kitchen. Total serum, low-density- and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 15%, 16%, and 11% (P oil diet and by 16%, 14%, and 13% (P oil diet. Serum triglycerides decreased more markedly (by 29%, P oil than on the rapeseed oil diet (14%, P oil diet but decreased on the sunflower oil diet. There was an increase in the alpha-tocopherol concentrations after both diets. The findings indicate that low erucic acid rapeseed oil can replace oils and fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids in a lipid-lowering diet.

  19. Impact of climate changes and correlations on oil fatty acids in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onemli, F.

    2012-01-01

    Sunflower oil is a major important vegetable oil because it is widely used in human nutrition and in many industrial productions depends on fatty acid composition. Field studies were conducted during in two years on the same soil to investigate changes of climate induced oil fatty acid composition of a traditional sunflower, and to obtain correlations among oil fatty acids. Seed oil content and twelve fatty acid percentages of sunflower oil were analyzed. Variations for years were significant for seed oil content and palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3), miristic (C14:0) and eicosenoic acids (C20:1). Higher temperatures during seed development in 2010 resulted with 68.38 % increasing in oleic content of the traditional sunflower hybrid. The highest negative correlations (r= -0.99) were noted between oleic and linoleic acids. (author)

  20. First stage of bio-jet fuel production: non-food sunflower oil extraction using cold press method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of concerning petroleum price increasing and environmental impact, more attention is attracted to renewable resources for transportation fuels. Because not conflict with human and animal food resources, non-food vegetable oils are promising sources for developing bio-jet fuels. Extracting vegetable oil from oilseeds is the first critical step in the pathway of bio-jet fuel production. When sunflower seeds are de-hulled, there are always about 5%–15% broken seed kernels (fine meat particles left over as residual wastes with oil content up to 48%. However, the oil extracted from these sunflower seed residues is non-edible due to its quality not meeting food standards. Genetically modified sunflower grown on margin lands has been identified one of sustainable biofuel sources since it doesn't compete to arable land uses. Sunflower oils extraction from non-food sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats (seed de-hulling residue was carried out using a cold press method in this study. Characterization of the sunflower oils produced was performed. The effect of cold press rotary frequency on oil recovery and quality was discussed. The results show that higher oil recovery was obtained at lower rotary frequencies. The highest oil recovery for sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats in the tests were 75.67%, 89.74% and 83.19% respectively. The cold press operating conditions had minor influence on the sunflower oil quality. Sunflower meat oils produced at 15 Hz were preliminarily upgraded and distilled. The properties of the upgraded sunflower oils were improved. Though further study is needed for the improvement of processing cost and oil recovery, cold press has shown promising to extract oil from non-food sunflower seeds for future bio-jet fuel production.

  1. Optimizing conditions for enzymatic extraction of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr, F. H.

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was extracted with an enzymatic processes using different hydrolytic enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex, as compared to enzyme - free aqueous extraction. All the hydrolytic enzymes enhanced oil extraction from sunflower seeds. The most optimal conditions for oil extraction from sunflower seeds were: 2% enzyme concentration, 30% substrate concentration and 3 hrs period. Using Boganov and Buchkov equation showed that time must be prolonged to get higher yields. The maximum yield during 3 hrs extraction with enzymatic process ranged between 44,5%-57,1% of the soxhlet extractable oil. The potency of the investigated enzymes in extracting oil was in the following order: acid proteinase > cellulase > hemicellulase > animal proteinase > pectinex > pectinase when compared at the previous optimal conditions.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído mediante un proceso enzimático usando diferentes enzimas hidrolíticos: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinasa acida, pectinasa y pectinex, comparando con la extracción acuosa libre de enzima. Todos los enzimas hidrolíticos incrementan la extracción de aceites de semilla de girasol. Las condiciones óptimas para la extracción de aceite a partir de semillas de girasol fueron: 2% de concentración de enzima, 30% de concentración de sustrato y un período de 3 horas. La ecuación de Boganov y Buchkov mostró que el tiempo debe ser prolongado para alcanzar altos rendimientos. El máximo rendimiento durante tres horas de extracción con proceso enzimático osciló entre el 44,5%-57,1% del aceite extraído con soxhlet. La potencia de los enzimas investigados en la extracción de aceite siguió el orden: proteinasa acida > celulasa > hemicelulasa > proteinasa animal > pectinex > pectinasa cuando fue previamente comparado con las condiciones óptimas.

  2. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  3. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián González-Alonso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  4. Serum lipid profile and inflammatory markers in the aorta of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oils and oil-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) major and minor component anti-inflammatory effect on aorta was evaluated; Wistar rats were fed (9 weeks) on either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD supplemented with oils, i.e. EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), or oil-products modified to their phenolic content, i.e. phenolics deprived-EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. HCD induced dyslipidemia and resulted in higher aorta adhesion molecules levels at euthanasia. Groups receiving EVOO, EVOO(-), HOSO, HOSO(+) presented higher serum TC and LDL-c levels compared to cholesterol-fed rats; attenuation of aorta E-selectin levels was also observed. In EVOO/EVOO(-) groups, aorta vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was lower compared to HCD animals. SO/SO(+) diets had no effect on endothelial dysfunction amelioration. Overall, our results suggest that major and/or minor EVOO constituents improve aorta E-selectin and VCAM-1, while serum lipids do not benefit.

  5. Technological Desition of Extraction of Melanin from the Waste of Production of Sunflower-Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartushina, Yu N.; Nefedieva, E. E.; Sevriukova, G. A.; Gracheva, N. V.; Zheltobryukhov, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    The research was realized in the field of the technology for re-use of waste of sunflower-seed oil production. A technological scheme of production of melanin from sunflower husk as a waste was developed. Re-cycling will give the opportunity to reduce the amount of waste and to obtain an additional source of income.

  6. Seed yield and oil content of some sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to determine the effects of irrigation applied at different growth stages on yield, yield components and oil content of sunflower during 2002 and 2003. Sunflower cultivars Sanbro, Tarsan-1018 and Ozdemirbey were used as materials in the experiment which was designed in a split plot of ...

  7. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  8. BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE WOUNDS OF GOATS FOLLOWING TREATMENT OF SUNFLOWER OIL AND OLIVE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Anand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally created forty eight wounds of similar size and shape were randomly divided in to three groups, of 16 wounds in each group. Sunflower seed oil impregnated gauze were subjected to the wounds of goats belonging to group I, while Olive oil (Olea europaea impregnated gauze were subjected to the wounds of goats of group II and normal saline solution (control soaked gauze to the wounds of goats of group III. Healing tissues were collected from the junction of wound and intact skin from all the experimental wounds in each of the three groups on 3, 10, 15 and 25 days. Biochemical examinations of healing tissue were done for collagen, elastin, hexosamine and hydroxyproline. The level of collagen, elastin, hexosamine and hydroxyproline were significantly higher in group I followed by group II and then group III. It can be concluded that both sunflower oil and olive oil are effective for acceleration of wound healing and sunflower oil is more effective than olive oil.

  9. Regularities of filtration of sunflower oil with the use of vibroacoustic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bredikhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The residue in sunflower oil is a dispersed phase consisting of particulate products grinding sunflower seeds in the form of particles of the pulp, oil cake, meal, residual quantities of metals, pesticides. In the recycling process they are in the oil in suspension and negatively affect its quality. For research an experimental setup was developed allowing to change the angle of inclination of the filter element. The regularities of filtration were determined without preliminary purification of sunflower oil by centrifugation and after centrifugation. It is established, the contamination of centrifuged oil in the initial period is 14.6 times lower. After 10 minutes of treatment, it decreases by 62%, after 20 minutes – by 79.4%. With a 30-minute treatment, particles of 0.005-0.1 mm in size are removed to 90%, which is approximated to the refined oil in terms of contamination. The influence of vibration-acoustic action on sunflower oil during its filtration is shown. At the last stage of production, the peroxide index is reduced to 2-3 moles of active oxygen, and after 3 months of storage – from 11.8 to 7.7, which according to GOST corresponds to the highest-grade oil. The regularities of the filtration without pre-treatment of sunflower oil by centrifugation and after centrifugation. Shows the effect of vibroacoustic exposure on sunflower oil when filtering. The obtained data on the change of qualitative parameters of sunflower oil during its filtration in the field of vibroacoustic impact.

  10. Cardiotoxicity induced by dietary oxidized sunflower oil in rats: pro- and antioxidant effects of α-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouaki, Fayrouz; Mazari, Azzedine; Kanane, Amel; Errahmani, Mohamed Brahim; Ammouche, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study highlighted the pro-oxidative functions of α-tocopherol (αT) on the heart antioxidant system and tissue histopathology of oxidized sunflower oil (OSO)-exposed rats.Four groups of male Wistar rats were fed with different diets: 1) control diet containing FSO (fresh sunflower oil); 2) diet containing 5 % OSO; 3) diet containing 5 % OSO, supplemented with 600 mg αT kg-1; and 4) diet containing 5 % OSO, supplemented with 1200 mg αT kg-1. The hearts were then isolated, and the antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed. Body weight and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities significantly decreased in groups fed with OSO, while the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level significantly increased. Administration of OSO with αT (600 mg · kg-1) returned the body weight values and LPO levels to similar values as the control group. The CAT and GPx activities increased but remained significantly lower compared to the control group. In the OSO group with αT (1200 mg · kg-1), the CAT and GPx activities also decreased, while LPO significantly increased. Heart tissue sections obtained from the groups revealed the presence of large areas of necrosis. This study suggested that OSO induced oxidative stress and that administration of a moderate dose of αT restored the antioxidant balance, but that high levels of αT supplementation result in a pro-oxidant effect.

  11. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (pcontent (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (pcontent specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  12. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during deep frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rehab, F. M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA, Peroxide Value (PV, thiobarbituric acid value (TBA, iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC, color and viscosity were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 °C ± 5 °C, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25; while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24. Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05 decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process.

    Aceites de girasol se mezclaron con diferentes niveles de aceite de chufa prensado en frío. Se obtuvieron mezclas de aceite de chufa con girasol en las proporciones: 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30

  13. The Application of Neural Networks in Balancing Production of Crude Sunflower Oil and Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Ivetic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to predict specific output characteristics of half finished goods (crude sunflower oil and meal on the basis of specific input variables (quality and composition of sunflower seeds, with the help of artificial neural networks. This is an attempt to predict the amount much more precisely than is the case with technological calculations commonly used in the oil industry. All input variables are representing the data received by the laboratory, and the output variables except category % of oil which is obtained by measuring the physical quantity of produced crude sunflower oil and sunflower consumed quantity of the processing quality. The correct prediction of the output variables contributes to better sales planning, production of sunflower oil, and better use of storage. Also, the correct prediction of technological results of the quality of crude oil and meal provides timely response and also preventing getting rancid and poor-quality oil, timely categorizing meal, which leads to proper planning and sales to the rational utilization of storage space, allows timely response technologists and prevents the growth of microorganisms in the meal.

  14. A randomized study of coconut oil versus sunflower oil on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with stable coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maniyal Vijayakumar

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Coconut oil even though rich in saturated fatty acids in comparison to sunflower oil when used as cooking oil media over a period of 2 years did not change the lipid-related cardiovascular risk factors and events in those receiving standard medical care.

  15. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. In vitro antioxidant activities of extract and oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed against sunflower oil autoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyam, K L; Teh, Y N; Tan, C P; Kamariah, L

    2012-08-01

    In order to overcome the stability problems of oils and fats, synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) have widespread use as food additives in many countries. Recent reports reveal that these compounds may be implicated in many health risks, including cancer and carcinogenesis. Hence, there is a move towards the use of natural antioxidants of plant origin to replace these synthetic antioxidants. In this study, roselle seed oil (RSO) and extract (RSE) were mixed with sunflower oil, respectively to monitor degradation rate and investigate antioxidant activity during accelerated storage. The antioxidant activity was found to stabilise sunflower oil of various samples and in the order of RSE>RSO>tocopherol>sunflower oil. The total percentage increased after 5 days of storage period in free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV) and anisidine value (AV). Total oxidation value (TOx) of sunflower oil supplemented with 1500 ppm RSE was 33.3%, 47.7%, 14.5%, and 45.5%, respectively. While the total percentage increased under different analysis methods, sunflower oil supplemented with 5% RSO was 17.2%, 60.4%, 36.2% and 59.0% in the order of FFA, PV, AV and TOTOX. Both RSO and RSE were found to be more effective in stabilisation of sunflower oil compared to tocopherol. Total phenolic content of RSE was 46.40 +/- 1.51 mg GAE/100g of oil while RSO was 12.51 +/- 0.15 mg GAE/ 100g of oil. The data indicates that roselle seed oil and seed extract are rich in phenolics and antioxidant activities and may be a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  17. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Winne Sia Chiaw; Ismail, Amin; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Wai, Ho Chun; Seng, Yim Hip

    2014-05-09

    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  18. [Use of flour from sunflower oil cake in the biosynthesis of antigungal antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukharevich, V M; Shvetsova, N N; Prodan, S I; Malkov, M A

    1977-04-01

    The possibility of replacing soybean meal and corn-steep liquor by food wastes of the oilpress industry and the meal of the sunflower oil cake in particular is discussed as applied to the fermentation media for production of antifungal antibiotics, such as levorin, mycoheptin, amphotericin. The studies showed that replacement of soybean meal by sunflower oil cake meal with simultaneous increasing of the amount of carbohydrates in the medium increased the levorin levels by 60--70 per cent as compared to the media used at present. When soybean meal and corn-steep liquor were simultaneously replaced by sunflower oil cake meal in amounts of 3--4 per cent the levels of mycoheptin in the fermentation broth increased by 30--65 per cent respectively. Replacement of soybean meal and corn-steep liquor by 3 per cent of sunflow oil cake meal in the medium used presently increased the amphotericin levels by 27 percent as compared to the control. Therefore, sunflower oil cake meal is a substitute of full value for soybean meal and corn-steep liquor in the fermentation media for production of antifungal antibiotics.

  19. Variability in sunflower oil quality for biodiesel production: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra-Irujo, Gustavo A.; Izquierdo, Natalia G.; Covi, Mauro; Nolasco, Susana M.; Quiroz, Facundo; Aguirrezabal, Luis A.N.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid composition of the feedstock, which varies among and within species, is the main determinant of biodiesel quality. In this work we analyze the variability in biodiesel quality (density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, cetane number and iodine value) obtained from sunflower oil, by means of a validated crop model that predicts the fatty acid composition of one high-oleic, and three traditional (high-linoleic) sunflower hybrids. The model was run with a 10-year average weather data from 56 weather stations in Argentina, and simulation results were compared to the biodiesel standards of Argentina, USA and Europe. We show that biodiesel produced from sunflower oil does not have one fixed quality, but different qualities depending on weather conditions and agricultural practices, and that intraspecific variation in biodiesel quality can be larger than interspecific differences. Our results suggest that (a) sunflower oil from high-oleic hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production (within limits of all analyzed standards), regardless of growing conditions and (b) sunflower oil from traditional hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production under the standards of Argentina and USA, while only certain hybrids grown in warm regions (e.g., Northern Argentina, Southern USA, China, India, Pakistan) are suitable for biodiesel production according to the European standard

  20. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  1. New sunflower seeds with high contents of phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols have a positive nutritional impact because they contribute to reduce cholesterol levels in blood. Accordingly, foods rich in phytosterols are required in a healthy diet. Vegetable oils are the richest source of phytosterols in the diet, though sunflower oil has lower phytosterol content than other seed oils such as rapeseed and corn. Increasing phytosterol content in sunflower oil requires optimizing first selection procedures. In this way, the development of accurate methods for analyzing phytosterol content in seeds instead of oils has opened up recently the way for large-scale screening for this trait. Large variability for seed phytosterol content has been identified in sunflower germplasm, from which we have developed a line, IASP-18, with about twofold seed phytosterol content than conventional sunflower. The trait is expressed across environments. Genetic studies are underway to characterize its inheritance and assess the feasibility of introgressing genes for high phytosterol content into elite sunflower germplasm.

  2. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Morsy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5 fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA, and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017 ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001 and acetate (p = 0.034 concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013 in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007 and milk fat content (p = 0.002. Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048 and feed efficiency (p = 0.046 compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05 milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021 C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3, without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  3. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla) peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Stella Sye Chee; Chang, Sui Kiat; Sia, Winne Chiaw Mei; Yim, Hip Seng

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic compounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm)  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C) for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the application of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  4. Model-free pyrolysis kinetics of sunflower seed and its de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özsin, Gamzenur; Kilic, Murat; Pütün, Ersan; Pütün, Ayşe E.

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower seed wastes from oil production are a potential biomass source for bio- energy production due to extensive and excessive oil production from sunflower seeds. Considering global energy requirement, pyrolysis seems a promising route for utilisation of such industrial biomass wastes. To develop, scale-up and operate pyrolysis plants efficiently, a fundamental understanding of pyrolysis behaviour and kinetics is essential. In this study, sunflower seeds and their waste cakes after extraction were evaluated as a potential biomass feedstock in pyrolysis process. In order to enlighten pyrolytic degradation behaviours, samples were pyrolysed under dynamic conditions from room temperature to 1000 °C using multiple heating rates. The main degradation regimes of the structures were characterized by high weight loss rates. Reaction kinetics was investigated with respect to conversion degree. It is anticipated that this study will be beneficial in optimizing the thermochemical processes, which may be utilize industrial biomass wastes. (full text)

  5. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

    Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de

  6. Productions of sunflower oil biodiesel and used cooking oil through heterogeneous catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, C A; Collazos, C A; Acuña, H E Castellanos; Fernandez, C P; Martínez, D Blanco; Cuervo, J A

    2017-01-01

    This document compares homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts used by production of biodiesel of sunflower oil and cooking oil used in frying. For this, NaOH was used as a catalyst homogeneous, and K 2 CO 3 and Na 2 CO 3 supported in gamma-alumina (K 2 CO 3 /γ Al 2 O 3 y Na 2 CO 3 /γ-Al 2 O 3 ) were synthesized as heterogeneous catalysts, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The transesterification tests were carried out for the sunflower oil and used cooking oil, in a reflux system, to different molar relations methanol/oil, depending on the type of oil and characterization of the same. The reflux system is performed at a temperature of 55-60°C for one hour. Finally, biofuel was characterized and the yield of the reaction was calculated. (paper)

  7. Productions of sunflower oil biodiesel and used cooking oil through heterogeneous catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, C. A.; Blanco Martínez, D.; Collazos, C. A.; Castellanos Acuña, H. E.; Cuervo, J. A.; Fernandez, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    This document compares homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts used by production of biodiesel of sunflower oil and cooking oil used in frying. For this, NaOH was used as a catalyst homogeneous, and K2CO3 and Na2CO3 supported in gamma-alumina (K2CO3/γ Al2O3 y Na2CO3 /γ-Al2O3) were synthesized as heterogeneous catalysts, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The transesterification tests were carried out for the sunflower oil and used cooking oil, in a reflux system, to different molar relations methanol/oil, depending on the type of oil and characterization of the same. The reflux system is performed at a temperature of 55-60°C for one hour. Finally, biofuel was characterized and the yield of the reaction was calculated.

  8. Use of Sunflower Meal with Enzyme Mixture Substituted for Soybean Meal in Broiler Diets

    OpenAIRE

    KIRKPINAR, Figen; BASMACIOĞLU, Hatice

    2001-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effects of sunflower meal with an enzyme mixture containing a-amylase, ß-glucanase, cellulase, lipase and protease substituted for soybean meal in broiler diets on performance, intestinal weight, viscosity and pH, as well as the frequency of sticky droppings and abdominal fat. In the trial, a total of 960 one-day-old Avian broiler chicks were used. The trial lasted 6 weeks. A total of 12 experimental diets were supplied ad libitum. Dietary treatme...

  9. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  10. Dynamic changes of plasma acylcarnitine levels induced by fasting and sunflower oil challenge test in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, C. C.; de Almeida, I. T.; Jakobs, C.; Poll-The, B. T.; Duran, M.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic changes of plasma acylcarnitine levels in 1- to 7-y-old children during fasting and after the ingestion of sunflower oil were studied. Glucose, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, FFA, and individual plasma acylcarnitine levels were monitored in both conditions. Fasting experiments lasted

  11. Direct acetylation of sunflower oil in the presence of boron trioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lubrication properties of sunflower oil have been modified by epoxidation in the first step and acetylation of the obtained epoxide in the second step. Epoxidation has been followed in dichloromethane solution in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid as oxidizing agent and sulfuric acid as catalyst. The reaction ...

  12. A randomized study of coconut oil versus sunflower oil on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with stable coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Maniyal; Vasudevan, D M; Sundaram, K R; Krishnan, Sajitha; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Nandakumar, Sandya; Chandrasekhar, Rajiv; Mathew, Navin

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its pathological atherosclerotic process are closely related to lipids. Lipids levels are in turn influenced by dietary oils and fats. Saturated fatty acids increase the risk for atherosclerosis by increasing the cholesterol level. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of cooking oil media (coconut oil and sunflower oil) on lipid profile, antioxidant mechanism, and endothelial function in patients with established CAD. In a single center randomized study in India, patients with stable CAD on standard medical care were assigned to receive coconut oil (Group I) or sunflower oil (Group II) as cooking media for 2 years. Anthropometric measurements, serum, lipids, Lipoprotein a, apo B/A-1 ratio, antioxidants, flow-mediated vasodilation, and cardiovascular events were assessed at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. Hundred patients in each arm completed 2 years with 98% follow-up. There was no statistically significant difference in the anthropometric, biochemical, vascular function, and in cardiovascular events after 2 years. Coconut oil even though rich in saturated fatty acids in comparison to sunflower oil when used as cooking oil media over a period of 2 years did not change the lipid-related cardiovascular risk factors and events in those receiving standard medical care. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Influence of Palm Oil Addition on Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Muresan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Halva is one of the most popular food products of Middle Eastern and North African countries. Worldwide, the most known halva contains roasted sesame seeds, while usually in Eastern European countries the most appreciated is sunflower halva. However, even if sunflower halva is an appreciated product, it has currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers. Sunflower halva main issue is caused by the oil which separates at the surface during storage, determining a low commercial aspect of the product. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of palm oil addition on sunflower halva stability and texture. Five samples containing different oil percentages [w/w] (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% were prepared, as well as a control sample prepared using the standard recipe (no palm oil added. The texture of all samples was analyzed by an instrumental method, while the colloidal stability was determined by a gravimetric technique during 40 days of storage at two different temperatures (1-2ºC and 15-20ºC. After the storage test at 1-2oC, there were not significant differences between the samples, for all palm oil containing samples as well as for control the percentages of separated oil being below 0.6%. With respect to the control sample, the halva samples containing 1%, 4% and 5% of palm oil showed a decrease in their stability, while samples containing 2% and 3% showed an improved stability (3.44% and 1.78% of separated oil. During this study it was established that the sample containing 3% palm oil was the most favorable, regarding its textural properties, as well as its colloidal stability. 

  14. Life Cycle Assessment for Evaluating On-farm Energy Production: The Case of Sunflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to evaluate the production of sunflower oil as a source of bioenergy and its use on the farm. Representative farms of the Veneto Region were analyzed in order to evaluate the possibility of using different biofuels. The results showed that there are only a few feasible alternatives at farm level. The conversion of oil to biodiesel appeared unachievable because of the large number of hectares necessary for optimizing use of the transesterification equipment. A life cycle environmental analysis (LCA was applied to eight different farm types simulating the total replacement of diesel oil by pure vegetable oil (sunflower. The results were not uniform because, considering all the LCA impact categories, some of them turned to be worse than the original scenario (use of diesel oil but there was a substantial advantage for all the farm types in terms of reduction of substances with effects on climate change. Some farms, termed horticultural farm large, unspecialized farm large and unspecialized farm small, had a reduction of more than 99% in the substances with effects on climate change by changing from diesel oil to sunflower oil. The biofuel is not yet competitive as no free market exists for it, but it represents a practical way to avoid the shift of economic benefits from agriculture to industry, as happens with biodiesel production.

  15. Effect of Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Oil Sunflower in Salted Soil of Ningxia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAN Yin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining field trial with test analysis, a nitrogen(N, phosphorus(P2O5 and potassium(K2O fertilizer experiment of oil sunflowers was set to explore the influence of different ratio of N, P, K fertilizer on dry matter accumulation of oil sunflowers, nutrient absorption and accumulation, the yield and quality, etc in salted soil of the northern Ningxia, in order to provide scientific evidence for regulating and controlling of fertilization in the salted soil and enhancing the yields and quality of oil sunflowers. The results showed that: in the salted soil, the plant which had been disposed by N, P, K fertilizer had more advantages, the 1 000-grain weight, fruit quantity of each oil sunflower and yield per plant and hectare all increased significantly. Treatment of adding the organic fertilizer on the basis of N, P, K fertilizer could also increase the amount of N, P, K absorption significantly. At the same time, the application of N, P, K fertilizer would increase the fat content and reduce the protein, increase the oleic acid and stearic acid, reduce the content of linoleic acid and palmitic acid. The needs of nitrogen (N, phosphorus(P2O5 and potassium(K2O absorption of oil sunflower seeds were averagely 6.1~9.6, 3.2~3.8 kg and 12.3~13.7 kg, about 1:0.40~0.55:1.43~2.09 in ratio, 1:0.49:1.79 averagely in ratio.

  16. Sunflower Meal and Supplementation of an Enzyme Complex in Layer Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAG Araújo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of 64- to 79-wk-old laying hens fed diets supplemented with an enzyme complex (EC and containing increasing sunflower meal (SFM levels. A total of 384 Hy-Line Brown layers were distributed according to a randomized block design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (four levels of SFM, and inclusion or not of EC, with eight replicates of six birds each unit. The levels of SFM inclusion were 0, 8, 16 and 24%, utilized in two distinct diets. Diets were calculated to meet all the nutritional requirements of birds, except for the nutrients that would be made available by the nutritional matrix of the enzyme complex, with or without utilization of EC. The parameters analyzed were feed intake (g/bird/day, egg production (%/bird/day, egg weight, egg mass (g/bird/day, feed conversion ratio per egg mass, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs, body weight gain, egg components (yolk, albumen and eggshell and the economic efficiency index (EEI. There was no interaction between EC addition and the SFM levels in the diet. The addition of EC in the diets of laying hens did not affect egg productive or components parameters. The increase in the SFM levels in the diet presented quadratic effect on egg production and feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs, with calculated optimal sunflower meal inclusion levels of 6.72% and 5.83%, respectively, for each parameter. The best economic efficiency per dozen eggs was obtained with the diet with 16.0% SFM and EC inclusion, whereas per egg mass with the diet with of 24.0% SFM and no EC addition.

  17. The sunflower genome provides insights into oil metabolism, flowering and Asterid evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badouin, Hélène; Gouzy, Jérôme; Grassa, Christopher J; Murat, Florent; Staton, S Evan; Cottret, Ludovic; Lelandais-Brière, Christine; Owens, Gregory L; Carrère, Sébastien; Mayjonade, Baptiste; Legrand, Ludovic; Gill, Navdeep; Kane, Nolan C; Bowers, John E; Hubner, Sariel; Bellec, Arnaud; Bérard, Aurélie; Bergès, Hélène; Blanchet, Nicolas; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Brunel, Dominique; Catrice, Olivier; Chaidir, Nadia; Claudel, Clotilde; Donnadieu, Cécile; Faraut, Thomas; Fievet, Ghislain; Helmstetter, Nicolas; King, Matthew; Knapp, Steven J; Lai, Zhao; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Lippi, Yannick; Lorenzon, Lolita; Mandel, Jennifer R; Marage, Gwenola; Marchand, Gwenaëlle; Marquand, Elodie; Bret-Mestries, Emmanuelle; Morien, Evan; Nambeesan, Savithri; Nguyen, Thuy; Pegot-Espagnet, Prune; Pouilly, Nicolas; Raftis, Frances; Sallet, Erika; Schiex, Thomas; Thomas, Justine; Vandecasteele, Céline; Varès, Didier; Vear, Felicity; Vautrin, Sonia; Crespi, Martin; Mangin, Brigitte; Burke, John M; Salse, Jérôme; Muños, Stéphane; Vincourt, Patrick; Rieseberg, Loren H; Langlade, Nicolas B

    2017-06-01

    The domesticated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., is a global oil crop that has promise for climate change adaptation, because it can maintain stable yields across a wide variety of environmental conditions, including drought. Even greater resilience is achievable through the mining of resistance alleles from compatible wild sunflower relatives, including numerous extremophile species. Here we report a high-quality reference for the sunflower genome (3.6 gigabases), together with extensive transcriptomic data from vegetative and floral organs. The genome mostly consists of highly similar, related sequences and required single-molecule real-time sequencing technologies for successful assembly. Genome analyses enabled the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the Asterids, further establishing the existence of a whole-genome triplication at the base of the Asterids II clade and a sunflower-specific whole-genome duplication around 29 million years ago. An integrative approach combining quantitative genetics, expression and diversity data permitted development of comprehensive gene networks for two major breeding traits, flowering time and oil metabolism, and revealed new candidate genes in these networks. We found that the genomic architecture of flowering time has been shaped by the most recent whole-genome duplication, which suggests that ancient paralogues can remain in the same regulatory networks for dozens of millions of years. This genome represents a cornerstone for future research programs aiming to exploit genetic diversity to improve biotic and abiotic stress resistance and oil production, while also considering agricultural constraints and human nutritional needs.

  18. A randomized controlled intervention with fish oil versus sunflower oil from 9 to 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders D; Michaelsen, Kim F; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    intake affects adipose tissue growth, we randomly allocated 154 healthy infants to daily supplementation with FO or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 mo of age and measured z-score changes in various anthropometric assessments of body size and skinfold thicknesses and plasma adipokine concentrations. Among...

  19. 15th International Sunflower Conference Synthesis of new derivatives from vegetable sunflower oil methyl esters via epoxydation and oxirane opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Xavier

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, epoxides have received increased attention because they are of interest both as end-products and as chemical intermediates; epoxidized oils, mainly High Oleic Sunflower Oil, and their ester derivatives have thus found important applications as plasticizers and additives for polyvinyl chloride (PVC. Epoxidized esters have been produced classically from High Oleic Sunflower Methyl Esters (HOSME using H2O2 and formic acid. The epoxidation reaches 90% on pilot scale (5kg. Epoxidized esters produced from HOSME have respectively hydroxyl values of 0, oxirane values of 5.2/4.5 and iodine values of 1.7/1.5. Cleavage trials of the oxirane group of the epoxidized esters with different reactants have been undertaken in order to produce on pilot scale new derivatives to be characterized and tested in different fields of application (lubrication, detergency and as chemical intermediates. Reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with an excess of oleic acid was conducted under atmospheric pressure without any catalyst and solvent. The oxirane opening leads to complete estolide formation: after neutralization, analytical controls (chemical values, GC and HPLC analysis indicate that the estolides are composed of a mixture of C36 (oleate of methyl hydroxystearate and C54 (di-oleate of methyl dihydroxystearate. Oxirane opening with alcohols (ethanol and octanol was preferentially performed by acid catalysis at 100°C under atmospheric pressure. Analytical controls show the formation of different etheralcohols and secondary products resulting from dehydration, transesterification and dimerization side-reactions. Cleavage reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with a primary amine (butylamine was conducted under pressure, at high temperature (180/200°C. Both transesterification and opening of the oxirane group occur under these conditions. Reaction products are composed of amides formed by transesterification and a mixture of fatty amines/imines obtained by ring opening as established

  20. Emission and Performance analysis of hydrotreated refined sunflower oil as alternate fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hemanandh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were conducted by using the hydrotreated refined sunflower oil as alternative fuel in a 4-stroke, stationary DI diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The effects of hydrotreated vegetable oil blends on diesel engine emission and performance were studied. The emission and performance were studied for different proportions such as HTSF B25 and HTSF B100 and at different loading conditions and comparison was made with petrodiesel. The emission and performance results of HTSF B25 and HTSF B100 showed that decrease in CO by 9% and 37%, HC by 42% and 55%, NOx by 10% and 18.18%, BSFC by 25% and 12.5%. The increase in brake thermal efficiency was by 10% and 38%. It was observed from the study that hydrotreatment of refined sunflower oil could be one of the best alternative fuels for the diesel engine.

  1. INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON GRAIN YIELD, OIL CONTENT AND OIL YIELD OF NEW OS SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Mijić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of determining the influence of weather conditions on the yield components of sunflower, the results of three-year field trials are analysed in the paper. In the trials sown in Osijek in 2013, 2014 and 2015, there were 15 sunflower hybrids: two foreign hybrids and 13 hybrid combinations of the Agricultural Institute Osijek. In the period before sowing (January – March, the highest amount of precipitation was in 2013 (213.1 mm, then in 2015 (167.9 mm, and the lowest in 2014 (109.5 mm. In the growing period (April – September, the highest amount of precipitation (487.3 mm was in 2014, 475.7 mm in 2013, and in 2015 it was the lowest (251.6 mm. In 2013, during the growing period, the mean monthly air temperature was 19.1°C, in 2015 19.9°C, and in 2014 18.6°C. Of these years, statistically significant at the P=0.05, the highest value of the analysed traits was recorded in 2013: grain yield of 6.47 t ha-1, oil content 51.69% and oil yield 3.05 t ha-1. Grain yield, oil content and oil yield were lower in 2015, and the lowest in 2014. Matej, a newly recognized sunflower hybrid of the Agricultural Institute Osijek had the highest values of grain and oil yield (6.95 and 3.39 t ha-1, and by its oil content of 53.44%, it was in the third place. For high grain and oil yields of sunflower, in addition to the optimal air temperature, the amount and distribution of precipitation before and also during the growing season are very important.

  2. Antioxidant effect of mono- and dihydroxyphenols in sunflower oil with different levels of naturally present tocopherols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrádková, Iveta; Merkl, Roman; Šmidrkal, Jan; Kyselka, Jan; Filip, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mono- and dihydroxyphenolic acids and their alkyl esters were examined, with emphasis on the relationship between their molecular structure and antioxidant activity. Test media with different tocopherol level were used for determining the oxidative stability: original refined sunflower oil (total tocopherols 149.0 mg/kg), partially tocopherol-stripped sunflower oil (total tocopherols 8.7 mg/kg) and distilled fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as a tocopherol-free medium. The chemical reaction of tocopherols with diazomethane tested for the purpose to eliminate their antioxidant activity failed due to the negligible degree of methylation of hydroxyl group in the tocopherol molecule. Caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxyphenolic acids) and their alkyl esters were found to be more active antioxidants than monohydroxyphenolic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid), 2,5-dihydroxyphenolic acid (gentisic acid), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenolic acids (vanillic and ferulic acids) and their corresponding alkyl esters. Naturally present tocopherols in refined sunflower oil proved to have a synergistic effect on gentisic acid but not on its alkyl esters. In contrast, tocopherols showed an antagonistic effect on alkyl esters of caffeic acid, because their protection factors decreased with increasing level of tocopherols in the test medium. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of these alkyl esters decreased with increasing length of their alkyl chain in conformity with the polar paradox hypothesis. Practical applications: Tocopherols as naturally present antioxidants influence considerably the antioxidant activity of other antioxidants added to plant oils used as a test medium. Distilled fatty acid methyl esters prepared from refined sunflower oil may serve as an optimal tocopherol-free test medium. Some alkyl esters of phenolic acids were evaluated to be applicable as natural more lipophilic antioxidants in comparison with phenolic acids. PMID:23997655

  3. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winne Sia Chiaw Mei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05 higher than the control. Generally, the partially fractionated fraction was more effective than the crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA. Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  4. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Winne Sia Chiaw; Ismail, Amin; Mohd. Esa, Norhaizan; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Wai, Ho Chun; Seng, Yim Hip

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA). Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation. PMID:26784877

  5. Intake, digestibility and ruminal parameters of dairy cows fed pelleted diets and treated with lignosulfonate-containing sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francilaine Eloise De Marchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, in vitro and apparent digestibility and ruminal parameters of Holstein cows that were confined and fed corn silage and concentrate containing: ground sunflower seeds (GS; ground sunflower seeds treated with 5% lignosulfonate (GSL; pelleted sunflower seeds (PS; or ground and pelleted sunflower seeds treated with lignosulfonate (PSL. Four lactating cows with 130±28 days of lactation and body weights of 569±63 kg were used. These animals were distributed in a Latin square design with four diets and four periods of 21 days each. There were no differences in the intakes (% body weight of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, mineral matter (MM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF or acid detergent fiber (ADF. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF and NFC were similar for all the diets, with a tendency towards decreased CP digestibility for all the pelleted diets (65.79% compared with the non-pelleted diets (69.66%. A negative effect of lignosulfonate was observed for the in vitro digestibility (IVD of DM, and a negative tendency was observed for the IVD of OM. Pelleting decreased the concentration of acetic acid (55.95 × 58.82 mM in rumen fluid. There was no effect of diet on pH (6.17 or ammonia nitrogen concentration (18.19 mg/dL. Pelleting and lignosulfonate do not promote the protective effect of sunflower seed nutrients as expected, and it may be more feasible to provide ground sunflower seed.

  6. Changes on the Solid Fat Content of Palm Oil/ Sunflower Oil Blends via Inter esterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suria Ramli; Azwani Mohd Lazim; Siti Aishah Hasbullah

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of binary blends containing refined-deodorized-bleached palm oil (RBDPO) and sunflower oil (SFO) were studied before and after chemical inter esterification at different temperature (110 degree Celsius (CIE1) and 80 degree Celsius (CIE2)) using sodium methoxide as catalyst. Thirty-three samples with different ratios were analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, fatty acid composition (FAC) and solid fat content (SFC) profile. Upon CIE, extensive rearrangements of fatty acids among triacylglycerol (TAG) were seen. Generally, CIE not induced enormous changes in the TAG compositions of ratio 8:2 and 5:5 of RBDPO:SFO blends. However, CIE induced enormous changes in the TAG compositions of the 9:1, 7:3, 6:4, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8 and 1:9 blends, which some of the TAGs were increasing while the other decreasing. These changes in TAG profiles resulted in some changes in the physical properties (especially SFC) of the blends. Generally, the SFC of inter esterified blend were decreased after CIE1 and increased after CIE2, except for sample 10:0, 8:2, 7:3, 5:5 and 9:1 which were decreased after CIE1 and CIE2. As a conclusion, CIE1 and CIE2 successfully changed the physicochemical characteristics of the binary blends. (author)

  7. Stabilizing effect of epoxidized sunflower oil as a secondary stabilizer for Ca/Hg stabilized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated triglyceride oil sunflower was epoxidized and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO was used as an organic thermal co-stabilizer for rigid poly(vinyl chloride (PVC in the presence of tricalcium dicitrate (Ca3(C6H5O72 and mercury (II acetate (Hg(CH3COO2. The thermo-oxidative degradation of PVC was studied in the presence of these ternary stabilizer systems at 170, 180, 190 and 200°C in N2 atmosphere. The effects of metal carboxylate combination Ca/Hg in the absence and in the presence of epoxidized sunflower oil on static heat treatment of PVC have been studied. The formation of polyene sequences was investigated by UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy and by comparing viscosity data obtained in the presence and in the absence of the additives. It was found that the additives retard the rate of degradation and reduce the extent of polymer chain scission associated with the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride. Synergistic effects were found when stabilizer was blended in 50:50 weight ratios with either. It was found that ESO exerted a stabilizing effect on the degradation of PVC. The activation energy for degraded PVC in absence of stabilizers was 38.6 kJ•mol–1 and in the presence of Ca/Hg and Ca/Hg/ESO were 53.3 and 64.7 kJ•mol–1 respectively. In order of compare the efficiency of the epoxidized sunflower oil with these metal soap stabilizers, thermal stabilities were evaluated on the basis of evolved hydrogen chloride determined by conductometry technique and degree of discoloration are discussed.

  8. French environmental communication on sunflower and rapeseed oils based on life cycle assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badey Laureen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The French “Grenelle” laws sparked a French national experiment trialling the environmental labelling of fast-moving consumer goods. The data required for this labelling scheme are generated by carrying out a life cycle assessment (LCA. The aim of this study is to provide all necessary information to fit the national experiment for two standard oils: sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. The complete oil life cycle was studied, from oilseed farming through to the end-of-life of the packaging. We focused heavily on the impacts of crushing and refining. The seed processing data was collected from different plants that are representative of the French crushing/refining industry and packaging site practice. The data inventory was used to calculate the identified environmental labelling indicators, i.e. greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water consumption. The production of 100g of refined bulk sunflower and rapeseed emits 89 and 127 g equivalent CO2 and consumes 1.7 L and 0.8 L of water, respectively. Most impacts on the studied indicators stem from the farming phase. Energy and water consumptions during crushing and refining also weigh on the studied indicators. The results of this study provide a relevant overview of all sunflower and rapeseed oils produced in France, and are usable as standard values for vegetable oil producers and users. Oil supply chain operators can use these values to compare to their own process values and gauge the improvements brought about by their ecodesign strategies. For example, using a biomass boiler, using less packaging, and making different choices on seed suppliers can lead to a lower set of impact values.

  9. Yield and acidity indices of sunflower and soybean oils in function of grain drying and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the best conditions for drying and storing soybeans and sunflower grains to maintain their quality. In the first experiment, the soybeans were found to have initial moisture contents of 25 and 19% (w.b. at different drying air temperatures (75, 90, 105, and 120°C. In the second step, the soybeans were evaluated after they were stored in paper bags and plastic polyethylene at temperatures of 3, 10 and 23°C for six months. In the third experiment, sunflower grains were tested after exposure to drying air temperatures of 45, 55, 65, and 75°C, and under storage conditions of 25°C and 50%, 20°C and 60%, 30°C and 40% RH over six months in paper bags and raffia. Drying the sunflower seeds at 45°C and storing them at 30°C and 40% RH led to higher oil yields and lower acid numbers. The oil that was extracted from the acid number was higher for soybean grains that were dried down from initial concentrations of 25% water at a drying air temperature of 120°C. The air temperature in storage at 3°C favored for yield and reduction of the soybean oil acidity.

  10. Temperature and duration of heating of sunflower oil affect ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Privé , Florence; Combes, Sylvie; Cauquil, Laurent; Farizon, Yves; Enjalbert, Francis; Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle

    2010-01-01

    Sunflower oil heated at 110 or 150°C for 1, 3, or 6 h was incubated with ruminal content in order to investigate the effects of temperature and duration of heating of oil on the ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro. When increased, these 2 parameters acted together to decrease the disappearance of linoleic acid in the media by inhibiting the isomerization of linoleic acid, which led to a decrease in conjugated linoleic acids and trans-C18:1 production. Nevertheless, trans-10 iso...

  11. Effect of seed quality on oxidative stability of cold-pressed sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Etelka B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the storage time, content of the husk and impurities in the seed mass on the oxidative stability of the cold pressed sunflower oil. The oxidative stability of oil was analyzed by the RSM (Response Surface Methodology, where the response value (output of the model was the content of oxidation products measured via specific absorbance at 232 nm for conjugated dienes and 270 nm for conjugated trienes. Analyses were performed on the fresh oil samples and oil samples tempered under the Schaal-Oven’s test conditions (96 h at 63±2ºC. It was concluded that the seed storage time had significant impact on the primary (A1%232nm and secondary (A1%270nm oil oxidation products, both before (b1-p<0,001; b1-p=0,021 and after (b1-p=0,048; b1-p=0,033 the heating of oil. The content of impurities and husks in the seeds used for pressing also had an influence of the conjugated dienes and trienes contents in both, fresh and heated oil samples. However, their impact was not statistically significant. Interaction of seed storage time, the content of impurities and husks also exert some effect on the values of these quality parameters in the fresh oil as well as in the oil after the heat treatment, even though their influence is not significant. The obtained results have shown that the cold pressed sunflower oil had a good oxidative stability at temperatures up to 63±2ºC.

  12. Extraction of sunflower oil by twin screw extruder: screw configuration and operating condition effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartika, I.A. [FATETA-IPB, Bogor (Indonesia). Department of Agroindustrial Technology; Pontalier, P.Y.; Rigal, L. [Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle, UMR 1010 INRA/INP-ENSIACET, Toulouse (France)

    2006-12-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the screw configuration allowing oil extraction from sunflower seeds with a twin-screw extruder. Experiments were conducted using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Five screw profiles were examined to define the best performance (oil extraction yield, specific mechanical energy and oil quality) by studying the influence of operating conditions, barrel temperature, screw speed and feed rate. Generally, the position and spacing between two reversed screw elements affected oil extraction yield. An increase of oil extraction yield was observed as the reversed screw elements were moved with increased spacing between two elements and with smaller pitch elements. In addition, oil extraction yield increased as barrel temperature, screw speed and feed rate were decreased. Highest oil extraction yield (85%) with best cake meal quality (residual oil content lower than 13%) was obtained under operating conditions of 120 {sup o}C, 75 rpm and 19 kg/h. Furthermore, the operating parameters influenced energy input. A decrease in barrel temperature and feed rate followed by an increase in screw speed increased energy input, particularly specific mechanical energy input. Effect of the operating parameters on oil quality was less important. In all experiments tested, the oil quality was very good. The acid value was below 2 mg of KOH/g of oil and total phosphorus content was low, below 100 mg/kg. (author)

  13. UTILIZATION OF MEXICAN SUNFLOWER LEAF MEAL-BASED DIETS BY PRE WEANED WEST AFRICAN DWARF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Henry Ekeocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted using 16 West African Dwarf (WAD lambs selected from 16 ewes brought to heat (Oestrus by synchronization and served by 2 rams. The experimental animals were placed at 6 weeks of age and were fed with Panicum maximum plus concentrate diet mixture of Mexican Sunflower Leaves (MSL and Wheat Bran (WB such that 0, 15, 30 and 45% of wheat bran was replaced by weight with MSL gravimetrically in diets A, B, C and D respectively. The experiment lasted for seven weeks. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and routine vaccination and medication were administered. Parameters measured were weight gain, dry matter intake, weaning weight and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR. The Dry Matter Intake - DMI (g/day was highest for lambs on diet C (156.94 followed by B (156.53, A (154.29 and D (152.04 g/day respectively. This increase was numerically higher than observed values for animals on treatments A and B but statistically significant (P0.05. Results from this study showed that 30% MSLM-based diet was acceptable to the pre-weaned lambs as it supported dry matter intake, optimum weight gain, weaning weight and feed conversion ratio before diminishing return sets in.

  14. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Process parameters optimization for synthesis of methyl ester from sunflower oil using Taguchi technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Senthilkumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, transesterification of sunflower oil for obtaining biodiesel was studied. Taguchi’s methodology (L9 orthogonal array was selected to optimize the most significant variables (methanol, catalyst concentration and stirrer speed in transesterification process. Experiments have conducted based on development of L9 orthogonal array by using Taguchi technique. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the regression equations were used to find the optimum yield of sunflower methyl ester under the influence of methanol, catalyst & stirrer speed. The study resulted in a maximum yield of sun flower methyl ester as 96% with the optimal conditions of methanol 110 ml with 0.5% by wt. of sodium hydroxide (NaOH stirred at 1200 rpm. The yield was analyzed on the basis of “larger is better”. Finally, confirmation tests were carried out to verify the experimental results.

  16. Effect of different drip irrigation regimes on yield and oil quality of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Metin SEZEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of different irrigation regimes on yield, yield components, oil yield and quality and water use of sunflower (Oleko variety irrigated with a drip system under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at the Alata Horticultural Research Institute, Tarsus Soil and Water Resources area in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Irrigation regimes consisted of three irrigation intervals (A1:= 25 mm; A2:= 50 mm; A3: = 75 mm of cumulative pan evaporation and six irrigation levels (I1=0.50, I2=0.75, I3=1.00 and I4=1.25. In addition, I5=PRD75 and I6=PRD50 treatments were considered. They received 75 and 50% of the full irrigation (I3 treatment from alternative laterals, respectively. Also, rainfed treatment is a control plot in the experiment. Maximum and minimum yields were obtained from the A2I4 and rainfed treatments, respectively in all experimental years. As the irrigation level value decreased the total yields in each irrigation interval also decreased. Seasonal irrigation amounts in the treatments varied from 199 mm to 563 mm in the experimental years. Seasonal evapotranspiration values in the treatments varied from 243 mm to 611 mm in the experimental years. Both irrigation amounts and irrigation frequencies had significantly effects on oil content of sunflower. The saturated (palmitic and stearic acid and unsaturated (oleic and linoleic acid fatty acid contents were significantly affected by water stress. In conclusion, A2I4 irrigation regime is recommended for sunflower production in the Mediterranean region in order to attain higher yields with improved quality. In case of water shortage, A2I13 irrigation regime is recommended to increase sunflower yield and quality.

  17. Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafiolu, A O; Oduguwa, O O; Jegede, A V; Tukura, C C; Olarotimi, I D; Teniola, A A; Alabi, J O

    2015-08-01

    Six hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utilization were determined. Proximate composition of the undecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed that undecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed that the final weight of 484.4 g/bird was obtained for birds on 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, while the lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birds on 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weight gain per bird per day was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird per day increased (P meal inclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementation of the diets showed marked (P meal inclusion in the diet while crude protein digestibility progressively reduced (P meal increased in the diet. Ash digestibility values were, however, increased (P meal increased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented diets consistently showed superior (P meal in the diets of layer chicks showed a similar body weight gain/bird/day with the control. Undecorticated sunflower seed meal used in this study is a good source of crude protein, ether extract, and amino acids and had the potential to serve as feeding stuffs as replacement for soybeans. The nutritive value of undecorticated sunflower seed meal was improved for layer chicks with exogenous enzyme supplementation. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Effect of dietary fish oil supplements alone or in combination with sunflower and linseed oil on ruminal lipid metabolism and bacterial populations in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairenius, P; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Muetzel, S; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Wallace, R J; Shingfield, K J

    2018-04-01

    Fish oil (FO) alters ruminal biohydrogenation causing trans fatty acid (FA) intermediates to accumulate, but the effects of 18-carbon polyunsaturated FA supply on ruminal long-chain FA metabolism and microbial communities in cattle fed FO are not well established. Four cows fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square with 21-d experimental periods to evaluate the effects of FO alone or in combination with plant oils high in 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 on rumen microbial ecology and flow of FA at the omasum. Treatments comprised a basal grass silage-based diet containing no additional oil (control) or supplements of FO (200 g/d) or FO (200 g/d) plus 500 g/d of sunflower oil (SFO) or linseed oil (LFO). Flow of FA was determined using the omasal sampling technique. The relative abundance of key biohydrogenating bacteria was assessed by quantitative PCR on 16S rRNA genes in omasal digesta. Fish oil-supplemented treatments increased the amounts of trans-18:1, trans-18:2, and 20- to 22-carbon polyunsaturated FA escaping the rumen. Relative to the control, oil supplements had no effect on the amount of 18:0 leaving the rumen, but LFO decreased the flow of 18:0 at the omasum compared with SFO. Both SFO and LFO increased trans-18:1 relative to FO, whereas LFO resulted in the highest trans-18:2 and 20- to 22-carbon FA flow. Supplements of FO plus plant oils shifted biohydrogenation toward trans-10 18:1 formation. Compared with FO alone, the ruminal metabolism of 22:6n-3 in the rumen of lactating cows is more extensive on diets containing higher amounts of 18-carbon polyunsaturated FA. However, the biohydrogenation of 22:5n-3 was less extensive in LFO than SFO, but showed no difference between FO and diets containing plant oils. Ruminal outflow of 20:5n-3 was not altered when plant oils were added to FO. Alterations in the amount of intermediates at the omasum or ruminal biohydrogenation pathways were not accompanied by major changes in analyzed bacterial populations

  19. INTENSIFICATION OF MICROBIAL EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE ETHAPOLAN BIOSYNTHESIS ON MIXTURE OF MOLASSES AND SUNFLOWER OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to establish Acinetobacter sp. IMB B-7005 cultivation conditions, which provide the maximal synthesis of microbial exopolysaccharide ethapolan on a mixture of molasses and sunflower oil, and to explore the possibility of replacing refined oil in a mixture with molasses for waste one. On the basis of theoretical calculations of energy consumption for the synthesis of ethapolan and biomass, it was determined that the optimal molar ratio of the concentrations of energy-deficient (sucrose and energy-excessive (sunflower oil substrates in the mixture was 1.0:0.9. Experiments have shown that the highest values of exopolysaccharide synthesis were observed at a molar ratio of monosubstrates in mixture 1.0:1.1, which is as close as possible to the theoretically calculated one. It was shown that increasing concentration of molasses and refined oil in mixture from 1.0 to 1.5% was accompanied by increase in amount of synthesized exopolysaccharide and its synthesizing capacity by 1.2 and 1.3 times, respectively. The possibility of replacing refined oil in a mixture with molasses for various types of waste (after frying potatoes, meat, vegetables and mixed was established. The maximum parameters of exopolysaccharide synthesis (concentration 14 g/l, synthesizing capacity 3.5 g exopolysaccharide/g biomass were observed when using mixed waste oil for both inoculum obtaining and EPS biosynthesis. The obtained results testify to the possibility of development of universal technology for obtaining microbal exopolysaccharide ethapolan on a mixture of waste (molasses and waste oil independent of the type and provider of waste oil.

  20. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during the deep frying process; Estudios fisicoquimicos sobre mezclas de aceite de girasol con aceite de chufa prensado en frio durante el proceso de fritura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Rehah, F. M.; Anany, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA), Peroxide Value (PV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC), color and viscosity) were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 degree centigrade {+-} 5 degree centigrade, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25); while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24). Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W) proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process. (Author) 68 refs.

  1. Promoting Locally Fortified Sunflower Oil Using E-Vouchers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The vouchers, transmitted through cell phone text messages, will deliver subsidies to vulnerable groups. They will target lactating mothers, while jumpstarting demand for fortified oil. Findings to improve health outcomes During the course of the project, subsidies will be systematically withdrawn to observe producers' and ...

  2. Sunflower meal in commercial layer diets formulated on total and digestible amino acids basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EM Casartelli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conduced to evaluate the inclusion of sunflower meal (SBM in commercial layer diets formulated on total or digestible amino acids basis. One hundred forty-four 41-week-old Lohmann LSL layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement with three replications of six birds each. Treatments consisted of a combination of four SBM inclusion levels SBM(0%, 4%, 8%, and 12% and feed formulation according two amino acid recommendations (total or digestible. The experimental period was divided into five periods of fourteen days. Performance parameters (egg production, feed intake, feed conversion, egg mass were evaluated for each period. In the last two days of each period, three eggs per replication were collected to evaluate egg quality (Haugh units, specific gravity, egg weight, eggshell thickness, and eggshell percentage. Hens fed on total amino acid recommendation presented the highest values for egg weight. Diets formulated on digestible amino acids basis showed an improvement in eggshell percentage and egg specific gravity. SBM addition in commercial layer diets did not influence performance; however, increasing SBM dietary levels SBM improved eggshell quality.

  3. Formation and evolution of monoepoxy fatty acids in thermoxidized olive and sunflower oils and quantitation in used frying oils from restaurants and fried-food outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Joaquín; Marmesat, Susana; Bordeaux, Olivier; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Dobarganes, Carmen

    2004-07-14

    The formation and evolution of monoepoxy fatty acids, arising from oleic and linoleic acids, were investigated in olive oil and conventional sunflower oil, representatives of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils, respectively, during thermoxidation at 180 degrees C for 5, 10, and 15 h. Six monoepoxy fatty acids, cis-9,10- and trans-9,10-epoxystearate, arising from oleic acid, and cis-9,10-, trans-9,10-, cis-12,13-, and trans-12,13-epoxyoleate, arising from linoleic acid, were analyzed by gas chromatography after oil derivatization to fatty acid methyl esters. Considerable amounts, ranging from 4.29 to 14.24 mg/g of oil in olive oil and from 5.10 to 9.44 mg/g of oil in sunflower oil, were found after the heating periods assayed. Results showed that the monoepoxides quantitated constituted a major group among the oxidized fatty acid monomers formed at high temperature. For similar levels of degradation, higher contents of the monoepoxides were found in olive oil than in sunflower oil. Ten used frying oils from restaurants and fried-food outlets in Spain were analyzed to determine the contents of the monoepoxides in real frying oil samples. Levels ranged from 3.37 to 14.42 mg/g of oil. Results show that, for similar degradation levels, the monoepoxides were more abundant in the monounsaturated oils than in the polyunsaturated oils.

  4. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Atena Poiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT, inhibition of oil oxidation (IO and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%, p-AV (29%; 40%, CD (45%; 30%, CT (41%; 36%, TOTOX (35%; 37%. GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  5. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...... a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid...

  6. Analysis and modelling of the factors controlling seed oil concentration in sunflower: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianasolo Fety Nambinina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower appears as a potentially highly competitive crop, thanks to the diversification of its market and the richness of its oil. However, seed oil concentration (OC – a commercial criterion for crushing industry – is subjected to genotypic and environmental effects that make it sometimes hardly predictable. It is assumed that more understanding of oil physiology combined with the use of crop models should permit to improve prediction and management of grain quality for various end-users. Main effects of temperature, water, nitrogen, plant density and fungal diseases were reviewed in this paper. Current generic and specific crop models which simulate oil concentration were found to be empirical and to lack of proper evaluation processes. Recently two modeling approaches integrating ecophysiological knowledge were developed by Andrianasolo (2014, Statistical and dynamic modelling of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. grain composition as a function of agronomic and environmental factors, Ph.D. Thesis, INP Toulouse: (i a statistical approach relating OC to a range of explanatory variables (potential OC, temperature, water and nitrogen stress indices, intercepted radiation, plant density which resulted in prediction quality from 1.9 to 2.5 oil points depending on the nature of the models; (ii a dynamic approach, based on “source-sink” relationships involving leaves, stems, receptacles (as sources and hulls, proteins and oil (as sinks and using priority rules for carbon and nitrogen allocation. The latter model reproduced dynamic patterns of all source and sink components faithfully, but tended to overestimate OC. A better description of photosynthesis and nitrogen uptake, as well as genotypic parameters is expected to improve its performance.

  7. Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-12-01

    The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only α-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of α-, γ-, and δ-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of γ-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on the changes of biologically active complexes of sunflower oil, tard, and butter under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.; Stamatov, D.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations of changes in the biologically active complex of sunflower oil, lard and butter under the influence of gamma rays: The points examined are the effect of small, medium and large doses (10 4 , 10 6 and 10 7 ) of gamma rays (Co 60 ) and the after-effect on the carotenes, tocopherols, sterols and linoleic acid in sunflower oil, lard and butter. Under these conditions, only the carotenes and tocopherols are subjected to changes to the point of destruction. What was found is a good correlative connection between the changes in the tocopherols and the degree of oxidation of the corresponding fats. (orig.) [de

  9. Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Simon G; AlEnezi, Tareq; Sultan, Amani; Lavender, Tina; Chittock, John; Brown, Kirsty; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Natural oils are advocated and used throughout the world as part of neonatal skin care, but there is an absence of evidence to support this practice. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effect of olive oil and sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin. Nineteen adult volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis were recruited into two randomized forearm-controlled mechanistic studies. The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. These findings challenge the unfounded belief that all natural oils are beneficial for the skin and highlight the need for further research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sunflower oil ozonation. Following of the reaction by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Gomez, Maritza F.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the technique of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance can be used for the pursuit of the reaction between the ozone and the unsaturated fatty acids. It's carried out the sunflower oil ozonization to different applied dose of ozone and the index of peroxides and the concentration of aldehydes are determined. The main reaction products were identified by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR 1 H). The intensities of the signs were used to follow the advance of the reaction between the ozone and the sunflower oil. It is was carried out until obtaining an index of peroxides of 1 202 mmol-equiv/kg. The intensities of the signs of the olefinic protons diminish with a gradual increment in the dose of applied ozone, but without ending up disappearing completely. The ozonides of Criegee obtained to applied dose of ozone of 107,1 mg/g were approximately bigger 7,4 times that those obtained at the beginning from the reaction to applied dose of ozone of 15,3 mg/g. The aldehydes protons were observed as a sign of weak intensity in all the spectra. The signs belonging to the olenifics protons of the hydroperoxides in d = 5,55 ppm increases with the increment of the applied dose of ozone. You concludes that to higher applied dose of ozone, haggler is the advance of the ozonization reaction, what belongs together with a bigger formation of oxygenated compounds

  11. Study of the application of sunflower oil in the process of drilling ABNT 1045 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Robert Pereira Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cutting fluids in machining, when chosen and applied adequately can contemplate in benefits during the manufacturing processes. The selected method should allow the cutting fluid to reach the closest possible of the cutting edge lubricating the chip-tool interface. The properties of the fluid are fundamental so that the same facilitates the machining process. However the fluid can represent a great problem for the environment and health of the operator. For that reason, several scientific and technological studies are constantly developed to investigate the performance and alternative applications of cutting fluids in machining operations. This work studies the effect of sunflower oil in the cutting forces for the drilling process of 1045 ABNT steel. The fluid was applied in the form MQL - Minimum Quantity Lubrication for different cutting conditions. The cutting speed, feed rate and the length of the hole were varied. Each one of the cutting variables two levels were used. The results suggest a good acting sunflower oil in the work accomplished.

  12. Spectroscopic Analysis of Heterogeneous Biocatalysts for Biodiesel Production from Expired Sunflower Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch Wembabazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study characterized heterogeneous biocatalyst synthesized from sucrose, saw dust, and chicken egg shells using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy coupled with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR technique. Acidic sulphonate (–SO3H groups were more visible in the spectrum generated for carbonized and sulphonated sucrose than in carbonized and sulphonated saw dust. This was highlighted further by the significantly higher conversion percentage achieved for sulphonated sucrose (62.5% than sulphonated saw dust (46.6% during esterification of expired sunflower oil (p=0.05. The spectra for calcinated egg shells also showed that the most active form of calcium oxide was produced at calcination temperature of 1000°C. This was confirmed in the single-step transesterification reaction in which calcium oxide generated at 1000°C yielded the highest biodiesel (87.8% from expired sunflower oil. The study further demonstrated the versatility of the FTIR technique in qualitative analysis of biodiesel and regular diesel by confirming the presence of specific characteristic peaks of diagnostic importance. These findings therefore highlight the potential of FTIR-ATR as an inexpensive, fast, and accurate diagnostic means for easy identification and characterization of different materials and products.

  13. Effect of chemically reduced palladium supported catalyst on sunflower oil hydrogenation conversion and selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Alshaibani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenation of sunflower oil was studied in order to improve the conversion and to reduce the trans-isomerization selectivity. The hydrogenation was performed using Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 prepared catalyst and Pd/Al2O3 commercial catalyst under similar conditions. The Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation and chemical reduction processes. It was characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis (BET, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The result of sunflower oil hydrogenation on Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst showed a 17% higher conversion and a 23% lower trans-isomerization selectivity compared to the commercial Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. The chemical reduction of palladium supported catalyst using potassium borohydride (KBH4 has affected the Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst’s structure and particle size. These most likely influenced its catalytic performance toward higher conversion and lower trans-isomerization selectivity.

  14. Fatty acid composition and bacterial community changes in the rumen fluid of lactating sheep fed sunflower oil plus incremental levels of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Belenguer, A; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2012-02-01

    Supplementation of ruminant diets with plant oils and marine lipids is an effective strategy for lowering saturated fatty acid (FA) content and increasing the concentration of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 FA in ruminant milk. However, changes in populations of ruminal microorganisms associated with altered biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated FA are not well characterized. Twenty-five lactating Assaf ewes were allocated at random to 1 of 5 treatments composed of dehydrated alfalfa hay and concentrates containing no additional lipid (control), or supplemented with 25 g of sunflower oil and 0 (SO), 8 (SOMA(1)), 16 (SOMA(2)), or 24 (SOMA(3)) g of marine algae/kg of diet dry matter. On d 28 on diet, samples of rumen fluid were collected for lipid analysis and microbial DNA extraction. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of FA methyl esters. Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis, and real-time PCR was used to quantify the known Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce trans-11 18:1 or 18:0. Dietary supplements of sunflower oil alone or in combination with marine algae altered the FA profile of rumen fluid, which was associated with changes in populations of specific bacteria. Inclusion of marine algae in diets containing sunflower oil resulted in the accumulation of trans 18:1 and 10-O-18:0 and a marked decrease in 18:0 concentrations in rumen fluid. At the highest levels of supplementation (SOMA(2) and SOMA(3)), marine algae also promoted a shift in ruminal biohydrogenation pathways toward the formation of trans-10 18:1 at the expense of trans-11 18:1. Changes in the concentration of biohydrogenation intermediates were not accompanied by significant variations in the abundance of known cultivated ruminal bacteria capable of hydrogenating unsaturated FA. However, certain

  15. Ultrasonication Assisted Production of Biodiesel from Sunflower Oil by Using CuO: Mg Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Rintu; Jose, Sony; Joyprabu, H.; Johnson, I.

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel is a clean, renewable, biodegradable, eco-friendly and alternative fuel used in the diesel engine. The present work was carried out at constant operational conditions such as methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1, catalyst concentration 0.25%, 30 minute reaction time and the reaction temperature at 60°C. Biodiesel was synthesized by transesterification of sunflower oil (SFO) with methanol, using CuO: Mgas nanocatalyst. This nanocatalyst was prepared by quick precipitation method. The biodiesel yield of 71.78% was achieved under reaction condition. The presence of methyl ester groups at the produced biodiesel was confirmed using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The FAME conversion yield up to 82.83 % could be obtained under the operating conditions.

  16. Commercial cuts and chemical and sensory attributes of meat from crossbred Boer goats fed sunflower cake-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Palmieri, Adriana Dantas; Carvalho, Silvana Teixeira; Leão, André Gustavo; de Abreu, Claudilene Lima; Ribeiro, Claudio Vaz Di Mambro; Pereira, Elzania Sales; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sunflower cake feed in commercial cut yields and chemical and sensory attributes of goat meat. Thirty-two castrated male goats were distributed in four levels (0, 8, 16 and 24%) of sunflower cake supplementation. The animals were slaughtered and the carcasses were placed in a cold chamber and sectioned into five anatomical regions corresponding to commercial cuts. Samples of the Longissimus lumborum muscle were analyzed for chemical composition and sensory quality. The chemical composition and pH were not affected by the treatments. The smell, taste and 'goatiness' of the aroma and flavor of the meat were also unaffected by the treatments. The appearance, tenderness and juiciness of the meat differed by treatment. The highest level (24%) of sunflower cake increased meat tenderness; however, according to the tasters there was reduced softness, although none of the samples were rejected by the tasters. Sunflower cake can be added to the diet at a level of up to 16% without altering the quantitative and qualitative attributes of the meat. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. In vitro mutagenicity assay (Ames test and phytochemical characterization of seeds oil of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelma de Mello Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the genotoxic potential of the oil of H. annuus L. (sunflower seeds via the Ames test as well as its oxidative properties and lipid composition. The pre-incubation method, system metabolic activation (S9 fraction and five S. typhimurium strains (TA97, TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA102 were employed for the Ames test. The oxidative stability and fatty acid composition were analyzed by standard methods and gas chromatography. A revertant analysis showed no significant differences between the treatment doses (10–200 μl/plate and the negative controls, regardless of S9+ and S9−, and included all of the S. typhimurium strains. Chromatographic analysis showed high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, followed by monounsaturated, saturated and total trans-isomers. Among the polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids predominated. The results suggest that the sunflower oil is not genotoxic as indicated by frameshift mutations and base pair substitutions regardless of the treatment dose, but shows dose-dependent toxicity. The oxidative properties of the sunflower oil were consistent with the requirements of national and international standards. However, its composition could also indicate phytotherapeutic properties. Keywords: Helianthus annuus L., Sunflower oil, Genetic toxicity, Gas chromatography

  18. Effects of Watering and Nitrogen Fertilization on Yield and Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Cropping Oil Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAN Jian-xin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment with split-plot design was conducted to study the effects of the interaction of water and nitrogen fertilization on the growth and yield of oil sunflower, water and nitrogen use efficiency of cropping oil sunflower. This experiment set three irrigation rate treatments, including high irrigation treatment (5 250 m3·hm-2, middle irrigation treatment (3 750 m3·hm-2, low irrigation treatment (2 250 m3·hm-2, and four nitrogen application rate treatments, covering no nitrogen fertilization treatment (0 kg·hm-2, low nitrogen application treatment (120 kg·hm-2, middle nitrogen application treatment (240 kg·hm-2 and high nitrogen application treatment (360 kg·hm-2. The results showed that the nitrogen absorption and nitrogen use efficiency of cropping oil sunflower increased as the irrigation rate increased. With the nitrogen application rate increased, the yield of cropping oil sunflower was increased when the nitrogen application rate was 0~240 kg·hm-2, but beyond the 240 kg·hm-2, there was no significant increase. With the irrigation rate increased, the water consumption amount of cropping oil sunflower increased all the time, but the water use efficiency increased first, and hen decreased. Besides there was no significant difference between 240 kg·hm-2 and 360 kg·hm-2 treatment. Under our experiment condition, during the cropping oil sunflower growth period, when the irrigation rate was 5 250 m3·hm-2 (high irrigation rate and the nitrogen ertilization was 360 m3·hm-2 (high nitrogen application rate, the yield of cropping oil sunflower was 3 598 kg·hm-2. When the irrigation rate was 3 750 m3·hm-2 (middle irrigation rate and the nitrogen fertilization was 240 m3·hm-2 (middle nitrogen application rate, the yield was 3 518 kg·hm-2, with the yield components similar with the high irrigation rate and high nitrogen application rate treatment. Considering various factors, middle irrigation rate and middle nitrogen

  19. Rapid Estimation of Tocopherol Content in Linseed and Sunflower Oils-Reactivity and Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevc, Tjaša; Levart, Alenka; Cigić, Irena Kralj; Salobir, Janez; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Cigić, Blaž

    2015-08-13

    The reactivity of tocopherols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was studied in model systems in order to establish a method for quantifying vitamin E in plant oils. The method was optimized with respect to solvent composition of the assay medium, which has a large influence on the course of reaction of tocopherols with DPPH. The rate of reaction of α-tocopherol with DPPH is higher than that of γ-tocopherol in both protic and aprotic solvents. In ethyl acetate, routinely applied for the analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP) of plant oils, reactions of tocopherols with DPPH are slower and concentration of tocopherols in the assay has a large influence on their molar reactivity. In 2-propanol, however, two electrons are exchanged for both α- and γ-tocopherols, independent of their concentration. 2-propanol is not toxic and is fully compatible with polypropylene labware. The chromatographically determined content of tocopherols and their molar reactivity in the DPPH assay reveal that only tocopherols contribute to the AOP of sunflower oil, whereas the contribution of tocopherols to the AOP of linseed oil is 75%. The DPPH assay in 2-propanol can be applied for rapid and cheap estimation of vitamin E content in plant oils where tocopherols are major antioxidants.

  20. Rapid Estimation of Tocopherol Content in Linseed and Sunflower Oils-Reactivity and Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Prevc

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of tocopherols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH was studied in model systems in order to establish a method for quantifying vitamin E in plant oils. The method was optimized with respect to solvent composition of the assay medium, which has a large influence on the course of reaction of tocopherols with DPPH. The rate of reaction of α-tocopherol with DPPH is higher than that of γ-tocopherol in both protic and aprotic solvents. In ethyl acetate, routinely applied for the analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP of plant oils, reactions of tocopherols with DPPH are slower and concentration of tocopherols in the assay has a large influence on their molar reactivity. In 2-propanol, however, two electrons are exchanged for both α- and γ-tocopherols, independent of their concentration. 2-propanol is not toxic and is fully compatible with polypropylene labware. The chromatographically determined content of tocopherols and their molar reactivity in the DPPH assay reveal that only tocopherols contribute to the AOP of sunflower oil, whereas the contribution of tocopherols to the AOP of linseed oil is 75%. The DPPH assay in 2-propanol can be applied for rapid and cheap estimation of vitamin E content in plant oils where tocopherols are major antioxidants.

  1. Physico-chemical attributes of seed oil from drought stressed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water deficit conditions on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of sunflower seed and seed oils were assessed. Two sunflower cultivars (Gulshan-98 and Suncross were sown in the field. The water stress treatment was applied at the vegetative or the reproductive stage. Analysis of the sunflower seed showed that the oil content decreased (a decline of 10.52% relative to the control significantly (p ≤ 0.05 due to water stress when imposed at either of the growth stages. Both of the sunflower cultivars studied showed differential responses to water stress with respect to oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. A significant negative correlation in oil oleic and linoleic acid was observed in cv. Gulshan-98 under water deficit conditions as compared to Suncross in which no such effect of water stress on oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Water deficit conditions caused a reduction in linolenic acid in Gulshan-98, whereas it remained unaffected in Suncross. The stearic acid content increased in cv. Gulshan-98 due to drought, whereas no effect due to water stress was observed on oil palmitic acid content in either sunflower cultivar. Overall, oil unsaturated fatty acids remained unchanged in the drought stressed or normally irrigated plants of both cultivars but saturated fatty acid increased in Gulshan-98. Individual (α, γ, and δ and total tocopherol contents in the seed oil increased significantly with the application of water stress in both cultivars. An assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of the oils of both sunflower cultivars revealed that drought stress caused a marked increase in the content of un-saponifiable matter (18.75% with respect to the control and a decrease in iodine value (5.87% with respect to the control, but saponifcation value, density, specific gravity and refractive index remained unchanged.El efecto de las condiciones de déficit de agua sobre las caracter

  2. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L. Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro, L.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T. capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 ºC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants were used and subjected to the same conditions. The best yield oil was obtained from the whole aerial part of T. capitata collected during the flowering phase. The major component of the oils was carvacrol. Relative high amounts of p-cymene, γ-terpinene and β-caryophyllene were also found. BHT revealed to be the best antioxidant when the olive oil was used. On sunflower oil, the antioxidant ability of BHT was not so evident, being the carvacrol-rich essential oils of T. capitata or carvacrol more important antioxidants.Se analizaron, mediante GC y GC/MS, los componentes volátiles de aceites aislados de las distintas partes de la Thymbra capitata, recogida en diferentes etapas de desarrollo. Se evaluó la actividad antioxidante de estos aceites de la T. capitata, midiendo el índice de peróxidos, en aceites de oliva y girasol, almacenados a 60 ºC. Estos índices de peróxidos se compararon con los obtenidos cuando no se agregó ningún antioxidante (control y cuando se utilizó BHT o carvacrol, en las mismas condiciones de almacenamiento. El mayor rendimiento en aceite se obtuvo de la parte aérea de T. capitata recogida durante la etapa de floración. El componente mayoritario de los aceites fue el carvacrol. También se encontraron, cantidades relativamente elevadas, de p-cimeno, γ-terpineno y β-cariofileno. El mejor antioxidante para el aceite de oliva resultó ser el BHT. En el aceite del girasol, la actividad antioxidante del BHT no fue tan evidente, mientras que el

  3. Antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil fractions obtained by molecular distillation and their effect on oxidative stability of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezza, Gabriela N; Borgarello, Ana V; Grosso, Nelson R; Fernandez, Héctor; Pramparo, María C; Gayol, María F

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil fractions obtained by molecular distillation (MD) and investigate their effect on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. MD fractions were prepared in a series of low-pressure stages where rosemary essential oil was the first feed. Subsequently, a distillate (D1) and residue (R1) were obtained and the residue fraction from the previous stage used as the feed for the next. The residue fractions had the largest capacity to capture free radicals, and the lowest peroxide values, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. The antioxidant activity of the fractions was due to oxygenated monoterpenes, specifically α-terpineol and cis-sabinene hydrate. Oxidative stability results showed the residues (R1 and R4) and butylated hydroxytoluene had greater antioxidant activity than either the distillate fractions or original rosemary essential oil. The residue fractions obtained by short path MD of rosemary essential oil could be used as a natural antioxidants by the food industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Milk drinks containing 5% traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) or specific structured lipid (SL) (both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid) were compared with respect to their particle size, viscosity and oxidative stability during storage. Furthermore, the effect...... drink could not be ascribed was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid and to a single factor, differences in the process applied to produce and purify the lipids. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the milk drink based on SL....... of adding potential antioxidants EDTA or gallic acid to the milk drink based on SL was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of the milk drinks: Milk drink based on SL oxidized faster than milk drink based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL milk...

  5. Assessment of process control parameters in the biochemical methane potential of sunflower oil cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, F.; Borja, R.; Rincon, B.; Jimenez, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study was conducted on the batch anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake (SuOC), solid waste derived from the extraction process of sunflower oil. A multi-reactor system was used to compare methane production from this waste at inoculum to substrate ratios (ISRs) of 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.8 and 0.5 (expressed as volatile solids (VS) basis). The tests were carried out at mesophilic temperature (35 deg. C) and run against a control of inoculum without substrate. The results obtained in the biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests showed that the ultimate methane yield (Y M,ult ) decreased considerably from 227±23 to 107±11 ml CH 4 at standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions g -1 VS added when the ISR decreased from 3.0 to 0.5, showing a clear influence of the ISR on the methane yield coefficient. The biodegradability (BD) of the waste also decreased from 86% to 41% when the ISR varied from 3.0 to 0.5. A net total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) yield of 39.2 mg N g -1 VS added was obtained, and this value was not influenced by the ISRs assayed, which demonstrated the appropriate operation of the hydrolytic-acidogenic stage of the overall digestion process. A clear imbalance of the methanogenic process was observed at the lowest ISRs studied (0.5 and 0.8) due to a considerable increase in CODs and TVFA in the digestates. The profile of VFA was also influenced by the ISR, typical of the proteinaceous substrates

  6. Composition of plasma and atheromatous plaque among coronary artery disease subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Rajesh, P C; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Nair, Shiv K; Vasudevan, D M

    2012-12-01

    Coconut oil, which is rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids, is the principal cooking medium of the people of Kerala, India. Replacement of saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat is effective in reducing serum cholesterol levels. However, the effect of substituting coconut oil with sunflower oil on the fatty acid composition of plaque has not been thoroughly investigated. We therefore evaluated and compared the fatty acid composition of plasma and plaque among subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium. Endarterectomy samples and plasma samples were obtained from subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafts (n = 71). The subjects were grouped based on the type of oil they were using as their cooking medium (coconut oil or sunflower oil). The fatty acid composition in the plaques and the plasma was determined by HPLC and the data were analyzed statistically. Sunflower oil consumers had elevated concentrations of linoleic acid (p = 0.001) in plasma, while coconut oil users had higher myristic acid levels (p = 0.011) in plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids did not differ significantly between the two groups in the plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids were detected in the plaques in both groups of subjects. In contrast to previous reports, long-chain saturated fatty acids dominated the lipid content of plaque in this population, and the fatty acid composition of plaque was not significantly different between the two groups. No correlation between fatty acids of plasma and plaque was observed in either group. A change in cooking medium, although it altered the plasma fatty acid composition, was not reflected in the plaque composition.

  7. Intensification of microbial exopolysaccharide ethapolan synthesis under Acinetobacter sp. IМV B-7005 cultivation on sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivahniuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction.Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS by the ability of their solutions to change the rheological properties of aqueous systems are widely used in various industries. In recent years, research on the use of industrial waste (including oil-containing to obtain practically valuable microbial metabolites intensified. Materials and methods.Cultivation of Acinetobactersp. IМV B-7005 strain was performed in liquid medium, containing as a carbon source sunflower oil (1−5 %, v/v, a source of nitrogen – ammonium nitrate (0.4−0.8 g/l, a source of pantothenate − multivitamin complex «Complevit» (0.00085 and0.00095 %. EPSconcentration was determined gravimetrically after precipitation with isopropanol, EPS-synthesizing ability − as a ratio of EPS concentration to biomass concentration, wich was expressed as g EPS / g biomass. Results and discussions. It was established that increasing the concentration of sunflower oil in basic medium for Acinetobacter sp. IMV B -7005 cultivation to 4−5% was accompanied by decrease of ethapolan synthesis compared with those in the medium containing lower (2−3 % substrate concentration. Increasing ammonium nitrate content to 0.6 g/l and/or pantothenate concentration to 0.00095% in a medium with 5% sunflower oil allowed to increase the amount of ethapolan synthesized up to 6.6−6.7 g/l, that is in 1.3−1.4 times higher than in the basic medium with the same concentration of the substrate but lower NH4NO3 (0.4 g/l and pantothenate (0.00085 %. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate the possibility of microbial polysaccharide ethapolan synthesis under Acinetobacter sp. ІMV B -7005 cultivation in the medium with a high content of sunflower oil. These data are the basis for the development of ethapolan technology using as a substrate fried oil.

  8. Using pre-heated sunflower oil as fuel in a diesel cycle engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delalibera, H.C.; Neto, P.H.W.; Martini, J. [State Univ. of Ponta Grossa (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which 100 per cent sunflower oil was used in a tractor to compare its performance with petroleum diesel. Work trials were carried out for 50 hours on a single cylinder direct injection micro-tractor. In the first trial (E-1), the temperature of the vegetable oil was the same as the air temperature of the engine, while in the second trial (E-2), the oil was heated to a temperature of about 90 degrees C. Only petrodiesel was used in the third (E-3) trial. The head gasket burned in the first test after 50 hours of operation. An increase in compression was noted during trials E-1 and E-2. The carbonized mass in the nozzle of the E-2 trial was 81.5 per cent lower than in the E-1 trial. The carbonized mass in the intake system of the E-2 trial was 51.7 per cent lower than in the E-1 trial. The exhaust system of the E-2 trial was 33.4 per cent lower than that of the E-1 trial. For the combustion chamber, the carbonization of the E-1 trial was nearly the same as in the E-2 trial. The hourly fuel consumption of the E-1 trial was 2.3 per cent higher than petrodiesel, while E-2 trial was 0.7 per cent higher than petrodiesel. In the first 2 tests, the lubricating oil was contaminated by vegetable oil fuel. In general, results from the first trial were better than results from the second trial.

  9. Modulation of salt (NaCl)-induced effects on oil composition and fatty acid profile of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Sibgha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a potential endogenous plant hormone that plays an important role in plant growth and development. Since sunflower yield and its seed oil yield are adversely affected by salinity, in this study the role of SA in modulating salt (NaCl)-induced effects on various yield and oil characteristics of sunflower was investigated. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment comprising two sunflower hybrid lines (Hysun-33 and SF-187), two NaCl levels (0 and 120 mmol L(-1)) and four SA levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L(-1)) was conducted. Salt stress markedly reduced yield, oil content, linoleic acid and δ-tocopherol in both sunflower lines, while it increased linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols. However, increasing levels of foliar-applied SA resulted in improved achene yield and hundred-achene weight in both lines. Foliar-applied SA caused a significant decrease in oil stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols in both lines under non-saline and saline conditions. Salt-induced harmful effects on achene yield and oil characteristics of sunflower could be alleviated by exogenous application of SA. High doses of SA caused a marked increase in sunflower achene oil content as well as some key fatty acids. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Combined fish oil and high oleic sunflower oil supplements neutralize their individual effects on the lipid profile of healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlais, Sani; El-Bistami, Dunia; El Rahi, Berna; Mattar, Mélanie A; Obeid, Omar A

    2013-09-01

    Both n-3 and n-9 fatty acids share a common metabolic pathway and can potentially and individually improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. Dietary n-6 is known to weaken the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids due to competition for the same enzymes. Still unclear is whether a similar competition exists between n-3 and n-9 fatty acids. Thus, a 12-week intervention study was conducted to investigate the effect of different combinations of fish oil and high-oleic sunflower oil (OSO) on healthy subjects. Included were five groups (98 subjects): three groups received a fixed amount of n-9 (8 g/day) with varying amounts of n-3 (1, 2 or 4 g/day), one group was given n-3 fatty acids only (2 g/day) and another was given n-9 only (8 g/day). We found that fish oil supplement (2 g/day) was able to decrease TAG by about 13 %, this effect was diminished with the co-ingestion of n-9 (OSO). Intake of OSO (8 g/day) reduced both total and LDL cholesterol by about 10 %, this effect was reduced by the addition of fish oil. Both fish oil and OSO failed to have any significant effect on both glycemic and blood pressure parameters. In conclusion; the impact of oleic acid (n-9) on total and LDL cholesterol was altered by the addition fish oil (n-3). These effects may have been the result of enzymatic competition between the two types of fatty acids.

  11. Monitoring the physicochemical features of sunflower oil and French fries during repeated microwave frying and deep-fat frying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydınkaptan, E.; Barutçu Mazı, I.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeated microwave frying at different power levels (360W, 600W, 900W) and deep-fat frying on sunflower oil and French fries. The intermittent batch frying cycle was repeated 15 times a day during five consecutive days. The fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties including free fatty acid (FFA), extinction coefficient (K270), total polar compound (TPC), color, viscosity, refractive index of the sunflower oil were determined each day. At the end of the frying period, the highest values of viscosity (76.29cp) and refractive index (1.4738) were detected in microwave frying at 900W power level. TPC level exceeded 25% after the third day of microwave frying at all power levels. The FFA values during microwave frying increased progressively from 0.157% to 0.320- 0.379% on the fifth day. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 37-53% more in the case of microwave frying. The oil quality during microwave frying did not have a significant impact on the oil absorption and total color change of the French fries. Microwave frying, even at higher levels, provided lower oil (8.60-12.32%wb) and moisture contents (35.47-41.24%) compared to deep frying. Microwave frying caused longer processing time and significantly higher levels of degradation of the sunflower oil at all power levels compared to deep frying. However, microwave frying has the advantage of reducing oil absorption. The oil content of French fries was lowered by 20-33% (wb) at the highest power level. [es

  12. The effects of heating temperatures and time on deformation energy and oil yield of sunflower bulk seeds in compression loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabutey, A.; Herak, D.; Sigalingging, R.; Demirel, C.

    2018-02-01

    The deformation energy (J) and percentage oil yield (%) of sunflower bulk seeds under the influence of heat treatment temperatures and heating time were examined in compression test using the universal compression testing machine and vessel diameter of 60 mm with a plunger. The heat treatment temperatures were between 40 and 100 °C and the heating time at specific temperatures of 40 and 100 °C ranged from 15 to 75 minutes. The bulk sunflower seeds were measured at a pressing height of 60 mm and pressed at a maximum force of 100 kN and speed of 5 mm/min. Based on the compression results, the deformation energy and oil yield increased along with increasing heat treatment temperatures. The results were statistically significant (p 0.05).

  13. Food grade microemulsion systems: Sunflower oil/castor oil derivative-ethanol/water. Rheological and physicochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori Cortés, Noelia; Lorenzo, Gabriel; Califano, Alicia N

    2018-05-01

    Microemulsions are thermodynamically stable systems that have attracted considerable attention in the food industry as delivery systems for many hydrophobic nutrients. These spontaneous systems are highly dependent on ingredients and composition. In this work phase diagrams were constructed using two surfactants (Kolliphor RH40 and ELP), water, sunflower oil, and ethanol as cosurfactant, evaluating their physicochemical properties. Stability of the systems was studied at 25 and 60 °C, monitoring turbidity at 550 nm for over a month to identify the microemulsion region. Conductivity was measured to classify between water-in-oil and oil-in-water microemulsions. The phase diagram constructed with Kolliphor RH40 exhibited a larger microemulsion area than that formulated with Kolliphor ELP. All formulations showed a monomodal droplet size distribution with low polydispersity index (<0.30) and a mean droplet size below 20 nm. Systems with higher water content presented a Newtonian behavior; increasing the dispersed phase content produced a weak gel-like structure with pseudoplastic behavior under flow conditions that was satisfactorily modeled to obtain structural parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture in a Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.; Oeztuerk, E.; Can, Oe.; Conkur, E.S.; Nas, S.; Con, A.H.; Can, A.C.; Topcu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel to Diesel fuel No. 2, which can be generally produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. Since the prices of edible vegetable oils are higher than that of Diesel fuel No. 2, waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils are preferred as potential low priced biodiesel sources. In addition, it is possible to use soapstock, a by-product of edible oil production, for cheap biodiesel production. In this study, a methyl ester biodiesel was produced from a hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture using methanol, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide in a two stage process. The effects of the methyl ester addition to Diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder, turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) Diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that the hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the Diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends

  15. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitohy, M. Z.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S, temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study. Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído enzimáticamente con seis enzimas diferentes: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinase acida, pectinasa y pectinex bajo las condiciones siguientes: concentración de sustrato en tampón fosfato (0,5M, pH 5 30%, concentración enzimática 2% (E/S, temperatura 50°C y tiempo 3 horas. Los aceites obtenidos fueron analizados por sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y perfiles de ácidos grasos

  16. Detection of sunflower oil in extra virgin olive oil by fast differential scanning calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Boerrigter-Eenling, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an economically valuable product, due to its high quality and premium price. Therefore it is vulnerable for adulteration by means of the addition of cheaper vegetable oils. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been suggested as a fast technique for the

  17. Barium and sodium in sunflower plants cultivated in soil treated with wastes of drilling of oil well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jésus Sampaio Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the effects of the application of two types of oil drilling wastes on the development and absorption of barium (Ba and sodium (Na by sunflower plants. The waste materials were generated during the drilling of the 7-MGP-98D-BA oil well, located in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of: Control – without Ba application, comprising only its natural levels in the soil; Corrected control – with fertilization and without wastes; and the Ba doses of 300, 3000 and 6000 mg kg-1, which were equivalent to the applications of 16.6, 165.9 and 331.8 Mg ha-1 of waste from the dryer, and 2.6, 25.7 and 51.3 Mg ha-1 of waste from the centrifugal. Plants cultivated using the first dose of dryer waste and the second dose of centrifugal waste showed growth and dry matter accumulation equal to those of plants under ideal conditions of cultivation (corrected control. The highest doses of dryer and centrifugal wastes affected the development of the plants. The absorption of Ba by sunflower plants was not affected by the increase in the doses. Na proved to be the most critical element present in the residues, interfering with sunflower development.

  18. Conventional and in situ transesterification of sunflower seed oil for the production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgogianni, K.G.; Kontominas, M.G.; Pomonis, P.J. [Section of Industrial and Food Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina 45110-Ioannina (Greece); Avlonitis, D. [Department of Petroleum Technology, TEI of Chalkida, 34600-Kavala (Greece); Gergis, V. [Department of Food Technology, TEI of Athens, 12210-Egaleo (Greece)

    2008-05-15

    In the present work the alkaline transesterification of sunflower seed oil with methanol and ethanol, for the production of biodiesel fuel was studied. Both conventional and in situ transesterification were investigated using low frequency ultrasonication (24 kHz) and mechanical stirring (600 rpm). Use of ultrasonication in conventional transesterification with methanol gave high yields of methyl esters (95%) after a short reaction time (20 min) similar to those using mechanical stirring. Use of ultrasonication in conventional transesterification with ethanol gave similar yields to those using mechanical stirring but significantly lower than respective yields using methanol. In the in situ transesterification the use of ultrasonication and mechanical stirring led to similar high yields (95%) of methyl esters after approximately 20 min of reaction time. In the presence of ethanol use of ultrasonication led to high ester yields (98%) in only 40 min of reaction time while use of mechanical stirring gave lower yields (88%) even after 4 h of reaction time. In situ transesterification gave similar ester yields to those obtained by conventional transesterification being an alternative, efficient and economical process. In all cases a concentration of 2.0% NaOH gave higher ester yields. Reaction rate constants were calculated, using first order reaction kinetics, to be equal to 3.1 x 10{sup -} {sup 3} s{sup -} {sup 1} for conventional transesterification using methanol and 2.0% NaOH, and 9.5 x 10{sup -} {sup 4} s{sup -} {sup 1} using ethanol. (author)

  19. Combustion analysis of preheated crude sunflower oil in an IDI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, Mustafa; Ozsezen, Ahmet Necati; Turkcan, Ali [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    In this study, preheated crude sunflower oil (PCSO) was tested for combustion and emission properties against petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF) in a naturally aspirated, indirect injection (IDI) engine. The cylinder gas pressure and heat release curves for PCSO at 75 C were similar to those of PBDF. The ignition delays for the PCSO were longer and the start of injection timing was earlier than for PBDF. The difference in the average brake torque was a decrease of 1.36% for PCSO though this was statistically insignificant. The brake specific fuel consumption increased by almost 5% more or less in proportion to the difference in calorific value, so that the 1.06% increase in thermal efficiency was again statistically insignificant. The emission test results showed that the decreases in CO{sub 2} emissions and smoke opacity 2.05% and 4.66%, respectively; however, this was not statistically significant, though in line with the apparent increase in thermal efficiency. There was a significant 34% improvement in the emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons. Carbon monoxide increased by 1.77% again the result was not statistically significant given the small number of repeat tests. The use of PCSO does not have any negative effects on the engine performance and emissions in short duration engine testing. (author)

  20. Transesterification of Waste Cooking Sunflower Oil by Porcine Pancreas Lipase Using Response Surface Methodology for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Ebrahimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Biodiesel production from recycled vegetable oils is considered as an economically acceptable alternative for fossil fuels in the recent years. In this work, porcine pancreas lipase as an active catalyst in transesterification reaction of waste cooking sunflower oil with methanol for biodiesel production was used.Material and Methods: In order to define optimum process parameters and predict the best results, response surface methodology and the central composite design was performed. The effects of methanol to oil molar ratio, lipase concentration and reaction temperature on transesterification were investigated. Biodiesel production was carried out in 25 ml shake flasks at 180 rpm for 72 h.Results and Conclusion: Under optimal conditions, the biodiesel yield was 75% which was nearly consistent with the predicted yield of 76%. At optimal conditions the molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature, and lipase percent were determined as 3:1, 44°C and 4.4%, respectively. Due to relatively high obtained yield, biodiesel production from waste cooking sunflower oil has provided a sound environmental and commercial process.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  1. Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamel, T. H.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1 and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 °C. Frying process at 180 °C was also applied. The methanol phenolic extracts and the BHA were added to each oil at the following concentrations: 200 ppm rosemary extract; 200 ppm olive vegetable water extract; 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA; 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA and 200 ppm BHA. In general, antioxidant effect of phenolic additives of rosemary and of BHA was in the following order: 200 ppm rosemary extract > 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA > and 200 ppm BHA. The addition of 200 ppm vegetable water extract and 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA exhibited similar antioxidant effect to that of 200 ppm BHA.

    Extractos metanólicos de fenoles de hojas secas de romero y filtrados de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, en combinación con BHA, se añadieron al aceite de oliva (mezcla de aceite de oliva refinado y virgen, 3 a 1 y al aceite de girasol, evaluándose sus efectos antioxidantes usando condiciones aceleradas. Estas condiciones incluyeron el test del horno de oxidación (a 63 °C y el método de conductividad (Rancimat a 120 °C. También se aplicó al proceso de fritura a 180 °C. Los extractos metanólicos de fenoles y el BHA se añadieron a cada aceite en las siguientes concentraciones: 200 ppm de extracto de romero, 200 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, 100 ppm de extracto de romero + 100 ppm de BHA, 100 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación + 100 ppm de BHA y 200 ppm de BHA

  2. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant activity of various plant extracts under ambient and accelerated storage of sunflower oil

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    Sheikh, Munir A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of 11 medicinally or economically important plant materials indigenous to Pakistan. The materials were extracted with 80% methanol and examined  for their antioxidant activity under different storage conditions using sunflower and soybean oils as oxidation substrates. Preliminary antioxidant activity assessment among the extracts was conducted with the TLC-test and by measuring percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. The rhizome of Iris germanica, leaves of Lawsonia alba, and M. oleifera, coffee (Coffee arabica beans, rice (Oryza sativa bran, wheat bran and oats (Avenis sativa groats and hull, which showed higher antioxidant activity among the extracts, were further evaluated using soybean and sunflower oils as oxidation substrates. The vegetable oils were stabilized with extracts at a dosage of 0.12% (w/w, and individually subjected to accelerated (65 oC, 15 days and ambient (6 months storage. The oxidative deterioration level was monitored for the measurement of antioxidant activity index (AI, peroxide value (PV, conjugated dienes and trienes contents. Overall, the extracts of coffee beans, oat groats and hull, Iris germanica and M. oleifera leaves were found to be the most effective in extending oxidative stability, and retarding PV, primary and secondary oxidation products of soybean and sunflower oils. The order of efficiency of the plant extracts for stabilization of the subject oils was as follows: oat groats and hull > coffee beans > M. oleifera leaves > Lawsonia alba > Iris germanica > rice bran > wheat bran. Significant differences in the antioxidant potential of some of the extracts for stabilization of substrate oils were observed under ambient and accelerated storage conditions and thus demonstrated a variable antioxidant prospective of the extracts under different analytical protocols.El presente trabajo se ha realizado para investigar la capacidad

  4. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies.

  5. The effect of diet supplemented with vegetable oils and/or monensin on the vaccenic acid production in continuous culture fermenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Sayed A. Khattab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that supplementing ruminant diets with vegetable oils modulated the rumen biohydrogenation and increased polyunsaturated fatty acid in their products. These positive values are often accompanied by a marginal loss of supplemented unsaturated fatty acids and rise in the concentrations of saturated fatty acids. This study were carried out mainly to investigate the effect of supplementing diets with sunflower oil, olive oil with or without monensin on the production and accumulation of vaccenic acid (VA in continuous culture fermenters as a long term in vitro rumen simulation technique. Eight dual-flow continuous culture fermenters were used in an 8 replication experiment lasted 10 days each (first 7 days for adaptation and last 3 days for samples collection. Supplementing diets with plant oils and monensin in the present experiment increased VA and conjugated linoleic acids (P > 0.05 in ruminal cultures. The results suggest that supplementing diets with both olive oil and sunflower oil and monensin increased VA accumulation compared to plant oils supplemented alone without affecting the rumen dry matter and organic matter digestibility.

  6. Investigation of adulteration of sunflower oil with thermally deteriorated oil using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vilela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy based on attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis methods was used to monitor the adulteration of pure sunflower oil (SO with thermally deteriorated oil (TDO. Contrary to published research, in this work, SO was thermally deteriorated in the absence of foodstuff. SO samples were exposed to temperatures between 125 and 225°C from 6 to 24 h. Quantification of adulteration of SO with TDO, based on principal components regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLS-R, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA applied to mid-infrared spectra and to their first and second derivatives is reported for the first time. Infrared frequencies associated with the biochemical differences between TDO samples deteriorated in different conditions were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA. LDA was effective in the twofold classification presence/absence of TDO in adulterated SO (with 5% V/V of less of TDO. It provided 93.7% correct classification for the calibration set and 91.3% correct classification when cross-validated. A detection limit of 1% V/V of TDO in SO was determined. Investigation of an external set of samples allowed the evaluation of the predictability of the models. The regression coefficient (R2 for prediction was 0.95 and 0.96 and the RMSE was 2.1 and 1.9% V/V when using the PCR or PLS-R models, respectively, and the first derivative of spectra. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation of adulteration of SO with TDO based on PCR, PLS-R, and LDA has been reported so far.

  7. Shelf-life of fresh blueberries coated with quinoa protein/chitosan/sunflower oil edible film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, Lilian; Tapia, Cristián; Plasencia, Dora; Pastor, Ana; Castro-Mandujano, Olivio; López, Luis; Escalona, Victor H

    2016-01-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quinoa protein (Q), chitosan (CH) and sunflower oil (SO) as edible film material as well as the influence of this coating in extending the shelf-life of fresh blueberries stored at 4 °C and 75% relative humidity. These conditions were used to simulate the storage conditions in supermarkets and represent adverse conditions for testing the effects of the coating. The mechanical, barrier, and structural properties of the film were measured. The effectiveness of the coating in fresh blueberries (CB) was evaluated by changes in weight loss, firmness, color, molds and yeast count, pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids content. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the edible film were 0.45 ± 0.29 MPa and 117.2% ± 7%, respectively. The water vapor permeability was 3.3 × 10(-12) ± 4.0 × 10(-13) g s(-1) m(-1) Pa(-1). In all of the color parameters CB presented significant differences. CB had slight delayed fruit ripening as evidenced by higher titratable acidity (0.3-0.5 g citric acid 100 g(-1)) and lower pH (3.4-3.6) than control during storage; however, it showed reduced firmness (up to 38%). The use of Q/CH/SO as a coating in fresh blueberries was able to control the growth of molds and yeasts during 32 days of storage, whereas the control showed an increasing of molds and yeast, between 1.8 and 3.1 log cycles (between 20 and 35 days). © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Influence of sunflower seed oil or baby lotion on the skin barrier function of newborns: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanti, Varvara; Günther, Malise; Stroux, Andrea; Sawatzky, Sabine; Henrich, Wolfgang; Abou-Dakn, Michael; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2017-12-01

    Skin care influences skin barrier function during the first postnatal weeks. Although the use of natural oils in preterms has been investigated, there are currently no data comparing the effect of sunflower oil to an emollient on barrier development in healthy term newborns. In a prospective, randomized clinical study, 50 healthy full-term newborns aged ≤72 h were randomly assigned to two groups: group baby lotion (L, n=22) and sunflower seed oil (SSO, n=24). The skin barrier function was evaluated in three anatomical areas (front, abdomen, and thigh) by noninvasive assessment of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration (SCH), sebum, and skin pH at inclusion and after five weeks. In both groups, skin pH decreased and SCH increased statistically significantly in all measured areas at W5 compared to baseline. TEWL decreased statistically significantly on the forearm in both groups, on the upper leg in group L, and on the abdomen in group SSO. Both skin care regimes did not harm skin barrier function adaptation in healthy term neonates during the first five weeks of life. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Comparison of Effects of Gamma Radiation of Crude Oil Yield on Some Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havser ERTEM VAİZOĞULLAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of different doses gamma radiation on crude oil yield and moisture of different six variety sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. seeds. As materials, sunflower variety Ege-2001, Turay, AS-508, Tunca, TR-3080 and Tarsan-1018 seeds were used and irradiated with doses of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy gamma radiation. Irradiation was performed in a cesium (Ce137 Gammacell 3000 Elan source, dose rate about 9.75 Gy/min (2900 Ci in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in the department of the radiological. Moisture amount of seeds were also measured by AOCS standarts. Extraction of the seeds was done with soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether by hot continuous extraction for 6 hours.  It was found that the highest moisture rate in 100 Gy for all seeds variety. The moisture rate ranged between 3.00 and 9.68% in TR-3080 and Ege-2001, respectively. According to the our results, seed moisture content was affected by gamma radiation in a significant negative one-way. The significant reduction in seed moisture content (9.68% began at 100 Gy of gamma rays and continued to decline to up to 4.04% at 500 Gy. The crude oil yield showed not a important increase in 100 and 200 Gy doses. The result showed that the highest crude oil yield was also obtained from 400 Gy and 33.49% in Ege-2001 seeds.

  10. Monitoring biodiesel reactions of soybean oil and sunflower oil using ultrasonic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, M K K; Silva, C E R; Alvarenga, A V; Costa-Félix, R P B

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is an innovation that attempts to substitute diesel oil with biomass. The aim of this paper is to show the development of a real-time method to monitor transesterification reactions by using low-power ultrasound and pulse/echo techniques. The results showed that it is possible to identify different events during the transesterification process by using the proposed parameters, showing that the proposed method is a feasible way to monitor the reactions of biodiesel during its fabrication, in real time, and with relatively low- cost equipment

  11. Monitoring biodiesel reactions of soybean oil and sunflower oil using ultrasonic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M. K. K.; Silva, C. E. R.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Félix, R. P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is an innovation that attempts to substitute diesel oil with biomass. The aim of this paper is to show the development of a real-time method to monitor transesterification reactions by using low-power ultrasound and pulse/echo techniques. The results showed that it is possible to identify different events during the transesterification process by using the proposed parameters, showing that the proposed method is a feasible way to monitor the reactions of biodiesel during its fabrication, in real time, and with relatively low- cost equipment.

  12. The effect of sesame and sunflower oils on the plasma disposition of ivermectin in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokbulut, C; Karademir, U; Boyacioglu, M; McKellar, Q A

    2008-10-01

    The effect of sesame oil (SSO) and sunflower oil (SFO) (the excipients) on the plasma disposition of ivermectin (IVM) following intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) administration at a dosage of 200 microg/kg was investigated in goats. Ten clinically healthy crossbred goats were used in the study. The animals were allocated by weight and sex into two groups of five animals each. Group 1 (n = 5) received the drug and excipient by the i.v. route only and group 2 received drug and excipient by the s.c. route only. The study was designed according to a two-phase crossover design protocol. In the first phase three animals in group 1 were i.v. administered IVM (0.2 mg/kg) + SSO (1 mL) and the other two animals received IVM (0.2 mg/kg) + SFO (1 mL). In the second phase animals were crossed over and received the alternate excipient with IVM at the same dosages. In group 2 during the first phase, three animals were s.c. administered IVM (0.2 mg/kg) + SSO (1 mL) and the other two animals were received IVM (0.2 mg/kg) + SFO (1 mL). In the second phase animals were crossed over and received the alternate excipient with IVM at the same dosages. A 4-week washout period was allowed between the two phases. In group 2 significantly increased dermal thickness was observed at the s.c. injection site of the all animals which received IVM during phase I regardless of the excipient. There was almost no change observed at the injection site of any animal during the second phase of the study following s.c. administration. In group 2 the plasma concentrations of IVM in the second phase for both excipient combinations were much higher than the plasma concentrations following first administration and appeared to be related with the dermal changes. The mean plasma disposition of IVM in combination with SSO or SFO was similar following i.v. administration. Longer terminal elimination half-lives and resultant longer mean resident time were observed after s.c. administration of the both

  13. Maltodextrin and oils in the diet of weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hauptli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of piglets fed two sources of oil (soybean and palm oil combined with maltodextrin and a blend of palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin, as well as the apparent digestibility coefficients of these diets. A total of 162 piglets weaned at 21 days, with a mean initial weight of 5.42 ± 0.55 kg, were allocated in a randomized block design consisting of three treatments and 18 replicates of three animals each. The following treatments were evaluated: T1: diet containing soybean oil [3.03% in the pre-initial (I and initial (II diets] and maltodextrin (10.0% in I and 5.93% in II; T2: diet containing palm oil (3.03% in I and II and maltodextrin (10.0% in I and 5.93% in II; T3: diet containing a blend of palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin (10.0% in I and II and maltodextrin added to the blend (4.07% in I so that the percentage of maltodextrin would be identical in the diets of the three treatments. The performance and digestibility data were submitted to analysis of variance using the MIXED and GLM procedures, respectively, of the SAS package and means were compared by the Tukey test (P0.05 in DFI, ADG or FC were observed between piglets submitted to the different treatments. The ADC of dry matter was 4.25% lower (P<0.05 for the diet containing palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin compared to the soybean oil diet. The ADC of ether extract was 54% higher (P<0.05 in the soybean oil diet compared to the palm oil diet, which negatively affected the ether extract digestibility coefficient. In conclusion, palm oil microencapsulated or not with maltodextrin can replace soybean oil in the diets of weaned piglets without compromising their performance.

  14. Production of biodiesel from sunflower oil using highly catalytic bimetallic gold–silver core–shell nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Madhuchanda; Dey, Binita; Talukdar, Jayanta; Chandra Kalita, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Bimetallic Gold–silver core–shell nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) were synthesized at room temperature, where gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) served as seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core–shell structure was examined by UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The catalytic activity of these nanoparticles toward biodiesel production from Sunflower oil through transesterification was studied. The confirmation for biofuel synthesis was performed using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy. Fuel properties are determined by standard ASTM (American society for Testing and Materials) protocols. Our observations show that at certain catalyst concentration, temperature and reaction time, highest yield of biodiesel (86.9%) is attained. The fuel properties of the synthesized biofuel are at par with standard biofuel. Further, the catalyst showed sustained activity for 3 cycles of transesterification. - Highlights: • Gold–silver core–shell NPs were used for biofuel synthesis from sunflower oil. • At the optimized condition, biodiesel yield of 86.9% was achieved. • Fuel properties of the biofuel synthesized are at par with standard biofuel. • The catalyst showed sustained activity for 3 cycles of transesterification

  15. Effects of different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating water stress is well documented. In order to study the effects of water stress and two different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower, a field experiment as split plot design with three replications was conducted in the Research Field Station, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran in 2011. Water stress treatments included control as 90% of field capacity (W1, 70% field capacity (W2 and 50% field capacity (W3 assigned to the main plots and two different mycorrhiza species, consisting of M1 = control (without any inoculation, M2 = Glumus mossea and M3 = Glumus etanicatum as sub plots. Results showed that by increasing water stress from control (W1 to W3 treatment, grain yield was significantly decreased. The reduction in the level of W3 was 15.05%. The content of potassium in seeds significantly decreased due to water stress but water stress upto W2 treatment increased the content of phosphorus, nitrogen and oil content of seeds. In between two species of mycorrhiza in sunflower plants, Glumus etanicatum had the highest effect on grain yield and these elements in seeds and increased both.

  16. Ridge sowing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in a minimum till system improves the productivity, oil quality, and profitability on a sandy loam soil under an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Ahmad; Suleman, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul; Sattar, Abdul; Wasaya, Allah; Ijaz, Muhammad; Nawaz, Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a major oilseed crop grown for its edible oil across the globe including Pakistan. In Pakistan, the production of edible oil is less than the required quantity; the situation is being worsened with the increasing population. Thus, there is dire need to grow those sunflower genotypes which perform better under a given set of agronomic practices. In this 2-year study, we compared four sunflower genotypes, viz., Armoni, Kundi, Sinji, and S-278 for their yield potential, oil contents, fatty acid composition, and profitability under three sowing methods, viz., bed sowing, line sowing, and ridge sowing and two tillage system, viz., plow till and minimum till. Among the sunflower genotypes, the genotype Armoni produced the highest plant height, number of leaves, head diameter, 1000-achene weight, and achene yield; the oil contents and oleic acid were the highest in genotype Sinji. Among the sowing methods, the highest number of leaves per plant, head diameter, number of achenes per head, achene yield, and oil contents were recorded in ridge sowing. Among the tillage systems, the highest head diameter 16. 2 cm, 1000-achene weight (57.2 g), achene yield (1.8 t ha -1 ), oil contents (35.2%), and oleic acid (15.2%) were recorded in minimum till sunflower. The highest net benefits and benefit to cost ratio were recorded in minimum till ridge sown Armoni genotype. In conclusion, the genotype Armoni should be grown on ridges to achieve the highest achene yield, oil contents, and net profitability.

  17. Oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils d baking process and storage of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of bread lipids during baking and storage reduces the nutritional value of the product and leads to the formation of off-flavors and off-odors. In this research, oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils during Brotchen bread baking process and storage was evaluated. Baking process caused a significant increase in oxidative indices such as peroxide, anisidine, Totox and thiobarbitoric acid values and free fatty acid content. However, storage of breads for 6 days in room temperature did not affect the value of the indices. Generaly, the value of the indices in bread containing rice bran oil was lower than those of the other breads, which indicated the higher oxidative stability of rice bran oil in baking process and storage. Pure oils treated in simulated baking process and storage had an oxidative quality similar to that of breads. This means that bread ingridients may not have an effect on oil oxidative stability. Bread containing rice bran oil gained also higher scores in sensory evaluation, which of course were in agree with its better oxidative status.

  18. Use of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics for the authentication of avocado oil in ternary mixtures with sunflower and soybean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sotelo, Paola; Hernández-Martínez, Maylet; Osorio-Revilla, Guillermo; Meza-Márquez, Ofelia Gabriela; García-Ochoa, Felipe; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhrí

    2016-07-01

    Avocado oil is a high-value and nutraceutical oil whose authentication is very important since the addition of low-cost oils could lower its beneficial properties. Mid-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was used to detect and quantify adulteration of avocado oil with sunflower and soybean oils in a ternary mixture. Thirty-seven laboratory-prepared adulterated samples and 20 pure avocado oil samples were evaluated. The adulterated oil amount ranged from 2% to 50% (w/w) in avocado oil. A soft independent modelling class analogy (SIMCA) model was developed to discriminate between pure and adulterated samples. The model showed recognition and rejection rate of 100% and proper classification in external validation. A partial least square (PLS) algorithm was used to estimate the percentage of adulteration. The PLS model showed values of R(2) > 0.9961, standard errors of calibration (SEC) in the range of 0.3963-0.7881, standard errors of prediction (SEP estimated) between 0.6483 and 0.9707, and good prediction performances in external validation. The results showed that mid-FTIR spectroscopy could be an accurate and reliable technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of avocado oil in ternary mixtures.

  19. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  20. Analysis of the technology of production of pressed sunflower oil at LLC Chernozemye and recommendations for improving its efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of the technological scheme of the stock-preparation shop, press shop and cleaning of worm-press oil at Chernozemye LLC, with an analysis of the main types of technological equipment operation and evaluation of problematic production sites is given. It has been established that during hulling and following separation into fractions in separators and sifts, favorable conditions are created for oiling the husks by contacting it while passing through a sieve together with a high-oiled crushed kernel and oilseed dust. To reduce the oil content of husks in the scheme, it is recommended to use hydrocyclones that direct the husk for the subsequent separation of the particles of the kernel and oil dust carried along with the husk. It was also revealed that the greatest content of waxes and waxlike substances in the oil, which significantly affect the transparency of commercial sunflower oil, is contained in the husks lipids, which partially pass into the oil during the processing of seeds. The content of waxes in oils is the higher, the more husk is contained in the kernel, and the higher the temperature of the pulp entering the pressing. In this case, the ratio of oleic and linoleic acids in low-oil varieties is 1:1, in high-oil varieties is 1:3. The heterogeneity of the grinding of the oil seed meal, resulting from the hulling of seeds, makes it difficult to uniformly moisten, warm and dry the pulp in the conditioner. The structure of the finished pulp is influenced by the primary structure of the oil seed meal, obtained during the process of grinding the seeds. The intensive coloring of the pulp, oil cake and ground oil-cake during the drying of oil seed meal is due to the high temperature (above 100 °C in the conditioner, which leads to an intensive course of the sugar-amino reactions, an increase in the total content of nitrogen and phosphorus. And this changes color and increases raw materials losses.

  1. Kinetic studies on the transesterification of sunflower oil with 1-butanol catalyzed by Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic aqueous-organic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of sunflower oil transesterification with 1-butanol using a homogeneous lipase (Rhizomucor miehei) in an aqueous-organic biphasic system were studied in a stirred batch reactor set-up. An initial screening study was performed to optimize relevant process conditions (enzyme

  2. Determination of free radical scavenger agent efficiency in Syrian consumed sunflower oil using FT-IR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaf, A. W.; Al-Zier, A.

    2013-06-01

    Edible oils can be oxidized spontaneously by thermal process in the presence of atmospheric oxygen causing an oxidation to these oils and forming the hydroperoxides; this oxidative process is a major cause of cooking oils deterioration. Many synthetic or natural antioxidants additives have been used as free radical scavenger agent. In this work, Eugenol methylether has been used as free radical scavenger agent at three different concentrations to heated sunflower oil at 160°C for ten hours using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for analysis and evaluations. Before any additives, three characteristic absorption bands were observed at 3544, 3473 and 3290 cm-1 in heated oil. The recorded bands were assigned to 7Tthe unbounded7T, 7Tbounded 7Thydroperoxide or free alcohols 7Tgroups7T and to the O-H stretching alcohol associated group, respectively. After the addition of Eugenol methylether at 0.8 mL/L concentration, the bands intensity of hydroperoxide formation content is reduced. It has been shown that the free radical scavenger agent plays an acceptable role in reducing the hydroperoxide formation content as the result of thermal oxidation. It is proved that FTIR spectroscopy is an effective analytical tool for such investigatio (author).

  3. The Effect of Dietary Oils on Growth Performance of Broilers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    chicks/group) and fed diets supplemented with 0.5% sunflower oil (Group A), ... improve performance and to decrease indices of inflammatory response in the ... protein synthesis and accretion in the skeletal muscle (Hentges et al., 1984).

  4. Optimization of sunflower oil methanolysis for the production of biodiesel and its characterization with spectroscopic techniques (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, M.; Ali, S.; Khalid, N.; Naureen, R.; Rafique, U.

    2011-01-01

    Esters from vegetable oils have attracted a great deal of interest as substitute for petrodiesel to reduce dependence on imported petroleum and provide an alternate and sustainable source for fuel with more benign environmental properties. In the present study biodiesel was prepared from sunflower seed oil by transesterification by alkali-catalyzed methanolysis. The fuel properties like kinematic viscosity, density, specific gravity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, acid number and colour comparison of sunflower oil biodiesel (SOB) were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 standards for biodiesel. The SOB was chemically characterized with analytical techniques like FT-IR, NMR (/sup 1/H and /sup 13/C). The chemical composition of SOB was determined by GC-MS. Various fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were identified by retention time data and verified by mass fragmentation patterns. The identified FAMEs were methyl dodecanoate (C/sub 12:0/), methyl tetradecanoate(C/sub 14:0/), methyl hexadecanoate (C/sub 16:0/), methyl 8,11-octadecadienoate (C/sub 18:2/), methyl 9-octadecenoate (C/sub 18:1/), methyl octadecanoate (C/sub 18:0/), methyl 11-eicosenoate (C/sub 20:1/), methyl eicosanoate (C/sub 20:0/), methyl 13-docosenoate(C/sub 22:1/), methyl docosenoate(C/sub 22:0/) and methyl tetracosanoate (C/sub 24:0/). The percentage conversion of triglycerides to corresponding methyl esters determined by /sup 1/H-NMR was 87.33 % which was quite in good agreement with the practically observed yield of 85.1 %. (author)

  5. Evaluation of stability and size distribution of sunflower oil-coated micro bubbles for localized drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Walter Duarte de Araujo; Schneider, Fábio Kurt; Morales, Rigoberto E M

    2012-09-20

    Micro bubbles were initially introduced as contrast agents for ultrasound examinations as they are able to modify the signal-to-noise ratio in imaging, thus improving the assessment of clinical information on human tissue. Recent developments have demonstrated the feasibility of using these bubbles as drug carriers in localized delivery. In micro fluidics devices for generation of micro bubbles, the bubbles are formed at interface of liquid gas through a strangulation process. A device that uses these features can produce micro bubbles with small size dispersion in a single step. A T-junction micro fluidic device constructed using 3D prototyping was made for the production of mono dispersed micro bubbles. These micro bubbles use sunflower oil as a lipid layer. Stability studies for micro bubbles with diameters different generated from a liquid phase of the same viscosity were conducted to evaluate whether micro bubbles can be used as drug carriers. The biocompatibility of coating layer, the ability to withstand environmental pressure variations combined with echogenicity, are key factors that they can safely play the role of drug transporters. The normal distribution curve with small dispersion of the diameter of bubbles validates the process of generating micro bubbles with low value of variation coefficient, i.e., 0.381 at 1.90%. The results also showed the feasibility of using sunflower oil as the lipid matrix with stable population of bubbles over 217 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 313.04 μm and 121 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 73.74 μm, considering bubbles with air as gaseous phase. The results indicate that the micro fluidic device designed can be used for producing micro bubbles with low variation coefficient using sunflower oil as a coating of micro bubbles. These carriers were stable for periods of time that are long enough for clinical applications even when regular air is used as the gas phase. Improved

  6. Evaluation of stability and size distribution of sunflower oil-coated micro bubbles for localized drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho WalterDuartedeAraujo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro bubbles were initially introduced as contrast agents for ultrasound examinations as they are able to modify the signal-to-noise ratio in imaging, thus improving the assessment of clinical information on human tissue. Recent developments have demonstrated the feasibility of using these bubbles as drug carriers in localized delivery. In micro fluidics devices for generation of micro bubbles, the bubbles are formed at interface of liquid gas through a strangulation process. A device that uses these features can produce micro bubbles with small size dispersion in a single step. Methods A T-junction micro fluidic device constructed using 3D prototyping was made for the production of mono dispersed micro bubbles. These micro bubbles use sunflower oil as a lipid layer. Stability studies for micro bubbles with diameters different generated from a liquid phase of the same viscosity were conducted to evaluate whether micro bubbles can be used as drug carriers. The biocompatibility of coating layer, the ability to withstand environmental pressure variations combined with echogenicity, are key factors that they can safely play the role of drug transporters. Results The normal distribution curve with small dispersion of the diameter of bubbles validates the process of generating micro bubbles with low value of variation coefficient, i.e., 0.381 at 1.90%. The results also showed the feasibility of using sunflower oil as the lipid matrix with stable population of bubbles over 217 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 313.04 μm and 121 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 73.74 μm, considering bubbles with air as gaseous phase. Conclusion The results indicate that the micro fluidic device designed can be used for producing micro bubbles with low variation coefficient using sunflower oil as a coating of micro bubbles. These carriers were stable for periods of time that are long enough for clinical

  7. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (Pproducts (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (Pmeat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  8. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, T; Tokuyama, K; Shimomura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fats differing in fatty acid composition on diet-induced thermogenesis, sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were meal-fed for 12 wk an isoenergetic diet based on lard, high oleic acid safflower oil, safflower oil or linseed oil, and norepinephrine turnover rates in brown adipose tissue were then estimated. Whole-body oxygen consumption after the meal indicated that diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly lower in rats fed the lard diet than in those fed the other diets. The norepinephrine turnover rate in the interscapular brown adipose tissue was also significantly lower in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups. The carcass fat content was significantly higher in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups, whereas the abdominal adipose tissue weights were the same in all diet groups. These results suggest that the intake of animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids, compared with the intake of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases diet-induced thermogenesis by a decline of sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue, resulting in the promotion of body fat accumulation.

  9. Thermal and UV stability of β-carotene dissolved in peppermint oil microemulsified by sunflower lecithin and Tween 20 blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-05-01

    Microemulsions are suitable for simultaneous delivery of flavour oils and lipophilic bioactive compounds in transparent beverages. In the present study, the feasibility of delivering β-carotene in microemulsions formulated with peppermint oil and a blend of Tween® 20 and various amounts of sunflower lecithin was investigated. The poorly water- and oil-soluble β-carotene was dissolved in the transparent microemulsions that had particles smaller than 10nm and were stable during ambient storage for 65 d. The inclusion of β-carotene did not change the flow-behaviour and Newtonian viscosity. The degradation of β-carotene in microemulsions during ambient storage, ultraviolet radiation, and thermal treatments at 60 and 80 °C followed first order kinetics and was greatly suppressed when compared to the solution control. The antioxidant potential of peppermint oil and a greater content of lecithin in microemulsions enabled the better protection of β-carotene. The studied microemulsions may find various applications in manufacturing transparent beverages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Viscosity modification of high-oleic sunflower oil with polymeric additives for the design of new biolubricant formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinchia, L A; Delgado, M A; Valencia, C; Franco, J M; Gallegos, C

    2009-03-15

    Although most common lubricants contain mineral or synthetic oils as basestocks, new environmental regulations are demanding environmentally friendly lubricants. In this sense, vegetable oils represent promising alternatives to mineral-based lubricants because of their high biodegradability, good lubricity, and low volatility. However, their poor thermooxidative stability and the small range of viscosity represent a clear disadvantage to be used as suitable biolubricants. The main objective of this work was to develop new environmentally friendly lubricant formulations with improved kinematic viscosity values and viscosity thermal susceptibility. With this aim, a high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was blended with polymeric additives, such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymers, at different concentrations (0.5-5% w/w). Dynamic viscosity and density measurements were performed in a rotational rheometer and capillary densimeter, respectively, in a temperature range between 25 and 120 degrees C. An Arrhenius-like equation fits the evolution of viscosity with temperature fairly well. Both EVA and SBS copolymers may be satisfactorily used as additives to increase the viscosity of HOSO, thus improving the low viscosity values of this oil. HOSO viscosity increases with polymer concentration. Specifically, EVA/HOSO blends exhibit higher viscosity values, which are needed for applications such as lubrication of bearings and four-stroke engines. On the other hand, viscositythermal susceptibility of HOSO samples increases with EVA or SBS concentration.

  11. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  12. Oxidative stability of lard and sunflower oil supplemented with coffee extracts under storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budryn, Grażyna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stability of sunflower oil and lard supplemented with water extracts of green and roasted, Arabica and Robusta coffee beans was estimated. A decrease in the rate of fat oxidation reactions during the storage of samples for 12 weeks at ambient temperature which resulted from the addition of coffee extracts was evaluated using standard chemical methods such as the determination of peroxide and p-anisidine value and the assays of conjugated dienes and trienes as well as physical methods such as the determination of thermal profile by DSC. The sensory properties of all fat samples were also determined. These measurements showed that 0.1% water coffee extracts in fats decreased (p < 0.05 the quantities assayed by the chemical methods as compared to the control samples and approximately halved the rate of fat oxidation. In addition, the thermal profile analysis revealed that supplementing with coffee extracts reduced the extent of negative changes in the thermal properties of fats. The effectiveness of the tested coffee extracts decreased in the order: green Robusta > green Arabica > roasted Robusta > roasted Arabica.

    La estabilidad oxidativa de manteca y aceite de girasol suplementados con extractos acuosos de granos de café verde o tostado Arábica y Robusta fue estimada. Un descenso en la velocidad de las reacciones de oxidación de la grasa durante el almacenamiento de las muestras durante 12 semana a temperatura ambiente, que resulto de la adición de los extractos de café, fue evaluada usando métodos químicos estándares tales como la determinación de peróxidos y el índice de paranisidina y ensayos de dienos y trienos conjugados, así como métodos físicos tales como la determinación del perfil térmico por DSC. También las propiedades sensoriales de todas las grasas fueron estimadas. Estas medidas mostraron que extractos acuosos de café al 0.1% en la grasa decrecieron (p < 0.05 los valores obtenidos por los m

  13. The effects of antioxidants and shelf life conditions on oxidation markers in a sunflower oil salad dressing emulsion (SOSDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Jeanine; Grypa, Roman; Ellingworth, John; Duodu, Kwaku G; De Kock, Henriëtta L

    2016-12-15

    The effects of levels of antioxidant [gallic acid or ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA)] in a sunflower oil salad dressing emulsion (SOSDE) and shelf life affecting conditions on aroma, anisidine values (AV) and peroxide values (PV) were determined. Aroma differences between products with different concentrations of antioxidants were more apparent for ambient than accelerated stored SOSDEs. Aroma differences were more noted between SOSDEs with different antioxidants than antioxidant concentrations per se. PV differences between accelerated stored SOSDEs with high and low EDTA concentrations were found. AV differences existed between SOSDEs with different gallic acid concentrations for both storage conditions, and for accelerated stored SOSDEs with different EDTA concentrations. The accelerated storage model is more suitable for SOSDEs with metal chelator antioxidants e.g. EDTA, than free radical scavenging antioxidants e.g. gallic acid. PV, AV and aroma of accelerated stored SOSDEs do not clearly predict ambient shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structurally modified pectin for targeted lipid antioxidant capacity in linseed/sunflower oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celus, Miete; Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; Kyomugasho, Clare; Maes, Ine; Van Loey, Ann M; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2018-02-15

    The present work explored the lipid antioxidant capacity of citrus pectin addition to 5%(w/v) linseed/sunflower oil emulsions stabilized with 0.5%(w/v) Tween 80, as affected by pectin molecular characteristics. The peroxide formation in the emulsions, containing tailored pectin structures, was studied during two weeks of storage at 35°C. Low demethylesterified pectin (≤33%) exhibited a higher antioxidant capacity than high demethylesterified pectin (≥58%), probably due to its higher chelating capacity of pro-oxidative metal ions (Fe 2+ ), whereas the distribution pattern of methylesters along the pectin chain only slightly affected the antioxidant capacity. Nevertheless, pectin addition to the emulsions caused emulsion destabilization probably due to depletion or bridging effect, independent of the pectin structural characteristics. These results evidence the potential of structurally modified citrus pectin as a natural antioxidant in emulsions. However, optimal conditions for emulsion stability should be carefully selected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Flaxseed Oil-in-Water Emulsions Fabricated from Sunflower Lecithins: Impact of Blending Lecithins with Different Phospholipid Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Chen, Fang; Wang, Xingguo; Jin, Qingzhe; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian

    2017-06-14

    There is great interest in the formulation of plant-based foods enriched with nutrients that promote health, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study evaluated the impact of sunflower phospholipid type on the formation and stability of flaxseed oil-in-water emulsions. Two sunflower lecithins (Sunlipon 50 and 90) with different phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels (59 and 90%, respectively) were used in varying ratios to form emulsions. Emulsion droplet size, charge, appearance, microstructure, and oxidation were measured during storage at 55 °C in the dark. The physical and chemical stability increased as the PC content of the lecithin blends decreased. The oxidative stability of emulsions formulated using Sunlipon 50 was better than emulsions formulated using synthetic surfactants (SDS or Tween 20). The results are interpreted in terms of the impact of emulsifier type on the colloidal interactions between oil droplets and on the molecular interactions between pro-oxidants and oil droplet surfaces.

  16. Transesterification of linoleic and oleic sunflower oils to biodiesel using CaO as a solid base catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Zlatica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to characterize biodiesel (i.e. methyl esters, MEs produced from linoleic and oleic sunflower oils (LSO and OSO, respectively by alkali transesterification with methanol and CaO as a heterogeneous catalyst under different reaction parameters. The parameters investigated were the methanol/oil molar ratio (4.5:1, 6:1, 7.5:1, 9:1 and 12:1 and the mass ratio of CaO to oil (2% and 3%. The physical and chemical properties of the feedstocks and MEs, like density at 15oC, kinematic viscosity at 40oC, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, cetane index, fatty acid (methyl ester composition, were determined in order to investigate the effects of LSO and OSO properties and reaction parameters on the product characteristics, yields and purity. The properties of feedstock had decisive effect on the physical and chemical properties of MEs as majority of them did not differ significantly under studied reaction conditions. The MEs produced generally met the criteria required for commercial biodiesel; in fact, the only exception was in the case of iodine value of ME produced from LSO. The product yields only slightly changed with the applied conditions; the highest yield (99.22% was obtained for ME-LSO produced at 6 mol% methanol to oil ratio, while the lowest one (93.20% was for ME-OSO produced under the lowest methanol/oil molar ratio (4.5:1. The applied catalyst amounts had similar influence on the oil conversion to biodiesel. The yields of ME-LSOs were in general somewhat higher than those obtained for ME-OSOs under the same conditions, which was attributed to the influence of the respective feedstocks' acid value and viscosity.

  17. Proteomic analysis of oil body membrane proteins accompanying the onset of desiccation phase during sunflower seed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    A noteworthy metabolic signature accompanying oil body (OB) biogenesis during oilseed development is associated with the modulation of the oil body membranes proteins. Present work focuses on 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE)-based analysis of the temporal changes in the OB membrane proteins analyzed by LC-MS/MS accompanying the onset of desiccation (20–30 d after anthesis; DAA) in the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Protein spots unique to 20–30 DAA stages were picked up from 2-D gels for identification and the identified proteins were categorized into 7 functional classes. These include proteins involved in energy metabolism, reactive oxygen scavenging, proteolysis and protein turnover, signaling, oleosin and oil body biogenesis-associated proteins, desiccation and cytoskeleton. At 30 DAA stage, exclusive expressions of enzymes belonging to energy metabolism, desiccation and cytoskeleton were evident which indicated an increase in the metabolic and enzymatic activity in the cells at this stage of seed development (seed filling). Increased expression of cruciferina-like protein and dehydrin at 30 DAA stage marks the onset of desiccation. The data has been analyzed and discussed to highlight desiccation stage-associated metabolic events during oilseed development. PMID:26786011

  18. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, F.; Abdul Qayyum, H. M.; Hussein, A. I.; Iqbal, S.

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 {mu}g/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO) with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis). The stabilized (treated with extract) and the control (without extract addition) SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60 degree centigrade for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day) storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation. (Author) 32 refs.

  19. [Suitability of four stomatal conductance models in agro-pastoral ecotone in North China: A case study for potato and oil sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming Xia; Wang, Jing; Tang, Jian Zhao; Yu, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Xue, Qing Yu; Chang, Qing; Tan, Mei Xiu

    2016-11-18

    The suitability of four popular empirical and semi-empirical stomatal conductance models (Jarvis model, Ball-Berry model, Leuning model and Medlyn model) was evaluated based on para-llel observation data of leaf stomatal conductance, leaf net photosynthetic rate and meteorological factors during the vigorous growing period of potato and oil sunflower at Wuchuan experimental station in agro-pastoral ecotone in North China. It was found that there was a significant linear relationship between leaf stomatal conductance and leaf net photosynthetic rate for potato, whereas the linear relationship appeared weaker for oil sunflower. The results of model evaluation showed that Ball-Berry model performed best in simulating leaf stomatal conductance of potato, followed by Leuning model and Medlyn model, while Jarvis model was the last in the performance rating. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) was 0.0331, 0.0371, 0.0456 and 0.0794 mol·m -2 ·s -1 , the normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) was 26.8%, 30.0%, 36.9% and 64.3%, and R-squared (R 2 ) was 0.96, 0.61, 0.91 and 0.88 between simulated and observed leaf stomatal conductance of potato for Ball-Berry model, Leuning model, Medlyn model and Jarvis model, respectively. For leaf stomatal conductance of oil sunflower, Jarvis model performed slightly better than Leuning model, Ball-Berry model and Medlyn model. RMSE was 0.2221, 0.2534, 0.2547 and 0.2758 mol·m -2 ·s -1 , NRMSE was 40.3%, 46.0%, 46.2% and 50.1%, and R 2 was 0.38, 0.22, 0.23 and 0.20 between simulated and observed leaf stomatal conductance of oil sunflower for Jarvis model, Leuning model, Ball-Berry model and Medlyn model, respectively. The path analysis was conducted to identify effects of specific meteorological factors on leaf stomatal conductance. The diurnal variation of leaf stomatal conductance was principally affected by vapour pressure saturation deficit for both potato and oil sunflower. The model evaluation suggested that the stomatal

  20. Comparison of the effects of flaxseed oil and sunflower seed oil consumption on serum glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, and lipid peroxidation in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Atefeh; Nikaein, Farzad; Babajafari, Siavash; Faghih, Shiva; Yarmohammadi, Hassan

    Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) increases the risk of type II diabetes and morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed oil (FO), as a functional food, is one of the major vegetal sources of essential omega-3 fatty acids. This study aimed to compare the effects of consumption of FO and sunflower seed oil (SO) on lipid peroxidation and other symptoms of MetSyn. This randomized controlled interventional trial was conducted on 60 volunteers aged 30 to 60 years who were diagnosed with MetSyn in Shiraz, Iran. The participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to SO (n = 30, receiving 25 mL/d SO) and FO (n = 30, receiving 25 ml/d FO) groups using block randomization. The diets were identical for all the participants. Blood pressure (BP), serum lipid, fasting blood sugar, and malondialdehyde were measured at baseline and at the end of week 7. The results showed no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding blood lipid levels and fasting blood sugar at the end of the study. However, significant reductions in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (5.6% in FO and 10.8% in SO), and triglyceride levels were seen within each group after treatment with FO and SO (P < .05). Nonetheless, between-group changes were significant (<0.05) for systolic BP (mean [±standard deviation {SD}] changes were -14.0 ± 22.41 in the FO group [P = .004] and 0.92 ± 8.70 in the SO group [P = .594]) and diastolic BP (mean [±SD] changes were -4.26 ± 7.44 in the FO group [P = .007] and 1.30 ± 6.91 in the SO group [P = .344]), but marginally significant (P = .053) for malondialdehyde level (mean [±SD] changes were -1.29 ± 1.48 in the FO group [P < .001] and -0.52 ± 1.34 in the SO group [P = .52]). A significant decrease in weight was also found in both groups. However, waist circumference decreased significantly only in the FO group at the end of the study (P < .05). Our results indicated

  1. Microemulsions based on a sunflower lecithin-Tween 20 blend have high capacity for dissolving peppermint oil and stabilizing coenzyme Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Guan, Yongguang; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-01-28

    The objectives of the present study were to improve the capability of microemulsions to dissolve peppermint oil by blending sunflower lecithin with Tween 20 and to study the possibility of codelivering lipophilic bioactive compounds. The oil loading in microemulsions with 20% (w/w) Tween 20 increased from 3% (w/w) to 20% (w/w) upon gradual supplementation of 6% (w/w) lecithin. All microemulsions had particles of lecithin. Therefore, natural surfactant lecithin can reduce the use of synthetic Tween 20 to dissolve peppermint oil and protect the degradation of dissolved lipophilic bioactive components in transparent products.

  2. Effect of Adding Different Vegetable Oils to Quail Diets On Some Blood Parameters and Immune System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Taleb, A.M.; Wakwak, M.; Sabek, E.M.; Elaroussi, M.A.; El-Gendy, H.M.; Hammad, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    A total number of 1400 one-day old Japanese quail birds were used in this study, the birds were divided into seven equal groups, six treated while the 7 t h served as the control. The diet of the six treated groups was supplemented with 8 % of either one of the following tested oils: soybean (SBO), sunflower (SFO), corn (CO), cottonseed (CSO), olive (OO) or palm (PO). At the end of the 4 t hand 8 t h weeks of age blood samples were collected for blood picture, proteins and cortisol determination. Antibody titer against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) and NewCastle disease virus (NDV) were determined at 7 and 8 weeks of age respectively. The results showed significant increase in relative lymphoid organ weights, RBCs, WBCs, Hb and PCV, total protein, globulin and cortisol hormone in treated groups compared to the control. The immunological parameters showed a significant increase in (HA) and (HI) against (SRBCs) and (NDV), respectively, in all treated groups compared to the control group. The present results confirm the beneficial effects of dietary oil supplementation to quail birds and in particular olive oil.

  3. Influence of High Temperature and Duration of Heating on the Sunflower Seed Oil Properties for Food Use and Bio-diesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Angelo Maria; Capocasale, Marco; Zappia, Clotilde; Poiana, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Two important problems for the food industry are oil oxidation and oil waste after frying. Sunflower seed oil is one of the vegetable oils most commonly used in the food industry. Two variables were applied to the low oleic sunflower seed oil in this work i.e. heating temperature (180-210-240°C) and time of heating (15-30-60-120 minutes), to study from the edible point of view the variations of its physico-chemical properties. After 120 minutes heating at 240°C the following was found: refractive index (1.476), free acidity (0.35%), K232 (2.87), K270 (3.71), antiradical activity (45.90% inhibition), total phenols (523 mg kg -1 ), peroxide value (17.00 meq kg -1 ), p-anisidine value (256.8) and Totox (271.7), all of which showed a constant deterioration. In relation to the use as a feedstock for bio-diesel production, after 120 minutes heating at 240℃ the following was found: acid value 0.70 mg KOH g -1 oil, iodine value 117.83 g I 2 100 g -1 oil, oil stability index 0.67 h, kinematic viscosity (at 40°C) 77.85 mm 2 s -1 , higher heating value 39.86 MJ kg -1 , density 933.34 kg/m 3 and cetane number 67.04. The parameters studied in this work were influenced, in different ways, by the applied variables. Heating temperature between 180 and 210°C and 120 min heating duration were found to be the most appropriate conditions for sunflower seed oil both from the deep frying point of view and from a subsequent use as feedstock for bio-diesel production. In light of the vegetable oils' International standards for an edible use and for a bio-diesel production, findings of this work can be used to set heating temperature and heating duration to preserve as long possible the physico-chemical properties of a low oleic sunflower seed oil for both its edible use as a fat during cooking and for its re-use after frying.

  4. Thermal and electrical properties of polymers produced from methyl oleate and bio diesel of sunflower and linseed oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau, Aline; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Martini, Denise D.; Samios, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Polyesters were prepared from epoxidized biodiesel with different unsaturation degrees. The polymerisation was performed using epoxidized methyl esters of oleic acid (EPOAME), sunflower oil (EPSOME) and linseed oil (EPLOME) with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride and triethylamine. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated that reaction enthalpy was proportional to the unsaturation degree of each methyl ester. With an increase in unsaturation degree, the activation energy linearly decreased. The intermediate structures and the polyesters were characterised using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. The molecular weight of the polymers synthesised with EPOAME, EPSOME and EPLOME were, respectively, 2.5x103, 5.3x103 and 14x103 g/mol. The glass transition of the product obtained from EPOAME was -59 degree C. The polymers based on EPSOME and EPLOME exhibited higher Tg values, which were -11 and -6 degree C, respectively. Electric impedance measurements of the polyesters showed that an increase in unsaturation degree resulted in an increase in resistivity and a decrease in capacitance. (author)

  5. Multivariate optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and ascorbyl palmitate to stabilize sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2016-04-01

    The simultaneous optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (SAG) and ascorbyl palmitate (AP) in sunflower oil (SO) was performed using central composite and rotatable design coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and response surface methodology (RSM). The physicochemical parameters viz., peroxide value, anisidine value, free fatty acids, induction period, total polar matter, antioxidant capacity and conjugated diene value were considered as response variables. PCA reduced the original set of correlated responses to few uncorrelated principal components (PC). The PC1 (eigen value, 5.78; data variance explained, 82.53 %) was selected for optimization using RSM. The quadratic model adequately described the data (R (2) = 0. 91, p  0.05). The contour plot of PC 1 score indicated the optimal synergistic combination of 1289.19 and 218.06 ppm for SAG and AP, respectively. This combination of SAG and AP resulted in shelf life of 320 days at 25 °C estimated using linear shelf life prediction model. In conclusion, the versatility of PCA-RSM approach has resulted in an easy interpretation in multiple response optimizations. This approach can be considered as a useful guide to develop new oil blends stabilized with food additives from natural sources.

  6. Thermal oxidation process accelerates degradation of the olive oil mixed with sunflower oil and enables its discrimination using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Boqué, Ricard; Folcarelli, Rita; Busto, Olga; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, Javid

    2015-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of thermal treatment on the discrimination of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples from EVOO samples adulterated with sunflower oil. Two groups of samples were used. One group was analyzed at room temperature (25 °C) and the other group was thermally treated in a thermostatic water bath at 75 °C for 8 h, in contact with air and with light exposure, to favor oxidation. All samples were then measured with synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectra were acquired by varying the excitation wavelength in the region from 250 to 720 nm. In order to optimize the differences between excitation and emission wavelengths, four constant differential wavelengths, i.e., 20 nm, 40 nm, 60 nm and 80 nm, were tried. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to discriminate between pure and adulterated oils. It was found that the 20 nm difference was the optimal, at which the discrimination models showed the best results. The best PLS-DA models were those built with the difference spectra (75-25 °C), which were able to discriminate pure from adulterated oils at a 2% level of adulteration. Furthermore, PLS regression models were built to quantify the level of adulteration. Again, the best model was the one built with the difference spectra, with a prediction error of 1.75% of adulteration.

  7. Starch and oil in the donor cow diet and starch in substrate differently affect the in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zened, A; Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Nicot, M C; Combes, S; Cauquil, L; Farizon, Y; Enjalbert, F

    2011-11-01

    Trans isomers of fatty acids exhibit different health properties. Among them, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on milk fat production and can affect human health. A shift from the trans-11 to the trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of dairy cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with highly unsaturated fat sources. The differences of BH patterns between linoleic acid (LeA) and linolenic acid (LnA) in such ruminal conditions remain unknown; thus, the aim of this work was to investigate in vitro the effects of starch and sunflower oil in the diet of the donor cows and starch level in the incubates on the BH patterns and efficiencies of LeA and LnA. The design was a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 cows, 4 periods, and 4 diets with combinations of 21 or 34% starch and 0 or 5% sunflower oil. The rumen content of each cow during each period was incubated with 4 substrates, combining 2 starch levels and either LeA or LnA addition. Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism of incubates showed that dietary starch decreased the diversity of the bacterial community and the high-starch plus oil diet modified its structure. High-starch diets poorly affected isomerization and first reduction of LeA and LnA, but decreased the efficiencies of trans-11,cis-15-C18:2 and trans C18:1 reduction. Dietary sunflower oil increased the efficiency of LeA isomerization but decreased the efficiency of trans C18:1 reduction. An interaction between dietary starch and dietary oil resulted in the highest trans-10 isomers production in incubates when the donor cow received the high-starch plus oil diet. The partition between trans-10 and trans-11 isomers was also affected by an interaction between starch level and the fatty acid added to the incubates, showing that the trans-10 shift only occurred with LeA, whereas LnA was mainly hydrogenated via the more usual trans-11

  8. Quality of pies obtained of the extraction of sunflower and crambe oil for biodiesel under different temperatures; Qualidade das tortas obtidas na extracao do oleo de girassol e crambe para biodiesel sob diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Tabata Zingano; Prado, Naimara Vieira do; Coelho, Silvia Renata Machado; Bischoff, Teodato Zingano [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil)], emails: tabatazbi@yahoo.com.br, nai_mara@hotmail.com, srmcoelho@unioeste.br, teodato_zb@hotmail.com; Figueiredo, Paulo Roberto Abreu de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Sunflower and crambe are viable alternatives to ethanol. Used in food production, the sunflower crop has economic, rustic and does not require specialized machinery. The crambe oil is concentrated enough, it is feasible to farm and is not edible. The extraction efficiencies of these oils gives to the heating and moisture content of grain. The aim of this study was to evaluate temperatures of oil extraction in sunflower and crambe as pies obtained. For oil extraction and acquisition of pies, we used a high pressure extruder press. The sunflower seed and crambe were extruded without heating and at temperatures of 50 and 70 deg C with three replicates for each treatment, estimated to be the pie, the amount of fat, protein and moisture. Increasing the temperature, we observed a reduction of moisture in sunflower cake, but this did not occur in seeds of crambe. For sunflower, the higher levels of lipids occurred for pie without heating, and for crambe, the higher levels of lipids occurred at 50 deg C. As for the protein, was found in both cultures, the highest level at 70 deg C. It is concluded that the extraction temperature alters the composition of oilseed cakes. (author)

  9. Spectacular Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author illustrates how she shares her love of sunflowers with her kindergarten and first-grade students through an interesting art lesson. Sunflowers are easy to grow, so the author started the lesson four months earlier with inexpensive seed packets. She planted many varieties, but she most likes the colors of the Mexican…

  10. Comparative study of two techniques for assessing fat intake in a Mediterranean diet. The influence of culinary oils changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Roso, B; Cuesta, I; Varela-Moreiras, G; Carmena, R; Pérez-Olleros, L

    2000-07-01

    The diet usually consumed by a community of 18 normolipemic monks was studied. It included olive oil as cooking fat (basal period BP). This diet was modified by substituting olive oil for sunflower oil during a 21-day period (experimental period EP). The precise individual weighing technique was utilised for the determination of intake, and by means of the food composition tables (FCTs) the energy and nutrient of the diet were calculated. By chemical analysis of the duplicate sample (CA) of the cooked dishes the lipid intake was also determined. Total serum cholesterol HDL and LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, AI and B-100 apolipoproteins and Lp(a) were also analysed. Similarly the absolute and relative values for SFA, MUFA and PUFA obtained by both techniques were also different and these were maintained when the (PUFA + MUFA)/SFA ratio was calculated by both techniques and in the two periods. The correction of the lipid intake by means of the CA technique did not improve either the correlation between the intake or the plasma lipid concentration or the cholesterolemia prediction (r = 0.83 for FCT and CA).

  11. Comparative analysis for the production of fatty acid alkyl esterase using whole cell biocatalyst and purified enzyme from Rhizopus oryzae on waste cooking oil (sunflower oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Bharathiraja; Sudalaiyadum Perumal, Ayyappasamy; Jayaraman, Jayamuthunagai; Mani, Jayakumar; Ramanujam, Praveenkumar

    2012-08-01

    The petroleum fuel is nearing the line of extinction. Recent research and technology have provided promising outcomes to rely on biodiesel as the alternative and conventional source of fuel. The use of renewable source - vegetable oil constitutes the main stream of research. In this preliminary study, Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) was used as the substrate for biodiesel production. Lipase enzyme producing fungi Rhizopus oryzae 262 and commercially available pure lipase enzyme were used for comparative study in the production of Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters (FAAE). The whole cell (RO 262) and pure lipase enzyme (PE) were immobilized using calcium alginate beads. Calcium alginate was prepared by optimizing with different molar ratios of calcium chloride and different per cent sodium alginate. Entrapment immobilization was done for whole cell biocatalyst (WCB). PE was also immobilized by entrapment for the transesterification reaction. Seven different solvents - methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, iso-propanol, iso-butanol and iso-amyl alcohol were used as the acyl acceptors. The reaction parameters like temperature (30°C), molar ratio (1:3 - oil:solvent), reaction time (24 h), and amount of enzyme (10% mass ratio to oil) were also optimized for methanol alone. The same parameters were adopted for the other acyl acceptors too. Among the different acyl acceptors - methanol, whose reaction parameters were optimized showed maximum conversion of triglycerides to FAAE-94% with PE and 84% with WCB. On the whole, PE showed better catalytic converting ability with all the acyl acceptor compared to WCB. Gas chromatography analysis (GC) was done to determine the fatty acid composition of WCO (sunflower oil) and FAAE production with different acyl acceptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  13. Sunflower disease compendium: Sunflower botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number one challenge for global sunflower production is diseases. Sunflower is the fifth largest oilseed crop grown in temperate and subtropical areas in 72 countries and on every continent, except Antarctica. This has facilitated the spread of diseases globally. Disease control can be by chemic...

  14. Statistical optimization of biodiesel production from sunflower waste cooking oil using basic heterogeneous biocatalyst prepared from eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Sh. El-Gendy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A statistical design of experiments DOE was applied to investigate biodiesel fuel BDF production process from sunflower waste cooking oil SWCO using heterogeneous bio-catalyst produced from eggshells ES. It was based on 3 level D-optimal design involving as factors methanol:oil M:O molar ratio, catalyst concentration (wt%, reaction time (min and mixing rate (rpm. Twenty runs were carried out. A predictive linear interaction model has been correlated finding out how significant the effects of these variables are in practice. LINGO software was used to find out the optimum values of the aforementioned variables for enhancing the process. According to the results obtained, the most dominant positive factor influencing the response variable (% BDF yield was M:O molar ratio followed by catalyst concentration (wt% and mixing rate in a decreasing order while the reaction time showed to have a negative effect on the yield. The maximum BDF yield (98.8% and 97.5%, predicted and experimental, respectively was obtained at M:O 6:1 M ratio, catalyst concentration 3 wt%, reaction time 30 min, mixing rate 350 rpm and 60 °C. Also response surface methodology RSM has been applied to study the interactive effects of independent variables on BDF yield. It was found that, the interaction between M:O and catalyst concentration (wt% has more significant effect than interaction between other variables. The activity of the produced bio-catalyst was comparable to that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. All the physicochemical characteristics of the produced BDF using the prepared bio-catalyst and its blends with petro-diesel fuel PDF are completely acceptable and meet most of the required standard specifications.

  15. The Effect of Massage Therapy by Sunflower Oil on Neonates for Length of Hospital Stay from the Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alizadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infants are the most sensitive and injury of people in society that will make the feature of our country so they are needed special attention to take care of their physical &mental health. According to many studies one of the intervention for decrease of length of stay (LOS in Intensive Care Unit (NICU is massage therapy by oil because of rapidly recovery & early discharge. The aim of this study was to the effect of massage on neonates in Nicu ward for decreasing of LOS. Materials & Methods:. This one- blinded clinical trial was conducted on 44 infants who were born within 30-37weeks gestational age with 1000-2500gr in Nicu of Arash & Shariati hospitals. The infants were assigned randomly into two group of sunflower oil massage &without massage. The massage is done one hour after milk when the infants were stable (heart rate-respiratory rate and color of their skin become control. Each massage was 15minute 3 times in every 2 hours in the afternoon for 5 days. Observation was tools of collecting data by researcher which done before &after every intervention by respiratory heart rate monitoring & pulse oximetry. Data were analyzed using the repeated measure ANOVA. Results: Within 5 days of following increasing pattern of infant weight in study group was significant (P=0.001 and comparison growth head circumference in 2 groups was not significant (P=0.01 about LOS variable within 5days massage was significant (P=0.04. Conclusion: Fortunately there were statistical significant difference between the infants weight and decreasing length of hospitalization in 2 groups , but difference between head circumference between 2 group was not significant.

  16. Influence of dietary replacement of sunflower oil with milk thistle (Silybum marianum oil on chicken meat quality and antioxidant status of liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research focused on the effects of dietary replacement of 3% sunflower oil (SO group with 3% milk thistle oil (MTO group on the technological quality of meat, such as pH value, colour (CIE L*, CIE a*, CIE b*, drip loss (%, shear force (N, and cooking loss (%, as well as on the content of fatty acid lipids in broiler breast and thigh muscles. Significant difference (P < 0.05 was determined for pHi, pHu, CIE a*, CIE b* values between groups, although the values for the stated indicators were within the standard range. Lipids of breast meat of the MTO group contained more arachidic acid (P < 0.001, octadecenoic acid isomer B (P = 0.047 and eicosatrienoic acid (P = 0.041, and less α-linolenic acid (P < 0.001 and Σn-3PUFA. Lipids of thigh meat of the MTO group contained more ΣSFA, myristoleic acid, eicosatrienoic acid (P < 0.05 and eicosenoic acid (P < 0.001, and less α-linolenic acid, and had narrower Σn-3/n-6 PUFA ratio than the SO group. According to the antioxidant status of broiler liver, there was significantly higher catalase activity determined in the MTO group.

  17. Optimization of hydrodynamic cavitations reactor efficiency for biodiesel production by response surface methods (Case study: Sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javadikia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Biofuels are considered as one of the largest sources of renewable fuels or replacement of fossil fuels. Combustion of plant-based fuels is the indirect use of solar energy. Biofuels significantly have less pollution than other fossil fuels and can easily generate from residual plant material. Waste and residues of foods and wastewater can also be a good source for biofuel production. Transesterification method (one of biodiesel production methods is the most common forms to produce mono-alkyl esters from vegetable oil and animal fats. The procedure aims are reduction the oil viscosity during the reaction between triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or without it. In this study, the method of transesterification with alkaline catalysts is used that it is the most common and most commercial biodiesel production method. In this study, configurations of made hydrodynamic cavitation reactor were studied to measure biodiesel fuel quality and enhanced device performance with optimum condition. The Design Expert software and response surface methodology were used to get this purpose. Materials and Methods Transesterification method was used in this study. The procedure aims were reduction of the oil viscosity during the reaction between triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or without it. Materials needed in the production of biodiesel transesterification method include: vegetable oil, alcohol and catalysts. The used oil in the production of biodiesel was sunflower oil, which was used 0.6 liters per each test in the production process base on titration method. Methanol with purity of 99.8 percent and the molar ratio of 6:1 to oil was used based on titration equation and according to the results of other researchers. The used catalyst in continuous production process was high-purity sodium hydroxide (99% that it is one of alkaline catalysts. Weight of hydroxide was 1% of the used oil weight in the

  18. The Effects of Massage with Coconut and Sunflower Oils on Oxygen Saturation of Premature Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome Treated With Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Valizadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays particular emphasis is placed on the developmental aspects of premature infants care. Massage therapy is one of the best-known methods of caring. Due to the minimal touch policy in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs, massaging is not usually performed on premature infants. However, there is not sufficient evidence to support the claim that newborn infants with complex medical conditions should not be massaged. This study aimed to determine the effects of massage with coconut and sunflower oils on oxygen saturation of infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial on 90 newborns who were admitted to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran. The infants were divided into control and massage therapy groups (massage with coconut and sunflower oils. Data was collected using a hospital documentation form. A 15-minute daily massage was performed for 3 days. Respiratory rate (RR, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 and oxygen saturation were measured 5 minutes before the massage, 3 times during the massage, and 5 minutes after the massage. The collected data was analyzed using a mixed model. Results: In comparison to coconut oil and control groups, mean oxygen saturation of sunflower oil group was improved. In addition, the coconut massage group showed lower oxygen saturation than the control group but was all values were within the normal range. Although massage decreased oxygen saturation, there was no need to increase FiO2. Conclusion: Massage therapy can provide developmental care for infants treated with NCPAP.

  19. Silagens de girassol e de milho em dietas de vacas leiteiras: consumo e digestibilidade aparente Sunflower and corn silages in lactating cow diets: intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Leite

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente de dietas, contendo diferentes proporções de silagem de girassol em substituição à silagem de milho, para vacas leiteiras em lactação. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Holandesa, que produziam 25kg leite/dia, distribuídas em um delineamento em quadrado latino 5´5. Os tratamentos foram compostos por: 100% de silagem de girassol e concentrado (100SG, 66% de silagem de girassol mais 34% de silagem de milho e concentrado (66SG, 34% de silagem de girassol mais 66% de silagem de milho e concentrado (34SG, 100% de silagem de milho e concentrado (100SM e 100% de silagem de milho mais caroço de algodão (16,5% da matéria seca e concentrado (SM+CA. A ingestão de matéria seca (17,8kg para 100SG e 21,6kg para 100SM, a ingestão de matéria orgânica (15,5kg para 100SG e 20,2kg para 100SM, a ingestão de fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (8,1kg para 100SG e 9,9kg para 100SM, a digestibilidade aparente da fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (30,7% para 100SG e 51,4% para 100SM e da fibra insolúvel em detergente ácido (28,4% para 100SG e 49,4% para 100SM foram menores para a dieta 100SG comparada à dieta 100SM (PThe intake and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and the intake of crude protein were evaluated in lactating Holstein cows fed sunflower silage (SS in replacement of corn silage (CS in their diets. Five ruminal cannulated cows, 60 to 82 days in milk, were arranged in a 5 x 5 latin square design. The treatments werethe following: 100% corn silage (100CS and concentrate; 34% sunflower silage plus 66% corn silage (34SS and concentrate; 66% sunflower silage plus 34% corn silage (66SS and concentrate; 100% sunflower silage (100SS and concentrate;and 100% corn silage plus whole cotton seed (CS-WCS and concentrate. Dry matter (17.86kg for 100SS and 21.62kg for 100CS and organic matter intake (17.5kg for 100SS and

  20. Direct acetylation of sunflower oil in the presence of boron trioxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The separation was performed by washing with Ca(OH)2, filtering and heating for two hours. ... of 35 mg of the oil at 170 °C, for 50 min and in the air flow of 20 cm3 min-1 is equal to 65 ..... diluents used for biodegradable lubricants. JAOCS ...

  1. Sunflowers. Cultivation, processing, economic aspects. Sonnenblumen. Anbau, Verfahrenstechnik, Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, K [Landwirtschaftsschule, Alzey (Germany, F.R.); Hunger, A [Landes-, Lehr- und Forschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Weinbau und Gartenbau, Neustadt (Germany, F.R.); Weickel, J [Landespflanzenschutzamt Rheinland-Pfalz, Mainz (Germany, F.R.)

    1988-01-01

    Sunflowers are cultivated throughout the world, primarily for oil extraction but also as a birdseed, for eating, or for backing. Although some attempts have been made, they are hardly ever used as green fodder. Sunflowers grown for oil extraction usually have thin-shelled, black seeds. They have an oil fraction of 40 to 50% and a protein fraction of more than 20%. Sunflowers for other uses have large seeds with thick, striped shells. Their oil fraction is between 25 and 30%. (orig.).

  2. Development of a dry artificial diet for Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, Priscila; Parra, Jose R.P.; Panizzi, Antonio R.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial diets prepared with wheat germ, soybean protein, dextrosol, potato starch, sucrose, cellulose, soybean or sunflower oil, and vitamin solution for rearing Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) were tested under controlled temperature (25 ± 1 deg C), RH (60 ± 10%), and photophase (14h). Three diets were tested and compared with the natural diet privet [soybean and peanut seeds and privet Ligustrum lucidum Ait. fruit (Oleaceae)]. All three artificial diets allowed full development. The diet containing sunflower oil was the most suitable for N. viridula while E. heros developed better on a diet composed of soybean oil. Data indicated that the artificial diets were inferior to the natural diet. The artificial diets were more adequate for E. heros. (author)

  3. Development of a dry artificial diet for Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Priscila; Parra, Jose R.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Magro, Sandra R. [Faculdade Integrada de Campo Mourao, PR (Brazil); Panizzi, Antonio R. [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja

    2006-09-15

    Artificial diets prepared with wheat germ, soybean protein, dextrosol, potato starch, sucrose, cellulose, soybean or sunflower oil, and vitamin solution for rearing Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) were tested under controlled temperature (25 {+-} 1 deg C), RH (60 {+-} 10%), and photophase (14h). Three diets were tested and compared with the natural diet privet [soybean and peanut seeds and privet Ligustrum lucidum Ait. fruit (Oleaceae)]. All three artificial diets allowed full development. The diet containing sunflower oil was the most suitable for N. viridula while E. heros developed better on a diet composed of soybean oil. Data indicated that the artificial diets were inferior to the natural diet. The artificial diets were more adequate for E. heros. (author)

  4. Studies on changes in patterns of fatty acids, sterols and tocopherols of oil during seed maturation of oil crops. Part I. Sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The variation of lipid constituents in maturing sunflower oil seeds has been investigated with the aim of determination of the proper harvesting time as well as the oil quality. Marked variations in fatty acid, sterol and tocopherol constituents of the oil were observed. Capillary gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were used in the analysis which enabled the determination of major as well as minor constituents in the oil. In addition, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used to confirm the structure of cycloartenol sterol. Postulations on the key compounds of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols were proposed in the frame of the main biosynthetic pathways. The proper harvesting time was found to be 118 days after plantation since the oil content was high and the constituents of the oil were balanced.

    Se ha investigado la variación de los constituyentes lipídicos en aceites de semillas de girasol en distintos estados de maduración, con el objetivo de determinar el tiempo de recolección apropiado así como la calidad del aceite. Se observaron variaciones apreciables en los ácidos grasos, esteroles y tocoferoles del aceite. La cromatografía gaseosa capilar y la cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia se usó en el análisis que permitió la determinación tanto de los componentes mayoritarios como minoritarios en el aceite. Además, se utilizó la cromatografía gaseosa acoplada a la espectrometría de masas para confirmar la estructura del esterol cicloartenol. Se han propuesto en el marco de la ruta biosintética principal postulados sobre los compuestos clave de ácidos grasos, esteroles y tocoferoles. Se encontró como tiempo de recolección apropiado el de 118 días después de la plantación, ya que el contenido de aceite fue elevado y los constituyentes fueron equilibrados.

  5. The Effects Of Fresh And Thermoxidized Palm Oil Diets On Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of fresh and thermoxidized palm oil diets on some haematalogical indices in the rat were investigated in albino rats (Wistar strain). The animals were divided into three groups namely, the first group fed on thermoxidized palm oil (TPO) diet, a second group fed on fresh palm oil (FPO) diet and a third fed on normal ...

  6. Characterization of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new line of seeds rich in phytosterols and conventional seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Marta R.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the chemical composition of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new seeds rich in phytosterols (IASP-18 and conventional seeds (HA-89. Results have shown that the total content of oil was much lower in the IASP-18 (18.1% than in the conventional (37.5% seeds. The extraction yield obtained by pressing was as low as 3% in the IASP-18 seeds and 37.5% in HA-89, while in the solvent extraction it was of the same order (~18 wt% on seeds extracted by pressing for the two types of seeds. No significant changes in the fatty acid composition were found between the oils extracted by the two procedures, but the pressed oils presented significantly lower acidity and larger content of the unsaponifiable fraction. Expressed as free sterols, the total sterols were 37–38% more concentrated in the oils extracted with solvent, reaching amounts of 13 700 and 6500 mg/kg in the IASP-18 and HA-89 oils, respectively. No substantial differences were found in the composition of total sterols analysed as free sterols between the oils extracted with the two procedures, but the contents of free sterols and sterol glycosides were much higher in the oils extracted with solvent.

  7. Renoprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisah, Yusof; Ang, Shu-Min; Othman, Faizah; Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2016-10-01

    Virgin coconut oil, rich in antioxidants, was shown to attenuate hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of virgin coconut oil on blood pressure and related parameters in kidneys in rats fed with 5-times-heated palm oil (5HPO). Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Two groups were fed 5HPO (15%) diet and the second group was also given virgin coconut oil (1.42 mL/kg, oral) daily for 16 weeks. The other 2 groups were given basal diet without (control) and with virgin coconut oil. Systolic blood pressure was measured pre- and post-treatment. After 16 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and kidneys were harvested. Dietary 5HPO increased blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and nitric oxide contents, but decreased heme oxygenase activity. Virgin coconut oil prevented increase in 5HPO-induced blood pressure and renal nitric oxide content as well as the decrease in renal heme oxygenase activity. The virgin coconut oil also reduced the elevation of renal TBARS induced by the heated oil. However, neither dietary 5HPO nor virgin coconut oil affected renal histomorphometry. In conclusion, virgin coconut oil has a potential to reduce the development of hypertension and renal injury induced by dietary heated oil, possibly via its antioxidant protective effects on the kidneys.

  8. Analysis of oil content in sunflower seeds with nuclear magnetic ressonance and `SOXHLET` methods; Determinacao do teor de oleo em sementes de girassol pelos metodos de ressonancia magnetica nuclear e soxhlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao de Oleaginosas; Toledo, Nilva Maria Prestes de [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao Tecnica Experimental e Calculo; Teixeira, Joao Paulo Feijao [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fitoquimica; Suassuna Filho, Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept.de Fisica

    1993-12-31

    Individual and group of seeds of some sunflower populations were utilized in order to evaluate the feasibility of oil content evaluations by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance method (NMR). Correlation analysis with the extractive method (Soxhlet) was performed. The results showed that: the oil in the seeds behaved like a liquid in the NMR analysis; there was a high and positive correlation (r = 0,93) between NMR and Soxhlet; there was no correlation between seed weight and oil content; the observed variability in oil content among seeds of a plant were higher than between plants of a population; these values indicate the importance of making individual analysis of oil content by the NMR method for the sunflower breeding for oil content. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Nutritional evaluation of Zambia indigenous soy bean (Glycine max) and sunflower (Helianthus annus) as protein sources in poultry and pigs diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aregheore, E M

    1998-10-01

    Two trials were carried out to compare the nutritional values of two Zambian indigenous plant protein sources--soy bean cake (SBC) and sunflower meal (SFM) in the diets of broilers and growing pigs. In trial 1, 120 one week old chickens (Abbor acre strain) were used. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between chickens on SBC and SFM in voluntary feed intake. Average daily gain of SBC chickens differed (P < 0.05) from those of SFM. The protein source had an effect (P < 0.05) on N retained [g/day]. Carcasses dry matter and crude protein were higher (P < 0.05) in SBC chickens, but ash, ether extract, Ca and P were the same as SFM. In trial 2, 12 Large white x Landrace growing barrows 1-2 months old were used. In this trial, SBC diet was consumed more than SFM. Pigs on SBC and SFM gained 0.526 and 0.284 g/head/day, respectively (P < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) in SBC diet. Trial 1, demonstrated that SBC and SFM could be used for broilers without adverse effect on growth rate and body conformation. However, for growing pigs SBC is a better protein source than SFM in the tropical environment of Zambia. Finally, results obtained seem to suggest that SBC and SFM can be used as plant protein sources, but SFM is not an ideal plant protein source for growing pigs.

  10. Utilization of sunflower seed in laying hen rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuzuki ET

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of sunflower seed inclusion (0, 1.4, 2.8, 4.2 and 5.6% in a laying hen diet containing corn, soybean meal, wheat meal and soybean oil as main ingredients on performance and egg quality. The evaluated variables were daily feed intake, average egg weight, feed conversion (kg.kg-1 and kg.dz-1, eggshell percentage, yolk color and Haugh unit. One hundred and sixty 25 week-old Lohmann laying hens were used in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications of eight birds per experimental unit. Four periods of 28 days were evaluated during 112 days. The inclusion of sunflower seed in the diet had no effect on production parameters during the experimental period. Thus, can be concluded that sunflower seed might be used at concentrations up to 5.6% in laying hen diets without affecting performance and egg quality.

  11. Significant effect of NSP-ase enzyme supplementation in sunflower meal-based diet on the growth and nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, M; Mirza, M A; Kaleem, M; Saeed, M; Reyad-Ul-Ferdous, Md; Abd El-Hack, M E

    2017-04-01

    The response of broiler chickens to 3 levels of sunflower meal and 2 levels of NSP-ase enzyme combination (with and without) was investigated in 3 × 2 factorial arrangement under complete randomized design (CRD). A total of 240 Hubbard broiler chicks were fed on practical mash diets having 2950 kcal of ME and 21% CP from 1 to 42 days of age. The BW gain was not significantly reduced when 25% SFM was added in the diets during 1 to 42 days of age. Supplementation of NSP-ase in broiler diets (day 1-42 overall) demonstrated non-significant differences (p Replacement of SBM with SFM or inclusion of SFM at higher level (25%) increased/deteriorated FCR. The addition of exogenous NSP-ase showed a significant improvement (p < 0.01) in feed:gain. The improvement was clearly demonstrated when SFM was added to the experimental diet at 15% or even 20%. Supplementation of NSP-ase at the 25% inclusion level could not, however, sustain the beneficial effect, which was possibly due to excessively high dietary CF. No difference was noted across the treatments regarding carcass response. Relative gizzard weight and intestinal weight were observed to be improved in birds consuming higher levels of SFM (p = 0.00). The digestibility of CF was observed to improve when SFM was used at 20% and 25% in the diets. No improvement in the digestibility of CF was observed with NSP-ase supplementation, which meant other factors were clearly involved. Supplementation of NSP-ase improved FCR up to 20% SFM. At 25% SFM, no improvement in the digestibility of CF was observed with NSP-ase supplementation. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  13. Speciation of Selenium in Selenium-Enriched Sunflower Oil by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry/Electrospray-Orbitrap Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierla, Katarzyna; Flis-Borsuk, Anna; Suchocki, Piotr; Szpunar, Joanna; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2016-06-22

    The reaction of sunflower oil with selenite produces a complex mixture of selenitriglycerides with antioxidant and anticancer properties. To obtain insight into the identity and characteristics of the species formed, an analytical approach based on the combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with (78)Se-specific selenium detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) and high-resolution (100 000), high mass accuracy (HPLC-ICP MS for the separation of a complex mixture of selenospecies and a mathematical correction of the background signal was developed. The identical chromatographic conditions served for the sample introduction into electrospray MS. Two types of samples were analyzed: sunflower oil dissolved in isopropanol and methanol extract of the oil containing 65% selenium. HPLC-ICP MS showed 14 peaks, 11 of which could also be detected in the methanol extract. Isotopic patterns corresponding to molecules with one or two selenium atoms could be attributed by Orbitrap MS at the retention times corresponding to the HPLC-ICP MS peak apexes. Structural data for these species were acquired by MS(2) and MS(3) fragmentation of protonated or sodiated ions using high-energy collisional dissociation (HCD). A total of 11 selenium-containing triglycerol derivatives resulting from the oxidation of one or two double bonds of linoleic acid and analogous derivatives of glycerol-mixed linoleate(s)/oleinate(s) have been identified for the first time. The presence of these species was confirmed by the targeted analysis in the total oil isopropanol solution. Their identification corroborated the predicted elution order in reversed-phase chromatography: LLL (glycerol trilinoleate), LLO (glycerol dilinoleate-oleinate), LOO (glycerol linoleate-dioleinate), OOO (glycerol trioleinate), of which the extrapolation allowed for the prediction of the identity [glycerol dioleinate-stearate (OOS) and glycerol oleinate-distearate (OSS)] of the

  14. Agronomic characteristic of a dwarf germplasm sunflower line

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana; Tcekova Zoja

    2005-01-01

    A new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) dwarf line, HA-ARG-1, has been developed after interspecific hybridization between cultivated sunflower H. annuus and wild annual silver-leaf sunflower H. argophyllus. Plants were selected for reduced height and multiple branching characteristics. The agronomic, morphologic and oil content characteristics of the line were analyzed. Isolation of similar dwarfed lines illustrates the importance of using the wild sunflower germplasms in the development of sp...

  15. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids based on the bio-refinery concept using sunflower oil as an alternative solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne Sylvie; Tomao, Valérie; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    A green, inexpensive and easy-to-use method for carotenoids extraction from fresh carrots assisted by ultrasound was designed in this work. Sunflower oil was applied as a substitute to organic solvents in this green ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE): a process which is in line with green extraction and bio-refinery concepts. The processing procedure of this original UAE was first compared with conventional solvent extraction (CSE) using hexane as solvent. Moreover, the UAE optimal conditions for the subsequent comparison were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and ultra performance liquid chromatography--diode array detector--mass spectroscopy (UPLC-DAD-MS). The results showed that the UAE using sunflower as solvent has obtained its highest β-carotene yield (334.75 mg/l) in 20 min only, while CSE using hexane as solvent obtained a similar yield (321.35 mg/l) in 60 min. The green UAE performed under optimal extraction conditions (carrot to oil ratio of 2:10, ultrasonic intensity of 22.5 W cm(-2), temperature of 40 °C and sonication time of 20 min) gave the best yield of β-carotene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Incorporation of Sunflower Oil and d-alpha-tocopherol Effect on Mechanical Properties and Permeability of Corn Starch Composite Edible Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramono Putro Utomo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work sunflower oil (SO and vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol at three levels each (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15% (w/vtotal and (0.18%, 0.36% and 0.54% (w/vtotal were incorporated into corn starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapour transmission rate (WVTR properties. The addition of SO and vitamin E increased elongation at break of starch-based film while decreased tensile strength and WVTR of starch-based film. The best edible film obtained on addition of sunflower oil concentration of 0.15% and 0.54%, vitamin E with a value of 0.121 mm thickness, tensile strength of 65.38 kg/cm2, elongation at break 14.17% and WVTR 1144 g/m2 24 hours.

  17. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, T. P. V. B.; Mielke Neto, P.; Ansolin, M.; Follegatti-Romero, L. A.; Batista, E. A. C.; Meirelles, A. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements...

  18. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    T. P. V. B. Dias; P. Mielke Neto; L. A. Follegatti-Romero; E. A. C. Batista; A. J. A. Meirelles

    2015-01-01

    AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements ...

  19. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.: stabilization of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal, Shahid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93 was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol. The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis. The stabilized (treated with extract and the control (without extract addition SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60ºC for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation.El potencial antioxidante de extractos de metanol al 100% y el 80% de semillas de tres variedades de cebada (Jou 83, Jou 87 y Haider 93 fue evaluada. El rendimiento de los extractos de las semillas de cebada vario desde un 3.23% (Haider, 100% methanol a un 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% metanol. El contenido total de fenoles, la actividad atrapadora del radical DPPH (valores IC50 y la inhibición de la oxidación del ácido linoleico de los extractos de semilla de cebada (BSE fueron 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL y 62.6- 74.6%, respectivamente. La efectividad antioxidante de BSE fue tambi

  20. Fresh and matured lamb meat quality fed with sunflower seeds and vitamin E

    OpenAIRE

    Sales,Ronaldo Oliveira; Silva Sobrinho,Américo Garcia da; Zeola,Nivea Maria Brancacci Lopes; Lima,Natália Ludmila Lins; Manzi,Gabriela Milani; Almeida,Fabiana Alves de; Endo,Viviane

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate meat quality from Ile de France lamb fed diets supplemented with sunflower seeds and vitamin E. Thirty-two lamb weighing initially 15kg were housed in individual stalls and slaughtered when body weight reached 32kg. The treatments consisted of four experimental diets: D1) sugarcane + concentrate without sunflower seeds; D2) sugarcane + concentrate with sunflower seeds; D3) sugarcane + concentrate without sunflower seeds plus 1000mg vitamin E kg-1 diet...

  1. Fatty acid composition of soybean/sunflower mix oil, fish oil and butterfat applying the AOCS Ce 1j-07 method with a modified temperature program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson, L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC methods such as AOAC Fat in foods 966.06 (2005, AOCS Official Methods Ce 1h-05 (2005, Ce 1j-07 (2007, allow for analyzing the fatty acids (FAs in dietary fats using highly polar liquid phase capillary columns. However, there are still difficulties in completely separating butiric acid from solvent, FA critical pairs with similar polarity, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers, and long chainpolyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs. Therefore, the selection of the temperature program to be employed is important. This work aimed to improve the AOCS Ce 1j-07 Method for the FA composition of a mixture of soybean and sunflower oil, fish oil, and butterfat, using a modified temperature program, tested among five laboratories. It takes more time, but it allows to completely separate butyric acid from the solvent, trans-18:1 from cis-18:1, 20:1 isomers from 18:3 n-3, 22:1 n-9 from 20:4 n-6, 20:5 n-3 from 24:0 and the main CLA isomers, thus permitting FA quantification in fats and oils for different purposes such as nutritional labeling, quality control and research.Métodos por cromatografía gas-líquido, AOAC 966.06 (2005, AOCS Ce 1h-05 (2005, Ce 1j-07 (2007 permiten determinar ácidos grasos (AG en matrices grasas usando columnas capilares altamente polares y distintos programas de temperatura. No obstante, aún existen dificultades para separar ácido butírico del solvente, pares críticos de AG con polaridades similares, isómeros del ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA, AG de cadena larga poliinsaturados (LC-PUFAs. El objetivo fue mejorar el Método AOCS Ce 1j-07 aplicándolo a la composición en AG de mezcla de aceite soja/girasol, aceite de pescado, mantequilla, usando un programa de temperatura modificado, entre cinco laboratorios. El programa de temperatura elegido, si bien emplea más tiempo, permite separar completamente ácido butírico del solvente, trans-18:1 de cis-18:1, isómeros 20:1 de 18:3 n-3, 22:1 n-9 de 20:4 n-6

  2. Modulating the properties of sunflower oil based novel emulgels using castor oil fatty acid ester: prospects for topical antimicrobial drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, B; Biswal, D; Uvanesh, K; Srivastava, A K; Bhattacharya, Mrinal K; Paramanik, K; Pal, K

    2015-04-01

    The current study describes the effect of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) on the properties of sunflower oil and span-40 based emulgels. The prepared emulgels contained PGPR in varied concentrations. The microstructure of the emulgels was characterized by bright-field microscopy. The molecular interactions amongst the components of the emulgels were studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The flow and mechanical behaviors of the emulgels were studied using cone-and-plate viscometer and static mechanical tester, respectively. The efficiency of the metronidazole-loaded emulgels as antimicrobial formulations was tested in vitro. E. coli was used as the model microorganism for the antimicrobial study. The emulgels were also explored for iontophoretic delivery applications. The biocompatibility of the emulgels was tested using human keratinocytes (HaCaT). The microscopic evaluation of the emulgels indicated formation of biphasic formulations. FTIR studies suggested a decrease in the hydrogen bonding amongst the components of the emulgels as the concentration of the PGPR was increased. Viscosity studies indicated shear-thinning property of the emulgels. An increase in the PGPR concentration resulted in the reduction in the mechanical properties of the emulgels. Incorporation of PGPR resulted in the decrease in the drug released (both passive and iontophoresis) from the emulgels. The emulgels were found to be cytocompatible in the presence of keratinocytes. The drug loaded emulgels showed good antimicrobial activity against E. coli. In gist, the developed emulgels can be tried for controlled delivery of antimicrobial drugs. The physical and the release properties of the emulgels can be modulated by incorporating PGPR in varied proportions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Soybean and sunflower oil-induced insulin resistance correlates with impaired GLUT4 protein expression and translocation specifically in white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Ana Cláudia; Anhê, Gabriel Forato; Eichler, Paula; Takahashi, Hilton Kenji; Furuya, Daniela Tomie; Okamoto, Maristela Mitiko; Curi, Rui; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres

    2010-03-01

    Free fatty acids are known for playing a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance. High fat intake is known for impairing insulin sensitivity; however, the effect of vegetable-oil injections have never been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of daily subcutaneous injections (100 microL) of soybean (SB) and sunflower (SF) oils, during 7 days. Both treated groups developed insulin resistance as assessed by insulin tolerance test. The mechanism underlying the SB- and SF-induced insulin resistance was shown to involve GLUT4. In SB- and SF-treated animals, the GLUT4 protein expression was reduced approximately 20% and 10 min after an acute in vivo stimulus with insulin, the plasma membrane GLUT4 content was approximately 60% lower in white adipose tissue (WAT). No effects were observed in skeletal muscle. Additionally, both oil treatments increased mainly the content of palmitic acid ( approximately 150%) in WAT, which can contribute to explain the GLUT4 regulations. Altogether, the present study collects evidence that those oil treatments might generate insulin resistance by targeting GLUT4 expression and translocation specifically in WAT. These alterations are likely to be caused due to the specific local increase in saturated fatty acids that occurred as a consequence of oil daily injections. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Fate of 14C-Chlorpyrifos Insecticide in Sunflower Seeds and Oil and the Effect of Processing According to Industrial Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Gawad, H.; Khatab, M.S.; Hegazi, B.

    2007-01-01

    Ethyl -1- 14 C-chlorpyrifos and some of its degradation products have been prepared for the present investigation. Sunflower plants were treated with 14 C-chlorpyrifos under conditions simulating local agricultural practice. 14 C-residue in seeds were determined at different time intervals. At harvest time about 8 % of 14 C-activity was associated with oil. The methanol soluble 14 C-residues accounted for 0.8 % of the total seed residues, while the cake contained about 80 % of the total residues. About 46 % of the 14 C-activity in the crude oil could be eliminated by simulated commercial processes locally used for oil refining. The refined oil had a 14 C- residue level of about 21 ppm. Chromatographic analysis of crude and refined oil revealed the presence of the parent compound together with three metabolites which were identified as chlorpyrifos oxon, desethyl chlorpyrifos, and desethyl chlorpyrifos oxon in addition to an unknown compound. Methanol extract of the cake revealed the presence of the parent compound and its oxon as free compounds. Acid hydrolysis of the conjugated metabolites in the methanol extract yielded desethyl chlorpyrifos and 3, 5, 6- trichloro-2-hydroxypyridine

  5. Mechanochemical synthesis of CaO•ZnO.K2CO3 catalyst: Characterization and activity for methanolysis of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesić Željka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to prepare CaO.ZnO catalyst which contain small amount of K2CO3 and analyze its activity for biodiesel synthesis. Catalyst was prepared using the following procedure: CaO and ZnO (molar ratio of 1:2, water and K2CO3 (in various amounts were mechanochemically treated and after milling heated at 700 oC in air atmosphere for obtaining mixed CaO•ZnO/xK2CO3 oxides (x = 0, 1, 2 and 4; mole of K2CO3 per 10 mole of CaO. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma (ICP, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS, particle size laser diffraction (PSLD distribution, solubility measurement of Ca, Zn and K ions in methanol as well as by determination of their alkalinity (Hammett indicator method. Prepared CaO•ZnO/xK2CO3 composite powders were tested as catalysts for methanolysis of sunflower oil at 70ºC using molar ratio of sunflower oil to methanol of 1:10 and with 2 mas% of catalyst based on oil weight. The presence of K2CO3 in prepared samples was found to increase the activity of catalyst, and that such effect is caused by homogeneous-heterogeneous catalysis of biodiesel synthesis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45001

  6. Improvement of sunflower for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijanović Dijana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing sunflower (Heliianthus annuus L for consumption is becoming more and more attractive in the whole world and in our country, as well. The consumption of this product has been considerably increased because it is being used more and more in various forms: sunflower seed in a hull, hulled kernels fried or non-fried, salted or non-salted with addition of various spices. The sunflower kernel is used for preparing over 100 different food products: special types of bread, cakes, ice-cream, chocolate. In accordance with the trade demands, the aims of sunflower seeds for consumption improvement are: high productivity, greater content of proteins, lesser content of oil, oncreased mass of 1000 seeds, lesser portion of the hull easy nibbling, as well as tolerance to dominant diseases in the growing region. In the Agricultural and Technological Research Center in Zajecar, 4 genotypes of protein sunflower (two cultivars and two hybrids have been created so far. This study shows the results achieved in increasing the content of protein, the mass of 1000 seeds, decreasing the content of oil and hull of the new 90 hybrid combination. The hybrid combinations were obtained by crossing of the CMS and restorer lines.

  7. Effect of baking of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and frying of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) in olive and sunflower oil on their quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, Anastasios; Kotaras, Akylas; Mikras, Emmanouil

    2013-02-01

    Quality changes due to oven-baking of sardine for 20, 40, 50 and 60 min and due to deep frying of anchovy for 2, 3, 4 and 5 min in olive and sunflower oil were studied. Linear increase in total losses with the time of processing was observed. A linear inverse relationship was observed between moisture/lipid and moisture/protein due to time of baking of sardines and time of frying of anchovies (wet matter). However, no changes were detected in sardine samples due to time of baking (dry matter), while a reduction in proteins and ash followed by an increase in lipids was detected in fried anchovies due to time of frying (dry matter). The fatty acid profiles indicated that a rich in EPA + DHA (33.16%) and in ω-3/ω-6 ratio (9.40) baked sardines can be produced in 20 min at 200 °C. The fatty acid profiles of fried anchovies tremendously changed, indicating entirely different products. Olive oil is probably a better medium to fry fish products, since either the two beneficial fatty acids (EPA and DHA) detected at higher concentrations in anchovies fried in olive oil or the ω-3/ω-6 ratio remained at higher values (0.71-2.56). An increase of cholesterol and squalene content with increasing the time of baking was detected in sardine samples, probably due to decline of moisture content. On the contrary, cholesterol significantly reduced due to frying of anchovy in olive oil. Simultaneously squalene concentration significantly and linearly increased, from 3.87 mg/100 g in the unprocessed anchovies to 73.25 mg/100 g in the samples fried for 5 min, indicating its existence at beneficial levels, besides low cholesterol concentration detected in fried olive oil and squalene concentration gradually and linearly decreased, confirming the absorption from the anchovy samples. Similar was the changes of cholesterol and squalene in anchovies samples fried in sunflower oil.

  8. Proteomics identifies molecular networks affected by tetradecylthioacetic acid and fish oil supplemented diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; León, Ileana R.; Kulej, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    - high fat diet that is thought to contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome - a condition that is strongly associated with diabetes, obesity and heart failure. Fish oil and TTA are known to have beneficial effects for the fatty acid metabolism and have been shown to alleviate some...... expression in a long-term study (50weeks) in male Wistar rats fed 5 different diets. The diets were as follows: low fat diet; high fat diet; and three diets that combined high fat diet with fish oil, TTA or combination of those two as food supplements. We used two different proteomics techniques: a protein...... antioxidant properties of TTA. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study for the first time explores the effect of fish oil and TTA - tetradecyl-thioacetic acid and the combination of those two as diet supplements on mitochondria metabolism in a comprehensive and systematic manner. We show that fish oil and TTA...

  9. The effects of oil palm leaf meal-based diets on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... diets on the growth performance and haematological indices of red Sokoto goats. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... indices of Red Sokoto goats placed on oil palm leaf meal (OPLM)-wheat offal based diet.

  10. Preliminary use of cashew kernel oil in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings diet: comparison with fish oil and palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Paul Magouana Anvo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was performed to investigate the effect of fish oil (FO, palm oil (PO, and cashew kernel oil (CKO as the dietary lipid sources on the growth performance, tissues fatty acids composition and economical profitability in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Three isonitrogenous (49.32%, isolipidic (15.18%, and isoenergetic (21 kJ/g diets were formulated, differed only to the added lipid source and coded accordingly as D1 (fish oil, D2 (palm oil, and D3 (cashew kernel oil. Catfish fingerlings (initial body weight = 2.43 ± 0.04 g were stocked at 1 fish/L and fed to trial diets at 5.6%. At the end of 8 weeks, C. gariepinus fingerlings fed with D1 and D3 had significantly identical growth and feed utilization efficiency. Those fed with D2 exhibited significantly and numerically low growth performance compared, respectively, to D1 and D3. Contrary to whole-body composition of fish, the muscle lipids fatty acids composition was influenced by the fatty acids profile of the dietary lipid sources. High net profit value (NPV of 24.59$, high investment cost analysis (ICA of 10.14$ and low benefit: cost ratio (BCR of 2.42 were observed in fish fed with D1 while those fed with D3 allowed to have high NPV (23.15$, low ICA (7.86$ and high BCR (2.95. Like others vegetable oils, cashew kernel oil can replace expensive fish oil in C. gariepinus fingerlings diet without negatively affecting its growth performances.

  11. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro-Xavier RA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Araujo Navarro-Xavier,1 Karina Vieira de Barros,1 Iracema Senna de Andrade,1 Zaira Palomino,2 Dulce Elena Casarini,2 Vera Lucia Flor Silveira3 1Departamento de Fisiologia, 2Departamento de Medicina, 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6 or fish oil (rich in n-3 in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5 and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL or lungs. Methods: Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results: Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion: Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. Keywords: asthma, nitric oxide, n-6 fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, cytokines

  12. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes) by-products with sunflower oil using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Santos, Luis Eduardo; Pinzón-Zarate, Lina Ximena; González-Salcedo, Luis Octavio

    2015-11-01

    The present study reports on the extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit by-products with sunflower oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Three independent variables including ultrasonic intensity (764-1528, W/m(2)), temperature (25-45°C), and the extraction time (10-30 min). According to the results, the optimal UAE condition was obtained with an ultrasonic intensity of 1528 W/m(2), extraction temperature of 35°C and extraction time of 30 min. At these conditions, extraction maximum extraction of total carotenoids as 163.47 mg/100 g dried peel. The experimental values under optimal condition were in good consistent with the predicted values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Remediation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contaminated site by successive methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and sunflower oil enhanced soil washing - Portulaca oleracea L. cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Hu, Feng; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Jiang, Xin; Luo, Yongming; Yang, Xinlun

    2014-06-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed in this study to remediate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)-contaminated site. Elevated temperature (50 °C) combined with ultrasonication (35 kHz, 30 min) at 25 g L(-1) methyl-β-cyclodextrin and 100 mL L(-1) sunflower oil were effective in extracting OCPs from the soil. After four successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency for total OCPs, DDTs, endosulfans, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexanes, heptachlors, and chlordanes were all about 99%. The 4th washed soil with 3 months cultivation of Portulaca oleracea L. and nutrient addition significantly increase (p<0.05) the number, biomass carbon, nitrogen, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms. This implied that the microbiological functioning of the soil was at least partially restored. This combined cleanup strategy proved to be effective and environmental friendly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to the study of the modification of epoxidized sunflower oil by acrylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinislimane, Ratiba; Belhaneche-Bensemra, Naima

    2012-12-01

    Commercial sunflower oil was epoxidized at the laboratory-scale. The epoxidized sunflower oil (ESFO) was modified following the acrylation reaction. Modification was carried out simultaneously using acrylic acid (AA) and triethylamine (TEA). To optimize the reaction conditions, the effects of four temperatures (40, 60, 80, and 100 °C), the ESFO:AA (100:100) ratio, and 0.2% TEA were investigated. The rate of conversion was analyzed with both FT-IR and titration of the oxirane ring. After that, the temperature with the highest conversion was selected and used throughout for all modification reactions. Then, four ratios (100:100, 100:90, 100:80, and 100:75) of ESFO:AA were analyzed at four different concentrations of TEA (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5%) to determine the best estimate for both the ESFO:AA ratio and the catalyst concentration. Conversion rate was analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy by measuring the concentrations of ester, carbonyl, and alcohol groups. Moreover, oxirane-ring concentration was estimated using the titration method (with gentian violet as indicator) and FT-IR spectroscopy (epoxy ring absorptions at 1270 cm(-1) and 877 cm(-1)). Based on conversion yield, the optimum ESFO:AA ratio corresponds to 100:80; the best temperature reaction was at 60 °C, and the best TEA concentration was 0.2%. The critical amounts of reactants needed to reach maximum conversion were established. The final acid value of the acrylated ESFO after washing (pH = 7) was 2.1 mg potassium hydroxide (KOH)·g(-1). All results show that FT-IR spectroscopy is a simple, low-cost, rapid method for investigating the kinetics of a reaction.

  15. The effect of the soil pH on 134Cs transfer factors for soybean and sunflower plants; 134Cs fate in the extracted seed-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massas, I.; Skarlou, C.; Anoussis, J.; Haidouti, C.; Arapis, G.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of soil pH on 134 Cs TFs as well as the fate of 134 Cs in the extracted oil was studied in a greenhouse experiment with soybean and sunflower plants. A soil with pH 4.2 was used as a basis and its pH value has increased to 5.7, 6.5 and 7.6 (by the addition of different amounts of Ca(OH) 2 ). The lowest TF value was observed in the calcareous soil (pH 7.6), while the highest in the lowest pH (4.2) for the vegetative part and in the pH 6.5 for the edible part for both studied plants. TFs were practically the same for soya plants grown on the three lowest soil pH and reduced significantly only at pH 7.6 for either pods or other plant material. However, the lowest/highest TF was ∼ 4 for pods and ∼ 6 for the other plant material. For the sunflower plants while TFs for other plant material reduced from lowest to highest soil pH by only a factor of 2, for the seeds TFs remained rather constant. The difference in TF between the two studied species in each soil pH was in some cases higher than the difference due to pH effect. When an oil fraction (∼ 20 %) was extracted from seeds of both plants, no 134 Cs was detected. Refs. 4 (author)

  16. Modeling and optimization of sunflower oil methanolysis over quicklime bits in a packed bed tubular reactor using the response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miladinović, Marija R.; Stamenković, Olivera S.; Banković, Predrag T.; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra D.; Jovanović, Dušan M.; Veljković, Vlada B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sunflower oil methanolysis in a continuous packed bed reactor was optimized. • Thermally-activated, low-cost quicklime bits were used as a catalyst. • Process was optimized by 3"3 full factorial design and Box-Behnken design. • Box-Behnken design is recommended for optimizing biodiesel production processes. • FAME content in the ester phase obtained under the optimum conditions was >98%. - Abstract: The effect of the residence time (i.e. liquid flow rate through the reactor), methanol-to-oil molar ratio and reaction temperature on the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content at the output of a continuous packed bed tubular reactor was modeled by the response surface methodology (RSM) combined with the 3"3 full factorial design (FFD) with replication or the Box-Behnken design (BBD) with five center points. The methanolysis of sunflower oil was carried out at the residence time of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h, the methanol-to-oil molar ratios of 6:1, 12:1 and 18:1 and the reaction temperature of 40, 50 and 60 °C under the atmospheric pressure. Based on the used experimental designs, the model equations containing only linear and two-factor interaction terms were developed for predicting the FAME content, which were validated through the use of the unseen data. Applying the analysis of variance (ANOVA), all three factors were shown to have a significant influence on the FAME content. Acceptable statistical predictability and accuracy resulted from both designs since the values of the coefficient of determination were close to unity while the values of the mean relative percentage deviation were relatively low (<±10%). In addition, both designs predicted the maximum FAME content of above 99%, which agreed closely with the actual FAME content (98.8%). The same optimal reaction temperature (60 °C) and residence time (2.0 h) were determined by both designs while the BBD model suggested a slightly lower methanol-to-oil molar ratio (12.2:1) than the 3"3 FFD

  17. Sunflower disease and insect pests in Pakistan: A review | Mukhtar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sun flower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important oil seed crops and potentially fit in agricultural system and oil production sector of Pakistan. Various diseases, insects and nematodes attack damage the sunflower crop, results a wide range of loss in production and yield. Sunflower is susceptible to diseases of ...

  18. Effects of the Soil Incorporation of Increasing Amounts of Non-Fermented Wet Pomace on the Oil Yield and Acid Profile of Sunflower Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural use of olive processing waste is a strategic resource in the integrated management of the agricultural system as it satisfies the two objectives of evacuating the olive-processing residue and using it beneficially for agricultural purposes. For such aims, a research was conducted in Bari (South of Italy to study the effects of the incorporation into the soil of increasing amounts of non-fermented wet pomace (WP (0, 17.5, 35, 70, 105, 140, 175, 210 Mg ha-1 on the oil yield and acid profile of sunflower seeds. The results obtained point out that the seed yield was negatively affected by the application of WP starting from 70 Mg ha-1; an opposite trend was observed for the seed oil yield. The incorporation of WP has also affected the oil fatty acids’ composition. Oleic and linoleic acids, the principal fatty acids (beyond 90% of total fatty acids, showed significant variations: from the control treatment to the one receiving the maximum application of waste, oleic acid decreased (-5.4%, linoleic acid increased (+ 6.6%, and the saturated fatty acids fraction decreased (-7.6%.

  19. Production, characterization and anticancer activity of Candida bombicola sophorolipids by means of solid state fermentation of sunflower oil cake and soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad, M. M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola NRRL Y- 17069 grown in a mixture of sunflower oil cake and crude soybean oil as economic substrates with different fermentation techniques was studied. The highest yield (49.5 g·100 g−1 substrates was obtained from solid state fermentation after employing a new concept for extraction by methanol (E I followed by ethyl acetate (E II, then partially purified with hexane (E III. The course of time of fermentation was also studied, and E I extracted of the 12th day showed the minimum surface tension (45 mN·m−1 at a critical micelle dilution (CMD of 10% concentration. The produced sophorolipids were characterized and confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The anticancer activity of the produced compounds was assessed against MCF-7, HepG2, A549, HCT116 cancer cell lines and the results revealed that E III and E IV (a mixture of E I & E III act as promising anticancer agents in HepG2 and A549 by inhibiting urokinase and histone deacetylase activities.Se estudió la producción de soforolípidos por Candida bombicola NRRL Y- 17069 cultiva con diferentes técnicas de fermentación en una mezcla de torta de girasol y aceite de soja crudo, como sustratos económicos. El rendimiento más alto (49,5 g·100 g−1 de sustrato se obtuvo por fermentación en estado sólido después de extraer con metanol (IE seguido de acetato de etilo (EII, y de purificación parcial con hexano (EIII. También se estudió el tiempo de fermentación, considerando que el extracto IE de 12 días mostró una tensión superficial mínima (45 mN·m−1 a una dilución micelar crítica (CMD de concentración 10 %. Los soforolípidos producidos se caracterizaron y se confirmaron mediante espectroscopia FTIR y RMN de 1H. La actividad anticancerígena de los compuestos producidos se evaluó en células MCF-7, HepG2, A549, líneas celulares de cáncer de HCT116 y los resultados revelaron que EIII y EIV (una mezcla de EI y EIII

  20. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  1. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease or the basal diet, with all other diets being intermediate. The ATTD of Ca, S, and P was greater ( soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, or tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( oil, corn oil, or soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease, and the ATTD of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in the diet containing soybean oil was also greater ( oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that appears not to be the case if choice white grease is used. There was no evidence of negative effects of the fat sources used in this experiment on the ATTD of any minerals.

  2. Oxidative stability of refined olive and sunflower oils supplemented with lycopene-rich oleoresin from tomato peels industrial by-product, during accelerated shelf-life storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehili, Mouna; Choura, Sirine; Zammel, Ayachi; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami

    2018-04-25

    Tomato peels by-product from a Tunisian industry was used for the extraction of lycopene-rich oleoresin using hexane solvent maceration. Tomato peels oleoresin, TPO, exhibited competitive free radicals scavenging activity with synthetic antioxidants. The efficacy of TPO in stabilizing refined olive (ROO) and sunflower (RSO) oils was investigated for five months, under accelerated shelf-life, compared to the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). TPO was added to ROO and RSO at four different concentrations, namely 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/g and BHT standard at 200 µg/g. Lipid oxidation was tracked by measuring the peroxide value, acidity, conjugated dienes and trienes. Results suggested the highest efficiency of 250 µg/g and 2000 µg/g of TPO, referring to 5 µg/g and 40 µg/g of lycopene, for the oxidative stabilization of ROO and RSO, respectively. The protective effect of TPO against the primary oxidation of these refined oils was significantly correlated to their lycopene contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation, characterization, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of MgO-La2O3 nanocatalysts for biodiesel production from sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Nahid; Yaghobi, Nakisa; Ezzati, Rohollah

    2017-06-01

    A series of MgO-La2O3 nanocatalysts were prepared via a co-precipitation method and used for biodiesel production from sunflower oil. The results showed that with increasing Mg/La weight percent the catalytic activity increases obviously. Also the results showed that the catalyst with Mg/La = 60 wt.% (based on weight of La) is an optimal nanocatalyst. The best operational conditions were the CH3OH/oil = 18/1 at 338 K with mechanical stirring 700 rpm for 5 h. Furthermore, the optimal nanocatalyst showed high catalytic activity for biodiesel production and the biodiesel yield reached 97.7% under the optimal conditions. Furthermore, this nanocatalyst was used for 4 runs in biodiesel production without significant decrease of catalytic performance. Also kinetic and thermodynamic of reaction has been studied in the presence of optimal nanocatalyst. From the kinetic and thermodynamic studies, Ea = 77.6 kJ·mol-1, A = 3.5 × 107 l·mol-1 s-1, ΔrHθ = 162 kJ·mol-1 K-1, ΔrSθ = 0.54 kJ·mol-1 K-1 were obtained. Characterization of catalysts was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and N2 adsorption-desorption measurement methods.

  4. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  5. Avaliação nutricional e energética do farelo de girassol para aves Nutritional and energetic evaluation of sunflower meal in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Tavernari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois ensaios de metabolismo a fim de determinar a energia metabolizável aparente (EMA, por meio do método de coleta total de excretas com frangos, e a energia metabolizável verdadeira (EMV e a digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos do farelo de girassol, por meio do método de alimentação forçada com galos cecectomizados. No primeiro ensaio, foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso com 80 frangos Cobb, distribuídos em dois tratamentos, ração referência (RR e RR mais 20% de inclusão de farelo de girassol e oito repetições e cinco aves por unidade experimental. No segundo ensaio, foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso com 14 galos Leghorn, distribuídos em dois tratamentos, farelo de girassol e jejum, sete repetições e um galo por unidade experimental. O farelo de girassol apresentou 90,0% de matéria seca, 28,1% de proteína bruta, 4.42kcal/kg de energia bruta, 22,4% de fibra bruta, 2,9% de extrato etéreo, 0,8% de fósforo e 0,3% de cálcio. A EMV, a EMV corrigida, a EMA e a EMA corrigida determinadas foram 3.013; 2.200; 2.141 e 1.983kcal/kg, respectivamente. A lisina foi o aminoácido essencial que apresentou a menor digestibilidade e a arginina, a maior.Two experiments were carried out to determine apparent metabolizable energy (AME, by the method of total excreta collection using broilers; and true metabolizable energy (TME and true amino acid digestibility of sunflower meal (SFM, by the method of forced feeding using cecectomized roosters. In the first experiment, a completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (reference diet (RD and RD plus 20% SFM inclusion with eight replicates of five birds each, was applied. In the second experiment, a completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (SFM vs. fasting with seven replicates of one rooster each, was used. Sunflower meal presented 90,0% dry matter, 28.1% crude protein, 4

  6. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, Irene O. C. M.; van Diepen, Janna A.; van den Berg, Sjoerd; Westbroek, Irene; Keizer, Hiskias; Gambelli, Luisa; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Zondag, Gerben C. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed oil (PUA) was fed for 12weeks to

  7. [Effects of different fertilization measures on N2O emission in oil sunflower field in irrigation area of upper Yellow River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Ji; Liu, Ru-liang; Yang, Zheng-li; Zhang, Ai-ping

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural soil has become the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N20). To estimate the impacts of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on N20 emission in a typical winter wheat-oil sunflower cropping system in the Ningxia irrigation area, we measured N20 fluxes using the static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method and monitored the seasonal dynamics of related factors. Our results showed that nitrogen addition in the previous crop field significantly stimulated N2O emissions during the following oil-sunflower cultivation, and the mean fluxes of N300-OM, N240-OM1/2, N300 and N240 were (34.16 ± 9.72), (39.69 ±10.70), (27.75 ±9.57) and (26.30 ± 8.52) µg . m-2 . h-1, respectively, which were 4.09, 4.75, 3.32 and 3.15 times of the control groups. The total cumulative N2O emissions of fertilizer treatments in growing season was as high as 796.7 to 1242.5 g . hm-2, which was 2.99 to 4.67 times of the control groups. During the growing season, the rates of N2O emission in each month organic and inorganic fertlizers combined treatments were similar at high levels. N2O emission in chemical fertilizer treatments gradually decreased, and the main period of N2O emission occurred at the beginning of growing season. Taking July for example, N2O emission accounted for 41.3% to 41. 8% of total cumulative amount. The amounts of N20 emission under organic and inorganic fertilizers combined treatments were significantly higher than under chemical fertilizer treatments. The N2O emissions were not significantly different between conventional and optimized applications of nitrogen fertilizer under the same fertilizing method, either between N300-OM and N240-OM1/2, or between N300 and N240. On account of the drought, N2O emission in each treatment was mainly affected by soil moisture. N2O emission had a significant positive correlation with soil ammonium nitrogen content under combined applications of organic and inorganic

  8. A butter diet induces higher levels of n-3 PUFA and of n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in rat serum and hearts than a safflower oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, K; Ozeki, Y; Nakano, T; Takezoe, R; Nakanishi, M; Asano, Y; Higuchi, H

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a 47-week diet of butter or safflower oil as fat in combination with casein or soy protein as protein were observed for the serum concentrations of lipids and fatty acid compositions in rat serum and heart. Serum total cholesterol (Chol) did not differ among the four experimental diet groups. In the butter groups, significantly higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-Chol and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-Chol were observed than in the safflower oil groups (psafflower oil groups (psafflower oil groups, the butter groups showed higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contents and lower n-6 PUFA contents in serum and the hearts (psafflower oil groups of under 0.01 in serum and 0.02 and 0.03 in the hearts (safflower oil-casein diet and safflower oil-soy protein diet, respectively) (psafflower oil diet in rat serum and hearts over a long feeding period.

  9. Van Gogh's Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein kindergarten students painted sunflowers. These beautiful and colorful sunflowers were inspired by the book "Camille and the Sunflowers" by Laurence Anholt, which does an amazing job of introducing young children to the art and life of Vincent van Gogh.

  10. SUNFLOWER SUPPLY INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gineo, Wayne M.; Sundquist, W. Burt

    1981-01-01

    This report is concerned with a discussion of the sunflower production sector. It summarizes and discusses the North American sunflower production sector in terms of area, acreage, total production, yields and prices. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of the potential level of sunflower production is made.

  11. Biocatalytic Behaviour of Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae Lipase in the 1,3-Selective Ethanolysis of Sunflower Oil to Obtain a Biofuel Similar to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new biofuel similar to biodiesel was obtained in the 1,3-selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol using as biocatalyst a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL immobilized on Sepiolite, an inorganic support. The studied lipase was a low cost powdered enzyme preparation, Biolipase-R, from Biocon-Spain, a multipurpose additive used in food industry. In this respect, it is developed a study to optimize the immobilization procedure of these lipases on Sepiolite. Covalent immobilization was achieved by the development of an inorganic-organic hybrid linker formed by a functionalized hydrocarbon chain with a pendant benzaldehyde, bonded to the AlPO4 support surface. Thus, the covalent immobilization of lipases on amorphous AlPO4/sepiolite (20/80 wt % support was evaluated by using two different linkers (p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and benzylamine-terephthalic aldehyde, respectively. Besides, the catalytic behavior of lipases after physical adsorption on the demineralized sepiolite  was also evaluated. Obtained results indicated that covalent immobilization with the p-hydroxybenzaldehyde linker gave the best biocatalytic behavior. Thus, this covalently immobilized lipase showed a remarkable stability as well as an excellent capacity of reutilization (more than five successive reuses without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. This could allow a more efficient fabrication of biodiesel minimizing the glycerol waste production.

  12. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayati, Talib M.; Doyle, Aidan M.

    2015-02-01

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption-desorption porosimetry (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96-99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  13. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayati, Talib M., E-mail: talib-albyati@yahoo.com [University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Iraq); Doyle, Aidan M., E-mail: a.m.doyle@mmu.ac.uk [Manchester Metropolitan University, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption–desorption porosimetry (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96–99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  14. Fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat cooked sausages made with beef and chicken meat, tomato juice and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Í; Simşek, O; Işıklı, M

    2002-10-01

    Low-fat (5.9-10.3% fat) cooked sausages were produced with seven different formulations. Sausages produced with total replacement of fat with sunflower oil had significantly lower oleic acid (C18:1) and higher linoleic (C18:2) and behenic (C22:0) fatty acid contents. Their ratio of TUFA/TS was 3.65 compared to 0.95-1.14 for the other sausages. Also these sausages had the lowest moisture content, highest overall palatability and were less firm. Sausages with tomato juice had the lowest pH value, total aerobic count and nitrite content, but were firmer. Sausages produced with reduced beef contents had lower fat contents, lower stearic (C18:0) and higher oleic (C18:1) fatty acid contents than sausages of high beef content, their texture was very soft and had the lowest score for juiciness. Finally the sausages with chicken meat had the lowest fat and highest salt contents, and lower stearic (C18:0) and higher linoleic (C18:3) fatty acid contents than those made with beef . Also their colour was lighter, less red and more yellow and they had the lowest flavor intensity and overall acceptability.

  15. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albayati, Talib M.; Doyle, Aidan M.

    2015-01-01

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption–desorption porosimetry (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96–99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction

  16. Phytobenthos and phytoplankton community changes upon exposure to a sunflower oil spill in a South African protected freshwater wetland

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available a large area will hamper its recovery (Groenewold 1982). Since 70 vegetable oils and animal fats usually have few volatile fractions, and therefore 71 usually do not decrease in volume through evaporation as do many of the lighter 72 factions... of petroleum oils, most of the quantity of spilled vegetable oil and animal fats 73 remain in the environment (Rigger 1997). When this happens, there is a potential for 74 adverse impacts to environmentally sensitive areas. Factors that affect the 75...

  17. Desempenho e características de carcaça de cordeiros alimentados em comedouros privativos recebendo rações contendo semente de girassol Performance and carcass traits of lambs fed diets containing sunflower seed in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paulo Macedo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho e as características quali e quantitativas da carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com ração contendo semente de girassol. Utilizaram-se 16 cordeiros distribuídos aleatoriamente em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0,00; 6,60; 13,20 ou 19,80% de semente de girassol na matéria natural, cada um com quatro repetições, totalizando 16 cordeiros. As dietas continham 2,65; 2,78; 2,89 e 2,93 Mcal/kg de energia metabolizável e 18,38; 18,75; 19,98 e 21,18% de proteína bruta, respectivamente, e foi fornecida ad libitum. Os cordeiros foram pesados a cada 14 dias e mantidos com as ovelhas até atingirem 28 kg, quando foram abatidos, após jejum de sólidos por 18 horas, para obtenção do peso vivo ao abate e registro do peso da carcaça quente e do conteúdo gastrintestinal, utilizados no cálculo do peso de corpo vazio. As carcaças foram mantidas por 24 horas em câmara frigorífica em temperatura de 5ºC para obtenção do peso de carcaça fria. Os níveis de semente de girassol na dieta não afetaram as características de desempenho dos cordeiros. No entanto, os pesos de carcaça quente e de carcaça fria; os pesos de pescoço, baixo, paleta, costela descoberta, costela, lombo; e os rendimentos comerciais de carcaça e costela descoberta, costela, lombo, paleta, pescoço e baixo sofreram efeito da adição da semente de girassol. O fornecimento de semente de girassol na dieta não influencia as características qualitativas e morfométricas da carcaça de cordeiros.Performance and quantitative and qualitative carcass traits of lambs fed with diets containing sunflower seed were evaluated. Sixteen lambs were randomly distributed to a completely randomized design with four diets (0.00, 6.60, 13.20 or 19.80% of sunflower seed, % as fed, with 4 replications. The diets contained 2.65, 2.78, 2.89 and 2.93 Mcal / kg of metabolize energy and 18.38, 18.75, 19.98 and 21.18% crude protein

  18. Ozone-Induced Vascular Contractility and Pulmonary Injury Are Differentially Impacted by Diets Enriched With Coconut Oil, Fish Oil, and Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Samantha J; Cheng, Wan-Yun; Henriquez, Andres; Hodge, Myles; Bass, Virgina; Nelson, Gail M; Carswell, Gleta; Richards, Judy E; Schladweiler, Mette C; Ledbetter, Allen D; Chorley, Brian; Gowdy, Kymberly M; Tong, Haiyan; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2018-05-01

    Fish, olive, and coconut oil dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if they protect against air pollution-induced adverse effects. We hypothesized that these dietary supplements would attenuate ozone-induced systemic and pulmonary effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet, or a diet supplemented with fish, olive, or coconut oil for 8 weeks. Animals were then exposed to air or ozone (0.8 ppm), 4 h/day for 2 days. Ozone exposure increased phenylephrine-induced aortic vasocontraction, which was completely abolished in rats fed the fish oil diet. Despite this cardioprotective effect, the fish oil diet increased baseline levels of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) markers of lung injury and inflammation. Ozone-induced pulmonary injury/inflammation were comparable in rats on normal, coconut oil, and olive oil diets with altered expression of markers in animals fed the fish oil diet. Fish oil, regardless of exposure, led to enlarged, foamy macrophages in the BALF that coincided with decreased pulmonary mRNA expression of cholesterol transporters, cholesterol receptors, and nuclear receptors. Serum microRNA profile was assessed and demonstrated marked depletion of a variety of microRNAs in animals fed the fish oil diet, several of which were of splenic origin. No ozone-specific changes were noted. Collectively, these data indicate that although fish oil offered vascular protection from ozone exposure, it increased pulmonary injury/inflammation and impaired lipid transport mechanisms resulting in foamy macrophage accumulation, demonstrating the need to be cognizant of potential off-target pulmonary effects that might offset the overall benefit of this vasoprotective supplement.

  19. Purified phenolics from hydrothermal treatments of biomass: ability to protect sunflower bulk oil and model food emulsions from oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Enma; Moure, Andrés; Domínguez, Herminia; Gordon, Michael H; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2011-09-14

    The phenolic fractions released during hydrothermal treatment of selected feedstocks (corn cobs, eucalypt wood chips, almond shells, chestnut burs, and white grape pomace) were selectively recovered by extraction with ethyl acetate and washed with ethanol/water solutions. The crude extracts were purified by a relatively simple adsorption technique using a commercial polymeric, nonionic resin. Utilization of 96% ethanol as eluting agent resulted in 47.0-72.6% phenolic desorption, yielding refined products containing 49-60% w/w phenolics (corresponding to 30-58% enrichment with respect to the crude extracts). The refined extracts produced from grape pomace and from chestnut burs were suitable for protecting bulk oil and oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions. A synergistic action with bovine serum albumin in the emulsions was observed.

  20. Variability in oil tocopherol concentration and composition of traditional and high oleic sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L. in the Pampean region (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo, Carmen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Tocopherols are natural antioxidants that increase the stability of food fat and fulfill an important biological requirement in humans. There are no previous studies on the variability of tocopherol concentration and composition in the oil of sunflower traditional hybrids (TH and high oleic sunflower hybrids (HOH from different environments in Argentina. The objective of this work was to detect and  examine that variability. Seed samples were obtained from i seven TH grown in four locations (Experiment I and, ii five hybrids (three HOH and two traditional ones grown in three locations (Experiment II. Concentrations of total tocopherol in oil ranged from 634 to 1054 μg g oil–1. α-tocopherol accounted for 90.8 to 97% of the total tocopherols. Total and α-tocopherol concentrations were highly genetically determined (more than 80%. In Experiment I, a significant, although low in value, interaction between hybrid and location was found for total and α-tocopherol concentrations. In Experiment II, mean values for total tocopherol concentration in HOH and in each environment were larger than in TH. Significant differences for total and α-tocopherol concentration were not found among HOH and environments. The variation of tocopherol concentration for each hybrid across environments was higher than the variation among hybrids in the same environment. To obtain oil with high tocopherol concentration, both hybrid and environment must be selected.Los tocoferoles son antioxidantes naturales que aumentan la estabilidad de los aceites y cumplen una importante actividad biológica en humanos. No son conocidos estudios sobre la variabilidad del contenido y composición de tocoferoles en el aceite de híbridos de girasol tradicionales (HT y “alto oleico” (HAO sembrados en diferentes ambientes en Argentina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar y examinar esa variabilidad. Las semillas fueron obtenidas de a 7 HT sembrados en 4 localidades

  1. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group, a diet with 35% fat (HF group, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group. The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  2. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  3. The growth performance of Jade Tiger cultured abalone fed diets supplemented with fish oil and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2013-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation and the dietary replacement of FO with flaxseed oil (FlaxO) and canola oil (CO) on the growth of cultured abalone was investigated. The study involved three growth experiments: (E1) diets containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO, respectively; (E2) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% FlaxO, respectively; and (E3) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% CO, respectively. In Experiment 1, abalone fed a diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed a significantly higher (121.2 ± 1.1 mg day(-1)) daily growth rate of weight (DGRw ) compared to control (70.1 ± 1.71 mg day(-1)). In Experiment 2, abalone fed 1.5% FO diet and diets containing 25-75% FlaxO showed no significant differences in DGRw. The diet containing 100% FlaxO showed significantly lower (63.3 ± 6.7 mg day(-1)) DGRw. In Experiment 3, abalone fed diets containing 25% and 50% CO showed similar DGRw as those fed a 1.5% FO diet. The diet containing 75% and 100% CO showed significantly lower (63.7 ± 5.0 to 95.4 ± 5.1 mg day(-1)) DGRw. Supplementation with 1.5% of dietary FO can improve growth performance in cultured abalone. It is feasible to replace 75% of dietary FO with FlaxO and 50% of dietary FO with CO, without negative effect on growth performance. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Sunflower seed: a potential source of food and feed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, T.; Ali, S.; Javed, M.A.; Javad, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical composition of seven varieties of sunflower seeds and seed fractions i.e., kernels, hulls and meals was determined. Sunflower meals (SFM) contained 44.00 to 49.52% crude protein, 1.25 to 1.50% fat, 3.43 to 6.75% crude fibre, 7.50 to 8.51% ash, 27.30 to 36.09% nitrogen free extract, 3.12 to 3.51% phytic acid and 2.45 to 3.01% chlorogenic acid. Fatty acid profile of sunflower oil with respect to other vegetable oils (i.e., soybean, mustard, canola, cotton, corn oils) and protein solubility profile of sunflower meal as compared to soybean and mustard meals, indicate that its oil and meal have a great nutritional potential. (author)

  5. A comparison of the European renewable energy directive default emission values with actual values from operating biodiesel facilities for sunflower, rape and soya oil seeds in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, C.; Barbanera, M.; Fantozzi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The European Union (EU) set a binding greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target for transportation biofuels and other bioliquids. In this study, the GHG emissions of biodiesel chain from sunflower, rapeseed and soybean were calculated in compliance with the European Union Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED). Input data used for the agricultural step were referred to the Umbrian region for sunflower and rapeseed and to the Veneto region for soybean, while data obtained from the main Italian biodiesel plants were employed for the processing step. Results showed that GHG emissions were higher than default values reported in the RED for sunflower and rapeseed and lower for soybean. Only sunflower biodiesel does not reach the minimum value of GHG saving (35%). The main differences with data used in the RED concern cultivation step, while the processing step has overall the same values of GHG emissions. Finally, three case studies were examined in order to identify possible improvements to make the analyzed supply chains more sustainable. -- Highlights: ► GHG balance of biodiesel from sunflower, rapeseed and soya was analyzed. ► Cultivation has the highest environmental impact for sunflower and rapeseed chains. ► Typical Italian data were adopted for cultivation and processing steps. ► GHG emissions were lower than RED default values for soya biodiesel. ► Cogeneration for the processing plant can greatly increase GHG saving.

  6. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  7. Disparate metabolic effects of blackcurrant seed oil in rats fed a basal and obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    It was hypothesised that blackcurrant seed oil beneficially modulates metabolic disorders related to obesity and its complications. The study also aimed to investigate the potentially adverse effects of an unbalanced diet on the distal intestine. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and were fed a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fibre) diet that contained either rapeseed oil (Canola) or blackcurrant seed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. After 8 weeks, the obesogenic dietary regimen increased the body weight, altered the plasma lipid profile and increased the liver fat content and the plasma transaminase activities. In addition, the obesogenic diet decreased bacterial glycolytic activity and short-chain fatty acid formation in the distal intestine. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil improved the lipid metabolism by lowering liver fat accumulation and the plasma triglyceride concentration and atherogenicity as well by increasing the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration. However, in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing blackcurrant seed oil, the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration was comparable with both rapeseed oil-containing diets, and a significant elevation of the plasma transaminase activities was noted instead. The obesogenic dietary regimen causes a number of metabolic disorders, including alterations in the hindgut microbial metabolism. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil ameliorates the lipid metabolism; however, the beneficial effect is restricted when it is provided together with the obesogenic diet, and a risk of liver injury may occur.

  8. Main aspects of sunflower production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Cesar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world, since its grains have high oil content (38% to 50%, primarily used for the production of high quality oil. The production of sunflower increases the supply of protein meal for animal feeding, which enables the increase of protein production, more specifically meat, eggs and milk. Grain production systems in Brazil have peculiarities, since two to three different crops are grown in a special arrangement, in the same area and year. Notwithstanding the small cultivated area in Brazil of 62.3 thousand hectares, sunflower is used in succession or rotation with other grain crops such as soybean or maize, showing an enormous potential for expansion and can be cultivated from latitudes 33°S to 5°N, especially in the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Sunflower cultivation in succession to soybean as a second summer crop can also reduce environmental impacts because of the more efficient usage of production factors, such as land and sharing of agricultural inputs, machinery, infrastructure and workforce. The success of establishing the sunflower is associated with the adequate management of soil fertility, use of cultivars adapted to different environments, plant arrangement, seed quality and adequate phytosanitary management, among other factors. It also needs strategic actions, planning and, long-term research and technology diffusion.

  9. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.; Westbroek, I.; Keizer, H.; Gambelli, L.; Hontecillas, R.; Bassaganya-Riera, J.; Zondag, G.C.; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Voshol, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. DESIGN: High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed

  10. Genetic progress in sunflower crop in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, D N; Cargnelutti Filho, A; Lorentz, L H; Boligon, A A; Caraffa, M; Wartha, C A

    2017-04-13

    The sunflower has adaptability to growing regions with different climatic and soil characteristics, showing drought tolerance and high-quality oil production. The State of Rio Grande do Sul is the third largest sunflower producer in Brazil, with research related to the sunflower breeding initiated after the decade of 1950. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic progress for grain yield, oil content, and oil yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Data of grain yield, oil content, and oil yield obtained from 58 sunflower cultivar yield trials in 19 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul during the period from 2005 to 2014 were used. Genetic progress was studied according to the methodology proposed by Vencovsky and data from sunflower cultivar yield trials were used. Annual genetic progress of sunflower during the period of 10 years (2005-2014) was 132.46 kg⋅ha -1 ⋅year -1 for grain yield, -0.17%/year for oil content, and 48.11 kg⋅ha -1 ⋅year -1 for oil yield. The sunflower-breeding programs in the State of Rio Grande do Sul were efficient for the traits grain yield and oil yield and presented no efficiency for oil content.

  11. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE USE OF LOVAGE LEAVES TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS AND OIL BLENDS

    OpenAIRE

    GEIDA SEVDAGUL SULIMAN; SEMAGHIUL BIRGHILA; ANCA DUMBRAVA

    2018-01-01

    We studied four edible vegetable oils and nine oil blends based on refined sunflower oil, in order to improve the quality characteristics of sunflower oil. The oils used for blends were linseed oil, grapeseed oil, and coconut oil. The physico-chemical properties demonstrated the superior features for oil blends, like lower acidity (measured by acid value) and higher stability to autoxidation (measured by peroxide value and refractive index). The best combination for sunflower oil was with coc...

  12. Millet and corn oil in sorghum-based diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Rodrigues Bueno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of millet and corn oil additions to sorghum-based diets on the performance, carcass yields and prime cuts (i.e., wings, breasts, thighs and drumsticks and the relative weights of edible offal (i.e., gizzard, heart, and liver of broiler chickens. A total of 684 Hubbard Flex chickens, including 342 broilers of each sex, were housed. The design was completely randomized, and the following diets were supplied: A sorghum and soybean meal + soybean oil (control; B sorghum and soybean meal + corn oil; and C sorghum and soybean meal + millet and soybean oil. Six replicates with 38 birds each (19 males and 19 females were evaluated regarding each experimental diet. At 14, 21, 35 and 42 days of age, the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and viability of the chickens were evaluated. At 42 days, the live weight, carcass yield, prime cuts and relative weight of the edible offal were measured. The dietary inclusion of either millet or corn oil did not affect any of the parameters. In conclusion, additions of millet and corn oil to sorghum-based diets of broilers do not compromise poultry performance.

  13. Characterization of calcium oxide catalysts from natural sources and their application in the transesterification of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Leandro Marques; Saboya, Rosana Maria Alves; Campelo, Natália de Sousa; Cecilia, Juan Antonio; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Cavalcante, Célio Loureiro; Vieira, Rodrigo Silveira

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic activities of calcium oxide obtained from natural sources (crab shell and eggshell) were characterized and evaluated in the transesterification of vegetable oil. These catalysts are mainly composed of calcium carbonate, which is partially converted into CaO after calcination (900°C for 2h). The catalysts have some advantages, such as abundant occurrence, low cost, porous structure, and nontoxic. The materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG/DTG, CO2-TPD, XPS, SEM, and BET methods. The thermal treatment produces small particles of CaCO3 and CaO that are responsible for the catalytic activity. The conversion from triglycerides to methyl ester was not observed in transesterification carried out using natural crab shell and eggshell. Under optimized reaction conditions, the conversions to YFAME using the calcined catalysts were: crab shell (83.10±0.27 wt.%) and eggshell (97.75±0.02 wt.%). These results, showed that these materials have promising viability in transesterification for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of FAME and FAEE via Alcoholysis of Sunflower Oil by Eversa Lipases Immobilized on Hydrophobic Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remonatto, Daniela; de Oliveira, J Vladimir; Manuel Guisan, J; de Oliveira, Débora; Ninow, Jorge; Fernandez-Lorente, Gloria

    2018-01-03

    The performance of two new commercial low-cost lipases Eversa® Transform and Eversa® Transform 2.0 immobilized in different supports was investigated. The two lipases were adsorbed on four different hydrophobic supports. Interesting results were obtained for both lipases and for the four supports. However, the most active derivative was prepared by immobilization of Eversa® Transform 2.0 on Sepabeads C-18. Ninety-nine percent of fatty acid ethyl ester was obtained, in 3 h at 40 °C, by using hexane as solvent, a molar ratio of 4:1 (ethanol/oil), and 10 wt% of immobilized biocatalyst. The final reaction mixture contained traces of monoacylglycerols but was completely free of diacylglycerols. After four reaction cycles, the immobilized biocatalyst preserved 75% of activity. Both lipases immobilized in Sepabeads C-18 were very active with ethanol and methanol as acceptors, but they were much more stable in the presence of ethanol.

  15. Response surface modeling of acid activation of raw diatomite using in sunflower oil bleaching by: Box-Behnken experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouci, M; Safa, M; Meddah, B; Aoues, A; Sonnet, P

    2015-03-01

    The optimum conditions for acid activation of diatomite for maximizing bleaching efficiency of the diatomite in sun flower oil treatment were studied. Box-Behnken experimental design combining with response surface modeling (RSM) and quadratic programming (QP) was employed to obtain the optimum conditions of three independent variables (acid concentration, activation time and solid to liquid) for acid activation of diatomite. The significance of independent variables and their interactions were tested by means of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95 % confidence limits (α = 0.05). The optimum values of the selected variables were obtained by solving the quadratic regression model, as well as by analyzing the response surface contour plots. The experimental conditions at this global point were determined to be acid concentration = 8.963 N, activation time = 11.9878 h, and solid to liquid ratio = 221.2113 g/l, the corresponding bleaching efficiency was found to be about 99 %.

  16. Development of a Lipid Particle for β-Carotene Encapsulation Using a Blend of Tristearin and Sunflower Oil: Choice of Lipid Matrix and Evaluation of Shelf Life of Dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela V. L. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid particles are colloidal carriers that have been studied for almost 20 years in the pharmaceutical field and recently have been investigated by food researchers due to their capacity to enhance the incorporation of lipophilic bioactives and their bioavailability in aqueous formulations. The aims of this study are to choose a suitable lipid matrix to produce solid lipid particles, which would be used to encapsulate β-carotene, and to evaluate the capacity of dispersions to protect the incorporated carotenoid. Bulk lipid mixtures of tristearin and sunflower oil were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and wide angle X-ray diffraction, and the mixture with the highest degree of structural disorganisation was chosen. β-Carotene was then encapsulated in solid lipid particles produced with this mixture, composed of 70 % tristearin and 30 % sunflower oil (6 % total lipid and stabilised with hydrogenated soy lecithin and Tween 80 (3 % total surfactant by hot pressure homogenisation. Two types of particles were produced, using one or two passages in the homogenisation step. Average particle size, zeta potential, thermal behaviour, crystallinity and β-carotene concentration were monitored over 4 months of storage (under refrigerated conditions. The results showed minor differences between the systems in terms of size distribution, although the particles produced with one passage through the homogeniser were slightly more efficient at protecting the β-carotene from degradation and also suffered few microstructural alterations after 4 months.

  17. Influence of fatty acid composition on the formation of polar glycerides and polar fatty acids in sunflower oils heated at frying temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge, N.

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and high oleic sunflower oils as well as 50% mixture of both of them were heated at different temperatures under well-controlled conditions. Total polar compounds, the main groups of polar glycerides, total polar fatty acids, the main groups of polar fatty acids and the loss of initial fatty acids were quantitated. The most outstanding results demonstrated the primacy of the formation of glyceridic polymerization compounds during heating at high temperatures. After transesterification of the samples dimeric fatty acids was the most significant group of compounds obtained. As expected, linoleic acid was preferentially involved in the formation of polar fatty acids, although the participation of oleic acid became very important at low concentration of linoleic acid. Finally good statistical figures were obtained for the regression of polar fatty acids on polar compounds.

    Aceites de girasol convencional y alto oleico así como una mezcla al 50% de ambos fueron calentados a diferentes temperaturas bajo condiciones controladas. Se cuantificaron los compuestos polares totales, los grupos principales de glicéridos, ácidos grasos polares totales, los grupos principales de ácidos grasos polares y la pérdida de ácidos grasos iniciales. Los resultados más relevantes demostraron la primacía de la formación de compuestos de polimerización glicerídicos durante el calentamiento a altas temperaturas. Después de la transesterificación de las muestras, los ácidos diméricos constituyeron el grupo más significativo de compuestos obtenidos. Como era esperado, el ácido linoleico contribuyó preferentemente en la formación de los ácidos grasos polares, si bien la participación del ácido oleico fue muy importante a bajas concentraciones de ácido linoleico. Finalmente, se obtuvieron buenos resultados estadísticos para la regresión entre ácidos grasos polares y compuestos polares.

  18. Performance and Fatty Acid Profile of Japanese Quails Fed on Diets Supplemented with Used Restaurant Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.; Fahmy, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the effects of replacing cotton seed oil (CSO) with Used Restaurant Oil (URO) in Japanese quail diets on performance, fatty acid composition of the carcass and egg and concentration of iodine metabolites. URO was added to the diets at 0, 1, 2 or 4 % at the expense of CSO (4 %) in the control diet during a 10-week trial period. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, mortality rate, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the levels of used restaurant ,oi). Replacing 25,% or 50 % of CSO with URO had no significant (p>0.05) effect on linoleic acid content of carcass and egg. In contrary, linoleic acid content was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in the carcass and egg of the group which fed on the diet with 4 % URO. It can be concluded that used restaurant oil can be supplemented to the Japanese quail diets at the levels of 1 % and 2 % without any determine effect on the performance and the fatty acid profile of carcass and egg. rat supplementation to broiler chicken is a long standing practice for improving the consistency and palatability of the diets; increasing the energy density of broiler meat; stimulating growth and utilization of food and energy; feed efficiency; egg size, yield, and hatch ability (Carew and Hill, 1964; Vermeersch and Vanschoubroek, 1968 and Summers and Lesson, 1979 ). Poultry required fat in the diet as a source of essential fatty acids and to facilitate supply and absorption of vitamins (Clarke et al, 1977). Oil may be added to poultry diets in order to meet the 1% linoleic acid requirements

  19. Rapeseed oil-rich diet alters in vitro menadione and nimesulide hepatic mitochondrial toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João P; Silva, Ana M; Jurado, Amália S; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2013-10-01

    Diet-induced changes in the lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes have been shown to influence physiological processes. However, the modulation effect of diet on mitochondrially-active drugs has not yet received the deserved attention. Our hypothesis is that modulation of membrane dynamics by diet impacts drug-effects on liver mitochondrial functioning. In a previous work, we have shown that a diet rich in rapeseed oil altered mitochondrial membrane composition and bioenergetics in Wistar rats. In the present work, we investigated the influence of the modified diet on hepatic mitochondrial activity of two drugs, menadione and nimesulide, and FCCP, a classic protonophore, was used for comparison. The results showed that the effects of menadione and nimesulide were less severe on liver mitochondria for rats fed the modified diet than on rats fed the control diet. A specific effect on complex I seemed to be involved in drug-induced mitochondria dysfunction. Liver mitochondria from the modified diet group were more susceptible to nimesulide effects on MPT induction. The present work demonstrates that diet manipulation aimed at modifying mitochondrial membrane properties alters the toxicity of mitochondria active agents. This work highlights that diet may potentiate mitochondrial pharmacologic effects or increase drug-induced liabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gene expression of insulin signal-transduction pathway intermediates is lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y B; Nakajima, R; Matsuo, T; Inoue, T; Sekine, T; Komuro, M; Tamura, T; Tokuyama, K; Suzuki, M

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of dietary fatty acid composition on the insulin signaling pathway, we measured the gene expression of the earliest steps in the insulin action pathway in skeletal muscle of rats fed a safflower oil diet or a beef tallow diet. Rats were meal-fed an isoenergetic diet based on either safflower oil or beef tallow for 8 weeks. Both diets provided 45%, 35%, and 20% of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively. Insulin resistance, assessed from the diurnal rhythm of plasma glucose and insulin and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), developed in rats fed a beef tallow diet. Body fat content was greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. The level of insulin receptor mRNA, relative expression of the insulin receptor mRNA isoforms, and receptor protein were not affected by the composition of dietary fatty acids. The abundance of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase mRNA and protein was significantly lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. We conclude that long-term feeding of a high-fat diet with saturated fatty acids induces decrease in IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase mRNA and protein levels, causing insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  1. Torrefaction of residues and by-products from sunflower chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use and standardisation is a key aspect for these fuel products. Torrefaction is an interesting process used to improve the quality of ligno-cellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of materials has been studied at first by thermo-gravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been employed in a bench top torrefaction reactor afterwards. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the process. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range is reduced making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60 %, 80 % and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64 %, 85 % and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks because of the different starting characteristics. Untreated oil cake and husks already show a good high heating value and the eventual torrefaction should be mild. On the contrary for sunflower stalks the process is more useful and could be more severe.

  2. Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsdottir, I.; Tomasson, H.; Gunnarsdottir, I.; Gisladottir, E.; Kiely, M.; Parra, M.D.; Bandarra, N.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Martinez, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of including seafood and fish oils, as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss in young overweight adults. Design: Randomized controlled trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content was followed for 8 weeks. Subjects were

  3. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  4. Consumption of thermally oxidized palm oil diets alters biochemical indices in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Osmund Falade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is thermally oxidized to increase its palatability and this has been a usual practice in most homes. This study sought to assess the biochemical responses of rats to thermally oxidized palm oil diets. Therefore, Wistar strain albino rats (Rattus norveigicus were fed with fresh palm oil (control and thermally oxidized palm oil (test groups diets and water ad libitum for 30 days. Then, the malondialdehyde (MDA contents and total protein of the plasma and liver were determined. Subsequently, the plasma liver function markers [alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, albumin (ALB and total bilirubin (TBIL ] and the lipid profile [triglyceride (TRIG, total cholesterol (T-CHOL, high density lipoprotein (HDL-CHOL and low density lipoprotein (LDL-CHOL ] were assayed. The results of the study revealed that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in the plasma and liver total protein, ALB, TRIG and HDL-CHOL of the test groups when compared with the control. Conversely, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05 in the activities of ALT, AST and ALP, TBIL, T-CHOL, LDL-CHOL and plasma/liver MDA of the test groups when compared with the control. These effects were most pronounced in rats fed with 20 min-thermally oxidized palm oil diet. Hence, consumption of thermally oxidized palm oil diets had deleterious effects on biochemical indices in rats. Therefore, cooking with and/or consumption of palm oil subjected to heat treatment for several long periods of time should be discouraged in our homes as this might have deleterious effects on human health.

  5. Effects of Ingested Crude Oil Contaminated Diets on Antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    vein of the eyes of the rats with the aid of a capillary tube and the plasma samples prepared for the biochemical tests. Also, one ... contaminated diets has been reported to cause liver ... as gastrointestinal disorders, burns, foot rot, leg ulcer,.

  6. Psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets rich in soybean or coconut oil: hypocholesterolemic effect in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets of soybean and coconut oil on serum lipids in normolipidemic humans. A 28-day study was divided into four 7-day experimental periods. Dietary periods were soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fiber (SO + PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fiber (CO + PF), and were arranged to a randomized cross over design. Ten subjects consumed controlled diet containing 30% fat calories (20% from test oils and 10% from controlled diet) and 20 g per day of psyllium during fiber supplementation periods. SO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with SO diet (P < 0.001). CO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with CO diet (P < 0.014). Hypocholesterolemic response was greater with SO + PF compared with CO + PF (0.36 mmol 1(-1) vs 0.31 mmol 1(-1)). Reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B were parallel to reductions of serum cholesterol. SO diet decreased, while CO diet increased serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apo B. Very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo A-1 were unaffected by psyllium fiber and saturation of fat. Reduction of serum cholesterol was due to reduction of LDL cholesterol. Psyllium fiber supplementation lowered serum cholesterol regardless of saturation level of dietary fat.

  7. Silky Sunflowers & Swirly Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In this article, second-graders create a sunflower drawing using pastel techniques that produce similar effects to Vincent van Gogh's brushstrokes. They also learn how layering colors and using white to lighten colors creates depth in their flowers.

  8. Desempenho e características de carcaça do escargot francês (Helix aspersa maxima alimentado com rações contendo diferentes óleos vegetais Performance and carcass characteristics of “gros gris” (Helix aspersa maxima fed with different vegetable oils in diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmino Hayashi

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar a utilização de óleos vegetais de diferentes origens em rações no desempenho e características de carcaça do escargot francês “gros gris” (Helix aspersa maxima, 240 animais com peso inicial médio de 0,11g, foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições com dez animais cada, em aquários de 12L. As rações foram formuladas de forma a diferirem quanto ao emprego (3 % da ração dos óleos de soja, canola, girassol, linhaça, arroz e milho. Os valores médios de peso final, conversão alimentar, taxa de eficiência protéica, rendimento de carcaça, percentagem de concha e taxa de sobrevivência dos animais alimentados com as rações com os diferentes óleos não diferiram (p>0,01 entre si. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína bruta e lipídeos totais e a relação ácidos graxos poliinsaturados/ácidos graxos saturados da porção comestível dos animais submetidos as diferentes rações não foram influenciados (p>0,05. Entretanto, os animais que receberam dieta com óleo de linhaça apresentaram o melhor (p0,05 nos teores de umidade e cinza das conchas dos animais submetidos às diferentes rações. Por outro lado, os animais que receberam óleo de linhaça tiveram concha com menor (pAiming to evaluate the use of different vegetable oil sources on performance and carcass characteristics of “gros gris” (Helix aspersa maxima diets, two hundred forty snails with initial average weight of 0.11g samples were distributed in an entirely randomized design with six treatments and four replications in twelve-liter aquaria. The diets were formulated to have differences on soybean, canola, sunflower, linseed, rice and corn oil inclusion at 3% of the diet. The average final weight, feed conversion, protein efficiency rate, carcass yields, percentage of shell and survival rates were not affected (p>0.01 by the use of different oils. The moisture, ash, crud

  9. Effects of Moringa oleifera seed oil supplemented diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) day old chicks comprising of two broiler genotypes (Arbor Acre and Ross 308) were fed to graded levels (0%, 4.5%, 5% and 5.5%) of Moringa oleifera Seed Oil (MOSO) to investigate its effect on their performance. The experiment was conducted for 35 days and the chickens were fed ad ...

  10. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced cardiovascular effect in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was...

  11. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  12. New Approach on Sunflower Seeds Processing: Kernel with Several Technological Applications, Husks Package, Different Fat Content Tahini and Halva Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is the basic oil-crop in Central and Eastern Europe. As sunflower seeds are mainly used for oil production, the most of the kernels available on the market show high oil content (>55%. Consequently, when sunflower kernel paste (tahini is used in different food products, oil exudation occurs.The aim of current work was to use entirely the sunflower seeds by partially defatting and obtaining different fat content sunflower pastes with multiple food applications, while using the husks for developing an ecological package. Sunflower kernels were industrially roasted in a continuous roasting drum.  Raw and roasted kernels were pressed at pilot plant scale by using a laboratory expeller. Partially defatted sunflower paste was obtained from the press cakes by employing a ball mill. Different fat content tahini samples were obtained by adding the required amount of oil to the partially defatted paste. Tahini samples fat content ranged from 45 to 60%. Tahini and halva were chosen as a study model. Decreasing tahini oil content increased its colloidal stability during storage, a similar trend being noticed when halva samples were stored. Moreover, halva texture analysis and sensory characteristics were assessed for selecting the optimum tahini oil content and thermal treatment. Various sunflower kernel food applications were proposed by obtaining the related prototypes at pilot plant scale: roasted sunflower kernel biscuits, sunflower spreadable cream filled biscuits, hummus, sunflower paste coated in chocolate, sunflower kernel chikki and bars, as well as an innovative ecological package based on the resulting sunflower husks and a starch adhesive. 

  13. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... photo-synthetically active radiation (PAR), yield components and oil contents to planting ... be fairly stable (Monteith, 1977; Gallagher and Biscoe, ... oil quality of sunflower under irrigated arid environmental ... tically for the analysis of variance (ANOVA). ..... in this study confirm the findings of many scientists.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of the effects of a fish oil enriched diet on murine brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Hammamieh

    Full Text Available The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD and standard lab diet (SD were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼ 40% encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation-the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the

  15. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2017-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi , or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  16. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2018-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  17. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Dimitrijevic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare

  18. [The effect of qualitatively different fatty components of the diet on mitochondrial membranes in animals with experimental anthracosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichkhadze, G M; Daĭker, V R

    1989-01-01

    The diets with qualitatively different content of fat were found to produce structural and functional alternations in liver mitochondria of rats with experimental anthracosis. It was established in particular that the increase of the vegetable oil quota in the diet of rats affected the structure and function of mitochondria whereas the diet whose fat component included butter, lard, sunflower oil, and margarine at a ratio of 1:1, 5:1:0.5 reduced the untoward effect of coal dust and exercise on the mitochondrial membranes.

  19. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  20. Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

  1. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on juvenile channel catfish performance, hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current commercial diets for Channel Catfish contain little or no marine fish oil to reduce diet cost and address environmental concerns. However, there is conflicting data on the effects of fish oil and other lipid sources in juvenile Channel Catfish, and some novel lipids have not been tested agai...

  2. Hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of jam enriched with microencapsulated fish oil decreases insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares de Oliveira Carvalho, Anna Paula; Kimi Uehara, Sofia; Nogueria Netto, José Firmino; Rosa, Glorimar

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome is related to the increase in cardiovascular diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil help in reducing cardiovascular risk factors and are natural bindings of PPAR2. To evaluate the impact of hypocaloric diet associated with microencapsulated fish oil supplementation in women with metabolic syndrome. We conducted a randomized, single-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial with adult women who presented metabolic syndrome (n = 30) for 90 days. The volunteers were divided into two groups: placebo group (n = 15) and microencapsulated fish oil group (n = 15) (3 g/day of microencapsulated fish oil containing 0.41 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid and decosahexaneoic acid). Anthropometric, body composition, clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed before and after the intervention. Paired t-test was used for comparisons within groups and Student's t-test for comparison between groups. We considered p hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of microencapsulated fish oil was effective in reducing blood glucose, insulinemia and insulin resistance in women with MS. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. 1H NMR and SPME-GC/MS study of hydrolysis, oxidation and other reactions occurring during in vitro digestion of non-oxidized and oxidized sunflower oil. Formation of hydroxy-octadecadienoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva-Echevarría, Bárbara; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Manzanos, María J; Guillén, María D

    2017-01-01

    Both fresh and slightly oxidized sunflower oils, as models of omega-6 rich lipids, were submitted to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and studied by 1 H NMR and SPME-GC/MS. Changes in lipolysis degree, lipid composition and oxidative level were studied by 1 H NMR. Three quantitative approaches were used and several equations were newly developed. In oxidized oil digestates slightly lower hydrolysis and a higher advance of oxidation took place during digestion. This latter was evidenced by a greater decrease of lipid unsaturation degree and enhanced generation of oxidation products (cis,trans-hydroperoxy-octadecadienoates, cis,trans- and trans,trans-hydroxy-octadecadienoates). For the first time, the generation of hydroxy-octadecadienoates during in vitro digestion is reported. Furthermore, SPME-GC/MS study of non-digested and digested samples headspaces confirmed that lipid oxidation occurred: abundances of volatile markers increased (including potentially toxic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes), especially in oxidized oils digestates. Markers of Maillard-type and esterification reactions were also detected in the digestates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gene transfer from wild Helianthus to sunflower: topicalities and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (2n=17 belongs to the Helianthus genus (Asteraceae. Wild Helianthus species display morphological variation for branching and stem number, for architecture and seed size, and for resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses due to which they thrive in different environments in North America. The genus is divided into botanical sections, two for annual as sunflower, and two for perennial species as Jerusalem artichoke that produces rhizomes (tubers. We explain the difficulties and successes obtained by crossing sunflower with these species to improve the agronomic traits of the sunflower crop. It is easier to cross the annual species than the perennials’ with sunflower. Several traits such as Cytoplasmic male sterility and restorer Rf-PET1 genes, Downy mildew resistance, Phomopsis resistance, Sclerotinia resistance, Rust resistance, and Orobanche resistance have already been introduced from annual species into sunflower crop, but the complex genomic organization of these species compared to sunflower limits their important potential. Perennial species are much more diverse, and their genomes display 2n, 4n, or 6n chromosomes for n 17. The realities of inter-specific hybridization are relatively disappointing due to the introgression lines that have low oil and low seed yield. We report here several attempts to introgress agronomic traits from these species to sunflower, and we present as a case study, an introgressed progenies from H. mollis, a diploid species with sessile small leaves. We constructed a preliminary genetic map with AFLP markers in 21 BC1 plants, and we then showed that some progenies display 6 to 44% of introgression from H. mollis. Although this study is promising due to the novel compact architecture of the progenies, we cannot estimate the transferability from H. mollis to other perennial Helianthus to improve sunflower.

  5. Effect of Replacement of Marine Ingredients with Vegetable Oil and Protein on Oxidative Changes during Ice Storage of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Eymard, Sylvie; Timm Heinrich, Maike

    Recently, fish meal and fish oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have only been investigated to a limited extent. This presentation...... will discuss results from two recent studies from our laboratory on this topic. In the first study, rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in the ratio between marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Rapeseed oil was used as the oil source and the vegetable proteins were...... a mix based on pea, wheat, sunflower and beans. In the second study, one group of rainbow trout was fed a traditional diet based on fish meal and fish oil, whereas the other five groups were fed diets in which 40 % of the fish meal was replaced with plant proteins from peas, horse bean and rapeseed...

  6. Sunflowers to decontaminate water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Sunflowers offer a new method of decontamination. 55 kilograms (dry weight) of sunflowers are able to decontaminate all the cesium 137 and the strontium 90 polluting a pond situated at one kilometer from Tchernobyl. These flowers are able to decrease 95% in 24 hours the uranium concentration in the american site of Ashtabula in Ohio getting this water from 350 parts by milliards to less than 5 parts by milliards. The radioactivity should stocked in the roots at concentrations 5 000 to 10 000 times higher than water concentration. The cost is cheaper than micro filtration and precipitation (2-6 dollars for 4 000 liters of water against 80 dollars for others technologies). when sunflowers are radioactive they can be reduced in dust and vitrified and stocked as solid radioactive wastes. (N.C.)

  7. Consumo e digestibilidade total e parcial de dietas utilizando farelo de girassol e três fontes de energia em novilhos confinados Intake, total and partial digestibility of diets with sunflower meal and three energy sources in confined steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosália Mendes

    2005-04-01

    with sunflower meal as protein source and ground corn as energy source (MI. The ground corn was partially substituted by soybean hulls (CS or by corn germ meal (FGM. Lignin and indigestible ADF (iADF, NDF (iNDF and lignin (i-lignin determined by 144 h of in vitro digestion were used as markers to estimate the total and partial diet digestibility of diets. The fiber intake was higher on CS diet, however no effect on dry matter intake was observed. Lignin underestimated significantly the digestibility. Indigestible ADF, iNDF and i-lignin was able to estimate total digestibility, however iADF and i-lignina did not estimate adequately the partial digestibility. Ruminal ADF digestibility was influenced by diets with higher values for CS and similar values for FGM, in relation to MI. Total ADF digestibility was higher in diet CS, but the other nutrients digestibility were not affected by different energy sources. Energy digestibility and NDT values did not differ among diets, with average of 61.5%. Soybean hulls and corn germ meal, on partial substitution of ground corn, were satisfactory alternative sources for inclusion on steer diets.

  8. Effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets on initiation of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in male F344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Heemskerk, S.; Berg, H. van den; Alink, G.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of

  9. Sunflower seed allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  10. Replacement of soybean oil by fish oil increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats fed a high-carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angélica Heringer; Moreira, Carolina Campos Lima; Neves, Maria José; Botion, Leida Maria; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia

    2018-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that fish oil consumption improves metabolic syndrome and comorbidities, as insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidaemia and hypertension induced by high-fat diet ingestion. Previously, we demonstrated that administration of a fructose-rich diet to rats induces liver lipid accumulation, accompanied by a decrease in liver cytosolic lipases activities. In this study, the effect of replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in a high-fructose diet (FRUC, 60% fructose) for 8 weeks on lipid metabolism in liver and epididymal adipose tissue from rats was investigated. The interaction between fish oil and FRUC diet increased glucose tolerance and decreased serum levels of triacylglycerol (TAG), VLDL-TAG secretion and lipid droplet volume of hepatocytes. In addition, the fish oil supplementation increased the liver cytosolic lipases activities, independently of the type of carbohydrate ingested. Our results firmly establish the physiological regulation of liver cytosolic lipases to maintain lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes. In epididymal adipose tissue, the replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in FRUC diet did not change the tissue weight and lipoprotein lipase activity; however, there was increased basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake. Increased cytosolic lipases activities were observed, despite the decreased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated glycerol release to the incubation medium. These findings suggest that fish oil increases the glycerokinase activity and glycerol phosphorylation from endogenous TAG hydrolysis. Our findings are the first to show that the fish oil ingestion increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats treated with high-carbohydrate diets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Glycerin and essential oils in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance and apparent digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrayny Galoro da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the effect of partial replacing corn by glycerin and essential oils addition in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot on feed intake, animal performance and three markers were assessed to estimate apparent digestibility. Thirty bulls with average weight 400 ± 34.1 kg and 22 ± 2 months old were housed in collective pens (10 x 20 m2 for 63 days. The bulls were randomly assigned to 3 diets (10 bulls per treatment: CON – Control (without glycerin or Essential® oils; GLY – Glycerin (15% on dry matter - DM; and GEO – Glycerin (15% on DM and Essential® oils (3 g animal day-1. Three different markers were used to estimate apparent digestibility in the diets: indigestible dry matter –iDM; indigestible neutral detergent fiber – iNDF; and purified lignin – LIPE®. Feed efficiency and animal performance were not affected by the corn partial replacing by glycerin. No effects were found in partial corn replacing by glycerin and Essential® oils addition in the diets on the fecal output, crude protein and ether extract digestibility among the diets. The DM and OM apparent digestibility were higher for bulls fed with glycerin and Essential® oils. The CHO digestibility was higher for CON diet. The markers iDM, iNDF and LIPE® were similarly to estimate apparent digestibility to all nutrients in the diets.

  12. Cardiovascular risk protection from the Mediterranean diet and olive oil. A transcriptomic update in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, S.; Torres, L.; Castañer, O.

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights the human studies that explore the benefits of the Mediterranean diet and olive oil, based on gene expression analysis. We summarized consistent human transcriptomic studies on cardiovascular risk, based on TMD and olive oil interventions, with real life doses and conditions. A literature review was carried out leading up to February 2016. The results show that the TMD, specially supplemented with virgin olive oil, produces beneficial changes in the transcriptomic response of relevant genes in cardiovascular risk such as CAT, GPX1 and SIRT2. p65 and MCP-1, IL1B, IL6, CXCL1, INF-γ, ARHGAP15 and IL7R, which are involved in inflammation; and ABCA1, SR-B1, PPARBP, PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, CD-36 and COX-1, which play an important role in cholesterol efflux. The available data illustrate a transcriptomic effect on atherosclerosis, inflammation and oxidative stress pathways as well as the mentioned genes. [es

  13. Cardiovascular risk protection from the Mediterranean diet and olive oil. A transcriptomic update in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carrión

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the human studies that explore the benefits of the Mediterranean diet and olive oil, based on gene expression analysis. We summarized consistent human transcriptomic studies on cardiovascular risk, based on TMD and olive oil interventions, with real life doses and conditions. A literature review was carried out leading up to February 2016. The results show that the TMD, specially supplemented with virgin olive oil, produces beneficial changes in the transcriptomic response of relevant genes in cardiovascular risk such as CAT, GPX1 and SIRT2. p65 and MCP-1, IL1B, IL6, CXCL1, INF-γ, ARHGAP15 and IL7R, which are involved in inflammation; and ABCA1, SR-B1, PPARBP, PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, CD-36 and COX-1, which play an important role in cholesterol efflux. The available data illustrate a transcriptomic effect on atherosclerosis, inflammation and oxidative stress pathways as well as the mentioned genes.

  14. Effects of Shiitake Intake on Serum Lipids in Rats Fed Different High-Oil or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Norihiko; Kairiku, Rumi; Tobo, Mika; Ono, Akifumi

    2018-04-27

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extract, eritadenine, has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels, and its hypocholesterolemic actions are involved in the metabolism of methionine. However, the mechanisms by which eritadenine affects cholesterol metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet containing different sources of lipids have not yet been elucidated in detail. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shiitake supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in rats fed a diet including a high amount of a plant oil (HO [high oil] and HOS [high oil with shiitake] groups), animal fat (HF [high fat] and HFS [high fat with shiitake] groups), or MCT- (medium-chain triglyceride-) rich plant oil (HM [high MCT] and HMS [high MCT with shiitake] groups). Rats in the HOS, HFS, and HMS groups were fed shiitake. When rats were fed a diet containing shiitake, serum triglyceride, cholesterol levels, and LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase) activities were lower in rats given MCT-rich plant oil than in those that consumed lard. The lipid type in the diet with shiitake also affected serum cholesterol levels and LCAT activities. The diet containing MCT-rich plant oil showed the greatest rates of decrease in all serum lipid profiles and LCAT activities. These results suggest that shiitake and MCT-rich plant oil work together to reduce lipid profiles and LCAT activity in serum.

  15. Psyllium husk fibre supplementation to soybean and coconut oil diets of humans: effect on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1994-08-01

    The effects of psyllium fibre supplementation to polyunsaturated fatty acid rich soybean oil and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil diets on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion were investigated in healthy humans. The study consisted of four 7-day experimental periods. Participants consumed soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (SO+PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (CO+PF) diets. Laboratory diet provided 30% calories from fat (20% from test oils and 10% from basal diet), 15% calories from protein and 55% calories from carbohydrate. Fat digestibility was significantly lower and faecal fat excretion was significantly higher with SO+PF diet than SO diet and with CO+PF diet than CO diet. Faecal excretion of myristic and lauric acids was not affected by test diets. Percent faecal palmitic acid excretion was significantly higher during psyllium supplementation periods. Higher faecal linoleic acid excretion was observed with soybean oil diets compared with coconut oil diets. Increased faecal fat loss, decreased fat digestibility and increased faecal palmitic acid excretion with psyllium supplementation may partly explain the hypocholesterolaemic action of psyllium fibre.

  16. Effect of an avocado oil-enhanced diet (Persea americana) on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Toro-Equihua, Mario; Velasco-Rodríguez, Raymundo; López-Ascencio, Raúl; Vásquez, Clemente

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetable oils with varying percentages of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin resistance. However, there is no report on the effect of avocado oil on this pathologic condition. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of avocado oil on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats. An experimental study was carried out on Wistar rats that were randomly assigned into six groups. Each group received a different diet over an 8-week period (n = 11 in each group): the control group was given a standard diet, and the other five groups were given the standard feed plus sucrose with the addition of avocado oil at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively. Variables were compared using Student t test and analysis of variance. Statistically significant difference was considered when p avocado oil showed lower insulin resistance (p = 0.022 and p = 0.024, respectively). Similar insulin resistance responses were observed in the control and 30% avocado oil addition groups (p = 0.85). Addition of 5-30% avocado oil lowered high sucrose diet-induced body weight gain in Wistar rats. It was thus concluded that glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by high sucrose diet in Wistar rats can be reduced by the dietary addition of 5-20% avocado oil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.

  18. Effect of Dietary Inclussion of Antibiotics and Wild Sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of addition of penicillin, streptomycin and wild sunflower leaf in layer diet on the performance of hens was investigated. Forty (40) Shaver Brown layers at twenty four weeks of age were involved in a completely randomized design experiment. They were randomly allocated to give dietary treatments.

  19. Diets high in corn oil or extra-virgin olive oil differentially modify the gene expression profile of the mammary gland and influence experimental breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Solanas, Montserrat; Vela, Elena; Ruiz de Villa, M Carme; Escrich, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    Nutritional factors, especially dietary lipids, may have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. We aimed to analyze the effects of high-fat diets on the susceptibility of the mammary gland to experimental malignant transformation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, high-corn-oil, or high-extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) diet from weaning or from induction. Animals were induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene at 53 days and euthanized at 36, 51, 100 and 246 days. Gene expression profiles of mammary glands were determined by microarrays. Further molecular analyses were performed by real-time PCR, TUNEL and immunohistochemistry. Carcinogenesis parameters were determined at 105 and 246 days. High-corn-oil diet increased body weight and mass when administered from weaning. The EVOO diet did not modify these parameters and increased the hepatic expression of UCP2, suggesting a decrease in intake/expenditure balance. Both diets differentially modified the gene expression profile of the mammary gland, especially after short dietary intervention. Corn oil down-regulated the expression of genes related to immune system and apoptosis, whereas EVOO modified the expression of metabolism genes. Further analysis suggested an increase in proliferation and lower apoptosis in the mammary glands by effect of the high-corn-oil diet, which may be one of the mechanisms of its clear stimulating effect on carcinogenesis. The high-corn-oil diet strongly stimulates mammary tumorigenesis in association with modifications in the expression profile and an increased proliferation/apoptosis balance of the mammary gland.

  20. [Experimental evidence on the role of different types unsaturated fats in the diet on ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrian; Pérez-López, Patricia; Varela-López, Alfonso; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition has been largely related to the physiological ageing process. Several nutrients, such as certain types of dietary fat and various antioxidants have been shown to have positive effects on age-related diseases. The type of dietary fat affects mitochondrial structure and function, as well as its susceptibility to oxidative stress, all factors involved in ageing. The present review aims to summarise the studies conducted by our research group in the past 10 years, using virgin olive oil, sunflower oil, or fish oil as a source of unsaturated fat diet relative to a rat model of ageing. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA Methylation Pattern in Overweight Women under an Energy-Restricted Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Lira do Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  2. Changes in diets of river otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska: Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W.; Faro, J.B.; Schwartz, C.C.; Browning, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the diets of river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, were examined in 1989 and 1990. On the basis of identification of prey remains in their feces, otters fed principally on marine, bottom-dwelling fishes. Marine gastropods, bivalves, and crustaceans composed most of the invertebrates in the diet of otters; freshwater and terrestrial food items seldom occurred in their feces. The diets of otters included 149 different taxa, most of which rarely occurred in their feces. Sixty-five taxa occurred ≥5 times in the combined data set. Species richness and diversity of prey remains in otter feces were similar on oiled and nonoiled study areas in late winter 1989 (before the oil spill) and during summer 1989 following the spill. By summer 1990, however, there were significant declines in the richness and diversity of species (mostly bony fish, molluscs, and bivalves) in otter diets on the oiled area. Likewise, the relative abundance of prey remains in otter feces showed strong differences between areas and years, and an area by year interaction. Members of the Perciformes and Archaeogastropoda declined from 1989 to 1990 on the oiled area while they increased on the nonoiled site; Malacostraca exhibited the opposite pattern. These outcomes, when considered with other data on body mass and blood chemistry, strongly suggest that some effects of the oil spill on otters were delayed. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. Urea-nitrate combustion synthesis of MgO/MgAl2O4 nanocatalyst used in biodiesel production from sunflower oil: Influence of fuel ratio on catalytic properties and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani Vahid, Behgam; Haghighi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: As a base catalyst for biodiesel production, MgAl 2 O 4 spinel was successfully synthesized by combustion method with MgO, as the active phase, dispersed on the catalyst surface. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET-BJH, TGA and FTIR analyses, so as to optimize the concentration of urea (as fuel) in the combustion synthesis. Analyzing the effect of fuel ratio on the combustion synthesized MgAl 2 O 4 , it was revealed that the synthesized base catalyst with a fuel ratio of 1.5 was of the best specifications for biodiesel production process. Future researches may investigate the catalyst reusability and mild reaction conditions, so as to achieve more economical production of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Efficient synthesis of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel by solution combustion method. • Improvement of catalytic activity and stability by optimum ratio fuel. • Enhanced dispersion of MgO over MgAl 2 O 4 spinel. • Production of biodiesel over MgO/MgAl 2 O 4 at relatively mild reaction conditions. - Abstract: MgO/MgAl 2 O 4 nanocatalyst was synthesized by a simple, cost-effective and rapid method and used in biodiesel production from sunflower oil. MgAl 2 O 4 was synthesized by combustion method at different fuel ratios and then active phase of MgO was dispersed on the samples by impregnation method. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET-BJH, TGA and FTIR analyses, so as to optimize the concentration of urea (as fuel) in the combustion synthesis. The physicochemical properties of the nanocatalyst confirmed the sample synthesized with fuel ratio of 1.5 has high surface area, effective morphology and texture properties. Finally, in order to evaluate catalytic activity of the samples in biodiesel production, the transesterification reaction was performed. The results indicated the catalyst prepared by combustion synthesis with a fuel ratio of 1.5 was optimum specifications for biodiesel production. Using this

  4. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.

  5. Effect of saponified high fat sunflower oilcake and lipoic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are toxic to cellulolytic bacteria and are also saturated in the rumen. Stabilization of residual oil in sunflower oilcake by conversion into calcium salts would be advantageous. Alpha lipoic acid acts as an anti-oxidant to ...

  6. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.), etc. The total edible oil ... hybrids with high fertilizer requirements. The farmers are applying ... Crop growth and productivity can be discussed in terms of biomass ... the interactive effects of hybrids, planting geometries and nitrogen rates on ...

  7. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  8. Dragee product based on sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower kernel is rich in valuable nutritive compounds so it is suitable as a raw material for production of confectionery products. In this paper we evaluated the technological characteristics of the confectionery sunflower kernel with the aim of obtaining dragee products, and determining the final product quality and shelf life. The dragee product was obtained by panning sunflower kernel with savory powder mixture of spices in a dragee pan. The used sunflower seed has an even distribution of linear size and satisfactory dehulling characteristics. The savoury dragee product was in excellent category of sensory quality and showed stable colour and good shelf life in the period of three months.

  9. Backcrosses in interspecific hybridization in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlagić Jovanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When incorporating desirable traits (resistance to causal agents of various diseases from the wild relatives into the cultivated sunflower, some undesirable ones are introduced too (branching, small head diameter, low oil content, etc. To overcome this problem, backcrosses (F1 interspecific hybrids x cultivated sunflower are used, although very often desirable traits are lost in the process. Cytological analysis (meiosis and pollen viability and molecular markers (RAPD were used to estimate what portion of the parental species genome was present in (be interspecific hybrids of the F1 and BC1F1 generations. The results showed that the percentage of irregularities at meiosis increased from F1 to BC1F1 gen. They also indicated the presence of aneuploids and sterility in the cross between the hexaploid species H.rigidus and cultivated sunflower. The genetic distance between the parents was 83%, that between H.rigidus and the F1 hybrid 54 61%, and that between H.annuus and F1 hybrid 70-76%. In the BC1F1 generation, the genetic distance from Hannuus decreased to 58-66% and that from H.rigidus increased to 69-76%.

  10. Deadly Sunflower Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2018-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure is usually very effective at removing hazardous millimeter-sized debris from distant orbits around asteroidsand other small solar system bodies (Hamilton and Burns 1992). Theprimary loss mechanism, driven by the azimuthal component of radiationpressure, is eccentricity growth followed by a forced collision withthe central body. One large class of orbits, however, neatly sidestepsthis fate. Orbits oriented nearly perpendicular to the solar directioncan maintain their face-on geometry, oscillating slowly around a stableequilibrium orbit. These orbits, designated sunflower orbits, arerelated to terminator orbits studied by spacecraft mission designers(Broschart etal. 2014).Destabilization of sunflower orbits occurs only for particles smallenough that radiation pressure is some tens of percent the strength ofthe central body's direct gravity. This greatly enhanced stability,which follows from the inability of radiation incident normal to theorbit to efficiently drive eccentricities, presents a threat tospacecraft missions, as numerous dangerous projectiles are potentiallyretained in orbit. We have investigated sunflower orbits insupport of the New Horizons, Aida, and Lucy missions and find thatthese orbits are stable for hazardous particle sizes at asteroids,comets, and Kuiper belt objects of differing dimensions. Weinvestigate the sources and sinks for debris that might populate suchorbits, estimate timescales and equilibrium populations, and willreport on our findings.

  11. Effects of oils rich in linoleic and α-linolenic acids on fatty acid profile and gene expression in goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Goh, Yong Meng

    2014-09-24

    Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.

  12. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  13. Vegetable oil sources in diets for freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, Cichlidae: growth and thermal tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Ikeda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fatty acid composition of the diets on the productive performance and on cold and heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, in three different phases, was studied. Phase I studied the productive performance of freshwater angelfish in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments, canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils and four replicates during 50 days using 192 fish in 16 aquaria. Phase II studied the cold tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish using 72 juvenile freshwater angelfish, coming from phase I and maintained in 12 aquaria climatized chamber. The temperature was reduced 1ºC per day, until the observation of 100% fish mortality. Phase III, it was studied the heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish employing an identical procedure to phase II, but with a daily increase of 1ºC. Significant differences (P>0.05 were not observed for any parameters evaluated. Thus, it was concluded that the type of vegetable oil (canola, linseed, olive and soybean used as a diet supplement did not affect the productive performance, nor the tolerance to cold and heat, of juvenile freshwater angelfish.

  14. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet Supplemented with Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Basora, Josep; Muñoz, Miguel A; Sorlí, José V; Martínez, J Alfredo; Fitó, Montserrat; Gea, Alfredo; Hernán, Miguel A; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2018-06-21

    Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown inverse associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk. In a multicenter trial in Spain, we assigned 7447 participants (55 to 80 years of age, 57% women) who were at high cardiovascular risk, but with no cardiovascular disease at enrollment, to one of three diets: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). Participants received quarterly educational sessions and, depending on group assignment, free provision of extra-virgin olive oil, mixed nuts, or small nonfood gifts. The primary end point was a major cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). After a median follow-up of 4.8 years, the trial was stopped on the basis of a prespecified interim analysis. In 2013, we reported the results for the primary end point in the Journal. We subsequently identified protocol deviations, including enrollment of household members without randomization, assignment to a study group without randomization of some participants at 1 of 11 study sites, and apparent inconsistent use of randomization tables at another site. We have withdrawn our previously published report and now report revised effect estimates based on analyses that do not rely exclusively on the assumption that all the participants were randomly assigned. A primary end-point event occurred in 288 participants; there were 96 events in the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil (3.8%), 83 in the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with nuts (3.4%), and 109 in the control group (4.4%). In the intention-to-treat analysis including all the participants and adjusting for baseline characteristics and propensity scores, the hazard ratio was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 0.91) for a Mediterranean diet with extra

  15. The thermo-mechano-chemical twin-screw reactor, a new perspective for the biorefinery of sunflower whole plant: aqueous extraction of oil and other biopolymers, and production of biodegradable fiberboards from cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evon Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biorefinery of sunflower whole plant was performed successfully using a thermo-mechano-chemical twin-screw reactor. This led to the aqueous extraction of oil and other biopolymers like proteins, pectins and non pectic sugars. It resulted in the overall fractionation of biomass, thus allowing a complete valorization of the input. This biorefinery process was not only efficient but it was also environment-friendly. In addition, it contributed to the production of different end products for various industrial applications. Firstly, the hydrophilic phase will be recycled to the process. Secondly, the densest oil-in-water emulsion is a promising candidate for the formulation of cosmetic creams. Thirdly, the upper hydrophobic phase will be usable for the waterproofing treatment of the surface of agromaterials by coating. Its demixing will also lead to the production of proteins with tensioactive properties. These will serve for the food industry. Lastly, the cake was a mixture of plasticized proteins and lignocellulosic fibers. It was thus considered as a natural composite. Its molding into cohesive fiberboards was conducted successfully using both thermopressing and compression molding processes. The self-bonded boards with high density will be suitable for use as load bearing boards in dry conditions (floor underlayers, interior partitions, furniture, etc.. Positioned in walls and ceilings, boards with medium and low density will contribute to the heat insulation of buildings. In addition, the bulk cake will be also usable as a loose fill insulation material. As proposed, this flow chart thus allows a valorization for all fractions originating from the twin-screw reactor.

  16. Virgin olive oil, palm olein and coconut oil diets do not raise cell adhesion molecules and thrombogenicity indices in healthy Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, P T; Ng, T K W; Lee, V K M; Nesaretnam, K

    2015-06-01

    Effects of high-protein diets that are rich in saturated fats on cell adhesion molecules, thrombogenicity and other nonlipid markers of atherosclerosis in humans have not been firmly established. We aim to investigate the effects of high-protein Malaysian diets prepared separately with virgin olive oil (OO), palm olein (PO) and coconut oil (CO) on cell adhesion molecules, lipid inflammatory mediators and thromobogenicity indices in healthy adults. A randomized cross-over intervention with three dietary sequences, using virgin OO, PO and CO as test fats, was carried out for 5 weeks on each group consisting of 45 men and women. These test fats were incorporated separately at two-thirds of 30% fat calories into high-protein Malaysian diets. For fasting and nonfasting blood samples, no significant differences were observed on the effects of the three test-fat diets on thrombaxane B2 (TXB2), TXB2/PGF1α ratios and soluble intracellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules. The OO diet induced significantly lower (Pvirgin OO do not alter the thrombogenicity indices-cellular adhesion molecules, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and TXB2/prostacyclin (PGF1α) ratios. However, the OO diet lowered plasma proinflammatory LTB4, whereas the PO diet raised the antiaggregatory plasma PGF1α in healthy Malaysian adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 00941837.

  17. Intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating dairy cows fed diets containing sunflower cakeConsumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes e balanço de nitrogênio em vacas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas contendo torta de girassol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of sunflower cake (SC inclusion in the diets of lactating dairy cows on dry matter (DM intake, the apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients and nitrogen balance. Eight Holstein-Zebu cows with a milk yield of 20 ± 2 kg/day were allotted to a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design, where were tested the effects of four levels of SC inclusion (0, 7, 14 and 21% of DM basis. Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon hay was used as roughage in a 60:40 roughage:concentrate ratio. The SC inclusion had no effect on dry matter, crude protein, organic matter (OM or total carbohydrate (TC intake (kg/day. However, a quadratic effect (P O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de inclusão de torta de girassol (TG na dieta de vacas em lactação sobre o consumo de matéria seca (MS, digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes da dieta e balanço de nitrogênio. Oito vacas Girolanda com produção diária de leite de 20 ± 2 kg/dia foram distribuídas em delineamento em quadrado latino duplo 4x4, em que foram testados os efeitos de quatro níveis de inclusão da TG (0, 7, 14 e 21% MS. Foi utilizado o feno de Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon como volumoso em uma relação volumoso:concentrado de 60:40. A inclusão de TG não afetou o consumo (kg/dia de MS, proteína bruta, matéria orgânica (OM e carboidratos totais (CT. Entretanto, foi observado efeito quadrático (P < 0,05 no consumo (kg/dia de fibra em detergente neutro e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF. Não houve efeito da inclusão de TG na digestibilidade de MO, CT e CNF, assim como para o balanço de nitrogênio. Foi observado efeito linear para o nitrogênio endógeno basal (g/dia. A torta de girassol pode ser recomendada como um ingrediente de rações para vacas em lactação.

  18. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, E.C.; Jascolka, T.L.; Teixeira, L.G.; Lages, P.C.; Ribeiro, A.C.C.; Vieira, E.L.M.; Peluzio, M.C.G.; Alvarez-Leite, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr −/− , C57BL/6-background). Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12) or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12) for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein) and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units). Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action

  19. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, E.C. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Jascolka, T.L. [Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, L.G.; Lages, P.C.; Ribeiro, A.C.C.; Vieira, E.L.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peluzio, M.C.G. [Departamento de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Alvarez-Leite, J.I. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-05-11

    Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr{sup −/−}, C57BL/6-background). Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12) or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12) for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein) and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units). Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action.

  20. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Aguilar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr-/-, C57BL/6-background. Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12 or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12 for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units. Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action.

  1. Review of antidiabetic fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices commonly consumed in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidokhti, Maliheh Najari; Jäger, Anna K

    2017-04-06

    Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes and its prevalence is rapidly increasing throughout the world. Modifications of lifestyle such as suitable diet and exercise programs along with pharmacotherapy and education of patients are beneficial therapies for patients with type 2 diabetes. The ethnopharmacological use of herbal medicines, many of them part of our diet as spices, vegetables and fruits, has been developed for the treatment of diabetes due to inexpensiveness, easy availability and few side effects. Our aim is to present a review for researchers who are interested in the biologically active dietary plants traditionally utilized in the treatment of diabetes. Information was obtained from a literature search of electronic databases such as Google Scholar, Pubmed, Sci Finder and Cochrane. Common and scientific name of the fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices and the words 'antidiabetic', 'hypoglycemic', 'anti-hyperglycemic', 'type 2 diabetes' were used as keywords for search. Certain fruits and vegetables are functional foods and their consumption reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Hypoglycemic effects of fruits and vegetables may be due to their inducing nature on pancreatic β-cells for insulin secretion, or bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids and anthocyanins, which act as insulin-like molecules or insulin secretagogues. This write-up covers hypoglycemic, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic activities of some dietary fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices and their active hypoglycemic constituents. Including such plant species in the diet might improve management of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oil Analysis by Fast DSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal analysis of Olive and Sunflower Oil is done by Fast DSC to evaluate its potential to replace DSC for adulteration detection. DSC measurements take hours, Fast DSC minutes. Peak temperatures of the crystallisation peak in cooling for different Olive and Sunflower Oils are both comparable to

  3. Avaliação técnica e econômica da matriz nutricional da enzima fitase em rações contendo farelo de girassol para poedeiras comerciais Technical and economical evaluation of the nutritional matrix of phytase enzyme diets with sunflower meal for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Mack Junqueira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cento e oitenta poedeiras comerciais Isa Brown, com 60 semanas de idade, foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 õ 2, com dois níveis de fitase (0 e 500 ftu/kg de ração e dois de farelo de girassol (4 e 8%, totalizando cinco dietas, avaliadas com seis repetições de seis aves. As dietas foram formuladas a partir de uma ração controle, à base de milho e farelo de soja, isenta de fitase e farelo de girassol, valorizando na formulação das dietas a matriz nutricional da fitase. O período experimental foi dividido em quatro ciclos de 28 dias cada. A matriz nutricional preconizada para fitase permitiu o atendimento pleno das exigências das aves, mesmo quando as dietas foram formuladas com níveis nutricionais reduzidos, isso quando desconsiderados os nutrientes presentes na matriz nutricional da enzima, de acordo com recomendação da empresa produtora. A adição de fitase na dieta reduz a excreção de fósforo pelas aves e melhora os parâmetros econômicos. A inclusão de farelo de girassol no nível de 8% prejudica a produção de ovos, mas não afeta os demais parâmetros de desempenho e qualidade dos ovos.One hundred and eighty Isa Brown laying hens at 60 weeks of age were arranged in a completely randomized design in a 2 õ 2 factorial scheme, with two levels of phytase (0 and 500 ftu/kg ration and two levels of sunflower meal (4 and 8% totalizing five diets, evaluated with six replicates with six birds. Diets were formulated from a control ration based on corn and soybean meal free from phytase and sunflower meal, valuing the nutritional phytase matrix in diets formulation. The experimental period was divided in four 28-day cycles. The nutritional matrix suggested for phytase completely met the requirement by hens, even when diets were formulated with reduced nutritional levels when the nutrients present in the enzyme nutritional matrix were not considered accordingly to recommendations by

  4. The effect of olive oil-based ketogenic diet on serum lipid levels in epileptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Unsal; Uysal, Utku; Arslan, Nur

    2016-03-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is one of the most effective therapies for intractable epilepsy. Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant molecules and has some beneficial effects on lipid profile, inflammation and oxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum lipid levels of children who were receiving olive oil-based KD for intractable seizures at least 1 year. 121 patients (mean age 7.45 ± 4.21 years, 57 girls) were enrolled. At baseline and post-treatment 1, 3, 6, and 12 months body mass index-SDS, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Repeated measure ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for data analysis. The mean duration of KD was 15.4 ± 4.1 months. Mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months of the KD treatment, compared to pre-treatment levels (p = 0.001), but showed no difference among during-treatment measurements. Mean body mass index-SDS and HDL-cholesterol levels were not different among the baseline and follow-up time points (p = 0.113 and p = 0.067, respectively). No child in this study discontinued the KD because of dyslipidemia. Even if rich in olive oil, high-fat KD causes significant increase in LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. More studies are needed to determine the effect of KD on serum lipids in children using different fat sources in the diet.

  5. Replacing soybean oil with increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of coturnix quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) and the effects on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Aline A P; Forgiarini, Juliana; Xavier, Eduardo G; Lopes, Débora C N; Roll, Victor F B; Rutz, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    The effects of increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of quails on the quality of eggs were evaluated over a period of 56 days. A completely randomized design with five treatment levels of soybean acid oil (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) as a replacer for soybean oil and eight replicates of two quails each were used. A total of 240 fresh eggs were used for quality analysis, and 400 eggs were stored at 23ºC over a period of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for analysis of shelf-life. Polynomial regression and ANOVA with repeated measurements and Tukey´s tests were used. Soybean acid oil linearly increased the intensity of red (a* = -5.26 + 0.14 x, R2 = 0.89, P = 0.01) and yellow (b* = 42.32 + 0.44 x, R2 = 0.88 P = 0.01). All other variables of egg quality were not affected by the treatments, with the exception of sensory attributes, such as odor and aftertaste, which were more pronounced with soybean acid oil. In conclusion, soybean acid oil affects the intensity of yellow and red color of the yolk. Trained assessors detected differences in odor and aftertaste of eggs when soybean acid oil was included in the quail diet.

  6. Replacing soybean oil with increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of coturnix quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix and the effects on egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINE A.P. ROLL

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of quails on the quality of eggs were evaluated over a period of 56 days. A completely randomized design with five treatment levels of soybean acid oil (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% as a replacer for soybean oil and eight replicates of two quails each were used. A total of 240 fresh eggs were used for quality analysis, and 400 eggs were stored at 23ºC over a period of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for analysis of shelf-life. Polynomial regression and ANOVA with repeated measurements and Tukey´s tests were used. Soybean acid oil linearly increased the intensity of red (a* = -5.26 + 0.14 x, R2 = 0.89, P = 0.01 and yellow (b* = 42.32 + 0.44 x, R2 = 0.88 P = 0.01. All other variables of egg quality were not affected by the treatments, with the exception of sensory attributes, such as odor and aftertaste, which were more pronounced with soybean acid oil. In conclusion, soybean acid oil affects the intensity of yellow and red color of the yolk. Trained assessors detected differences in odor and aftertaste of eggs when soybean acid oil was included in the quail diet.

  7. The Mediterranean Diet and the Increasing Demand of the Olive Oil Sector: Shifts and Environmental Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Neves

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean countries play a crucial role as olive oil producers and consumers compared to other world regions. This work focusses on the development of the world production, trade and consumption where the Mediterranean region stands out from the rest of the world, in particular, the Northern Mediterranean countries. Aspects such as how communication emphasizes the benefits of the Mediterranean diet - which is a distinctive characteristic of the Mediterranean culture and identity - the Slow Food Movement, the International Olive Council campaigns, and the successive Common Agricultural Policies, that have triggered production, trade and consumption around the world, are here discussed. Such increases and stimuli brought and is still bringing changes to the olive oil sector such as a shifting tendency in production modes as well as modernization of the sector, responding to the increasing demand. These shifts and demand are changing landscapes and are being referred as environmentally harmful to the ecosystems as the production of olive oil is shifting to more intensive production systems and monoculture plantations. These issues are here debated and illustrated with case study examples, referring to the Mediterranean countries, particularly, referring to the Iberian Peninsula.

  8. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the [ 3 H]-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the [ 3 H]DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the β-adrenergic receptor in rat heart

  9. Replacement of fish oil with soybean oil in diets for juvenile Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus): effects on liver lipid peroxidation and biochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deng-Hang; Chang, Jia-Zhi; Dong, Gui-Fang; Liu, Jun

    2017-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the replacement of fish oil (FO) by soybean oil (SO) on growth performance, liver lipid peroxidation, and biochemical composition in juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Fish (13.7 ± 0.2 g) in triplicate were fed five experimental diets in which 0% (FO as control), 40% (SO40), 60% (SO60), 80% (SO40), and 100% (SO100) FO were replaced by SO. The body weight gain of fish fed SO40, SO60, or SO80 diet was similar to FO group, but diets that have 100% soybean oil as dietary lipid significantly reduced fish growth (P fish liver fed diets that contained SO, but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the ratio n-3/n-6 were significantly reduced by the inclusion of dietary SO (P fish. However, diet containing 100% SO as dietary lipid could reduce growth performance. Thus, we recommended that 40-80% SO can be used as dietary lipid to replace FO for juvenile Chinese sucker.

  10. A CLA enriched diet improves organ damage associated with the metabolic syndrome in spontaneous hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Rodriguez, I.; Pulido-Camarillo, E.; Hernandez-Diaz, E.; Alexander-Aguilera, A.; Garcia, H.S.

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that dietary CLA can prevent the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in tissue structure, suggesting potential benefits in the onset of this syndrome. Wistar male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), were classified into two groups that were fed a standard diet for eight weeks: one with 7.5% sunflower oil (V-SHR group), and the other with 6% sunflower oil and 1.5% CLA (CLA-SHR group). A control healthy group consisted of Kyoto-Wistar male rats fed the standard diet with 7.5% sunflower oil. The animals were sacrificed, and sections of liver, kidneys and aorta were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and then stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Only in the V-SHR group, the stain of the aorta indicated irregular endothelial morphology; liver parenchyma was characterized by an infiltration of inflammatory neutrophils, fibrosis, thickening of the portal vein epithelium, hepatocyte hyperplasia and steatosis. The renal tissue of this group evidenced hyperplasia in the cells of the endothelial of Bowman's capsule. Abnormal histological changes were not observed in either the control group of the rats fed with CLA, suggesting a protective role of CLA in the onset of metabolic syndrome.

  11. Deterioration of edible oils during food processing by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, F; Grondin, I; Shum Cheong Sing, A; Smadja, J

    2004-01-01

    During food emulsification and processing of sunflower oil (most used edible oil), a metallic and rancid odour has been detected only for insonated oil and foods. Some off-flavour compounds (hexanal and hept-2-enal) resulting from the sono-degradation of sunflower oil have been identified. A wide variety of analytical techniques (GC determination of fatty acids, UV spectroscopy, free fatty acids and GC/MS) were used to follow the quality of insonated sunflower oil and emulsion. Different edible oils (olive, sunflower, soybean, em leader ) show significant changes in their composition (chemical and flavour) due to ultrasound treatment.

  12. Effect of Grape Seeds Oil Extracted from Radiation Processed Seeds on Lipid Metabolism and on Antioxidant Activity in Rats Fed Diets Containing Cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Grape seeds were separated from fresh grape pomace and dried at room temperature then packed in polyethylene bags and subjected to gamma rays at dose level of 10 kGy. The grape seeds oil was extracted from non and irradiated seeds. The oil quality, fatty acid composition and total phenolic compounds of oil extracted from non or irradiated seeds have been studied. The results indicated that there were significant increases in the acid value, saponification value and peroxide value of oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy by 46.2%, 2.5% and 95.2%, respectively, and the total phenolic compounds and total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) were reduced by 22.13% and 10%, respectively, as compared to those of oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. No degradation of the fatty acids; palmitic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids, were observed for oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy. However, significant decrease in oleic acid by 11.35% and increase in stearic acid by 26.22% were recorded corresponding to those for oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. The effect of grape seeds oils extracted from non or irradiated seeds on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity was investigated using 60 male Albino rats divided into six groups: (1) Control group: animals fed casein diet. (2) Ch group: animals received casein diet contains 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. (3) RGSO group: animals received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet). (4) RGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet) + 100 g cholesterol per kg diet. (5) IGSO group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet). (6) IGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet) + 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. Animals received

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs-independent functions of fish oil on glucose and lipid metabolism in diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakutsu Masaki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish oil is known to improve lifestyle-related diseases. These effects occur partly via activation of PPARs by the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids included abundantly in fish oil. We investigated fish oil functions on glucose and lipid metabolism that are both dependent on and independent of PPARs pathway. Methods Mice were fed a diet containing 30 en% beef tallow (B diet for twelve weeks to induce obesity. The mice were then divided into two groups which were fed either a B diet or a diet containing 30 en% fish oil (F diet. Each group was further divided into two groups which were administered PPARα and γ antagonists or vehicle once a day for three weeks. Results The F diet groups showed lower triglyceride levels in plasma and liver than the B diet groups, but PPARs antagonists did not affect the triglyceride levels in either diet groups. The F diet groups also showed improvement of glucose tolerance compared with the B diet groups. However, PPARs antagonists made glucose tolerance worse in the F diet group but improved it in the B diet group. Therefore, by the administration of antagonists, glucose tolerance was inversely regulated between the B and F diets, and hypolipidemic action in the plasma and liver of the F diet group was not affected. Conclusion These results suggest that fish oil decreases lipid levels in plasma and liver via PPARs pathway-independent mechanism, and that glucose tolerance is inversely regulated by PPARs antagonists under diets containing different oils.

  14. Integrated management of sunflower necrosis disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shirshikar S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower necrosis disease (SND) is a new threat for sunflower cultivation in India. The disease was observed during 1997 in Karnataka, a major sunflower growing state of India. Later, its occurrence was reported from almost all sunflower growing states of India, posing threat to sunflower cultivation. Presently no reliable resistant sources are available. The disease being viral in nature is very much difficult to combat by single approach. At Oilseeds Research Station, Latur (M.S.), India, ...

  15. Cultivation of sunflower and its utilization in livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.; Hussain, A.; Khan, S.

    2008-01-01

    The sunflower is valuable from economic, as well as ornamental point of view. Every part of the plant may be utilized for some economic purpose. The leaves form a cattle-food and the stems contain a fibre, which may be used successfully in making paper. (Khan and Rana, 1966). The leaves form a cattle-food and the stems contain a fibre, which may be used successfully in making paper. (Khan and Rana, 1966). The seed is rich in oil, which is said to be more near to olive oil, than any other vegetable oil known, and to be largely used as a substitute. In prewar days, sunflower seed was sometimes grown in this country, especially on sewage farms, as an economical crop for pheasants, as well as poultry. The flowers contain a yellow dye. The oil extracted from the seeds is of citron yellow colour and sweet in taste. Sunflower seeds have a high feedings value the analysis in round figures in 16 per cent albumen and 21 per cent fat. Being so rich in oil, they are too stimulating to use alone and should only be used in combination with other feeding stuffs. Mixed with oats in equal quantities, they make a perfectly balanced ration. (author)

  16. RXLR and CRN Effectors from the Sunflower Downy Mildew Pathogen Plasmopara halstedii Induce Hypersensitive-Like Responses in Resistant Sunflower Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Quentin; Buendia, Luis; Pecrix, Yann; Blanchet, Nicolas; Muños, Stéphane; Vear, Felicity; Godiard, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing downy mildew disease on sunflower, Helianthus annuus, an economically important oil crop. Severe symptoms of the disease (e.g., plant dwarfism, leaf bleaching, sporulation and production of infertile flower) strongly impair seed yield. Pl resistance genes conferring resistance to specific P. halstedii pathotypes were located on sunflower genetic map but yet not cloned. They are present in cultivated lines to protect them against downy mildew disease. Among the 16 different P. halstedii pathotypes recorded in France, pathotype 710 is frequently found, and therefore continuously controlled in sunflower by different Pl genes. High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from P. halstedii led us to identify potential effectors with the characteristic RXLR or CRN motifs described in other oomycetes. Expression of six P. halstedii putative effectors, five RXLR and one CRN, was analyzed by qRT-PCR in pathogen spores and in the pathogen infecting sunflower leaves and selected for functional analyses. We developed a new method for transient expression in sunflower plant leaves and showed for the first time subcellular localization of P. halstedii effectors fused to a fluorescent protein in sunflower leaf cells. Overexpression of the CRN and of 3 RXLR effectors induced hypersensitive-like cell death reactions in some sunflower near-isogenic lines resistant to pathotype 710 and not in susceptible corresponding lines, suggesting they could be involved in Pl loci-mediated resistances. PMID:28066456

  17. RXLR and CRN effectors from the sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii induce hypersensitive-like responses in resistant sunflower lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Gascuel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing downy mildew disease on sunflower, Helianthus annuus, an economically important oil crop. Severe symptoms of the disease (e.g. plant dwarfism, leaf bleaching, sporulation and production of infertile flower strongly impair seed yield. Pl resistance genes conferring resistance to specific P. halstedii pathotypes were located on sunflower genetic map but yet not cloned. They are present in cultivated lines to protect them against downy mildew disease. Among the 16 different P. halstedii pathotypes recorded in France, pathotype 710 is frequently found, and therefore continuously controlled in sunflower by different Pl genes. High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from P. halstedii led us to identify potential effectors with the characteristic RXLR or CRN motifs described in other oomycetes. Expression of six P. halstedii putative effectors, five RXLR and one CRN, was analysed by qRT-PCR in pathogen spores and in the pathogen infecting sunflower leaves and these six effectors were selected for functional analyses. We developed a new method for transient expression in sunflower plant leaves and showed for the first time subcellular localization of P. halstedii effectors fused to a fluorescent protein in sunflower leaf cells. Overexpression of the CRN and of 3 RXLR effectors induced hypersensitive-like cell death reactions in some sunflower near-isogenic lines resistant to pathotype 710 and not in susceptible corresponding lines, suggesting they could be involved in Pl loci-mediated resistances.

  18. Promotion of colon cancer metastases in rat liver by fish oil diet is not due to reduced stroma formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klieverik, L.; Fehres, O.; Griffini, P.; van Noorden, C. J.; Frederiks, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce 10-fold more metastases in number and 1000-fold in volume in an animal model of colon cancer metastasis in rat liver. It was observed that tumors of rats on a fish oil diet lacked peritumoral stroma unlike

  19. Sunflower meal for broilers of 22 to 42 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Francelino Araújo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the inclusion of sunflower meal in diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis fed to broilers of 22 to 42 days of age. Nine hundred and sixty birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (two formulation criteria - digestible or total amino acids; two sunflower meal inclusion levels - 0 or 15%, with six replicates of 40 broilers each. Performance (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion and data from carcass characteristics (eviscerated carcass and commercial cuts were evaluated. On day 42, six birds from each pen were sacrificed to determine digesta viscosity, and litter samples from each replicate pen were collected to determine litter moisture. The inclusion of 15% sunflower meal in broiler diets formulated on total amino acid basis worsens feed conversion ratio. Diets formulated on digestible amino acid basis are adequate when alternative feedstuffs, such as sunflower meal, are included. The use of sunflower meal in the diet does not influence carcass and cuts yields, but digesta viscosity increases when 15% of that feedstuff is included in the diet.

  20. Comportamento dos óleos de girassol, soja e milho em frituras de produto cárneo empanado pré-frito congelado Sunflower, soybean and corn oils behavior in frozen pre-fried coated meat product frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vieira Del Ré

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização crescente de alimentos rápidos determinou a expansão de uma indústria de produtos fritos e pré-fritos. A compreensão das mudanças que o óleo sofre durante os processos de fritura é importante, pois pode levar à otimização destes processos, e a melhoria da qualidade do óleo de fritura e do produto final. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar os níveis de alteração de diferentes óleos vegetais, girassol, soja e milho, no processo de fritura dos snacks produto cárneo empanado pré-frito congelado. As frituras foram conduzidas em temperatura de 180°C, relação superfície/volume (S/V de 0,3 cm-1 e tempo total de aquecimento de 12 horas. Nos snacks procederam-se as análises de teor de umidade e lipídios; nos óleos as determinações de compostos polares totais, ácidos graxos livres e índice de peróxidos. Nenhuma análise apresentou alteração acima dos limites recomendados por alguns países. Desta forma, concluiu-se que as condições estabelecidas no processo de fritura são seguras, indicando que todos os óleos foram adequados à fritura, sendo o óleo de milho de maior estabilidade oxidativa.The ever growing utilization of fast food determined the expansion of an industry of pre-fried and fried products. The understanding of the changes that the oil undergoes during the frying processes is outstanding because it may lead to the optimization of such processes as well as to improvements on the quality of both frying oil and the finished product. The purpose of the present study was to determine the alteration levels of different vegetable oils, sunflower, soybean and corn, in the frying process of snacks frozen pre-fried meat coated product. The frying sessions were carried out at 180ºC temperature, 0.3 cm-1surface/volume ratio and 12 hours overall heating time. As for the snacks, the moisture rate and lipids analyses were performed; for the oils, total polar compounds, free fatty acids and peroxide

  1. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  2. INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM CONTENT AND OIL SOURCES IN FEED ON CONCENTRATION OF THYROID GLAND HORMONES AND ELECTROLYTE IN BROILER BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to elaborate the influence of designed mixtures used in broilers fattening on the concentration of electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in the blood.. The research was carried out on 120 male Ross 308 hybrid broilers. The fattening lasted for 42 days. During the first three weeks of fattening broilers were fed standard starter diet containing 22% crude protein and 13.90 MJ/kg ME. During the last three weeks of fattening, broilers were divided into 6 experimental groups, each fed specially prepared finisher diets (P1=6% sunflower oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P2=6% linseed oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P3=6% sunflower oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P4=6% linseed oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P5=6% sunflower oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed, P6=6% linseed oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Finisher diet was balanced at 18.02% crude protein and 14.40 MJ/kg ME. It was found out that the type of oil in chicken feed influenced to blood pH (P <0.001, whereas selenium level (P=0.014 in the feed, as well as the oil type and selenium level interaction (P<0.001 influenced the concentration of potassium in the blood. Oil type (P=0.037 influenced the concentration of fT3, which was lower in chickens fed mixtures with addition of linseed oil than in the chickens fed sunflower oil added mixtures. Interaction of selenium content and oil type had influence on differences in concentration of fT4 as well as on the ratio of fT3/fT4, (P<0.001, i.e. P=0.021. The research results indicated that oils supplemented to broiler diets and combined with different organic selenium concentrations affected pH, concentration of some electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in broiler blood, however, all obtained values were within reference range for poultry.

  3. Addition of Aspirin to a Fish Oil Rich Diet Decreases Inflammation and Atherosclerosis in ApoE-Null Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Alexander V.; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Vaisman, Boris L.; Thacker, Seth; Yu, Zu-Xi; Sampson, Maureen; Serhan, Charles N.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is known to alter the production of potent inflammatory lipid mediators, but whether it interacts with omega-3 fatty acids (FA) from fish oil to affect atherosclerosis has not been determined. The goal was to investigate the impact of a fish oil enriched diet alone and in combination with ASA on the production of lipid mediators and atherosclerosis. ApoE−/− female mice were fed for 13 weeks one of the four following diets: Omega-3 FA deficient (OD), Omega-3 FA Rich (OR) (1.8 g Omega-3 FAs/kg • diet per day), Omega-3 FA Rich plus ASA (ORA) (0.1 g ASA/kg • diet per day), or an Omega-3 FA deficient plus ASA (ODA) with supplement levels equivalent to human doses. Plasma lipids, atherosclerosis, markers of inflammation, hepatic gene expression and aortic lipid mediators were determined. Hepatic omega-3 FAs were markedly higher in OR (9.9-fold) and ORA (7-fold) groups. Mice in both OR and ORA groups had 40% less plasma cholesterol in VLDL and LDL fractions, but aortic plaque area formation was only significantly lower in the ORA group (5.5%) compared to the OD group (2.5%). Plasma PCSK9 protein levels were approximately 70% lower in the OR and ORA groups. Pro-inflammatory aortic lipid mediators were 50–70% lower in the ODA group than in the OD group and more than 50% lower in the ORA group. In summary, less aortic plaque lesions and aortic pro-inflammatory lipid mediators were observed in mice on the fish oil diet plus ASA versus just the fish oil diet. PMID:27394692

  4. Lipídios modificados obtidos a partir de gordura do leite, óleo de girassol e ésteres de fitosteróis para aplicação em spreads Modified lipids obtained from milk fat, sunflower oil, and phytosterol esters for application in tablespreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Neves Rodrigues Ract

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to evaluate the modifications in milkfat properties with the addition of sunflower oil (SO and phytosterol esters (PE and chemical interesterification. Fatty acid composition, softening point and consistency were determined. The saturation degree of milkfat decreased with the addition of SO and PE. Consequently, milkfat presented lower softening point and consistency. Chemical interesterification caused an increase in softening point due to the formation of higher amounts of trissaturated triacylglycerols with rearrangement. The incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids from SO and PE by milkfat triacylglycerols after chemical reaction caused linearization of consistency curves.

  5. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beef and pork, and sweets is limited. Drinking wine in moderation is encouraged. Studies have shown that ... levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and may benefit ...

  6. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Preliminary study of rubber seed Hevea brasiliensis oil utilization for tilapia diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Komariyah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was conducted as a preliminary study on utilization of RBO for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis sp. diet by also evaluating its effect on growth the performance. This research used SULTANA strain at average initial body weights of 8.33±0.07 g/ind. Experimental design was set in completely randomized design. Each treatment was done in triplicates. The treatments were various additions of RBO to replace corn oil in the diet, which were 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Feeding rate, feed efficiency, protein retention, fat retention, specific growth rate, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL (high-density lipoprotein, and hematology were used as evaluating parameters. The results showed that the growth performance, blood chemistry and hematology of fish decreased as the increasing of RBO level in the diet. These are caused by feed intake decreased significantly, which were 583.5 g to 145.6 g of treatments 0% to 100% RBO. Blood glucose, haemoglobin and specific growth of fish in the treatment of 0–100% RBO were 48.7–22.2 mg/dL, 7.6–5.4%, and 3.5–0.8%, respectively. The lowest survival was observed in fish fed 100% RBO (66.7%. Fish growth performance of 0% RBO was the best, so RBO could not be utilized yet as a source of fatty acid or corn oil replacement in tilapia diet. Keywords: free radical, HCN, Oreochromis sp., rubber seed oil  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan sebagai studi awal pemanfaatan minyak biji karet (MBK untuk pakan ikan nila dan mengevaluasi pengaruhnya terhadap pertumbuhan ikan nila. Ikan uji yang digunakan adalah ikan nila strain SULTANA dengan bobot awal rata-rata 8,33±0,07 g/ind. Penelitian didesain dalam rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Perlakuan yang diuji berbagai sumbangan MBK untuk mengganti minyak jagung dalam pakan, yaitu 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, dan 100%. Selama pemeliharaan, beberapa parameter yang diukur adalah jumlah konsumsi pakan, efisiensi pakan, retensi

  8. Different purification methods and quality of sunflower biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, A.L.M.T.; Park, K.J. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Agricultural Engineering; Ferrari, R.A.; Miguel, A.M.R.O. [Food Technology Inst., Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel is derived from triacylglycerides and is produced primarily through transesterification, a chemical reaction of vegetable oils with alcohol, methanol or ethanol. The cost of raw material should be considered since 85 per cent of production cost is related to vegetable oil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oil expression of sunflower seed. It also examined the sunflower crude oil as a raw material for biodiesel by transesterification in both laboratory and pilot scale studies. Three different biodiesel purification methods were examined. The best result for oil expelling (68.4 per cent) at the experimental stage was obtained for seeds with a moisture content of 6.9 per cent at 25 degrees C and at a screw speed of 114 rpm. For biodiesel production at the laboratory scale, the best result for oil expelling was 87.5 per cent. It was obtained with an ethanol:oil molar ratio of 4.7:1 and with a 4.42 per cent catalyst concentration related to the quantity of oil that had to be transesterified. The experimental condition was applied at a bigger scale with a batch stirred tank reactor. For purification with washing, the biodiesel yield was 84.2 per cent. Purification with silica resulted in a yield of 84.6 per cent. A better quality biofuel was obtained through distillation of biodiesel.

  9. Synthesis and refining of sunflower biodiesel in a cascade of continuous centrifugal contactor separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Abu Ghazali, Yusuf; van Ulden, Wouter; van de Bovenkamp, Hendrik; Teddy, T; Picchioni, Francesco; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from sunflower oil and methanol was studied in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effect of relevant process variables like oil and methanol flow rate, rotational speed and catalyst

  10. Dietary Flaxseed Oil Prevents Western-Type Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Apolipoprotein-E Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has dramatically increased globally during recent decades. Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3, is believed to be beneficial to the development of NAFLD. However, little information is available with regard to the effect of flaxseed oil rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3, a plant-derived n-3 PUFA, in improving NAFLD. This study was to gain the effect of flaxseed oil on NAFLD and further investigate the underlying mechanisms. Apolipoprotein-E knockout (apoE-KO mice were given a normal chow diet, a western-type high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (WTD, or a WTD diet containing 10% flaxseed oil (WTD + FO for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of flaxseed oil significantly improved WTD-induced NAFLD, as well as ameliorated impaired lipid homeostasis, attenuated oxidative stress, and inhibited inflammation. These data were associated with the modification effects on expression levels of genes involved in de novo fat synthesis (SREBP-1c, ACC, triacylglycerol catabolism (PPARα, CPT1A, and ACOX1, inflammation (NF-κB, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1, and oxidative stress (ROS, MDA, GSH, and SOD.

  11. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  12. Development of sunflower germplasm with high delta-tocopherol content

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco L.; Pérez-Vich B.; Fernández-Martínez J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Tocopherols are the main compounds with antioxidant activity in oilseeds Sunflower seeds contain predominantly alpha-tocopherol, which accounts for more than 90% of the total tocopherols in the seeds. This tocopherol derivative possesses a maximum vitamin E or in vivo antioxidant activity, but it exerts a minimum in vitro protective action in oils and food containing them. Other tocopherol derivatives such as beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol are more powerful antioxidants than alpha-tocoph...

  13. Confectionery products (halva type obtained from sunflower: production technology and quality alterations. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mureşan, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower "halva" is a popular and widely enjoyed confectionery product specific to the countries of Eastern Europe. Conventional halva has historically been produced from sesame seeds in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, in the production of halva in Eastern Europe, sesame seeds have been largely replaced by sunflower seeds, due to the high availability of sunflower in this region and the comparable taste of the final product. Due to the importance of the cost of raw materials in the food industry, utilization of sunflower seeds in halva production may be of great interest worldwide because it offers the possibility of significantly lowering production costs. Nevertheless, oil separation and storage techniques must be perfected if sunflower halva is to fulfill its promise of becoming a cost effective alternative to sesame seed halva on a worldwide scale. The aims of this review are firstly, to describe the current state of sunflower halva technology, secondly, to isolate the main problems affecting the quality of the final product, and thirdly, to suggest areas of further research necessary to move sunflower halva production closer to reaching its full potential on the world market.

  14. [Effects of vegetal oil supplementation on the lipid profile of Wistar rats ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Elpidia; Ayala, Paola; Milena, Rodríguez; Ordóñez, Edgar; Baracaldo, Cesar; Delgado, Willman; Guerra, Martha

    2005-03-01

    Dietary tocopherols, tocotrienols and saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported to have an effect on blood lipid profiles. In Colombia, vegetable oils (palm, soy, corn, sunflower, and canola) are a common dietary constituent and consumed in high quantities. In the current study, the effects of vegetable oil consumption was examined by measuring blood concentrations of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) in male Wistar rats. The concentrations of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and fatty acids in each oil was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Each rat diet was supplemented with 0.2 ml/day with one oil type. Over a 4-week period, groups of animals were sacrificed weekly and blood samples were obtained to quantify TC, TG and HDL-C for each oil class. Statistical analyses included mean, standard deviation, ANOVA and Bonferroni comparisons tests. Triglyceride content was not affected except in the control and the soy group in the third treatment week, although a tendency for decreased TG was noted in the palm oil group and for increased TG in the sunflower oil and canola oil groups. No significant differences in total cholesterol were observed. In HDL-C, significant differences were present for every treatment week (p = 0.005); this represented a decreasing trend in palm oil group and an increasing trend in the sunflower and corn oil groups. The oils effected changes in the blood lipid profile. A small amount of saturated fatty acids (tocopherol and tocotrienol) were favourable for the HDL-C increase. The presenct of tocorienols tended to decrease the TG and probably helped attenuate the unfavorable effects of the saturated fatty acids.

  15. Intake and digestibility of diets containing energy sources associated with sunflower meal or urea in feedlot steers - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.11049 Consumo e digestibilidade de dietas contendo fontes energéticas associadas ao farelo de girassol ou ureia em novilhos confinados - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i2.11049

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Faturi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake and total and partial digestibility of diets using corn, soybean hulls and citrus pulp associated with sunflower meal or urea in feedlot steers. Four steers ½ Aberdeen Angus vs. ½ Nellore, fitted with rumen and duodenum cannulas, with 18 months old and 360 kg of initial weight. The diets were composed of two energy sources (corn and citrus pulp associated with two nitrogen sources (urea and sunflower meal, in a total of four treatments, with forage:concentrate ratio of 40:60. The statistical design was a Latin square with four treatments and four periods of 21 days each. The average daily dry matter intake was influenced (p 0.05 among diets for ruminal and intestinal digestibility. The use of co-products in animal feed did not impair the digestibility of diets and are shown as high potential ingredients for use in beef cattle diets.Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade total e parcial de dietas utilizando milho, casca de soja e polpa cítrica associados ao farelo de girassol ou ureia em novilhos confinados. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos ½ Aberdeen Angus vs. ½ Nelore, providos de cânulas no rúmen e duodeno, com 18 meses de idade e 360 kg de peso médio inicial. As dietas foram constituídas por duas fontes energéticas (milho grão e polpa cítrica associadas a duas fontes nitrogenadas (ureia e farelo de girassol, totalizando quatro tratamentos, numa proporção volumoso:concentrado de 40:60. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino com quatro tratamentos e quatro períodos de 21 dias cada. O consumo médio diário de matéria seca foi influenciado (p 0,05 entre as dietas para as digestibilidades ruminal e intestinal. A utilização de coprodutos na alimentação animal não prejudicou a digestibilidade das dietas, sendo indicados como ingredientes de elevado potencial de utilização em dietas para bovinos de corte.

  16. Effects of Added Lipids on Digestibility and Nitrogen Balance in Oiled Common Murres ( Uria aalge ) and Western Grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ) Fed Four Formulations of a Critical Care Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Rebecca S; Klasing, Kirk C

    2017-06-01

    Nutritional support is a primary therapy administered to oiled animals during responses to oil spills, but data informing nutritional decision-making during events are limited. In this study, 44 common murres ( Uria aalge ) and 6 Western grebes ( Aechmophorus occidentalis ), naturally oiled by oceanic seeps off the coast of Ventura and Santa Barbara Counties, CA, USA, were assigned to 1 of 4 groups fed diets with varying levels (6.8% [no added oil], 11%, and 20%) and types (salmon, corn) of oil added to a partially purified basal diet. Birds used in the study ranged from extremely emaciated to thin body condition (62%-80% wild bird mean body mass). Acid-insoluble ash was used as an indigestible dietary marker to quantify nitrogen retention, apparent nitrogen digestibility, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, energy digestibility, fat retention, fat digestibility, and estimated fat excretion. Fat excretion is important in these species because once birds have been cleaned they are at risk of plumage recontamination from excreted fat during care. Lower fat diets resulted in lower fat excretion but higher nitrogen retention, higher apparent nitrogen digestibility, and higher apparent metabolizable energy. Decreases in nitrogen retention were significantly related to increases in fat excretion. Regardless of diet, energy digestibility significantly declined with declines in body mass, suggesting severity of emaciation reduced a birds' ability to extract energy from food. Energy digestibility was highest in the 11% (low) salmon oil diet; hence, this diet had the highest effective energy content despite a lower gross kcal/kg diet. Diets fed during oil spills historically have had high fat concentrations to provide maximum caloric support. Results of this study suggest that lower fat diets may be more efficacious for nutritionally depleted seabirds. This study provides valuable data to guide clinical decision making regarding nutritional support during oil

  17. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  18. Modulation of the Gut Microbiota by Krill Oil in Mice Fed a High-Sugar High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Lu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the gut microbiota plays vital roles in metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia. Previous studies have confirmed that krill oil can alleviate hyperlipidemia, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To discern whether krill oil changes the structure of the gut microbiota during the hyperlipidemia treatment, 72 mice were acclimatized with a standard chow diet for 2 weeks and then randomly allocated to receive a standard chow diet (control group, n = 12 or a high-sugar-high-fat (HSHF diet supplemented with a low (100 μg/g·d, HSHF+LD group, n = 12, moderate (200 μg/g·d, HSHF+MD group, n = 12 or high dosage of krill oil (600 μg/g·d, HSHF+HD group, n = 12, simvastatin (HSHF+S group, n = 12 or saline (HSHF group, n = 12 continuously for 12 weeks. The resulting weight gains were attenuated, the liver index and the low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations showed a stepwise reduction in the treated groups compared with those of the control group. A dose-dependent modulation of the gut microbiota was observed after treatment with krill oil. Low- and moderate- doses of krill oil increased the similarity between the composition of the HSHF diet-induced gut microbiota and that of the control, whereas the mice fed the high-dose exhibited a unique gut microbiota structure that was different from that of the control and HSHF groups. Sixty-five key operational taxonomic units (OTUs that responded to the krill oil treatment were identified using redundancy analysis, of which 26 OTUs were increased and 39 OTUs were decreased compared with those of the HSHF group. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study suggest that the structural alterations in the gut microbiota induced by krill oil treatment were dose-dependent and associated with the alleviation of hyperlipidemia. Additionally, the high-dose krill oil treatment showed combined effects on the alleviation of

  19. An extra virgin olive oil rich diet intervention ameliorates the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis induced by a high-fat "Western-type" diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Ruiz, Enrique; Varela, Lourdes M; Luque, Amparo; Berná, Genoveva; Cahuana, Gladys; Martinez-Force, Enrique; Gallego-Durán, Rocío; Soria, Bernat; de Roos, Baukje; Romero Gómez, Manuel; Martín, Franz

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the protective effect of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in high-fat diets (HFDs) on the inflammatory response and liver damage in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mouse model. C57BL/6J mice were fed a standard diet or a lard-based HFD (HFD-L) for 12 wk to develop NAFLD. HFD-fed mice were then divided into four groups and fed for 24 wk with the following: HFD-L, HFD-EVOO, HFD based on phenolics-rich EVOO, and reversion (standard diet). HFD-L-induced metabolic disorders were alleviated by replacement of lard with EVOO. EVOO diets improved plasma lipid profile and reduced body weight, plasma and epididymal fat INF-γ, IL-6 and leptin levels, and macrophage infiltration. Moreover, NAFLD activity scores were reduced. The liver lipid composition showed an increase in MUFAs, especially oleic acid, and a decrease in saturated fatty acids. Hepatic adiponutrin and Cd36 gene expression was upregulated in the EVOO groups. Liver ingenuity pathway analysis revealed in EVOO groups regulation of proteins involved in lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, gastrointestinal disease, and liver regeneration. Dietary EVOO could repair HFD-induced hepatic damage, possibly via an anti-inflammatory effect in adipose tissue and modifications in the liver lipid composition and signaling pathways. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The effects of agricultural subsidies on sunflower cultivation and farmers income: evidence from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of both premium support application on sunflower cultivation area, production amount and support payments on producer income are investigated. In this study it is concluded that premium supports are inefficient on increasing sunflower cultivation area and production whereas it is concluded that it has an important role on producer income and in the determination of the market price. In fact, from a survey that we have carried out, it emerges that the area-based support (diesel oil, fertilizer etc. support) together with premium support increase the revenue of sunflower up to 27.74% per unit area and the gross profit in the proportion of 98.87%. This study indicates that in order to increase the sunflower production in Turkey the amounts of sunflower premium support, diesel oil and fertilizer should be rearranged in compliance with current market conditions. Moreover, for other agricultural products, the use of certified seed should also be included into agricultural support programmes. Production on well irrigated areas should be widened and the use of oil crops varieties with high oil ratio should be extended. (author)

  1. Effects of organic plant oils and role of oxidation on nutrient utilization in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, I; Dalsgaard, J; Jacobsen, C; Hansen, J H; Holm, J; Jokumsen, A

    2013-03-01

    Producing organic fish diets requires that the use of both fishmeal and fish oil (FO) be minimized and replaced by sustainable, organic sources. The purpose of the present study was to replace FO with organic oils and evaluate the effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily specific growth rate (SGR) and nutrient digestibility in diets in which fishmeal protein was partly substituted by organic plant protein concentrates. It is prohibited to add antioxidants to organic oils, and therefore the effects of force-oxidizing the oils (including FO) on feed intake and nutrient digestibility was furthermore examined. Four organic oils with either a relatively high or low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids were considered: linseed oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and grapeseed oil. Substituting FO with organic oils did not affect feed intake (P > 0.05), FCR or SGR (P > 0.05) despite very different dietary fatty acid profiles. All organic plant oils had a positive effect on apparent lipid digestibility compared with the FO diet (P digestibility of other macronutrients when compared with the FO diet (P > 0.05). Organic vegetable oils did not undergo auto-oxidation as opposed to the FO, and the FO diet consequently had a significantly negative effect on the apparent lipid digestibility. Feed intake was not affected by oxidation of any oils. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that it is possible to fully substitute FO with plant-based organic oils without negatively affecting nutrient digestibility and growth performance. Furthermore, plant-based organic oils are less likely to oxidize than FOs, prolonging the shelf life of such organic diets.

  2. The addition of medium-chain triglycerides to a purified fish oil-based diet alters inflammatory profiles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Sarah J; Nandivada, Prathima; Chang, Melissa I; Mitchell, Paul D; O'Loughlin, Alison; Cowan, Eileen; Gura, Kathleen M; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R; Puder, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of supplementation with vegetable oils, including castor oil, on milk production of ewes and on growth of their lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Michelle de Oliveira Maia; Susin, Ivanete; Nolli, Cristine Paduan; Ferreira, Evandro Maia; Gentil, Renato Shinkai; Polizel, Daniel Montanher; Pires, Alexandre Vaz; Alves, Susana Paula; Bessa, Rui José Branquinho

    2018-02-15

    The objectives in this experiment were to compare the effects of castor oil, canola oil, or sunflower oil on lactation performance, milk composition, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Santa Inês ewes and on growth of lambs. Forty-four ewes (66.9 ± 4.7 kg of initial BW, mean ± SD) were penned individually with their lambs and used in a randomized complete block design with 11 blocks and four diets. The experimental diets were as follows: 1) basal diet without added oil (control), 2) 30 g FA/kg DM of canola oil (CAN), 3) 30 g FA/kg DM of sunflower oil (SUN), and 4) 30 g FA/kg DM of castor oil (CAS). The oils were added to a basal diet containing 50% of roughage. Once a week, from the 2nd to 8th wk of lactation, ewes were separated from their lambs, injected with oxytocin, and mechanically milked to empty the udder. After 3 h, using the same procedure, milk production was recorded, and milk was sampled for composition and FA profile determination. The growth of the lambs was monitored weekly. Ewes fed the control diet had greater (P oil-supplemented diets. No effect was observed on milk yield and on final BW of lambs. Milk fat and milk total solid concentrations were greater (P oil-supplemented diets reduced (P < 0.05) the content of 16:0 when compared with the control. Milk from ewes fed CAS presented only small proportion of 12-OH,c9-18:1 (0.31% of total FA) but much larger proportions of 12-OH-18:0 (1.58% of total FA) and particularly of 12-oxo-18:0 (2.95 % of total FA), which suggests that 12-OH,c9-18:1 was extensively metabolized in the rumen. Concluding, CAS increased milk fat and modified the milk FA composition by increasing the hydroxy- and oxo-FA. The potential health promoting proprieties and technological advantages of milk enriched with hydroxy- and oxo-FA are not know at present but deserve to be explored.

  4. CORONARY DIET INTERVENTION WITH OLIVE OIL AND CARDIOVASCULAR PREVENTION STUDY (THE CORDIOPREV STUDY): RATIONALE, METHODS, AND BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I.; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years, in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009–12) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high BMI (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity), with a median of LDL-cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having <100 mg/dL, and 20.3% patients < 70 mg/dL). 9.6% of the participants were active smokers, and 64.4% were former smokers. Metabolic Syndrome was present in 58% of this population. To sum up, we describe here the rationale, methods and baseline characteristics of the CORDIOPREV study, which will test for the first time the efficacy of a Mediterranean Diet rich in extra virgin olive oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long term follow-up study. PMID:27297848

  5. Substitution of fish oil with camelina oil and inclusion of camelina meal in diets fed to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and their effects on growth, tissue lipid classes, and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, S M; Parrish, C C

    2014-03-01

    Developing a commercially relevant Atlantic cod aquaculture industry will require improvements in feed sustainability. Camelina oil and meal are potential replacements of fish oil and fish meal in aquaculture feeds. Camelina oil is high in 18:3ω3 (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio > 1. Camelina meal has a considerable crude protein level (38%), which includes significant amounts of methionine and phenylalanine. Four diets were tested; each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (3 tanks per diet) of Atlantic cod (14.4 g/fish; 70 fish per tank) for 13 wk. The diets included a fish oil/fish meal control (FO) and three diets which replaced 100% of fish oil with camelina oil: one diet contained fish meal (100CO), another solvent extracted fish meal (100COSEFM), and another had fish meal partially reduced by 15% inclusion of camelina meal (100CO15CM). Growth was measured (length and weight) and tissue samples were collected for lipid analysis (muscle, liver, brain, gut, spleen, skin, and carcass) at wk 0 (before feeding the experimental diet) and at wk 13. Cod fed camelina oil had a lower (P replacement of fish oil with camelina oil, plus solvent extracted fish meal had an overarching effect on the entire fatty acid profile of the whole animal. Fatty acid mass balance calculations indicated that cod fed 100COSEFM elongated 13% of 18:3ω3 to 20:3ω3 and oxidized the remaining 87%, whereas cod fed fish oil showed a much lower (P meal caused the greatest change in cod lipid composition and utilization.

  6. The pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) and its oil and polyphenolic fractions differentially modulate lipid metabolism and the antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Avila, Jesús A; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; López-Díaz, José A; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E; Gómez-García, María Del Consuelo; de la Rosa, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Tree nuts such as pecans (Carya illinoinensis) contain mostly oil but are also a source of polyphenols. Nut consumption has been linked to a reduction in serum lipid levels and oxidative stress. These effects have been attributed to the oil while overlooking the potential contribution of the polyphenols. Because the evidence regarding each fraction's bioactivity is scarce, we administered high-fat (HF) diets to male Wistar rats, supplementing them with pecan oil (HF+PO), pecan polyphenols (HF+PP) or whole pecans (HF+WP), and analysed the effects of each fraction. The HF diet increased the serum leptin and total cholesterol (TC) with respect to the control levels. The HF+WP diet prevented hyperleptinemia and decreased the TC compared with the control. The HF+WP diet upregulated the hepatic expression of apolipoprotein B and LDL receptor mRNAs with respect to the HF levels. The HF+PO diet reduced the level of triacylglycerols compared with the control. The HF+PP diet stimulated the hepatic expression of liver X receptor alpha mRNA. The HF+WP diet increased the activities of hepatic catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S transferase compared with the control, and decreased the degree of lipid peroxidation compared with the HF diet. The most bioactive diet was the WP diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of olive oil-rich diet on serum omentin and adiponectin levels: a randomized cross-over clinical trial among overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Akram; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of olive oil-rich diet on omentin and adiponectin concentrations. This cross-over randomized trial included 17 overweight women. Participants were assigned to consume either a usual (16% saturated fatty acids [SFA] and 8% monounsaturated fatty acid [MUFA]) or an olive oil-rich diet (16% MUFA and 8% SFA) for 6 weeks crossing over after a 2-week washout period. There was no significant difference in the changes of omentin between two dietary interventions. However, in the adjusted model for polyunsaturated fatty acids and fat mass, usual diet tended to decrease omentin levels whilst olive oil-rich diet tended to increase (-56.1 ± 32.0 versus 40.6 ± 32.0 ng/mL; p = .056). Adiponectin levels increased during two periods, but changes were greater during olive oil-rich diet with a trend toward significance (4.8 ± 3.0 versus 13.4 ± 3.0 μg/mL; p = .06). Consumption of olive oil-rich diet tended to increase omentin and adiponectin in comparison with the usual diet.

  8. Adding palm oil to the diet of sheep alters fatty acids profile on yogurt: Benefits to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Anderson E; Silva, Aleksandro S DA; Biazus, Angelisa H; Richards, Neila S P S; Pellegrini, Luis G; Baldissera, Matheus D; Macedo, Vicente P; Silveira, André L F DA

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to modify the fatty acid profile of yogurt from sheep milk by the inclusion of different concentrations of palm oil into their diet. Thus, thirty-six sheep during lactation were separated in four groups with nine animals each, as described below: the group T0 (0%); the group T2 (inclusion of 2% of palm oil); the group T4 (inclusion of 4% of palm oil) and the group T6 (inclusion of 6% of palm oil). After 60 days of the supplementation, milk samples were collected and yogurt was produced, which was evaluated regarding the concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PFA). A significant reduction (pyogurt of sheep supplemented with 4 and 6% of palm oil. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that palm oil supplementation exerts positive effects on yogurt, since it led to the reduction of undesirable fatty acids and increased fatty acids beneficial to human health.

  9. Características seminais de galos alimentados com rações suplementadas com diferentes óleos e níveis de vitamina E Seminal characteristics roosters fed diets supplemented with different oils and vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Elizabeth Orihuela Rodenas

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho no setor de avicultura de DZO-UFLA, durante o período de junho a outubro de 2003. Foram utilizados 112 galos reprodutores da linhagem Lohmann- LSL, de 16 até 32 semanas de idade. As aves foram distribuídas num delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 3x2 + 1, com três tipos de óleo (Soja, Canola e Girassol, e dois níveis de vitamina E (200 e 400 mg/kg de ração e o controle (sem óleo e 0 mg de suplementação de vitamina E. As rações experimentais foram elaboradas à base de milho e farelo de soja. Nas 28ª e 29ª semanas foram realizadas coletas de sêmen para avaliação da motilidade, volume do sêmen, concentração, número de células totais e a morfologia espermática. As análises foram realizadas com utilização do programa SAEG. Foi observada interação significativa (P=0,08 entre as fontes de óleos testadas e os níveis de vitamina E, para a motilidade espermática na 28ª semana de idade. Não foi observada diferença significativa (P>0,05 entre as fontes de óleo nem entre os níveis de vitamina E para nenhuma das variáveis estudadas. Conclui-se que qualquer fonte de óleo das utilizadas neste estudo pode ser adicionada à ração de galos reprodutores sem necessidade de elevados níveis de vitamina E.The objective of this study was evaluate breeding and productive performance of Lohmann- LSL roosters. A total of 112 breeding roosters from 16 to 32 weeks of age were allotted to a randomized block design in a 3 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, with three sources of oil (soybean, canola and sunflower in 3%of inclusion and two levels of antioxidant (200 and 400 mg of vitamin E/kg of diet and the control diet (without oil and 0 mg of supplementation of vitamin E. The experimental diets were made based on corn and soybean meal. At 28 and 29 weeks, semen collection was performed for evaluation of sperm motility, semen volume, concentration and number of total cells. At 29 weeks of age

  10. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Lante, Isabella; Scapaticci, Margherita; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2015-09-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils), has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC), principal component (PCA) and Pearson's correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO) adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%).

  11. Effect of Diet High in Coconut Oil on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in ApoE Knockout and Wild Type Mice (Mus musculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Objective: We evaluated the risk of cardiovascular disease in both control and proatherosclerotic mice consuming diets high in coconut oil. Methods...evaluated by a pathologist blinded to treatment. Results: There were no differences in the average weight gain or amount of diet consumed regardless of...genotype or diet consumed . Similarly, there were no differences in total cholesterol, HDL, and triglyceride in any of the groups. Statistically

  12. Gamma radiation induced mutant for improved yield components in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elangovan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Sunflower has become an important oilseed in the Indian vegetable oil pool following its introduction from Russia in 1969. It can be used for all quality products useful to humans. The need for genetic variability and new useful gene sources has necessitated that sunflower breeders and geneticists utilize a wide range of germplasm in their breeding programmes. The induction of mutations in sunflower by physical and chemical mutagens has been practiced quite intensively in the last two decades. The results recorded to date suggest that utilization of mutagenesis could be a great advantage in improving the sunflower crop. An induced mutation programme was undertaken to generate variability in the variety 'Morden' using gamma rays. The certified and genetically pure seeds were irradiated with 50, 100, and 150 Gy gamma rays and used for further studies. Selection in M 2 generations, raised from different treatments, revealed the presence of an erectophylly leaf mutant from 50 Gy treatment. The isolated mutant showed improved yield components like head diameter, 100- seed weight and yield per plant. The mutant was a plant with short petiole length and erect leaves. This type of leaf get sunlight throughout the day. From morning to afternoon, the first half of the leaf gets sunlight, and from afternoon to evening the second half of the leaf gets sunlight. As a result of getting sunlight the whole day, the plant had more photosynthetic products and grew vigorously. Plant height, head diameter and 100-seed weight had direct effect on seed yield, and the number of leaves and stem diameter influenced the seed yield indirectly. In the M 3 generation, the mutant showed an almost two-fold increase over the parent variety for all investigated characters, except that of the yield per plant where there was a three-fold increase. The present investigation has shown that there are remarkable possibilities of increasing the yield components in sunflower by induced mutations

  13. FORTIFICATION OF SUNFLOWER PLANTS (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS FORTIFICATION OF SUNFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Škarpa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a trace element which in small amounts is necessary for human and animal nutrition. In the organism it helps a number of antioxidant enzymes to function normally. In many parts of the world, including the Central European region, its content in agricultural products is very low. Attempts are therefore made to increase its content and cover human requirements with biologically valuable products by incorporating selenium into the system of plant nutrition. In a vegetation trial established in 2010 and 2011 we explored the effect of foliar applications of Se (IV on achenes yields and on content of selenium in the seeds and the uptake of selenium by the sunflower stand. Solutions of sodium selenite at 0.16 and 0.5 g Se.he-1 were applied at rates 50 and 150 g Se.ha-1 at the beginning of elongation growth (stage R-1. Sunflower achenes yields were significantly influenced by the weather in the experimental years. In 2011 sunflower production was by 29.4% lower than in 2010. Se fortification in dose 50 g Se.ha-1 increased sunflower achenes yield by 3.1%. The higher dose of selenium (150 g Se.ha-1 reduced yields by 6.8% compared with the no-fertilized treatment. Due to the effect of foliar Se nutrition the content of selenium in sunflower achenes increased highly significantly from 123 µg.kg-1 to 6,004 µg.kg-1 of achenes. The weight of 1000 achenes, oil content and content of palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic acids were not significantly affected by selenium application. Fortification of Se increased stearic acid content from 3.16% to 3.47%.

  14. A safflower oil-based high fat/high-sucrose diet modulates the gut microbiota and liver phospholipid profiles associated with early glucose intolerance in the absence of tissue inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos; Andersen, Daniel; Radulescu, Ilinca Daria

    2017-01-01

    n-6 PUFA-rich diets are generally considered obesogenic in rodents. Here we examined how long-term intake of a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet based on safflower oil affected metabolism, inflammation and gut microbiota composition. We fed male C57BL/6J mice a HF/HS diet based on safflower oil...

  15. Amelioration of oxidative and inflammatory status in hearts of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with oils or oil-products with extra virgin olive oil components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Papalois, Apostolos; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) macro- and micro-constituents in heart oxidative and inflammatory status in a hypercholesterolemic rat model was evaluated. Fatty acid profile as well as α-tocopherol, sterol, and squalene content was identified directly in rat hearts to distinguish the effect of individual components or to enlighten the potential synergisms. Oils and oil-products with discernible lipid and polar phenolic content were used. Wistar rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet solely, or supplemented with one of the following oils, i.e., EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) or oil-products, i.e., phenolics-deprived EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], and HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. Dietary treatment lasted 9 weeks; at the end of the intervention blood and heart samples were collected. High-cholesterol-diet-induced dyslipidemia was shown by increase in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols. Dyslipidemia resulted in increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, while glutathione and interleukin 6 levels remained unaffected in all intervention groups. Augmentation observed in MDA and TNF-α was attenuated in EVOO, SO(+), and HOSO(+) groups. Heart squalene and cholesterol content remained unaffected among all groups studied. Heart α-tocopherol was determined by oil α-tocopherol content. Variations were observed for heart β-sitosterol, while heterogeneity was reported with respect to heart fatty acid profile in all intervention groups. Overall, we suggest that the EVOO-polar phenolic compounds decreased MDA and TNF-α in hearts of cholesterol-fed rats.

  16. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  17. A fish oil diet does not reverse insulin resistance despite decreased adipose tissue TNF-alpha protein concentration in ApoE-3*Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muurling, Martin; Mensink, Ronald P.; Pijl, Hanno; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary interventions with fish oil have been found to protect against the development of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and to decrease the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. However, the effect of fish oil administration on preexisting insulin resistance is subject to

  18. Chronic Swimming Exercise Ameliorates Low-Soybean-Oil Diet-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment by Enhancing BDNF-Mediated Synaptic Potentiation in Developing Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mei; Cong, Jiyan; Wu, Yulong; Xie, Jiacun; Wang, Siyuan; Zhao, Yue; Zang, Xiaoying

    2018-05-01

    Exercise and low-fat diets are common lifestyle modifications used for the treatment of hypertension besides drug therapy. However, unrestrained low-fat diets may result in deficiencies of low-unsaturated fatty acids and carry contingent risks of delaying neurodevelopment. While aerobic exercise shows positive neuroprotective effects, it is still unclear whether exercise could alleviate the impairment of neurodevelopment that may be induced by certain low-fat diets. In this research, developing spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with chronic swimming exercise and/or a low-soybean-oil diet for 6 weeks. We found that performance in the Morris water maze was reduced and long-term potentiation in the hippocampus was suppressed by the diet, while a combination treatment of exercise and diet alleviated the impairment induced by the specific low-fat diet. Moreover, the combination treatment effectively increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR), which were both down-regulated by the low-soybean-oil diet in the hippocampus of developing SHR. These findings suggest that chronic swimming exercise can ameliorate the low-soybean-oil diet-induced learning and memory impairment in developing SHR through the up-regulation of BDNF and NMDAR expression.

  19. Characterization of the Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Valin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Georgiev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A male sterile two-linear sunflower hybrid was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo using the method of inter-linear hybridization. The mother component is line 10517 which possesses cytoplasmic male sterility, and the father component is line 10595R, a fertility restorer of branched type. Both parental forms have very good general and specific combining ability. Hybrid Valin is medium early, with vegetation period of 110 – 115 days, plant height 165 – 175 cm and head diameter 17 – 18 cm. The percent of kernel in seed is within the range of 65 – 73%. Seeds have absolute weight 50 – 55 g, and oil content in seed is 46 – 50%. The hybrid is resistant to lodging and moderately resistant to phoma and phomopsis. The resistance to downy mildew is as high as 95 % up to race 700, and the resistance to the parasite Orobanche is 100% (races A-F. In the breeding fields of DAI the hybrid went through threeyear testing according to a scheme and growing technology approved for this crop. During the first two years of the control testing it exceeded the mean standard by seed yield with 11.0% and 14.4%, respectively. During the third year, hybrid Valin was above the mean standard with 10.9% by seed yield and with 6.6% by oil yield in a unified competitive varietal testing. The maximum yield obtained at DAI was 4483 kg/ha, and the maximum oil content was 50.1%. In 2007 and 2008 hybrid Valin went through official testing within the structure of the Executive Agency of Variety Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control of Bulgaria. By the index seed yield, the exceeding of the mean standard was 23.6 % in the first year, and in the second the yield was with 1.4 % below the standard. Oil content was a little below the standard in both years. The aim of this investigation was to make as full as possible a characterization of the new registered sunflower hybrid Valin on the base of biological, phytopatological and

  20. Plant response to sunflower seeds to osmotic conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Barros de Morais

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seeds osmotic conditioning in seedlings emergence and plants performance of sunflower. Three lots of seeds sunflower (Catissol, was submited to osmotic conditioning with polyethylene glycol solution, –2,0 MPa in aerated system, under 15 ºC for 8 hour and then was evaluated for germination tests and vigour. Under filed conditions was conducted emergency evaluations of seedling, plants development as well as the productivity and seeds quality, and the accumulation of nutrients in the seeds. The osmotic conditioning improve the survival of seedling, the dry matter mass to aerial part of plants from 60 days after sowing and oil content, in lots with low seeds physiological quality. The osmotic conditioning not increase the seeds yield but promotes the vigour of seeds produced, regardless of the lot used for sowing seeds.

  1. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vear Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.

  2. Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modify phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity and lipid synthesis from glucose in adipose tissue of rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Lisiane G; Rieger, Débora K; Hansen, Fernanda; Silveira, Simone L; Martins, Tiago L; Lulhier, Francisco; da Silva, Roselis S; Souza, Diogo O; Perry, Marcos L S; de Assis, Adriano M

    2013-12-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) have hypolipidemic effects and modulate intermediary metabolism to prevent or reverse insulin resistance in a way that is not completely elucidated. Here, effects of these fatty acids on the lipid profile, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity, lipid synthesis from glucose in epididymal adipose tissue (Ep-AT) and liver were investigated. Male rats were fed a high-sucrose diet (SU diet), containing either sunflower oil or a mixture of sunflower and fish oil (SU-FO diet), and the control group was fed a standard diet. After 13 weeks, liver, adipose tissue and blood were harvested and analysed. The dietary n-3 LCPUFAs prevented sucrose-induced increase in adiposity and serum free fat acids, serum and hepatic triacylglycerol and insulin levels. Furthermore, these n-3 LCPUFAs decreased lipid synthesis from glucose and increased PEPCK activity in the Ep-AT of rats fed the SU-FO diet compared to those fed the SU diet, besides reducing lipid synthesis from glucose in hepatic tissue. Thus, the inclusion of n-3 LCPUFAs in the diet may be beneficial for the prevention or attenuation of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and for reducing the risk of related chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Fatty acid and lipidomic data in normal and tumor colon tissues of rats fed diets with and without fish oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Djuric

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Data is provided to show the detailed fatty acid and lipidomic composition of normal and tumor rat colon tissues. Rats were fed either a Western fat diet or a fish oil diet, and half the rats from each diet group were treated with chemical carcinogens that induce colon cancer (azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. The data show total fatty acid profiles of sera and of all the colon tissues, namely normal tissue from control rats and both normal and tumor tissues from carcinogen-treated rats, as obtained by gas chromatography with mass spectral detection. Data from lipidomic analyses of a representative subset of the colon tissue samples is also shown in heat maps generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. These data display the utility lipidomic analyses to enhance the interpretation of dietary feeding studies aimed at cancer prevention and support the findings published in the companion paper (Effects of fish oil supplementation on prostaglandins in normal and tumor colon tissue: modulation by the lipogenic phenotype of colon tumors, Djuric et al., 2017 [1].

  4. Influence of a ketogenic diet, fish-oil, and calorie restriction on plasma metabolites and lipids in C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet therapies including calorie restriction, ketogenic diets, and fish-oil supplementation have been used to improve health and to treat a variety of neurological and non-neurological diseases. Methods We investigated the effects of three diets on circulating plasma metabolites (glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate), hormones (insulin and adiponectin), and lipids over a 32-day period in C57BL/6J mice. The diets evaluated included a standard rodent diet (SD), a ketogenic diet (KD), and a standard rodent diet supplemented with fish-oil (FO). Each diet was administered in either unrestricted (UR) or restricted (R) amounts to reduce body weight by 20%. Results The KD-UR increased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a hyperlipidemic profile, whereas the FO-UR decreased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a normolipidemic profile, compared to the SD-UR. When administered in restricted amounts, all three diets produced a similar plasma metabolite profile, which included decreased glucose levels and a normolipidemic profile. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating glucose most strongly predicted body weight and triglyceride levels, whereas calorie intake moderately predicted glucose levels and strongly predicted ketone body levels. Conclusions These results suggest that biomarkers of health can be improved when diets are consumed in restricted amounts, regardless of macronutrient composition. PMID:24910707

  5. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  6. Effect of the inclusion of fish residue oils in diets on the fatty acid profile of muscles of males and females lambari (Astyanax altiparanae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Uribe Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of two lipids sources of fish residue (tilapia and salmon compared with a vegetable oil source (soybean oil on the fatty acid profiles of male and female lambari. This experiment was developed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, totaling 6 treatments resulting from the combination of the three experimental diets for both sexes, with four replications for each treatment. This study involved 120 male (2.58±0.13 g and 72 female lambari (4.00±0.09 g, fed the experimental diets twice a day until apparent satiation for a period of 60 days. Oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic fatty acids were found at higher concentrations in all experimental oils and diets, as well in the muscle of male and female lambari. The low amounts of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the experimental diets and subsequent greater concentrations in muscle tissue, suggested that lambari are able to desaturate and elongate the chain of fatty acids with 18 carbons. The fish of both sexes that received the diet with soybean oil showed high levels of n-6 fatty acids, especially of C18: 2n-6 and low levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. The diet with salmon residue oil promoted higher levels of fatty acids of the n-3 series and resulted in the best n-3/n-6 ratio in the muscle of male and female lambari. The oils from fish residues can be a substitute for traditional fish oil and its use in the lambari diets does not impair its growth.

  7. CASTOR BEAN AND SUNFLOWER INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS IN ROW ARRANGEMENT: BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro de Miranda Pinto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment field was carried in the agricultural seasons 2008, 2009 and 2010, with aim of studying the response of castorbean (Ricinus communis L. intercropping with sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in row arrangement in the dryland farming conditions. In addition, it was evaluated the biological efficiency of plants in intercropping systems.The design used in the experiment was randomized block with seven treatement and four replications. The treatments were represented by rows of castor oil (Ma and sunflower (Gi listed below: 1Ma:1Gi; 1Ma:2Gi; 1Ma:3Gi; 2Ma:2Gi; 2Ma:3Gi; castor and sunflower in the monoculture. The efficiency of intercropping was measured by LER, ATER, LEC, average between LER and ATER, SPI and CoR. The grain yield of castor bean and sunflower were reduced in intercropped row arrangements. The row arrangement 1Ma:2Gi showed the smallest reduction of average productivity of castor beans and sunflower in the evaluation period of the experiment. The castor bean was the dominant crop in relation to sunflower.

  8. A High-Fructose-High-Coconut Oil Diet Induces Dysregulating Expressions of Hippocampal Leptin and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase, and Spatial Memory Deficits in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-I; Shen, Chu-Fu; Hsu, Tsui-Han; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-06-16

    We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group ( n = 8), a high-fructose soybean oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12), and a high-fructose coconut oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12) for 20 weeks. By the end of the study, the coconut oil group exhibited significantly higher serum fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the control and soybean oil groups. However, hippocampal leptin expression and leptin receptor mRNA levels were significantly lower, while SCD1 mRNA was significantly higher in rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet than in rats fed the other experimental diets. In addition, the coconut oil group spent significantly less time in the target quadrant on the probe test in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet for 20 weeks were prone to develop hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These metabolic consequences may contribute to hippocampal-dependent memory impairment, accompanied by a lower central leptin level, and a higher SCD1 gene expression in the brain.

  9. Biofuel potential production from the Orbetello lagoon macroalgae: A comparison with sunflower feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastianoni, Simone; Coppola, Fazio; Tiezzi, Enzo [Department of Chemical and Biosystems Sciences, Siena University, via della Diana, 2A, 53100 Siena (Italy); Colacevich, Andrea; Borghini, Francesca; Focardi, Silvano [Department of Environmental Sciences, Siena University, via Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    The diversification of different types and sources of biofuels has become an important energy issue in recent times. The aim of this work is to evaluate the use of two kinds of renewable feedstocks in order to produce biodiesel. We have analyzed the potential production of oil from two species of macroalgae considered as waste coming out from a lagoon system involved in eutrophication and from sunflower seeds. We have tested oil extraction yields of both feedstock. Furthermore, a comparison has been carried out based on the emergy approach, in order to evaluate the sustainability and environmental performance of both processes. The results show that, under present conditions, considering oil extraction yields, the production of oil from sunflower seeds is feasible, because of the lower value of transformity of the final product with respect to macroalgae. On the other hand, the results demonstrate that with improvements of oil extraction methodology, macroalgae could be considered a good residual biomass usable for biofuel production. (author)

  10. Monitoring the physicochemical features of sunflower oil and French fries during repeated microwave frying and deep-fat frying; Seguimiento de las características fisicoquímicas de aceite de girasol y patatas durante frituras repetidas mediante microondas y freidora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydınkaptan, E.; Barutçu Mazı, I.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeated microwave frying at different power levels (360W, 600W, 900W) and deep-fat frying on sunflower oil and French fries. The intermittent batch frying cycle was repeated 15 times a day during five consecutive days. The fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties including free fatty acid (FFA), extinction coefficient (K270), total polar compound (TPC), color, viscosity, refractive index of the sunflower oil were determined each day. At the end of the frying period, the highest values of viscosity (76.29cp) and refractive index (1.4738) were detected in microwave frying at 900W power level. TPC level exceeded 25% after the third day of microwave frying at all power levels. The FFA values during microwave frying increased progressively from 0.157% to 0.320- 0.379% on the fifth day. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 37-53% more in the case of microwave frying. The oil quality during microwave frying did not have a significant impact on the oil absorption and total color change of the French fries. Microwave frying, even at higher levels, provided lower oil (8.60-12.32%wb) and moisture contents (35.47-41.24%) compared to deep frying. Microwave frying caused longer processing time and significantly higher levels of degradation of the sunflower oil at all power levels compared to deep frying. However, microwave frying has the advantage of reducing oil absorption. The oil content of French fries was lowered by 20-33% (wb) at the highest power level. [Spanish] Se estudia los efectos de frituras repetidas mediante microondas a diferentes niveles de potencia (360W, 600W, 900W) y frituras en freidora sobre la estabilidad del aceite de girasol y la calidad de las patatas fritas. El ciclo de fritura intermitente se repitió 15 veces al día durante cinco días consecutivos. Se determinó el perfil de ácidos grasos y las propiedades fisicoquímicas incluyendo ácidos grasos libre (FFA), coeficiente de extinción (K270

  11. Reciprocal combinations of barley and corn grains in oil-supplemented diets: feeding behavior and milk yield of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, S; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Schingoethe, D J

    2014-11-01

    The effect of barley-based (BBD) or corn-based diets (CBD), or their equal blend (BCBD) on dry matter (DM) intake, feeding and chewing behavior, and production performance of lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (75.6 ± 11.0 d in milk) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Forage-to-concentrate ratio (40:60), forage neutral detergent fiber (20% of DM), total neutral detergent fiber (>29% of DM), and geometric mean particle size (4.3mm) were similar among treatments. Meal patterns, including meal size and intermeal interval, were not affected by the dietary treatments and DM intake (25.6 kg/d) was not different among treatments. Ether extract intake increased linearly with increasing amount of the corn grain in the diets. Due to similar feed intake, actual milk (48.6 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk (36.8 kg/d), and fat- and protein-corrected milk (38.1 kg/d) yields were not affected by treatments. Average milk protein percentage and yield were 2.83% and 1.37 kg/d, respectively, and were not different across treatments. Milk fat percentage increased linearly with increasing amount of corn grain in the diets and was greater in CBD relative to BCBD but not BBD (2.31, 2.28, and 2.57%, for BBD, BCBD, and CBD, respectively). However, milk fat yield tended to show a linear increase as the amount of corn grain included in the diets increased. Results indicated that changing diet fermentability by replacing barley grain for corn grain in oil-supplemented diets did not influence feeding patterns and thereby no changes in feed intake and milk yield occurred. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Extruded linseed and linseed oil as alternative to soybean meal and soybean oil in diets for fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Caputi Jambrenghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal and soybean oil respectively with extruded linseed and linseed oil on the productive performances and meat quality traits in lambs slaughtered at 90 days. Lambs weaned at 40 days were divided into 3 groups (N.=10 fed ad libitum for 6 weeks as follows: C (control, commercial feed containing soybean meal and soybean oil; LO (feed containing linseed oil instead of soybean oil; EL (feed containing extruded linseed. Meat quality traits were evaluated on the Longissimus lumborum (Ll and Semimembranosus (Sm muscles. The lambs’ growth performances and the slaughtering and sectioning data did not differ between groups. The redness of meat was significantly higher (P<0.05 for the LO and EL groups compared to the control for both the muscles tested. Ll meat samples of the EL group showed a greater cooking loss compared to LO (P<0.01 and to the control (P<0.05. The amount of linoleic acid in raw Ll meat samples was significantly (P<0.01 lower in both LO and EL groups with respect to control. The concentration of α-linolenic acid was significantly (P<0.01 higher in the EL group and this positively affected the total content of ω3 as well as the ω6/ω3 ratio.

  13. Composition, characterization and atherogenic potential of oils, fats and other by products produced or marketed in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Bolanos, Monserrat; Herrera Ramirez, Carlos H.; Lutz Cruz, Giselle

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are very common among Costa Rican people. They are related to diets high in lipids that cause arterial damage. The present study was undertaken to determine the quality of fats and oils consumed more frequently in our country. 15 different brands of butter and margarines (A, B, D1 to D11), 7 types of vegetable fat (E1 to E7) and 14 different brands of sunflower oil (EG1 to EG3), corn oil (EM1 to EM3), olive oil (EO1 to EO4), soy oil (ES1 to ES3) and palm oil (EV) were collected and identified. 67 percent of the products were made in Costa Rica, 33% were imported products. Using gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, fatty acid composition, iodine and saponification number, average molecular weight, carbon-carbon double bond number, allyl and double aryl hydrogens were determined in the lipid fraction of the 36 different products. Two types of butter and one type of oil were found adulterated with triacylglycerols of different kind or source. Susceptibility of the products to lipid oxidation was determined only in terms of double bond number and allyl and double alryl hydrogens. Sunflower, corn and olive oils were the most susceptible products. Through polyunsaturated fatty acids / saturated fatty acids relation and atherogenic index the atherogenic potential of the products was evaluated. The findings were that 2 types of butter and 5 types of vegetable fat were the most injurious ones. (author) [es

  14. The regulatory effects of fish oil and chitosan on hepatic lipogenic signals in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chen-Yuan; Chang, Tien-Chia; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-10-01

    The present study investigated the regulatory effects of fish oil and chitosan on the signals of hepatic lipid metabolism and the postulated mechanism in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Diet supplementation of chitosan and fish oil efficiently suppressed the increased weights in body and livers of high-fat diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan and fish oil significantly decreased the activities of hepatic lipid biosynthesis-related enzymes and efficiently regulated plasma lipoprotein homeostasis. Both chitosan and fish oil significantly ameliorated the alterations in the protein expressions of hepatic lipogenic transcription factors (LXRα and PPARα), and could also significantly regulate the downstream hepatic lipogenic genes (FAS, HMGCR, CYP7A1, FATP, FABP, AOX, and ABCA) expressions in high-fat diet-fed rats. These results suggest that both fish oil and chitosan exerts downregulative effects on hepatic lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese rats via the LXRα inhibition and PPARα activation, which further affect the expressions of hepatic lipogenesis-associated genes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. A 3 years follow-up of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil is associated with high plasma antioxidant capacity and reduced body weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razquin, C; Martinez, J A; Martinez-Gonzalez, M A; Mitjavila, M T; Estruch, R; Marti, A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a Mediterranean dietary pattern on plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) after 3 years of intervention and the associations with adiposity indexes in a randomized dietary trial (PREDIMED trial) with high cardiovascular risk patients. 187 subjects were randomly selected from the PREDIMED-UNAV center after they completed 3-year intervention program. Participants were following a Mediterranean-style diet with high intake of virgin olive oil or high intake of nuts, or a conventional low-fat diet. Adiposity indexes were measured at baseline and at year 3. Plasma TAC was evaluated using a commercially available colorimetric assay kit. Plasma TAC in the control, olive oil and nuts groups was 2.01+/-0.15, 3.51+/-0.14 and 3.02+/-0.14 mM Trolox, respectively after adjusting for age and sex. The differences between the Mediterranean diet and control groups were statistically significant (Pvirgin olive oil group (B=-1.306; 95% CI=-2.439 to -0.173; P=0.025, after adjusting for age, sex and baseline body mass index). Mediterranean diet, especially rich in virgin olive oil, is associated with higher levels of plasma antioxidant capacity. Plasma TAC is related to a reduction in body weight after 3 years of intervention in a high cardiovascular risk population with a Mediterranean-style diet rich in virgin olive oil.

  16. Relating zoobenthic and emergent terrestrial insect production to tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestling diet in oil sands wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoms, J.L.; Martin, J.P.; Ciborowski, J.J. [Windsor Univ., Windsor, ON (Canada); Harms, N.J.; Smits, J.E. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the influence of oil sands process materials (OSPM) on wetland macroinvertebrate community composition and production. Tree swallows are known to inhabit constructed nest boxes and forage near their nest on flying insects of terrestrial and aquatic origin. Therefore, this study evaluated the structure of wetland food webs and how it relates to the transfer of production from aquatic sediments to nestling tree swallows. The study involved 2 reference and 2 oil sands affected wetlands. Exuviae of emerging aquatic and flying insects from floating and sticky traps were collected every 3 days during the tree swallow nestling period in order to estimate benthic invertebrate composition and production. The tree swallow nest boxes, placed around the perimeter of the wetlands in spring were monitored during egg laying and incubation. Diets of the 10-14 day-old nestlings were determined by placing a ligature around the neck of each nestling, preventing the passage of food into the esophagus for 45 min. Food boluses were collected from nestlings fed by the parents during that time. The study showed that although oil sands-affected wetlands had lower aerial insect abundance, they represented over half of the total boluses collected. It was concluded that this study will help determine the ecological viability of oil sands-affected wetlands and their capability of supporting terrestrial predators that rely on zoobenthos.

  17. Assessment of epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) migrating into foods: comparison with ESBO-like epoxy fatty acids in our normal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser-Noti, Anja; Fiselier, Katell; Biedermann-Brem, Sandra; Grob, Koni

    2006-08-01

    Epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) was found to be toxic for rats, but the toxic constituent is unknown. It became an issue as the migration from the gaskets in the lids for jars into oily foods regularly far exceeds the European legal limit (overall migration limit and specific migration limit derived from the tolerable daily intake (TDI)). In the context of risk management it was of interest to determine the epoxidized fatty acids of ESBO in those foods of our normal diet which are expected to contain the highest concentrations, i.e., oxidized edible oils (including degraded frying oils), fried foods, bakery ware and roasted meat. The contribution of epoxy oleic acid from ESBO to our diet turned out to be negligible. If this acid were the toxic component in ESBO, the toxicological assessment would primarily be a warning regarding oxidized fats and oils. The contribution of diepoxy linoleic acid from ESBO might be similar to the exposure from oxidized fats and oils of our diet, whereas the intake of triepoxy linolenic acid from ESBO exceeds that from normal food by around two orders of magnitude. Hence use of an epoxidized edible oil virtually free of linolenic acid would be inconspicuous in our diet.

  18. Deposition of tocopherol and tocotrienol in the tissues of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp., fed vitamin E-free diets supplemented with different plant oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-Shern; Yuen, Kah-Hay; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin E, a potent antioxidant consisting of four isomers each (α, β, γ, δ) of tocopherol (T) and tocotrienol (T3), is found naturally in plant oils at different concentrations. In this study, four semi-purified isonitrogenous and isolipidic (10 %) diets containing canola oil, cold-pressed soybean oil, wheat germ oil, or palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) as the sole vitamin E source were fed to triplicate groups of red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings (14.82 ± 0.05 g) for 45 days. Vitamin E concentrations and composition were measured in the muscle, liver, skin, and adipose tissue. Deposition of α-T (53.4-93.1 % of total vitamin E) predominated over deposition of other isomers, except in the liver of fish fed the SBO diet, where α-T and γ-T deposition was in the ratio 40:60. T3 deposition (2.6-29.4 %) was only detected in tissues of fish fed the PFAD diet; adipose tissue was the major storage depot. Fish fed the SBO diet contained significantly more (P vitamin E isomers present in plant oils. The type and concentration of endogenous vitamin E and the fatty acid composition of plant oils can affect the oxidative stability of tilapia tissues.

  19. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n–6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P.; DeMichele, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n–6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. PMID:22265940

  20. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P; DeMichele, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fish Oil Accelerates Diet-Induced Entrainment of the Mouse Peripheral Clock via GPR120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, Misa; Nagahama, Hiroki; Ohtsu, Teiji; Furutani, Naoki; Kamagata, Mayo; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Hirasawa, Akira; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The circadian peripheral clock is entrained by restricted feeding (RF) at a fixed time of day, and insulin secretion regulates RF-induced entrainment of the peripheral clock in mice. Thus, carbohydrate-rich food may be ideal for facilitating RF-induced entrainment, although the role of dietary oils in insulin secretion and RF-induced entrainment has not been described. The soybean oil component of standard mouse chow was substituted with fish or soybean oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Tuna oil (high DHA/EPA), menhaden oil (standard), and DHA/EPA dissolved in soybean oil increased insulin secretion and facilitated RF-induced phase shifts of the liver clock as represented by the bioluminescence rhythms of PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. In this model, insulin depletion blocked the effect of tuna oil and fish oil had no effect on mice deficient for GPR120, a polyunsaturated fatty acid receptor. These results suggest food containing fish oil or DHA/EPA is ideal for adjusting the peripheral clock. PMID:26161796

  2. Soybean polar lipids differently impact adipose tissue inflammation and the endotoxin transporters LBP and sCD14 in flaxseed vs. palm oil-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Manon; Couëdelo, Leslie; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Plaisancié, Pascale; Durand, Annie; Géloën, Alain; Joffre, Florent; Vaysse, Carole; Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Laugerette, Fabienne

    2017-05-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are nutritional pathologies, characterized by a subclinical inflammatory state. Endotoxins are now well recognized as an important factor implicated in the onset and maintain of this inflammatory state during fat digestion in high-fat diet. As a preventive strategy, lipid formulation could be optimized to limit these phenomena, notably regarding fatty acid profile and PL emulsifier content. Little is known about soybean polar lipid (SPL) consumption associated to oils rich in saturated FA vs. anti-inflammatory omega-3 FA such as α-linolenic acid on inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia. We then investigated in mice the effect of different synthetic diets enriched with two different oils, palm oil or flaxseed oil and containing or devoid of SPL on adipose tissue inflammation and endotoxin receptors. In both groups containing SPL, adipose tissue (WAT) increased compared with groups devoid of SPL and an induction of MCP-1 and LBP was observed in WAT. However, only the high-fat diet in which flaxseed oil was associated with SPL resulted in both higher WAT inflammation and higher circulating sCD14 in plasma. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that LPS transporters LBP and sCD14 and adipose tissue inflammation can be modulated by SPL in high fat diets differing in oil composition. Notably high-flaxseed oil diet exerts a beneficial metabolic impact, however blunted by PL addition. Our study suggests that nutritional strategies can be envisaged by optimizing dietary lipid sources in manufactured products, including fats/oils and polar lipid emulsifiers, in order to limit the inflammatory impact of palatable foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Boron deprivation alters rat behaviour and brain mineral composition differently when fish oil instead of safflower oil is the diet fat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H; Penland, James G

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether boron deprivation affects rat behaviour and whether behavioural responses to boron deprivation are modified by differing amounts of dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were fed diets containing 0.1 mg (9 micromol)/kg boron in a factorial arrangement with dietary variables of supplemental boron at 0 and 3mg (278 micromol)/kg and fat sources of 75 g/kg safflower oil or 65 g/kg fish (menhaden) oil plus 10 g/kg linoleic acid. After 6 weeks, six females per treatment were bred. Dams and pups continued on their respective diets through gestation, lactation and after weaning. Between ages 6 and 20 weeks, behavioural tests were performed on 13-15 male offspring from three dams in each dietary treatment. The rats were euthanized at age 21 weeks for the collection of tissues and blood. At ages 6 and 19 weeks, auditory startle was evaluated with an acoustic startle system and avoidance behaviour was evaluated by using an elevated plus maze. At ages 7 and 20 weeks, spontaneous behaviour activity was evaluated with a photobeam activity system. A brightness discrimination test was performed on the rats between age 15 and 16 weeks. Brain mineral composition was determined by coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Plasma total glutathione was determined by HPLC and total cholesterol and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) were determined by using commercially available kits. Boron-deficient rats were less active than boron-adequate rats when fed safflower oil based on reduced number, distance and time of horizontal movements, front entries, margin distance and vertical breaks and jumps in the spontaneous activity evaluation. Feeding fish oil instead of safflower oil attenuated the activity response to boron deprivation. In the plus maze evaluation, the behavioural reactivity of the boron-deficient rats fed fish oil was noticeably different than the other three treatments. They made more entries into both open and closed

  4. The condensed mutation in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, P.

    1978-01-01

    Three inbred lines of sunflower were treated with gamma rays. In the progeny of one of these lines, the desired dwarf mutation appeared with a high frequency (23%). The dwarfing was accompanied by various undesirable characteristics (lateness, poor seed production, etc.), for which correction through genetic diversification and selection is in progress. The ratio capitulum diameter/stem height has increased from 1/8 up to 1/3 [fr

  5. Sunflower growth according to seed inoculation with endophytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fernandes dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower crop has a great importance worldwide, due to the oil of excellent quality extracted from its seeds and in natura grains that are consumed in various ways. However, drought is one of the main environmental factors that limit its yield. An experiment was carried out under controlled greenhouse conditions, in a completely randomized experimental design, in order to determine the effect of endophytic bacteria inoculation (Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter cloacae on the growth and contents of nutrients and organic solutes, in sunflower leaves and roots under water deficit. Plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry biomass of shoot and roots, as well as contents of N, P, K, soluble carbohydrates, free proline, free amino acids and soluble proteins, were determined at 35 days after the plant emergence. The water deficit reduced plant growth regardless inoculation. However, under optimum conditions of soil moisture, the combination of both endophytic bacteria increased the sunflower growth. The water deficit also increased the N and K contents in leaves, as well as the organic solutes content in shoots, especially in inoculated plants. These results suggest that the inoculation of endophytic bacteria may increase the capacity of drought stressed plants to perform the osmotic adjustment through a higher accumulation of organic solutes, when compared to plants not inoculated.

  6. Characterization of some sunflower genotypes using ISSR markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrani, L.; Nabulsi, I.; MirAli, N.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is grown mostly as a source of vegetable oil of high quality and is especially used in food industry. It is generally produced by multinationals and sold as hybrids. Our research, based on two techniques (ISSR and RAPD), is considered as the first one to be interested in molecular characterization of sunflower genotypes in Syria. We used 25 ISSR primers and 13 RAPD primers to study 29 sunflower genotypes and two reference controls belonging to the same family (Calendula officinalis L. and Targets erecta L.). ISSR results revealed a low polymorphism when compared to other studies. We noticed also 11 genotypes genetically related where percent disagreement values (PDV) didn't exceed 1%, they are 7189 - 7191 - 7184 - 7183 - 443 - 441 - Ghab1 -Ghab2 - Ghab3 - Ghab4 - Ghab5 - Madakh halab - Sarghaya4 -Tarkibi knitra. Sarghaya4 and Tarkibi knitra have indeed the lowest yield and some common morphological characters. At the opposite, the genotype Hysum33 has the highest yield and is genetically distant from the other genotypes. All the genotypes could be used in QTL detection as we didn't notice any similarity between them. (author)

  7. Genetic variance of sunflower yield components - Heliantus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of sunflower breeding in Yugoslavia and abroad are increased seed yield and oil content per unit area and increased resistance to diseases, insects and stress conditions via an optimization of plant architecture. In order to determine the mode of inheritance, gene effects and correlations of total leaf number per plant, total leaf area and plant height, six genetically divergent inbred lines of sunflower were subjected to half diallel crosses. Significant differences in mean values of all the traits were found in the F1 and F2 generations. Additive gene effects were more important in the inheritance of total leaf number per plant and plant height, while in the case of total leaf area per plant the nonadditive ones were more important looking at all the combinations in the F1 and F2 generations. The average degree of dominance (Hi/D1/2 was lower than one for total leaf number per plant and plant height, so the mode of inheritance was partial dominance, while with total leaf area the value was higher than one, indicating super dominance as the mode of inheritance. Significant positive correlation was found: between total leaf area per plant and total leaf number per plant (0.285* and plant height (0.278*. The results of the study are of importance for further sunflower breeding work.

  8. Carcass and Meat Characteristics and Gene Expression in Intramuscular Adipose Tissue of Korean Native Cattle Fed Finishing Diets Supplemented with 5% Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungkwon; Yan, Zhang; Choi, Changweon; Kim, Kyounghoon; Lee, Hyunjeong; Oh, Youngkyoon; Jeong, Jinyoung; Lee, Jonggil; Smith, Stephen B; Choi, Seongho

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression but depress stearoyl-CoA desaturase ( SCD ) gene expression in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of Hanwoo steers during fattening period (from 16 to 32 mon of age). Fourteen Hanwoo steers were allotted randomly to 2 groups of 7 steers based on initial BW and fed either a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 5% palm oil (BDSP). At slaughter, i.m. adipose tissue was harvested for analysis of adipogenic gene expression and fatty acid composition. There were no differences in BW or average daily gain between treatment groups. Supplemental palm oil had no effect on carcass quality traits (carcass weight, backfat thickness, loin muscle area, or marbling scores) or meat color values. Palm oil increased ( p Palm oil increased total i.m. polyunsaturated fatty acids ( p palm oil on i.m. adipose tissue gene expression, the absence of negative effects on carcass and meat characteristics indicates that palm oil could be a suitable dietary supplement for the production of Hanwoo beef cattle.

  9. Intake, ruminal parameters and plasmatic urea concentration in beef cattle fed diets with different levels of sunflower cake in substitution to the cotton meal Consumo, parâmetros ruminais e concentração de uréia plasmática em novilhos alimentados com diferentes níveis de torta de girassol em substituição ao farelo de algodão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Masato Mori

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of five substitution levels of cotton meal by sunflower cake in the concentrate ration, on dry matter intake (DMI, pH and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 in the rumen liquid and plasmatic urea in beef steers. The diets were isoprotein (13.0% CP and isoenergetic (72.0% TDN. In natura sugarcane silage was the only ronghage (40% DM. Five 1/2 Simental x Nelore, castrated males were used, with average weight of 380 kg and 24 months old, all fistulated in the rumen. The treatments were: 0% sunflower cake (TG0; 25% sunflower cake (TG25; 50% sunflower cake (TG50; 75% sunflower cake (TG75; and 100% sunflower cake (TG100, based on DM, substituting cotton meal (FA. The experiment was carried out in a 5x5 Latin square experimental design, with five animals and five periods. Each experimental period lasted 15 days. The dry matter intake (DMI presented significant difference (P 0.05 alter the pH and N-NH3 values of the rumen liquid and plasmatic urea values. It was concluded that sunflower cake can be used in substitution to the cotton meal when mean daily gains are expected, since in high levels of substitution it caused a decrease in DMI. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da torta de girassol (TG, em cinco níveis de substituição ao farelo de algodão, sobre o consumo de matéria seca (CMS, pH e concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3 no líquido ruminal e de uréia plasmática em novilhos de corte. As rações foram isoprotéicas (13,0% PB e isoenergéticas (72,0% NDT. A silagem de cana-de-açúcar in natura, como volumoso, foi utilizada na proporção de 40% da MS fornecida. Foram utilizados cinco animais fistulados no rúmen, machos, castrados, ½ sangue Simental x Nelore, pesando em média 380 kg e 24 meses. Os tratamentos foram: 0% (TG0; 25% (TG25; 50% (TG50; 75% (TG75 e 100% (TG100 de torta de girassol (base na MS em substituição ao farelo de algodão. O experimento foi conduzido

  10. Influence of different levels of n-3 supplemented (fish oil) diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate fish oil as n-3 fatty acids source on some performance, carcass and serum parameters in broilers. One-day old Ross strain male broiler chickens (n = 120) were randomly arranged in four dietary treatments (0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 percent fish oil), with three replicates for each treatment.

  11. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Effects of a Fish Oil Enriched Diet on Murine Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    Terra VC, de Almeida AC, et al. (2010) Qualitative analysis of hippocampal plastic changes in rats with epilepsy supplemented with oral omega-3 fatty... vegetable oil or fish oil. Am J Clin Nutr 63: 116–122. 92. Endres S, Meydani SN, Ghorbani R, Schindler R, Dinarello CA (1993) Dietary supplementation with

  13. Korean Pine Nut Oil Attenuated Hepatic Triacylglycerol Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

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    Soyoung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean pine nut oil (PNO has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO (PC, SC or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD, for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively compared with SHFD. Hepatic triacylglycerol (TG level was significantly lower in PHFD than the SHFD (26% lower. PNO consumption upregulated hepatic ACADL mRNA levels. The hepatic PPARG mRNA level was lower in the PC than in the SC. Expression of the sirtuin (SIRT 3 protein in white adipose tissue was down-regulated in the SHFD and restored in the PHFD to the level in the lean control mice. SIRT 3 was reported to be upregulated under conditions of caloric restriction (CR and plays a role in regulating mitochondrial function. PNO consumption resulted in lower body fat and hepatic TG accumulation in HFD-induced obesity, which seemed to be associated with the CR-mimetic response.

  14. Ketogenic Diet Based on Extra Virgin Coconut Oil Has No Effects in Young Wistar Rats With Pilocarpine-Induced Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Isabelle T; M Rêgo, Elisabete; Bueno, Nassib B; Gomes, Tâmara C; Oliveira, Suzana L; Trindade-Filho, Euclides M; Cabral, Cyro R; Machado, Tacy S; Galvão, Jaqueline A; R Ataide, Terezinha

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) based on extra virgin coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L., VCO), on the treatment of epileptic rats. Two sets of experiments were conducted. First, male Wistar rats underwent induction of status epilepticus (SE) with the administration of pilocarpine intraperitoneally 21 animals reached spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) and were randomly allocated to the dietary regimens and video-monitored for 19 days. In the second experiment, 24 animals were randomized immediately after the induction of SE and followed for 67 days. Diets were as follows: Control (AIN-93G; 7% lipid), KetoTAGsoya (KD based on soybean oil; 69.79% lipid), and KetoTAGcoco (KD based on VCO; 69.79% lipid). There were no differences in the latency to the first crisis, total frequency, and duration of the SRS between groups in 2 experiments. The data suggest no effects of KD, with or without VCO, in rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. © 2018 AOCS.

  15. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Alteration in lipid metabolism induced by a diet rich in soya-oil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PGD

    2013-09-11

    Sep 11, 2013 ... metabolism in brain, liver and plasma of albino rat model. ... decrease in the levels of the steroidal sex hormones in the starved and other dietary groups compared ..... enriched diet rat group with significant differences only in.

  17. Impact of the consumption of a rich diet in butter and it replacement for a rich diet in extra virgin olive oil on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Vasquez, Hazel Ester; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Ortega Fernández, Pablo; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the impact of the substitution of a rich diet in saturated fats with a rich diet in monounsaturated fats on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women. A prospective, longitudinal and comparative study where 18 postmenopausal women participated in two periods of dietary intervention of 28 days each one: 1) (SAT diet) consumed butter. Caloric formula (CF) = 15% protein, 38% fat. [20% saturated fat (SFA), 12% monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and 47% carbohydrates and 6% polyunsaturated (PUFA)]. b) Period MONO: with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). CF = 15% protein, 38% fat (profile: SAT diet increased TC (p <0.001), LDL-C (p <0.002) and non HDL-Cholesterol (p <0.000), HDL-C increased in MONO diet (p <0.000). SAT diet: TC/HDL-c ratio, Non col HDL-c/HDL-c, LDL-c/HDL-c (p <0.000) and TG/HDL-c (p <0.000). In MONO diet decreased TC/HDL-c (p <0.015) and TG/HDL-c (p <0.016). The SAT diet increased cardiovascular risk, while the MONO diet decreased the risk to develop the metabolic syndrome components and choronary heart disease. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE USE OF LOVAGE LEAVES TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS AND OIL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEIDA SEVDAGUL SULIMAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied four edible vegetable oils and nine oil blends based on refined sunflower oil, in order to improve the quality characteristics of sunflower oil. The oils used for blends were linseed oil, grapeseed oil, and coconut oil. The physico-chemical properties demonstrated the superior features for oil blends, like lower acidity (measured by acid value and higher stability to autoxidation (measured by peroxide value and refractive index. The best combination for sunflower oil was with coconut oil (lower acidity, higher stability to autoxidation. For a supplementary improvement of properties, especially for the preservation of oils and oil blends, we tested the lovage (Levisticum officinale extract as additive. The obtained additivated mixtures demonstrated better quality characteristics, which recommend them for the human consumption.

  19. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Methods Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW]) were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Results Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05) among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM) area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. Conclusion In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production. PMID:28830128

  20. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2018-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW]) were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05) among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM) area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  1. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Chanjula

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Methods Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW] were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat on a dry matter (DM basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Results Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05 among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. Conclusion In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  2. Performance and lipid profiles of native chickens fed diet containing skipjack fish oil as by-product of fish canning factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, J. R.; Mandey, J. S.; Laihad, J. T.; Tinangon, R. M.; Tangkau, L.; Junus, C.

    2018-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the use of fish oil as by-product of fish canning factory in diet on the performance and lipid profiles of native chickens. The experiment used 100 native chicken with an average initial body weight of 48,9 gram (sd + 9.9), was used in this study for 8 weeks experiment. These were arranged by a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 5 replications and 4 hens in replication each. The diets were: R0 = 100% Based Diet (BD) + 0% Fish Oil (FO); R1 = 98.5% BD + 1.5% FO; R2 = 98% BD + 2% FO; R3 = 97.5% BD + 2.5% FO; R4 = 97 % BD + 3% FO. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Variables were performance parameters and lipid profiles. Results showed that fish oil inclusion in diets were significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain, carcass percentage, liver, breast and thigh weight, and decreased blood cholesterol, carbohydrate and meat cholesterol, and also tended to decrease abdominal fat. However, there were no affected on feed conversion, water, protein, fat and ash of breast meat. It can be concluded that the use of fish oil in diet up to 3% could improved performance parameters of native chickens.

  3. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet

  4. Altered Potassium Ion Channel Function as a Possible Mechanism of Increased Blood Pressure in Rats Fed Thermally Oxidized Palm Oil Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkanu, Etah E; Owu, Daniel U; Osim, Eme E

    2017-12-27

    Intake of thermally oxidized palm oil leads to cytotoxicity and alteration of the potassium ion channel function. This study investigated the effects of fresh and thermally oxidized palm oil diets on blood pressure and potassium ion channel function in blood pressure regulation. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of eight rats. Control group received normal feed; fresh palm oil (FPO) and thermally oxidized palm oil (TPO) groups were fed a diet mixed with 15% (weight/weight) fresh palm oil and five times heated palm oil, respectively, for 16 weeks. Blood pressure was measured; blood samples, hearts, and aortas were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. Thermally oxidized palm oil significantly elevated basal mean arterial pressure (MAP). Glibenclamide (10 -5 mmol/L) and tetraethylammonium (TEA; 10 -3 mmol/L) significantly raised blood pressure in TPO compared with FPO and control groups. Levcromakalim (10 -6 mmol/L) significantly (p palm oil increases MAP probably due to the attenuation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium (BK Ca ) channels, tissue peroxidation, and altered histological structures of the heart and blood vessels.

  5. Genetic parameters, phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations and genetic variability on sunflower in the Brazilian Savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Grippi Lira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an annual crop that stands out for its production of high quality oil and for an efficient selection, being necessary to estimate the components of genetic and phenotypic variance. This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters, phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations and genetic variability on sunflower in the Brazilian Savannah, evaluating the characters grain yield (YIELD, days to start flowering (DFL based on flowering date in R5, chapter length (CL, weight of a thousand achenes (WTA, plant height (H and oil content (OilC of 16 sunflower genotypes. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, situated at 15º 35’ 30”S latitude, 47º 42’ 30”W longitude and 1.007m above sea level, in soil classified as dystroferric Oxisol. The experimental design used was a complete randomized block with four replicates. The nature for the effects of genotypes and blocks was fixed. Except for the character chapter length, genetic variance was the main component of the phenotypic variance among the genotypes, indicating high genetic variability and experimental efficiency with proper environmental control. In absolute terms, the genetic correlations were superior to phenotypic and environmental. The high values reported for heritability and selective accuracy indicated efficiency of phenotypic selection. Results showed high genetic variability among genotypes, which may contribute to the genetic improvement of sunflower.

  6. Effect of some Evaporation Matters on Storability of Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saidy, Aml E A; El-Hai, K M Abd

    This study focuses on finding compounds that are safe to humans and environment, such as propionic and acetic acids that may provide an alternative control of seed-borne pathogens and decrease seed deterioration during storage. The objectives of this study were to reduce sunflower seed deterioration and improve the viability of sunflower seed using environmentally safe organic acids. Propionic and acetic acids were applied on sunflower seed at different concentrations under laboratory conditions during different storage periods. After 6 months storage period, the viability of sunflower seed as well as morphological and physiological characteristics of seedlings were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Laboratory experiment was conducted in a factorial completely randomized design and randomized complete block design for greenhouse experiment. Propionic and acetic acids at different concentrations showed inhibitory effects on the presence of different fungal genera in all storage periods. Propionic acid was most effective followed by acetic acid. Increasing storage periods from 0-6 months significantly decreased germination percentage, germination energy, seedling characters, survived healthy seedlings and seed oil and protein percentages but dead and rotted seeds, as well as rotted seedlings were increased. Treating sunflower seeds with propionic acid (100%) improved germination criteria, seedling characters and seed chemical characters as well as survival seedlings and minimized the dead seeds, rotted seeds and rotted seedlings as compared with the control under all storage periods. Under greenhouse conditions, the maximum growth parameter and physiological characters (chlorophylls a, b, carotenoids and total phenols) were recorded from seed treated with 100% propionic acid after 6 months of storage. It may be concluded that propionic and acetic acids vapors can have considerable fungicidal activity against sunflower pathogens and improve seed viability

  7. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  8. Mediterranean diet and life expectancy; beyond olive oil, fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Martín-Calvo, Nerea

    2018-01-01

    Purpose to review the recent relevant evidence of the effects of the Mediterranean diet and lifestyle on health (2015 and first months of 2016). Recent findings Large observational prospective epidemiological studies with adequate control of confounding and two large randomized trials support the benefits of the Mediterranean dietary pattern to increase life expectancy, reduce the risk of major chronic disease, and improve quality of life and well-being. Recently, 19 new reports from large prospective studies showed –with nearly perfect consistency– strong benefits of the Mediterranean diet to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, total mortality, heart failure and disability. Interestingly, two large and well-conducted cohorts reported significant cardiovascular benefits after using repeated measurements of diet during a long follow-up period. Besides, PREDIMED, the largest randomized trial with Mediterranean diet, recently reported benefits of this dietary pattern to prevent cognitive decline and breast cancer. Summary In the era of evidence-based medicine, the Mediterranean diet represents the gold standard in preventive medicine, probably due to the harmonic combination of many elements with antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties, which overwhelm any single nutrient or food item. The whole seems more important than the sum of its parts. PMID:27552476

  9. Effect of primrose oil and corn oil diets on eicosanoid synthesis by rat mammary tumor induced by dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ela, S.H.A.; Bunce, O.R.

    1986-03-01

    Evening primrose oil (PO) contains 9% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and 75% linoleic acid (LA) each of which are prostaglandin precursors. Corn oil (CO) contains 60% linoleic acid. Fifty day old virgin female rats were given DMBA (5 mg, intragastric). Three weeks post DMBA the rats were separated into two dietary groups of 20% PO and 20% CO, respectively. At 16 weeks post DMBA the rats were killed and mammary tumors analyzed by RIA for PGE/sub 1/, PGE/sub 2/, and 6-keto F/sub 1..cap alpha... PGE/sub 1/ levels in PO fed animals were increased two fold over those fed CO indicating that it is possible to shunt GLA toward monoenoic eicosanoid synthesis. However PGE/sub 2/ and 6 keto F/sub 1..cap alpha../ levels were 5x higher in PO compared to CO. Although this could be attributed to higher cis linoleic acid content of PO, more subtle mechanisms may be responsible.

  10. Inclusion of sunflower seeds in the diet of lambs on carcass quantitative characteristics and meat qualityInclusão de grãos de girassol na ração de cordeiros sobre as características quantitativas da carcaça e qualitativas da carne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mari Yamamoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the carcass quantitative characteristics, tissue composition of carcass cuts and meat quality of lambs receiving sunflower seeds in the diet. Twenty-one lambs 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal, not castrated, with initial body weight of 17 kg were housed in individual pens and distributed in three diets (0,7.5 and 15% of sunflower seeds inclusion in a completely randomized design in 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (three diets and two carcass cuts. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were slaughtered; weights and hot and cold carcass yields and commercial and biological carcass dressing were collected. The carcasses were split lengthways and left half carcass divided into six anatomical parts. The leg and loin were removed for evaluation of tissue composition, meat color, water holding capacity, cooking losses and shearing force. Difference was detected in the commercial carcass yield; with higher value (46.82% of total weight for carcasses of lambs fed without sunflower seeds when compared with carcass yield (44.11% of lambs fed with 15% of sunflower seed inclusion. The proportion of muscle and total fat, as muscle:fat ratio were affected (P Objetivou-se avaliar as características quantitativas da carcaça, bem como a composição tecidual os cortes da carcaça e qualidade da carne de cordeiros recebendo grãos de girassol na ração. Foram utilizados 21 cordeiros 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Ideal, não castrados, com peso corporal médio inicial de 17 kg, alojados individualmente e distribuídos em três dietas (0, 7,5 e 15% de grãos de girassol na ração em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado decomposto em modelo fatorial 3x2 (três rações e dois cortes de carcaça. Ao final do período experimental, os animais foram abatidos, obtendo-se os pesos e rendimentos de carcaça quente e fria, além dos rendimentos comercial e biológico da carcaça. As carcaças foram seccionadas longitudinalmente e a

  11. Prevention of diet-induced obesity by safflower oil: insights at the levels of PPARalpha, orexin, and ghrelin gene expression of adipocytes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Fengchen; Sun, Yuqian; Zhang, Jinchao

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevention of diet-induced obesity by a high safflower oil diet and adipocytic gene expression in mice. Forty 3-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group (CON, 5% lard + 5% safflower oil), high lard group (LAR, 45% lard + 5% safflower oil), and high safflower oil group (SAF, 45% safflower oil + 5% lard). After 10 weeks, 10 mice of the LAR group were switched to high safflower oil diet (LAR-SAF). Ten weeks later, glucose tolerance tests were performed by intraperitoneal injection of glucose. Circulating levels of lipid and insulin were measured and white adipose tissues were taken for gene chip and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The LAR group showed higher body weight, adiposity index, insulin, and lipids than the CON group (P<0.05). The body weight in the LAR-SAF group decreased after dietary reversal. The plasma biochemical profiles decreased in the LAR-SAF and SAF groups (P<0.05) compared with those of the LAR group. The blood glucose level of the LAR-SAF group was reduced during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test compared with that of the LAR group. The LAR-SAF group had lower levels of Orexin and Ghrelin gene expression, whereas the level of PPARalpha gene expression was significantly enhanced compared with that of the LAR group. So, the SAF diet can alter adipocytic adiposity-related gene expression and result in effective amelioration of diet-induced obesity.

  12. Kinetics modeling of the drying of sunflower stem (Helianthus annuus L.) in a forced convection tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Flores, J.; Chávez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head), and its name is derived from the flower's shape and image, which is often used to capture the sun. The plant has a rough, broad, hairy stem, coarsely toothed, with rough leaves, and circular flower heads. The sunflower seeds are appreciated for their oil, which has become a widespread cooking ingredient. Leaves of the sunflower can be used as cattle feed, while the stems contain a fiber that may be used in paper production. Recently this flower has been used in phytoremediation of soils, contaminated with heavy metals. Sunflower has been probed as an efficient phytoextractor of chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, cadmium from soil. In this work we present the experimental results of the drying of the sunflower stem, cut in 100 mm longitudinal sections, with diameters in the range of 11-18 mm. The aim was to obtain a dry and easy-to-handle final product, since these plants were originally cultivated in order to extract heavy metals from a polluted soil. The dried stems could then be easily confined or sent to recycle premises to concentrate the metals. The drying process was done in forced convection within a hot air tunnel. The used temperature was 60 °C, the velocity of air was 3 m/s and the required times were 8 hours. The initial average wet mass was 28 g and the final value was 5 g, resulting in the aimed product.

  13. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  14. Deep sequencing shows microRNA involvement in bovine mammary gland adaptation to diets supplemented with linseed oil or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Ammah, Adolf A; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Benchaar, Chaouki; Zhao, Xin; Lei, Chuzhao; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M

    2015-10-30

    Bovine milk fat composition is responsive to dietary manipulation providing an avenue to modify the content of fatty acids and especially some specific unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) isomers of benefit to human health. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression but their specific roles in bovine mammary gland lipogenesis are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the expression pattern of miRNAs following mammary gland adaptation to dietary supplementation with 5 % linseed or safflower oil using next generation RNA-sequencing. Twenty-four Canadian Holstein dairy cows (twelve per treatment) in mid lactation were fed a control diet (total mixed ration of corn:grass silages) for 28 days followed by a treatment period (control diet supplemented with 5 % linseed or safflower oil) of 28 days. Milk samples were collected weekly for fat and individual fatty acid determination. RNA from mammary gland biopsies harvested on day-14 (control per