WorldWideScience

Sample records for sunflower oil diesel

  1. Economics of sunflower oil as an extender or substitute for diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helgeson, D.L.; Schaffner, L.W.

    1982-05-01

    The economics of sunflower oil as an extender or substitute for diesel fuel in US agriculture, with particular emphasis on North Dakota, is examined. A study of the spot market prices indicates that crude sunflower oil has moved closer competitively with bulk diesel prices. On the question of energy efficiency, it is estimated, that using current production and processing estimates, there is a positive net energy ratio of 5.78 to 1. Processing can take place at the commercial leveL, in intermediate sized plants or on-farm. Costs were analyzed for three sizes of farm presses. (Refs. 6).

  2. A note on the combustion of blends of diesel and soya, sunflower and rapeseed vegetable oils in a light boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose Alonso, J.; Lopez, E. [Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez Sastre, J.A.; Romero-Avila, C. [Dpto. Quimica Organica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper deals with the study of the vegetable oils (VO) used as fuel for heating. The properties of sunflower, rape and soya oils are studied and these are compared with the properties of C-diesel fuel (used for heating domestic purposes in Spain). The mixtures of VO and diesel are studied and characterized and, finally, the results of a series of combustion trials of the mixtures in a conventional heating installation with a mechanical pulverization burner are presented. The results show that viscosity of VO limits the use of blends up to 40% of them, and the oxygen present in their structures contributes to an efficiency gain. (author)

  3. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  4. Using pre-heated sunflower oil as fuel in a diesel cycle engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delalibera, H.C.; Neto, P.H.W.; Martini, J. [State Univ. of Ponta Grossa (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which 100 per cent sunflower oil was used in a tractor to compare its performance with petroleum diesel. Work trials were carried out for 50 hours on a single cylinder direct injection micro-tractor. In the first trial (E-1), the temperature of the vegetable oil was the same as the air temperature of the engine, while in the second trial (E-2), the oil was heated to a temperature of about 90 degrees C. Only petrodiesel was used in the third (E-3) trial. The head gasket burned in the first test after 50 hours of operation. An increase in compression was noted during trials E-1 and E-2. The carbonized mass in the nozzle of the E-2 trial was 81.5 per cent lower than in the E-1 trial. The carbonized mass in the intake system of the E-2 trial was 51.7 per cent lower than in the E-1 trial. The exhaust system of the E-2 trial was 33.4 per cent lower than that of the E-1 trial. For the combustion chamber, the carbonization of the E-1 trial was nearly the same as in the E-2 trial. The hourly fuel consumption of the E-1 trial was 2.3 per cent higher than petrodiesel, while E-2 trial was 0.7 per cent higher than petrodiesel. In the first 2 tests, the lubricating oil was contaminated by vegetable oil fuel. In general, results from the first trial were better than results from the second trial.

  5. The density and cloud point of diesel oil mixtures with the straight vegetable oils (SVO): Palm, cabbage palm, cotton, groundnut, copra and sunflower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolle, Abolle; Loukou, Kouakou; Henri, Planche [Unite de Chimie et Procedes de l' Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees, 32 boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2009-12-15

    The densities and cloud points of six vegetable oils mixed in variable proportions to diesel oils (commercial vehicle fuels) are measured. Simple correlations are reported between these properties and the fatty acids vegetable oil composition. A simple modelling summarises experimental data informations. (author)

  6. Preventing Rancidity in sunflower Oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used in turn to extract the polar flavonoids, while chilled acetone and petroleum ether ... sunflower oil was measured using changes in peroxide values and the UV absorbances (Conjugated diene) .... metal ions and metalloprotein catalysts.

  7. Volumetric properties of sunflower methyl ester oil at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Cristina; Guignon, Bérengère; Rodríguez-Antón, Luis M; Sanz, Pedro D

    2007-09-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to diesel oil (DO), because it is a fuel obtained from renewable resources that has lower emissions than DO. Biomass production should promote agricultural activity to obtain fuels for the transport sector. The study of the behavior of biodiesel at varying pressure and temperature is very interesting because diesel engines are mechanical systems that work with fuels submitted to high pressure. The specific volume, isothermal compressibility, and cubic expansion coefficients of refined sunflower methyl ester oil (SMEO) and unrefined sunflower methyl ester oil (URSMEO) were obtained and compared with those of DO from 0.1 to 350 MPa and 288.15 to 328.15 K. This work shows that oil refinement did not significantly modify any of the properties studied of the final biodiesel. Compared with DO, both SMEOs were about 6% denser, whereas isothermal compressibility and cubic expansion coefficients were bigger or smaller for DO depending on pressure and temperature.

  8. Optimisation of biodiesel production by sunflower oil transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, G; Tinaut, F V; Briceño, Y; Castaño, V; Pérez, C; Ramírez, A I

    2002-06-01

    In this work the transformation process of sunflower oil in order to obtain biodiesel by means of transesterification was studied. Taguchi's methodology was chosen for the optimisation of the most important variables (temperature conditions, reactants proportion and methods of purification), with the purpose of obtaining a high quality biodiesel that fulfils the European pre-legislation with the maximum process yield. Finally, sunflower methyl esters were characterised to test their properties as fuels in diesel engines, such as viscosity, flash point, cold filter plugging point and acid value. Results showed that biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions is an excellent substitute for fossil fuels.

  9. Biodiesel production by chemical or enzymatic esterification of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarinho, Paula C.; Rosa, M. Fernanda; Oliveira, A.C.; Pingarilho, M.S.; Beirao, S.G.; Vieira, Ana Maria Soares

    1998-07-01

    In this work, two processes of sunflower oil transesterification, with methanol or ethanol, were studied for biodiesel production: chemical (catalyst- NaOH) and enzymatic (catalyst - rhizomucor miehei lipase). The chemical catalysis proved to be more efficient, having been obtained higher conversion yields and a better quality biodiesel, mainly in the case where methanol was used. The transesterification product had, in all cases, to be purified in order to be used as a diesel substitute.

  10. Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a species native to North America. It is a relatively new crop in the USA with commercialization starting around 1970. The high oil content sunflower seed changed the economics of producing and crushing sunflower seed for oil, making it attractive for growers. A n...

  11. High oleic sunflower bio diesel: quality control and different purification methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighlinelli, A. L. M. T.; Ferrari, R. A.; Miguel, A. M. R. O.; Park, K. J.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to evaluate the production of bio diesel using ethanol and sunflower oil. The extraction of the sunflower oil was evaluated first. An experimental design was used to estimate the influence of the independent variables grain temperature (25 degree centigrade to 110 degree centigrade) and expelled rotation (85 to 119rpm) on the crude oil. The best result obtained was 68.38%, achieved with a rotation from 100 to 115rpm, grain temperature ranging from 25 degree centigrade to 30 degree centigrade and moisture content of around 7%. The next study consisted of transesterification, evaluating the influence of the ethanol, oil molar ratio and the catalyst concentration (sodium methylate) on the ester-rich phase yield. The highest yield was 98.39% obtained with a molar ratio of 9:1 and 3% catalyst. An experiment was then carried out on a small reactor and the bio diesel produced was purified by three different methods: acidified water, silica and distillation. The quality aspects of the purified bio diesel samples were evaluated according to the Brazilian specifications for bio diesel, and distillation was shown to be the best method of purification. (Author) 28 refs.

  12. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A METHYL ESTER SUNFLOWER OILEUCALYPTUS OIL IN A SINGLE CYLINDER AIR COOLED AND DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMILVENDHAN.D,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass derived fuels are preferred as alternative fuels for IC engine due to its abundant availability and renewable nature. In the present work the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder constant speed , direct injection diesel engine using methyl ester of sun flower oil – eucalyptus oil blend as an alternative fuel were studied and the results are compared with thestandard diesel fuel operation. Result indicated that 50% reduction in smoke, 34% reduction in HC emission and a 37.5% reduction in CO emission for the MeS50Eu50 blend with 2.8 % increase in NOx emission at full load. Brake thermal efficiency was increased 2.7 % for eS50Eu50 blend.

  13. 燃油温度和喷射压力对葵花籽油与柴油喷雾特性的影响%Effect of fuel temperature and injection pressure on spray characteristics of sunflower oil and diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何旭; 刘海; 曾威霖; 余红东; Bohl Thomas; 田国弘; 李向荣; 刘福水

    2014-01-01

    To study the fuel atomization problem when raw vegetable oil is used as an alternative fuel of compression-ignition internal combustion engine, this paper investigated the differences in spray characteristics between raw sunflower oil and regular diesel under different experimental conditions using the Schlieren method. The focus of this study is the effects of fuel temperature and injection pressure on the spray penetration distance, the spray cone angle, and the air entrainment of fuels injected into the constant volume vessel. The results show that both the spray penetration distance and the spray cone angle of the sunflower oil increase with increasing the fuel injection pressure and fuel temperature, which are similar to those of regular diesel. When the fuel temperature is increased from 60℃ to 90℃, the average increases in the spray penetration distance and cone angle of the sunflower oil are 12.4%and 9.6%, respectively, at 60 MPa injection pressure. Such increases are 5%and 4.14%respectively at 120 MPa injection pressure. When the injection pressure is increased from 60 MPa to 120 MPa, the percentage increases in the mean spray penetration distance and cone angle are 39.7%and 16.7%respectively at the fuel temperature of 60℃ and 30.6% and 10.9% respectively at 90℃. When the injection pressure, background pressure, and fuel temperature are the same, the sunflower oil spray has a greater penetration distance but a smaller spray angle than that of diesel. The average increase of the spray penetration of the sunflower oil is 22.5%and the average decrease of spay cone angle is 60.3%. Elevating the fuel temperature or increasing the fuel injecting pressure can enhance the entrainment of air into the spray; However, the air entrainment of the sunflower oil spray is significantly weaker than that in the ordinary diesel spray. The results provide a valuable reference on the spray characteristics to help evaluate the feasibility of using raw vegetable oil as

  14. Optimization of Sunflower Oil Transesterification Process Using Sodium Methoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara KoohiKamali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methanolysis process of sunflower oil was investigated to get high methyl esters (biodiesel content using sodium methoxide. To reach to the best process conditions, central composite design (CCD through response surface methodology (RSM was employed. The optimal conditions predicted were the reaction time of 60 min, an excess stoichiometric amount of alcohol to oil ratio of 25%w/w and the catalyst content of 0.5%w/w, which lead to the highest methyl ester content (100%w/w. The methyl ester content of the mixture from gas chromatography analysis (GC was compared to that of optimum point. Results, confirmed that there was no significant difference between the fatty acid methyl ester content of sunflower oil produced under the optimized condition and the experimental value (P≥0.05. Furthermore, some fuel specifications of the resultant biodiesel were tested according to American standards for testing of materials (ASTM methods. The outcome showed that the methyl ester mixture produced from the optimized condition met nearly most of the important biodiesel specifications recommended in ASTM D 6751 requirements. Thus, the sunflower oil methyl esters resulted from this study could be a suitable alternative for petrol diesels.

  15. Industrial frying trials with high oleic sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemelä, J. R.K.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available High oleic sunflower oil has been developed for some special purposes where a good oxidation stability is needed and a healthy fatty acid profile is preferred. The oil is especially suitable for deep fat frying. These industrial frying trials with high oleic sunflower oil were part of the AIR-project CT 920687 "Utilisation of Sunflower Oils in Industrial Frying Operations". High oleic sunflower oil (HOSO was tested against the traditional oils and fats in two industrial deep fat frying applications, namely crisps and prefried frozen french fries. The frying trials took place in Raisio Groups factories in Pyhanta and Vihanti, Finland in 1993 and 1994. According to the trials, high oleic sunflower oil is very suitable for deep fat frying. Problems occurred when a hard fat was substituted for a liquid oil in the preparation of prefrozen French Fries. These problems could be partly overcome by adjustments in the processing line.

  16. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS). Referenc

  17. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS). Referenc

  18. TA Research on Determining Some Performance Values by Using Proportional Mixture of Vegetable Oils and Diesel Fuel at a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kayisoglu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this particular study was to research the effects on characteristics of a diesel engine by using different diesel fuel and vegetable oil blends. As experimental material 6 LD 360 type diesel engine with single cylinder, direct injection, four cycles, 5.52 kW defined power was used. Nothing was changed on the diesel engine parts and refined vegetable oils were chosen to add into fuel oil. In this research, depending on the number of revaluation and time, the air intake inlet temperature, exhaust gas outlet temperature, fuel consumption, volume efficiency, engine oil pressure, cylinder indicated pressure, the quantity of soot were determined. The results in the of sunflower oil and diesel fuel blends were found better than the soybean oil and diesel fuel blends. In addition, lubrication oil of the engine by using the soybean and diesel fuel blends were get dirty excessively and viscosity of the engine lubrication oil was reduced more than the others. The results by using 75% diesel fuel+25% sunflower oil blend showed nearly the same results by using diesel fuel.

  19. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altin, Recep [Ministry of Education, Projects Coordination Unit, Ankara (Turkey); Cetinkaya, Selim [Gazi Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar [Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  20. Vegetable oil spills on salt marsh sediments; comparison between sunflower and linseed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M; Latchford, John

    2003-09-01

    The effects of a simulated spill of sunflower oil in salt marsh sediments were compared with an experiment with linseed oil. Sunflower and linseed oil penetrated the sediments at the same rates but different adsorption of the oils onto sediment particles resulted in the establishment of anaerobic conditions at shallower depths in sediments contaminated with linseed oil than with sunflower oil. The total lipid content of sunflower oil contaminated sediments remained almost stable for 6 months, whilst only 40% of linseed oil remained in the sediment after 2 months. Numbers of culturable heterotrophic bacteria and aerobic oil degrading bacteria in muddy sediment increased rapidly in response to the presence of the oils but bacterial numbers in sandy sediments increased more slowly for sunflower oil. Changes in fatty acid composition indicate similar degradation pathways for both oils but sunflower oil degraded more slowly than linseed oil and thus has the potential for longer lasting effects in marine environments.

  1. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  2. Crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil organogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sunflower wax has been recognized as an excellent organogelator for edible oil, the detailed morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in an edible oil organogel has not been fully understood. In this study, polarized light microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy ...

  3. Performance of diesel engine fuelled with sunflower biodiesel blends; Desempenho de motor diesel com misturas de biodiesel de oleo de girassol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Ila Maria; Maziero, Jose Valdemar Gonzalez; Bernardi, Jose Augusto; Storino, Moises [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (CEA/IAC), SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Automacao; Ungaro, Maria Regina [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), SP (Brazil). Centro de Graos e Fibras

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the use of sunflower bio diesel blends in a CI engine, direct injection. The test procedure was done in a dynamometer bench had been determined the performance of engine through power take-off (PTO) with use of diesel and sunflower bio diesel blends (B5, B10, B20 and B100). The lubricating oil was analyzed before and after period of 96 hours. The results were: D (40,7 kw; 271 g/kw.h); B5 (40,3 kw; 271 g/kw.h); B10 (39,8 kw; 277 g/kw.h); B20 (40,0 kw; 277 g/kw.h) e B100 (39,8 kw; 291 g/kw.h). It was conclude that the use of blends B5, B10, B20 and B100 decreased the power of PTO max. 2,2% and increased the fuel consumption max. 7, 3%. The analyze of lubricating oil showed that the viscosity, water content and level of iron were the parameters more affected, although it had been acceptable. (author)

  4. Use of hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends as alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemues, M.; Atmaca, M. [Marmara Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Department

    2008-09-30

    Interest in vegetable oil as an alternative to diesel fuel in diesel engines has increased during the last few decades because reserves of petroleum fuel and its derivatives are diminishing rapidly, and because they have harmful effects on the environment. Numerous vegetable oil esters have been tried as alternatives to diesel fuel. Many researchers have reported that with the use of vegetable oil ester as a fuel in diesel engiens there is a decrease in harmful exhaust emissions and engine performance that is the equivalent of diesel fuel. Several studies have found that biodiesel emits far less of the most regulated pollutants than standard diesel fuel. Decreasing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by using biodiesel contributes to reducing the greenhouse effect. Furthermore, diminishing carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and smoke density improves air quality. Essential oils that have been tested in diesel engines are soybean, sunflower, corn, safflower, cottonseed, and rapeseed, which are categorized as edible oils; however, some edible oils, such as neat hazelnut kernel oil, have not been comprehensively tested as alternative fuel in diesel engines. In this study, hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was evaluated as an alternative fuel in diesel engines. Firstly, the optimum transesteri.cation reaction conditions for hazelnut kernel oil, with respect to reaction temperature, volumetric ratio of reactants, and catalyst, were investigated. Secondly, an experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running on hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel. Results showed that hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel, according to engine performance and emissions.

  5. Oryzanol as natural antioxidant for improving sunflower oil stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, L; Srinivas, P; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-06-01

    Sunflower oil is being made shelf stable by the incorporation of synthetic antioxidants such as tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), while natural antioxidants like oryzanol and tocopherols can also be used. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of natural oryzanol (Oz) concentrate (15.5 % oryzanol) and purified Oz (80 % oryzanol) on oxidative and thermal stability of sunflower oil. Sunflower oil was incorporated with Oz concentrate to provide 0, 0.12, 0.25, 0.50, 0.84, 1.0, 1.60, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.20 % oryzanol in the oil, stored for 5 weeks at 37 °C and oxidative stability was evaluated. It was found that the oryzanol concentrate showed good antioxidant effect with increase in concentration of oryzanol. In another set of experiments, sunflower oil containing purified Oz at 1 % level individually and in combination with 0.1 % α- tocopherol (α-T) was heated at 120 °C for 24 h to evaluate thermal stability. Sunflower oil containing 1 % Oz (80 % purity) showed 98.40 % and sunflower oil containing 1 % Oz and 0.1 % α-T showed 108.75 % antioxidant effect compared to TBHQ taken as 100 %. The study indicated that sunflower oil containing 1 % Oz (80 % purity) and 0.1 % α-T combination provides a synergistic effect in inhibiting primary and secondary products and showed highest thermal stability. SFO containing 1 % Oz added as concentrate also showed good antioxidant effect during storage. Hence, instead of using synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ, we can add natural oryzanol (purified or as concentrate) to sunflower oil to increase its oxidative and thermal stability.

  6. Antioxidative effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris in sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Zaborowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Lipid oxidation is a main problem during food processing, storage and consumption leading to losses of quality, stability, safety and nutritive value. Antioxidants have been used to prevent oxidation changes and off – flavor development in food products. Aim of the research was to evaluate antioxidative effect of thyme ethanol extract on sunflower oil during its storage in different temperature conditions. Oil samples were stored in darkness at 4°C, 18°C, 38°C. Material and methods. Samples of thyme (thymus vulgaris were purchased at a local pharmacy in Poznań, Poland and sunflower oil was acquired from a local supermarket. Thyme extract was characterized by total polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity was estimated with use of DPPHand ABTSradicals scavenging methods. Ethanol extract of thyme at 1% level was added to sunflower oil. Peroxide value (PV, anisidine value (AV, totox value (TxV and fatty acids (FA content were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of thyme extract in stabilization of sunflower oil. Results. High polyphenol content, DPPHand ABTSradicals scavenging activity of ethanol thyme extract were evaluated. Results from different parameters were in agreement with other researchers, suggesting the antioxidant effect of thyme on antioxidant stability. Results show that thyme extract prolonged stability of sunflower oil and it may be a potent antioxidant for its stabilization. Conclusions. Ethanol thyme extract may be used as a natural antioxidant to prolong stability of oils.  

  7. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M. F.; Sanchez, Y.; Gomez, M.; Hernandez, F.; Veloso, M. C.; Pereira, P. A.; Mangrich, A. S.; Andrade, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours) than with air (8 hours). Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity. (Author) 34 refs.

  8. High-oleic sunflower, a new oil component; Die High-Oleic-Sunflower als neue Grundoelkomponente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botz, O. [Natoil AG, Technopark Luzern (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    Achieved results from NATOIL {sup registered} proved that the application of the High-Oleic-Sunflower as a component of a base oil in lubricants is in general feasible. The target goals and properties have been realised with great success. To emphasize are particularly good results in relation to piston cleanliness, oxidative stability as well as fuel economy properties. The central fear that the High-Oleic-Sunflower would not be sufficiently stable concerning oxidation has been clearly refuted in diverse motor tests. The application of the High-Oleic Sunflower and of the here of manufactured esters enables the development of lubricants with much lower viscosity characteristics in comparison to mineral-oil-based lubricants, which may result in the overall reduction of the average drag torque by up to 30%. (orig.)

  9. Evolution of oxidation during storage of crisps and french fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Polvillo, M.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Storage studies were carried out to define the behaviour of both conventional and high oleic sunflower oils in the industrial preparation of crisps and prefried french fries. Samples of crisps and prefried french fries were stored during 6 and 21 months, respectively, and evolution of oxidation was compared with that of the more saturated fats normally used for the preparation of both products, i.e., palm olein and hydrogenated rapeseed/palm oil mixture. Total oxidation compounds, α-tocopherol content, as well as monomeric and dimeric triglycerides, were quantitated in lipids from fried products after different time periods. Results obtained for crisps at room temperature indicated that only conventional sunflower oil underwent significant oxidation after 6 months. In the case of prefried french fries, maintained at freezer temperatures, no appreciable changes were found after 21 months storage, thus indicating that both sunflower oils can be good alternatives to saturated fats.

  10. Gene effects and combining abilities for oil content in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocković Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide importance of sunflower oil, objective of this study was to evaluate gene effects and combining abilities of six sunflower open pollinated varieties. Varieties were crossed according to incomplete diallel method and produced fifteen F1 progenies. Comparing the mean values of F1 progenies to parents mean in most cases superdominance was expressed as a mode of inheritance. Nonetheless, dominance of better parent and partial dominance of better parent were also recorded as a mode of inheritance. GCA/SCA ratio indicated greater importance of non-additive genetic component in oil content expression. The genetic variance analysis showed that dominant component was more important and dominant genes prevailed compared to recessive genes for oil content in sunflower.

  11. β-carotene in sunflower oil oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanishlieva, N. V.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation kinetics of sunflower oil (SO, as well as of pure triacylglycerols of sunflower oil (TGSO in the presence of different concentrations (0.001-0.02 % β-carotene was studied. The process was β-performed at high (kinetic regime and low (diffusion regime oxygen concentrations at room temperature in the dark and under daylight. The results from the oxidation of SO and TGSO at 100ºC in the presence of β-carotene were also presented. It was established that in the antioxidant-free lipid system, the β-carotene did not give any antioxidative protection. It worked as a prooxidant during the oxidation at room temperature and at sufficiently high oxygen concentration, the effect being more pronounced in the dark than under daylight. β-carotene increased the stability of tocopherol-containing SO during its oxidation at room temperature and under daylight. This effect is more strongly expressed in a kinetic regime of oxidation. The synergism of β-carotene with the tocopherols was characterized by the stabilization factor F and the activity A. In the kinetic regime of oxidation F and A varied in the interval F=2.0-6.3, and A =2.7-21.0. In the diffusion regime F=1.3-1.5, and A=1.5-2.8.Se estudió la cinética de oxidación de aceite de girasol (SO, así como la de triacilgliceroles puros de aceite de girasol (TGSO en presencia de diferentes concentraciones (0.001-0.02 % de β- caroteno. El proceso se llevó a cabo a altas (régimen cinético y bajas (régimen de difusión concentraciones de oxígeno a temperatura ambiente con luz natural y en la oscuridad, y se presentan también los resultados de la oxidación de SO y TGSO a 100ºC en presencia de β-caroteno. Los resultados indicaron que en los sistemas lipídicos libres de antioxidantes, el β-caroteno no dio protección antioxidante. Funcionó como prooxidante durante la oxidación a temperatura ambiente y a concentraciones de oxigeno suficientemente elevadas, siendo el efecto m

  12. Composition of human VLDL triacylglycerols after ingestion of olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V; Morgado, N; Prada, J L; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Muriana, F J

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine the effect of diets enriched with olive oil or high oleic sunflower oil on very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol composition of healthy human subjects. Both oils contain a similar proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) but differ in their triacylglycerol composition. All 22 human subjects initially consumed a low fat, high carbohydrate diet as recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-I). They then consumed the two experimental oils (40% dietary energy) in a crossover design. The olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil diets resulted in significant increases in palmitoleic (55%, P 100%, P sunflower oil diet increased the content of stearic acid (60%, P 100%, P sunflower oil diet). Intake of olive oil, in particular, significantly decreased the content of sn-glycerol-tripalmitate (36%, P sunflower oil diets. In addition, olive oil, but not high oleic sunflower oil, further contributed to VLDL triacylglycerols that contained alpha-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids acylated in the sn-2 position. These data suggest that differences in the composition of VLDL triacylglycerols may be of major importance in explaining the beneficial effects of dietary olive oil in reducing the atherogenic risk profile in healthy subjects.

  13. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  14. A thermoanalytic and kinetic study of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza A. Gouveia de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, thermoanalytic methods have frequently been used in the characterization of oils and fats. In this work, thermoanalytic and kinetic parameters of sunflower oils, with and without antioxidants, were evaluated using thermogravimetry / derivative thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. The thermogravimetric profiles for the sunflower oils had similar characteristics, showing a level stretch indicative of stability up to about 200ºC. Thermal decomposition of these oils occurred in three stages, related to the decomposition of polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, respectively. DSC curves show two events that characterize the polymerization and decomposition of triglycerides. The heat capacities of the sunflower oils, obtained by DSC, showed a good correlation and were dependent on the composition of fatty acids. The kinetic parameters, obtained by non isothermal thermogravimetry by the Coats and Redfern, Madhusudanan, Horowitz and Metzger and Van Krevelen methods, were dependent on the antioxidant used. Increasing the frying time produced a decrease in the onset of thermal decomposition temperature in the sunflower oils analyzed.

  15. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, S M; Gadmale, D K; Toche, R B; Gaikwad, V B

    2015-05-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. α-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290 nm and emission wavelength is set at 330 nm. The α tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD = 2.65 %) for α tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5 % sunflower oil in olive oil.

  16. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Maruno, Mônica; Ferrari, Márcio; Topan, José Fernando

    2016-06-09

    The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w) was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w) employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB) derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  17. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves da Rocha-Filho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  18. Effect of refining on quality and composition of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U S; Patra, R K; Sahoo, N R; Bakhara, C K; Panda, M K

    2015-07-01

    An experimental oil refining unit has been developed and tested for sunflower oil. Crude pressed sunflower oil obtained from a local oil mill was refined using chemical method by degumming, neutralization, bleaching and dewaxing. The quality and composition of crude and refined oil were analysed compared. Reduction in phosphorous content from 6.15 ppm to 0, FFA content from 1.1 to 0.24 % (oleic acid), peroxide value from 22.5 to 7.9 meq/kg, wax content from 1,420 to 200 ppm and colour absorbance value from 0.149 to 0.079 (in spectrophotometer at 460 nm) were observed from crude to refined oil. It was observed that refining did not have significant effect on fatty acid compositions as found in the percentage peak area in the GC-MS chromatogram. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid in both the oils were recorded to be about 95 % containing 9-Octadecenoic acid (Oleic acid) and 11,14-Eicosadienoic acid (elongated form of linoleic acid). The research results will be useful to small entrepreneurs and farmers for refining of sunflower oil for better marketability.

  19. Microbiological Production of Citric and Isocitric Acids from Sunflower Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana V. Kamzolova; Finogenova, Tatiana V; Igor G. Morgunov

    2008-01-01

    The growth of wild type strain Yarrowia lipolytica VKM Y-2373 and its mutant Yarrowia lipolytica N 15 as well the biosynthesis of citric and isocitric acids on sunflower oil were studied. It was indicated that cell growth was associated with the simultaneous utilization of glycerol and free fatty acids produced during oil hydrolysis. The activities of enzymes of glycerol metabolism (glycerol kinase), fatty acid assimilation enzymes of glyoxylate cycle (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase) an...

  20. Effectiveness of Biodiesel from Various Tropical Oil Crops on Lubricity Improvement of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chollacoop, Nuwong; Topaiboul, Subongkoj; Goodwin, Vituruch (Bioenergy Group, National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), Thailand Science Park, Pathumthani, 12120 (Thailand)). e-mail: nuwongc@mtec.or.th

    2008-10-15

    Ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) has been introduced worldwide with an aim to reduce emission. Since the desulfurization process for ULSD inadvertently reduces its lubricity, lubricity additive is needed. Biodiesel emerges as a potential candidate due to its excellent lubricity property and little sulfur content. In the present study, biodiesel from various energy crops available in Thailand was added at various amounts to ULSD to test the lubricity according to the CEC-F-06-A-96 standard (using High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig: HFRR [1]). It was found that when biodiesel from crude palm, jatropha, soybean, coconut, sunflower, rice, corn and sesame oils of less than 1% (by volume) is additized to ULSD, the lubricity is improved to meet the diesel standard. Further addition beyond 2% (by volume) does not improve lubricity remarkably, where the lubrication seems to saturate. Biodiesel improves lubricity property by film formation preventing mechanical contact between the rubbing surfaces, and the effectiveness varies among different feedstock oils. Biodiesel from crude palm oil, jatropha oil and coconut oil seemingly are superior lubricity additives in ULSD than that from soybean oil, sunflower oil, rice oil, corn oil and sesame oil. Keywords: biodiesel, bio-lubricants, palm oil, sunflower oil

  1. Production of biodiesel via enzymatic ethanolysis of the sunflower and soybean oils: modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Fernando L P; Magalhães, Shayane P; Falcão, Pedro Wagner de Carvalho

    2010-05-01

    Biodiesel has become attractive due to its environmental benefits compared with conventional diesel. Although the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel requires low thermal energy, low conversions of enzymatic transesterification with ethanol (ethanolysis) of oils to produce biodiesel are reported as a result of deactivation of the enzyme depending on the reaction conditions. The synthesis of biodiesel via enzymatic ethanolysis of sunflower and soybean oils was investigated. Kinetic parameters for the overall reactions were fitted to experimental data available in the literature with the Ping Pong Bi-Bi mechanism including the inhibition effect of the ethanol on the activity of lipase Novozyme 435. The model was applied to a batch reactor and the experimental conversions were successfully reproduced. The modeling of a semibatch reactor with continuous addition of ethanol was also performed and the results showed a reduction of roughly 3 h in the reaction time in comparison with the batch-wise operation.

  2. Ultrasonication Assisted Production of Biodiesel from Sunflower Oil by Using CuO: Mg Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Rintu; Jose, Sony; Joyprabu, H.; Johnson, I.

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel is a clean, renewable, biodegradable, eco-friendly and alternative fuel used in the diesel engine. The present work was carried out at constant operational conditions such as methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1, catalyst concentration 0.25%, 30 minute reaction time and the reaction temperature at 60°C. Biodiesel was synthesized by transesterification of sunflower oil (SFO) with methanol, using CuO: Mgas nanocatalyst. This nanocatalyst was prepared by quick precipitation method. The biodiesel yield of 71.78% was achieved under reaction condition. The presence of methyl ester groups at the produced biodiesel was confirmed using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The FAME conversion yield up to 82.83 % could be obtained under the operating conditions.

  3. Interaction hybrid × planting date for oil yield in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balalić Igor M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effects of hybrids and planting dates as well as their interaction on oil yield in sunflower for three-year experiment (2005, 2006, 2007. Three sunflower hybrids (Miro, Rimi and Pobednik and eight planting dates were included in the experiment. AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction analysis is one of the mainly used multiplicative models, which evaluates main effects and also interaction. The interaction was detected by using AMMI1 biplot. Oil yield was predominantly influenced by the year of growing (58.9%, then by planting date (12.9% and by hybrid (10.7%. All interactions were significant as well. AMMI ANOVA showed high significance of both IPC1 and IPC2. The contribution of IPC1 was 77.5%. Hybrids Miro and Pobednik showed no significant differences in the mean values, which were higher than average. However, the hybrid Miro showed the highest stability for oil yield. Hybrid Rimi, with the lowest mean value, was the most unstable for the examined character. Oil yield was higher in earlier than in later planting dates. Graphical presentation of AMMI1 in the form of biplot could facilitate the choice of stable hybrids and planting dates for desired characters in sunflower.

  4. Microbiological Production of Citric and Isocitric Acids from Sunflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Kamzolova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of wild type strain Yarrowia lipolytica VKM Y-2373 and its mutant Yarrowia lipolytica N 15 as well the biosynthesis of citric and isocitric acids on sunflower oil were studied. It was indicated that cell growth was associated with the simultaneous utilization of glycerol and free fatty acids produced during oil hydrolysis. The activities of enzymes of glycerol metabolism (glycerol kinase, fatty acid assimilation enzymes of glyoxylate cycle (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase and citric acid cycle were comparatively assayed in Y. lipolytica grown on sunflower oil, glycerol and oleic acid. Glycerol kinase and enzymes of glyoxylate cycle were active during the whole period of cell cultivation on sunflower oil. Citric acid production and a ratio between citric and isocitric acids depended on both the strain used and the medium composition. It was revealed that wild type strain Y. lipolytica VKM Y-2373 produced almost equal amounts of citric and isocitric acids at pH=4.5 and predominantly accumulated isocitric acid at pH=6.0. The mutant Y. lipolytica N 15 produced only citric acid (150 g/L with mass yield (YCA of 1.32 g/g. Biochemical characteristics of mutant strain Y. lipolytica N 15 were discussed.

  5. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  6. Pyrolysis of sunflower seed hulls for obtaining bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoni, Andrés I; Bidegain, Maximiliano; Cubitto, María A; Curvetto, Nestor; Volpe, María A

    2015-02-01

    Bio-oils from pyrolysis of as received sunflower seed hulls (SSH), hulls previously washed with acid (SSHA) and hulls submitted to a mushroom enzymatic attack (BSSH) were analyzed. The concentration of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose varied with the pre-treatment. The liquid corresponding to SSH presented a relatively high concentration of acetic acid and a high instability to storage. The bio-oil from SSHA showed a high concentration of furfural and an appreciable amount of levoglucosenone. Lignin was degraded upon enzymatic activity, for this reason BSSH led to the highest yield of bio-oil, with relative high concentration of acetic acid and stability to storage.

  7. High oleic sunflower oil as a gear lubricant

    OpenAIRE

    Vižintin, Jože; Kržan, Boris

    2015-01-01

    A formulated high oleic sunflower oil was investigated with respect to their expected performance in gear boxes in comparison to a typical mineral oil. Investigations of scuffing load capacity, pitting resistance and low-speed high-load wear resistance were performed by using the FZG gear test rig. In addition of standardized tests, new formulated ISO VG 46 oil was tested in a spur gear test rig. A set of spur gears was rotated at a specified load for 1,000 hours. The physical and chemical pr...

  8. Effects of diesel and bio-diesel oils temperature on spray and performance of a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkachai Sutheerasak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research paper is the spray and engine performance investigation from preheated diesel and biodiesel oils at fuel temperature from 60 to 90 o C by comparing with non-preheated oil. In the experiment, there are fuel injection modeling and diesel engine testing, which is direct injection, 4 stroke and 4 cylinders. Results of fuel spray show that preheated diesel oil increase 4.7degree of spray angle and decrease 4.30 % of fuel injection pressure, as preheated bio-diesel oil increase 7.6degree of spray angle and decrease 13.90 % of fuel injection pressure to compare with non-preheated oil. As engine preformance testing results, preheated diesel oil increase 26.20% of thermal efficiency and decrease 4.30 % of BSFC, as preheated bio-diesel oil increase 30% of thermal efficiency and decrease 29.90 % of BSFC to compare with non-preheated oil.

  9. Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil

    OpenAIRE

    Teerawat Apichato; Gumpon Prateepchaikul1

    2003-01-01

    Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term perfor...

  10. The Effectof Temperature on the Dynmaic Viscosity of Acetone Sunflower-Seed Oil Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    TOPALLAR, Hüseyin; BAYRAK, Yüksel

    1998-01-01

    The effect of acetone on the dynamic viscosity of sunflower-seed oil was studied under a dynamic heating regime at temeparuters ranging from 25oC to 50oC at 5oC intervals. Acetone dramatically reduced the viscosity of sunflower-seed oil. The reduction of viscosity was far less with further addition of acetone. A linear relationship was found between the density of sunflower-seed oil and temperature. The influence of a solvent on the density of the sunflower-seed oil/acetone solution can be ac...

  11. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  12. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  13. Spectroscopic Analysis of Heterogeneous Biocatalysts for Biodiesel Production from Expired Sunflower Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch Wembabazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study characterized heterogeneous biocatalyst synthesized from sucrose, saw dust, and chicken egg shells using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy coupled with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR technique. Acidic sulphonate (–SO3H groups were more visible in the spectrum generated for carbonized and sulphonated sucrose than in carbonized and sulphonated saw dust. This was highlighted further by the significantly higher conversion percentage achieved for sulphonated sucrose (62.5% than sulphonated saw dust (46.6% during esterification of expired sunflower oil (p=0.05. The spectra for calcinated egg shells also showed that the most active form of calcium oxide was produced at calcination temperature of 1000°C. This was confirmed in the single-step transesterification reaction in which calcium oxide generated at 1000°C yielded the highest biodiesel (87.8% from expired sunflower oil. The study further demonstrated the versatility of the FTIR technique in qualitative analysis of biodiesel and regular diesel by confirming the presence of specific characteristic peaks of diagnostic importance. These findings therefore highlight the potential of FTIR-ATR as an inexpensive, fast, and accurate diagnostic means for easy identification and characterization of different materials and products.

  14. Genetic possibilities for altering sunflower oil quality to obtain novel oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorić, Dragan; Jocić, Sinisa; Sakac, Zvonimir; Lecić, Nada

    2008-04-01

    The sunflower is one of the four most important oilseed crops in the world, and the nutritional quality of its edible oil ranks among the best vegetable oils in cultivation. Typically up to 90% of the fatty acids in conventional sunflower oil are unsaturated, namely oleic (C 18:1, 16%-19%) and linoleic (C 18:2, 68%-72%) fatty acids. Palmitic (C 16:0, 6%), stearic (C 18:0, 5%), and minor amounts of myristic (C 14:0), myristoleic (C 14:1), palmitoleic (C 16:1), arachidic (C 20:0), behenic (C 22:0), and other fatty acids account for the remaining 10%. Advances in modern genetics, most importantly induced mutations, have altered the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil to a significant extent. Treating sunflower seeds with gamma- and X-rays has produced mutants with 25%-30% palmitic acid. Sunflower seed treatment with X-rays has also resulted in mutants having 30% palmitoleic acid, while treatments with mutagenic sodium azide have produced seeds containing 35% stearic acid. The most important mutations have been obtained by treatment with dimethyl sulfate, which produced genotypes with more than 90% oleic acid. Mutants have also been obtained that have a high linoleic acid content (>80%) by treating seeds with X-rays and ethyl methanesulfonate. Of the vitamin E family of compounds, sunflower oil is known to predominantly contain alpha-tocopherol (>90%). Spontaneous mutations controlled by recessive genes have been discovered that significantly alter tocopherol forms and levels. The genes in question are tph(1) (50% alpha- and 50% beta-tocopherol), tph(2) (0%-5% alpha- and 95%-100% gamma-tocopherol), and tph(1)tph(2) (8%-40% alpha-, 0%-25% beta-, 25%-84% gamma-, and 8%-50% delta-tocopherol). The existence of (mutant) genes for increased levels of individual fatty acids and for different forms and levels of tocopherol enables the development of sunflower hybrids with different oil quality. The greatest progress has been made in developing high-oleic hybrids (>90

  15. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  16. Conversion of sunflower oil to biodiesel by alcoholysis using immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiroglu, Ayten

    2008-01-01

    Transesterification reaction was performed using sunflower oil and short-chain alcohol by immobilized lipases in organic solvents. The fatty acid ester, which is the product of this reaction, can be used as a diesel fuel that does not produce sulfur oxide and minimize the soot particulate. Immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) and Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) showed the satisfactory activity in these reactions. Immobilization of lipases was carried out using inorganic absorbance Celit 545 particle as a carrier. Organic solvent like hexane in reactions was required when methanol and ethanol were used as alcoholic substrate. The reaction could be performed in absence of solvent when 1-propanol and 1-butanol were used as short-chain alcohol. The activities of immobilized lipases were highly increased in comparison with free lipases because its activity sites became more effective. Immobilized enzyme could be repeatedly used without difficult method of separation and the decrease in its activity was not largely observed.

  17. Effect of solvents on the fractionation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootello, Miguel A; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2015-04-01

    Solvent fractionation of high oleic-high stearic (HOHS) sunflower oil was studied to determine the best solvent to use (hexane or acetone) in terms of the operational parameters and properties of the final stearins. Acetone fractionation on two types of HOHS sunflower oils (N17 and N20) was carried out at temperatures from 5 to 10 °C using micelles with different oil/solvent ratios. Acetone was more suitable than hexane as a solvent for HSHO sunflower oil fractionation because it allowed the oil to be fractionated at higher temperatures and at lower supercooling degrees. Likewise, a sunflower soft stearin obtained by dry fractionation of HOHS sunflower oil was also used to produce high-melting point stearins by acetone or hexane fractionation. The fractionation of these stearins could be performed at higher temperatures and gave higher yields. The combination of dry and solvent fractionation to obtain tailor-made stearins is discussed.

  18. Crystallization Kinetics of Fully Hydrogenated Palm Oil in Sunflower Oil Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Walstra, P.; Vliet, van T.

    2000-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of mixtures of fully hydrogenated palm oil (HP) in sunflower oil (SF) was studied. The thermal properties and phase behavior of this model system were characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. From the melting enthalpy and clear p

  19. Crystallization Kinetics of Fully Hydrogenated Palm Oil in Sunflower Oil Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Walstra, P.; Vliet, van T.

    2000-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of mixtures of fully hydrogenated palm oil (HP) in sunflower oil (SF) was studied. The thermal properties and phase behavior of this model system were characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. From the melting enthalpy and clear

  20. Effects of diesel and bio-diesel oils temperature on spray and performance of a diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ekkachai Sutheerasak

    2014-01-01

    Research paper is the spray and engine performance investigation from preheated diesel and biodiesel oils at fuel temperature from 60 to 90 o C by comparing with non-preheated oil. In the experiment, there are fuel injection modeling and diesel engine testing, which is direct injection, 4 stroke and 4 cylinders. Results of fuel spray show that preheated diesel oil increase 4.7degree of spray angle and decrease 4.30 % of fuel injection pressure, as preheated bio-diesel oil increase 7.6degree o...

  1. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Gemert, L. J.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO or high oleic sunflower oil (HOBO. Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS. Reference samples were prepared using palm olein (PO or hydrogenated rapeseed/palm oil mixture (RP. Crisps were stored at ambient temperature for six months and French fries at -20°C for 12 months. At regular intervals the samples were assessed. Crisps prepared in SO have a lower sensory quality than those prepared in PO. Frying in HOSO resulted in crips comparable with those fried in PO. The differences found in this study concerning the mouthfeel or texture were thought not to be caused by the application of different oils. The addition of DMPS did not have any positive effect on the storage quality of crisps fried in SO or HOSO. Frying of French fries in HOSO and especially in SO, in comparison with RP, resulted in a product with a typical sweet fruits odour and flavour. During storage these sensory attributes decreased in intensity. As this finding might be an artefact of this study, further research is needed.

  2. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.522 May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel...

  3. An olive oil-rich diet results in higher concentrations of LDL cholesterol and a higher number of LDL subfraction particles than rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, A; Baumstark, M W; Marckmann, P; Gylling, H; Sandström, B

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the effect of olive oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil on blood lipids and lipoproteins including number and lipid composition of lipoprotein subclasses. Eighteen young, healthy men participated in a double-blinded randomized cross-over study (3-week intervention period) with 50 g of oil per 10 MJ incorporated into a constant diet. Plasma cholesterol, triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were 10;-20% higher after consumption of the olive oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets [analysis of variance (ANOVA), P sunflower oil diets (ANOVA, P sunflower oil (ANOVA, P sunflower oil had more favorable effects on blood lipids and plasma apolipoproteins as well as on the number and lipid content of LDL subfractions compared with olive oil. Some of the differences may be attributed to differences in the squalene and phytosterol contents of the oils.

  4. An alternative process for hydrogenation of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Classic methodologies for hydrogenation of vegetable oils have traditionally been carried out by nickel catalysts under high pressure of H2 and high temperature. An alternative method for hydrogenation of sunflower oil using limonene and palladium-on-carbon was investigated in this study. The use of limonene as a hydrogen donor solvent was proposed in order to avoid high temperature and high-pressure conditions. The catalytic transfer of hydrogenation was studied by using 0.5 to 2% of Pd as a catalyst, a limonene:oil ratio of 3:1, and reaction times from 0.5 to 2 hours. Under these conditions, high selectivities for oleic acid and low concentrations of stearic acid were obtained.

  5. Sunflower oil bleaching by adsorption onto acid-activated bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Foletto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Two bentonite clays with different mineralogical compositions from Mendoza, Argentine, were activated with H2SO4 solutions of 4 and 8 N at 90ºC for 3.5 hours. This treatment affected clay structural properties, as was shown by thermogravimetry, infrared spectrometry and chemical analysis. Bleaching efficiency for sunflower oil was strongly dependent on the acid concentration used for clay activation. The samples have bleaching capacity comparable to that observed with a commercial adsorbent standard. The mineralogical composition of natural clays influenced the properties of the activated clays.

  6. First stage of bio-jet fuel production: non-food sunflower oil extraction using cold press method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of concerning petroleum price increasing and environmental impact, more attention is attracted to renewable resources for transportation fuels. Because not conflict with human and animal food resources, non-food vegetable oils are promising sources for developing bio-jet fuels. Extracting vegetable oil from oilseeds is the first critical step in the pathway of bio-jet fuel production. When sunflower seeds are de-hulled, there are always about 5%–15% broken seed kernels (fine meat particles left over as residual wastes with oil content up to 48%. However, the oil extracted from these sunflower seed residues is non-edible due to its quality not meeting food standards. Genetically modified sunflower grown on margin lands has been identified one of sustainable biofuel sources since it doesn't compete to arable land uses. Sunflower oils extraction from non-food sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats (seed de-hulling residue was carried out using a cold press method in this study. Characterization of the sunflower oils produced was performed. The effect of cold press rotary frequency on oil recovery and quality was discussed. The results show that higher oil recovery was obtained at lower rotary frequencies. The highest oil recovery for sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats in the tests were 75.67%, 89.74% and 83.19% respectively. The cold press operating conditions had minor influence on the sunflower oil quality. Sunflower meat oils produced at 15 Hz were preliminarily upgraded and distilled. The properties of the upgraded sunflower oils were improved. Though further study is needed for the improvement of processing cost and oil recovery, cold press has shown promising to extract oil from non-food sunflower seeds for future bio-jet fuel production.

  7. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  8. Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats--compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2012-11-01

    Effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on lipid levels and regulation of lipid metabolism compared with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and sunflower oil (SFO) has been reported. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with synthetic diet. Results showed that VCO feeding significantly lowered (P VCO than other groups. Hepatic lipogenesis was also down regulated in VCO fed rats, which was evident from the decreased activities of enzymes viz., HMG CoA reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. In addition, VCO significantly (P VCO by regulating the synthesis and degradation of lipids.

  9. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Nattapong Namliwan; Tanakorn Wongwuttanasatian

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consum...

  10. Detection of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration mixed with soybean oil, corn oil, and sunflower oil by using GC and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Makni, Jamel; Rebai, Ahmed; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-05-28

    Fatty acid composition as an indicator of purity suggests that linolenic acid content could be used as a parameter for the detection of extra/virgin olive oil fraud with 5% of soybean oil. The adulteration could also be detected by the increase of the trans-fatty acid contents with 3% of soybean oil, 2% of corn oil, and 4% of sunflower oil. The use of the ΔECN42 proved to be effective in Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration even at low levels: 1% of sunflower oil, 3% of soybean oil, and 3% of corn oil. The sterol profile is almost decisive in clarifying the adulteration of olive oils with other cheaper ones: 1% of sunflower oil could be detected by the increase of Δ7-stigmastenol and 4% of corn oil by the increase of campesterol. Linear discriminant analysis could represent a powerful tool for faster and cheaper evaluation of extra-virgin olive oil adulteration.

  11. Volatilization behaviors of diesel oil from the soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-ying; ZHENG Xi-lai; LI Bing; MA Yu-xin; CAO Jing-hua

    2004-01-01

    The volatilization of diesel oil, Shengli crude oil and 90# gasoline on glass surface of petri dishes were conducted at the ambient temperature of 25℃. Diesel oil evaporates in a power manner, where the loss of mass is approximately power with time. 90# gasoline evaporates in a logarithmic with time. Where as the volatilization of Shengli crude oil fit either the logarithmic or power equation after different time, and has similar R2. And the effects of soil type and diesel oil and water content on volatilization behavior in unsaturated soil were studied in this paper. Diesel oil and water content in the soils play a large role in volatilization from soils. Appropriate water helps the wicking action but too much water stops it. The wicking action behaves differently in four different types of soils in the same volatilization experiment of 18% diesel oil content and air-dry condition.

  12. Optimizing conditions for enzymatic extraction of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr, F. H.

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was extracted with an enzymatic processes using different hydrolytic enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex, as compared to enzyme - free aqueous extraction. All the hydrolytic enzymes enhanced oil extraction from sunflower seeds. The most optimal conditions for oil extraction from sunflower seeds were: 2% enzyme concentration, 30% substrate concentration and 3 hrs period. Using Boganov and Buchkov equation showed that time must be prolonged to get higher yields. The maximum yield during 3 hrs extraction with enzymatic process ranged between 44,5%-57,1% of the soxhlet extractable oil. The potency of the investigated enzymes in extracting oil was in the following order: acid proteinase > cellulase > hemicellulase > animal proteinase > pectinex > pectinase when compared at the previous optimal conditions.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído mediante un proceso enzimático usando diferentes enzimas hidrolíticos: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinasa acida, pectinasa y pectinex, comparando con la extracción acuosa libre de enzima. Todos los enzimas hidrolíticos incrementan la extracción de aceites de semilla de girasol. Las condiciones óptimas para la extracción de aceite a partir de semillas de girasol fueron: 2% de concentración de enzima, 30% de concentración de sustrato y un período de 3 horas. La ecuación de Boganov y Buchkov mostró que el tiempo debe ser prolongado para alcanzar altos rendimientos. El máximo rendimiento durante tres horas de extracción con proceso enzimático osciló entre el 44,5%-57,1% del aceite extraído con soxhlet. La potencia de los enzimas investigados en la extracción de aceite siguió el orden: proteinasa acida > celulasa > hemicelulasa > proteinasa animal > pectinex > pectinasa cuando fue previamente comparado con las condiciones óptimas.

  13. Chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of sunflower oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Rosana de Cassia S.; Lara, Luciano R.S. [Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Fisica], e-mail: rosana@unisc.br; Bitencourt, Thiago B.; Nascimento, Maria da Graca [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Nunes, Marta R. dos Santos [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia

    2009-07-01

    The chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of the methyl esters of sunflower oil with lipase from Candida antarctica B and aqueous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the presence and absence of an acyl donor was investigated. The biphasic system (CH{sub C}l{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O) comprised Candida antarctica B lipase (CALB, 1000 u g{sup -1}) and 30% (v/v) aqueous hydrogen peroxide. In some cases the conversion was higher than 99%. The best results were obtained for the biphasic system after 16 h of reaction, at 30 deg C, using 10 mmol of octanoic acid in relation to 1 g of the oil, 6 mL of dichloromethane and 5 mL of water. (author)

  14. Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Apichato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term performance testing was conducted for each fuel on the dynamometer engine test bed. Specific fuel consumption, exhaust temperature and black smoke density were determined and measured. Long-term performance testing (or endurance test was also done by running the engines coupled with a generator in order to supply load (electricity to a lightbulb board. For each 500 hours of engine run time, the engines were dissembled for engine wear inspection. It was found that the fuel pump and fuel valve weight losses from both engines showed insignificant differences either at the first 500 hours of running time or at the second 500 hours of running time but the inlet valve from the engine fueled by diesel oil had a higher weight loss than the engine fueled by refined palm oil at the first 500 hours and at the second 500 hours of running time. The compression rings from the engine fueled by refined palm oil showed a significant weight loss compared to the engine fueled by diesel oil both after 500 hours and after 1000 hours of running time.

  15. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, M. F.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg–1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours than with air (8 hours. Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity.

    Se ha aplicado dos procedimientos de ozonización a aceites de girasol a diferentes dosis de ozono, obteniendo el ozono a partir de oxígeno medicinal y de aire. Se han determinado los índices de peróxido, yodo y acidez conjuntamente con la densidad, viscosidad y la actividad antimicrobiana. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada mediante CG. El contenido de oxígeno fue determinado mediante Análisis Elemental. Se utilizó la resonancia paramagnética electrónica para medir los radicales libres orgánicos. Las reacciones fueron realizadas hasta valores de índice de peróxidos de 658 y 675 mmol-equiv kg–1 usando oxígeno medicinal y aire durante 5 y 8 horas, respectivamente. Las muestras de aceite de girasol ozonizado no presentaron radicales libres orgánicos, lo cual es muy importante en el caso de que estos aceites sean utilizados en medicina. La reacción de ozonización es más rápida cuando se utiliza oxígeno medicinal (5 horas

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic and chromatographic studies of sunflower oil biodiesel using optimized base catalyzed methanolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naureen, Rizwana; Tariq, Muhammad; Yusoff, Ismail; Chowdhury, Ahmed Jalal Khan; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-05-01

    Methyl esters from vegetable oils have attracted a great deal of interest as substitute for petrodiesel to reduce dependence on imported petroleum and provide an alternate and sustainable source for fuel with more benign environmental properties. In the present study biodiesel was prepared from sunflower seed oil by transesterification by alkali-catalyzed methanolysis. The fuel properties of sunflower oil biodiesel were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 standards for biodiesel. The sunflower oil biodiesel was chemically characterized with analytical techniques like FT-IR, and NMR ((1)H and (13)C). The chemical composition of sunflower oil biodiesel was determined by GC-MS. Various fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were identified by retention time data and verified by mass fragmentation patterns. The percentage conversion of triglycerides to the corresponding methyl esters determined by (1)H NMR was 87.33% which was quite in good agreement with the practically observed yield of 85.1%.

  17. Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Z.; Nguyen, Q. D.

    2008-07-01

    Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at differing compositions is measured as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems. The oils used are olive, soybean, canola and peanut oils which are commercially available. All samples tested between 20°C and 80°C exhibit time-independent Newtonian behaviour. A modified Arrhenius relationship has been developed to predict the viscosity of the mixtures as functions of temperature and composition.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Bio-Diesel Obtained From Waste Cooking Oil and Its Blends with Diesel on Single Cylinder Engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. B. Sharma; Dr. Amit Pal

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment a comprehensive experimental investigation of bio-diesel oil on single cylinder engine running with biodiesel obtained from Waste cooking oil and its blends with diesel was carried...

  19. Effectiveness of added natural antioxidants in sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapiste, Guillermo H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of α- and δ-tocopherol, citric acid, ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate was investigated in sunflower oil containing naturally occurring tocopherol. The effectiveness of natural antioxidants in sunflower oil was monitored by the accelerated oxidative stability test Rancimat and oxidation development during storage under different conditions. Samples in storage experiments were periodically removed and analyzed for peroxide value, p-anisidine value, total content and distribution of polar compounds, and residual naturally occurring tocopherol. The effectiveness of each antioxidant was strongly dependent on temperature and the testing method. While ascorbic acid appears to be the most effective antioxidant according to the Rancimat oxidative stability index, δ-tocopherol shows improved performance when considering storage experiments.Se investigó la actividad antioxidante de α-tocoferol, δ-tocoferol, ácido cítrico y palmitato de ascorbilo en aceite de girasol con su conteniendo natural de tocoferol. La efectividad de los mismos fue analizada a través de la medida de la estabilidad oxidativa en Rancimat y el seguimiento de la oxidación con el almacenamiento a diferentes temperaturas. Las muestras extraídas periódicamente de la estufa fueron sometidas a los siguientes análisis: índice de peróxidos, valor de p-anisidina, contenido y distribución de compuestos polares y contenido residual de tocoferol natural. La efectividad de cada antioxidante resultó fuertemente dependiente de la temperatura y método de ensayo. Mientras el ácido ascórbico resultó ser el antioxidante más efectivo según el índice de estabilidad oxidativa medido en el equipo Rancimat, el δ-tocoferol fue el antioxidante más efectivo en las experiencias de almacenamiento.

  20. Effects of palm and sunflower oils on serum cholesterol and fatty liver in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Seung-Hee; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2015-03-01

    Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient used in the commercial food industry as the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Because of its lower cost and highly saturated nature, it usually maintains a solid form at room temperature and is used as a cheap substitute for butter. However, there has been a growing health concern about palm oil because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Palm oil contains ∼49% saturated fat, a relatively high concentration compared with other vegetable oils. Consequently, high intakes of saturated fat from palm oil induce a larger increase in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. In the present study, we examined the hyperlipidemia of palm oil and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a rat model in comparison with sunflower oil with a relatively low level of saturated fat. On in vivo examination using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 22 days, there were no significant differences in serum lipid levels, suggesting that palm oil may not cause hyperlipidemia and elevate CVD risk. However, liver samples obtained from SD rats fed with palm oil showed a lot of large lipid inclusions stained with the Oil Red O working solution, but not much lipid accumulation was observed in rats treated with sunflower oil. In addition, lipid accumulation in the mixed oil group fed the combination of palm and sunflower (1:1) oil was shown to be at an intermediary level between the palm oil group and sunflower oil group. Taken together, these results indicate that palm oil, a highly saturated form of vegetable oil, may induce dysfunction of the liver lipid metabolism before affecting serum lipid levels. On the other hand, sunflower oil, a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, was shown to be well metabolized in liver.

  1. Model-free kinetics applied to volatilization of Brazilian sunflower oil, and its

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Artigo publicado no Periódico Thermochimica Acta e também disponível em: www.elsevier.com/locate/tca Model-free kinetic studies for volatilization of Brazilian sunflower oil and its respective biodiesel were carried out. The biodiesel was obtained by the methylic route using potassium hydroxide as catalyst. Both sunflower oil and biodiesel were characterized by physicochemical analyses, gas chromatography, simulated distillation and thermogravimetry. The physicochemical properties...

  2. Aflatoxin B1 levels in groundnut and sunflower oils in different Sudanese states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Idris, Yousif Mohamed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the level of contamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in groundnut and sunflower oils was determined. The 241 oil samples were collected from Khartoum, Gezira, Kordofan and Algadarif states of Sudan and assessed for AFB1 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). AFB1 levels in groundnut oil samples ranged from 0.5 to 70 µg/kg and were 0.7 to 35 µg/kg in sunflower oil samples. High contamination was found in unrefined samples. It was concluded that AFB1 levels in oil samples indicated that growing, harvesting, handling and storage of the crops were not done properly.

  3. Combustion of soybean oil and diesel mixtures for heating purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Adriana Correa; Sanz, Jose Francisco [European University Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: acorrea@uemc.es; Hernandez, Salvador; Navas, Luis Manuel; Rodriguez, Elena; Ruiz, Gonzalo [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Agricultural and Forest Engineering; San Jose, Julio [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Energetic Engineering; Gomez, Jaime [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Communications and Signal Theory and Telematics Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Using blends of vegetable oils with petroleum derivates for heating purposes has several advantages over other energy application for vegetable oils. This paper presents the results of an investigation by use of soybean oil and diesel mixture as fuel for producing heat in conventional diesel installation. The paper is set out as follows: properties characterization of soybean oil as fuel and of diesel oil, as well as the mixture of both; selection of the mixture according to their physical chemical properties and how they adapt to conventional combustion installation; experimentation with the selected mixture, allowing the main combustion parameters to be measured; processing the collected data, values of combustion, efficiency and reduction of emissions. Conclusions show that the use of soybean oil and diesel mixture for producing heat energy in conventional equipment is feasible and beneficial for reduction emissions. (author)

  4. Effect of cocoa butter and sunflower oil supplementation on performance, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Cınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, Ilkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  5. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  6. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during deep frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rehab, F. M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA, Peroxide Value (PV, thiobarbituric acid value (TBA, iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC, color and viscosity were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 °C ± 5 °C, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25; while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24. Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05 decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process.

    Aceites de girasol se mezclaron con diferentes niveles de aceite de chufa prensado en frío. Se obtuvieron mezclas de aceite de chufa con girasol en las proporciones: 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30

  7. The organic composition of diesel particulate matter, diesel fuel and engine oil of a non-road diesel generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fuyan; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Liu, Zifei; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2005-10-01

    Diesel-powered equipment is known to emit significant quantities of fine particulate matter to the atmosphere. Numerous organic compounds can be adsorbed onto the surfaces of these inhalable particles, among which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered potential occupational carcinogens. Guidelines have been established by various agencies regarding diesel emissions and various control technologies are under development. The purpose of this study is to identify, quantify and compare the organic compounds in diesel particulate matter (DPM) with the diesel fuel and engine oil used in a non-road diesel generator. Approximately 90 organic compounds were quantified (with molecular weight ranging from 120 to 350), which include alkanes, PAHs, alkylated PAHs, alkylbenzenes and alkanoic acids. The low sulfur diesel fuel contains 61% alkanes and 7.1% of PAHs. The identifiable portion of the engine oil contains mainly the alkanoic and benzoic acids. The composition of DPM suggests that they may be originated from unburned diesel fuel, engine oil evaporation and combustion generated products. Compared with diesel fuel, DPM contains fewer fractions of alkanes and more PAH compounds, with the shift toward higher molecular weight ones. The enrichment of compounds with higher molecular weight in DPM may be combustion related (pyrogenic).

  8. Film-forming properties of blends of high-oleic sunflower oil with polyalkyl glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic film thicknesses of oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (PAG), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO), and their 50/50 (wt.) blends were investigated. The viscosity and density of the blends were found to be predictable from the corresponding neat oil properties us...

  9. Aflatoxin levels in sunflower seeds and cakes collected from micro- and small-scale sunflower oil processors in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmongoyo, Juma A; Wu, Felicia; Linz, John E; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Mugula, Jovin K; Tempelman, Robert J; Strasburg, Gale M

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxin, a mycotoxin found commonly in maize and peanuts worldwide, is associated with liver cancer, acute toxicosis, and growth impairment in humans and animals. In Tanzania, sunflower seeds are a source of snacks, cooking oil, and animal feed. These seeds are a potential source of aflatoxin contamination. However, reports on aflatoxin contamination in sunflower seeds and cakes are scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine total aflatoxin concentrations in sunflower seeds and cakes from small-scale oil processors across Tanzania. Samples of sunflower seeds (n = 90) and cakes (n = 92) were collected across two years, and analyzed for total aflatoxin concentrations using a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For seed samples collected June-August 2014, the highest aflatoxin concentrations were from Dodoma (1.7-280.6 ng/g), Singida (1.4-261.8 ng/g), and Babati-Manyara (1.8-162.0 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Mbeya (2.8-97.7 ng/g), Dodoma (1.9-88.2 ng/g), and Singida (2.0-34.3 ng/g). For seed samples collected August-October 2015, the highest concentrations were from Morogoro (2.8-662.7 ng/g), Singida (1.6-217.6 ng/g) and Mbeya (1.4-174.2 ng/g). The highest concentrations for cakes were from Morogoro (2.7-536.0 ng/g), Dodoma (1.4-598.4 ng/g) and Singida (3.2-52.8 ng/g). In summary, humans and animals are potentially at high risk of exposure to aflatoxins through sunflower seeds and cakes from micro-scale millers in Tanzania; and location influences risk.

  10. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine).

  11. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattapong Namliwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and oxygen (O2 than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO and nitrogen oxides (NOX emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine.

  12. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  13. Experimental investigation of a diesel engine with methyl ester of mango seed oil and diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayaraj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based fuels worldwide have not only resulted in the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, but have also caused severe air pollution. The search for an alternate fuel has led to many findings due to which a wide variety of alternative fuels are available at our disposal now. The existing studies have revealed the use of vegetable oils for engines as an alternative for diesel fuel. However, there is a limitation in using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines due to their high viscosity and low volatility. In the present work, neat mango seed oil is converted into their respective methyl ester through transesterification process. Experiments are conducted using various blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil with diesel in a single cylinder, four stroke vertical and air cooled Kirloskar diesel engine. The experimental results of this study showed that the MEMSO biodiesel has similar characteristics to those of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon and smoke density are observed to be lower in case of MEMSO biodiesel blends than diesel. The CO emission for B25, B50 and B75 is observed to be lower than diesel at full load, whereas for B100 it is higher at all loads. On the other hand, BSFC and NOx of MEMSO biodiesel blends are found to be higher than diesel. It is found that the combustion characteristics of all blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil showed similar trends with those of the baseline diesel. From this study, it is concluded that optimized blend is B25 and could be used as a viable alternative fuel in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any modifications.

  14. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  15. The Application of Neural Networks in Balancing Production of Crude Sunflower Oil and Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Ivetic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to predict specific output characteristics of half finished goods (crude sunflower oil and meal on the basis of specific input variables (quality and composition of sunflower seeds, with the help of artificial neural networks. This is an attempt to predict the amount much more precisely than is the case with technological calculations commonly used in the oil industry. All input variables are representing the data received by the laboratory, and the output variables except category % of oil which is obtained by measuring the physical quantity of produced crude sunflower oil and sunflower consumed quantity of the processing quality. The correct prediction of the output variables contributes to better sales planning, production of sunflower oil, and better use of storage. Also, the correct prediction of technological results of the quality of crude oil and meal provides timely response and also preventing getting rancid and poor-quality oil, timely categorizing meal, which leads to proper planning and sales to the rational utilization of storage space, allows timely response technologists and prevents the growth of microorganisms in the meal.

  16. EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM TWO-STROKE MARINE DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH BIODIESEL PRODUCED FROM VARIOUS WASTE OILS AND DIESEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Nikolić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shipping represents a significant source of diesel emissions, which affects global climate, air quality and human health. As a solution to this problem, biodiesel could be used as marine fuel, which could help in reducing the negative impact of shipping on environment and achieve lower carbon intensity in the sector. In Southern Europe, some oily wastes, such as wastes from olive oil production and used frying oils could be utilized for production of the second-generation biodiesel. The present research investigates the influence of the second-generation biodiesel on the characteristics of gaseous emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO from marine diesel engines. The marine diesel engine that was used, installed aboard a ship, was a reversible low-speed two-stroke engine, without any after-treatment devices installed or engine control technology for reducing pollutant emission. Tests were carried out on three regimes of engine speeds, 150 rpm, 180 rpm and 210 rpm under heavy propeller condition, while the ship was berthed in the harbor. The engine was fueled by diesel fuel and blends containing 7% and 20% v/v of three types of second-generation biodiesel made of olive husk oil, waste frying sunflower oil, and waste frying palm oil. A base-catalyzed transesterification was implemented for biodiesel production. According to the results, there are trends of NOx, SO2, and CO emission reduction when using blended fuels. Biodiesel made of olive husk oil showed better gaseous emission performances than biodiesel made from waste frying oils.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF A DIESEL ENGINE WITH BLENDS OF DIESEL-PLASTIC PYROLYSIS OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Rajesh Guntur,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and depletion of oil reserves are matters of great concern around the globe. Developing countries like India depend heavily on crude oil import of about 125 Mt per annum (7:1diesel/gasoline. Diesel being the main transportation fuel in India, finding a suitable fuel alternative to diesel is an urgent need. In this context, pyrolysis of waste plastic solid is currently receiving renewed interest. Waste plastic pyrolysis oil is suitable for compression ignition engines and more attention is focused in India because of its potential to generate large-scale employment and relatively low environmental degradation. In the present work the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, constant speed, and direct injection diesel engine using waste plastic pyrolysis oil blends as an alternate fuel were evaluated and the results are compared with the standard diesel fuel operation. Results indicated that the brake thermal efficiency was highercompared to diesel at part load condition. Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions were higher and oxygen emission was lower compared to diesel operation.

  18. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds.

  19. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Winne Sia Chiaw; Ismail, Amin; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Wai, Ho Chun; Seng, Yim Hip

    2014-05-09

    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  20. Wood pyrolysis oil for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paro, D.; Gros, S.; Hellen, G.; Jay, D.; Maekelae, T.; Rantanen, O.; Tanska, T. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Wood Pyrolysis oil (WPO) has been identified by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) as the most competitive biofuel product which can be produced from biomass. The fuel is produced by a fast pyrolysis technique, using wood chipping`s or sawdust. The process can be applied to other recycling products such as straw etc. The use of WPO as a Diesel power plant fuel has been studied, and a fuel specification has been developed. The fuel characteristics have been analysed. There are several fuel properties addressed in the paper which have had to be overcome. New materials have been used in the fuel injection system. The fuel injection system development has progressed from a pump-line-pipe system to a common rail system. The fuel requires a pilot fuel oil injection to initiate combustion. The targets for the fuel injection system have been 1500 bar and 30 deg C injection period with a fuel of 15 MJ/kg lower heating value and 1220 Kg/m{sup 3} density. The combustion characteristics from both a small 80 mm bore engine initially, and then later with a single cylinder test of a 320 mm bore Waertsilae engine, have been evaluated. (author)

  1. Experimental evaluation of diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil and diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huzayyin, A.S.; Rady, M.A.; Dawood, A. [Benha High Inst. of Technology (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Technology; Bawady, A.H. [University of Ain Shams, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2004-08-01

    An experimental evaluation of using jojoba oil as an alternate diesel engine fuel has been conducted in the present work. Measurements of jojoba oil chemical and physical properties have indicated a good potential of using jojoba oil as an alternative diesel engine fuel. Blending of jojoba oil with gas oil has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of jojoba oil. Experimental measurements of different performance parameters of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, diesel engine have been performed using gas oil and blends of gas oil with jojoba oil. Measurements of engine performance parameters at different load conditions over the engine speed range have generally indicated a negligible loss of engine power, a slight increase in brake specific fuel consumption and a reduction in engine NO{sub x} and soot emission using blends of jojoba oil with gas oil as compared to gas oil. The reduction in engine soot emission has been observed to increase with the increase of jojoba oil percentage in the fuel blend. (Author)

  2. Influence of Storage Condition on Seed Oil Content of Maize, Soybean and Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Šimić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to examine the changes in seed oil content in different genotypes of maize, soybean and sunflower from 2002 to 2006, in two types of storage conditions which differ in air temperature and humidity: 25°C/75% and 12°C/60%, respectively. Aff ected by storage longevity, in average, seed oil content decreased by 0.82% in maize, 2.19% in soybean and 8.53% in sunflower. Differences in oil content affected by storage longevity were significant among tested crops and genotypes within crops. Storage longevity was negatively associated with oil content. At storage conditions at 12°C/60%, decreasing of seed oil content was less by 0.55% (maize, 1.30% (soybean and 1.75% (sunflower than in storage conditions at 25°C/75%. In summary, the lowest seed quality losses were in maize, then in soybean and the highest losses were in sunflower. Decreasing of seed quality losses is possible with suitable storage conditions, particularly for soybean and sunflower.

  3. Variability in sunflower oil quality for biodiesel production: A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra-Irujo, Gustavo A.; Izquierdo, Natalia G.; Quiroz, Facundo; Aguirrezabal, Luis A.N. [Unidad Integrada Balcarce, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, CC 276, 7620 Balcarce, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Covi, Mauro [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Intendente Gueiraldes 2160, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nolasco, Susana M. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Avda. del Valle 7537, B7400JWI, Olavarria (Argentina)

    2009-03-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid composition of the feedstock, which varies among and within species, is the main determinant of biodiesel quality. In this work we analyze the variability in biodiesel quality (density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, cetane number and iodine value) obtained from sunflower oil, by means of a validated crop model that predicts the fatty acid composition of one high-oleic, and three traditional (high-linoleic) sunflower hybrids. The model was run with a 10-year average weather data from 56 weather stations in Argentina, and simulation results were compared to the biodiesel standards of Argentina, USA and Europe. We show that biodiesel produced from sunflower oil does not have one fixed quality, but different qualities depending on weather conditions and agricultural practices, and that intraspecific variation in biodiesel quality can be larger than interspecific differences. Our results suggest that (a) sunflower oil from high-oleic hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production (within limits of all analyzed standards), regardless of growing conditions and (b) sunflower oil from traditional hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production under the standards of Argentina and USA, while only certain hybrids grown in warm regions (e.g., Northern Argentina, Southern USA, China, India, Pakistan) are suitable for biodiesel production according to the European standard. (author)

  4. Effect of glycerol on the morphology of starch-sunflower oil composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Feil, H.

    1999-01-01

    The presented study involves the encapsulation of sunflower oil in starch by casting emulsions of oil in aqueous starch solutions. Glycerol was used as a plasticizer and lecithin was used as an emulsifier, to improve the emulsion stability. Increasing glycerol concentration in the samples resulted

  5. Effect of glycerol on the morphology of starch-sunflower oil composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Feil, H.

    1999-01-01

    The presented study involves the encapsulation of sunflower oil in starch by casting emulsions of oil in aqueous starch solutions. Glycerol was used as a plasticizer and lecithin was used as an emulsifier, to improve the emulsion stability. Increasing glycerol concentration in the samples resulted i

  6. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  7. Preparation of margarines from organogels of sunflower wax and vegetable oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was previously reported that sunflower wax (SW) had high potential as an organogelator for soybean oil-based margarine and spread products. In this study twelve other vegetable oils were evaluated in a margarine formulation to test feasibility of utilization of SW as an alternative to solid fats ...

  8. Biodiesel production from sunflower oil by using alkali metal exchanged NaX zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, A.; Borges, M.E.; Hernandez, A. [La Laguna Univ. (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the activity of a potassium-acetate exchanges NaX zeolite as catalyst for the transesterification of commercial sunflower oil and frying oil for the production of biodiesel, using a slurry reactor, batch and continuous operation, and testing the effect of some variables on the process. (orig.)

  9. A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Soybean Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Okorie E. Agwu; Okon, Anietie N.; Udoh, Francis D.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-based mud (OBM) was formulated with soybean oil extracted from soybean using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated soybean mud properties were compared with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The results obtained show that the soybean oil mud exhibited Bingham plastic rheological model with applicable (low) yield point and gel stren...

  10. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  11. Evaluation of the Use of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Oil for an Emergency Diesel Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Young-Chul; Chung, Woo-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the compatibility and effect on driving an emergency diesel generator using ULSD examining the specific gravity and lubricity of the oil. Because generators at NPPs use ULSD which is not mostly used for medium-large diesel generator engines, this study seeks to provide effective precautions for the driving stability of emergency diesel generators. One of the major fuel oils used in medium-large diesel engines for the normal driving of vessels and the generation of emergency power at power plants is heavy fuel oil. There are no vessels and power generation engines known to use high-quality diesel oil which is widely used in cars. The findings of this study suggest that when driving a diesel generator, there will be increased fuel consumption by 3.6% [m{sup 3}/hr.]. Furthermore, the mechanical fuel limiter on the engine needs an upward adjustment because the system is set for 110% load operations for the former LSD fuel. Both LSD and ULSD retain lubricity with a WSD around 330~350μm. These results clearly show that bad lubricity problems are not expected to occur. We had presumed an increased amount of foreign particulates because of the increased additives for high lubricity and oxidative stability.

  12. Bio-oil fueled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 and 1997 pyrolysis oil made of wood will be tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  13. Bio-oil fuelled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 pyrolysis oil made of wood was tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  14. Sunflower oil supplementation alters meat quality but not performance of growing partridges (Alectoris chukar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülşen, N; Umucalilar, H D; Kirikçi, K; Hayirli, A; Aktümsek, A; Alaşahan, S

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sunflower oil supplementation (0%, 3%, 6% and 9%) to partridge chicks (Alectoris chukar) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics. Feed consumption and live weight gain were responsive to dietary sunflower oil inclusion during the starter period, but not during the grower period. Increasing sunflower oil level linearly increased crude protein and fat digestibilities. Except for abdominal fat, weights of inedible parts and edible organs remained unchanged by the diets. The treatments linearly decreased weight and efficiency of carcass and weights of wings and breast and did not alter weights of thighs and neck. Breast meat saturated fatty acids decreased linearly by 17.9% and unsaturated fatty acids increased linearly by 10.6%, as sunflower oil level increased in the diets. Monounsaturated fatty acids decreased linearly by 27.3%, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids increased linearly by 51%. Overall, n-3 (0.78% vs. 0.59%) and n-6 (42.6% vs. 29.8%) were greater in breast meat in treatment groups than in control group. In conclusion, sunflower addition into diets has minimal effects on performance of growing partridges, but significantly alters meat fatty acid composition.

  15. Determination of traces of several pesticides in sunflower oil using organic phase immuno electrodes (OPIEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Testing for traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates), present in hydrophobic matrices such as sunflower oil was checked using new immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs). The competitive process took place in an n-hexane-chloroform 75% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent final enzymatic measurement was performed in decane using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. A linear response of between about 10 nM and 4 μM was usually obtained in the presence of sunflower oil. Immunosensors show satisfactory selectivity and precision and recovery tests carried out on commercial sunflower oil samples gave excellent results. Lastly, theoretical confirmation of the possibility that immunosensors can act positively in organic solvent mixtures was discussed on the basis of Hill׳s coefficient values.

  16. Characterization of the pyrolysis oil produced in the slow pyrolysis of sunflower-extracted bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoz, S. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-extracted bagasse pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, particle size and pyrolysis atmosphere on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum oil yield of 23% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 {sup o}C and a heating rate of 7 {sup o}C min {sup -1}. The chemical characterisation has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower-extracted bagasse may be potentially valuable as fuel and chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  17. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties....... Furthermore, the potential antioxidative effect of adding lactoferrin, propyl gallate or EDTA to the mayonnaise with SL was also investigated. Mayonnaise based on SL oxidized faster than mayonnaise based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL mayonnaise could not be ascribed to a single factor...... gallate and lactoferrin did not exert any antioxidative effect in the SL mayonnaise...

  18. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the biofuel production process from sunflower oil, rapeseed oil and soybean oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz Requena, J.F.; Guimaraes, A.C.; Quiros Alpera, S.; Relea Gangas, E.; Hernandez-Navarro, S.; Navas Gracia, L.M.; Martin-Gil, J.; Fresneda Cuesta, H. [Universidad Europea Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Natural Resources; Valladolid Univ., Palencia (Spain). Dept. of Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Once ratified the Kyoto protocol, Spain arises the great challenge of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. Among the measures proposed is the introduction of biofuels in the market, both for the transport sector and for the production of heat. This paper compares the environmental impact from the production of biofuels whose origin is the oil obtained from sunflower, rapeseed and soybeans. The environmental impact of each production is performed by applying the methodology of life cycle analysis (LCA). The categories where you get a greater impact are land use, fossil fuels, carcinogens, inorganic respiratory and climate change. The cause is mainly due to the processes of seed production. We have also found a significant impact on the drying and preparation processes of the seed as well as the crude soybean oil extracting process. Moreover as the LCA shows production of rapeseed and sunflower has a positive contribution to climate change. (author)

  19. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic? Diets enriched with olive, rapeseed, or sunflower oil affect postprandial factor VII differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P Olive oil also tended to cause lower FVIIa peak concentrations than did rapeseed oil (mean difference: 8.6 U/L, a 15% reduction; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences between diets...

  20. Performance characteristics of a diesel engine with deccan hemp oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O.D. Hebbal; K. Vijayakumar Reddy; K. Rajagopal [Poojya Doddappa Appa College of Engineering, Gulbarga (India)

    2006-10-15

    In this present investigation deccan hemp oil, a non-edible vegetable oil is selected for the test on a diesel engine and its suitability as an alternate fuel is examined. The viscosity of deccan hemp oil is reduced first by blending with diesel in 25/75%, 50/50%, 75/25%, 100/0% on volume basis, then analyzed and compared with diesel. Further blends are heated and effect of viscosity on temperature was studied. The performance and emission characteristics of blends are evaluated at variable loads of 0.37, 0.92, 1.48, 2.03, 2.58, 3.13 and 3.68 kW at a constant rated speed of 1500 rpm and results are compared with diesel. The thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) are well comparable with diesel, and emissions are a little higher for 25% and 50% blends. At rated load, smoke, carbon monoxide (CO), and unburnt hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of 50% blend are higher compared with diesel by 51.74%, 71.42% and 33.3%, respectively. For ascertaining the validity of results obtained, pure deccan hemp oil results are compared with results of jatropha and pongamia oil for similar works available in the literature and were well comparable. From investigation it has been established that, up to 25% of blend of deccan hemp oil without heating and up to 50% blend with preheating can be substituted for diesel engine without any engine modification. 27 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Biodiesel fuels from palm oil, palm oil methylester and ester-diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.A.O. Martins

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of increasing cost and environmental pollution effects of fossil fuels, palm oil, its methylester and ester-diesel blends were analyzed comparatively with diesel for their fuel properties that will make them serve as alternatives to diesel in diesel engines. Equally, the samples were comparatively analyzed for their trace metal composition in relation to corrosion. Also the bond structure/stability of the samples in relation to diesel were monitored with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Results confirmed that most methylester blends with diesel fell within the grade 2D while the oil, methylester and 90:10 blend fell into 4D grade diesel fuels. From bond structure/stability comparison, all the samples were stable at 28 oC and had similarity in structure with diesel. All samples are commercializable. The trace metal composition of most samples was below that of the diesel with exception of Mn, Pb and Zn. The total acid numbers of all samples were below that of diesel and would not cause corrosion. It is recommended that processing of these samples should be done to conserve fossil fuel and as alternative diesel fuels in diesel engines.

  2. Combustion of Microalgae Oil and Ethanol Blended with Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using renewable oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is a proposed method to reduce diesel engine emission. Ethanol has lower density, viscosity, cetane number and calorific value than petroleum diesel (PD. Microalgae oil is renewable, environmentally friendly and has the potential to replace PD. In this paper, microalgae oil (10% and ethanol (10% have been mixed and added to (80% diesel fuel as a renewable source of oxygenated fuel. The mixture of microalgae oil, ethanol and petroleum diesel (MOE20% has been found to be homogenous and stable without using surfactant. The presence of microalgae oil improved the ethanol fuel demerits such as low density and viscosity. The transesterification process was not required for oil viscosity reduction due to the presence of ethanol. The MOE20% fuel has been tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at different speed. The engine test results with MOE20% showed a very comparable engine performance of in-cylinder pressure, brake power, torque and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC to that of PD. The NOx emission and HC have been improved while CO and CO2 were found to be lower than those from PD at low engine speed.

  3. Effect of antioxidant butylated hydroxyl anisole on the thermal or oxidative stability of sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus) by ultrasonic

    OpenAIRE

    Murari, Satish Kumar; Shwetha, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) as an antioxidant in sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus). The oxidation stability of sunflower oil have been investigated by the effects of varying amounts of BHA. The antioxidant incorporated sunflower oil system and control edible oil were subjected to heating at 180 ± 5 °C continuously for a period of 4 h per day for consecutive 4 days. The parameters used to assess the thermal degradation...

  4. Stability and filtering capacity of diesel oil; Estabilidade e filtrabilidade do oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Marcelo Vieira; Rocha, Mauro Iurk [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Combustiveis]. E-mails: marvial@petrobras.com.br; miurk@petrobras.com.br; Zotin, Fatima Maria Zanon [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: fzotin@uerj.br; Pinto, Ricardo Rodrigues da Cunha [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Recursos Humanos. Gerencia de Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologias]. E-mail: rcp@petrobras.com.br

    2006-12-15

    The increasing demand for the reduction in the emission of polluting agents by diesel motors has led to the use of more advanced injection systems. These systems are increasingly reducing clearances and portray more restrictive filtering capacity, protecting them from the release of fuel particles. Those particles may originate in the degradation of oil products, formed by the acid-catalyzed condensation between aromatic compounds and heterocyclic nitrogens. These compounds appear in the various chains used in the composition of the fuel. We address here the aspects influencing the stability to oxidation and fuel filterability as well as the methods used to assess the degradation capacity of several diesel oil formulations. (author)

  5. Productions of sunflower oil biodiesel and used cooking oil through heterogeneous catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, C. A.; Blanco Martínez, D.; Collazos, C. A.; Castellanos Acuña, H. E.; Cuervo, J. A.; Fernandez, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    This document compares homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts used by production of biodiesel of sunflower oil and cooking oil used in frying. For this, NaOH was used as a catalyst homogeneous, and K2CO3 and Na2CO3 supported in gamma-alumina (K2CO3/γ Al2O3 y Na2CO3 /γ-Al2O3) were synthesized as heterogeneous catalysts, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The transesterification tests were carried out for the sunflower oil and used cooking oil, in a reflux system, to different molar relations methanol/oil, depending on the type of oil and characterization of the same. The reflux system is performed at a temperature of 55-60°C for one hour. Finally, biofuel was characterized and the yield of the reaction was calculated.

  6. The antioxidative effect of Iranian Mentha pulegium extracts and essential oil in sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkar, Abolfazl; Javan, Ashkan Jebelli; Asadi, Farzad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidative activities of the essential oil, methanol and water extracts of Iranian pennyroyal in vegetable oil during storage. Different concentrations (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm) of essential oil, water and methanol extracts and beta-hydroxy toluene (BHT; 200 ppm) were added to sunflower oil emulsion in the presence of cupric ions and incubated for 7 days at 60 degrees C. Peroxide values (PVs) and thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) levels were measured in each day up to day of seven. Furthermore, antioxidant capacity of the essential oil and extracts were determined using DPPH and beta-carotene-linoleic acid methods. Values were compared among groups in each incubation time points using ANOVA. Results showed that DPPH and beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay findings on the Mentha pulegium extracts were comparable to those found on BHT. Furthermore, in all incubation time points, M. pulegium extracts lowered PVs and TBARS levels when compared to the control (poil did not show considerable antioxidative effect. It seems that water extract of M. pulegium is a potent antioxidant which makes it as a potential antioxidant for oil and oily products during storage.

  7. 77 FR 27451 - Permitting Guidance for Oil and Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Activities Using Diesel Fuels-Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Common Synonyms: Automotive diesel oil; Diesel fuel; Diesel oil (petroleum); Diesel oils; Diesel test... and underground sources of drinking water versus any additional workload for applicants. Geomechanical... additional workload for applicants. Should the Agency request submittal of seismic data, such as the presence...

  8. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  9. Application of Canola Oil Biodiesel/Diesel Blends in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application effects of canola oil biodiesel/diesel blends in a common rail diesel engine was experimentally investigated. The test fuels were denoted as ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel, BD20 (20% canola oil blended with 80% ULSD by volume, and PCO (pure canola oil, respectively. These three fuels were tested under an engine speed of 1500 rpm with various brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs. The results indicated that PCO can be used well in the diesel engine without engine modification, and that BD20 can be used as a good alternative fuel to reduce the exhaust pollution. In addition, at low engine loads (0.13 MPa and 0.26 MPa, the combustion pressure of PCO is the smallest, compared with BD20 and ULSD, because the lower calorific value of PCO is lower than that of ULSD. However, at high engine loads (0.39 MPa and 0.52 MPa, the rate of heat release (ROHR of BD20 is the highest because the canola oil biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel that promotes combustion, shortening the ignition delay period. For exhaust emissions, by using canola oil biodiesel, the particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were considerably reduced with increased BMEP. The nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased only slightly due to the inherent presence of oxygen in biodiesel.

  10. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

    Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de

  11. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  12. Gelling ability and crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant waxes can effectively form organogels with vegetable oils and these organogels have drawn considerable interests as alternatives to solid fats containing trans fats and saturated fats in margarines and spreads. Among them sunflower wax showed the most pronounced gelling ability. In an attempt ...

  13. The equation of state for solutions of the sunflower oil+isomerhexane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarov, M. M.; Abdukhamidova, Z.

    1995-11-01

    The article presents the results of an experimental investigation into the density of solutions of the sunflower oil+isomerhexane system (from 23 to 75%) at temperatures of from 293 to 450 K and pressures of from 0.101 to 98.1 MPa. An equation of state is obtained.

  14. Counter-current CO2 purification of partially deacylated sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    High oleic sunflower oil was partially deacylated by propanolysis to produce a mixture of diglycerides and triglycerides. To remove by-product fatty acid propyl esters (FAPEs) from this reaction mixture, a liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) counter-current fractionation method was developed. The fracti...

  15. Counter-current carbon dioxide purification of partially deacylated sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    High oleic sunflower oil was partially deacylated by propanolysis to produce a mixture of diglycerides and triglycerides. To remove by-product fatty acid propyl esters (FAPEs) from this reaction mixture, a liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) counter-current fractionation method was developed. The fracti...

  16. The effects of topical application of sunflower-seed oil on open wound healing in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Silvio Romero

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the effects of the use of sunflower seed oil on the treatment of skin wounds. METHODS: Eighteen male Saint Inês lambs were divided in 3 groups according to the pos-operative (7, 14 and 21 days. After antisepsis and local anestesia, two 4cm² wounds on each side of the thoracic region, close to the scapule were surgically produced. The experimental wounds were treated with sunflower seed oil, with high concentration of linoleic acid (LA, and the control ones with sterilized Vaseline. Biopsies of the pos-operative wounds tissue were performed on the 7th, 14th, 21st days and histologically evaluated. RESULTS: Topic application of sunflower seed oil accelerated healing process at the 7th and 21st days, reducing wound area and increasing wound contraction. Granulation tissue increased faster on treated wounds. The epidermis of the treated wounds was completely recovered when compared to control wounds. CONCLUSION: The topic use of sunflower seed oil accelerated the healing process, and it can be used as an alternative therapy on second intention wound healing.

  17. The Influence of Palm Oil Addition on Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Muresan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Halva is one of the most popular food products of Middle Eastern and North African countries. Worldwide, the most known halva contains roasted sesame seeds, while usually in Eastern European countries the most appreciated is sunflower halva. However, even if sunflower halva is an appreciated product, it has currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers. Sunflower halva main issue is caused by the oil which separates at the surface during storage, determining a low commercial aspect of the product. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of palm oil addition on sunflower halva stability and texture. Five samples containing different oil percentages [w/w] (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% were prepared, as well as a control sample prepared using the standard recipe (no palm oil added. The texture of all samples was analyzed by an instrumental method, while the colloidal stability was determined by a gravimetric technique during 40 days of storage at two different temperatures (1-2ºC and 15-20ºC. After the storage test at 1-2oC, there were not significant differences between the samples, for all palm oil containing samples as well as for control the percentages of separated oil being below 0.6%. With respect to the control sample, the halva samples containing 1%, 4% and 5% of palm oil showed a decrease in their stability, while samples containing 2% and 3% showed an improved stability (3.44% and 1.78% of separated oil. During this study it was established that the sample containing 3% palm oil was the most favorable, regarding its textural properties, as well as its colloidal stability. 

  18. Thermal behavior of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends during deep fat frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, Charanjiv

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shall be deleted offer some advantages like better nutritional quality, lower cost and greater storage stability than pure oils. Model blends prepared from pure rice bran oil (RBO and sunflower oil (SFO were examined for change in their physico-chemical parameters (acid value, iodine value, color value, peroxide value and fatty acids. Repeated deep fat frying processes were carried out using dried potato chips in pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends, in order to study the thermal behavior of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends. Pure rice bran oil and sunflower oil showed good thermal stability during the repeated deep fat frying cycles. Although all the blended oils used in the study showed good thermal stability during repeated deep fat frying cycles, model blends consisting of 60%RBO + 40% SFO showed better suitability during repeated deep fat frying than the remaining blended oils.La mezclas de aceites pueden ofrecer algunas ventajas sobre los aceites puros las como mejor calidad nutricional, coste inferior o mayor estabilidad durante el almacenamiento. En este estudio, aceite de salvado de arroz (RBO, aceite de girasol (SFO y mezclas de ambos, se sometieron al proceso de fritura de patatas y se evaluaron los principales cambios físico-químicos en los aceites puros y en sus mezclas (acidez, índice de yodo, color, índice de peróxidos y composición de ácidos grasos. Aunque todas las muestras mostraron buena estabilidad a elevada temperatura, los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con la mezcla que contenía 60% de RBO y 40% de SFO.

  19. Detection of Red Dye in Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Varughese

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing a sensitive and effective instrument for detecting the presence of red dye in diesel fuel is very advantageous for governments in preventing tax loss by controlling illegal use of the diesel fuel. The objective of this work has been to investigate and develop an instrument to detect red dye in diesel, based on the principle of absorption. The peaks of absorption in red and pure diesel fuel were measured with the help of UV-spectrometer (Lambda 6/ PECSS. Optical interference filters of wavelengths 405 nm and 616 nm were used to modify the spectral transmittance of an optical system with appropriate spectral absorption characteristics. Two simultaneous light beams of two different colors were sent into the diesel fuel and the transmitted light from the fuel censored by a silicon photo detector. The signal from the detector was then amplified with the help of three operational amplifiers (OP-177 and sent to an analog device (AD 538 which can perform division operation. The voltage produced when the violet light passes through the medium was divided when the red light passes through the medium in the one quadrant division unit (AD 538. The output voltage from the analog device was measured with the help of a digital multi-meter. The results show that the output voltages decreases with the increase in percentage of red dye in diesel fuel.

  20. Experimental Investigation of Bio-Diesel Obtained From Waste Cooking Oil and Its Blends with Diesel on Single Cylinder Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Sharma,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment a comprehensive experimental investigation of bio-diesel oil on single cylinder engine running with biodiesel obtained from Waste cooking oil and its blends with diesel was carried out for its performance and emission analysis. The results which obtained are significantly comparable to pure diesel. It shows that biodiesel obtained from cooking oil can be used as alternative fuel with better performance and lower emissions compared with diesel and play a very vital role for the overall economic development of the country.

  1. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  2. Enhancement of skin permeation of ibuprofen from ointments and gels by sesame oil, sunflower oil and oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinda S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several batches of paraffin ointments were prepared and ibuprofen was incorporated into them. Sesame oil, sunflower oil, and oleic acid in different concentrations were incorporated into different batches. Commercial ibuprofen gel was obtained and divided into several batches and different concentrations of sesame oil, sunflower oil, and oleic acid were incorporated into them. The in vitro drug release characteristics through hairless (88 mm rat skin was carried out by using modified Insertion cell designed in our laboratory. The cell was placed into a borosil beaker containing 50 ml of pH 7.4 phosphate buffer as the diffusion fluid. The beaker was placed over the magnetic stirrer, which was maintained at 37±0.5° to maintain the temperature of diffusion fluid. The released drug content at predetermined time interval was measured using U-V-double beam spectrophotometer at 272 nm. The drug release was raised with increase in oil concentration.

  3. Mycoflora of phylloplane as a factor protecting the oil sunflower against the diseases caused by fungi, depending on ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Kita

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1980-83 a research was carried out on the phylloplane of oil sunflowers. A composition of species of the fungus community was determined as well as its reaction in relation to the sunflower pathogens: Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

  4. Experimental combustion analysis of a hsdi diesel engine fuelled with palm oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends

    OpenAIRE

    JOHN AGUDELO; ELKIN GUTIÉRREZ; PEDRO BENJUMEA

    2010-01-01

    Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB), No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively). To isolate the fuel effect, tests were executed at constant po...

  5. The comparison of engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of sesame oil-diesel fuel mixture with diesel fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Sehmus [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Bulut, Huesamettin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osmanbey Campus, Harran University, 63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Oener, Cengiz [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    The use of vegetable oils as a fuel in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with conventional diesel fuel. Various techniques and methods are used to solve the problems resulting from high viscosity. One of these techniques is fuel blending. In this study, a blend of 50% sesame oil and 50% diesel fuel was used as an alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power and torque of the mixture of sesame oil-diesel fuel are close to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that blend of sesame oil and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative fuel successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and also it is an environmental friendly fuel in terms of emission parameters. (author)

  6. Effects of a monounsaturated rapeseed oil and a polyunsaturated sunflower oil diet on lipoprotein levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsta, L M; Jauhiainen, M; Aro, A; Katan, M B; Mutanen, M

    1992-01-01

    The effects of high oleic acid rapeseed oil compared with polyunsaturated fats on serum lipoprotein levels are largely unknown. Therefore, we fed 30 women and 29 men a baseline diet rich in saturated fat, which was followed by a diet rich in high oleic and low erucic acid rapeseed oil (total energy content of fat, 38%; saturates, 12.4%; monounsaturates, 16%; n-6 polyunsaturates, 6%; and n-3 polyunsaturates, 2%) and one rich in sunflower oil (total energy content of fat, 38%; saturates, 12.7%; monounsaturates, 10%; n-6 polyunsaturates, 13%; and n-3 polyunsaturates, 0%). The oils were incorporated into mixed natural diets that were dispensed in a random order for 3.5 weeks each in a blinded crossover design. The diet composition was confirmed by analysis of duplicate diets. Both test diets reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels from baseline, the monounsaturated rapeseed oil diet more than the polyunsaturated sunflower oil diet (TC: -15% versus -12%, p less than 0.01; LDL cholesterol: -23% versus -17%, p less than 0.01). Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and total, VLDL, and LDL triglyceride levels were lower during the sunflower oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil diet. Total high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels remained unchanged by both diets. The consumption of rapeseed oil resulted in a more favorable HDL2 to LDL cholesterol ratio (0.43 +/- 0.19 versus 0.39 +/- 0.18, p less than 0.01) and an apolipoprotein A-I to B ratio (3.0 +/- 1.4 versus 2.4 +/- 1.6, p less than 0.001) than did the sunflower oil.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    OpenAIRE

    Sitohy, M. Z.; Badr, E. H.; Perifanova-Nemska, M.; Khadjiski, T. S.

    1993-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5) 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S), temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed t...

  8. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5) 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S), temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed t...

  9. Oxidative stability of high-oleic sunflower oil in a porous starch carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belingheri, Claudia; Giussani, Barbara; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Ferrillo, Antonio; Vittadini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the oxidation level of high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) plated onto porous starch as an alternative to spray drying. Encapsulated oils were subjected to accelerated oxidation by heat and light exposure, and peroxide value (PV) and conjugated dienes (CD) were measured. Bulk oil was the control. PV increased in all samples with increased light exposure, with similar values being reached by oil carried on porous starch and spray dried oil. The encapsulation processes determined a reduced effect of light on the increase of CD in the oil, as compared to bulk oil. Spray dried oil presented the highest CD in the experimental domain considered. Since similar levels of PV and lower levels of CD were shown in the HOSO carried on porous starch compared to the spray dried HOSO, plating flavour oils on porous starch could be a suitable technological alternative to spray drying, for flavour encapsulation.

  10. Industrial production of crisps and prefried french fries using sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébédio, J. L.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Crisps and prefried french fries were prepared during industrial operations in order to study the possibility of using sunflower oils («normal» and high oleic instead of palm olein and mixtures of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and palm oil in industrial frying. The quality of the food items was evaluated by determining the total amount of polar components, the amount of the different components in the polar fraction (dimers, oxidized triglycerides, diglycerides, the quantity of cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM, as well as the 18:2 geometrical fatty acid isomers. For both the production of crisps and french fries, very small increase in the polar components was observed. Frying of crisps did not result in any changes in the fatty acid composition and in the amount of 18:2 geometrical isomers. However the amount of CFAM increased in samples fried in SO. An increase of CFAM was observed also for french fries independently of the nature of the frying medium. No modifications of the cis and trans isomer distributions were observed for the french fries prepared in the mixture of palm oil and partially hydrogenated canola. These results show that sunflower oils could be used for the industrial production of french fries and crisps. However, storage studies are being carried out in order to determine if both types of sunflower oils give products which are as stable as those prepared in a solid frying medium.

  11. The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, S; Ramaswamy, M C; Nagarajan, G

    2008-12-01

    Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.

  12. Stability of emulsion from bio-oil and diesel oil and combustion experimental study of emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaji, Huang; Zhaoping, Zhong; Baosheng, Jin; Bin, Li; Yu, Sun [Thermal Engineering Research Institute, Southeast University (China)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a study of the stability of an emulsion from bio-oil and diesel oil through an experimental combustion study. The emulsion was prepared using emulsifiers Span-80 and Tween-80 and bio-oil and diesel oil. This paper studies and analyses combustion, gaseous pollutants characteristics, and the effect of the HLB value and volume fraction of bio-oil on the stability of the emulsion. One of the major study conclusions was that the combustion temperature and the concentration of SO2, NOX and CO of emulsion are lower than those of diesel oil if equal flue gas oxygen is presumed. To conclude, emulsion could be used as an alternative oil fuel, however some questions such as: higher viscosity, higher exhaust heat loss, and very low acidity need more attention and more study in future research.

  13. Stationary engine test of diesel cycle using diesel oil and biodiesel (B100); Ensaio de motores estacionarios do ciclo diesel utilizando oleo diesel e biodiesel (B100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEQ/DEM/EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], Email: ednildo@ufba.br; Santos, Danilo Cardoso [Universidade Federal da Bahia (PPEQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Daniel Vidigal D.; Peixoto, Leonardo Barbosa; Franca, Tiago [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work objectified to test an engine stationary of the cycle diesel, having as combustible diesel fossil and bio diesel. The characteristic curves of power, torque and emissions versus rotation of the engine was elaborated. The survey of these curves was carried through in the Laboratorio de Energia e Gas da Escola Politecnica da UFBA, which makes use of two stationary dynamometers and the one of chassis and necessary instrumentation for you analyze of the exhaustion gases. The tested engine was of the mark AGRALE, M-85 model stationary type, mono cylinder, with power NF (NBRISO 1585) Cv/kw/rpm 10/7,4/2500. The assays had been carried through in a hydraulically dynamometer mark Schenck, D-210 model. The fuel consumption was measured in a scale marks Filizola model BP-6, and too much ground handling equipment such as: water reservoir, tubings, valves controllers of volumetric outflow, sensors and measurers of rotation, torque, mass, connected to a system of acquisition of data on line. The emissions of the gases (CO, CO{sub 2}, and NOx), were measured by the analytical Tempest mark, model 100. The engine operated with oil diesel and bio diesel of oils and residual fats (OGR). In the tests, the use of the fuel derived from oil and the gotten ones from OGR was not detected significant differences how much. In this phase already it can show to the immediate possibility of the substitution of the oil diesel for bio diesel as combustible in the stationary engines of low power (author)

  14. Hydrolysis of used frying palm olein and sunflower oil catalyzed by porcine pancreatic lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, R; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Cuesta, C; Burguillo, F J; Sánchez-Montero, J M

    1996-11-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of frying used vegetable oils with different degrees of alteration were measured using porcine pancreatic lipase (acylglycerol acylhydrolase EC 3.1.1.3). Successive frying of potatoes significantly increased the level of total polar lipid content in the palm olein from 9.3 +/- 0.1 mg/100 mg oil to 26.4 +/- 0.3 mg/100 mg oil after 90 fryings, and from 4.0 +/- 0.1 mg/100 mg oil to 27.7 +/- 0.3 mg/100 mg oil in sunflower oil after 60 fryings. Triacylglycerol polymers, triacylglycerol dimers, and oxidized triacylglycerols also increased 37-, 7.9-, and 7.5-times in palm olein, respectively, and 56-, 22-, and 4.7-times in sunflower oil, respectively. However, diacylglycerols and free fatty acid levels related to hydrolytic alteration did not increase with the number of fryings in both oils. The substrate concentration in the reactor was determined by calculating the molecular weight of each oil showing a different degree of alteration. We compared the methodology used by us and that used by other authors. The results show that the methods are reproducible and that the values obtained are in concordance with theoretical values. The kinetic parameters apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (KMapp) and apparent maximum velocity of hydrolysis (Vmaxapp) were different in unused palm olein (5.1 +/- 0.7 and 166 +/- 7.6, respectively) than in sunflower oil (2.2 +/- 0.3 and 62 +/- 2.2, respectively). However, changes in KMapp and Vmaxapp were not related to the degree of alteration of the oils.

  15. Engineering property test of kaolin clay contaminated by diesel oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志彬; 刘松玉; 蔡奕

    2015-01-01

    Engineering property of kaolin clay contaminated by diesel oil was studied through a series of laboratory experiments. Oil contents (mass fraction) of 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% were selected to represent different contamination degrees, and the soil specimens were manually prepared through mixing and static compaction method. Initial water content and dry density of the test kaolin clay were controlled at 10% and 1.58 g/cm3, respectively. Test results indicate that since part of the diesel oil will be released from soil by evaporation, the real water content should be derived through calibration of the quasi water content obtained by traditional test method. As contamination degree of the kaolin clay increases, both liquid limit and plastic limit decrease, but there’s only a slight increase for plasticity index. Swelling pressure of contaminated kaolin clay under confined condition will be lowered when oil-content gets higher. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the oil-contaminated kaolin clay is influenced by not only oil content but also curing period. Increase of contamination degree will continually lower UCS of the kaolin clay specimen. In addition, electrical resistivity of the contaminated kaolin clay with given water content decreases with the increase of oil content. However, soil resistivity is in good relationship with oil content and UCS. Finally, oil content of 8% is found to be a critical value for engineering property of kaolin clay to transit from water-dominated towards oil-dominated characteristics.

  16. Thermal and electrical properties of polymers produced from methyl oleate and bio diesel of sunflower and linseed oils; Propriedades termicas e eletricas de polimeros produzidos a partir do oleato de metila e amostras de biodiesel do oleo de girassol e oleo de linhaca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, Aline; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Martini, Denise D.; Samios, Dimitrios [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, RS (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polyesters were prepared from epoxidized biodiesel with different unsaturation degrees. The polymerisation was performed using epoxidized methyl esters of oleic acid (EPOAME), sunflower oil (EPSOME) and linseed oil (EPLOME) with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride and triethylamine. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated that reaction enthalpy was proportional to the unsaturation degree of each methyl ester. With an increase in unsaturation degree, the activation energy linearly decreased. The intermediate structures and the polyesters were characterised using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. The molecular weight of the polymers synthesised with EPOAME, EPSOME and EPLOME were, respectively, 2.5x103, 5.3x103 and 14x103 g/mol. The glass transition of the product obtained from EPOAME was -59 degree C. The polymers based on EPSOME and EPLOME exhibited higher Tg values, which were -11 and -6 degree C, respectively. Electric impedance measurements of the polyesters showed that an increase in unsaturation degree resulted in an increase in resistivity and a decrease in capacitance. (author)

  17. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, L.M.J.; Enk, van den L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; Berg, van den H.; Ham, van der A.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from vege

  18. Other Alternative Diesel Fuels from Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy crises of the 1970’s and early 1980’s provided impetus for developing alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils and animal fats. Other driving forces may be derived from the Clean Air Act and its amendments and farmers desire to develop new uses for surplus agricultural commodities. ...

  19. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, Lisette Maria Johanna; van den Enk, L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; van den Berg, Henderikus; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from

  20. Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils Biodegradabilidade de óleos diesel comercial e intemperizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 - dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a capacidade de diferentes microrganismos em degradar óleo diesel comercial em comparação com um óleo diesel intemperizado coletado da água subterrânea em um posto de combust

  1. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with rice bran oil methyl ester and its diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattamaneni Rao Narayana Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a worldwide interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels due to their depletion as well as due to the concern for the environment. Vegetable oils have capability to solve this problem because they are renewable and lead to reduction in environmental pollution. The direct use of vegetable oils as a diesel engine fuel is possible but not preferable because of their extremely higher viscosity, strong tendency to polymerize and bad cold start properties. On the other hand, Biodiesels, which are derived from vegetable oils, have been recently recognized as a potential alternative to diesel oil. This study deals with the analysis of rice bran oil methyl ester (RBME as a diesel fuel. RBME is derived through the transesterification process, in which the rice bran oil reacts with methanol in the presence of KOH. The properties of RBME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Tests are conducted on a 4.4 kW, single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct-injection air-cooled stationary diesel engine to evaluate the feasibility of RBME and its diesel blends as alternate fuels. The ignition delay and peak heat release for RBME and its diesel blends are found to be lower than that of diesel and the ignition delay decreases with increase in RBME in the blend. Maximum heat release is found to occur earlier for RBME and its diesel blends than diesel. As the amount of RBME in the blend increases the HC, CO, and soot concentrations in the exhaust decreased when compared to mineral diesel. The NOx emissions of the RBME and its diesel blends are noted to be slightly higher than that of diesel.

  2. Phytobenthos and phytoplankton community changes upon exposure to a sunflower oil spill in a South African protected freshwater wetland

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available . At the intracellular level, phytoplankton chlorophyll a and b concentrations as physiological variables were more sensitive indicators of the adverse effects of sunflower oil than the 72 h Selenastrum capricornutum algal bioassay conducted....

  3. Statistical optimization of biodiesel production from sunflower waste cooking oil using basic heterogeneous biocatalyst prepared from eggshells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Deriase, Samiha F; Hamdy, A; Abdallah, Renee I

    2015-01-01

    A statistical design of experiments DOE was applied to investigate biodiesel fuel BDF production process from sunflower waste cooking oil SWCO using heterogeneous bio-catalyst produced from eggshells ES...

  4. Is chronic rapeseed oil diet more neuroprotective than chronic corn/sunflower diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Nicole

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and specifically omega3 have been shown to exert a potent protecting effect on both cardiac and neuronal functions. Rapeseed oil contains 9% of alphalinolenic acid (18-3n-3, ALA, whereas corn and sunflower oils (18:2n-6, linoleic acid rich do not. The aim of the present study was to compare in mice the putative protective effects of ALA, by testing two chronic diets containing either rapeseed oil (ALA rich or a corn/sunflower blend (devoided of ALA using an epilepsy model, allowing the detection of neurotoxic or neuroprotective activities: the MDDAS test (Magnesium Deficiency-Dependent Audiogenic Seizure test. After a 30 day-Mg-deprivation period, neuronal hyperexcitability appeared only in the corn/sunflower fed group, suggesting a protecting effect of the rapeseed oil. The number of convulsive mice was twice reduced in the rapeseed group and all of them recovered whereas in the corn/sunflower group all the mice had seizures and 43% died. The pattern of seizures with the rapeseed diet showed an increase in the first two step durations (latency and wild running, and a non significant slight decrease in the third (convulsions and the fourth (recovery ones. These results suggest a GABAergic-like effect. The increases in the first 2 phases were also indicative of a likely effect on Na+ channels, which was also observed using the maximum electroshock seizure test. These preliminary results indicate that adapted chronic dietary intake of rapeseed oil, an ALA rich monounsaturated oil, could help to control neuronal disorders as here shown in our model of magnesium-deficient mice.

  5. Monitoring biodiesel reactions of soybean oil and sunflower oil using ultrasonic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M. K. K.; Silva, C. E. R.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Félix, R. P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is an innovation that attempts to substitute diesel oil with biomass. The aim of this paper is to show the development of a real-time method to monitor transesterification reactions by using low-power ultrasound and pulse/echo techniques. The results showed that it is possible to identify different events during the transesterification process by using the proposed parameters, showing that the proposed method is a feasible way to monitor the reactions of biodiesel during its fabrication, in real time, and with relatively low- cost equipment.

  6. Ecological effect analysis of pumpkin and oil sunflower intercropping in arid area of northwest Hebei Province: I. moisture analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhua ZHANG; Wei HUANG; Fenglu ZHANG; Lifeng ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were conducted during 2007-2008 at the Zhangbei Agricultural Resource and Ecological Environment Key Field Research Station, Hebei Province, China to study water-efficient pumpkin planting patterns in this area. Four treatments of pumpkin and oil sunflower intercropping were used to study the problem of water resource scarcity and inefficient water use in the plateau of northern Hebei Province. The four treatments were: pumpkin sole cropping (Sp), oil-sunflower sole cropping (So), intercropp ing one row oil sunflower (IC1) or two rows (IC2) between pumpkin rows. The results showed that oil sunflower competed for soil water with pumpkin during late growth stage of pumpkin in IC2, but there was no water competition in IC1. Total rainfall during the growing season was 201.6mm and the soil water balance differed between treatments. In all cases the water percolation was low and soil moisture storage always negative. Nearly all water loss was through evapotranspiration, which varied by treatment. The seasonal evapotranspiration of IC1 was less than So, Sp and IC2, 46.57%, 41.22% and 46.73%, respectively. Economic yield of pumpkin decreased from 30.00% (IC1) to 71.42% (IC2). However, yield per plant of intercropping oil sunflower increased from 190.71% to 241.26%. as compared with So, because oil sunflower showed remarkably partial advantage. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) of pumpkin-oil sunflower was 1.08-1.22, and the Water Equivalent Ratio (WER) of pumpkin-oil sunflower was 1.07-1.26. Economic value of sole pumpkin was greatest but did not differ from treatment IC1. Other treatments had significantly less economic value. In this region of rain-fed dry land farming, a sparse planting of sole pumpkin with high efficiency production could realize water resources most effectively in the Plateau of northern Hebei Province.

  7. Performance, emission and economic assessment of clove stem oil-diesel blended fuels as alternative fuels for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarawa, Makame [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    In this study the performance, emission and economic evaluation of using the clove stem oil (CSO)-diesel blended fuels as alternative fuels for diesel engine have been carried out. Experiments were performed to evaluate the impact of the CSO-diesel blended fuels on the engine performance and emissions. The societal life cycle cost (LCC) was chosen as an important indicator for comparing alternative fuel operating modes. The LCC using the pure diesel fuel, 25% CSO and 50% CSO-diesel blended fuels in diesel engine are analysed. These costs include the vehicle first cost, fuel cost and exhaust emissions cost. A complete macroeconomic assessment of the effect of introducing the CSO-diesel blended fuels to the diesel engine is not included in the study. Engine tests show that performance parameters of the CSO-diesel blended fuels do not differ greatly from those of the pure diesel fuel. Slight power losses, combined with an increase in fuel consumption, were experienced with the CSO-diesel blended fuels. This is due to the low heating value of the CSO-diesel blended fuels. Emissions of CO and HC are low for the CSO-diesel blended fuels. NO{sub x} emissions were increased remarkably when the engine was fuelled with the 50% CSO-diesel blended fuel operation mode. A remarkable reduction in the exhaust smoke emissions can be achieved when operating on the CSO-diesel blended fuels. Based on the LCC analysis, the CSO-diesel blended fuels would not be competitive with the pure diesel fuel, even though the environmental impact of emission is valued monetarily. This is due to the high price of the CSO. (author)

  8. Ozonation of sunflower oils: impact of experimental conditions on the composition and the antibacterial activity of ozonized oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moureu, Sophie; Violleau, Frédéric; Ali Haimoud-Lekhal, Djamila; Calmon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Ozone can react with vegetable oils to produce ozonized oils which have antimicrobial properties and can be used in dermatology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ozonation conditions and of the initial fatty acid composition on iodine index (II), peroxide index (IP), acidity value (AV) of ozonized sunflower oils. The antibacterial activity of these products against the three bacterial strains that are more often involved in mastitis (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis) was also evaluated. In that purpose, two different sunflower oils have been studied: a "classical" oil (55% linoleic acid, 35% oleic acid) and a "high oleic" oil (90% oleic acid). Both were ozonized with or without water during different times (from 1 to 7 h). Results show that the addition of water has a direct impact on the increase in IP (up to 2600 meq of active oxygen/kg of oil with water and 430 without) and AV but does not influence the kinetic of the decrease in II. Minimal inhibitory concentrations were ranging from 1.25 to 40 mg/mL and the antibacterial activity of oils ozonized with water was better than the one of oils ozonized alone. These results are an open door to new applications of ozonized oils.

  9. Loss of Bone Mineral Density Associated with Age in Male Rats Fed on Sunflower Oil Is Avoided by Virgin Olive Oil Intake or Coenzyme Q Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Julio J.; Llamas-Elvira, José M.; López-Frías, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The role of dietary fat unsaturation and the supplementation of coenzyme Q have been evaluated in relation to bone health. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on two diets varying in the fat source, namely virgin olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, or sunflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Both dietary fats were supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in the femur. Serum levels of osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), as well as urinary F2-isoprostanes were measured. Aged animals fed on virgin olive oil showed higher BMD than those fed on sunflower oil. In addition, CoQ10 prevented the age-related decline in BMD in animals fed on sunflower oil. Urinary F2-isoprostanes analysis showed that sunflower oil led to the highest oxidative status in old animals, which was avoided by supplementation with CoQ10. In conclusion, lifelong feeding on virgin olive oil or the supplementation of sunflower oil on CoQ10 prevented, at least in part mediated by a low oxidative stress status, the age-related decrease in BMD found in sunflower oil fed animals. PMID:28661441

  10. Diesel oil-induced alopecia in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Jan; De Bosschere, Hendrik

    2009-04-01

    Two cats were presented for acute onset of rapidly progressive, bilaterally symmetrical hair loss of the ventrum and limbs. Alopecia occurred within 2 weeks after accidental skin exposure to diesel oil. The remaining hair epilated easily in affected areas. Denuded skin was strikingly dry and had adherent scale. Erythema and demarcation between affected and normal skin by a liquid-line were present in one case. Above this line, the hair could not be removed. The head and the footpads were not involved. Systemic signs were not observed. Both cats made a complete recovery without treatment. Histological examination in one cat revealed severe orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, mild to moderate acanthosis, follicular keratosis, a moderate dermal infiltrate of mast cells and an almost complete absence of sebaceous glands. If skin contact with diesel oil occurs in a cat, thorough washing of skin and haircoat after soaking in prue vegetable oil is recommended.

  11. Recycling of waste engine oil for diesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceiras, R; Alfonsín, V; Morales, F J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to recycle waste engine oil until converting it into reusable product, diesel fuel. The waste oil was treated using pyrolytic distillation. The effect of two additives (sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate) in the purification of the obtained fuel was also studied. Moreover, the influence of the number of distillations were analysed. Some thermal and physicochemical properties (density, viscosity, colour, turbidity, acidity value, distillation curves, cetane number, corrosiveness to Cu, water content, flash point and hydrocarbons) were determined to analyse the quality of the obtained fuel. The best results were obtained with 2% of sodium carbonate and two successive distillations. The obtained results showed that pyrolytic distillation of waste engine oil is an excellent way to produce diesel fuel to be used in engines.

  12. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winne Sia Chiaw Mei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05 higher than the control. Generally, the partially fractionated fraction was more effective than the crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA. Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  13. Response Surface Methodology: An Emphatic Tool for Optimized Biodiesel Production Using Rice Bran and Sunflower Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study describes the emphatic use of response surface methodology for the optimized biodiesel production using chemical and enzymatic transesterification of rice bran and sunflower oils. Optimal biodiesel yields were determined to be 65.3 ± 2.0%, 73.4 ± 3.5%, 96.5 ± 1.6%, 89.3 ± 2.0% and 41.7 ± 3.9% for rice bran oil and 65.6 ± 1.2%, 82.1 ± 1.7%, 92.5 ± 2.8%, 72.6 ± 1.6% and 50.4 ± 2.5% for sunflower oil via the transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3,NOVOZYME-435 and A.n. Lipase, respectively. Based upon analysis of variance (ANOVA and Response Surface plots significant impact of reaction parameters under study was ascertained. FTIR spectroscopic and HPLC methods were employed for monitoring the transesterification reaction progress while GC-MS analysis was performed to evaluate the compositional analysis of biodiesel. The fuel properties of both the rice bran and sunflower oil based biodiesel were shown to be technically compatible with the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The monitoring of exhaust emission of synthesized biodiesels and their blends revealed a marked reduction in carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM levels, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions.

  14. OXIDATIVE STABILISATION OF SUNFLOWER OIL BY ANTIOXIDANT FRACTIONS FROM SELECTED LAMIACEAE HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADA BABOVIĆ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effect of antioxidant fractions from rosemary (Rosma-rinus officinalis, sage (Salvia officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and hyssop (Hyssop officinalis on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil at elevated tempe¬rature. In order to isolate antioxidant fractions, the method of fractional super¬critical extraction with carbon dioxide at 35 MPa and 100 C was applied. Anti¬oxidant fractions were added to sunflower oil at concentrations of 200 mg/kg oil and the samples were stored in an oven maintained at 98 C. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by measuring peroxide values (PV. Among investigated extracts, the rosemary extract was most effective on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was com¬pared to the activity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and a commercial rose¬mary extract Flavor’ Plus. On the basis of PV assay, the antioxidant activity of the investigated plant extracts after 12 h of storage at 98 C followed the order: rosemary extract > BHA > sage extract > Flavor’ Plus > thyme extract > hyssop extract.

  15. Economic analysis and performance of a low power diesel engine using soybean oil refined; Analise economica e de desempenho de um motor diesel de baixa potencia utilizando oleo de soja refinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Guilherme Ladeira dos; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Alvarenga, Cleyton Batista de; Leite, Daniel Mariano; Siqueira, Wagner da Cunha [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mails: glsantos@yahoo.com.br, haroldo@ufv.br, cleyton.alvarenga@ufv.br, daniel.mariano@ufv.br, wagner.siqueira@ufv.br

    2011-07-01

    Oil is the main source of energy available to power internal combustion engines, enabling its transformation into mechanical energy. To meet the production of vegetable oils, many cultures can be used, according to regional conditions, especially those that are already commercially exploited, such as peanuts, Soybeans, Corn, Palm oil, Sunflower and Canola, and other public regional and castor oil, Andiroba, Pequi, Buriti, Inaja, Carnauba, Jatropha, among others. The objective of this work make an economic analysis of replacing diesel fuel by mixing and compare performance on the engine and using B{sub 2} biodiesel fuel mixture of diesel with 2 % Refined Soybean Oil (SAB). The loads applied by the dynamometer in the engine were 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21.5 lbs. The engine was coupled to the dynamometer with the aid of pulleys and belts of the type V with gear ratio of 1:1,9. Apparently, the best vegetable oil mixture was 30 %, both in terms of specific consumption and cost from R$ kW{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Providing the same cost of pure diesel. (author)

  16. Performance and Emission Characteristics of an IDI Diesel Engine Fuelled Biodiesel (Rubber Seed Oil and Palm Oil Mix Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ibrahim K.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study crude rubber seed oil and palm oil were mixed at 50: 50 vol.feedstock’s blending methods is motivated by cost reduction and properties enhancement. Biodiesel was produced and thermo physical properties are studied. Blends of B5, B10 and B20 of biodiesel to diesel were prepared. Engine performance (torque, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, brake thermal efficiency (BTE and emission (CO, NOx and exhaust gas temperature were evaluated in a 4 cylinder, natural aspirated, indirect injection (IDI diesel engine. The results indicated that at rated engine speed of 2500 rpm torque obtained were 87, 86, 85.3 and 85 Nm for neat diesel, B5, B10 and B20 respectively. Torque in all blends case yield between 0 to 5% lower than neat diesel. BTE were 27.58, 28.52, and 26.45% for B5, B10 and B20 compared to neat diesel 26.99%. At lower blends ratio BSFC was found to be lower and increased proportional to the blends ratio. The CO emission reduced but the exhaust gas temperature and NOx increased as blends ratio increases.

  17. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  18. Evaluation of the agricultural tractor using biofuel and diesel oil; Avaliacao de um trator agricola utilizando biocombustivel e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Reny Adilmar Prestes; Pinheiro Neto, Raimundo; Meyer, Wagner; Mendonca, Elton Costa de; Roberti, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)], Emails: raplopes@uem.br, rpneto@uem.br

    2009-07-01

    Test with alternative fuels is essential to evaluate the performance of machines and engines. In this paper, the performance of a tractor in chiseling operation was evaluated using oil diesel and biofuel (oil diesel + soybean vegetable oil mixture). Speed of displacement, slip wheels, force traction bar and fuel consumption was evaluated in areas under tillage and no-tillage. The speed of displacement of the set presented similar behavior in tillage and no-tillage. Bigger values mean force in the bar of traction, slip and fuel consumptions had been observed for no-tillage with the tractor operating with diesel. Bigger values mean consumption the biofuel had been observed in areas under tillage. The coverings of the soil had influenced in the values of force bar traction, slip wheels, speed of displacement and fuel consumption. In the studied conditions, the tests demonstrate that the mixture oil diesel + soybean vegetable oil had not influenced in the performance of the tractor. (author)

  19. New natural injection-moldable composite material from sunflower oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouilly, A; Orliac, O; Silvestre, F; Rigal, L

    2006-03-01

    Through a twin-screw extrusion process the native structure of sunflower oil cake was completely transformed (globular protein denaturation/texturization and husk fiber defibration) into a simpler matrix-fiber structure, as could be seen on SEM micrographs. Further chemical reduction of protein disulfide bridges greatly reduced the melt viscosity of the moistened composite that it could be injection-molded. The molded specimens were tested and their tensile and flexural properties and water absorption calculated. Their water resistance appeared to be particularly high, and could be enhanced further after a thermal treatment (N2, 200 degrees C). The proteic matrix seemed to behave like a natural thermoset resin. Sunflower oil cake could be used without any additives to make biodegradable, water resistant and exceptionally cheap materials.

  20. Assessment of microbial respiratory activity of a manufactured gas plant soil after remediation using sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongqiang; Alef, Kassem; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Mai, Maike; Li, Peijun

    2005-09-30

    Microbial activity of a manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil, as well as remaining oil degradability, before and after remediation using sunflower oil was assessed. A sandy soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was collected from an MGP site in Berlin, Germany. Column solubilizations of PAHs from the field-moist soil and air-dried soil using sunflower oil as an extractant at an oil/soil ratio of 2:1 (v/m) were carried out to compare PAH removals from the soil under these two conditions. After column solubilizations, portions of untreated soil (UTS), solubilized field-moist soil (SFMS), and solubilized air-dried soil (SADS) were amended with nutrients. Both nutrient amended and unamended soil samples were subjected to soil respiratory measurement. Soil respiration parameters, such as basal respiration rate, nutrient-induced respiration rate, lag time, exponential growth rate, respiratory activation quotient, peak maximum time, and cumulative CO2 evolution were calculated from the soil respiration curves. The parameters were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least-significance difference (LSD). Results showed that the impact of soil moisture on the PAH removals was quite significant, with the SADS showing higher PAH removals and the SFMS showing lower ones. There were significant differences between the respiration parameters with respect to the UTS, SFMS, and SADS. Basal respiration rate, nutrient-induced respiration rate, and exponential growth rate were lower for the SFMS and SADS relative to the UTS. Lag time and peak maximum time were higher for the SFMS and SADS relative to the UTS. Exponential growth rate was higher for the SFMS relative to the SADS. These parameters demonstrated that soil microbial activity was reduced at the onset of the test, because a lot of bioavailable materials for microbial growth were removed by sunflower oil. On the other hand, cumulative CO2 evolutions in the SFMS and SADS were higher than that in

  1. [Application of PCA to diesel engine oil spectrometric analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Tian, Hong-Xiang; Guo, Wen-Yong

    2010-03-01

    In order to study wear characteristics of a 6-cylinder diesel engine, six different working statuses were arranged by altering the clearance between cylinder and piston. Sixty-nine oil samples were taken from engine at different loads under 6 working statuses and analyzed by Spectroil M Instrument made in US. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyzing spectrometric data of sixty-nine oil samples and clustering those data according to elements and oil samples separately based on the weighted coefficient and principal component scores. All 21 elements were used in element clustering and only 6 wear-related elements, namely iron, chromium, aluminum, copper, plumbum and silicon, were used in sample clustering. It is shown that PCA effectively clustered oil spectrometric data into three different principal components according to elements. The projection of two different principal components exhibited five types of elements combinations, namely wear elements (Fe, Cr, Cu, Al and Pb), high concentration additives elements (Na, Zn, P, Ca and Mg), low concentration additives elements (Ba and B), base constituent of lubricating oils (C and H) and interferential elements (Ni, Ti, Mo, V, Ag and Sn). Furthermore, PCA clearly clustered oil samples according to different clearance between cylinder and piston in the diesel engine. The study suggests that analyzing oil spectrographic data by PCA could find the sources of different elements, monitor engine conditions and diagnose wear faults.

  2. Simultaneous extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds with subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravber, Matej; Knez, Željko; Škerget, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the subcritical water extraction is proposed as an alternative and greener processing method for simultaneous removal of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds. Extraction kinetics were studied at different temperatures and material/solvent ratios in a batch extractor. Degree of hydrothermal degradation of oils was observed by analysing amount of formed free fatty acids and their antioxidant capacities. Results were compared to oils obtained by conventional methods. Water soluble extracts were analysed for total proteins, carbohydrates and phenolics and some single products of hydrothermal degradation. Highest amount of oil was obtained at 130 °C at a material/solvent ratio of 1/20 g/mL after 30 min of extraction. For all obtained oils minimal degree of hydrothermal degradation could be identified. High antioxidant capacities of oil samples could be observed. Water soluble extracts were degraded at temperatures ≥100 °C, producing various products of hydrothermal degradation.

  3. Frying stability of sunflower oil blended with jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of present study was to compare the effects of ultrasound‐assisted and microwave‐assisted extraction with solvent extraction method on antioxidant activities of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extracts in stability of sunflower oil during deep frying. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2, 2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging and β‐carotene bleaching assays. Ultrasound‐assisted extraction was the most effective method on...

  4. Giardia duodenalis: effects of an ozonized sunflower oil product (Oleozon) on in vitro trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Frank; Hernández, Damian; Zamora, Zullyt; Díaz, Maritza; Ancheta, Odelsa; Rodriguez, Sandra; Torres, Dinorah

    2009-03-01

    The ozonized sunflower oil product (Oleozon) was investigated to explore its cytotoxic activity on Giardia duodenalis in vitro cultivated trophozites. Oleozon produced inactivation of Giardia trophozoites in a dose- and cell density-dependent manner. Thirty microliter of Oleozon with peroxide index value of 500 equivalent-mmol of activated oxygen per kilogram were used to achieve a 100% inhibition (density-dependent effect must be taken into account when prescription of this product for giardiasis treatment in humans.

  5. Stabilizing effect of epoxidized sunflower oil as a secondary stabilizer for Ca/Hg stabilized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated triglyceride oil sunflower was epoxidized and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO was used as an organic thermal co-stabilizer for rigid poly(vinyl chloride (PVC in the presence of tricalcium dicitrate (Ca3(C6H5O72 and mercury (II acetate (Hg(CH3COO2. The thermo-oxidative degradation of PVC was studied in the presence of these ternary stabilizer systems at 170, 180, 190 and 200°C in N2 atmosphere. The effects of metal carboxylate combination Ca/Hg in the absence and in the presence of epoxidized sunflower oil on static heat treatment of PVC have been studied. The formation of polyene sequences was investigated by UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy and by comparing viscosity data obtained in the presence and in the absence of the additives. It was found that the additives retard the rate of degradation and reduce the extent of polymer chain scission associated with the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride. Synergistic effects were found when stabilizer was blended in 50:50 weight ratios with either. It was found that ESO exerted a stabilizing effect on the degradation of PVC. The activation energy for degraded PVC in absence of stabilizers was 38.6 kJ•mol–1 and in the presence of Ca/Hg and Ca/Hg/ESO were 53.3 and 64.7 kJ•mol–1 respectively. In order of compare the efficiency of the epoxidized sunflower oil with these metal soap stabilizers, thermal stabilities were evaluated on the basis of evolved hydrogen chloride determined by conductometry technique and degree of discoloration are discussed.

  6. Synthesis of a high-grade lubricant from sunflower oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillion Gérard

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis of saturated branched fatty acid methyl esters by codimerization of ethylene with conjugated linoleic methyl esters from sunflower oil. The catalytic system used is composed of iron, diimine and a reducing agent. This four-step synthesis will be discussed. After a last step of transesterification with TMP (trimethylolpropane a lubricant with interesting characteristics (in particular a high thermal stability and a good cold behavior is obtained

  7. Stabilization of sunflower oil with pussy willow (Salix aegyptiaca) extract and essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyari, Zahra; Farahmandfar, Reza

    2017-03-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant efficacy of pussy willow extract (PWE) and essential oil (PWEO) in stabilization of sunflower oil (SFO) during ambient storage (60 days at 25°C). Initially, total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) contents were evaluated. Then, PWE, PWEO, and TBHQ were added to SFO. Peroxide value (PV), carbonyl value (CV), total polar compound (TPC), acid value (AV), and Oxidative stability index (OSI) were measured every 15 days. The results showed that PWE had higher TP and TF than PWEO (TP: 966.72 mg GAE/g and 355.8472 mg GAE/g, respectively; TF: 619.45 mg/100 g and 195.45 mg/100 g, respectively). Furthermore, according to all stabilization parameters, PWE had higher antioxidant efficacy followed by TBHQ, PWEO, and control, respectively. Therefore, PWE has antioxidant activity and it may be recommended as natural strong antioxidants to suppress lipid oxidation.

  8. Effects of feeding sunflower oil or seal blubber oil to horses with recurrent airway obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khol-Parisini, Annabella; van den Hoven, René; Leinker, Sandra; Hulan, Howard W.; Zentek, Juergen

    2007-01-01

    A crossover feeding trial was performed with 9 horses suffering from recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). The study aimed to determine whether ingestion of sunflower oil (SFO), rich in linoleic acid, or seal blubber oil (SBO), a source of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs), changes the fatty acid (FA) ratios in plasma and leukocyte membrane phospholipids (PLs) or the leukocyte numbers or proportions of cell types in the airways. We also investigated diet-related changes in respiratory rate, maximum change in pleural pressure (ΔPplmax), dynamic compliance (Cdyn), and pulmonary resistance (RL). Each animal was fed hay and oats supplemented with 320 mg/kg body weight (BW) of either SFO or SBO for 10 wk. Before and after the feeding periods, we performed FA analyses, cytologic testing of the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF), clinical scoring, and pulmonary function testing. The results demonstrated that supplementary FAs were readily ingested and incorporated into leukocyte cell membranes. The n-6:n-3 FA ratios in plasma and leukocyte PLs were reduced after SBO supplementation, as were the PELF leukocyte counts (P < 0.05). On the other hand, pulmonary function and clinical signs were not markedly changed by the different dietary FAs. These results indicate a possible influence of dietary n-3 PUFAs on the pulmonary inflammation of horses with RAO. Further studies are warranted to address effects on inflammatory mediators and clinical outcome. PMID:17193883

  9. French environmental communication on sunflower and rapeseed oils based on life cycle assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badey Laureen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The French “Grenelle” laws sparked a French national experiment trialling the environmental labelling of fast-moving consumer goods. The data required for this labelling scheme are generated by carrying out a life cycle assessment (LCA. The aim of this study is to provide all necessary information to fit the national experiment for two standard oils: sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. The complete oil life cycle was studied, from oilseed farming through to the end-of-life of the packaging. We focused heavily on the impacts of crushing and refining. The seed processing data was collected from different plants that are representative of the French crushing/refining industry and packaging site practice. The data inventory was used to calculate the identified environmental labelling indicators, i.e. greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water consumption. The production of 100g of refined bulk sunflower and rapeseed emits 89 and 127 g equivalent CO2 and consumes 1.7 L and 0.8 L of water, respectively. Most impacts on the studied indicators stem from the farming phase. Energy and water consumptions during crushing and refining also weigh on the studied indicators. The results of this study provide a relevant overview of all sunflower and rapeseed oils produced in France, and are usable as standard values for vegetable oil producers and users. Oil supply chain operators can use these values to compare to their own process values and gauge the improvements brought about by their ecodesign strategies. For example, using a biomass boiler, using less packaging, and making different choices on seed suppliers can lead to a lower set of impact values.

  10. Classification of Sunflower Oil Blends Stabilized by Oleoresin Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Using Multivariate Kinetic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-08-01

    The sunflower oil-oleoresin rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) blends (SORB) at 9 different concentrations (200 to 2000 mg/kg), sunflower oil-tertiary butyl hydroquinone (SOTBHQ ) at 200 mg/kg and control (without preservatives) (SO control ) were oxidized using Rancimat (temperature: 100 to 130 °C; airflow rate: 20 L/h). The oxidative stability of blends was expressed using induction period (IP), oil stability index and photochemiluminescence assay. The linear regression models were generated by plotting ln IP with temperature to estimate the shelf life at 20 °C (SL20 ; R(2) > 0.90). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify the oil blends depending upon the oxidative stability and kinetic parameters. The Arrhenius equation adequately described the temperature-dependent kinetics (R(2) > 0.90, P < 0.05) and kinetic parameters viz. activation energies, activation enthalpies, and entropies were calculated in the range of 92.07 to 100.50 kJ/mol, 88.85 to 97.28 kJ/mol, -33.33 to -1.13 J/mol K, respectively. Using PCA, a satisfactory discrimination was noted among SORB, SOTBHQ , and SOcontrol samples. HCA classified the oil blends into 3 different clusters (I, II, and III) where SORB1200 and SORB1500 were grouped together in close proximity with SOTBHQ indicating the comparable oxidative stability. The SL20 was estimated to be 3790, 6974, and 4179 h for SO control, SOTBHQ, and SORB1500, respectively. The multivariate kinetic approach effectively screened SORB1500 as the best blend conferring the highest oxidative stability to sunflower oil. This approach can be adopted for quick and reliable estimation of the oxidative stability of oil samples.

  11. Influences of Fuel Additive, Crude Palm and Waste Cooking Oil on Emission Characteristics of Small Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Amir; Jaat, Norrizam; Manshoor, Bukhari; Zaman, Izzuddin; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari; Basharie, Mariam

    2017-08-01

    Major research has been conducted on the use of input products, such as rapeseed, canola, soybean, sunflower oil, waste cooking oil (WCO), crude palm oil (CPO) and crude jatropha oil as alternative fuels. Biodiesel is renewable, biodegradable and oxygenated, where it can be easily adopted by current existing conventional diesel engine without any major modification of the engine. To meet the future performance and emission regulations, is urged to improve the performance and exhaust emissions from biodiesel fuels. Hence, further investigation have been carried out on the emission characteristics of small diesel engine that fuelled by variant blending ratio of WCO and CPO with booster additive. For each of the biodiesel blends ratio from 5 to 15 percent volume which are WCO5, WCO10 and WCO15 for WCO biodiesel and CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 for CPO biodiesel. The exhaust emissions were measured at engine speeds varied at 2000 rpm and 2500 rpm with different booster additive volume DRA (biodiesel without additive), DRB (0.2 ml) and DRC (0.4 ml). Emissions characteristics that had been measured were Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen Oxide (NOx), and smoke opacity. The results showed that increased of blending ratio with booster additive volume significantly decreased the CO emission, while increased in NOx and CO2 due to changes of fuel characteristics in biodiesel fuel blends.

  12. [Influence of dietary therapy containing sunflower oil fortified with phospholipids on the lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshigina, S; Gapparov, M M; Mal'tsev, G Iu; Kulakov, S N

    2007-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of dietary therapy containing sunflower oil with phospholipids (PL) on the lipid profile of plasma and composition of fatty acids of red blood cells in patients with hypertension and obesity. The results show that after the period of three weeks for each diet the unrefined sunflower oil supplemented with PL (30 gr oil containing 10, 8 gr PL) in diet had more influence on lowering of blood pressure (specially on diastolic BP). This diet reduced serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein A 1, apoB and fibrinogen more than the refined sunflower oil diet. This oil presents useful source of polyunsaturated fatty acids and essential PL for diets aimed at prevention of heart disease.

  13. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL: EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. V. B. Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements were performed for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE of the system containing vegetable oil (sunflower oil and canola oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined vegetable oil + anhydrous ethanol at 303.15 and at 323.15 K and the system containing refined palm oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined palm oil + ethanol at 318.15 K. The experimental data were successfully correlated by the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL model; the average deviations between calculated and experimental data were smaller than 1.00%.

  14. Best conditions for biodegradation of diesel oil by chemometric tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kaczorek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel oil biodegradation by different bacteria-yeast-rhamnolipids consortia was tested. Chromatographic analysis of post-biodegradation residue was completed with chemometric tools (ANOVA, and a novel ranking procedure based on the sum of ranking differences. These tools were used in the selection of the most effective systems. The best results of aliphatic fractions of diesel oil biodegradation were observed for a yeast consortia with Aeromonas hydrophila KR4. For these systems the positive effect of rhamnolipids on hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed. However, rhamnolipids addition did not always have a positive influence on the biodegradation process (e.g. in case of yeast consortia with Stenotrophomonas maltophila KR7. Moreover, particular differences in the degradation pattern were observed for lower and higher alkanes than in the case with C22. Normally, the best conditions for "lower" alkanes are Aeromonas hydrophila KR4 + emulsifier independently from yeasts and e.g. Pseudomonas stutzeri KR7 for C24 alkane.

  15. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, M.; Al-Mamun, M. R.; Hasan, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO) as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330–490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C) of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%), and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%), and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel. PMID:27433168

  16. Pyrolytic Waste Plastic Oil and Its Diesel Blend: Fuel Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. H. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors introduced waste plastic pyrolysis oil (WPPO as an alternative fuel characterized in detail and compared with conventional diesel. High density polyethylene, HDPE, was pyrolyzed in a self-designed stainless steel laboratory reactor to produce useful fuel products. HDPE waste was completely pyrolyzed at 330–490°C for 2-3 hours to obtain solid residue, liquid fuel oil, and flammable gaseous hydrocarbon products. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D 975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications. Notably, the fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C of 1.98 cSt, density of 0.75 gm/cc, sulphur content of 0.25 (wt%, and carbon residue of 0.5 (wt%, and high calorific value represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel.

  17. Effects of emulsification and microencapsulation on the oxidative stability of camelina and sunflower oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Sandra P; O'Beirne, David; Eidhin, Deirdre Ní; O'Kennedy, Brendan T

    2013-01-01

    Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were prepared using different concentrations of camelina or sunflower oil. Sodium caseinate was used as the emulsifier and dried glucose syrup as the wall material. Emulsions were subsequently spray dried to yield high-fat powders (71.7-85.0%). Emulsification and microencapsulation of bulk oils decreased their level of lipid oxidation (lipid hydroperoxide and p-Anisidine values, p-Avs). Sunflower oil, O/W emulsions and reconstituted powders generally had lower oxidation products than corresponding camelina oil-based products throughout storage at 15°C. p-Avs of bulk oils remained constant, whereas p-Avs of O/W emulsions and reconstituted powders decreased early in storage, and remained low thereafter. Microencapsulated omega (ω)-3 rich powders were produced, easily reconstituted and showed no signs of deterioration throughout storage. These powders provided functional properties with potential for incorporation into various food systems as a source of beneficial ω-3 fatty acids.

  18. Flash pyrolysis of sunflower oil cake for production of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorgun, S.; Sensoez, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Kockar, O.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2001-06-01

    Flash pyrolysis experiments of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) press oil cake were performed in a tubular transport reactor at atmospheric pressure under nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on the yields of products were investigated. The temperature of pyrolysis, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were varied in the ranges 450-700C, D{sub p}<0.224, 0.224-0.425, 0.425-0.850 mm and 25-600 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}, respectively. The maximum oil yield of ca. 45% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 550C, with the sweep gas flow rate of 300 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1} and particle size of 0.425-0.850 mm. The elemental analysis and calorific value of the pyrolysis oil were determined, and then the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (1H NMR, IR, column chromatography and GC). The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from sunflower oil cake can be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstock.

  19. Catalytic Transformation of Tall Oil into Biocomponent of Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mikulec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the conventional kraft pulp mills produce crude tall oil which is a mixture of free fatty acids, resin acids, sterols, terpenoid compounds, and many others. This study is devoted to the issue of direct transformation of crude tall oil in a mixture with straight-run atmospheric gas oil to liquid fuels using three different commercial hydrotreating catalysts. Diesel fuel production is an alternative to incineration of these materials. High catalytic activity was achieved for all tested catalysts in temperature range 360–380°C, under 5.5 MPa hydrogen pressure and ratio H2/feedstock 500–1000 l/l. Crude tall oil can be converted to diesel oil component via simultaneous refining with straight-run atmospheric gas oil on NiMo/Al2O3 and NiW/Al2O3-zeolite catalysts. All tested catalysts had very good hydrodenitrogenation activity and high liquid yield were at tested conditions.

  20. Experimental evaluation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines using blends of crude castor oil and diesel; Avaliacao experimental do desempenho e emissoes de motores diesel usando misturas de oleo de mamona e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Valeria Said de Barros; Pereira, Pedro Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Oceanica

    2004-07-01

    This work refers to the experimental evaluation of diesel generators operating with blend of crude castor oil and diesel. Performance and emissions tests were accomplished in a diesel engine of direct injection. Because of the high viscosity of the blend a device was installed on the engine in order to lower the blend viscosity. A comprehensive analysis of the results obtained in these tests indicates the possibility of use of the blend of castor oil and diesel as fuel for diesel-generators, with modifications introduced in the engines. (author)

  1. Comparision on dynamic behavior of diesel spray and rapeseed oil spray in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Nizam Mohammad, Akmal; Khalid, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It significantly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature and may negatively affect the fuel-air mixing process. Thus, study on the spray development and atomization of this type of fuel is important. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fuelled by rapeseed oil (RO) and comparison to diesel fuel (GO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. Using in-house image processing algorithm, the images were processed and the boundary condition of each spray was also studied. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel when compared to GO. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the RO spray droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  2. Chemometric tools to highlight possible migration of compounds from packaging to sunflower oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouly, Jacqueline; Hayeck, Nathalie; Kassouf, Amine; Rutledge, Douglas N; Ducruet, Violette

    2013-11-06

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) could be considered for the packaging of vegetable oils taking into account the impact of its oxygen permeability on the oxidation of the oil and the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the polymer matrix. After accelerated aging tests at 40 °C for 10, 20, and 30 days, the headspace of three sunflower oils packed in PET with high density polyethylene caps was carried out using solid phase microextraction. VOCs such as benzene hydrocarbons, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers and diethyl phthalate were identified in vegetable oils by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Chemometric tools such as principal components analysis (PCA), independent components analysis (ICA), and a multiblocks analysis, common components and specific weight analysis (CCSWA) applied to analytical data were revealed to be very efficient to discriminate between samples according to oil oxidation products (hexanal, heptanal, 2-pentenal) and to the migration of packaging contaminants (xylene).

  3. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    and differences in production/purification, which caused lower tocopherol content and higher initial levels of primary and secondary oxidation products in SL compared with RL and SO. Grindox 117 and gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the SL oil samples during storage......Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...

  4. Effect of seed quality on oxidative stability of cold-pressed sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Etelka B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the storage time, content of the husk and impurities in the seed mass on the oxidative stability of the cold pressed sunflower oil. The oxidative stability of oil was analyzed by the RSM (Response Surface Methodology, where the response value (output of the model was the content of oxidation products measured via specific absorbance at 232 nm for conjugated dienes and 270 nm for conjugated trienes. Analyses were performed on the fresh oil samples and oil samples tempered under the Schaal-Oven’s test conditions (96 h at 63±2ºC. It was concluded that the seed storage time had significant impact on the primary (A1%232nm and secondary (A1%270nm oil oxidation products, both before (b1-p<0,001; b1-p=0,021 and after (b1-p=0,048; b1-p=0,033 the heating of oil. The content of impurities and husks in the seeds used for pressing also had an influence of the conjugated dienes and trienes contents in both, fresh and heated oil samples. However, their impact was not statistically significant. Interaction of seed storage time, the content of impurities and husks also exert some effect on the values of these quality parameters in the fresh oil as well as in the oil after the heat treatment, even though their influence is not significant. The obtained results have shown that the cold pressed sunflower oil had a good oxidative stability at temperatures up to 63±2ºC.

  5. Effect of antioxidant butylated hydroxyl anisole on the thermal or oxidative stability of sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus) by ultrasonic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, Satish Kumar; Shwetha, M V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) as an antioxidant in sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus). The oxidation stability of sunflower oil have been investigated by the effects of varying amounts of BHA. The antioxidant incorporated sunflower oil system and control edible oil were subjected to heating at 180 ± 5 °C continuously for a period of 4 h per day for consecutive 4 days. The parameters used to assess the thermal degradation and oxidation properties of the oils include ultrasonic velocity, viscosity, density and peroxide value. The fatty acid compositions of the oils were measured by gas chromatography. Adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, relaxation time and acoustic impedance have been calculated from experimental data. Viscosity, density and ultrasonic velocity change in control oil is from 3.72 × 10(-2) to 13.2 × 10(-2) Nsm - 2, 918 to 994 kg/m3 and 1412 to 1484 m/s respectively and in sunflower oil with 200 ppm BHA is from 3.88 × 10(-2) to 7.52 × 10(-2) Nsm - 2, 926 to 962 kg/m3 and 1418 to 1463 m/s respectively for 16 h of heat treated oil. The ultrasonic results obtained have shown reduction in thermal degradation and improvement in oxidation stability of antioxidant loaded oil in comparison to base oil. Hence, it can be recommended that sunflower oil with 200 ppm BHA can be used for frying without adverse effect on physical properties. The ultrasonic velocity can be used for assessment of stability of frying oil.

  6. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF MICROWAVE HEATING OF FRESHLY HARVESTED SUNFLOWER SEEDS BEFORE CONVECTIVE DRYING ON OUTPUT AND QUALITY OF OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafayev S. K.; Smychagin E. O.

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the influence of various methods of thermal, acoustic and electromagnetic exposure on free lipid content, acid and peroxidation number of oil in sunflower seeds during their after harvesting ripening. We have investigated the influence of traditional and microwave heating on lipase activity of seeds. We have also founded the most efficient conditions for the rate and the temperature of microwave heating of freshly harvested sunflower seeds and determined their effect on t...

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF MICROWAVE HEATING OF FRESHLY HARVESTED SUNFLOWER SEEDS BEFORE CONVECTIVE DRYING ON OUTPUT AND QUALITY OF OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafayev S. K.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the influence of various methods of thermal, acoustic and electromagnetic exposure on free lipid content, acid and peroxidation number of oil in sunflower seeds during their after harvesting ripening. We have investigated the influence of traditional and microwave heating on lipase activity of seeds. We have also founded the most efficient conditions for the rate and the temperature of microwave heating of freshly harvested sunflower seeds and determined their effect on the rate of drying

  9. Influence of a thiazole derivative on ethanol and thermally oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kode, Aruna; Rajagopalan, Rukkumani; Penumathsa, Suresh Varma; Menon, Venugopal P

    2004-10-01

    The present work describes the protective influence of the dendrodoine analogue (DA) [4-amino-5-benzoyl-2-(4-methoxy phenylamino) thiazole] on thermally oxidized sunflower oil and ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Ethanol was fed to animals at a level of 20% [(7.9 g/kg body weight (bw)] and thermally oxidized sunflower oil at a level of 15% (15 mL/100 g feed). Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring the activity of plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), which were elevated in thermally oxidized oil, and ethanol fed rats when compared with normal control rats. Tissue damage was associated with increased lipid peroxidation and disruption in the antioxidant defence mechanism in thermally oxidized oil- and ethanol-fed groups when compared with normal control group. The activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALP and GGT) and the level of lipid peroxidation decreased when DA was administered along with ethanol and thermally oxidized oil. The antioxidant status was near normal in DA-administered groups. Thus we propose that DA exerts antioxidant properties by modulating the activity of hepatic marker enzymes, level of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status.

  10. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  11. Production of biodiesel from sunflower oil and ethanol by base catalyzed transesterification

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is an attractive alternative fuel for diesel engines.The feedstock for biodiesel production is usually vegetable oil, pure oil or waste cooking oil, or animal fats The most common way today to produce biodiesel is by transesterification of the oils with an alcohol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. It is a low temperature and low-pressure reaction. It yields high conversion (96%-98%) with minimal side reactions and short reaction time. It is a direct conversion to biodiesel wi...

  12. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DIESEL ENGINE FUELED USING JATROPHA BIO DIESEL BLENDED FUELED

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesels have recently been recognized as a potential substitute to Diesel oil. It is produced from oils or fats using a process called transesterification, in which oils are reacted with alcohols in order to form the esters, which are called biodiesels. Feedstock for biodiesel include animal fats, vegetable oils Jatropha, Mahua, Sunflower, Palm, Pongamia Pinnata (Karanja), Cotton seed, Neem, Rubber seed, Corn, Sesame, Cotton seed. Biodiesel is a liquid closely similar in properties to foss...

  13. Thermally decomposed ricebran oil as a diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, O. A.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Ricebran oil; a non edible oil, was thermally decomposed using different loads of calcium oxide as catalyst. The fuel properties of the cracked product were evaluated as compared to those of diesel fuel. The considered properties included the calorific value, flash point, viscosity, pour point, distillation characteristics, cetane number in addition to some other fuel properties. The results had shown that the fuel properties of the decomposed oil were quite similar to those of standard diesel fuel. The calorific value was 80-90% that of diesel fuel and the viscosity was sligthy higher. The prepared fuel was advantageous over diesel fuel as the former was completely free from sulfur, which on fuel combustion produces corrosive gases of sulfur oxides.

    Aceite de germen de arroz, un aceite no comestible, fue descompuesto térmicamente usando diferentes cantidades de óxido cálcico como catalizador. Las propiedades combustibles del producto craqueado fueron evaluadas comparándolas con las del gasóleo. Las propiedades consideradas incluyeron el poder calorífico, punto de inflamación, viscosidad, temperatura de fluidez crítica, características de destilación, número de cetano y otras propiedades de los combustibles. Los resultados han mostrado que las propiedades combustibles del aceite descompuesto fueron bastantes similares a la de los gasóleos estándar. El poder calorífico fue del 80-90% de la del gasóleo y la viscosidad ligeramente mayor. El combustible preparado fue ventajoso sobre el gasóleo ya que el primero estaba completamente libre de sulfuro, el cual produce en la combustión del carburante gases corrosivos de óxido de azufre.

  14. Impact of the seed storage time on the quality of cold-pressed sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premović Tamara Đ.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of seed storage time on the quality of cold-pressed sunflower oil. The quality and oxidative stability of oil was determined in samples of domestic varieties of sunflower hybrid, linoleic type seeds, obtained from fresh seeds and from seeds stored in silo cell for 6 and 12 months at temperature below 30oC and in good ventilation conditions. It was found that the longer storage time of seeds had a negative impact on many quality aspects of the oil, such as flavor, odor and aroma, primarily on the sensory profile. Chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of oil were also influenced by the storage time, which was confirmed by increased values of the acid value (AV and peroxide value (PV of the oil samples. Fresh seed oil had an AV of 0.49±0.01 mgKOH/g, while oils that were obtained from one-year old seeds had an AV of 1.95±0.02 mgKOH/g. Content of the primary oxidation products in the oil obtained by cold-pressing of the fresh seeds was 1.73±0.02 mmol/kg (measured as PV, and 2.22±0.07 mmol/kg in that from the seeds stored for 12 months. The anisidine value for the oil obtained from the seeds stored for 12 months was 0.86±0.04 (100A1% 350nm.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014

  15. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during the deep frying process; Estudios fisicoquimicos sobre mezclas de aceite de girasol con aceite de chufa prensado en frio durante el proceso de fritura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Rehah, F. M.; Anany, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA), Peroxide Value (PV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC), color and viscosity) were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 degree centigrade {+-} 5 degree centigrade, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25); while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24). Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W) proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process. (Author) 68 refs.

  16. Effect of different drip irrigation regimes on yield and oil quality of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Metin SEZEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of different irrigation regimes on yield, yield components, oil yield and quality and water use of sunflower (Oleko variety irrigated with a drip system under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at the Alata Horticultural Research Institute, Tarsus Soil and Water Resources area in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Irrigation regimes consisted of three irrigation intervals (A1:= 25 mm; A2:= 50 mm; A3: = 75 mm of cumulative pan evaporation and six irrigation levels (I1=0.50, I2=0.75, I3=1.00 and I4=1.25. In addition, I5=PRD75 and I6=PRD50 treatments were considered. They received 75 and 50% of the full irrigation (I3 treatment from alternative laterals, respectively. Also, rainfed treatment is a control plot in the experiment. Maximum and minimum yields were obtained from the A2I4 and rainfed treatments, respectively in all experimental years. As the irrigation level value decreased the total yields in each irrigation interval also decreased. Seasonal irrigation amounts in the treatments varied from 199 mm to 563 mm in the experimental years. Seasonal evapotranspiration values in the treatments varied from 243 mm to 611 mm in the experimental years. Both irrigation amounts and irrigation frequencies had significantly effects on oil content of sunflower. The saturated (palmitic and stearic acid and unsaturated (oleic and linoleic acid fatty acid contents were significantly affected by water stress. In conclusion, A2I4 irrigation regime is recommended for sunflower production in the Mediterranean region in order to attain higher yields with improved quality. In case of water shortage, A2I13 irrigation regime is recommended to increase sunflower yield and quality.

  17. Antioxidant activity of raspberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves extract and its effect on oxidative stability of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Tajik, Raheleh; Khodaparast, Mohammad Hossein Haddad

    2015-08-01

    Efficacy of R. fruticosus leaves extract in stabilizing sunflower oil during accelerated storage has been studied. Extracts of R. fruticosus were prepared in different solvents which methanolic extract yield with 15.43 % was higher than water and acetone ones (11.87 and 6.62 %, respectively). Methanolic extract was chosen to evaluate its thermal stability at 70 °C in sunflower oil, due to the highest yield, antioxidant and antiradical potential and also high content of phenolic compounds campared to other solvents. So, different concentrations of methanolic extract (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 ppm) were added to sunflower oil. BHA and BHT at 200 ppm served as standards besides the control. Peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of R. fruticosus leaves extract in stabilization of sunflower oil. Moreover, antioxidant activity index (AAI) of the extract at 120 °C at rancimat were conducted. Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other, suggesting the highest efficiency of 1,000 ppm of the extract followed by BHT, BHA and other concentrations of the extract. Results reveal the R. fruticosus leaves extract to be a potent antioxidant for stabilization of sunflower oil.

  18. Eucalyptus-Palm Kernel Oil Blends: A Complete Elimination of Diesel in a 4-Stroke VCR Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kommana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuels derived from biomass are mostly preferred as alternative fuels for IC engines as they are abundantly available and renewable in nature. The objective of the study is to identify the parameters that influence gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency and how they are affected by the use of biodiesel relative to petroleum diesel. Important physicochemical properties of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus blend were experimentally evaluated and found within acceptable limits of relevant standards. As most of vegetable oils are edible, growing concern for trying nonedible and waste fats as alternative to petrodiesel has emerged. In present study diesel fuel is completely replaced by biofuels, namely, methyl ester of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil in various blends. Different blends of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil are prepared on volume basis and used as operating fuel in single cylinder 4-stroke variable compression ratio diesel engine. Performance and emission characteristics of these blends are studied by varying the compression ratio. In the present experiment methyl ester extracted from palm kernel oil is considered as ignition improver and eucalyptus oil is considered as the fuel. The blends taken are PKE05 (palm kernel oil 95 + eucalyptus 05, PKE10 (palm kernel oil 90 + eucalyptus 10, and PKE15 (palm kernel 85 + eucalyptus 15. The results obtained by operating with these fuels are compared with results of pure diesel; finally the most preferable combination and the preferred compression ratio are identified.

  19. Performance of Untreated Waste Cooking Oil Blends in a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Isa Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Untreated waste cooking oil (UWCO is not a feasible diesel fuel. The major problems in engine operation are reported mainly due to UWCO’s high viscosity. To use  UWCO's in diesel engine without modification, it is necessary to make sure that the oils properties must be similar to diesel fuel. In this study, UWCO that has been used several times for frying purposes is investigated for the utilization as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. In order to reduce the viscosity, the UWCO were blend with diesel. Two various blends of UWCO and diesel were prepared and its important properties such as viscosity, density, calorific value and flash point were  evaluated and compared with that of diesel. The blends were then tested in a direct injection diesel engine  in 10% and 30% v/v blends with a reference diesel fuel. Tests were performed under a set of engine operating conditions. It was found that blending UWCO with diesel reduces the viscosity.  Blending of UWCO with diesel has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of UWCO. The experimental results also show that the basic engine performance such as power output and  fuelconsumptions are comparable to diesel and the emissions of CO and NOx from the UWCO/diesel blends were also found slightly higher than that of diesel fuel.

  20. FRYING STABILITY OF PURIFIED MID-OLEIC SUNFLOWER OIL TRIACYLGLYCEROLS WITH ADDED PURE TOCOPHEROLS AND TOCOPHEROL MIXTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the effects of the addition of pure tocopherols to triacylglycerols, alpha, gamma, and delta tocopherols were added singly and in various combinations to stripped mid-oleic sunflower oil (SMOSUN). Tortilla chips were fried in the treated oils and then aged at ambient temperature to det...

  1. Perlite as a potential support for nickel catalyst in the process of sunflower oil hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonjić, V.; Krstić, J.; Lončarević, D.; Jovanović, D.; Vukelić, N.; Stanković, M.; Nikolova, D.; Gabrovska, M.

    2015-12-01

    Investigation was conducted in order to elucidate the possibility of using perlite as support for preparation of nickel based precursor catalyst, potentially applicable in vegetable oil hydrogenation process. On three differently prepared expanded perlite, nickel catalyst precursors with identical Ni/SiO2 = 1.1 and Ni/Mg = 10/1 ratios were synthesized by precipitation-deposition method. Different techniques, SEM micrography, He-pycnometry, calcimetry, Hg-porosimetry, N2-physisorption, H2-chemisorption and temperature programmed reduction, were used for characterization of obtained samples. Determining the precursor texture, morphology and reducibility shows a successfully deposited nickel phase on perlite support with promising properties for vegetable oil hydrogenation. Chosen precursor was reduced and passivated in paraffin oil and the obtained catalyst showed significant catalytic activity in the test of sunflower oil hydrogenation.

  2. A randomized controlled intervention with fish oil versus sunflower oil from 9 to 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders D; Michaelsen, Kim F; Hellgren, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    intake affects adipose tissue growth, we randomly allocated 154 healthy infants to daily supplementation with FO or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 mo of age and measured z-score changes in various anthropometric assessments of body size and skinfold thicknesses and plasma adipokine concentrations. Among......n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA), from fish oil (FO), in rodents have been shown to reduce adipogenesis. Evidence of an effect on adipose tissue mass in humans is limited, and no studies have specifically aimed to elucidate this in infancy. To explore whether n-3 LCPUFA...

  3. Influence of biosurfactant on the diesel oil remediation in soil-water system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-ying; ZHENG Xi-lai; LI Bing

    2006-01-01

    There were six high diesel oil degrading bacteria strains isolated from the oil contaminated soil that collected from Linzi City. The strain Y1 was able to produce biosurfactant rhamnolipid when cultivated on diesel oil as carbon source. The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of rhamnolipid in water and in the soil were measured respectively according to the correlation between the surface tension of the medium and the added rhamnolipid concentration. The results showed that the CMC of rhamnolipid in water was 65 mg/L, and was 185 mg/L in soil. The tests on diesel oil biodegradation were conducted with the addition of different concentrations of rharnnolipid in water and in soil respectively. When 0.01% rhamnolipid was added to water, the diesel oil degradation was enhanced. On the contrary, when the same concentration of rhamnolipid was added to the soil, the degradation of diesel oil was inhibited. The results suggested that the rhamnolipid could enhance the diesel oil biodegradation, indicating that the concentration of rhamnolipid was higher than the corresponding CMC in the medium. Kinetics parameters for the diesel oil biodegradation parameters such as biodegradation constant (λ), coefficient of correlation (r) and half life (t1/2) in both tests were numerically analyzed in this paper, indicating that the moderate concentration of rhamnolipid in the medium could not only enhance the extent of diesel oil biodegradation but also shorten the time for oil remediation.

  4. Influence of biosurfactant on the diesel oil remediation in soil-water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Ying; Zheng, Xi-Lai; Li, Bing

    2006-01-01

    There were six high diesel oil degrading bacteria strains isolated from the oil contaminated soil that collected from Linzi City. The strain Y1 was able to produce biosurfactant rhamnolipid when cultivated on diesel oil as carbon source. The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of rhamnolipid in water and in the soil were measured respectively according to the correlation between the surface tension of the medium and the added rhamnolipid concentration. The results showed that the CMC of rhamnolipid in water was 65 mg/L, and was 185 mg/L in soil. The tests on diesel oil biodegradation were conducted with the addition of different concentrations of rhamnolipid in water and in soil respectively. When 0.01% rhamnolipid was added to water, the diesel oil degradation was enhanced. On the contrary, when the same concentration of rhamnolipid was added to the soil, the degradation of diesel oil was inhibited. The results suggested that the rhamnolipid could enhance the diesel oil biodegradation, indicating that the concentration of rhamnolipid was higher than the corresponding CMC in the medium. Kinetics parameters for the diesel oil biodegradation parameters such as biodegradation constant (lambda), coefficient of correlation (r) and half life (t1/2) in both tests were numerically analyzed in this paper, indicating that the moderate concentration of rhamnolipid in the medium could not only enhance the extent of diesel oil biodegradation but also shorten the time for oil remediation.

  5. Integrating Sunflower Oil Seed Crops into Florida Horticultural Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locally produced biodiesel feedstock plant oil creates a unique possibility to integrate multiple-goal oriented cover crops into Florida horticultural production systems. Typically, cover crops are planted to improve soil fertility and the natural suppression of soilborne pests at times when fields...

  6. Catalytic cracking of non-edible sunflower oil over ZSM-5 for hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianhui; Wei, Lin; Julson, James; Qiao, Qiquan; Dubey, Ashish; Anderson, Gary

    2015-03-25

    Non-edible sunflower oils that were extracted from sunflower residual wastes were catalytically cracked over a ZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor at three different reaction temperatures: 450°C, 500°C and 550°C. The catalyst was characterized using XRD, FT-IR, BET and SEM. Characterizations of the upgraded sunflower oils, hydrocarbon fuels, distillation residues and non-condensable gases were carried out. The effect of the reaction temperature on the yield and quality of liquid products was discussed. The results showed that the reaction temperature affected the hydrocarbon fuel yield but had a minor influence on its properties. The highest conversion efficiency from sunflower oils to hydrocarbon fuels was 30.1%, which was obtained at 550°C. The reaction temperature affected the component content of the non-condensable gases. The non-condensable gases generated at 550°C contained the highest content of light hydrocarbons (C1-C5), CO, CO2 and H2. Compared to raw sunflower oils, the properties of hydrocarbon fuels including the dynamic viscosity, pH, moisture content, density, oxygen content and heating value were improved.

  7. Statistical optimization of biodiesel production from sunflower waste cooking oil using basic heterogeneous biocatalyst prepared from eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Sh. El-Gendy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A statistical design of experiments DOE was applied to investigate biodiesel fuel BDF production process from sunflower waste cooking oil SWCO using heterogeneous bio-catalyst produced from eggshells ES. It was based on 3 level D-optimal design involving as factors methanol:oil M:O molar ratio, catalyst concentration (wt%, reaction time (min and mixing rate (rpm. Twenty runs were carried out. A predictive linear interaction model has been correlated finding out how significant the effects of these variables are in practice. LINGO software was used to find out the optimum values of the aforementioned variables for enhancing the process. According to the results obtained, the most dominant positive factor influencing the response variable (% BDF yield was M:O molar ratio followed by catalyst concentration (wt% and mixing rate in a decreasing order while the reaction time showed to have a negative effect on the yield. The maximum BDF yield (98.8% and 97.5%, predicted and experimental, respectively was obtained at M:O 6:1 M ratio, catalyst concentration 3 wt%, reaction time 30 min, mixing rate 350 rpm and 60 °C. Also response surface methodology RSM has been applied to study the interactive effects of independent variables on BDF yield. It was found that, the interaction between M:O and catalyst concentration (wt% has more significant effect than interaction between other variables. The activity of the produced bio-catalyst was comparable to that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. All the physicochemical characteristics of the produced BDF using the prepared bio-catalyst and its blends with petro-diesel fuel PDF are completely acceptable and meet most of the required standard specifications.

  8. Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Shrivastava

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fast depletion of fossil fuel resources forces the extensive research on the alternative fuels. Vegetable oils edible or non edible can be a better substitute for the petroleum diesel. Karanja, a non edible oil can be a potential source to replace the diesel fuel. To investigate the feasibility of Karanja oil as an alternative diesel fuel, its biodiesel was prepared through the transesterification process. The Biodiesel was then subjected to performance and emission tests in order to assess its actual performance, when used as a diesel engine fuel. The data generated for the 20, 50 and 100 percent blended biodiesel were compared with base line data generated for neat diesel fuel. Result showed that the Biodiesel and its blend showed lower thermal efficiency. Emission of Carbon monoxide, unburned Hydrocarbon and smoke was found to be reduced where as oxides of nitrogen was higher with biodiesel and its blends. Keywords: alternate Diesel fuel; Biodiesel; Karanja oil methyl ester; performance and emission

  9. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from sunflower seed oil residue via microwave assisted K2CO3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2011-10-01

    Sunflower seed oil residue, a by-product of sunflower seed oil refining, was utilized as a feedstock for preparation of activated carbon (SSHAC) via microwave induced K(2)CO(3) chemical activation. SSHAC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and elemental analysis. Surface acidity/basicity was examined with acid-base titration, while the adsorptive properties of SSHAC were quantified using methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 15 (AB). The monolayer adsorption capacities of MB and AB were 473.44 and 430.37 mg/g, while the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, Langmuir surface area and total pore volume were 1411.55 m(2)/g, 2137.72 m(2)/g and 0.836 cm(3)/g, respectively. The findings revealed the potential to prepare high surface area activated carbon from sunflower seed oil residue by microwave irradiation.

  10. Influence of dimethylpolysiloxane addition to frying oils: performance of sunflower oil in discontinuous and continuous laboratory frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge, N.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and high oleic sunflower oils were used to study the influence of dimethylpolysiloxane (DMPS addition (2 mg/Kg on discontinuous and simulated continuous laboratory frying. Analytical methods applied for a direct evaluation of oil degradation included determination of total polar compounds, polymers, oxidized triglyceride monomers and diglycerides. Results indicated that DMPS has a strong positive action in discontinuous frying as differences between samples with and without DMPS were very high and much more pronounced than those attributed to oil unsaturation. However, DMPS was not effective in simulated continuous frying. Comparison from results obtained for discontinuous and simulated continuous frying demonstrated that the surface was well protected from the penetration of oxygen when potatoes are being fried and, in consequence, protection by DMPS in discontinuous frying took place when the oil surface was unprotected.

  11. Pengaruh Penambahan Minyak Kelapa, Minyak Biji Bunga Matahari, dan Minyak Kelapa Sawit terhadap Penurunan Produksi Metan di dalam Rumen secara in Vitro (The Effect of Addition Coconut Oil, Sunflower Seed Oil, and Palm Olein on Reducing Ruminal Methane Pro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Diah Sitoresmi

    2012-02-01

    protozoa growth and addition oil up to 5.0% reduced methane production as much as 15.80%. (Key words : Coconut oil, Sunflower seed oil, Palm olein, Methane production, Protozoa count, In vitro fermentation

  12. Temperature and Frequency Dependent Empirical Models of Dielectric Properties of Sunflower and Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vrba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a known concept and measurement probe geometry for the estimation of the dielectric properties of oils have been adapted. The new probe enables the~measurement in the frequency range of 1 to 3000 MHz. Additionally, the measurement probe has been equipped with a~heat exchanger, which has enabled us to measure the dielectric properties of sunflower and olive oil as well as of two commercial emulsion concentrates. Subsequently, corresponding linear empirical temperature and frequency dependent models of the dielectric properties of the above mentioned oils and concentrates have been created. The dielectric properties measured here as well as the values obtained based on the empirical models created here match the data published in professional literature very well.

  13. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Atena Poiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT, inhibition of oil oxidation (IO and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%, p-AV (29%; 40%, CD (45%; 30%, CT (41%; 36%, TOTOX (35%; 37%. GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  14. Supercritical extraction of sunflower oil: A central composite design for extraction variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amit; Mohanty, Bikash; Bhargava, Ravindra

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of sunflower seed for the production of vegetable oil is investigated and compared to conventional methods. The effects of extracting variables, namely pressure, temperatures, particle size, SC-CO2 flow rate and co-solvent, on SC-CO2 extraction are investigated. The maximum yield for sunflower oil is found to be about 54.37 wt%, and is obtained when SC-CO2 extraction is carried out at 80 °C, 400 bar, 0.75 mm particle and 10 g/min solvent flow with 5% co-solvent. A central composite design is used to develop the model and also to predict the optimum conditions. At optimum conditions obtained based on desirability function, 80.54 °C, 345 bar, 1.00 mm, 10.50 g/min and 7.58% ethanol, SC-CO2 extraction has performed and found that extraction yield dropped by 2.88% from the predicted value. Fatty acid composition of SC-CO2 and hexane extracted oil shows negligible difference and found high source of linoleic acid.

  15. Grouping sunflower genotypes for yield, oil content, and reaction to Alternaria leaf spot using GGE biplot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Villas Bôas de Campos Leite

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the suitability of the multivariate method of principal component analysis (PCA using the GGE biplot software for grouping sunflower genotypes for their reaction to Alternaria leaf spot disease (Alternariaster helianthi, and for their yield and oil content. Sixty-nine genotypes were evaluated for disease severity in the field, at the R3 growth stage, in seven growing seasons, in Londrina, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, using a diagrammatic scale developed for this disease. Yield and oil content were also evaluated. Data were standardized using the software Statistica, and GGE biplot was used for PCA and graphical display of data. The first two principal components explained 77.9% of the total variation. According to the polygonal biplot using the first two principal components and three response variables, the genotypes were divided into seven sectors. Genotypes located on sectors 1 and 2 showed high yield and high oil content, respectively, and those located on sector 7 showed tolerance to the disease and high yield, despite the high disease severity. The principal component analysis using GGE biplot is an efficient method for grouping sunflower genotypes based on the studied variables.

  16. Enhancing oxidative stability of sunflower oil during convective and microwave heating using grape seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600-800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  17. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    . Furthermore, the potential antioxidative effect of adding lactoferrin, propyl gallate or EDTA to the mayonnaise with SL was also investigated. Mayonnaise based on SL oxidized faster than mayonnaise based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL mayonnaise could not be ascribed to a single factor......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  18. Silk-Cocoon Matrix Immobilized Lipase Catalyzed Transesterification of Sunflower Oil for Production of Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Sushovan Chatterjee; Dipti Yadav; Lepakshi Barbora; Pinakeswar Mahanta; Pranab Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel from sunflower oil using lipase chemically immobilized on silk-cocoon matrix in a packed-bed bioreactor was investigated. The immobilization was demonstrated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and activity study. The lipase loading was 738.74 U (~0.01 g lipase powder)/g-lipase-immobilized matrix. The Km (Michaelis-Menten constant) of the free and the immobilized lipase was 451.26 μM and 257.26 μM, respectively. Low Km value of the immobilized lipase is attributed to the ...

  19. Analysis and modelling of the factors controlling seed oil concentration in sunflower: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianasolo Fety Nambinina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower appears as a potentially highly competitive crop, thanks to the diversification of its market and the richness of its oil. However, seed oil concentration (OC – a commercial criterion for crushing industry – is subjected to genotypic and environmental effects that make it sometimes hardly predictable. It is assumed that more understanding of oil physiology combined with the use of crop models should permit to improve prediction and management of grain quality for various end-users. Main effects of temperature, water, nitrogen, plant density and fungal diseases were reviewed in this paper. Current generic and specific crop models which simulate oil concentration were found to be empirical and to lack of proper evaluation processes. Recently two modeling approaches integrating ecophysiological knowledge were developed by Andrianasolo (2014, Statistical and dynamic modelling of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. grain composition as a function of agronomic and environmental factors, Ph.D. Thesis, INP Toulouse: (i a statistical approach relating OC to a range of explanatory variables (potential OC, temperature, water and nitrogen stress indices, intercepted radiation, plant density which resulted in prediction quality from 1.9 to 2.5 oil points depending on the nature of the models; (ii a dynamic approach, based on “source-sink” relationships involving leaves, stems, receptacles (as sources and hulls, proteins and oil (as sinks and using priority rules for carbon and nitrogen allocation. The latter model reproduced dynamic patterns of all source and sink components faithfully, but tended to overestimate OC. A better description of photosynthesis and nitrogen uptake, as well as genotypic parameters is expected to improve its performance.

  20. Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Simon G; AlEnezi, Tareq; Sultan, Amani; Lavender, Tina; Chittock, John; Brown, Kirsty; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Natural oils are advocated and used throughout the world as part of neonatal skin care, but there is an absence of evidence to support this practice. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effect of olive oil and sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin. Nineteen adult volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis were recruited into two randomized forearm-controlled mechanistic studies. The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. These findings challenge the unfounded belief that all natural oils are beneficial for the skin and highlight the need for further research.

  1. LINE X TESTER ANALYSIS IN COMBINING ABILITIES ESTIMATION OF SUNFLOWER OIL CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Liović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of line x tester analysis for 15 sunflower genotypes of the Agricultural Institute Osijek are presented in this paper. Three A lines (cms and three Rf testers with different oil content level (low, medium, high in all combinations (nine crosses were crossed in 2010. In 2011, the lines, testers and their crosses were sown in field trials at two locations (Karanac and Osijek. The oil content was determined after harvesting, whereas line x tester analysis was conducted based on the obtained results. Variance of lines and testers, which refers to the general combining ability (GCA was much higher than the variance of line x tester, related to specific combining ability (SCA. It showed on dominant role of the additive component of genetic variance in the inheritance of oil content. Statistically significant differences were not determined between the GCA and SCA effects. The highest values of GCA for oil content had line 2 (medium oil content and tester 6 (high oil content at both locations. The largest contribution for oil content had lines (57.81 and 51.28 % followed by testers (28.88 and 26.27 % and the lowest accounts for interaction (13.31 and 22.45 % at both locations (Karanac and Osijek.

  2. HYDROPROCESSING OF MICROALGAE OIL FOR GREEN DIESEL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to simulate microalgae oil hydroprocessing plant using ASPEN HYSYS simulation package. The simulation is based on conditions and parameters (temperature, pressure and catalyst selectivity obtained from consulted literatures. After the successful completion of the simulation, total recovery of products for green diesel and propane was achieved as 85.6% and 4.01% (mass percentages respectively. The green diesel composition indicated 0.01, 0.0005, 0.0201, 0.0757, 0.0021, 0.0089, 0.0041, 0.1813, 0.6822, 0.0191, and 0.005 mass fractions of n-C15, n-C16, n-C17, n-C18, n-C21, i-C15, i-C16, i-C17, i-C18, i-C21 and H2O respectively. The quality specifications of the simulated Green diesel with Cetane number 86.7 fall within acceptable range and met the United State diesel standard ASTM D975. A complete disappearance of triglycerides in the product mixture at the hydrotreating temperature of 371 and deg;C and pressure of 20 bar was observed. Economic analysis of the simulated project gives a total capital cost of ₦5.184billion, total production cost of ₦5.01 billion and cash flow as revenue of ₦6.02 billion after the fourth year. It shows that the project is highly profitable and efficient with a pay-back period of approximately 4years.

  3. Oil body mobilization in sunflower seedlings is potentially regulated by thioredoxin h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazadeh, Nahid; Poursaadat, Maral; Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza; Colagar, Abasalt Hossein Zadeh

    2012-08-01

    Thioredoxins are believed to mediate starch and protein mobilization in germinating cereals and dicotyledons. Nothing is known about redox regulation of lipid mobilization in plants. The possible redox regulation by thioredoxin h (Trx h) of a thiol-protease which degrades the oleosin coat of the oil body and its impacts on lipid mobilization was investigated in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. An alkaline proteolytic activity stimulated by light was detected in seedlings. In vitro, the activity of this alkaline protease increased after reduction by NADPH-thiordoxin reductase system (NTS). The expression pattern of an alkaline 65 kDa thiol protease detected by gelatin SDS-PAGE technique, corresponded to the activity profile of the NTS-activated protease. The thiol-specific fuorochrome monobromobimane (mBBr) showed that a 65 kDa protein was also in a reduced state in vivo and becomes reduced in vitro by NTS. Except for 17-20 kDa oleosins, other oil body associated mBBr-labeled proteins were disappeared within three days following germination. Treatments of sunflower oil bodies by the NTS-activated alkaline protease made them more susceptible to maize lipase action. Ascorbate application enhanced lipid mobilization of seedlings. A model for seedling oil body mobilization was proposed according to which Trx h or other Trx isoforms, reductively activates an oleosin degrading thiol-protease and some oil body proteins, thus renders the organelle more susceptible to subsequent lipolytic actions. For the first time the potential role of Trx in the mobilization of lipid reserves in plants has been shown.

  4. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING ON JATROPHA OIL METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddayaraganalu Amasegoda Dhananjaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel crisis because of dramatic increase in vehicular population and environmental concerns have renewed interest of scientific community to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oils can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops, and oil bearing biomass materials. Non-edible vegetable oils such as jatropha oil, linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil, karanji oil, etc., are potentially effective diesel substitute. Vegetable oils have reasonable energy content. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in diesel engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has combustion characteristics similar to petroleum diesel. The current paper reports a study carried out to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of jatropha oil methyl ester and its blend B20 (80% petroleum diesel and 20% jatropha oil methyl ester and diesel fuel on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injections, water cooled diesel engine. This study gives the comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, smoke opacity, HC, NOx, ignition delay, cylinder peak pressure, and peak heat release rates. The engine performance in terms of higher thermal efficiency and lower emissions of blend B20 fuel operation was observed and compared with jatropha oil methyl ester and petroleum diesel fuel for injection timing of 20° bTDC, 23° bTDC and 26° bTDC at injection opening pressure of 220 bar.

  5. Evaluation and characterisation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seed oil: Comparison with Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2013-01-15

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid, tocopherol, thermal properties, (1)H NMR, FTIR and profiles of non-conventional oil extracted from Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seeds were evaluated and compared with conventional sunflower seed oil. In addition, the antioxidant properties of C. colocynthis seed oil were also evaluated. The oil content of the C. colocynthis seeds was 23.16%. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (66.73%) followed by oleic acid (14.78%), palmitic acid (9.74%), and stearic acid (7.37%). The tocopherol content was 121.85 mg/100g with γ-tocopherol as the major one (95.49%). The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the oil was thermally stable up to 286.57°C, and then began to decompose in four stages namely at 377.4°C, 408.4°C, 434.9°C and 559.2°C. The present study showed that this non-conventional C. colocynthis seed oil can be used for food and non-food applications to supplement or replace some of the conventional oils.

  6. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation stability than BHT in B100 composition. In fish oil biodiesel/diesel mixed fuel, BHT was more effective antioxidant than TBHQ to increase oxidationstability because BHT is more soluble than TBHQ. The stability behavior of biodiesel/diesel blends with the employment of the modified Rancimat method (EN 15751. The performance ofantioxidants was evaluated for treating fish oil biodiesel/Rapeseed oil biodiesel for B100, and blends with two type diesel fuel (deep sulfurization diesel and automotive ultra-low sulfur or zero sulfur diesels. The examined blends were in proportions of 5, 10, 15, and 20% by volume of fish oilbiodiesel.

  7. Application of Brown’s Gas for a Diesel Engine Running on Rapeseed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredas Rimkus; Tomas Ulickas; Saugirdas Pukalskas; Paulius Stravinskas

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the analysis of possible applications of Brown’s gas to the diesel engine running on oil. The paper also contains a review of experimental works. The selected fuel combinations are as follows: diesel fuel, diesel fuel and Brown’s gas, oil (rapeseed oil) and oil and Brown’s gas. Test results have shown that an additional supply of Brown’s gas to the engine results in a decrease in the amounts of carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke level; however it increases the total emission ...

  8. A randomized controlled intervention with fish oil versus sunflower oil from 9 to 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders D; Michaelsen, Kim F; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    intake affects adipose tissue growth, we randomly allocated 154 healthy infants to daily supplementation with FO or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 mo of age and measured z-score changes in various anthropometric assessments of body size and skinfold thicknesses and plasma adipokine concentrations. Among...... no association between FO consumption relative to SO consumption and any of the anthropometric measures related to the size of the fat mass, but infants in the FO group had a lower skinfold ratio (triceps/subscapular) at 18 mo than those in SO group (p = 0.02). Our findings do not support the hypothesis...

  9. Frying stability of sunflower oil blended with jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-11-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted extraction with solvent extraction method on antioxidant activities of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extracts in stability of sunflower oil during deep frying. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was the most effective method on antioxidant activities of extracts and extraction yield of phenolic compounds compared to other extraction techniques. Protective effect of methanol-water extract of jujube leaf obtained with ultrasound-assisted extraction (ULMW) at 500 and 700 ppm in stability of sunflower oil was compared to synthetic antioxidants by measuring total polar compounds (TPC), carbonyl value (CV), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), oxidative stability index (OSI), conjugated dienes (CD), and trienes values (CT). Results showed ULMW at 700 ppm had higher stabilization efficiency than synthetic antioxidants.

  10. Study of the application of sunflower oil in the process of drilling ABNT 1045 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Robert Pereira Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cutting fluids in machining, when chosen and applied adequately can contemplate in benefits during the manufacturing processes. The selected method should allow the cutting fluid to reach the closest possible of the cutting edge lubricating the chip-tool interface. The properties of the fluid are fundamental so that the same facilitates the machining process. However the fluid can represent a great problem for the environment and health of the operator. For that reason, several scientific and technological studies are constantly developed to investigate the performance and alternative applications of cutting fluids in machining operations. This work studies the effect of sunflower oil in the cutting forces for the drilling process of 1045 ABNT steel. The fluid was applied in the form MQL - Minimum Quantity Lubrication for different cutting conditions. The cutting speed, feed rate and the length of the hole were varied. Each one of the cutting variables two levels were used. The results suggest a good acting sunflower oil in the work accomplished.

  11. Properties and oxidative stabilities of enzymatically interesterified chicken fat and sunflower oil blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecka, Magdalena; Kowalska, Dorota; Kozłowska, Mariola; Kowalski, Boleslaw

    2013-01-01

    Chicken fat and sunflower oil 2:3 m/m blend was enzymatically interesterified at 60°C with and without microwaves assistance. As the catalyst a commercial preparation of the immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM IM) containing 2% of water was used, and the catalyst load was 8% in each case. The starting mixture and the interesterified products were separated by column chromatography into pure triacylglycerols fraction (TAG) and a non-triacylglycerol fraction, which contained free fatty acids (FFA), mono- and diacylglycerols (MAG and DAG). The oxidative stabilities (OS) of fats studied and TAG derived from them were assessed by Rancimat at 100°C and by Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry (PDSC) under oxygen at 110-140°C. Interesterification reduced the OS of chicken fat and sunflower oil blend. The main factors influenced on the OS of fats studied were concentrations of tocopherols and presence of FFA, MAG- and DAG. The structures of TAGs were of minor importance. From the resulting PDSC exotherms their times to reach the onset (τon) and peak maximum (τmax) were measured and used for calculations of parameters of the Arrhenius type kinetics for thermaloxidative decomposition of fats studied.

  12. Effect of chemically reduced palladium supported catalyst on sunflower oil hydrogenation conversion and selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Alshaibani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenation of sunflower oil was studied in order to improve the conversion and to reduce the trans-isomerization selectivity. The hydrogenation was performed using Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 prepared catalyst and Pd/Al2O3 commercial catalyst under similar conditions. The Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation and chemical reduction processes. It was characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis (BET, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The result of sunflower oil hydrogenation on Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst showed a 17% higher conversion and a 23% lower trans-isomerization selectivity compared to the commercial Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. The chemical reduction of palladium supported catalyst using potassium borohydride (KBH4 has affected the Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst’s structure and particle size. These most likely influenced its catalytic performance toward higher conversion and lower trans-isomerization selectivity.

  13. Diesel oil combustion in fluidized bed; Combustion de aceite diesel en lecho fluidizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Cazares, Mario [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-07-01

    The effect of the fluidized bed depth in the combustion in burning diesel oil in a fluidized bed, was analyzed. A self sustained combustion was achieved injecting the oil with an injector that utilized a principle similar to an automobile carburetor venturi. Three different depths were studied and it was found that the deeper the bed, the greater the combustion efficiency. Combustion efficiencies were attained from 82% for a 100mm bed depth, up to 96% for a 200mm bed depth. The diminution in the efficiency was mainly attributed to unburned hydrocarbons and to the carbon carried over, which was observed in the black smoke at the stack outlet. Other phenomena registered were the temperature gradient between the lower part of the bed and the upper part, caused by the fluidization velocity; additionally it was observed that the air employed for the oil injection (carbureting air) is the most important parameter to attain a complete combustion. [Espanol] Se analizo el efecto de la profundidad del lecho en la combustion al quemar aceite diesel en un lecho fluidizado experimental. Se logro combustion autosostenida inyectando el aceite con un inyector que utilizo un principio similar al venturi del carburador de automovil. Se estudiaron tres diferentes profundidades del lecho y se encontro que a mayor profundidad del lecho, mayor eficiencia de la combustion. Se lograron eficiencias de la combustion desde 82% para el lecho de 100 mm de profundidad hasta 96% para el de 200 mm. La disminucion de la eficiencia se atribuyo, principalmente, a los hidrocarburos no quemados y al carbon arrastrado, lo cual se observo en el humo negro a la salida de la chimenea. Otros fenomenos registrados fueron el gradiente de temperatura entre la parte baja del lecho y la parte superior causado por la velocidad de fluidizacion; ademas, se observo que el aire utilizado para inyectar el aceite (aire de carburacion) es el parametro mas importante para lograr una combustion completa.

  14. Comparative effects of Citrullus colocynthis, sunflower and olive oil-enriched diet in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbagh, N; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, C; Ouali, F; Berthault, M-F; Rouch, C; Sari, D Chabane; Magnan, C

    2009-06-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth) seeds are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries. The present study evaluated the differential effects of diets enriched with C. colocynthis, sunflower or olive oils on the pancreatic beta-cell mass in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. STZ injection induced rapid hyperglycaemia in all animals. However, 2 months later, hyperglycaemia was significantly less pronounced in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet compared with other rat groups (7.9mM versus 12mM and 16mM with colocynth versus olive and sunflower oils, respectively). Assessment of insulin sensitivity using the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method also indicated less insulin resistance in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet versus the other rats. Finally, 2 months after STZ injection, the pancreatic beta-cell mass was similar in both the STZ-treated rats fed the colocynth oil-enriched diet and their controls fed the same diet. In contrast, the pancreatic beta-cell mass remained lower in the STZ-induced diabetic rats fed with olive oil- and sunflower oil-enriched diets compared with the C. colocynthis group. We conclude that C. colocynthis oil supplementation may have a beneficial effect by partly preserving or restoring pancreatic beta-cell mass in the STZ-induced diabetes rat model.

  15. Cicatrizing and antimicrobial properties of an ozonised oil from sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Kamila Leite; Cardoso, Claudia Catellani; Caputo, Lucelia Regina; Carvalho, Jose Carlos Tavares; Fiorini, Joao Evangelista; Schneedorf, Jose Mauricio

    2004-01-01

    The ozonised sunflower oil, Bioperoxoil, was tested for its antimicrobial activity against some pathological strains in vitro together with its healing potential against Staphylococcus aureus in vivo. Bioperoxoil was tested against S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Candida albicans, S. typhimurium and Escherichia coli suspensions using the agar diffusion method. Healing experiments were carried out with Wistar rats through topical application of 3.5 mg/ml of the ozonised oil up to the 7th day after inoculation with S. aureus. Bioperoxoil showed anti-inflammatory effects against all strains tested, with MIC values ranging from 2.0 to 3.5 mg/ml. Bioperoxoil also demonstrated protective effects on skin connective tissue and to enhance wound healing during the treatment, as compared to a neomycin-clostebol association used as a positive control. The overall results indicated a significant antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties for Bioperoxoil, as compared to other antimicrobial agents commercially available.

  16. Magnetorheology of suspensions based on graphene oxide coated or added carbonyl iron microspheres and sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaikai; Zhang, Wen Ling; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Tian, Yu

    2014-10-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids based on carbonyl iron (CI) particles coated with graphene oxide (GO) and sunflower oils were studied and compared with MR fluids (MRFs) prepared with CI particles added with GO sheets. Adding GO sheets into CI had a negligible effect on the rheological properties of the MRF. Coating the spheres with GO markedly decreased the shear strength at high shear rates due to the remarkable lubricating function of the GO surface. Different behaviors were observed in the shear thickening phenomenon when the GO surface changed the mechanical interaction between particles. The results demonstrated the importance of the role of interparticle friction for MRF in shear mode and discussed the weak shear thickening phenomenon with fine lubricating coating layers and oils.

  17. Structure and Stability of Fish Oil Organogels Prepared with Sunflower Wax and Monoglyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öǧütcü, Mustafa; Temizkan, Riza; Arifoǧlu, Nazan; Yılmaz, Emin

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop fish oil (FO) organogels with sunflower wax (SW) and monoglyceride (MG), and compare them with a commercial margarine (CM). The organogels were stored at 4 and 20°C for 90 days and their storage stability was investigated. The color values, oil binding capacity, crystal formation time, solid fat content, thermal properties and crystal structures of the organogels were measured. During storage, their textural properties and peroxide values were monitored. The melting temperature of the MG organogels was found similar to that of the CM sample. Otherwise, the melting points of the MG gels were lower than those of the SW gels. Crystal morphology of the CM sample was found similar to MG gels by X-ray measurements. The firmness values of the SW organogels were higher than those of the MG gels. The peroxide values of all gels were within the legal limits.

  18. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of fasting and non-fasting triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (TRL) as well as oxidative changes of lipoproteins may increase the risk of ischaemic heart disease. To compare the effects of different diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids on the concentrations and in vitro...... oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  19. Influence of mineral, olive or sunflower oils on male reproductive parameters in vitro--the wild rodent Calomys laucha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, T F; Varela, A S; Silva, E F; Vilela, J; Hartmann, A; Jardim, R D; Colares, E P; Corcini, C D

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of oils on male reproductive parameters in Calomys laucha. Twenty-four animals were distributed into four groups and given the following substances by gavage: water, mineral oil, olive oil and sunflower oil. After 10 days of gavage, the animals were euthanised and the semen was collected from them for assessing acrosome integrity and carrying out in vitro penetration (IVP) test. Acrosome was significantly reduced (P oil had statistically lower levels of reduction (P tests negatively, interfering in reproductive toxicological studies.

  20. Calculation of the density of solutions (sunflower oil + n-hexane) over a wide range of temperatures and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarov, M. M.; Abdukhamidova, Z.

    1995-09-01

    We present the results from an experimental investigation of the density of the sunflower oil system as a function of the mass concentration of n-hexane in the ranges of temperatures T=290 520 K and pressures P=0.101 98.1 MPa. A method of hydrostatic weighing was used to measure the density of the solutions under study.

  1. Influence of extended storage on fuel properties of methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, soybean, and sunflower oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, soybean, and sunflower oils by homogenous base-catalyzed methanolysis were stored for 12 months at three constant temperatures (-15, 22, and 40 deg C) and properties such as oxidative stability, acid value, kinematic viscosity, low temperature ope...

  2. Inedible vegetable oils and their derivatives for alternative diesel fuels in CI engines: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Soo-Young [Chungbuk National University, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The use of inedible vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engine is accelerated by the energy crisis due to depletion of resources and increased environmental problems including the great need for edible oil as food and the reduction of biodiesel production cost, etc. Of a lot of inedible vegetable oils which can be exploited for substitute fuel as diesel fuel, seven vegetable oils, i.e., jatropha, karanja, mahua, linseed, rubber seed, cottonseed and neem oils were selected for discussion in this review paper. The application of jatropha oil as a liquid fuel for CI engine can be classified with neat jatropha oil, engine modifications such as preheating, and dual fuelling, and fuel modifications such as jatropha oil blends with other fuels, mostly with diesel fuel, biodiesel, biodiesel blends and degumming. Therefore, jatropha oil is a leading candidate for the commercialization of non-edible vegetable oils. There exists a big difference in the fuel properties of seven inedible vegetable oils and its biodiesels considered in this review. It is clear from this review that biodiesel generally causes an increase in NOx emission and a decrease in HC, CO and PM emissions compared to diesel. It was reported that a diesel engine without any modification would run successfully on a blend of 20% vegetable oil and 80% diesel fuel without damage to engine parts. This trend can be applied to the biodiesel blends even though particular biodiesel shows 40% blend. In addition, the blends of biodiesel and diesel can replace the diesel fuel up to 10% by volume for running common rail direct injection system without any durability problems. (author)

  3. Aerosol emissions of a ship diesel engine operated with diesel fuel or heavy fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streibel, Thorsten; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Czech, Hendryk; Harndorf, Horst; Jakobi, Gert; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Karg, Erwin; Lintelmann, Jutta; Matuschek, Georg; Michalke, Bernhard; Müller, Laarnie; Orasche, Jürgen; Passig, Johannes; Radischat, Christian; Rabe, Rom; Reda, Ahmed; Rüger, Christopher; Schwemer, Theo; Sippula, Olli; Stengel, Benjamin; Sklorz, Martin; Torvela, Tiina; Weggler, Benedikt; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from a ship diesel research engine were elaborately analysed by a large assembly of measurement techniques. Applied methods comprised of offline and online approaches, yielding averaged chemical and physical data as well as time-resolved trends of combustion by-products. The engine was driven by two different fuels, a commonly used heavy fuel oil (HFO) and a standardised diesel fuel (DF). It was operated in a standardised cycle with a duration of 2 h. Chemical characterisation of organic species and elements revealed higher concentrations as well as a larger number of detected compounds for HFO operation for both gas phase and particulate matter. A noteworthy exception was the concentration of elemental carbon, which was higher in DF exhaust aerosol. This may prove crucial for the assessment and interpretation of biological response and impact via the exposure of human lung cell cultures, which was carried out in parallel to this study. Offline and online data hinted at the fact that most organic species in the aerosol are transferred from the fuel as unburned material. This is especially distinctive at low power operation of HFO, where low volatility structures are converted to the particulate phase. The results of this study give rise to the conclusion that a mere switching to sulphur-free fuel is not sufficient as remediation measure to reduce health and environmental effects of ship emissions.

  4. Effects of Watering and Nitrogen Fertilization on Yield and Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Cropping Oil Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAN Jian-xin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment with split-plot design was conducted to study the effects of the interaction of water and nitrogen fertilization on the growth and yield of oil sunflower, water and nitrogen use efficiency of cropping oil sunflower. This experiment set three irrigation rate treatments, including high irrigation treatment (5 250 m3·hm-2, middle irrigation treatment (3 750 m3·hm-2, low irrigation treatment (2 250 m3·hm-2, and four nitrogen application rate treatments, covering no nitrogen fertilization treatment (0 kg·hm-2, low nitrogen application treatment (120 kg·hm-2, middle nitrogen application treatment (240 kg·hm-2 and high nitrogen application treatment (360 kg·hm-2. The results showed that the nitrogen absorption and nitrogen use efficiency of cropping oil sunflower increased as the irrigation rate increased. With the nitrogen application rate increased, the yield of cropping oil sunflower was increased when the nitrogen application rate was 0~240 kg·hm-2, but beyond the 240 kg·hm-2, there was no significant increase. With the irrigation rate increased, the water consumption amount of cropping oil sunflower increased all the time, but the water use efficiency increased first, and hen decreased. Besides there was no significant difference between 240 kg·hm-2 and 360 kg·hm-2 treatment. Under our experiment condition, during the cropping oil sunflower growth period, when the irrigation rate was 5 250 m3·hm-2 (high irrigation rate and the nitrogen ertilization was 360 m3·hm-2 (high nitrogen application rate, the yield of cropping oil sunflower was 3 598 kg·hm-2. When the irrigation rate was 3 750 m3·hm-2 (middle irrigation rate and the nitrogen fertilization was 240 m3·hm-2 (middle nitrogen application rate, the yield was 3 518 kg·hm-2, with the yield components similar with the high irrigation rate and high nitrogen application rate treatment. Considering various factors, middle irrigation rate and middle nitrogen

  5. Rapid Estimation of Tocopherol Content in Linseed and Sunflower Oils-Reactivity and Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Prevc

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of tocopherols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH was studied in model systems in order to establish a method for quantifying vitamin E in plant oils. The method was optimized with respect to solvent composition of the assay medium, which has a large influence on the course of reaction of tocopherols with DPPH. The rate of reaction of α-tocopherol with DPPH is higher than that of γ-tocopherol in both protic and aprotic solvents. In ethyl acetate, routinely applied for the analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP of plant oils, reactions of tocopherols with DPPH are slower and concentration of tocopherols in the assay has a large influence on their molar reactivity. In 2-propanol, however, two electrons are exchanged for both α- and γ-tocopherols, independent of their concentration. 2-propanol is not toxic and is fully compatible with polypropylene labware. The chromatographically determined content of tocopherols and their molar reactivity in the DPPH assay reveal that only tocopherols contribute to the AOP of sunflower oil, whereas the contribution of tocopherols to the AOP of linseed oil is 75%. The DPPH assay in 2-propanol can be applied for rapid and cheap estimation of vitamin E content in plant oils where tocopherols are major antioxidants.

  6. Comparison of Diesel Engine Characteristic Using Pure Coconut Oil, Pure Palm Oil, and Pure Jatropha Oil as Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman K. Reksowardojo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine can be operated on either pure plant oil (PPO oil or biodiesel. Biodiesel production process is expensive due to many stages of processes, while PPO has a lower cost of production, lower energy consumption, and simpler process. There are several potential biofuel resources in Indonesia such as coconut, palm, and jatropha. They are tropical plants with large amonts of their quantity. Experiment was conducted in 17 hours engine running test (endurance test with various operating cycle conditions. Test fuels are pure coconut oil (PCO, pure palm oil (PPaO, pure jatropha oil (PJO, and diesel fuel (DF as a datum. Each PPO blends with diesel fuel with composition 50%-volume. As a result, PCO has higher BSFC (10% before endurance test in comparison with diesel fuel, also PPaO (13% and PJO (27% show a similar condition. Surprisingly, all PPO have BSFC almost similar with DF after endurance test due to decreasing of engine components friction. On the other hand, PPO produces more uncompleted combustion than DF. Phosporus content has major responsibility of deposit growth. PCO, PPaO, and PJO result more engine deposits in comparison with DF, which accounts for 139,7%, 232,9%, and 288,9% respectively. Based on wear analysis, PCO has the best antiwear property among test fuels, whereas the worst is DF.

  7. Series 190 Diesel Engines Used in China's Oil Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qimin

    1996-01-01

    @@ Jinan Diesel Engine Works, located in Jinan,Shandong Province, was established more than 70 years ago. Now it produces series 190 diesel engines and diesel generating sets. Over 95 percent of land drilling power engines used in China are from Jinan Diesel Engine Works.

  8. Performance & Emissions Characteristics of a Four Stroke Diesel Engine Fuelled With Different Blends of Palmyra Oil with Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Venkata Srinivasa Rao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines are used for automotive application because they have lower specific fuel consumption and superior efficiency compared to S.I engines. However in spite of these advantages NOx and smoke emissions from the diesel engines cause serious environmental problems. In the present work, biodiesel was produced from Palmyra oil. In this present work, investigations were carried out to study the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of Palmyra oil. The results were compared with diesel fuel, and the selected Palmyra oil fuel blends. For this experiment a single cylinder, four stroke, water cooled diesel engine was used. Tests were carried out over entire range of engine operation at varying conditions of load. To increase the engine performance parameters and to decrease the exhaust gas emissions with increase biodiesel concentration. The experimental results provide that the use of biodiesel in compression ignition engine is a viable alternative to diesel. Additive to add the Ethanol. The blending percentage in the steps of 10%, 20% & 30%.

  9. Evaluation of a diesel engine running with stationary mixtures of soybean oil and reused oil diesel; Avaliacao de um motor diesel estacionario funcionando com misturas de oleo de soja reutilizado e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maronhas, Maite E.S.; Fernandes, Haroldo C.; Siqueira, Wagner C.; Figueiredo, Augusto C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails: maronhas@gmail.com, haroldo@ufv.br, augusto.figueiredo@ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    The tests were conducted at the Laboratory of Agricultural Mechanization Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa using a stationary diesel engine Yanmar brand NS{sub B} 75, with nominal power of 5.8 kw at 2400 rpm, direct injection, and water cooled. This work aimed to examine the reuse of soybean oil to drive the engine stationary. Were used as fuel five mixtures of diesel oil (DO) and soybean oil (OS) re-used in the kitchen of the restaurant of the university in the proportions of 0-100%, 25-75%, 50-50%, 75-25 % and 100-0% respectively. The power and torque of the engine is higher for the mixture showed a 75% OD and 25% OS and 25% lower for DO and 75% OS. The lowest hourly consumption was with a mixture of 25% and 75% OD and OS was 15% lower than for the pure diesel. The values found justifying the use of mixtures of diesel and soybean oil reused, but the technical aspects, especially regarding the wear of the engine, must be evaluated to indicate the use after a long period of engine operation. (author)

  10. Esters of ricebran oil with short chain alcohols as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Zaher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of ricebran oil as a feedstock for the production of a fuel for diesel engines alternative to regular diesel fuel has been assessed. Esterification rate of crude ricebran oil with methyl alcohol was studied using different volumetric ratios of alcohol to oil, different catalyst loads and catalyst types. Catalysts used were sulfuric acid at a concentration of 2% of the oil/alcohol mixture in addition to hydrochloric acid and Amberlite IR-120 cation exchange resin at the same molar concentration of H+ as in case of sulfuric acid. The reaction was fastest using sulfuric acid which has been then used to prepare esters of ricebran oil with methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl alcohols. The four products have been evaluated as a fuel for diesel engines according to their fuel properties compared to regular diesel fuel. These properties include the calorific value, flash point, viscosity, pour point, cetane number, sulfur content and ASTM distillation characteristics. The results have shown that the methyl as well as the ethyl esters have the closest properties to those of regular diesel fuel. Diesel engine performance using blends of regular diesel fuel with methyl and ethyl esters of ricebran oil have been tested and compared to that using regular diesel fuel. The results have shown that the engine performance using a blend of 50% regular diesel fuel and 50% methyl esters of ricebran oil is better than that using regular diesel fuel. The brake thermal efficiency at full load was 30.2% using the fuel blend compared to 27.5% in case of regular fuel.

  11. Changes in composition and quality of sunflower oils during extraction and degumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapiste, G. H.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different stages of processing on composition and quality of crude sunflower oil was studied through the determination of fatty acids, metal and phosphorus contents, free fatty acids, peroxide and anisidine values, tocopherols, polar compounds, waxes and oxidative stability. No significant changes in the content of individual fatty acids and tocopherols were observed during processing. The composition of some minor constituents as metals, waxes and phospholipids was strongly affected by the extraction and water degumming processes. Sunflower oils obtained by hexane extraction presented a higher initial deterioration but also a higher oxidative stability than oils obtained by pressing.Se estudió la influencia de las distintas etapas del procesamiento sobre la composición y calidad de aceite crudo de girasol a través de la determinación de la composición de ácidos grasos, contenido de fósforo y metales, índice de acidez, índice de peróxido, valor de p-anisidina, tocoferoles, compuestos polares, ceras y estabilidad oxidativa. No se apreció durante el procesamiento ningún cambio significativo en la composición de ácidos grasos y tocoferoles. Los contenidos de algunos compuestos minoritarios como metales, ceras y fosfolípidos resultaron apreciablemente afectados con los procesos de extracción y desgomado con agua. Los aceites de girasol obtenidos por extracción con hexano presentaron un grado de deterioro inicial superior y una mayor estabilidad oxidativa con respecto a los aceites obtenidos por prensado.

  12. Effect of Sunflower and Marine Oils on Ruminal Microbiota, In vitro Fermentation and Digesta Fatty Acid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E. Vargas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC investigated the changes in the ruminal microbiota and anaerobic fermentation in response to the addition of different lipid supplements to a ruminant diet. A basal diet with no oil added was the control, and the treatment diets were supplemented with sunflower oil (2% only, or sunflower oil (2% in combination with fish oil (1% or algae oil (1%. Four fermentation units were used per treatment. RUSITEC fermenters were inoculated with rumen digesta. Substrate degradation, fermentation end-products (volatile fatty acids, lactate, gas, methane, and ammonia, and microbial protein synthesis were determined. Fatty acid profiles and microbial community composition were evaluated in digesta samples. Numbers of representative bacterial species and microbial groups were determined using qPCR. Microbial composition and diversity were based on T-RFLP spectra. The addition of oils had no effect on substrate degradation or microbial protein synthesis. Differences among diets in neutral detergent fiber degradation were not significant (P = 0.132, but the contrast comparing oil–supplemented diets with the control was significant (P = 0.039. Methane production was reduced (P < 0.05 with all oil supplements. Propionate production was increased when diets containing oil were fermented. Compared with the control, the addition of algae oil decreased the percentage C18:3 c9c12c15 in rumen digesta, and that of C18:2 c9t11 was increased when the control diet was supplemented with any oil. Marine oils decreased the hydrogenation of C18 unsaturated fatty acids. Microbial diversity was not affected by oil supplementation. Cluster analysis showed that diets with additional fish or algae oils formed a group separated from the sunflower oil diet. Supplementation with marine oils decreased the numbers of Butyrivibrio producers of stearic acid, and affected the numbers of protozoa, methanogens, Selenomonas ruminantium

  13. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  14. Preliminary Investigation for Engine Performance by Using Tire-Derived Pyrolysis Oil-Diesel Blended Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofiqul, Islam M.; Haniu, Hiroyuki; Alam, Beg R.; Takai, Kazunori

    In the first phase of the present study, the pyrolysis oil derived from light automotive tire waste has been characterized including fuel properties, elemental analyses, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS and distillation. The studies on the oil show that it can be used as liquid fuel with a gross calorific value (GCV) of 42.00 MJ/kg and empirical formula of CH1.27O0.025N0.006. In the second phase of the investigation, the performance of a diesel engine was studied blending the pyrolysis oil with diesel fuel in different ratios. The experimental results show that the bsfc of pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels slightly increases and hence the brake thermal efficiency decreases compared to those of neat diesel. The pyrolysis oil-diesel blends show lower carbon monoxide (CO) emission but higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions than those of neat diesel. However, NOx emissions with pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels reduced when EGR was applied.

  15. Experimental investigation and performance evaluation of DI diesel engine fueled by waste oil-diesel mixture in emulsion with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthagopal Kasianantham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of the natural reserves of petroleum products has put a tremendous onus on the automotive industry. Increasing pollution levels and the depletion of the petroleum reserves have lead to the search for alternate fuel sources for internal combustion engines. Usage of vegetable oils poses some challenges like poor spray penetration, valve sticking and clogging of injector nozzles. Most of these problems may be solved by partial substitution of diesel with vegetable oil. In this work, the performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fueled by waste cooking oil-diesel emulsion with different water contents are evaluated. The use of waste cooking oil-diesel emulsion lowers the peak temperature, which reduces the formation of NOx. Moreover the phenomenon of micro explosion that results during the combustion of an emulsified fuel finely atomizes the fuel droplets and thus enhances combustion. Experiments show that CO concentration is reduced as the water content is increased and it is seen that 20% water content gives optimum results. Also, there is a significant reduction in NOx emissions.

  16. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (Pdiet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (Pdiet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (Pdiet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (Pdiet induced DNA tail length and tail moment to the basal levels in fresh oil diet. These results indicate that PQQ.Na2 is a potential antioxidant and is as effective against oxidized oil-related liver injury in laying hens as vitamin E. The protective effects of PQQ.Na2 against liver damage induced by oxidized oil may be partially due to its role in the scavenging of free radicals, inhibiting of lipid peroxidation and enhancing of antioxidant defense systems.

  17. Physico-chemical attributes of seed oil from drought stressed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water deficit conditions on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of sunflower seed and seed oils were assessed. Two sunflower cultivars (Gulshan-98 and Suncross were sown in the field. The water stress treatment was applied at the vegetative or the reproductive stage. Analysis of the sunflower seed showed that the oil content decreased (a decline of 10.52% relative to the control significantly (p ≤ 0.05 due to water stress when imposed at either of the growth stages. Both of the sunflower cultivars studied showed differential responses to water stress with respect to oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. A significant negative correlation in oil oleic and linoleic acid was observed in cv. Gulshan-98 under water deficit conditions as compared to Suncross in which no such effect of water stress on oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Water deficit conditions caused a reduction in linolenic acid in Gulshan-98, whereas it remained unaffected in Suncross. The stearic acid content increased in cv. Gulshan-98 due to drought, whereas no effect due to water stress was observed on oil palmitic acid content in either sunflower cultivar. Overall, oil unsaturated fatty acids remained unchanged in the drought stressed or normally irrigated plants of both cultivars but saturated fatty acid increased in Gulshan-98. Individual (α, γ, and δ and total tocopherol contents in the seed oil increased significantly with the application of water stress in both cultivars. An assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of the oils of both sunflower cultivars revealed that drought stress caused a marked increase in the content of un-saponifiable matter (18.75% with respect to the control and a decrease in iodine value (5.87% with respect to the control, but saponifcation value, density, specific gravity and refractive index remained unchanged.El efecto de las condiciones de déficit de agua sobre las caracter

  18. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L. Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro, L.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T. capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 ºC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants were used and subjected to the same conditions. The best yield oil was obtained from the whole aerial part of T. capitata collected during the flowering phase. The major component of the oils was carvacrol. Relative high amounts of p-cymene, γ-terpinene and β-caryophyllene were also found. BHT revealed to be the best antioxidant when the olive oil was used. On sunflower oil, the antioxidant ability of BHT was not so evident, being the carvacrol-rich essential oils of T. capitata or carvacrol more important antioxidants.Se analizaron, mediante GC y GC/MS, los componentes volátiles de aceites aislados de las distintas partes de la Thymbra capitata, recogida en diferentes etapas de desarrollo. Se evaluó la actividad antioxidante de estos aceites de la T. capitata, midiendo el índice de peróxidos, en aceites de oliva y girasol, almacenados a 60 ºC. Estos índices de peróxidos se compararon con los obtenidos cuando no se agregó ningún antioxidante (control y cuando se utilizó BHT o carvacrol, en las mismas condiciones de almacenamiento. El mayor rendimiento en aceite se obtuvo de la parte aérea de T. capitata recogida durante la etapa de floración. El componente mayoritario de los aceites fue el carvacrol. También se encontraron, cantidades relativamente elevadas, de p-cimeno, γ-terpineno y β-cariofileno. El mejor antioxidante para el aceite de oliva resultó ser el BHT. En el aceite del girasol, la actividad antioxidante del BHT no fue tan evidente, mientras que el

  19. Electronic nose guided determination of frying disposal time of sunflower oil using fuzzy logic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Sehwag, Sneha; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2017-04-15

    An electronic nose (e-nose), having 18 metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors, guided determination of frying disposal time of sunflower oil is reported. The ranking and screening of MOS sensors, specific for volatile organic compounds, was performed using fuzzy logic. A correlation was examined between rancidity indices of fried oil (total polar compounds (TPC), and triglyceride dimers-polymers (TGDP), among others) and e-nose based odor index. Fuzzy logic screened 6 MOS sensors (LY2/G, LY2/AA, LY2/GH, LY2/gCT1, T30/1, and P30/1) to deconvolute the rancid fried oils using hierarchical clustering on principal component space. A good relationship was noted between rancidity indices and odor index (R(2)>0.85). Based on maximum discard limits of rancidity indices (25% TPC and 10% TGDP), the frying disposal time of 15.2h (TPC) vs. 15.8h (e-nose) and 15.5h (TGDP) vs. 16.3h (e-nose) was determined. The demonstrated methodology holds a potential extension to different fried oils and products.

  20. Detecting and quantifying sunflower oil adulteration in extra virgin olive oils from the eastern mediterranean by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Gerard; McIntyre, Peter; Davies, Antony N

    2002-09-25

    One hundred and thirty-eight oil samples have been analyzed by visible and near-infrared transflectance spectroscopy. These comprised 46 pure extra virgin olive oils and the same oils adulterated with 1% (w/w) and 5% (w/w) sunflower oil. A number of multivariate mathematical approaches were investigated to detect and quantify the sunflower oil adulterant. These included hierarchical cluster analysis, soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA method), and partial least squares regression (PLS). A number of wavelength ranges and data pretreatments were explored. The accuracy of these mathematical models was compared, and the most successful models were identified. Complete classification accuracy was achieved using 1st derivative spectral data in the 400-2498 nm range. Prediction of adulterant content was possible with a standard error equal to 0.8% using 1st derivative data between 1100 and 2498 nm. Spectral features and chemical literature were studied to isolate the structural basis for these models.

  1. Crystallization behavior of anhydrous milk fat-sunflower oil wax blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Rebekah M; Tombokan, Xenia; Ghosh, Supriyo; Martini, Silvana

    2011-03-23

    This research evaluates the effect of sunflower oil wax (SFOw) addition on the crystallization behavior and functional properties of anhydrous milk fat (AMF). Induction times of nucleation, melting behavior, microstructure of crystals, and hardness were evaluated for samples of pure AMF and AMF with 0.1 and 0.25% SFOw. Results from this research show that the addition of waxes induced the onset of crystallization of AMF by inducing its nucleation, as evidenced by decreased induction times of nucleation and the formation of smaller crystals. Crystal growth after tempering was also promoted by waxes, and significantly harder lipid networks were obtained. Results presented in this paper suggest that SFOw can be used as an additive to alter the physiochemical properties of low trans-fatty acid lipids.

  2. Empirical modeling the ultrasound-assisted base-catalyzed sunflower oil methanolysis kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Jelena M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted sunflower oil methanolysis catalyzed by KOH was studied to define a simple empirical kinetic model useful for reactor design without complex computation. It was assumed that the neutralization of free fatty acids and the saponification reaction were negligible. The methanolysis process rate was observed to be controlled by the mass transfer limitation in the initial heterogeneous regime and by the chemical reaction in the later pseudo-homogeneous regime. The model involving the irreversible second-order kinetics was established and used for simulation of the triacylglycerol conversion and the fatty acid methyl esters formation in the latter regime. A good agreement between the proposed model and the experimental data in the chemically controlled regime was found.

  3. The influence of dietary fish oil vs. sunflower oil on the fatty acid composition of plasma cholesteryl-esters in healthy, adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, E A; Beynen, A C

    2003-12-01

    The question addressed was whether the fatty acid composition of plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) in cats reflects the intake of fatty acids. Diets containing either fish oil or sunflower oil were fed to six healthy, adult cats in a cross-over trial. The dry cat foods contained approximately 18.5% crude fat, of which two-third was in the form of the variable oil. Blood samples were collected at the end of each 4-week feeding period, and the fatty acid composition of plasma CEs and plasma concentrations of lipoproteins were determined. Consumption of the diet with fish oil was associated with significantly greater proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid and myristic acid in plasma CEs. The intake of fish oil instead of sunflower oil reduced the percentage of linoleic acid in CEs. The plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides were not affected by fish oil vs. sunflower oil feeding.

  4. Performance evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of castor seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.DURGA DEVI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines are widely used as power sources in medium and heavy-duty applications because of their lower fuel consumption and lower emissions of carbon monoxide (CO and unburned hydrocarbons (HC compared with gasoline engines. Rudolf Diesel, the inventor ofthe diesel engine, ran an engine on groundnut oil at the Paris Exposition of 1900. Since then, vegetable oils have been used as fuels when petroleum supplies were expensive or difficult to obtain. With the increased availability of petroleum in the 1940s, research into vegetable oils decreased. Since the oil crisis of the 1970s research interest has expanded in the area of alternative fuels. The difficulties associated with using raw vegetable oils in diesel engines identified in the literature are injector coking, severe engine deposits, filter gumming problems, piston ring sticking, and injector coking and thickening of the lubricating oil. The highviscosity and low volatility of raw vegetable oils are generally considered to be the major drawbacks for their utilization as fuels in diesel engines. Castor methyl ester (CME blends showed performance characteristics close to diesel. Therefore castor methylester blends can be used in CI engines in rural area for meeting energy requirement in various agricultural operations such as irrigation, threshing, indistries etc.

  5. Composition of plasma and atheromatous plaque among coronary artery disease subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Rajesh, P C; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Nair, Shiv K; Vasudevan, D M

    2012-12-01

    Coconut oil, which is rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids, is the principal cooking medium of the people of Kerala, India. Replacement of saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat is effective in reducing serum cholesterol levels. However, the effect of substituting coconut oil with sunflower oil on the fatty acid composition of plaque has not been thoroughly investigated. We therefore evaluated and compared the fatty acid composition of plasma and plaque among subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium. Endarterectomy samples and plasma samples were obtained from subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafts (n = 71). The subjects were grouped based on the type of oil they were using as their cooking medium (coconut oil or sunflower oil). The fatty acid composition in the plaques and the plasma was determined by HPLC and the data were analyzed statistically. Sunflower oil consumers had elevated concentrations of linoleic acid (p = 0.001) in plasma, while coconut oil users had higher myristic acid levels (p = 0.011) in plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids did not differ significantly between the two groups in the plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids were detected in the plaques in both groups of subjects. In contrast to previous reports, long-chain saturated fatty acids dominated the lipid content of plaque in this population, and the fatty acid composition of plaque was not significantly different between the two groups. No correlation between fatty acids of plasma and plaque was observed in either group. A change in cooking medium, although it altered the plasma fatty acid composition, was not reflected in the plaque composition.

  6. Assessment of process control parameters in the biochemical methane potential of sunflower oil cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raposo, F.; Borja, R.; Rincon, B. [Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Avda. Padre Garcia Tejero 4, 41012 Seville (Spain); Jimenez, A.M. [Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. De Utrera, km 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    A laboratory-scale study was conducted on the batch anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake (SuOC), solid waste derived from the extraction process of sunflower oil. A multi-reactor system was used to compare methane production from this waste at inoculum to substrate ratios (ISRs) of 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.8 and 0.5 (expressed as volatile solids (VS) basis). The tests were carried out at mesophilic temperature (35 C) and run against a control of inoculum without substrate. The results obtained in the biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests showed that the ultimate methane yield (Y{sub M,ult}) decreased considerably from 227{+-}23 to 107{+-}11 ml CH{sub 4} at standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions g{sup -1} VS{sub added} when the ISR decreased from 3.0 to 0.5, showing a clear influence of the ISR on the methane yield coefficient. The biodegradability (BD) of the waste also decreased from 86% to 41% when the ISR varied from 3.0 to 0.5. A net total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) yield of 39.2 mg N g{sup -1} VS{sub added} was obtained, and this value was not influenced by the ISRs assayed, which demonstrated the appropriate operation of the hydrolytic-acidogenic stage of the overall digestion process. A clear imbalance of the methanogenic process was observed at the lowest ISRs studied (0.5 and 0.8) due to a considerable increase in CODs and TVFA in the digestates. The profile of VFA was also influenced by the ISR, typical of the proteinaceous substrates. (author)

  7. Quality characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters with pork fat replaced by sunflower seed oils and dietary fiber extracted from makgeolli lees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Park, Kwaon-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Min-Sung; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-03-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 30% to 20% by partially substituting pork fat with a mix of sunflower seed oil (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) and makgeolli lees fiber (2%) were investigated based on physicochemical properties, textural properties, and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters. The moisture and ash content, and lightness were higher in reduced-fat frankfurter samples containing sunflower seed oil and makgeolli lees fiber than in the control. The results showed that reduced-fat frankfurter samples with higher sunflower seed oil levels had lower redness and yellowness values, as well as less cooking loss, emulsion stability, hardness, springiness, and apparent viscosity. The results of this study show that incorporating sunflower seed oil and makgeolli lees fiber into the formulation successfully reduced animal fat in frankfurters, while improving quality characteristics.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Performanec of Single Cylinder 4s Diesel Engine Using Dual Vegetable Oil Blended

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. C. S. Koli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades there has been a tremendous increase in the number of automobiles and a corresponding increase in the fuel price. In this regard, alternative fuels like vegetable oils play a major role. Use of pure vegetable oil in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with diesel fuel. To solve the problems due to high viscosity various techniques are used. One such technique is fuel blending. This paper investigated the performance parameters of dual vegetable oil blends (mixture of Mustard oil and Palm oil with diesel on a stationary single cylinder, four stroke direct injection compression ignition engine. The blends of BB 10 (combination of Diesel 90% by volume, Mustard oil 5% by volume and Palm oil 5% by volume and blends of BB 20 (combination of Diesel 80% by volume, Mustard oil 10% by volume and Palm oil 10% by volume gave better brake thermal efficiency, lower total fuel consumption and lower brake specific fuel consumption than other blends (BB 30, BB 40 and BB 50.

  9. Intensification of microbial exopolysaccharide ethapolan synthesis under Acinetobacter sp. IМV B-7005 cultivation on sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivahniuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction.Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS by the ability of their solutions to change the rheological properties of aqueous systems are widely used in various industries. In recent years, research on the use of industrial waste (including oil-containing to obtain practically valuable microbial metabolites intensified. Materials and methods.Cultivation of Acinetobactersp. IМV B-7005 strain was performed in liquid medium, containing as a carbon source sunflower oil (1−5 %, v/v, a source of nitrogen – ammonium nitrate (0.4−0.8 g/l, a source of pantothenate − multivitamin complex «Complevit» (0.00085 and0.00095 %. EPSconcentration was determined gravimetrically after precipitation with isopropanol, EPS-synthesizing ability − as a ratio of EPS concentration to biomass concentration, wich was expressed as g EPS / g biomass. Results and discussions. It was established that increasing the concentration of sunflower oil in basic medium for Acinetobacter sp. IMV B -7005 cultivation to 4−5% was accompanied by decrease of ethapolan synthesis compared with those in the medium containing lower (2−3 % substrate concentration. Increasing ammonium nitrate content to 0.6 g/l and/or pantothenate concentration to 0.00095% in a medium with 5% sunflower oil allowed to increase the amount of ethapolan synthesized up to 6.6−6.7 g/l, that is in 1.3−1.4 times higher than in the basic medium with the same concentration of the substrate but lower NH4NO3 (0.4 g/l and pantothenate (0.00085 %. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate the possibility of microbial polysaccharide ethapolan synthesis under Acinetobacter sp. ІMV B -7005 cultivation in the medium with a high content of sunflower oil. These data are the basis for the development of ethapolan technology using as a substrate fried oil.

  10. Bioremediation of soil contaminated by diesel oil Biorremediação de solos contaminados por óleo diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Menezes Bento

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Were evaluated natural attenuation, biostimulation and bioaugmentation on the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in soils contaminated with diesel oil. Bioaugmentation showed the greatest degradation in the light (C12 - C23 fractions (72.7% and heavy (C23 - C40 fractions of TPH (75.2% and natural attenuation was more effective than biostimulation. The greatest dehydrogenase activity was observed upon bioaugmentation of the Long Beach soil (3.3-fold and the natural attenuation of the Hong Kong soil sample (4.0-fold. The number of diesel oil degrading microorganisms and heterotrophic population was not influenced by the bioremediation treatments. The best approach for bioremediation of soil contaminated with diesel oil is the inoculum of microorganisms pre-selected from their own environment.Avaliou-se a degradação de hidrocarbonetos de petróleo (HP em solos contaminados com óleo diesel através da atenuação natural, bioestimulação e bioaumentação. A bioaumentação apresentou a maior degradação da fração leve (72,6% e da fração pesada (75,2% de HP e a atenuação natural foi mais efetiva do que a bioestimulação. A maior atividade da dehidrogenase no solo Long Beach e Hong Kong foi observada nos tratamentos bioaumentação e atenuação natural, respectivamente. O número de microrganismos degradadores de diesel e a população de heterotróficos não foi influenciada pelas técnicas de biorremediação. A melhor performance para a biorremediação do solo contaminado com diesel foi obtida quando foram adicionados microrganismos pré-selecionados do ambiente contaminado.

  11. Physico-Chemical Properties of Bio-diesel from Wild Grape Seeds Oil and Petro-Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Kaisan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The swiftly depleting conventional fossil fuel resources and increasing environmental distress has considerably popped up research curiosity in renewable energy fuel for internal combustion engines. Accordingly, in this research work, biodiesel from wild grape seed (Lannea Microcarpa was blended with petro-diesel in a ratio of 5:95, 10:90, 15:85 and 20:80 and pure fossil diesel designated B5, B10, B15, B20 and B0 respectively. The physico chemical properties of the biodiesel/petro diesel blends were determined. The properties are specific gravity, viscosity, flash point, calorific value, sulphur content, copper strip corrosion, colour, diesel index, cetane number, and cloud point. It was observed that, 9 out of the 10 properties determined conform to ASTM standards except for the colour which was dark brown for the oil and biodiesel, and brown for the automotive gasoline oil. The specific gravity and viscosity increase with percentage increase of biodiesel in the blends. The sulphur content, calorific values, cetane number and diesel index decrease with increase in the percentage biodiesel from the blends. The colour of the samples does not conform to the ASTM standards. All the samples have the best ASTM value for copper strip corrosion and as such, they could be run in any diesel engine without any fear of corrosion tendencies. Whence, Wild Grape seed biodiesel is physically okay, chemically stable, environmentally friendly and economically viable for use in compression ignition engine as a blend to partly replace the automotive gasoline oil.

  12. Serum lipid profile and inflammatory markers in the aorta of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oils and oil-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) major and minor component anti-inflammatory effect on aorta was evaluated; Wistar rats were fed (9 weeks) on either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD supplemented with oils, i.e. EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), or oil-products modified to their phenolic content, i.e. phenolics deprived-EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. HCD induced dyslipidemia and resulted in higher aorta adhesion molecules levels at euthanasia. Groups receiving EVOO, EVOO(-), HOSO, HOSO(+) presented higher serum TC and LDL-c levels compared to cholesterol-fed rats; attenuation of aorta E-selectin levels was also observed. In EVOO/EVOO(-) groups, aorta vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was lower compared to HCD animals. SO/SO(+) diets had no effect on endothelial dysfunction amelioration. Overall, our results suggest that major and/or minor EVOO constituents improve aorta E-selectin and VCAM-1, while serum lipids do not benefit.

  13. Advanced Anticorrosion Coating Materials Derived from Sunflower Oil with Bifunctional Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Thiruparasakthi; Sathiyanarayanan, Sadagopan; Mayavan, Sundar

    2015-09-09

    High-performance barrier films preventing permeation of moisture, aggressive chloride ions, and corrosive acids are important for many industries ranging from food to aviation. In the current study, pristine sunflower oil was used to form uniform adherent films on iron (Fe) via a simple single-step thermal treatment (without involving any initiator/mediator/catalyst). Oxidation of oil on heating results in a highly conjugated (oxidized) crystalline lamellar network with interlayer separation of 0.445 nm on Fe. The electrochemical corrosion tests proved that the coating exhibits superior anticorrosion performance with high coating resistance (>10(9) ohm cm2) and low capacitance values (<10(-10) F cm(-2)) as compared to bare Fe, graphene, and conducting polymer based coatings in 1 M hydrochloric acid solutions. The electrochemical analyses reveal that the oil coatings developed in this study provided a two-fold protection of passivation from the oxide layer and barrier from polymeric films. It is clearly observed that there is no change in structure, morphology, or electrochemical properties even after a prolonged exposure time of 80 days. This work indicates the prospect of developing highly inert, environmentally green, nontoxic, and micrometer level passivating barrier coatings from more sustainable and renewable sources, which can be of interest for numerous applications.

  14. Formation of oil-in-water emulsions from natural emulsifiers using spontaneous emulsification: sunflower phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaiko, Jennifer; Sastrosubroto, Ashtri; McClements, David Julian

    2015-11-18

    This study examined the possibility of producing oil-in-water emulsions using a natural surfactant (sunflower phospholipids) and a low-energy method (spontaneous emulsification). Spontaneous emulsification was carried out by titrating an organic phase (oil and phospholipid) into an aqueous phase with continuous stirring. The influence of phospholipid composition, surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR), initial phospholipids location, storage time, phospholipid type, and preparation method was tested. The initial droplet size depended on the nature of the phospholipid used, which was attributed to differences in phospholipid composition. Droplet size decreased with increasing SOR and was smallest when the phospholipid was fully dissolved in the organic phase rather than the aqueous phase. The droplets formed using spontaneous emulsification were relatively large (d > 10 μm), and so the emulsions were unstable to gravitational separation. At low SORs (0.1 and 0.5), emulsions produced with phospholipids had a smaller particle diameter than those produced with a synthetic surfactant (Tween 80), but at a higher SOR (1.0), this trend was reversed. High-energy methods (microfluidization and sonication) formed significantly smaller droplets (d < 10 μm) than spontaneous emulsification. The results from this study show that low-energy methods could be utilized with natural surfactants for applications for which fine droplets are not essential.

  15. Fuel purpose hydrotreating of sunflower oil on CoMo/Al2O3 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krár, Márton; Kovács, Sándor; Kalló, Dénes; Hancsók, Jeno

    2010-12-01

    The importance of the economical production and usage of new generation biofuels, the so-called bio gas oil (paraffins from triglycerides) and the results of the investigation for their productability on the CoMo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst, which was activated by reduction, are presented. The conversion of triglycerides, the yield of total organic fractions and the target product, furthermore the type and ratio of deoxygenation reactions were determined as a function of process parameters. The advantageous process parameters were found (380 degrees C, 40-60 bar, 500-600 Nm(3)/m(3) H(2)/sunflower oil ratio, 1.0 h(-1)), where the conversion of triglycerides was 100% and the yield of the target fraction [high paraffin containing (>99%) gas oil boiling range product] was relatively high (73.7-73.9%). The deoxygenation of triglycerides the reduction as well as the decarboxylation/decarbonylation reactions took place. The yield of the target fractions did not achieve the theoretical values (81.4-86.5%). That is why it is necessary to separate the target fraction and recirculate the heavy fraction.

  16. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF CI ENGINE FUELLED WITH NON EDIBLE VEGETABLE OIL AND DIESEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ELANGO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine which is fuelled with different blends of jatropha oil and diesel (10–50%. A single cylinder four stroke diesel engine was used for the experiments at various loads and speed of 1500 rpm. An AVL 5 gas analyzer and a smoke meter were used for the measurements of exhaust gas emissions. Engine performance (specific fuel consumption SFC, brake thermal efficiency, and exhaust gas temperature and emissions (HC, CO, CO2, NOx and Smoke Opacity were measured to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on biodiesel. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of diesel is higher at all loads. Among the blends maximum brake thermal efficiency and minimum specific fuel consumption were found for blends upto 20% Jatropha oil. The specific fuel consumption of the blend having 20% Jatropha oil and 80% diesel (B20 was found to be comparable with the conventional diesel. The optimum blend is found to be B20 as the CO2 emissions were lesser than diesel while decrease in brake thermal efficiency is marginal.

  17. Coconut Oil Based Hybrid Fuels as Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranil Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The use of vegetable oils as a fuel in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with diesel. Various techniques and methods are used to solve the problems resulting from high viscosity. Approach: One of the techniques is the preparation of a microemulsion fuel, called a hybrid fuel. In this study, hybrid fuels consisting of coconut oil, ethanol and octan-1-ol were prepared with an aim to test their suitability as a fuel for diesel engines. Density, viscosity and gross calorific values of these fuels were determined and the fuels were used to run a direct injection diesel engine. The engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with that of diesel and coconut oil. Results: The experimental results show that the engine efficiency of the hybrid fuels is comparable to that of diesel. As the percentage of ethanol and/or octan-1-ol increased, the viscosity of the hybrid fuels decreased and the engine efficiency increased. The exhaust emissions were lower than those for diesel, except carbon monoxide, which increased. Conclusion/Recommendations: Hence, it is concluded that these hybrid fuels can be used successfully as an alternative fuel in diesel engines without any modifications. Their completely renewable nature ensures that they are environmentally friendly.

  18. Gas-oil/water emulsion fuel for automotive diesel engines. energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the work performed within the contract EE-C-201-I is reported. The results achieved in the tests of high speed diesel engines with water in oil emulsion feeding system are summarized. First, carried out trials on test bench are described; then operation in light duty truck on the road and on roller test bench is reported and trials with constant speed diesel engine are related. Finally, the work about emulsion characterization is synthetized. The conclusion shows as the water in oil emulsion is a feeding system suitable for high speed diesel engine operation because BSFC, grade of smoke, exhaust temperature and emission are lowered without considerable troubles.

  19. Synthesis of biodiesel from sunflower oil over potassium loaded alumina as heterogeneous catalyst: The effect of process parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkovic Milos M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous catalysis is in recent focus of research for biodiesel production from vegetable oils because of advantages such as easy separation and reuse of catalysts, although homogeneous catalysis is most commonly used method. The aim of this study was preparation of γ-Al2O3 support by modified sol-gel procedure, synthesis of the KI/Al2O3 catalyst and testing its activity in the transesterification of sunflower oil with methanol. Influences of different process parameters on conversion of sunflower oil to methyl esters were examined. The gained results implicate that the potassium iodide incorporation into/onto the structure of γ-Al2O3 significantly influences textural and structural properties of the catalyst. Additionally, the catalyst basic strength is increased and all together those properties are positively affecting the activity of the catalyst in the reaction of transesterification of sunflower oil with methanol. The impregnation of alumina with potassium iodide resulted in the additional formation of basic catalytically active sites. The surface properties of the catalyst have an essential impact on its catalytic performance. Under relatively mild process conditions and relatively short reaction time, the usage of the KI/Al2O3 catalyst resulted in very high conversion to fatty acids methyl esters (i.e. 99.99 %. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172061 i br. TR 34008

  20. Jatropha oil methyl ester and its blends used as an alternative fuel in diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarrapathruni Rao Hanumantha Venkata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass derived vegetable oils are quite promising alternative fuels for agricultural diesel engines. Use of vegetable oils in diesel engines leads to slightly inferior performance and higher smoke emissions due to their high viscosity. The performance of vegetable oils can be improved by modifying them through the transesterification process. In this present work, the performance of single cylinder water-cooled diesel engine using methyl ester of jatropha oil as the fuel was evaluated for its performance and exhaust emissions. The fuel properties of biodiesel such as kinematic viscosity, calorific value, flash point, carbon residue, and specific gravity were found. Results indicate that B25 has closer performance to diesel and B100 has lower brake thermal efficiency mainly due to its high viscosity compared to diesel. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel and its blends was found to be slightly higher than that of diesel fuel at tested load conditions and there was no difference of efficiency between the biodiesel and its blended fuels. For jatropha biodiesel and its blended fuels, the exhaust gas temperature increased with the increase of power and amount of biodiesel. However, its diesel blends showed reasonable efficiency, lower smoke, and CO2 and CO emissions.

  1. Secondary structure of oleosins in oil bodies isolated from seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, D J; Wellner, N; Beaudoin, F; Napier, J A; Shewry, P R

    1998-09-01

    Oil bodies were isolated from mature seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Oil body preparations containing only oleosin proteins could be obtained from safflower seeds by salt-washing followed by centrifugation on discontinuous sucrose density gradients. However, it was necessary to treat sunflower oil bodies with urea to obtain preparations of similar purity. Incubation of the oil bodies with proteinases gave two fragments with molecular masses of 6 and 8 kDa which were protected from digestion. These fragments represented the hydrophobic domain of the oleosins, as determined by N-terminal sequencing. Intact and proteinase-treated oil bodies of both species were analysed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, as dry films and in aqueous medium, the spectra being compared with those obtained for pure oil samples in order to identify the bands resulting from the oleosin proteins and protected peptides. This investigation showed that the hydrophobic domain of the oleosins in intact oil bodies is predominantly alpha-helical in structure and that the conformation was not greatly affected by washing the oil bodies with urea during preparation.

  2. Selective ethanolysis of sunflower oil with Lipozyme RM IM, an immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase, to obtain a biodiesel-like biofuel, which avoids glycerol production through the monoglyceride formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Juan; Verdugo, Cristóbal; Luna, Diego; Sancho, Enrique D; Luna, Carlos; Posadillo, Alejandro; Bautista, Felipa M; Romero, Antonio A

    2014-12-25

    The obtaining of Ecodiesel, a biofuel applicable to diesel engines which keeps the glycerin as monoglyceride (MG), was achieved through a selective ethanolysis process of sunflower oil, by application of Lipozyme RM IM, a Rhizomucor miehei lipase immobilized on macroporous anion exchange resins. This biocatalyst that was already described in the synthesis of conventional biodiesel has also shown its efficiency in the present selective enzymatic process, after optimization of the influence of various reaction parameters. Thus, an adequate activity is obtained that is maintained throughout five successive reuses. Quantitative conversions of triglycerides (TG) with high yields to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were obtained under mild reaction conditions that correspond to the transformation of TG in a mixture of two moles of FAEE and a mole of MG, thus avoiding the glycerol production. Thus, the selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with absolute ethanol can be carried out under standard conditions with oil/ethanol volume ratio 12/3.5 (mL), at constant pH obtained by the addition of 50 μl of aqueous solution of 10 N NaOH, reaction temperature of 40 °C and 40 mg of Lipozyme RM IM. Under these experimental conditions six successive reactions can be efficiently carried out.

  3. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J; Quiles, José L

    2015-09-29

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  4. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  5. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián González-Alonso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  6. Monitoring the physicochemical features of sunflower oil and French fries during repeated microwave frying and deep-fat frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aydınkaptan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of repeated microwave frying at different power levels (360W, 600W, 900W and deep-fat frying on sunflower oil and French fries. The intermittent batch frying cycle was repeated 15 times a day during five consecutive days. The fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties including free fatty acid (FFA, extinction coefficient (K270, total polar compound (TPC, color, viscosity, refractive index of the sunflower oil were determined each day. At the end of the frying period, the highest values of viscosity (76.29cp and refractive index (1.4738 were detected in microwave frying at 900W power level. TPC level exceeded 25% after the third day of microwave frying at all power levels. The FFA values during microwave frying increased progressively from 0.157% to 0.320- 0.379% on the fifth day. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 37-53% more in the case of microwave frying. The oil quality during microwave frying did not have a significant impact on the oil absorption and total color change of the French fries. Microwave frying, even at higher levels, provided lower oil (8.60-12.32%wb and moisture contents (35.47-41.24% compared to deep frying. Microwave frying caused longer processing time and significantly higher levels of degradation of the sunflower oil at all power levels compared to deep frying. However, microwave frying has the advantage of reducing oil absorption. The oil content of French fries was lowered by 20-33% (wb at the highest power level.

  7. Tissue fatty acid composition and estimated ∆ desaturase activity after castration in chicken broilers fed with linseed or sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašek, T; Starčević, K; Filipović, N; Stojević, Z; Brozić, D; Gottstein, Z; Severin, K

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of the short-term addition of sunflower and linseed oil and castration on fatty acid composition and desaturation indexes in chicken broilers. Forty-eight male Ross 308 chicken broilers were supplemented with 5% of sunflower or linseed oil. The four experimental groups were linseed oil supplementation and castration (LC), linseed oil without castration (LN), sunflower oil and castration (SC) and sunflower oil without castration (SN). There was no significant influence of castration or oil supplement on live weights, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Castration resulted in an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), total n3, n6, measured desaturation indexes and a decrease in the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content of abdominal fat. In breast muscle, castration increased PUFA and 18:3n3 values, while in the liver tissue, castration did not influence the parameters measured. Linseed oil supplementation significantly increased 18:3n3, n3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA), total n3 and decreased total n6, n6/n3 ratio, and 20:4n6 content. Values for 20:4n6 were the highest in SC and the lowest in the LC group. Linseed oil also significantly decreased ∆5 and ∆4 desaturation indexes in the thighs and ∆5 and ∆5, 6 in abdominal fat and the liver. These results suggest that short-term supplementation of basal diet with 5% of linseed oil could significantly increase n3 LC PUFA and decrease n6/n3 ratio content in the edible tissues of chicken broilers, without adverse effects on growth performance. Meanwhile, castration only improved fatty acid profile in abdominal fat, which is not nutritionally important. The interactions observed between basal diet, supplemented oil, sex hormones and other non-nutritional factors must be elucidated in future trials in order to correctly predict the nutritional value of linseed-fed poultry. Journal of Animal

  8. Studies on orange oil methyl ester in diesel engine with hemispherical and toroidal combustion chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthickeyan Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation has been made to compare the emission characteristics of 20% orange oil methyl ester and 80% diesel in volumetric basis with Neat diesel in hemispherical combustion chamber and toroidal combustion chamber. Non-edible orange oil is selected and utilized to prepare alternative fuel to be utilized in Diesel engine. The traditional method of transestrification is employed for preparation orange oil methyl ester. The chemical properties of prepared methyl ester were determined using fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy method. Further its fuel properties were found based on American Society for Testing and Materials standards and compared with Neat diesel fuel properties. A compression ignition engine with electrical dynamometer test rig with gas analyzer has been used. It is observed that 1% of NOx and 4% of HC emission reduced in toroidal combustion chamber engine. However, smoke emission is found to be lower in hemispherical combustion chamber engine.

  9. EFFECT OF SOYBEAN OIL BIOFUEL BLENDING ON THE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS OF DIESEL ENGINE USING DIESEL-RK SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Al-Dawody,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the technology is to provide utility and comfort with no damage to the user or to the surroundings. For many years now, petroleum products and other fossil fuels have given us utility andcomfort in a variety of areas, but causes environmental problems which threaten wild and human life. In this study, the performance and emissions of single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine operating on diesel oil and different Soybean Methyl Ester (SME blends have been investigated theoretically using thesimulation software Diesel-RK. Based on the computed modeling results it’s found that 41.3 %, 53.2 % & 62.6 % reduction in the Bosch smoke number obtained with B20% SME, B40 % SME and B100% SME respectively, compared to pure diesel operation. In addition a reduction in PM emissions is observed 47.2%, 60 % & 68% for the B20 % SME, B40 % SME, and B 100% SME respectively. On the average basis there is a reduction in the thermal efficiency, power, and SFC, for all SME blends by 2%, 3%, and 12% respectively compared to pure diesel fuel. All blending of SME produce higher NOx emissions more than 28% compared with pure diesel fuel. A parametric study of retarding injection timing, varying engine speed and compression ratio effects has been performed. Its observed that retarding the injection timing can reduce the increase in the NOx emissions to great extent. Among all tested fuels its noticed that B20% SME was the best tested fuel which gave the same performance results with good reduction in emissions as compared to pure diesel operation. A very good agreement was obtained between the results and the available theoretical and experimental results of other researchers.

  10. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was

  11. [Lipoprotein metabolic characteristics in the liver and intestinal wall of rabbits after a single exposure to sunflower oil and cholesterol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskova, G F

    1982-04-01

    Lipoprotein metabolism in the rabbit liver and intestinal wall was studied by an alimentary action on the cholesterol blood content. The data obtained indicated that the diet including cholesterol intensifies the release of chylomicrons into the lymph of the intestinal lymphatic trunk. Single addition of sunflower-seed oil to the diet leads to the increased deposition of high, low and very low density lipoproteins in the intestinal wall. Upon adding cholesterol to the rabbit diet the retention of low and very low density lipids in the intestine is followed by the increased release of high density lipoproteins into the blood of the portal vein. Single addition of sunflower-seed oil stimulates the synthesis of high density lipoproteins by the rabbit liver.

  12. Synthesis of cracked Calophyllum inophyllum oil using fly ash catalyst for diesel engine application

    KAUST Repository

    Muthukumaran, N.

    2015-04-16

    In this study, production of hydrocarbon fuel from Calophyllum inophyllum oil has been characterized for diesel engine application, by appraising essential fuel processing parameters. As opposed to traditional trans-esterification process, the reported oil was cracked using a catalyst, as the latter improves the fuel properties better than the former. In a bid to make the production process economically viable, a waste and cheap catalyst, RFA (raw fly ash), has been capitalized for the cracking process as against the conventional zeolite catalyst. The fuel production process, which is performed in a fixed bed catalytic reactor, was done methodologically after comprehensively studying the characteristics of fly ash catalyst. Significantly, fly ash characterization was realized using SEM and EDS, which demarcated the surface and internal structures of fly ash particles before and after cracking. After the production of hydrocarbon fuel from C. inophyllum oil, the performed compositional analysis in GC-MS revealed the presence of esters, parfins and olefins. Followed by the characterization of catalytically cracked C. inophyllum oil, suitable blends of it with diesel were tested in a single cylinder diesel engine. From the engine experimental results, BTE (brake thermal efficiency) of the engine for B25 (25% cracked C. inophyllum oil and 75% diesel) was observed to be closer to diesel, while it decreased for higher blends. On the other hand, emissions such as HC (hydrocarbon), CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke were found to be comparable for B25 with diesel. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON CRUDE OIL YIELD AND GERMINATION OF SUNFLOWER-TANAY VARIETY (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. VAİZOĞULLAR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of gamma rays on crude oil yield, seedling growth, germination and antimicrobial activity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus. As plant materials, sunflower variety Tanay seeds were used and irradiated with doses of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy gamma radiation. Irradiation was performed in a cesium (Ce137 Gammacell 3000 Elan source, dose rate about 9.75 Gy/min (2900 Ci in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in the department of the radiological.To determine seed viability, tetrazolium chloride (TTC test was performed. Moisture amount of seeds were also measured by AOCS standarts and seeds were subjected to germination tests. The seeds were treated with 100 ppm doses of GA3 for 24 hours (GA, soaking for 24 hours (SB, preheating for 24 hours in a week (PH and precooling for 24 hours in a week (PC for optimization of germination.The result showed that the highest crude oil yield was also obtained from 400 Gy. As a result of testing of seed viability, 95% viability in seeds was determined. In 12L/12D light photoperiod, 25% germination in seeds was detected at GA application the highest, the lowest 5% germination in seeds was determined in PC application. It was found that minimum and maximum values ranged between 5.72and 10.81% for humidity rate.Extraction of the seed of Sunflower-Tanay was done with soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether by hot continuous extraction for 6 hours. Antimicrobial activity of Sunflower-Tanay extract were tested by a disk diffusion method. Extracts of the H.annuus L.(sunflower-Tanay showed no antimicrobial activity against M.luteus NCIMB 13267 and E. coli ATCC 25922.

  14. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  15. Moringa Oleifera Oil: A Possible Source of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a v...

  16. EXPERIMENTAL COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF A HSDI DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL-DIESEL FUEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN AGUDELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB, No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively. To isolate the fuel effect, tests were executed at constant power output without carrying out any modification of the engine or its fuel injection system. As the POB content in the blend increased, there was a slight reduction in the fuel/air equivalence ratio from 0.39 (B0 to 0.37 (B100, an advance of injection timing and of start of combustion. Additionally, brake thermal efficiency, combustion duration, maximum mean temperature, temperature at exhaust valve opening and exhaust gas efficiency decreased; while the peak pressure, exergy destruction rate and specific fuel consumption increased. With diesel fuel and the blends B20 and B50 the same combustion stages were noticed. However, as a consequence of the differences pointed out, the thermal history of the process was affected. The diffusion combustion stage became larger with POB content. For B100 no premixed stage was observed.

  17. Silk-Cocoon Matrix Immobilized Lipase Catalyzed Transesterification of Sunflower Oil for Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushovan Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from sunflower oil using lipase chemically immobilized on silk-cocoon matrix in a packed-bed bioreactor was investigated. The immobilization was demonstrated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and activity study. The lipase loading was 738.74 U (~0.01 g lipase powder/g-lipase-immobilized matrix. The Km (Michaelis-Menten constant of the free and the immobilized lipase was 451.26 μM and 257.26 μM, respectively. Low Km value of the immobilized lipase is attributed to the hydrophobic nature of the matrix that facilitated the substrate diffusion to the enzyme surface. The biodiesel yield of 81.62% was obtained at 48 hours reaction time, 6 : 1 methanol : oil ratio (v/v, and 30°C. The immobilized lipase showed high operational stability at 30°C. The substrate conversion was only marginally decreased till third cycle (each of 48 hours duration of the reaction since less than even 5% of the original activity was decreased in each of the second and third cycle. The findings demonstrated the potential of the silk-cocoon as lipase immobilization matrix for industrial production of biodiesel.

  18. Cholesterol and stigmasterol within a sunflower oil matrix: Thermal degradation and oxysterols formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriuso, Blanca; Ansorena, Diana; Poyato, Candelaria; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of the lipid matrix surrounding sterols exert a great influence in their thermal oxidation process. The objective of this work was to assess the oxidation susceptibility of equal amounts of cholesterol and stigmasterol within a sunflower oil lipid matrix (ratio 1:1:200) during heating (180°C, 0-180min). Remaining percentage of sterols was determined and seven sterol oxidation products (SOPs) were analysed for each type of sterol along the heating treatment. Evolution of the fatty acid profile and vitamin E content of the oil was also studied. Overall oxidation status of the model system was assessed by means of Peroxides Value (PV) and TBARS. PV remained constant from 30min onwards and TBARS continued increasing along the whole heating treatment. Degradation of both cholesterol and stigmasterol fitted a first order curve (R(2)=0.937 and 0.883, respectively), with very similar degradation constants (0.004min(-1) and 0.005min(-1), respectively). However, higher concentrations of oxidation products were found from cholesterol (79μg/mg) than from stigmasterol (53μg/mg) at the end of the heating treatment. Profile of individual oxidation products was similar for both sterols, except for the fact that no 25-hydroxystigmasterol was detected. 7α-Hydroxy and 7-keto-derivatives were the most abundant SOPs at the end of the treatment. PUFA and vitamin E suffered a significant degradation along the process, which was correlated to sterols oxidation.

  19. Genotoxic potential and heart rate disorders in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to Superdispersant-25 and dispersed diesel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinović, Rajko; Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Kostić, Jovana; Marković, Sandra; Gačić, Zoran; Kljajić, Zoran; Vuković-Gačić, Branka

    2015-07-01

    The effects of ex situ exposure of Mytilus galloprovincialis to Superdispersant-25 (S-25), diesel oil and dispersed diesel oil mixtures were studied by the impact on level of DNA damage in haemocytes (comet assay) and the cardiac activity patterns of mussels. Specimens were exposed for 72 h in a static system to diesel oil (100 μL/L and 1 mL/L), S-25 (5 and 50 μL/L), and dispersed diesel oil mixtures M1 (diesel oil 100 μL/L + S-25 5 μL/L) and M2 (diesel oil 1 mL/L + S-25 50 μL/L). For positive control 40 μM CdCl2 was used. The comet assay results indicated genotoxic potential of S-25 while the effects of diesel oil alone were not observed. The highest response was detected for M1 while the effects of M2 were not detected. The heart rate disorders were recorded for the diesel oil (1 mL/L), S-25 (50 μL/L) and both dispersed diesel oil mixtures.

  20. Preparation and research on properties of castor oil as a diesel fuel additive

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbakhit Imankulov

    2012-01-01

    The research shows an opportunity of preparing biodiesel fuel on the basis of local diesel fuel and the bioadditive - castor oil. Limiting optimum concentration of introduction of the bioadditive equal was established as 5% mass ratio. The castor oil released from seeds of Palma Christi grown on experimental field. All physical and chemical characteristics of the oil including IR-spectra were determined. Operating conditions of castor oil introduction (temperature, solubility, concentra-tion,...

  1. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  2. The use of papain gel cream and sunflower oil in promoting healing in a wound in dogs: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y.H. Porsani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Papain is a proteolytic enzyme removed from the leaves of green papaya and/or latex. This enzyme is widely known as a medicinal fruit used extensively in human medicine for the treatment of wounds of various etiologies. However, studies and reports in veterinary medicine are scarce. Another herbal drug widely used in wound healing is Sunflower oil (Helianthus annus. It has inflammatory and antimicrobial properties which stimulate the local neovascularization, promoting tissue granulation, cell migration, fibroblast proliferation, and differentiation. Three dogs were treated with infected necrosis wounds, considered large, extent, and severe, with varied etiology. All cases were treated with papain gel with the exception of one dog, which was given the sunflower oil at the end of the treatment. Papain gel shows effectiveness in the treatment of wounds especially with wound debridement and removal of necrotic tissue. In addition, the healing time was shorter when compared to the treatment with sunflower oil. Finally, the herbal drugs have a low cost and high accessibility. This study contributes to create a new research regarding the use of this drug in animal wound healing.

  3. In vitro mutagenicity assay (Ames test and phytochemical characterization of seeds oil of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelma de Mello Silva Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the genotoxic potential of the oil of H. annuus L. (sunflower seeds via the Ames test as well as its oxidative properties and lipid composition. The pre-incubation method, system metabolic activation (S9 fraction and five S. typhimurium strains (TA97, TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA102 were employed for the Ames test. The oxidative stability and fatty acid composition were analyzed by standard methods and gas chromatography. A revertant analysis showed no significant differences between the treatment doses (10–200 μl/plate and the negative controls, regardless of S9+ and S9−, and included all of the S. typhimurium strains. Chromatographic analysis showed high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, followed by monounsaturated, saturated and total trans-isomers. Among the polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids predominated. The results suggest that the sunflower oil is not genotoxic as indicated by frameshift mutations and base pair substitutions regardless of the treatment dose, but shows dose-dependent toxicity. The oxidative properties of the sunflower oil were consistent with the requirements of national and international standards. However, its composition could also indicate phytotherapeutic properties.

  4. Carcass traits and meat quality of pigs fed on fodder supplemented with sunflower oil or conjugated linoleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel NEVRKLA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare meat and fat content and meat quality of pigs fed diet supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and animals not receiving the supplement SFO or CLA (control group. The experiment consisted of 116 pigs, divided into three groups: two experimental (n = 40 where animals were fed feed supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (SFO or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and control (n = 36. Fattening pigs were kept and fed in standardized conditions. The animals were slaughtered at a body weight of 120 kg. Meat quality traits (pH, drip loss, backfat fat content, colour, MLLT muscle dry matter content, fat in the dry matter, IMF in MLLT were determined. Summarizing obtained results it should be concluded that 2% sunflower oil or conjugated linoleic acid did not affect the meat quality. The experimental animals were characterized by high meat content (58.26% - SFO addition; 57.63% - CLA addition; 57.99% C group and low fat content (from 14.35 mm in SFO group up to 14.70 mm in CLA group.

  5. Evaluation of hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin as alternative fuel in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumus, M. [Automotive Division, Department of Mechanical Education, Marmara University, Ziverbey, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-15

    In the present study, hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin was evaluated as alternative fuel in a diesel engine. Potential hazelnut production throughout the world and the status of Turkey were examined. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was transesterified with methanol using potassium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester (HOME) and a comprehensive experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running with HOME and its blends with diesel fuel. Experimental parameters included the percentage of HOME in the blend, engine load, injection timing, compression ratio, and injector. The cost analysis of HOME production comparing to the price of conventional diesel fuel was performed for last decade was performed. Results showed that HOME and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel and small modifications such as increasing injection timing, compression ratio and injector opening pressure provide significant improvement in performance and emissions. It is also expected that the price of HOME will be lower than the price of conventional diesel fuel in the near future. (author)

  6. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitohy, M. Z.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S, temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study. Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído enzimáticamente con seis enzimas diferentes: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinase acida, pectinasa y pectinex bajo las condiciones siguientes: concentración de sustrato en tampón fosfato (0,5M, pH 5 30%, concentración enzimática 2% (E/S, temperatura 50°C y tiempo 3 horas. Los aceites obtenidos fueron analizados por sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y perfiles de ácidos grasos

  7. Biodegradation of hydrocarbon cuts used for diesel oil formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Sophie; Marchal, Rémy; Sghir, Abdelghani; Monot, Frédéric

    2004-11-01

    The biodegradability of various types of diesel oil (DO), such as straight-run DO, light-cycle DO, hydrocracking DO, Fischer-Tropsch DO and commercial DO, was investigated in biodegradation tests performed in closed-batch systems using two microflorae. The first microflora was an activated sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant as commonly used in biodegradability tests of commercial products and the second was a microflora from a hydrocarbon-polluted soil with possible specific capacities for hydrocarbon degradation. Kinetics of CO(2) production and extent of DO biodegradation were obtained by chromatographic procedures. Under optimised conditions, the polluted-soil microflora was found to extensively degrade all the DO types tested, the degradation efficiencies being higher than 88%. For all the DOs tested, the biodegradation capacities of the soil microflora were significantly higher than those of the activated sludge. Using both microflora, the extent of biodegradation was highly dependent upon the type of DO used, especially its hydrocarbon composition. Linear alkanes were completely degraded in each test, whereas identifiable branched alkanes such as farnesane, pristane or phytane were degraded to variable extents. Among the aromatics, substituted mono-aromatics were also variably biodegraded.

  8. Biodegradation of hydrocarbon cuts used for diesel oil formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penet, S.; Marchal, R.; Monot, F. [Departement de Biotechnologie et Chimie de la Biomasse, Institut Francais de Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Sghir, A. [Genoscope, CNRS UMR 8030, Structure et Evolution des Genomes, Evry (France)

    2004-11-01

    The biodegradability of various types of diesel oil (DO), such as straight-run DO, light-cycle DO, hydrocracking DO, Fischer-Tropsch DO and commercial DO, was investigated in biodegradation tests performed in closed-batch systems using two microflorae. The first microflora was an activated sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant as commonly used in biodegradability tests of commercial products and the second was a microflora from a hydrocarbon-polluted soil with possible specific capacities for hydrocarbon degradation. Kinetics of CO{sub 2} production and extent of DO biodegradation were obtained by chromatographic procedures. Under optimised conditions, the polluted-soil microflora was found to extensively degrade all the DO types tested, the degradation efficiencies being higher than 88%. For all the DOs tested, the biodegradation capacities of the soil microflora were significantly higher than those of the activated sludge. Using both microflora, the extent of biodegradation was highly dependent upon the type of DO used, especially its hydrocarbon composition. Linear alkanes were completely degraded in each test, whereas identifiable branched alkanes such as farnesane, pristane or phytane were degraded to variable extents. Among the aromatics, substituted mono-aromatics were also variably biodegraded. (orig.)

  9. Performance and emission study on DICI and HCCI engine using raw pongamia oil and diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the performance and emission characteristics of pongamia oil and diesel fuelled direct injection compression ignition (DICI and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engine. The primary objective of the work is to investigate the feasibility of application of unmodified pongamia oil in Diesel engine and to estimate the maximum fraction of diesel fuel replaced by the neat pongamia oil. This investigation also deals with the HCCI operation using unmodified pongamia oil. In DICI mode the neat pongamia oil is admitted into the engine in the form of pongamia oil and diesel blends. The blend that offers highest diesel replacement is considered as the test blend and it is tested further to find its maximum possible brake thermal efficiency by changing the engine operating parameters. The selected maximum blend is then tested in the new setting of the engine to determine the maximum possible performance and emission characteristics. The conventional emissions of DICI engine such as NO and smoke are disappeared in the homogeneous charge compression ignition mode of operation. The HCCI engine tested in the present work is fuelled by 40% neat pongamia oil and 60% diesel fuel through direct injection and vapour induction, respectively. The ignition or combustion phasing of the HCCI operation is carried out by the exhaust gas recirculation method. The amount of exhaust gas re-circulation governs the timing of combustion. The results of the experiments show that the neat pongamia oil performed well in HCCI mode and offered approximately ten times lower NO and smoke emission. Finally, the results of the DICI mode and HCCI mode are compared with each other to reveal the truths of neat pongamia oil in heterogeneous and homogeneous combustion.

  10. Prospects of pyrolysis oil from plastic waste as fuel for diesel engines: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangesh, V. L.; Padmanabhan, S.; Ganesan, S.; PrabhudevRahul, D.; Reddy, T. Dinesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The purpose ofthis study is to review the existing literature about chemical recycling of plastic waste and its potential as fuel for diesel engines. This is a review covering on the field of converting waste plastics into liquid hydrocarbon fuels for diesel engines. Disposal and recycling of waste plastics have become an incremental problem and environmental threat with increasing demand for plastics. One of the effective measures is by converting waste plastic into combustible hydrocarbon liquid as an alternative fuel for running diesel engines. Continued research efforts have been taken by researchers to convert waste plastic in to combustible pyrolysis oil as alternate fuel for diesel engines. An existing literature focuses on the study of chemical structure of the waste plastic pyrolysis compared with diesel oil. Converting waste plastics into fuel oil by different catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis process also reviewed in this paper. The methodology with subsequent hydro treating and hydrocracking of waste plastic pyrolysis oil can reduce unsaturated hydrocarbon bonds which would improve the combustion performance in diesel engines as an alternate fuel.

  11. Production of Bio-Diesel to Neem oil and its performance and emission Analysis in two stroke Diesel Engine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Mahesh BABU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In India Neem tree is a widely grown up termed as a divine tree due to its wide relevance in many areas of study. This paper deals with Biodiesel production from neem oil, which is monoester produced usingtransesterification process. Biodiesel is a safe alternative fuel to replace traditional petroleum diesel. It has high lubricity, clean burning fuel and can be a fuel component for use in existing unmodified diesel engine. Neem (Azadirachita Indica is an evergreen tree, which is endemic to the Indian Sub-continent and has beenintroduced to many other areas intropics. The fuel properties of biodiesel including flash point-and fire point were examined. The engine properties and pollutant emissions characteristics under different biodiesel percentages were also studied. The results shows that the biodiesel produced using neem oil could reduce Carbon monoxide and smoke emissions significantly while the Nitrogen oxide emission changed slightly. Thus, the ester of this oil can be used as environment friendly alternative fuel for diesel engine.

  12. ESEMISSION ANALYSIS OF SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH PYROLYSIS OIL DIESEL AND IT’S BLEND WITH ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Hirenkumar M. Patel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Around the world, initiatives are being taken to replace gasoline and diesel fuel due to the impact of the fossil fuel crisis, increase in oil price, and the adoption of stringent emission norms. Increase in energy demand, stringent emission norms and depletion of oil resources led the researchers to find alternative fuels for internalcombustion engines. Many alternate fuels like Alcohols, Biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, LPG, CNG etc have been already commercialized in the transport sector. In this context, pyrolysis of solid waste is currently receiving renewed interest. Tests have been carried out to evaluate the emission analysis of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 15%, and 20% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO blended with diesel fuel (DF. The TPO was derived from waste automobile tires through vacuum pyrolysis. HC and CO emissions werefound to be higher at all loads due to the high aromatic content. Ethanol was added in concentration of 5%, 10% and 15% to reduce emission characteristics. Results show that CO and HC both reduced due to the addition of ethanol because ethanol is an oxygenated additives.

  13. Performance and emission of generator Diesel engine using methyl esters of palm oil and diesel blends at different compression ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhaidhawi, M.; Chiriac, R.; Bădescu, V.; Pop, H.; Apostol, V.; Dobrovicescu, A.; Prisecaru, M.; Alfaryjat, A. A.; Ghilvacs, M.; Alexandru, A.

    2016-08-01

    This study proposes engine model to predicate the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a single cylinder four stroke direct injection engine which was fuelled with diesel and palm oil methyl ester of B7 (blends 7% palm oil methyl ester with 93% diesel by volume) and B10. The experiment was conducted at constant engine speed of 3000 rpm and different engine loads operations with compression ratios of 18:1, 20:1 and 22:1. The influence of the compression ratio and fuel typeson specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency has been investigated and presented. The optimum compression ratio which yields better performance has been identified. The result from the present work confirms that biodiesel resulting from palm oil methyl ester could represent a superior alternative to diesel fuel when the engine operates with variable compression ratios. The blends, when used as fuel, result in a reduction of the brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, while NOx emissions was increased when the engine is operated with biodiesel blends.

  14. Evaluation of engine performance, emissions, of a twin cylinder diesel engine fuelled with waste plastic oil and diesel blends with a fraction of methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tarun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the methanol and waste plastic oil as an alternative fuel has been carried out. This report deals with the exhaust emission of waste plastic fuel on twin cylinder diesel engine. The objectives of this report are to analyse the fuel consumption and the emission characteristic of a twin cylinder diesel engine that are using waste plastic oil compared to usage of ordinary diesel that are available in the market. This report describes the setups and the procedures for the experiment which is to analyse the emission characteristics and fuel consumption of diesel engine due to usage of the both fuels. Detail studies about the experimental setup and components have been done before the experiment started. Data that are required for the analysis is observed from the experiments. Calculations and analysis have been done after all the required data needed for the thesis is obtained. The experiment used diesel engine with no load which means no load exerted on it. A four stroke Twin cylinder diesel engine was adopted to study the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, mechanical efficiency, brake power, volumetric efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency and emissions at full load with the fuel of fraction methanol in bio-diesel. In this study, the diesel engine was tested using methanol blended with bio-diesel at certain mixing ratios of (WPO: Diesel 20:80, 40:60 and 60:40 methanol to bio-diesel respectively. By the end of the report, the successful of the project have been started which is Kirloskar engine is able to run with waste plastic oil (WPO but the engine needs to run by using diesel fuel first, then followed by waste plastic oil and finished with diesel fuel as the last fuel usage before the engine turned off. The performance of the engine using blended fuel compared to the performance of engine with diesel fuel. Experimental results of blended fuel and diesel fuel are also compared.   Keywords

  15. Diesel fuel oil for increasing mountain pine beetle mortality in felled logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Mata; J. M. Schmid; D. A. Leatherman

    2002-01-01

    Diesel fuel oil was applied to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested bolts of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) in early June. Just prior to the fuel oil application and 6 weeks later, 0.5 ft2 bark samples were removed from each bolt and the numbers of live beetles counted....

  16. Comparative Study on Particles Formation in a Diesel Engine When Lubricating Oil Involved in Fuel Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of lubricating oil on the morphology of particulate matter (PM was studied in a diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel and blended fuel containing 0.5% by weight of lubricating oil. Particulate matter emitted by diesel engines is formed primarily by soot agglomerates which are composed of primary particles. In this paper, particulate matter was collected with a thermophoretic sampling system, and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM was used to investigate the primary particles. A Fast Particulate Spectrometer, DMS 500, was used to determine the particle size distributions. The TEM results indicated that the mean diameters of the primary particles increased after the oil was added into the fuel. Particle size distributions results showed that lubricating oil in the fuel gave rise to a higher concentration in nucleation mode.

  17. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine by adding light cycle oil to premium diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2006-06-01

    Diesel fuels governed by U.S. regulations are based on the index of the total aromatic contents. Three diesel fuels, containing various fractions of light cycle oil (LCO) and various sulfur, total polyaromatic, and total aromatic contents, were used in a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE) under transient cycle test to assess the feasibility of using current indices in managing the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from HDDE. The mean sulfur content in LCO is 20.8 times as much as that of premium diesel fuel (PDF). The mean total polyaromatic content in LCO is 28.7 times as much as that of PDF, and the mean total aromatic content in LCO is 2.53 times as much as that of PDF. The total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factors in the exhaust from the diesel engine, as determined using PDF L3.5 (3.5% LCO and 96.5% PDF), L7.5 (7.5% LCO and 92.5% PDF), and L15 (15% LCO and 85% PDF) were 14.3, 25.8, 44, and 101 mg L(-1), respectively. The total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors in the exhaust from PDF, L3.5, L7.5, and L15 were 0.0402, 0.121, 0.219, and 0.548 mg L(-1), respectively. Results indicated that using L3.5 instead of PDF will result in an 80.4% and a 201% increase of emission for total PAHs and total BaPeq, respectively. The relationships between the total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factor and the two emission control indices, including fuel polyaromatic content and fuel aromatic content, suggest that both indices could be used feasibly to regulate total PAH emissions. These results strongly suggest that LCO used in the traveling diesel vehicles significantly influences PAH emissions.

  18. Effect of feeding sunflower and linseed oil in pelleted mixtures on chemical composition of carp meat and fatty acid profile

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Górka; Mirosława Sokołowska-Mikołajczyk; Franciszek Borowiec; Piotr Epler

    2010-01-01

    Experiment was conducted during the growing season in two commercial ponds,each measuring 1.2 ha and 1.2 m deep on average. Each pond was stocked on 27 March with 1250 two-yearold carps with an average body weight of about 180 g. Throughout the feeding season (May –September), fish in the control pond received standard Aller Clasic pellets, and fish in the experimental pond were fed the same pellets supplemented with a 6% mixture of sunflower oil and linseed oil(80%:20%). In the feed fatty ac...

  19. Determination of diesel fuel and motor oil in water and wastes by a modified diesel-range organics total petroleum hydrocarbon method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, W.M.; Dhaliwal, J.S.; Perera, S.K.; Baumann, F.J. [California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The American Petroleum Institute method for determination of diesel-range total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection was modified to allow simultaneous determination of motor oil. Motor oil elutes as a broad hump of unresolved alkanes and can be distinguished readily from diesel fuel and other fuel oils by its profile. The boiling point ranges for No. 2 diesel fuel and motor oil are C{sub 10{minus}} C{sub 21} and C{sub 21}-C{sub 38}, respectively, and these ranges define TPHs in diesel fuel (TPH-D) and motor oil (TPH-M). By this convention, less than 6% of No. 2 diesel is characterized as TPH-M, and less than 9% of motor oil is quantitated as TPH-D. Inlet discrimination was observed when motor oil was injected with a splitless injector. Accurate motor oil quantitation with splitless sample introduction requires calibration with the product or triacontane, which has a similar response factor. Detector response to motor oil (and other petroleum products) and a homologous series of n-alkanes was nearly constant when on-column injection was used. Instrument detection limit for motor oil was about 0.5 {mu}g (splitless injection, total area under the curve), and the widest linear range (up to 100 {mu}g) was obtained by subtracting the solvent chromatogram. Procedures for isolation of motor oil from oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions are described. Method detection limits for diesel fuel and motor oil in purified water were 0.041 and 1.5 mg/L, respectively. 11 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. SMA chemical modification for application as diesel oil additive; Modificacao quimica do SMA visando aplicacao como aditivo para oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldi, Rafael A.; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Zawadzki, Sonia F.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Polimeros Sinteticos]. E-mails: rafaelsoldi@hotmail.com, mafco@quimica.ufpr.br

    2003-07-01

    The deposition of paraffinic material during the crude oil and their derivatives production and transportation is one of the principal problems in the petroleum industry. Polymer derivatives obtained from styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers (SMA), containing long pendant hydrocarbon segments in the polymeric backbone, are known as efficient polymeric additives to prevent the wax deposition and to reduce the oil pour point. Nevertheless, this application for this class of polymer is not much evaluated in Brazil. In this work, a new procedure was developed for SMA synthesis and chemical modification using stearyl alcohol. The performance of these polymeric materials as pour point depressants were evaluated using a Brazilian diesel oil from REPAR/PETROBRAS. The best results were obtained for the polymeric additives with small amounts of octadecyl ester groups. When it was used only 25 ppm of one of these additives, the oil presented a pour point value of -17 deg C and the diesel oil containing 100 ppm of this same additive presented a pour point value of -30 deg C. This last result indicates a 24 deg C pour point decreasing. (author)

  1. Elastohydrodynamics of oil-soluble PAGs, high-oleic sunflower oil and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reports indicate that the oxidative stability of vegetable oils can be improved for lubrication purposes by mixing them with oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (OS-PAG). This inspired a study of other lubrication-related properties of their blends. The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic fi...

  2. Protein and Chlorophyll Contents of Solanum melongena on Diesel Oil Polluted Soil Amended with Nutrient Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Akujobi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the remediation effect of nutrient amendments of diesel oil polluted soil on protein and chlorophyll contents of eggplant (Solanum melongena. Soil samples were polluted and amended separately with different weights of poultry waste, pig waste, cow dung and inorganic fertilizer. Soil samples were also polluted with diesel oil without amendment to achieve 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% pollution. Samples were analyzed at two weeks interval for sixteen weeks. The plant protein and chlorophyll were affected adversely by the diesel oil pollution and the higher the level of pollution, the more the effect. The nutrient amendments were able to remedy the effect of the diesel oil pollution. The remediation effect was nutrient weight dependent and the best remediation effect was observed in poultry waste amended samples. This study has shown that diesel oil contaminated soil may have adverse effect on the protein and chlorophyll contents of plants, but this can be remedied by addition of organic nutrient supplements especially poultry waste.

  3. Barium and sodium in sunflower plants cultivated in soil treated with wastes of drilling of oil well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jésus Sampaio Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the effects of the application of two types of oil drilling wastes on the development and absorption of barium (Ba and sodium (Na by sunflower plants. The waste materials were generated during the drilling of the 7-MGP-98D-BA oil well, located in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of: Control – without Ba application, comprising only its natural levels in the soil; Corrected control – with fertilization and without wastes; and the Ba doses of 300, 3000 and 6000 mg kg-1, which were equivalent to the applications of 16.6, 165.9 and 331.8 Mg ha-1 of waste from the dryer, and 2.6, 25.7 and 51.3 Mg ha-1 of waste from the centrifugal. Plants cultivated using the first dose of dryer waste and the second dose of centrifugal waste showed growth and dry matter accumulation equal to those of plants under ideal conditions of cultivation (corrected control. The highest doses of dryer and centrifugal wastes affected the development of the plants. The absorption of Ba by sunflower plants was not affected by the increase in the doses. Na proved to be the most critical element present in the residues, interfering with sunflower development.

  4. Performance and emission analysis of cottonseed oil methyl ester in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Hueseyin [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey); Bayindir, Hasan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, 21280 (Turkey)

    2010-03-15

    In this study, performance and emissions of cottonseed oil methyl ester in a diesel engine was experimentally investigated. For the study, cottonseed oil methyl ester (CSOME) was added to diesel fuel, numbered D2, by volume of 5%(B5), 20%(B20), 50%(B50) and 75%(B75) as well as pure CSOME (B100). Fuels were tested in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled diesel engine. The effects of CSOME-diesel blends on engine performance and exhaust emissions were examined at various engine speeds and full loaded engine. The effect of B5, B20, B50, B75, B100 and D2 on the engine power, engine torque, bsfc's and exhaust gasses temperature were clarified by the performance tests. The influences of blends on CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The experimental results showed that the use of the lower blends (B5) slightly increases the engine torque at medium and higher speeds in compression ignition engines. However, there were no significant differences in performance values of B5, B20 and diesel fuel. Also with the increase of the biodiesel in blends, the exhaust emissions were reduced. The experimental results showed that the lower contents of CSOME in the blends can partially be substituted for the diesel fuel without any modifications in diesel engines. (author)

  5. Steatosis recovery after treatment with a balanced sunflower or olive oil-based diet: Involvement of perisinusoidal stellate cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raquel Hernández; Esther Martínez-Lara; Ana Ca(n)uelo; Ma Luisa del Moral; Santos Blanco; Eva Siles; Ana Jiménez; Juan (A)ngel Pedrosa; Ma (A)ngeles Peinado

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the relationship between perisinusoidal stellate cell (PSC) activation and the dietary fat quantity and composition in the treatment of hepatic steatosis.METHODS: Using an experimental rat model of steatosis based on the intake of a hyperlipidic diet (14% fat as olive oil or sunflower oil, HL-O and HL-S, respectively), we analyzed the liver's capability of recovery after the treatment with a normal-lipidic diet (5% fat as olive oil or sunflower oil, NL-O and NL-S, respectively) by immunocytochemical and Western blot analysis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in PSCs, collagen quantification and serum aminotransferase determination.RESULTS: The fatty infiltration in the steatotic livers decreased after the treatment with both NL diets, indicating liver recovery. This decrease was accompanied with a lower collagen deposition and aminotransferase level as well as changes in the PSC population that increased the GFAP expression. The above-mentioned effects were more pronounced in animals fed on NL-O based diet. CONCLUSION: Treatment with a balanced dietenriched in olive oil contributes to the liver recovery from a stea totic process. The PSC phenotype is a marker of this hepatic-recovery model.

  6. Potential of waste frying oil as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadri, Syed M Raza [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Z.H.C.E.T, A.M.U, Aligarh (India)], e-mail: chemicalraza@gmail.com; Wani, Omar Bashir; Athar, Moina [Dept. of Petroleum Studies, Z.H.C.E.T, A.M.U, Aligarh (India)

    2012-11-01

    To face the challenges of climbing Petroleum demand and of climate changes related to Carbon dioxide emissions, interest grows in sustainable fuels made from organic matter. World production of bio fuels has experienced phenomenal growth. The search for alternatives to petroleum based fuel has led to the development of fuels from various renewable sources, including feed stocks, such as fats and oils. Several kinds of fuels can be derived from these feed stocks. One of them is biodiesel, which is mono alkyl esters of vegetables oils and animal fats and produced by transesterification of oil and fats with alcohols in the presence of acid, alkali or enzyme base catalysts. The main hurdle in using the biodiesel is its cost which is mainly the cost of virgin oil. In India every year Millions of liters of waste frying oil are discarded into the sewage system which adds cost to its treatment and add up to the pollution of ground water. This paper proposed the production of Bio-diesel from the very same waste frying oil. The production of Bio-diesel from this waste frying oil offers economic, social, environmental and health benefits. The Bio-diesel produced finds the same use as the conventional diesel but this happens to be cost effective.

  7. Comparative analysis of olive oil organogels containing beeswax and sunflower wax with breakfast margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop olive oil organogels with sunflower wax (SW) and beeswax (BW) at 3%, 7%, and 10% addition levels and to compare these organogels with breakfast margarine (BM). The organogels and BM sample were stored at 2 different temperatures (4 and 20 °C), and the peroxide values (PVs) and textural properties were monitored for 3 mo. The PVs of all organogels were within legal limits and the gels were structurally stable throughout the storage period. The textural properties of 3% SW and 7% BW organogels were closely similar to BM. The solid fat contents of the organogels were lower than that of the BM. Moreover, the thermal properties of 3% BW gel were more similar to that of the BM. The results of X-ray diffraction peaks, approximately 3.70 and 4.10 Å, were similar to β' polymorphic form. In conclusion, both of the organogel types may have value in replacing BMs.

  8. Light-mediated self-organization of sunflower stands increases oil yield in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Pereira, Mónica; Sadras, Victor O; Batista, William; Casal, Jorge J; Hall, Antonio J

    2017-07-25

    Here, we show a unique crop response to intraspecific interference, whereby neighboring sunflower plants in a row avoid each other by growing toward a more favorable light environment and collectively increase production per unit land area. In high-density stands, a given plant inclined toward one side of the interrow space, and the immediate neighbors inclined in the opposite direction. This process started early as an incipient inclination of pioneer plants, and the arrangement propagated gradually as a "wave" of alternate inclination that persisted until maturity. Measurements and experimental manipulation of light spectral composition indicate that these responses are mediated by changes in the red/far-red ratio of the light, which is perceived by phytochrome. Cellular automata simulations reproduced the patterns of stem inclination in field experiments, supporting the proposition of self-organization of stand structure. Under high crop population densities (10 and 14 plants per m(2)), as yet unachievable in commercial farms with current hybrids due to lodging and diseases, self-organized crops yielded between 19 and 47% more oil than crops forced to remain erect.

  9. Quality characteristics of alternative diesel from hydrotreatment of used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karonis, Dimitrios; Chilari, Despina [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Fuels Technology and Lubricants; Bezergianni, Stella [Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Environmental Fuels and Hydrocarbons (LEFH)

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines the properties of alternative diesel fuel that is derived from the hydrotreatment of used frying oils (UFO). Used frying oil is a difficult feedstock for biodiesel production. The hydrotreating of UFO converts triglycerides mainly into normal paraffins in the diesel fuel range. The results obtained show that the use of hydrotreated UFO has many advantages in comparison conventional diesel. Particularly, this renewable fuel has an excellent cetane number and cetane index (> 90) justified from its paraffinic character. Furthermore, this finding complies with the lower value of density in comparison to diesel, reinforcing the paraffinic nature of this fuel, comprising straight chain alkanes and negligible content of aromatic hydrocarbons in its composition. Due to the hydrotreating, these fuels do not contain olefinic bonds, therefore they are resistant to oxidation, permitting long term storage abilities. Despite these benefits, there are some considerations from the use of HFOs. Hydrotreating is a process which successfully removes heteroatoms such as S, N, O and eliminates the existence of double unstable bonds, rendering to fuel appreciable characteristics. Unfortunately, these high ignition quality oils suffer from lower lubricity and worse cold flow properties in comparison to diesel, making their use during winter period inevitable. These problems could be addressed by blending hydrotreated UFO with regular diesel. A compromise should be found in order to promote a renewable fuel with lower cetane number but with much better lubricity in order to meet the EN 590 European Standard regarding the main quality characteristics of the final fuel. (orig.)

  10. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  11. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2016-07-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  12. Genotoxic potential of organic extracts from particle emissions of diesel and rapeseed oil powered engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topinka, Jan; Milcova, Alena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Mazac, Martin; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal

    2012-07-07

    The present study was performed to identify possible genotoxicity induced by organic extracts from particulate matter in the exhaust of two typical diesel engines run on diesel fuel and neat heated fuel-grade rapeseed oil: a Cummins ISBe4 engine tested using the World Harmonized Steady State Test Cycle (WHSC) and modified Engine Steady Cycle (ESC) and a Zetor 1505 engine tested using the Non-Road Steady State Cycle (NRSC). In addition, biodiesel B-100 (neat methylester of rapeseed oil) was tested in the Cummins engine run on the modified ESC. Diluted exhaust was sampled with high-volume samplers on Teflon coated filters. Filters were extracted with dichlormethane (DCM) and DNA adduct levels induced by extractable organic matter (EOM) in an acellular assay of calf thymus DNA coupled with (32)P-postlabeling in the presence and absence of rat liver microsomal S9 fraction were employed. Simultaneously, the chemical analysis of 12 priority PAHs in EOM, including 7 carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) was performed. The results suggest that diesel emissions contain substantially more total PAHs than rapeseed oil emissions (for the ESC) or that these concentrations were comparable (for the WHSC and NRSC), while c-PAHs levels were comparable (for the ESC) or significantly higher (for the WHSC and NRSC) for rapeseed oil emissions. DNA adduct levels induced by diesel and rapeseed oil derived EOM were comparable, but consistently slightly higher for diesel than for rapeseed oil. Highly significant correlations were found between 12 priority PAHs concentrations and DNA adduct levels (0.980; pparticulate emissions from the combustion of rapeseed oil is significant and is comparable to that from the combustion of diesel fuel. A more detailed study is ongoing to verify and extent these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduction of saturated fat in traditional foods by substitution of ghee with olive and sunflower oils – A case study with halwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manickavasagan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Diet related diseases are increasing at an alarming rate all over the world. Restriction in dietary saturated fat intake is one of the major components in healthy diet as a mean of preventing cardiovascular and other associated diseases. Ghee is one of the high saturated fat types (around 60% saturated fat which is consumed along with many Asian traditional foods. As a model food, halwa, a traditional confection in Oman, which is popular in domestic and many other gulf countries is modified by replacing ghee with healthy vegetable oils and tested for their acceptability. Three types of halwa, olive oil halwa, sunflower oil halwa and ghee halwa (control were produced in a commercial production facility and their textural and sensorial attributes were determined. In instrumental texture profiles, there were no significant differences in cohesiveness, springiness, chewiness and gumminess between olive oil, sunflower oil and ghee halwa samples. The hardness of olive oil halwa was the highest and sunflower oil halwa was the lowest among three tested samples. In sensory evaluation of developed halwa products, there was no significant difference in the overall acceptability between ghee and sunflower oil halwa. In blind sensory test, 60% of females and 80% of males selected sunflower oil halwa, and only 10% of females and 10% males selected olive oil halwa as their first choice of preferences. But in informed sensory test, the selection of olive oil halwa as the first choice was increased to 55% in females and 30% in males. About 80% of the panelists in informed sensory test were ready to accept non-ghee halwa the way it was prepared or with product improvement. There are opportunities to modify traditional foods which are rich in saturated fat by replacing with healthy oils, and to educate the people about the health benefits of these modifications.

  14. Comparison of the regiospecific distribution from triacylglycerols after chemical and enzymatic interesterification of high oleic sunflower oil and fully hydrogenated high oleic sunflower oil blend by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Thiago I B; Ribeiro, Marilene D M M; Ming, Chiu C; Grimaldi, Renato; Gonçalves, Lireny A G; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2016-12-01

    The nutritional and organoleptic attributes of oils can proceed via interesterification of oils blends catalyzed by enzymes or chemicals. Enzymatic interesterification processes are preferred due the regiospecific outcome. Traditionally, monitoring of distribution of fatty acids (FA) in glycerol backbone is performed by enzymatic and chromatographic methods that are time-consuming, involving a series of chemical manipulations employing large volumes of organic solvents. Alternatively, carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) is a fast and reliable technique that could be applied to determine the saturated and unsaturated FA distribution of the triacylglycerols (TAGs) present in high oleic sunflower oil (SO) and fully hydrogenated high oleic sunflower oil (HSO) blends and their interesterification products. The enzymatic interesterification was conducted employing the immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM), the results show that the process was not completely regiospecific at sn-1,3 positions, due to the spontaneous acyl migration from position sn-2 to sn-1,3. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamel, T. H.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1 and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 °C. Frying process at 180 °C was also applied. The methanol phenolic extracts and the BHA were added to each oil at the following concentrations: 200 ppm rosemary extract; 200 ppm olive vegetable water extract; 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA; 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA and 200 ppm BHA. In general, antioxidant effect of phenolic additives of rosemary and of BHA was in the following order: 200 ppm rosemary extract > 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA > and 200 ppm BHA. The addition of 200 ppm vegetable water extract and 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA exhibited similar antioxidant effect to that of 200 ppm BHA.

    Extractos metanólicos de fenoles de hojas secas de romero y filtrados de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, en combinación con BHA, se añadieron al aceite de oliva (mezcla de aceite de oliva refinado y virgen, 3 a 1 y al aceite de girasol, evaluándose sus efectos antioxidantes usando condiciones aceleradas. Estas condiciones incluyeron el test del horno de oxidación (a 63 °C y el método de conductividad (Rancimat a 120 °C. También se aplicó al proceso de fritura a 180 °C. Los extractos metanólicos de fenoles y el BHA se añadieron a cada aceite en las siguientes concentraciones: 200 ppm de extracto de romero, 200 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, 100 ppm de extracto de romero + 100 ppm de BHA, 100 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación + 100 ppm de BHA y 200 ppm de BHA

  16. Bioremediation of a tropical clay soil contaminated with diesel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Spinelli, Alessandra C O; Kato, Mario T; de Lima, Edmilson S; Gavazza, Savia

    2012-12-30

    The removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in tropical clay soil contaminated with diesel oil was evaluated. Three bioremediation treatments were used: landfarming (LF), biostimulation (BS) and biostimulation with bioaugmentation (BSBA). The treatment removal efficiency for the total PAHs differed from the efficiencies for the removal of individual PAH compounds. In the case of total PAHs, the removal values obtained at the end of the 129-day experimental period were 87%, 89% and 87% for LF, BS and BSBA, respectively. Thus, the efficiency was not improved by the addition of nutrients and microorganisms. Typically, two distinct phases were observed. A higher removal rate occurred in the first 17 days (P-I) and a lower rate occurred in the last 112 days (P-II). In phase P-I, the zero-order kinetic parameter (μg PAH g(-1) soil d(-1)) values were similar (about 4.6) for all the three treatments. In P-II, values were also similar but much lower (about 0.14). P-I was characterized by a sharp pH decrease to less than 5.0 for the BS and BSBA treatments, while the pH remained near 6.5 for LF. Concerning the 16 individual priority PAH compounds, the results varied depending on the bioremediation treatment used and on the PAH species of interest. In general, compounds with fewer aromatic rings were better removed by BS or BSBA, while those with 4 or more rings were most effectively removed by LF. The biphasic removal behavior was observed only for some compounds. In the case of naphthalene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene, removal occurred mostly in the P-I phase. Therefore, the best degradation process for total or individual PAHs should be selected considering the target compounds and the local conditions, such as native microbiota and soil type.

  17. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  18. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies.

  19. Antioxidant activity of various plant extracts under ambient and accelerated storage of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh, Munir A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of 11 medicinally or economically important plant materials indigenous to Pakistan. The materials were extracted with 80% methanol and examined  for their antioxidant activity under different storage conditions using sunflower and soybean oils as oxidation substrates. Preliminary antioxidant activity assessment among the extracts was conducted with the TLC-test and by measuring percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. The rhizome of Iris germanica, leaves of Lawsonia alba, and M. oleifera, coffee (Coffee arabica beans, rice (Oryza sativa bran, wheat bran and oats (Avenis sativa groats and hull, which showed higher antioxidant activity among the extracts, were further evaluated using soybean and sunflower oils as oxidation substrates. The vegetable oils were stabilized with extracts at a dosage of 0.12% (w/w, and individually subjected to accelerated (65 oC, 15 days and ambient (6 months storage. The oxidative deterioration level was monitored for the measurement of antioxidant activity index (AI, peroxide value (PV, conjugated dienes and trienes contents. Overall, the extracts of coffee beans, oat groats and hull, Iris germanica and M. oleifera leaves were found to be the most effective in extending oxidative stability, and retarding PV, primary and secondary oxidation products of soybean and sunflower oils. The order of efficiency of the plant extracts for stabilization of the subject oils was as follows: oat groats and hull > coffee beans > M. oleifera leaves > Lawsonia alba > Iris germanica > rice bran > wheat bran. Significant differences in the antioxidant potential of some of the extracts for stabilization of substrate oils were observed under ambient and accelerated storage conditions and thus demonstrated a variable antioxidant prospective of the extracts under different analytical protocols.El presente trabajo se ha realizado para investigar la capacidad

  20. Isolation and characterization of diesel oil degrading indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... achieved 86.94% of diesel degradation in 2 weeks. Additional degradation ... spills, especially in soil contamination have prompted research on ... hydrocarbons are natural products, it is not surprising to find organisms that ...

  1. Emulsification of waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels: An attractive alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ahmed Melo Espinosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the possibility and feasibility of the use of emulsification method applied to waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels, compared with other commonly used methods. These waste products are obtained from the refining oil industry, food industry and service sector, mainly. They are rarely used as feedstock to produce biofuels and other things, in spite of constitute a potential source of environmental contamination. From the review of the state of arts, significant decreases in exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, cylinder pressure as well as increases of the ignition delay, brake specific fuel consumption, hydrocarbon, smoke opacity, carbon monoxide, particulate matters to emulsified waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates compared with diesel fuel are reported. In some experiments the emulsified waste cooking oils achieved better performance than neat fatty acid distillates, neat waste cooking oils and their derivatives methyl esters.

  2. Chemopreventive effect of resveratrol, sesamol, sesame oil and sunflower oil in the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation assay and the mouse skin two-stage carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Govind J; Azuine, Magnus A; Tokuda, Harukuni; Takasaki, Midori; Mukainaka, Teruo; Konoshima, Takao; Nishino, Hoyoku

    2002-06-01

    Resveratrol, sesamol, sesame oil and sunflower oil are known natural dietary components with intrinsic cancer chemopreventive potentials. As a part of our study of dietary constituents as potential cancer chemopreventive agents, we have assessed the anti-cancer potentials of these products in the promotion stage of cancer development employing the in vitro Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation assay induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Further, we studied the activities of these compounds in the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay as well as on the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging bioassay with a view to comparing some of the mechanisms of their anti-cancer activity. Finally, we compared the observed chemoprotective capabilities of the four products in the in vivo 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene initiated and TPA-promoted mouse skin two-stage carcinogenesis protocols. All the products tested showed a profound inhibitory effect on the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen induction using Raji cells. Comparatively, sesame oil was the most potent followed by sesamol and then resveratrol. Only sesamol and resveratrol showed a remarkable cytotoxic activity in the brine shrimp lethality assays as well as profound free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH bioassay. In both test systems, sesamol exhibited a more remarkable activity than resveratrol while sesame oil and sunflower oil did not exhibit any appreciable activity even at the highest concentrations tested (4000 microg ml(-1) ). In our in vivo assay at a 50-fold molar ratio to TPA, sesamol offered 50% reduction in mouse skin papillomas at 20 weeks after promotion with TPA. Under an identical molar ratio to TPA, resveratrol offered a 60% reduction in the papillomas in mouse at 20 weeks. Thus sesamol seems to be an almost equally potent chemopreventive agent. Sesame oil and sunflower oil offered 20 and 40% protection, respectively, in the mouse

  3. THE EFFECT OF KARANJA OIL METHYL ESTER ON KIRLOSKAR HA394DI DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanappa K Godiganur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are being investigated as potential substitutes for current high pollutant fuels obtained from the conventional sources. The primary problem associated with using straight vegetable oil as fuel in a compression ignition engine is caused by viscosity. The process of transesterifiction of vegetable oil with methyl alcohol provides a significant reduction in viscosity, thereby enhancing the physical properties of vegetable oil. The Kirloskar HA394 compression ignition, multi cylinder diesel engine does not require any modification to replace diesel by karanja methyl ester. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential of karanja oil methyl ester and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power of the mixture is closed to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that the blend of karanja ester and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and in terms of emission parameters; it is an environmental friendly fuel

  4. Determination of Copper, Iron, Cadmium and Lead Contents of the Oils from Sunflower Seeds (Helianthus annus L. Grown Trakya Region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Gecgel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the copper (Cu, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb contents of the oils from sunflower seeds which were grown in the Trakya region, Turkey. For this reason, the samples of sunflower seed were collected from three different provinces (Tekirdag, Edirne and Kirklareli which are located on the Trakya region. A total of 90 sunflower seed samples from 2007 harvest seasons were collected from these different provinces. The contents of these metals in the crude oils obtained by soxhlet extraction with n-hexane from sunflower seed samples were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method. Preparing sample stage was made by using microwave analyze system in close container. According to the analysis results, the average amounts in the oil samples from three different provinces (Tekirdag, Edirne and Kirklareli were for Cd 0.11, 0.23 and 0.12 ppm; for Cu 0.12, 0.15 and 0.11 ppm; for Pb 0.23, 0.15 and 0.24 ppm; for Fe 4.83, 4.30 and 4.27 ppm, respectively. According to the analysis of variance, the differences among the provinces were statistically significant (P<0.01 with respect to Cd and Fe contents. The obtained these results were compared between the values reported in literatures. Potential sources of metal contamination of the oils from sunflower seeds were also discussed.

  5. Oxidative stability of waste cooking oil and white diesel upon storage at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezergianni, Stella; Chrysikou, Loukia P

    2012-12-01

    Renewable diesel fuels are alternative fuels produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Catalytic hydrotreating of waste cooking oil (WCO) was carried out at pilot-plant scale and a paraffinic diesel, called "white" diesel was obtained. The white diesel and WCO samples were stored for one year at room temperature under normal atmospheric conditions, but not exposed to sunlight. Viscosity, total acid number (TAN), induction period (IP), carbonaceous deposits, density, cold flow properties, distillation and water content were monitored. TAN and density of the white diesel stored in conventional bottles changed from 0 to 0.221 mg KOH/g and from 787 to 838 kg/m(3), respectively. The remaining parameters did not vary significantly. Water content of WCO increased from 482 to 2491 mg/kg, TAN from 0.744 to 0.931 mg KOH/g, whereas viscosity, IP and carbon residues fluctuated mildly. The results are indicative of the white diesel's stability, rendering it suitable for prolonged storage.

  6. Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Macadamia Oil as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mofijur Rahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the prospects of biodiesel production from macadamia oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The biodiesel was produced using conventional transesterification process using the base catalyst (KOH. A multi-cylinder diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance and emission of 5% (B5 and 20% (B20 macadamia biodiesel fuel at different engine speeds and full load condition. It was found that the characteristics of biodiesel are within the limit of specified standards American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751 and comparable to diesel fuel. This study also found that the blending of macadamia biodiesel–diesel fuel significantly improves the fuel properties including viscosity, density (D, heating value and oxidation stability (OS. Engine performance results indicated that macadamia biodiesel fuel sample reduces brake power (BP and increases brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC while emission results indicated that it reduces the average carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and particulate matter (PM emissions except nitrogen oxides (NOx than diesel fuel. Finally, it can be concluded that macadamia oil can be a possible source for biodiesel production and up to 20% macadamia biodiesel can be used as a fuel in diesel engines without modifications.

  7. [Changes in the content of plasma lipoproteins in persons subjected to diets prepared with sunflower oil alone or mixed with palm olein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacopini de Z, María Isabel; Alonso, Hilda V; Sánchez, Josefina; García, Ninoska; Veliz, Lilia; Golfetto, Iván; Bosch, Virgilio

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed in 31 subjects, regular guests of the University food service of the Central University of Venezuela (UCVFS), in Caracas, the effects of replacing sunflower oil, commonly used in the preparation of meals, by a mix of sunflower oil and palm olein 70/30 (v/v) respectively. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, low and very low density lipoproteins were not changed after 40 days of the substitution. On the contrary, concentrations of high density lipoprotein and total triglycerides increased. The resistance to the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins increased considerably (p palm olein, mixed with other oils with a high ratio linoleic/palmitic (sunflower, corn, soya an the likes), can be used as a healthy alternative in human nutrition.

  8. Investigation of adulteration of sunflower oil with thermally deteriorated oil using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vilela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy based on attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis methods was used to monitor the adulteration of pure sunflower oil (SO with thermally deteriorated oil (TDO. Contrary to published research, in this work, SO was thermally deteriorated in the absence of foodstuff. SO samples were exposed to temperatures between 125 and 225°C from 6 to 24 h. Quantification of adulteration of SO with TDO, based on principal components regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLS-R, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA applied to mid-infrared spectra and to their first and second derivatives is reported for the first time. Infrared frequencies associated with the biochemical differences between TDO samples deteriorated in different conditions were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA. LDA was effective in the twofold classification presence/absence of TDO in adulterated SO (with 5% V/V of less of TDO. It provided 93.7% correct classification for the calibration set and 91.3% correct classification when cross-validated. A detection limit of 1% V/V of TDO in SO was determined. Investigation of an external set of samples allowed the evaluation of the predictability of the models. The regression coefficient (R2 for prediction was 0.95 and 0.96 and the RMSE was 2.1 and 1.9% V/V when using the PCR or PLS-R models, respectively, and the first derivative of spectra. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation of adulteration of SO with TDO based on PCR, PLS-R, and LDA has been reported so far.

  9. Residual shale-oil/diesel-engine operating compatibility program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, M.; Derbidge, C.; Kuby, W.; Niven, H.; Richard, R.

    1983-10-01

    As part of a DOE study to determine the effective utilization of alternate fuels in medium-speed diesel engines, a residual shale oil (RSO) was fired in an APE-Allen, 1000-rpm, 9.5-in. bore diesel engine. Various fuel injection modes were considered. Based on a fuel characterization study and go/no-go tests, it was determined that the direct firing of 100 percent RSO gave performance comparable with that using No. 2 diesel fuel; consequently, performance/endurance tests were performed using 100 percent RSO. Conclusions of this test program are: Laboratory tests showed low levels of corrosion and deposit-causing elements. Therefore, corrosion and wear of engine components, when using RSO, should be no worse than for standard diesel fuel. The high wax content of RSO requires heating for supply, handling, and injection systems. Laboratory tests showed that the cetane number of RSO was equivalent to No. 2 diesel; hence, no engine modifications should be needed to burn RSO. The engine performance on RSO was essentially similar to standard diesel fuel. The thermal efficiency was slightly lower and Bosch smoke and particulates were slightly higher, especially at low load. Soft carbon deposits, formed on injectors when using RSO, did not affect performance. The 115-hour endurance test showed no significant performance deterioration. The deposit accumulation in combustion chambers and ports was not severe but was greater than standard diesel fuel would produce. Longer endurance tests are required to fully establish this conclusion. 41 figures, 21 tables.

  10. Production of rhamnolipids and diesel oil degradation by bacteria isolated from soil contaminated by petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Giuseppe G F; Figueirôa, Juciane V; Almeida, Thiago C M; Valões, Jaqueline L; Marques, Walber F; Duarte, Maria D D C; Gorlach-Lira, Krystyna

    2016-03-01

    Biosurfactants are microbial secondary metabolites. The most studied are rhamnolipids, which decrease the surface tension and have emulsifying capacity. In this study, the production of biosurfactants, with emphasis on rhamnolipids, and diesel oil degradation by 18 strains of bacteria isolated from waste landfill soil contaminated by petroleum was analyzed. Among the studied bacteria, gram-positive endospore forming rods (39%), gram positive rods without endospores (17%), and gram-negative rods (44%) were found. The following methods were used to test for biosurfactant production: oil spreading, emulsification, and hemolytic activity. All strains showed the ability to disperse the diesel oil, while 77% and 44% of the strains showed hemolysis and emulsification of diesel oil, respectively. Rhamnolipids production was observed in four strains that were classified on the basis of the 16S rRNA sequences as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Only those strains showed the rhlAB gene involved in rhamnolipids synthesis, and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Erwinia carotovora, and Ralstonia solanacearum. The highest production of rhamnolipids was 565.7 mg/L observed in mineral medium containing olive oil (pH 8). With regard to the capacity to degrade diesel oil, it was observed that 7 strains were positive in reduction of the dye 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (2,6-DCPIP) while 16 had the gene alkane mono-oxygenase (alkB), and the producers of rhamnolipids were positive in both tests. Several bacterial strains have shown high potential to be explored further for bioremediation purposes due to their simultaneous ability to emulsify, disperse, and degrade diesel oil. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:262-270, 2016.

  11. Effect of sunflower-seed oil or linseed oil on milk fatty acid secretion and lipogenic gene expression in goats fed hay-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Leroux, Christine; Faulconnier, Yannick; Durand, Denys; Shingfield, Kevin J; Chilliard, Yves

    2009-05-01

    Plant oils in the diet are known to alter milk fat composition owing to changes in the supply of fatty acid precursors and/or activity of lipogenic enzymes in the mammary gland. Thirteen mid-lactating Alpine goats were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 28-d periods to evaluate possible mechanisms regulating milk fat synthesis and fatty acid composition on grass hay-based diets containing none (H) or 55 g/kg diet dry matter of sunflower-seed oil (HSO) or linseed oil (HLO). Inclusion of oils in the diet had no effect on milk yield but enhanced (Pdiet enhance milk fat synthesis, alter milk fatty acid composition and specifically inhibit mammary SCD activity in the goat. Furthermore, the results suggest that the regulation of mammary lipogenesis in response to plant oils appears related to factors other than altered mammary gene expression or potential lipogenic enzyme activity.

  12. Bioremediation of diesel oil-contaminated soil by composting with biowaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestel, Kristin van; Mergaert, Joris; Swings, Jean; Coosemans, Jozef; Ryckeboer, Jaak

    2003-10-01

    Composting of biowaste and diesel contaminated-soil is an efficient bioremediation method, with mature compost as a usable end product. - Soil spiked with diesel oil was mixed with biowaste (vegetable, fruit and garden waste) at a 1:10 ratio (fresh weight) and composted in a monitored composting bin system for 12 weeks. Pure biowaste was composted in parallel. In order to discern the temperature effect from the additional biowaste effect on diesel degradation, one recipient with contaminated soil was hold at room temperature, while another was kept at the actual composting temperature. Measurements of composting parameters together with enumerations and identifications of microorganisms demonstrate that the addition of the contaminated soil had a minor impact on the composting process. The first-order rate constant of diesel degradation in the biowaste mixture was four times higher than in the soil at room temperature, and 1.2 times higher than in the soil at composting temperature.

  13. Effect of the Rapeseed Oil Methyl Ester Component on Conventional Diesel Fuel Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbár V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME component in diesel fuel was assessed. Dynamic viscosity and density of blends were particularly observed. Measurements were performed at standard constant temperature. Increasing ratio of RME in diesel fuel was reflected in increased density value and dynamic viscosity of the blend. In the case of pure RME, pure diesel fuel, and the blend of both, temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was examined. Considerable temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity and density was found out and demonstrated for all three samples. This finding is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and literature data sources. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was modelled using the 3rd degree polynomial. Temperature dependence of density was modelled using the 2nd degree polynomial. The proposed models can be used for flow behaviour prediction of RME, diesel fuel, and their blends.

  14. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  15. Emissions Characteristics of Small Diesel Engine Fuelled by Waste Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Amir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative, decomposable and biological-processed fuel that has similar characteristics with mineral diesel which can be used directly into diesel engines. However, biodiesel has oxygenated, more density and viscosity compared to mineral diesel. Despite years of improvement attempts, the key issue in using waste cooking oil-based fuels is oxidation stability, stoichiometric point, bio-fuel composition, antioxidants on the degradation and much oxygen with comparing to diesel gas oil. Thus, the improvement of emission exhausted from diesel engines fueled by biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil (WCO is urgently required to meet the future stringent emission regulations. The purpose of this research is to investigate the influences of WCO blended fuel and combustion reliability in small engine on the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions. The engine speed was varied from 1500-2500 rpm and WCO blending ratio from 5-15 vol% (W5-W15. Increased blends of WCO ratio is found to influences to the combustion process, resulting in decreased the HC emissions and also other exhaust emission element. The improvement of combustion process is expected to be strongly influenced by oxygenated fuel in biodiesel content.

  16. Effects of High Temperature Frying of Spinach Leaves in Sunflower Oil on Carotenoids, Chlorophylls, and Tocopherol Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Nisar, Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Spinach is one of the highly consumed vegetable, with significant nutritional, and beneficial properties. This study revealed for the first time, the effects of high temperature frying on the carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherol contents of spinach leaves. Spinach leaves were thermally processed in the sunflower oil for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at 250°C. Reversed phase HPLC-DAD results revealed a total of eight carotenoids, four chlorophylls and α-tocopherol in the spinach leaves. Lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and β-carotene-5,6-epoxide were the major carotenoids, while chlorophyll a and b' were present in higher amounts. Frying of spinach leaves increased significantly the amount of α-tocopherol, β-carotene-5,6-epoxide, luteoxanthin, lutein, and its Z-isomers and chlorophyll b' isomer. There was significant decrease in the amounts of neoxanthin, violaxanthin, chlorophyll b, b' and chlorophyll a with increase of frying time. The increase of frying time increased the total phenolic contents in spinach leaves and fried sunflower oil samples. Chemical characteristics such as peroxide values, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes, conjugated trienes, and radical scavenging activity were significantly affected by frying, while spinach leaves increased the stability of the frying oil. This study can be used to improve the quality of fried vegetable leaves or their products at high temperature frying in food industries for increasing consumer acceptability. PMID:28382299

  17. Effects of High Temperature Frying of Spinach Leaves in Sunflower Oil on Carotenoids, Chlorophylls, and Tocopherol Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Nisar, Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Spinach is one of the highly consumed vegetable, with significant nutritional, and beneficial properties. This study revealed for the first time, the effects of high temperature frying on the carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherol contents of spinach leaves. Spinach leaves were thermally processed in the sunflower oil for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at 250°C. Reversed phase HPLC-DAD results revealed a total of eight carotenoids, four chlorophylls and α-tocopherol in the spinach leaves. Lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and β-carotene-5,6-epoxide were the major carotenoids, while chlorophyll a and b' were present in higher amounts. Frying of spinach leaves increased significantly the amount of α-tocopherol, β-carotene-5,6-epoxide, luteoxanthin, lutein, and its Z-isomers and chlorophyll b' isomer. There was significant decrease in the amounts of neoxanthin, violaxanthin, chlorophyll b, b' and chlorophyll a with increase of frying time. The increase of frying time increased the total phenolic contents in spinach leaves and fried sunflower oil samples. Chemical characteristics such as peroxide values, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes, conjugated trienes, and radical scavenging activity were significantly affected by frying, while spinach leaves increased the stability of the frying oil. This study can be used to improve the quality of fried vegetable leaves or their products at high temperature frying in food industries for increasing consumer acceptability.

  18. The Comparison of Effects of Gamma Radiation of Crude Oil Yield on Some Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havser ERTEM VAİZOĞULLAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of different doses gamma radiation on crude oil yield and moisture of different six variety sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. seeds. As materials, sunflower variety Ege-2001, Turay, AS-508, Tunca, TR-3080 and Tarsan-1018 seeds were used and irradiated with doses of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy gamma radiation. Irradiation was performed in a cesium (Ce137 Gammacell 3000 Elan source, dose rate about 9.75 Gy/min (2900 Ci in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in the department of the radiological. Moisture amount of seeds were also measured by AOCS standarts. Extraction of the seeds was done with soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether by hot continuous extraction for 6 hours.  It was found that the highest moisture rate in 100 Gy for all seeds variety. The moisture rate ranged between 3.00 and 9.68% in TR-3080 and Ege-2001, respectively. According to the our results, seed moisture content was affected by gamma radiation in a significant negative one-way. The significant reduction in seed moisture content (9.68% began at 100 Gy of gamma rays and continued to decline to up to 4.04% at 500 Gy. The crude oil yield showed not a important increase in 100 and 200 Gy doses. The result showed that the highest crude oil yield was also obtained from 400 Gy and 33.49% in Ege-2001 seeds.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of St. John’s Wort Herb Extracts Using Olive, Sunflower and Palm Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Ivana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to obtain St. John’s wort herb extract (drug:extract ratio 1:5, in a traditional way, using different solvents (sunflower, olive and palm oils with or without antioxidants (0,02% alpha-tocopherol and 0,01% butylhydroxyanisol. Their characterization was done (organoleptic features, relative density, refractive index, acid number immediately after the preparation, and during the period of 12 months (the samples were stored at room temperature, 22±2°C.

  20. Influence of maltodextrin dextrose equivalent value on rheological and dispersion properties of sunflower oil in water emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokić Petar P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of dextrose equivalent (DE of maltodextrin present in continuous phase on flow along with dispersion properties of sunflower oil in water emulsions has been investigated. Both, rheological and disperse characteristics of the emulsions were greatly influenced by continuous phase viscosity and thus by the DE value of maltodextrin.. The smaller DE value the greater high shear viscosity and the smaller the droplet size. Irrespective of the amount and DE value of maltodextrin used was, all the emulsions showed a pseudoplastic behaviour.

  1. Experimental Investigation on Performance Characteristic of Diesel Engine by Using Methyl Ester of Linseed and Neem oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kesava Rao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization and motorization of the world has led to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum products. Petroleum based fuels are obtained from limited reserves. These finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of the world. Therefore those countries not having these resources are facing a foreign exchange crisis, mainly due to the import of crude oil. Hence, it is necessary to look for alternative fuels, which can be produced from materials available within the country. In addition, the use of vegetable oils as fuel is less pollution than petroleum fuels. In this thesis work, the transesterification process of linseed oil (lso and neem oil (no in order to obtain bio diesel. Different parameters for the optimization of bio diesel products were investigated in the first phase, and the effects were characterized to test their properties as fuel in diesel engines such as viscosity, density, flash point, fire point and cetane number. While in the next phase lsome & nome was produced by transesterification method using linseed oil, neem oil and methyl alcohol, and its effects on reaction temperature, catalyst percentages, and reaction time for optimum bio diesel production have been studied. The blends of various proportions of the lsome & nome with diesel were prepared, analyzed and compared with diesel fuel, and comparison was made to suggest the better option among the bio diesel understudy. However, its diesel blends showed reasonable efficiencies.

  2. Genotoxicity studies in the ST cross of the Drosophila wing spot test of sunflower and soybean oils before and after frying and boiling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Eşref; Marcos, Ricard; Kaya, Bülent

    2012-10-01

    Sunflower and soybean oils were tested for genotoxicity in the Drosophila wing somatic mutation and recombination assay. Results indicate that both oils produce genotoxic effects when tested without any previous frying or boiling processes. Boiling sunflower oil during fifteen, thirty and sixty minutes significantly increased its genotoxic response; nevertheless, after frying potatoes this oil showed a significant decrease in the genotoxic activity. On the other hand, boiling and frying soybean oil in the same conditions results in a decrease of its genotoxic potential. We have also detected that the amount of total polar materials increases significantly in oils submitted to frying or boiling process. Nevertheless, in oils obtained after frying potatoes, the amount of TPM was higher than after boiling. It is suggested that this effect is probably due to the amount of non-volatile TPM, the fatty acid composition of the oils, the types of frying oil, the high frying temperature and time, and the number of boiling and frying. This is the first study reporting genotoxicity data in Drosophila for the boiling and frying of both sunflower and soybean oils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of the remedy with diesel oil in impacted environment; A influencia da remediacao em ambiente impactado com oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bento, Douglas M.; Baisch, Paulo; Machado, Maria I.; Costa, Jorge A.V.; Martins, Vilasia [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The conventional techniques of cleaning can be complemented with the remediation, for the use of chemical surfactant or of bio surfactant. The bioremediation minimizes the impact of recalcitrant substances in the atmosphere. The chemical surfactant can promote the fastest biodegradation of the oil, but its application should always be evaluated by professionals specialized in environment, since she can be seen as a deliberated introduction of a pollutant. The present work evaluated the influence of the use of a chemical surfactant and of a of bio surfactant (produced by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus), in controlled spill of oil diesel, happened in at spring/2003 in the Island of the Horses located in the estuary of the Patos Lagoon. The atmosphere was monitored for 6 months, being selected a place with oil diesel, another with oil diesel and chemical surfactant and another with oil diesel and of bio surfactant. The following chemical parameters were analyzed: organic carbon, nitrogen and total match of the sediment. The statistical treatment consisted of the variance analysis (ANOVA) and in the test of Tukey (p <0,01), for the analyzed nutrients. The coming hydrocarbons of the degradation of the oil diesel will be later on certain for GC-MS. The results showed that the best environmental conditions were verified where the remediation was used. (author)

  4. Effect of heating at frying temperature on the quality characteristics of regular and high-oleic acid sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abbas Ali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background.Understanding of oil deterioration during heating/frying process is important as oils are nor- mally kept hot at commercial food outlets during intermittent frying cycles. An increased level of consumer awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could have an effect on selection of fats in the food industry. The rate of quality deterioration during heating depends on fatty acid composition and also the content and composition of minor components. Therefore, the use of more stable frying oils would be desirable. The present study compares the heat stability at frying temperature of regular sunflower oil (RSFO with that of high-oleic acid sunflower oil (HSFO.  Material and methods. Heating test was carried out at 185 ±5°C for the samples RSFO and HSFO using electric fryer for 8 h/day for 3 consecutive days. The samples were collected every 4 h. The changes in phys- icochemical properties of the samples were monitored by analytical and instrumental methods.  Results.In this study, refractive index, free fatty acid content, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, TOTOXvalue and polar compounds of the oils all increased, whereas C    /C ratio decreased as heating progressed.The percentage of linoleic acid tended to decrease, whereas the percentages of palmitic, stearic and oleic ac-ids increased. The sample HSFO exhibited better heating performance compared to RSFO. However, a higher amount of free fatty acids was found in HSFO compared to RSFO at the end of heating trial. Moreover, heat- ing process decreased the total tocopherol content and higher reduction was detected in RSFO.  Conclusion.In conclusion, the heating caused the formation of comparatively lower amounts of some deg- radative products in HSFO compared to RSFO indicating a lower extent of quality deterioration of HSFO.    

  5. Effects of Diary Scum Oil Methyl Ester on a DI Diesel Engine Performance and Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Varghese Babu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is recognized as a clean alternative fuel or as a fuel additive to reduce pollutant emission from CI engine and minimum cost so there is need for producing biodiesel other than from seed oil. In this study the diary waste scum were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel. Scum oil methyl ester (SOME is produced in laboratory by tranestrification process. The properties of SOME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Experiments has been carried out to estimate the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder; four stroke diesel engine fuelled with scum biodiesel and its blends with standard diesel. Tests has been conducted using the fuel blends of 10%, 20%, 30% and 100% biodiesel with standard diesel, with an engine speed of 1500 rpm, fixed compression ratio 17.5 and at different loading conditions. The performance parameters elucidated includes brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, and exhaust gas temperature.

  6. Study on Spray Characteristics and Spray Droplets Dynamic Behavior of Diesel Engine Fueled by Rapeseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapit Azwan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It directly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel needs great help to atomize because the fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fueled by rapeseed oil (RO. Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the rapeseed oil spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  7. Responses of macrobenthos colonizing estuarine sediments contaminated with drilling mud containing diesel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagatz, M.E.; Plaia, G.R.; Deans, C.H.

    1985-07-01

    Acute toxicities and sublethal effects were determined in several investigations for 11 types of drilling muds obtained from offshore drilling sites in the Gulf of Mexico, which the Petroleum Equipment Suppliers Association supplied to the Environmental Protection Agency. All were used muds that had been recycled during drilling. Those containing the highest amounts of No. 2 diesel fuel oil were the most acutely toxic to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia), grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), quahog clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), and sand dollars (Echinarachnius parma) and elicited the greatest sublethal responses in corals (Acropora cervicornis). A lignosulfonate mud was the most toxic, followed by a lime mud containing 3.98 mg diesel/g. The present study was initiated to determine the impact of the lime mud with its diesel oil component on field colonization by macrobenthos.

  8. High quality diesel by hydrotreating of atmospheric gas oil/light cycle oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgina C. Laredo; Ricardo Saint-Martin; Maria C. Martinez; Jesus Castillo; Jose L. Cano [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    An improved process for high-quality diesel fuel production by hydrotreating atmospheric gas oil (SRGO) and light cycle oil (LCO) blends is presented in this paper. For this purpose, a set of blends of 5, 10 and 15% by volume of LCO with final boiling points of 300, 325 and 350{sup o}C with a full range gas oil (FBP 350{sup o}C) was hydrotreated in a pilot plant at 340-380{sup o}C, 5.4 MPa, 2.5 h-1 LHSV using a commercial Co-Mo catalyst. A relationship between the concentration of refractory sulfur compounds (those boiling above 316{sup o}C) and aromatics content in the feedstock with the hydrotreating temperature required for meeting a 0.05% sulfur specification was found. The experimental data obtained during the desulfurization was quantitatively represented by a 1.50 to 1.56 order rate equation, with activation energies between 18.9 and 34.1 kcal/mol, depending on the feedstock. 32 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Feasibility of on-site bioremediation of loam soil contaminated by diesel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, H; Narkis, N

    2001-09-01

    This study originated from an accidental event of diesel oil contamination in a loam soil area of 7,000 m2. Approximately a volume of 1,300 m3 of diesel oil was released into the environment. Reclamation of the contaminated soil by on-site bioremediation was selected as the most appropriate treatment method. A major concern was associated with the nature of the local loam soil. Loam has a very low hydraulic conductivity and very quickly becomes impermeable after its contact with water. The bioremediation approach incorporated excavation of the contaminated soil, mixing it with an agent, which increased its permeability. Following this preliminary treatment came the construction of bioreactors as a suitable environment of nutrients, moisture, dissolved oxygen, and enriched culture of microorganisms, which enabled breakdown of the diesel oil. This case study indicated that the target of 99% of diesel oil clean up could be achieved by using the technology of on-site bioremediation. The selected treatment method was found to be technologically and economically feasible. However, some improvement in the application of the basic treatment approach might increase the bioremediation efficiency.

  10. Alaska North Slope crude oil price and the behavior of diesel prices in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrangi, B.; Chatrath, A. [School of Business Administration, University of Portland, 5000 N. Willamette Blvd., 97203 Portland, OR (United States); Raffiee, K. [Department of Economics, College of Business Administration, 89557 Reno, NV (United States); Ripple, R. [Faculty of Business, School of Finance and Business Economics, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Western Australia 6027 Joondalup (Australia)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the price dynamics of Alaska North Slope crude oil and L.A. diesel fuel prices. We employ VAR methodology and bivariate GARCH model to show that there is a strong evidence of a uni-directional causal relationship between the two prices. The L.A. diesel market is found to bear the majority of the burden of convergence when there is a price spread. This finding may be seen as being consistent with the general consensus that price discovery emanates from the larger, more liquid market where trading volume is concentrated. The contestability of the West Coast crude oil market tends to cause it to react relatively competitively, while the lack of contestability for the West Coast diesel market tends to limit its competitiveness, causing price adjustment to be slow but to follow the price signals of crude oil. Our findings also suggest that the derived demand theory of input pricing may not hold in this case. The Alaska North Slope crude oil price is the driving force in changes of L.A. diesel price.

  11. DC Thermal Plasma Design and Utilization for the Low Density Polyethylene to Diesel Oil Pyrolysis Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase of plastic production produces 100 million tonnes of waste plastics annually which could be converted into hydrocarbon fuels in a thermal cracking process called pyrolysis. In this research work, a direct current (DC thermal plasma circuit is designed and used for conversion of low density polyethylene (LDPE into diesel oil in a laboratory scale pyrolysis reactor. The experimental setup uses a 270 W DC thermal plasma at operating temperatures in the range of 625 °C to 860 °C for a low density polyethylene (LDPE pyrolysis reaction at pressure = −0.95, temperature = 550 °C with τ = 30 min at a constant heating rate of 7.8 °C/min. The experimental setup consists of a vacuum pump, closed system vessel, direct current (DC plasma circuit, and a k-type thermocouple placed a few millimeters from the reactant sample. The hydrocarbon products are condensed to diesel oil and analyzed using flame ionization detector (FID gas chromatography. The analysis shows 87.5% diesel oil, 1,4-dichlorobenzene (Surr, benzene, ethylbenzene and traces of toluene and xylene. The direct current (DC thermal plasma achieves 56.9 wt. % of diesel range oil (DRO, 37.8 wt. % gaseous products and minimal tar production. The direct current (DC thermal plasma shows reliability, better temperature control, and high thermal performance as well as the ability to work for long operation periods.

  12. Exhaust emissions from a diesel power generator fuelled by waste cooking oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Osmano Souza; Pasa, Vanya Márcia Duarte; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Sodré, José Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    The exhaust emissions from a diesel power generator operating with waste cooking oil biodiesel blends have been studied. Fuel blends with 25%, 50% and 75% of biodiesel concentration in diesel oil were tested, varying engine load from 0 to 25 kW. The original engine settings for diesel oil operation were kept the same during the experiments with the biodiesel blends. The main physical-chemical characteristics of the fuel blends used were measured to help with the analysis of the emission results. The results show that the addition of biodiesel to the fuel increases oxides of nitrogen (NO(X)), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and exhaust gas opacity were also increased with the use of biodiesel. Major increase of NO(X) was observed at low loads, while CO and HC were mainly increased at high loads. Using 50% of biodiesel in diesel oil, the average increase of CO(2), CO, HC and NO(X) throughout the load range investigated was 8.5%, 20.1%, 23.5% and 4.8%, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on noise of rapeseed oil blends in a single-cylinder diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Y.D.; He, Y. [College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2006-09-15

    This study was undertaken to obtain the knowledge necessary for reducing noise of mixed oil composed of rapeseed oil and conventional diesel oil and for improving the performance of engine fuelled by the mixture. A S195 (8.8kW) type single-cylinder diesel engine was used to determine the effect of four adjustable working parameters, i.e. intake-valve-closing angle ({alpha}), exhaust-valve-opening angle ({beta}), fuel delivery angle ({theta}) and injection pressure (P, in 10{sup 4}Pa) on noise when an oil mixture of 30% rapeseed oil and 70% diesel oil was used. Single-factor and multi-factor quadratic regressive orthogonal design test method were adopted in the experiments to find the relationship between noise and four adjustable working parameters. Relationship between these parameters and noise was analysed under two typical operating conditions and mathematical equations characterizing the relationship were formulated. The equation of noise from the regressive test under each operating condition was set as the objective function and the ranges for the four adjustable working parameters were the given constraint condition. Models of nonlinear programming were then constructed. Computer-aided optimization of the working parameters for 30:70 rapeseed oil/diesel oil mixed fuel was achieved. Field test verified that the engine (in use) working condition was found to be bad at maladjustment. The optimum working parameters for two working conditions of the engine were used to adjust the four working parameters. Test results showed that optimum adjustment could achieve noise reduction between 2 and 4dB and that the power could be increased by 0.6-1.8kW. The experimental results also provided useful reference material for selection of the most preferable combination of working parameters. (author)

  14. Experimental investigation on a diesel engine using neem oil and its methyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivalakshmi S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel crisis and environmental concerns have led to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin sources such as vegetable oils, which can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops and oil bearing biomass materials. Vegetable oils have energy content comparable to diesel fuel. The effect of neem oil (NeO and its methyl ester (NOME on a direct injected four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine combustion, performance and emission is investigated in this paper. The results show that at full load, peak cylinder pressure is higher for NOME; peak heat release rate during the premixed combustion phase is lower for neat NeO and NOME. Ignition delay is lower for neat NeO and NOME when compared with diesel at full load. The brake thermal efficiency is slightly lower for NeO at all engine loads, but in the case of NOME slightly higher at full load. It has been observed that there is a reduction in NOx emission for neem oil and its methyl ester along with an increase in CO, HC and smoke emissions.

  15. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Morsy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5 fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA, and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017 ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001 and acetate (p = 0.034 concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013 in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007 and milk fat content (p = 0.002. Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048 and feed efficiency (p = 0.046 compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05 milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021 C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3, without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  16. Physical behavior of purified and crude wax obtained from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seed oil refineries and seed hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanya, T C Sindhu; Sankar, K Udaya; Sastry, M C Shamnathaka

    2003-01-01

    The sunflower seed waxes obtained from two sources (i) seed hull as a standard and (ii) crude wax from oil refineries were studied for their crystallization, melting characteristics and morphology of crystals. The results of differential scanning calorimetry of wax obtained from seed hulls showed the melting temperature range of 13.18 degrees C with the onset at 62.32 degrees C, for purified wax, compared to the melting range of 24.73 degrees C with the onset at 42.3 degrees C. for crude wax. The enthalpy of fusion for both waxes were 57.55 mcal/mg and 7.63 mcal/mg, respectively. The DSC melt crystallization temperature range was 15.79 degrees C with the onset of 64.58 degrees C for purified wax and temperature range of 31.45 degrees C with an onset of 57.76 degrees C for crude wax. A similar pattern was observed of wax obtained from the crude wax of oil refineries. The enthalpy of crystallization was -64.27 mcal/mg and -7.67 mcal/mg, respectively. The purified wax obtained from the two sources (i) and (ii) were comparable with completion temperatures of 75.5 degrees C and 75.1 degrees C, respectively. The effect of inhibitor (lecithin) on crystallization of purified wax under light microscope and surface structure by scanning electron microscope were observed. Lecithin at 0.2% inhibited the crystallization but nucleation was unaltered. The wax crystal was inhibited to around 60% of the original size with 0.2% lecithin. It is concluded that the sunflower waxes studied were not comparable in their crystal properties of crude and purified states. Lecithin inhibited the crystallization of sunflower seed wax.

  17. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  18. Performance Characteristics and Analysis of 4-Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Blend With 50% of Honne Oil at Various Fuel Injection Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bhaskar Reddy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In future demand for fossil fuels and environmental effects, a number of renewable sources of energy have been studied in worldwide. An attempt is made to apt of vegetable oil for diesel engine operation, without any change in its old construction. One of the important factors which influence the performance and emission characteristics of D.I diesel engine is fuel injection pressure. In this project honne oil has to be investigated in a constant speed, on D.I diesel engine with different fuel injection pressures. The scope of the project is to investigate the effect of injection pressures on a blend of 50% honne oil with 50% diesel and compare with pure diesel on performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine. Two tested fuels were used during experiments like 100 % diesel and a blend of 50% honne oil mixing in the diesel. The performance tests were conducted at constant speed with variable loads. From experiment results it was found that with honne oil- diesel blend the performance of the engine is better compared with diesel. The break thermal efficiency and mechanical efficiencies were found to be maximum at 200 bar injection pressure with both honne oil- diesel blend, compared with 180 bar and 220 bar. The brake specific fuel consumption was to be minimum at 220bar compared with 180 bar and 200 bar. Hydro carbon emissions of honne oil-diesel operation were less than the diesel fuel mode at all fuel injection pressures.

  19. Improved extraction method for the determination of iron, copper, and nickel in new varieties of sunflower oil by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rehana; Kazi, Tasneem G; Jamali, Mohammad K; Arain, Mohammad B; Sherazi, Syed T; Jalbani, Nusrat; Afridi, Hassan I

    2008-01-01

    A simple and fast procedure is proposed for the extraction of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) in 16 varieties of sunflower seed oil samples using an ultrasonic bath. The experimental parameters of the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) method were optimized to improve the sensitivity and detect the metals at trace levels in minimum time. Conventional wet acid digestion method was used for comparative purposes. The optimum recovery of all 3 metals was obtained by UAE for 7 min, while the separation of aqueous and organic phases after extraction using centrifugation (UAE-2) required 3 min, as compared to the conventional equilibration method (UAE-1) that required 90 min. The respective recoveries of Cu, Fe, and Ni obtained with UAE-2 were in the range of 95.8-97.5, 93.5-98.3, and 95.6-98.2%, respectively, for different varieties of sunflower oil samples. Accuracy was determined by the standard addition method. Under the optimum operating conditions, the limits of detection obtained from the standard addition curves were 21.7, 20.4, and 35.6 ng/mL for Fe, Cu, and Ni, respectively. The fact that all varieties of sunflower oil contain significant amounts of Fe, Cu, and Ni indicates the deterioration of sunflower oil quality immediately after extraction from seeds, which poses a threat to oil quality and human health.

  20. The Feasibility of Oil Analysis for Air Force Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    analyses conducted by Mobil include automated Brookfield viscosity, membrane filtration in pentane for insolubles, and differential infrared analysis for...considered, such as microfiltration for particle size distribution and infrared (for oxida- tion and possibly nitration). Because of the limited...military (AOAP) sectors , it may be inferred that a large segment of those organizations concerned with diesel engine maintenance and utilization is

  1. Production of gaseous fuel from jatropha oil by cerium oxide based catalytic fuel reactor and its utilisation on diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylswamy Thirunavukkarasu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt is made to produce a hydrocarbon fuel from jatropha vegetable oil for Diesel engine applications. The “catalytic cracking” a process recently introduced by the researchers is chosen as an alternative method to trans-esterification process to match the fuel properties to diesel. Jatropha vegetable oil was cracked into a gas using the cerium oxide catalyst in a fixed bed catalytic reactor. The produced gas is introduced at constant rate into the inlet manifold of the Diesel engine. The experimental work was carried out in single cylinder water cooled direct injection Diesel engine coupled with eddy current dynamometer. The combustion parameters are measured by AVL combustion analyser. From the experimental results, the increase in brake thermal efficiency of the engine for full load was observed to be 10% (relative compared with diesel. Notably, emissions such as HC, CO, and smoke are reduced by 18%, 61%, and 18%, respectively, when compared with diesel.

  2. EMISSION OF POLLUTANTS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN LIFE CYCLE OF DIESEL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Haller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following article is an analysis of designed processes of the life cycle of the most popular fuel for Diesel engines: diesel oil. This fuel is produced from petroleum, which is a non-renewable source of energy. Analysis was carried out with the assumptions of Life Cycle Assessment, which is a tool to test the environmental impact of the product. The life cycle of diesel was divided into five unit processes: petroleum extraction, transport of petroleum to the refinery, refining petroleum to diesel, transport of diesel to the recipient and utilization of delivered fuel by transport company. For every process the energy consumption and emission of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulphursulphur oxides was calculated, with assumption of probable data, that could occur in real processes. The analysis has shown, that the process of refining petroleum is highly pollution-intensive. Also the combustion of diesel generates a significant amount of pollutants’ emission, which is why it is necessary to develop technologies that could contribute to the reduction of emission.

  3. Production and analysis of bio-diesel from non-edible oils. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugesan, A.; Chinnusamy, T.R.; Krishnan, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode 637215, Tamil Nadu (India); Umarani, C. [Department of Chemistry, Government Arts College, Salem (India); Subramanian, R. [Department of Automobile Engineering, Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode, Tamil Nadu (India); Neduzchezhain, N. [Sabbatical, Department of Mechanical Engineering, BITS, Pilani, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-05-15

    Bio-diesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits and it is derived from renewable resources, bio degradable and non-toxic in nature. Several bio-diesel production methods have been developed, among which transesterification using alkali catalyst gives high level of conversion of triglycerides to their corresponding methyl ester in short reaction time. The process of transesterification is affected by the reaction condition, molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type of alcohol, type and amount of catalysts, reaction time and temperature, purity of reactants free fatty acids and water content of oils or fats. In this work, an attempt has been made on review of bio-diesel production, methods of analyzing, bio-diesel standard, resources available, process developed performance in internal combustion engines, teardown analysis of bio-diesel B20 operated vehicle, recommendation for development of bio-fuels, environmental considerations, economic aspects and advantages. The technical tools and process for monitoring the transesterification reaction like TLC, GC, HPLC, GPC, {sup 1}H NMR and NIR have also been summarized in this paper. (author)

  4. Novel diesel-oil-degrading bacteria and fungi from the Ecuadorian Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddela, N R; Masabanda, M; Leiva-Mora, M

    2015-01-01

    Isolating new diesel-oil-degrading microorganisms from crude-oil contaminated sites and evaluating their degradation capacities are vitally important in the remediation of oil-polluted environments and crude-oil exploitation. In this research, new hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and fungi were isolated from the crude-oil contaminated soil of the oil-fields in the Amazon rainforest of north-east Ecuador by using a soil enrichment technique. Degradation analysis was tracked by gas chromatography and a flame ionization detector. Under laboratory conditions, maximum degradability of the total n-alkanes reached up to 77.34 and 62.62 removal ratios after 30 days of incubation for the evaporated diesel oil by fungi (isolate-1) and bacteria (isolate-1), respectively. The 16S/18S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that the microorganisms were most closely (99-100%) related to Bacillus cereus (isolate-1), Bacillus thuringiensis (isolate-2), Geomyces pannorum (isolate-1), and Geomyces sp. (isolate-2). Therefore, these strains enable the degradation of hydrocarbons as the sole carbon source, and these findings will benefit these strains in the remediation of oil-polluted environments and oil exploitation.

  5. HS-SPME-GC-MS分析冷榨和热榨葵花籽油的挥发性物质%Volatile compounds in cold-pressed sunflower seed oil and hot-pressed sunflower seed oil by HS-SPME-GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪振童; 陈洁; 范璐; 刘国琴

    2015-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取-气质联用法( HS-SPME-GC-MS)对冷榨葵花籽油和不同炒籽温度下的热榨葵花籽油的挥发性物质进行分析。结果表明:葵花籽油样品中共检测出59种挥发性物质,主要是萜烯类、醛酮类、烷烃类、杂环类及羧酸类物质;冷榨葵花籽油的挥发性物质主要是萜烯类、烷烃类及醛酮类物质,含量分别为38.96%、16.19%和12.20%;炒籽温度110、130、150℃下的热榨葵花籽油的主要挥发性物质的种类与冷榨葵花籽油的相似,但含量有很大区别,而170℃和190℃下的热榨葵花籽油的主要挥发性物质是吡嗪等杂环类物质和醛酮类物质。%The volatile compounds in cold-pressed sunflower see d oil and hot-pressed sunflower seed oils from sunflower seeds cooked at different temperatures were analyzed by headspace solid phase micro-extraction - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry ( HS - SPME - GC - MS ) . The results showed that 59 volatile compounds were detected in sunflower seed oils samples, which mainly were ter-penes, ketones and aldehydes, alkanes, heterocyclic and carboxylic acids. Terpenes, alkanes and ke-tones and aldehydes were the main volatile compounds in cold -pressed sunflower seed oil, and their contents were 38 . 96%, 16 . 19% and 12 . 20% respectively; the kinds of volatile compounds in hot-pressed sunflower seed oils from sunflower seeds cooked at 110 , 130℃ and 150℃ were similar to that in cold-pressed sunflower seed oil, while the contents were very different;the main volatile compounds in hot-pressed sunflower seed oils from sunflower seeds cooked at 170℃ and 190℃ were pyrazines, alde-hydes and ketones.

  6. Effects of different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating water stress is well documented. In order to study the effects of water stress and two different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower, a field experiment as split plot design with three replications was conducted in the Research Field Station, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran in 2011. Water stress treatments included control as 90% of field capacity (W1, 70% field capacity (W2 and 50% field capacity (W3 assigned to the main plots and two different mycorrhiza species, consisting of M1 = control (without any inoculation, M2 = Glumus mossea and M3 = Glumus etanicatum as sub plots. Results showed that by increasing water stress from control (W1 to W3 treatment, grain yield was significantly decreased. The reduction in the level of W3 was 15.05%. The content of potassium in seeds significantly decreased due to water stress but water stress upto W2 treatment increased the content of phosphorus, nitrogen and oil content of seeds. In between two species of mycorrhiza in sunflower plants, Glumus etanicatum had the highest effect on grain yield and these elements in seeds and increased both.

  7. Research and field trials with a blend of ethanol in diesel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Autoemission K-E E Consultant, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this report is to summarize the experiences acquired and data generated during the project named `The mixed fuel project` which was carried out during the years 1993 to 1997. The project was initiated after that some information had been collected in Australia, where a similar project was underway. The Australian project showed some interesting data and within that project an emulsifier had been developed - an emulsifier which has also been used in the Swedish project. In order to avoid a costly development of a method for blending ethanol in diesel oil, a form of co-operation was established between the people involved in Australia and those involved in Sweden. The content of ethanol in diesel oil used in Australia was 15 % and the investigations in Sweden reported further down in this report the ratio 15 % ethanol in MK 1 (an environmentally classified diesel fuel in Sweden) was the best alternative to be used also in Sweden. Twelve reports have been studied and used as references in order to summarize the results and experiences from the project. In order to fulfil the obligations of the project many institutions, private and community companies, consultants and universities in Sweden were involved. In the report presents the main results from the different investigations and field trials with ethanol-diesel fueled vehicles. It can be said that there are no technical problems connected to the use of ethanol-diesel fuel but the most serious drawback is the cost of the fuel. There is also a need for further development of the technology of making a homogenous emulsion of ethanol in diesel oil at a reasonable cost. The main advantage of using the mixed fuel is that the emission of particles is considerably reduced. The emission of CO{sub 2} is also reduced when the ethanol is produced from biomass using an environmentally friendly method 17 refs, 22 figs, 22 tabs

  8. Use of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics for the authentication of avocado oil in ternary mixtures with sunflower and soybean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sotelo, Paola; Hernández-Martínez, Maylet; Osorio-Revilla, Guillermo; Meza-Márquez, Ofelia Gabriela; García-Ochoa, Felipe; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhrí

    2016-07-01

    Avocado oil is a high-value and nutraceutical oil whose authentication is very important since the addition of low-cost oils could lower its beneficial properties. Mid-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was used to detect and quantify adulteration of avocado oil with sunflower and soybean oils in a ternary mixture. Thirty-seven laboratory-prepared adulterated samples and 20 pure avocado oil samples were evaluated. The adulterated oil amount ranged from 2% to 50% (w/w) in avocado oil. A soft independent modelling class analogy (SIMCA) model was developed to discriminate between pure and adulterated samples. The model showed recognition and rejection rate of 100% and proper classification in external validation. A partial least square (PLS) algorithm was used to estimate the percentage of adulteration. The PLS model showed values of R(2) > 0.9961, standard errors of calibration (SEC) in the range of 0.3963-0.7881, standard errors of prediction (SEP estimated) between 0.6483 and 0.9707, and good prediction performances in external validation. The results showed that mid-FTIR spectroscopy could be an accurate and reliable technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of avocado oil in ternary mixtures.

  9. Kinetics of heterogeneous methanolysis of sunflower oil with CaO∙ZnO catalyst: Influence of different hydrodynamic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of heterogeneous methanolysis of sunflower oil was studied at 60°C using mechanochemically synthesized CaO∙ZnO as catalyst. Influence of agitation speed, catalyst amount and methanol to oil molar ratio on the rate of reaction was analyzed. The rate of the process depends on the two resistances - mass transfer of triglycerides to the catalyst surface and chemical reaction on the catalyst surface, which are defined as the values of the overall triglyceride volumetric mass transfer coefficient, kmt,TG, and the effective pseudo first-order reaction rate constant, k, respectively. These kinetic parameters actually determine the value of the apparent reaction rate constant, kapp, whose change with time is defined with the change of triglyceride (TG conversion. The kinetic model was proposed and the model parameters determined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45001

  10. Dual-channel filter photometer system for biocomponent content determination in diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołębiowski, Jacek; Prohuń, Tomasz

    2008-07-01

    Currently, infrared spectrometry is the most often used method of determination of the biocomponent content in diesel oil, but this is also an expensive and time-consuming process. In this study, a portable, low-cost dual-channel filter photometer system is presented which meets the requirements of the European standard for biocomponent concentration measurements in diesel fuel. The results obtained using this novel system are reported and compared to the measurements made using a standard infrared spectrometer for biodiesel concentration between 0% and 20% by weight. The advantages of the new system, such as its adaptability to the different environmental conditions of analysis, are also discussed.

  11. Effects of salinity on biomarker responses in Crassostrea rhizophorae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) exposed to diesel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Angela Zaccaron; Zanette, Juliano; Fernando Ferreira, Jaime; Guzenski, João; Marques, Maria Risoleta Freire; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias

    2005-11-01

    Crassostrea rhizophorae is a euryhaline oyster that inhabits mangrove areas, which are widely distributed along the Brazilian coast. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salinity (9, 15, 25, and 35ppt) on the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), catalase (CAT), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the digestive gland of this species after exposure to diesel oil for 7 days at nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1mlL(-1) and after depuration for 24h and 7 days. GST activity increased in a diesel oil concentration-dependent manner at salinities 25 and 15ppt and remained slightly elevated even after depuration periods of 24h and 7 days. No changes were observed in the activities of G6PDH, CAT, and AChE in the oysters exposed to diesel and depurated. Based on these results, GST activity in the digestive gland of C. rhizophorae might be used as a biomarker of exposure to diesel oil in sites where the salinity is between 15 and 25ppt, values usually observed in mangrove ecosystems.

  12. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine.

  13. Optimization of Enterobacter cloacae (KU923381) for diesel oil degradation using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Sugumar; Arumugam, Arumugam; Chandran, Preethy

    2017-02-01

    Efficiency of Enterobacter cloacae KU923381 isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil was evaluated in batch culture and bioreactor mode. The isolate were screened for biofilm formation using qualitative and quantitative assays. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effect of pH, temperature, glucose concentration, and sodium chloride on diesel degradation. The predicted values for diesel oil degradation efficiency by the statistical designs are in a close agreement with experimental data (R (2) = 99.66%). Degradation efficiency is increased by 36.78% at pH = 7, temperature = 35°C, glucose = 5%, and sodium chloride concentration = 5%. Under the optimized conditions, the experiments were performed for diesel oil degradation by gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis confirmed that E. cloacae had highly degrade hexadecane, heptadecane, tridecane, and docosane by 99.71%, 99.23%, 99.66%, and 98.34% respectively. This study shows that rapid bioremoval of hydrocarbons in diesel oil is acheived by E. cloacae with abet of biofilm formation. The potential use of the biofilms for preparing trickling filters (gravel particles) for the degradation of hydrocarbons from petroleum wastes before their disposal in the open environment is highly suggested. This is the first successful attempt for artificially establishing petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacterial biofilm on solid substrates in bioreactor.

  14. Filter clogging and power loss issues while running a diesel engine with waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, S.; Yu, C.W.; Lim, T.H. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Mechanical Engineering, Penang (Malaysia)

    2003-07-01

    As with other vegetable oils, the high viscosity of waste cooking oil (WCO) poses some challenges to engine operation. One of them is filter clogging. In this research, it was found that heating to above 55 deg C was effective in preventing clogging. However, the head loss across the filter was about 6 times higher than that of diesel. Generally, the lower calorific values of vegetable oils are held responsible for the reduction in maximum power of the engine. While running with WCO, the maximum power of the engine was reduced by 10.9 per cent from that with diesel. Raising the fuel tank level and dividing the flow through two filters to compensate for the higher head loss across the filter reduced the maximum power loss to 5.0 and 8.8 per cent respectively. Therefore, higher head loss in the filter is also responsible for the loss of maximum power. In terms of combustion, WCO had a shorter ignition delay compared with diesel, resulting in a less intense premixed combustion phase. The CO and NO emissions were on the average 8.4 and 16.2 per cent higher than those for diesel. (Author)

  15. Use of weathered diesel oil as a low-cost raw material for biosurfactant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Mariano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate the capability of biosurfactant production by Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, using weathered diesel oil from a long-standing spillage as raw material. The effect of the culture media (Robert or Bushnell-Haas and of the carbon source (spilled diesel oil or commercial diesel oil on biosurfactant production was evaluated. Erlenmeyer flasks (250 mL containing the cell broth were agitated (240 rpm for 144 h at 27±2ºC. Biosurfactant production was monitored according to the De Nöuy ring method using a Krüss K6 tensiometer. Considering the possibility of intracellular storage of biosurfactant in the cell wall of the cultures S. hominis and K. palustris, experiments were also done applying ultrasound as a way to rupture the cells. For the conditions studied, the cultures did not indicate production of biosurfactants. Results obtained with a hydrocarbon biodegradability test based on the redox indicator 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol showed that only the commercial diesel was biodegraded by the cultures.

  16. Comparison of broiler meat quality when fed diets supplemented with neutralized sunflower soapstock or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekel, A Y; Demirel, G; Midilli, M; Yalcintan, H; Ekiz, B; Alp, M

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fat type and level on broiler meat quality. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 types of fat including neutralized sunflower soapstock (NSS) and soybean oil (SO) at 3 levels of fat inclusion (2, 4, and 6%) was used with 5 replicates per treatment using 750 one-day-old broiler chicks in a completely randomized design. At the end of the study (d 36), 10 broilers from each replication were processed at a commercial slaughtering facility. Six carcasses from each replicate were used for meat quality evaluation. With the exception of 3 responses [breast meat lightness (L*) at 1 and 2 d, and redness (a*) at 5 d], there were no interactions between fat source and level. Breast meat pH at 15 min was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. However, breast meat pH at 24 h postmortem was decreased (P < 0.01) in broilers fed the NSS. Breast meat cooking loss, shear force, and color did not differ between fat sources. Breast meat cooking loss decreased (P < 0.05) when the dietary levels of fat increased. Thigh meat TBA reactive substances were not different due to dietary fat source and level. Breast meat and skin L* value significantly decreased when the dietary levels of fat increased. Breast meat a* value was highest for the 6% fat fed birds on d 2 (P < 0.05) and d 5 (P < 0.01). Higher dietary fat levels decreased the b* values of breast meat except d 5. Breast skin yellowness (b*) value was higher (P < 0.01) for the SO-fed birds compared with NSS-fed birds. Thigh meat of the birds fed the NSS was lighter (P < 0.05) than that of the birds fed SO diets except d 5. Overall, data suggest that NSS can be used as an alternative fat source to SO with little effect on meat quality.

  17. Improvement of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil and Performance Test with Diesel in CI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard of living, quality of life, and development of a nation depend on its per capita energy consumption. Global energy supply that mainly depends on fossil fuel is decreasing day by day. It is estimated that the energy demand will be increased five times by the year 2021 from present scenario. Due to the fossil fuel crisis, the development of alternative fuel technologies has drawn more attraction to deliver the replacement of fossil fuel. Pyrolysis is one of the promising alternative fuel technologies which produces valuable oil, char, and gas product from organic waste. Early investigations report that tire pyrolysis oil extracted from vacuum pyrolysis method seemed to have properties similar to diesel fuel. The main concern of this paper is to produce and improve the properties of crude tire pyrolysis oil by desulfurizing, distilling, and utilizing it with diesel in CI engine to analyze the efficiency for various compositions.

  18. Aqueous enzymatic extraction of sunflower seeds oil%葵花籽油酶法提取的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 毛波; 王聪; 杨青; 万端极

    2012-01-01

    The aqueous enzymatic method was employed to extract oil from sunflower seed. The optimal enzyme was determined by the contrast experiment. The effects of baking time, neutral protease dose, hydrolysis time, feed/liquid ratio on the oil extraction efficiency were investigated by single factor and orthogonal experiments. And the verification test of orthogonal experiment results are verified by the verification test. Results: The test effect of neutral protease is best. The optimum process parameters what aqueous enzymatic extract sunflower seed oil is baking time of 16 h, neutral protease dose of 1%, hydrolysis time of 4 h, feed/liquid ratio of 1:5(w/v). Verification results: free oil yield of 80.94%, protein content in slag of 3.36%, peroxide value of 4.57 mmol/kg.%采用水酶法从葵花籽中提取葵花籽油。通过对比试验确定最佳用酶,利用单因素和正交试验探讨原料烘烤时间、酶用量、酶解时间以及料液比对提油效果的影响,并通过验证试验对正交试验结果进行了验证。结果表明:中性蛋白酶试验效果最好;水酶法提取葵花籽油的最佳工艺参数为:烘烤时间16h,酶用量1%,酶解时间4h,料液比1:5(w/v)。验证试验结果表明葵花籽游离油得率80.94%,过氧化值4.57mmol/kg,渣中蛋白含量3.36%。

  19. Kinetic studies on the transesterification of sunflower oil with 1-butanol catalyzed by Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic aqueous-organic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of sunflower oil transesterification with 1-butanol using a homogeneous lipase (Rhizomucor miehei) in an aqueous-organic biphasic system were studied in a stirred batch reactor set-up. An initial screening study was performed to optimize relevant process conditions (enzyme concentration

  20. Calorific value for compositions with biodiesel of fat chicken and diesel oil; Valor calorifico para composicoes com biodiesel da gordura de frango e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Jose da [Universidade de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], email: marcelo.jose@feagri.unicamp.br; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Souza, Abel A. de; Martins, Gislaine I. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], emails: ssouza@unioeste.br, abel.sza@hotmail.com, iastiaque@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    The biodiesel fuel is a renewable source of alternative fuel used in diesel cycle engines. The production of biodiesel involves the reaction of methanol with fatty acids of animal or vegetable. The production of biodiesel from chicken fat can be very attractive for some regions from Brazil with high poultry production, as in the Parana West and Santa Catarina West. In this study , the goal was the lower calorific value of the compositions between biodiesel and diesel oil: 100% Diesel oil (B0), 20% biodiesel (B20), 40% biodiesel (B40), 60% biodiesel (B60), 80% biodiesel (B80 ), 100% biodiesel (B100). The biodiesel used was acquired in the Centre for Development and Diffusion of technologies on the Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel city. The nominal production capacity of the unit is 900 liters on period of 8 hours. The model of the calorimeter used, was the E2K. The lower calorific value of B100 composition was 35.388 MJ kg-1 and the diesel oil was 41.299 MJ kg-1. With the measuring of the caloric value of six samples mix of diesel oil and biodiesel, was obtained a linear function decrease of the calorific value when increased it the proportion of biodiesel from chicken fat into fuel. (author)

  1. Study of ignition characteristics of microemulsion of coconut oil under off diesel engine conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahir H. Salmani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing awareness of the depletion of fossil fuel resources and the environmental benefits motivates the use of vegetable oils, however there is little known information about ignition and combustion characteristics of vegetable oil based fuels under off diesel engine conditions. These conditions are normally reached either during starting or when the engine is sufficiently worn out. A fuel was prepared by co-solvent blending of coconut oil with 20% butyl alcohol and was analysed. An experimental study of the measurement of ignition delay (ID characteristics of conical fuel sprays impinging on hot surface in cylindrical combustion chamber was carried out. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of hot surface temperatures on ignition delays of microemulsion of coconut oil at various ambient air pressures and temperatures which would have reached under off diesel engine conditions. An experimental set-up was designed and developed for a maximum air pressure of 200 bar and a maximum temperature of 800 °C with the emphasis on optical method for the measurement of ignition delay. Hot surface temperature range chosen was 300–450 °C and ambient air pressure (inside the combustion chamber range chosen was 10–25 bar. Present study shows that at fixed injection pressure and fixed ambient (hot surface temperature, at higher ambient air pressure (25 bar inside the combustion chamber, ignition delay of diesel and microemulsion of coconut oil are comparable and therefore are having matching combustion characteristics. Although a pressure of 25 bar is much less than the precombustion pressure of most diesel engines but again conclusively establish that combustion characteristics are same despite lower air pressure, temperature and lower injection pressure. At higher injection pressure ignition delay of microemulsion of coconut oil and pure diesel attains the lower value at the same ambient air pressure inside the

  2. Helianthus Porteri as a Potential Source for Enhancing the Linoleic Acid Concentration in Sunflower Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confederate Daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri, formerly known as Viguiera porteri, is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia. Wil...

  3. Helianthus porteri as a Potential Source for Enhancing Linoleic Acid Concentration in Sunflower Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confederate Daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri, formerly known as Viguiera porteri, is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia. Wil...

  4. Development of sunflower oil and composition with respect to seed moisture and physiological maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiccants/harvest aids are becoming more commonly used to hasten sunflower harvest. The current recommendation is to apply a desiccant (e.g., glyphosate and paraquat) at 35% or less seed moisture at physiological maturity (PM). Desiccating as early as possible without sacrificing yield may be a des...

  5. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  6. 影响葵花籽油微乳形成的因素%Factors influencing the preparation on sunflower oil microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙长豹; 吴红艳; 贾秀峰; 李昂

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, sunflower oil microemulsion is prepared by microemulsion technology.The effects of factors, including HLB value, surfacant, co-surfacant, temperature, pH and NaCl concentration on sunflower oil microemulsion formation are investigateed.The results showed that, the best formula of preparation of sunflower oil microemulsion: tween 80 and Span 80 are mixed by a 91:9 mass ratio as a surfactant, then mixed with sunflower oil,according to the mass ratio 9: 1.Under the optimum temperature 25 ℃, ultra-pure water is added to the system with constant stirring.A clear and transparent system will become turbid viscous, continue adding ultrapure water, and then mixing system will become clear and transparent again, sunflower oil microemulsion formed at this point.The impact of weak acid or weak base on sunflower oil microemulsion is very small.Sunflower oil microemulsion is slightly affected by NaCl concentration of 5% ~ 15%.%利用微乳化技术制备葵花籽油微乳,研究了HLB值、表面活性剂、助表面活性剂、表面活性剂与助表面活性剂的比值(Km)、温度、pH和NaCl浓度对葵花籽油微乳形成的影响.结果表明:制备葵花籽油微乳的最佳配方为,以吐温80和司班80按质量比91:9比例混合作为表面活性剂,再与葵花籽油按质量比9:1混合,在最适温度25℃下,不断搅拌并滴加超纯水,体系由澄清透明变得浑浊黏稠,继续滴加超纯水,体系会由浑浊黏稠再次变得澄清透明,此时即形成葵花籽油微乳;pH值在3~11时,弱酸弱碱对葵花籽油微乳的形成影响很小;NaCl浓度5% ~15%时,对葵花籽油微乳的形成影响较小.

  7. Enhancing the release of the antioxidant tocopherol from polypropylene films by incorporating the natural plasticizers lecithin, olive oil, or sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Ares Pernas, Ana; Castro López, María del Mar; López Vilariño, José Manuel; González Rodríguez, María Victoria

    2013-12-01

    In this work, natural plasticizers-modified polypropylenes intended for food active packaging were developed. Sunflower oil, olive oil, and soy lecithin, without any known harmful effects or toxicity, were employed as natural plasticizers, also implementing the attractiveness of using synthetic plastics on active packaging developments. Their incorporation during the extrusion of polypropylene was tried as a means to obtain polymers with improved diffusion paths, allowing differences in antioxidant release rates for active packaging materials. Thermal and rheological characterization of the films showed that blending natural plasticizers do not significantly modify their thermal properties; however, small variations of viscoelastic properties were observed. Furthermore, the resulting release of tocopherol was highly dependent on the polymer formulation. Furthermore, it was clearly time-controlled by using those natural plasticizers, especially olive oil. Antioxidant activity results also showed that packaged foods are protected against oxidative degradation over time, resulting from the improved release of the antioxidants.

  8. Cetane Number Booster Additive for Diesel Fuel Synthesized from Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nasikin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To reduce NOx, SOx, HC, and particulates that produce because of using diesel fuel, can be done by increasing cetane number. One of methods is adding an additive to diesel fuel. 2-Ethyl Hexyl Nitrate (2-EHN is a commercial additive that an organic nitrate. Making an additive in this research is used palm oil by nitration reaction that used HNO3 and H2SO4. Result of this reaction is methyl ester nitrate that has a structure looks like 2-EHN. IR spectra from research show that methyl ester nitrate is indicated by spectrum NO2 at 1635 cm-1. This result show that methyl ester nitrate can be synthesized by nitration reaction and yield is 74,84% volume. Loading 1% methyl ester nitrate to diesel fuel can increase cetane number from 44,68 to 47,49.

  9. Bioremediation of diesel oil-contaminated soil by composting with biowaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gestel, Kristin; Mergaert, Joris; Swings, Jean; Coosemans, Jozef; Ryckeboer, Jaak

    2003-01-01

    Soil spiked with diesel oil was mixed with biowaste (vegetable, fruit and garden waste) at a 1:10 ratio (fresh weight) and composted in a monitored composting bin system for 12 weeks. Pure biowaste was composted in parallel. In order to discern the temperature effect from the additional biowaste effect on diesel degradation, one recipient with contaminated soil was hold at room temperature, while another was kept at the actual composting temperature. Measurements of composting parameters together with enumerations and identifications of microorganisms demonstrate that the addition of the contaminated soil had a minor impact on the composting process. The first-order rate constant of diesel degradation in the biowaste mixture was four times higher than in the soil at room temperature, and 1.2 times higher than in the soil at composting temperature.

  10. Methodology used for estimate the hydrogenation of aromatics in diesel oil; Metodologia para estimar a hidrogenacao de aromaticos em oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauzacker, Erich Radeke [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Gerencia de Combustiveis]. E-mail:erichrd@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Belato, Donizeti A. Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Hidrorrefino e Processos Especiais; Pinto, Jose Carlos C.S.; Monteiro, Jose Luiz F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Programas em Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: pinto@peq.coppe.ufrj.br and monteiro@peq.coppe.ufrj.br

    2002-12-01

    This paper shows a methodology that allows the estimation of the aromatic concentration of hydrotreated diesel oil, based on untreated feedstock and under the operating conditions of a unit. The reversibility of aromatic hydrogenation reactions adds significant complexity to the process modeling, though, it is really important to take it into account, in order to reach more precise estimate of the aromatic concentration in products. Due to the restrictions imposed by diesel oil new specifications, the Hydrogenation of Aromatic process - HDA is becoming more and more important, because aromatic are straightly associated with ignition quality and particulate material emissions. (author)

  11. Studies on the life span, reproduction, tissue biochemistry and diesel oil toxicity in the estuarine cladocera Diaphanosoma celebensis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhuKonkar, S.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    , neonate production, tissue biochemistry and toxicity of diesel oil have been described in the paper. Variations were observed in the life span and rate of neonate production between individuals of the 1 st and 2 nd generations. Both were found...

  12. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, sunflower oil diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities.

  13. Strong mutagenic effects of diesel engine emissions using vegetable oil as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenger, Juergen; Bruening, Thomas [Institute of the Ruhr University Bochum, Research Institute for Occupational Medicine of the Institutions for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention (BGFA), Bochum (Germany); Krahl, Juergen [University of Applied Sciences Coburg, Coburg (Germany); Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Institute for Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Braunschweig (Germany); Emmert, Birgit; Westphal, Goetz; Mueller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst [University of Goettingen, Department of Occupational and Social Medicine, Goettingen (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Diesel engine emissions (DEE) are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In recent years every effort was made to reduce DEE and their content of carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic compounds. Since 1995 we observed an appreciable reduction of mutagenicity of DEE driven by reformulated or newly designed fuels in several studies. Recently, the use of rapeseed oil as fuel for diesel engines is rapidly growing among German transportation businesses and agriculture due to economic reasons. We compared the mutagenic effects of DEE from two different batches of rapeseed oil (RSO) with rapeseed methyl ester (RME, biodiesel), natural gas derived synthetic fuel (gas-to-liquid, GTL), and a reference diesel fuel (DF). The test engine was a heavy-duty truck diesel running the European Stationary Cycle. Particulate matter from the exhaust was sampled onto PTFE-coated glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The gas phase constituents were sampled as condensates. The mutagenicity of the particle extracts and the condensates was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Compared to DF the two RSO qualities significantly increased the mutagenic effects of the particle extracts by factors of 9.7 up to 59 in tester strain TA98 and of 5.4 up to 22.3 in tester strain TA100, respectively. The condensates of the RSO fuels caused an up to factor 13.5 stronger mutagenicity than the reference fuel. RME extracts had a moderate but significant higher mutagenic response in assays of TA98 with metabolic activation and TA100 without metabolic activation. GTL samples did not differ significantly from DF. In conclusion, the strong increase of mutagenicity using RSO as diesel fuel compared to the reference DF and other fuels causes deep concern on future usage of this biologic resource as a replacement of established diesel fuels. (orig.)

  14. Strong mutagenic effects of diesel engine emissions using vegetable oil as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Emmert, Birgit; Westphal, Götz; Müller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Diesel engine emissions (DEE) are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In recent years every effort was made to reduce DEE and their content of carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic compounds. Since 1995 we observed an appreciable reduction of mutagenicity of DEE driven by reformulated or newly designed fuels in several studies. Recently, the use of rapeseed oil as fuel for diesel engines is rapidly growing among German transportation businesses and agriculture due to economic reasons. We compared the mutagenic effects of DEE from two different batches of rapeseed oil (RSO) with rapeseed methyl ester (RME, biodiesel), natural gas derived synthetic fuel (gas-to-liquid, GTL), and a reference diesel fuel (DF). The test engine was a heavy-duty truck diesel running the European Stationary Cycle. Particulate matter from the exhaust was sampled onto PTFE-coated glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The gas phase constituents were sampled as condensates. The mutagenicity of the particle extracts and the condensates was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Compared to DF the two RSO qualities significantly increased the mutagenic effects of the particle extracts by factors of 9.7 up to 59 in tester strain TA98 and of 5.4 up to 22.3 in tester strain TA100, respectively. The condensates of the RSO fuels caused an up to factor 13.5 stronger mutagenicity than the reference fuel. RME extracts had a moderate but significant higher mutagenic response in assays of TA98 with metabolic activation and TA100 without metabolic activation. GTL samples did not differ significantly from DF. In conclusion, the strong increase of mutagenicity using RSO as diesel fuel compared to the reference DF and other fuels causes deep concern on future usage of this biologic resource as a replacement of established diesel fuels.

  15. Bio diesel from vegetable oils; Biodiesel a partir de oleos vegetais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, W.A.; Nunes, P.P.; Ferreira, M.S.; Martins, E.P.; Reguera, F.M.; Pastura, N.M.R. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Catalise

    2000-07-01

    Obtention alternative fuel from vegetable oils using catalytic transformation is a very interesting possibility, that begin to be research from petroleum crisis in 1973 and 1978, and has an advantage from others ways of energy because it do not vanish the soil nor harmful the ambient. M E catalysis group development research in combustible renewable source since 1979, with several publications. At first, various vegetable oils were researched and became evident that oils must be pre-hydrogenated in order to improve the quantity of hydrocarbons like diesel oil. So far, when the acidity of solids catalysts were studied, Broensted and Lewis acidity from supported catalysts with different acidity were compared, using soybean oil not hydrogenated, babassu and 'pinhao manso and wild', and others fatty acids as models compounds. So, carboxylic acid were studies as models compounds and the vegetable oil reforming on acids catalysts with niobium, modifying zeolites or not by rare earth, in order to get more quantity in bio diesel. This paper objective is notice the research that since 1970 decade is done by this group improving vegetable oils as renewable energy source. (author)

  16. Antioxidant activities of different varieties of sunflower seed oils%不同品种葵花籽油抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亚玲; 李光跃; 赵媛媛; 陈贵林

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower seed oils were extracted from the seeds of five sunflower varieties by ultrasound method.Accelerated oxidation of sunflower seed oils were studied by Schaal oven method.The effects of accelerated oxidation on peroxide value,acid value,iodine value and contents of conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes produced by oxidation in sunflower seed oils were compared to screen sunflower variety with high antioxidant activity.The results revealed that the variation of peroxide value during the accelerated oxidation and the contents of conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes after oxidation in the oil extracted from S-31 variety were significantly lower than the other four varieties (P < 0.05)and the variation of acid value of S-31 sunflower seed oil was markedly lower than that of Neikuiza 3,T526 and Baikuiza 9 sunflower seed oils,which indicated that the antioxidant activity of the S-3 1 variety was better than that of the other four varieties.%用超声波法提取S-31、MGS、内葵杂3号、T526、白葵杂9号5个品种葵花籽油,采用Schaal烘箱法加速氧化,比较加速氧化对不同品种葵花籽油过氧化值、酸值、碘值以及氧化后产生的共轭二烯与共轭三烯含量的影响,综合筛选出具有高抗氧化性的油葵品种.结果显示,S-31葵花籽油在氧化过程中过氧化值的变化量以及氧化后产生的共轭二烯与共轭三烯含量显著低于其余各品种(P<0.05),且酸值的变化量显著低于内葵杂3号、T526、白葵杂9号,表明S-31品种抗氧化性较好.

  17. Relationship between changes in peroxide value and conjugated dienes during oxidation of sunflower oils with different degree of unsaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxide value and the determination of conjugated dienes by UV absorption at 232 nm are normally applied alternatively for the evaluation of primary oxidation compounds. The objective of this study was to define the relationship between both indexes during oil oxidation in sunflower oils with different degree of unsaturation. The oils studied were conventional sunflower oil (SO and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO. For comparative purposes, methyl linoleate, whose hydroperoxides are conjugated diene hydroperoxides, was also studied. Samples were oxidized at 40 °C in the dark. In order to accelerate oxidation at 40 °C, the natural antioxidants present in the oils were removed, and a high surface to oil volume ratio (0.8 cm-1 was applied to guarantee total air availability. Linear regressions with high correlation coefficients between peroxide values and conjugated dienes were found for the three lipid systems studied (0.9988, 0.9991 and 0.9977 for methyl linoleate, SO and HOSO, respectively. Significant differences in the slopes of the lines were found (0.0974, 0.0854 and 0.0503 for methyl linoleate, SO and HOSO, respectively, indicating the formation of non-conjugated hydroperoxides from oleic acid in the oils, even in the oxidation of SO with a high degree of unsaturation. Consequently, only peroxide value would be reliable for the evaluation of primary oxidation compounds in oils of different degree of unsaturation, unless adequate calibration lines (peroxide value versus conjugated dienes are applied.

    El índice de peróxidos y la medida de dienos conjugados mediante la extinción específica a 232 nm se utilizan alternativamente para la evaluación de compuestos primarios de oxidación en estudios de oxidación de aceites y grasas. El objetivo de este estudio fue definir las relaciones entre ambas medidas en aceites de girasol con diferente grado de in-saturación. Los aceites estudiados fueron aceite de girasol

  18. Corrosion properties of bio-oil and its emulsions with diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qiang; ZHANG Jian; ZHU XiFeng

    2008-01-01

    Bio-oil is a new liquid fuel but very acidic. In this study, bio-oil pyrolyzed from rice husk and two bio-oil/diesel emulsions with bio-oil concentrations of 10 wt% and 30 wt% were prepared. Tests were carried out to determine their corrosion properties to four metals of aluminum, brass, mild steel and stainless steel at different temperatures. Weight loss of the metals immersed in the oil samples was recorded. The chemical states of the elements on metal surface were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that mild steel was the least resistant to corrosion, followed by aluminum, while brass exhibited slight weight loss. The weight loss rates would be greatly enhanced at elevated temperatures. Stainless steel was not affected under any conditions. After corrosion, increased organic deposits were formed on aluminum and brass, but not on stainless steel. Mild steel was covered with many loosely attached corrosion materials which were easy to be removed by washing and wiping. Significant metal loss was detected on surface of aluminum and mild steel. Zinc was etched away from brass surface, while metallic copper was oxidized to Cu2O. Increased Cr2O3 and NiO were presented on surface of stainless steel to form a compact passive protection film. The two emulsions were less corrosive than the bio-oil. This was due to the protection effect of diesel. Diesel was the continuous phase in the emulsions and thus could limit the contact area between bio-oil and metals.

  19. Breeding of Herbicide-resistant Parent Material for Oil Sunflower%油用向日葵抗除草剂亲本材料选育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧英; 孙敏; 刘壮; 牛庆杰; 于学鹏; 张雷; 张曼; 薛丽静

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower CMS lines and restorer lines herbicide-resistant parent material were developed by using 6 oil-seed sunflower hybrids. The new combinations developed by using them are also herbicide-resistant. These hybrids can be used in sunflower production for saving labor, efficiency and increasing yield. At the same time, they will be prevented from phy-totoxicity of previous crop herbicide.%利用外引的6个杂交种选育抗杀阔叶除草剂的油用型不育系和恢复系亲本材料,用其配制的新组合对同型除草剂同样具有抗药性,应用于生产可省工、高效、增产,同时可减少前茬除草剂药害。

  20. Viscosity modification of high-oleic sunflower oil with polymeric additives for the design of new biolubricant formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinchia, L A; Delgado, M A; Valencia, C; Franco, J M; Gallegos, C

    2009-03-15

    Although most common lubricants contain mineral or synthetic oils as basestocks, new environmental regulations are demanding environmentally friendly lubricants. In this sense, vegetable oils represent promising alternatives to mineral-based lubricants because of their high biodegradability, good lubricity, and low volatility. However, their poor thermooxidative stability and the small range of viscosity represent a clear disadvantage to be used as suitable biolubricants. The main objective of this work was to develop new environmentally friendly lubricant formulations with improved kinematic viscosity values and viscosity thermal susceptibility. With this aim, a high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was blended with polymeric additives, such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymers, at different concentrations (0.5-5% w/w). Dynamic viscosity and density measurements were performed in a rotational rheometer and capillary densimeter, respectively, in a temperature range between 25 and 120 degrees C. An Arrhenius-like equation fits the evolution of viscosity with temperature fairly well. Both EVA and SBS copolymers may be satisfactorily used as additives to increase the viscosity of HOSO, thus improving the low viscosity values of this oil. HOSO viscosity increases with polymer concentration. Specifically, EVA/HOSO blends exhibit higher viscosity values, which are needed for applications such as lubrication of bearings and four-stroke engines. On the other hand, viscositythermal susceptibility of HOSO samples increases with EVA or SBS concentration.

  1. Thermal and UV stability of β-carotene dissolved in peppermint oil microemulsified by sunflower lecithin and Tween 20 blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-05-01

    Microemulsions are suitable for simultaneous delivery of flavour oils and lipophilic bioactive compounds in transparent beverages. In the present study, the feasibility of delivering β-carotene in microemulsions formulated with peppermint oil and a blend of Tween® 20 and various amounts of sunflower lecithin was investigated. The poorly water- and oil-soluble β-carotene was dissolved in the transparent microemulsions that had particles smaller than 10nm and were stable during ambient storage for 65 d. The inclusion of β-carotene did not change the flow-behaviour and Newtonian viscosity. The degradation of β-carotene in microemulsions during ambient storage, ultraviolet radiation, and thermal treatments at 60 and 80 °C followed first order kinetics and was greatly suppressed when compared to the solution control. The antioxidant potential of peppermint oil and a greater content of lecithin in microemulsions enabled the better protection of β-carotene. The studied microemulsions may find various applications in manufacturing transparent beverages.

  2. Preparation and research on properties of castor oil as a diesel fuel additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbakhit Imankulov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research shows an opportunity of preparing biodiesel fuel on the basis of local diesel fuel and the bioadditive - castor oil. Limiting optimum concentration of introduction of the bioadditive equal was established as 5% mass ratio. The castor oil released from seeds of Palma Christi grown on experimental field. All physical and chemical characteristics of the oil including IR-spectra were determined. Operating conditions of castor oil introduction (temperature, solubility, concentra-tion, etc. were determined. The received biofuel was tested at oil refinery and its bench tests with a positive effect were also carried out. Technical requirements and technological regulation (temporary on manufacture of this biodiesel fuel were prepared.

  3. Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Elastomers with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D.; Janke, Christopher J.; Connatser, Raynella M.; Lewis, Samuel A.; Keiser, James R.; Gaston, Katherine

    2016-08-18

    Bio-oil derived via fast pyrolysis is being developed as a renewable fuel option for petroleum distillates. The compatibility of neat bio-oil with six elastomer types was evaluated against the elastomer performance in neat diesel fuel, which served as the baseline. The elastomers included two fluorocarbons, six acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBRs), and one type each of fluorosilicone, silicone, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), polyurethane, and neoprene. Specimens of each material were exposed to the liquid and gaseous phases of the test fuels for 4 weeks at 60 degrees C, and properties in the wetted and dried states were measured. Exposure to bio-oil produced significant volume expansion in the fluorocarbons, NBRs, and fluorosilicone; however, excessive swelling (over 80%) was only observed for the two fluorocarbons and two NBR grades. The polyurethane specimens were completely degraded by the bio-oil. In contrast, both silicone and SBR exhibited lower swelling levels in bio-oil compared to neat diesel fuel. The implication is that, while polyurethane and fluorocarbon may not be acceptable seal materials for bio-oils, silicone may offer a lower cost alternative.

  4. Effect of deodorization process on the quality of sunflower seed oil%脱臭工艺对葵花籽油品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴杰; 薛雅琳; 金青哲; 张东

    2016-01-01

    研究脱臭工艺对葵花籽油品质的影响,分析在不同脱臭温度、脱臭时间条件下,葵花籽油酸值、过氧化值、生育酚、角鲨烯、甾醇和反式脂肪酸的变化情况。结果表明:随脱臭温度升高,脱臭时间的延长,酸值、过氧化值逐渐降低,生育酚、甾醇、角鲨烯含量显著减少,反式脂肪酸含量增加。通过研究葵花籽油在不同脱臭工艺条件下的品质变化情况,以期为葵花籽油实际脱臭工艺提供数据支持。%The effect of deodorization process on the quality of sunflower see d oil was studied,the sunflow-er seed oil was deodorized for different time at different temperatures,the changes of acid value,peroxide value,the content of tocopherol,squalene,sterol and trans fatty acid were analysed.The results showed that with the deodorization temperature and time increased,acid value and peroxide value decreased grad-ually,the content of tocopherols,squalene,sterols significantly reduced,the content of trans fatty acid increased.According to the study on the quality of deodorized sunflower seed oil which was deodorized for different time at different temperatures,we hope to provide the data support for the actual deodorization process of sunflower seed oil.

  5. A Comparative Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of Linseed Oil Biodiesel Blends with Diesel Fuel in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, B. L.; Jindal, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed at study of the performance and emissions characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fueled with linseed oil biodiesel blends and diesel fuel. The comparison was done with base fuel as diesel and linseed oil biodiesel blends. The experiments were conducted with various blends of linseed biodiesel at different engine loads. It was found that comparable mass fraction burnt, better rate of pressure rise and BMEP, improved indicated thermal efficiency (8-11 %) and lower specific fuel consumption (3.5-6 %) were obtained with LB10 blend at full load. The emissions of CO, un-burnt hydrocarbon and smoke were less as compared to base fuel, but with slight increase in the emission of NOx. Since, linseed biodiesel is renewable in nature, so practically negligible CO2 is added to the environment. The linseed biodiesel can be one of the renewable alternative fuels for transportation vehicles and blend LB10 is preferable for better efficiency.

  6. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bullon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats. METHODS/FINDINGS: Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations. CONCLUSIONS: The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  7. Oxidative stability of lard and sunflower oil supplemented with coffee extracts under storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budryn, Grażyna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stability of sunflower oil and lard supplemented with water extracts of green and roasted, Arabica and Robusta coffee beans was estimated. A decrease in the rate of fat oxidation reactions during the storage of samples for 12 weeks at ambient temperature which resulted from the addition of coffee extracts was evaluated using standard chemical methods such as the determination of peroxide and p-anisidine value and the assays of conjugated dienes and trienes as well as physical methods such as the determination of thermal profile by DSC. The sensory properties of all fat samples were also determined. These measurements showed that 0.1% water coffee extracts in fats decreased (p < 0.05 the quantities assayed by the chemical methods as compared to the control samples and approximately halved the rate of fat oxidation. In addition, the thermal profile analysis revealed that supplementing with coffee extracts reduced the extent of negative changes in the thermal properties of fats. The effectiveness of the tested coffee extracts decreased in the order: green Robusta > green Arabica > roasted Robusta > roasted Arabica.

    La estabilidad oxidativa de manteca y aceite de girasol suplementados con extractos acuosos de granos de café verde o tostado Arábica y Robusta fue estimada. Un descenso en la velocidad de las reacciones de oxidación de la grasa durante el almacenamiento de las muestras durante 12 semana a temperatura ambiente, que resulto de la adición de los extractos de café, fue evaluada usando métodos químicos estándares tales como la determinación de peróxidos y el índice de paranisidina y ensayos de dienos y trienos conjugados, así como métodos físicos tales como la determinación del perfil térmico por DSC. También las propiedades sensoriales de todas las grasas fueron estimadas. Estas medidas mostraron que extractos acuosos de café al 0.1% en la grasa decrecieron (p < 0.05 los valores obtenidos por los m

  8. The effects of antioxidants and shelf life conditions on oxidation markers in a sunflower oil salad dressing emulsion (SOSDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Jeanine; Grypa, Roman; Ellingworth, John; Duodu, Kwaku G; De Kock, Henriëtta L

    2016-12-15

    The effects of levels of antioxidant [gallic acid or ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA)] in a sunflower oil salad dressing emulsion (SOSDE) and shelf life affecting conditions on aroma, anisidine values (AV) and peroxide values (PV) were determined. Aroma differences between products with different concentrations of antioxidants were more apparent for ambient than accelerated stored SOSDEs. Aroma differences were more noted between SOSDEs with different antioxidants than antioxidant concentrations per se. PV differences between accelerated stored SOSDEs with high and low EDTA concentrations were found. AV differences existed between SOSDEs with different gallic acid concentrations for both storage conditions, and for accelerated stored SOSDEs with different EDTA concentrations. The accelerated storage model is more suitable for SOSDEs with metal chelator antioxidants e.g. EDTA, than free radical scavenging antioxidants e.g. gallic acid. PV, AV and aroma of accelerated stored SOSDEs do not clearly predict ambient shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Flaxseed Oil-in-Water Emulsions Fabricated from Sunflower Lecithins: Impact of Blending Lecithins with Different Phospholipid Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Chen, Fang; Wang, Xingguo; Jin, Qingzhe; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian

    2017-06-14

    There is great interest in the formulation of plant-based foods enriched with nutrients that promote health, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study evaluated the impact of sunflower phospholipid type on the formation and stability of flaxseed oil-in-water emulsions. Two sunflower lecithins (Sunlipon 50 and 90) with different phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels (59 and 90%, respectively) were used in varying ratios to form emulsions. Emulsion droplet size, charge, appearance, microstructure, and oxidation were measured during storage at 55 °C in the dark. The physical and chemical stability increased as the PC content of the lecithin blends decreased. The oxidative stability of emulsions formulated using Sunlipon 50 was better than emulsions formulated using synthetic surfactants (SDS or Tween 20). The results are interpreted in terms of the impact of emulsifier type on the colloidal interactions between oil droplets and on the molecular interactions between pro-oxidants and oil droplet surfaces.

  10. Effectiveness of a model constructed wetland system containing Cyperus papyrus in degrading diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbowo, Danni Gathot; Choesin, Devi Nandita

    2014-03-01

    Synergism between wetland systems and the provision of degrading bacterial inoculum is now being developed for the recovery of areas polluted waters of pollutants. In connection with the frequent cases of diesel oil pollution in the waters of Indonesia, we need a way of water treatment as an efficient. In this study conducted a series of tests to develop an construcred wetland design that can effectively degrade diesel oil. Tested five systems: blanko (A), substrated, without bacterial inoculums, and vegetation (B); with the addition of inoculum (C); subsrated and vegetated (D); substrated and vegetated with the addition of inoculum (E). Vegetation used in this study is Cyperus papyrus because it has the ability to absorb pollutants. Inoculum used was Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes which is a bacteria degrading organic compounds commonly found in water. To measure the effectiveness of the system, use several indicators to see the degradation of pollutants, namely changes in viscosity, surface tension of pollutants, and the emergence of compound degradation. Based on the results of the study can be determined that the substrated and vegetated system with Cyperus papyrus inoculum (E) was considered the most capable of degrading diesel oil due to the large changes in all parameters. In the system E, 40.6% increase viscosity, surface tension decreased 32.7%, the appearance of degradation compounds with relatively 3614.7 points, and increased to 227.8% TDS. In addition the environmental conditions in the system E also supports the growth of vegetation and degrading microbes.

  11. Investigation of Performance and Emissions Effects of Waste Vegetable Oil Methyl Ester in A Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya ULUSOY

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study engine and emission performance of a 4-stroke, 4 cylinder, direct injection 62,5 kW engine, with three different biodiesel blends (B25, B50, B75,  was compared with those obtained with use of normal diesel (B0 through a 8-mode experimental test procedure, in convention with ISO 8178-C1. The results of the study showed that, performance and emission values of biodiesel fuels produced from vegetable oil and those obtained with diesel fuel (B0 are very close to each other.  In this context, the waste cooking oil, which is a serious risk to the environment and should be collected according to related legistlative measures,  could be processed to and used as biodiesel without creating any significant loss in terms of engine performance, while providing significant advantages in terms of engine emissions. These results revealed that, waste frying oils can be used as diesel fuel and to create an adding value for the economy instead of being potential environmental risk. 

  12. Functional Diversity of Fungal Communities in Soil Contaminated with Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Borowik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use and consumption of crude oil draws the public’s attention to the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment, as they can permeate the soil environment in an uncontrollable manner. Contamination of soils with petroleum products, including diesel oil (DO, can cause changes in the microbiological soil properties. The effect of diesel oil on the functional diversity of fungi was tested in a model experiment during 270 days. Fungi were isolated from soil and identified. The functional diversity of fungal communities was also determined. Fungi were identified with the MALDI-TOF method, while the functional diversity was determined using FF-plates made by Biolog®, with 95 carbon sources. Moreover, the diesel oil degradation dynamics was assessed. The research showed that soil contaminated with diesel oil is characterized by a higher activity of oxireductases and a higher number of fungi than soil not exposed to the pressure of this product. The DO pollution has an adverse effect on the diversity of fungal community. This is proved by significantly lower values of the Average Well-Color Development, substrates Richness (R and Shannon–Weaver (H indices at day 270 after contamination. The consequences of DO affecting soil not submitted to remediation are persistent. After 270 days, only 64% of four-ringed, 28% of five-ringed, 21% of 2–3-ringed and 16% of six-ringed PAHs underwent degradation. The lasting effect of DO on communities of fungi led to a decrease in their functional diversity. The assessment of the response of fungi to DO pollution made on the basis of the development of colonies on Petri dishes [Colony Development (CD and Eco-physiological Diversity (EP indices] is consistent with the analysis based on the FF MicroPlate system by Biolog®. Thus, a combination of the FF MicroPlate system by Biolog® with the simultaneous calculation of CD and EP indices alongside the concurrent determination of the content of

  13. Lipoprotein profiles and serum peroxide levels of aged women consuming palmolein or oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, C; Ródenas, S; Merinero, M C; Rodríguez-Gil, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the hypercholesterolemic effects of a dietary exchange between 16:0 and 18:1 while 18:2 was at relatively lower level (approximately 4%) in aged women with initially high total serum cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values and with high intakes of dietary cholesterol. Subjects were assigned to two consecutive 28 d periods. In the first period all subjects followed an oleic acid-rich diet in the form of oleic acid-rich sunflower oil. This was followed by a second period rich in palmitic acid in the form of palmolein. Nutrient intakes, serum lipids, lipoproteins, antioxidant vitamins, peroxides and LDL-peroxides were measured at two dietary periods. Instituto de Nutrición y Bromatología (CSIC), Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología I (Nutrición) and Sección Departamental de Quimica Analítica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. The palmolein period led to an increase in TC (P or = 6.21 mmol/L or with TC 6.21 mmol/L than in women with TC < 6.21 mmol/L, but palmolein decreased serum and LDL-peroxide in hypercholesterolemics more than in the normocholesterolemics, resulting in serum and LDL-peroxide levels which theoretically are more adequate. Though palmolein increased LDL-C concentrations, it better protected LDL particles, mainly in women with high TC, against peroxidation than did oleic acid-rich sunflower oil.

  14. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY REPLACEMENT OF SUNFLOWER OIL WITH MILK THISTLE (SILYBUM MARIANUM OIL ON FATTENING CHARACTERISTICS AND MARKET VALUE OF BROILER CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the influence of dietary replacement of 3% sunflower oil (SO group with 3% milk thistle oil (MTO group in broiler diets on fattening characteristics and carcass quality. During 42 days of fattening, MTO group achieved insignificantly higher live weight(2.21 kg: 2.19 kg; P>0.05, significantly better feed conversion (1.80 kg: 1.83 kg; P = 0.034 and production number (292.33:285.33; P = 0.013 compared to the SO broiler group. Carcass weight and portion of main parts did not statistically significantly differ between the groups (P>0.05. Market value of carcass cuts and breast fillets was higher in MTO group than in SO group. Lipids of breast and thigh muscles in the SO group contained significantly higher concent.

  15. Transesterification of linoleic and oleic sunflower oils to biodiesel using CaO as a solid base catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Zlatica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to characterize biodiesel (i.e. methyl esters, MEs produced from linoleic and oleic sunflower oils (LSO and OSO, respectively by alkali transesterification with methanol and CaO as a heterogeneous catalyst under different reaction parameters. The parameters investigated were the methanol/oil molar ratio (4.5:1, 6:1, 7.5:1, 9:1 and 12:1 and the mass ratio of CaO to oil (2% and 3%. The physical and chemical properties of the feedstocks and MEs, like density at 15oC, kinematic viscosity at 40oC, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, cetane index, fatty acid (methyl ester composition, were determined in order to investigate the effects of LSO and OSO properties and reaction parameters on the product characteristics, yields and purity. The properties of feedstock had decisive effect on the physical and chemical properties of MEs as majority of them did not differ significantly under studied reaction conditions. The MEs produced generally met the criteria required for commercial biodiesel; in fact, the only exception was in the case of iodine value of ME produced from LSO. The product yields only slightly changed with the applied conditions; the highest yield (99.22% was obtained for ME-LSO produced at 6 mol% methanol to oil ratio, while the lowest one (93.20% was for ME-OSO produced under the lowest methanol/oil molar ratio (4.5:1. The applied catalyst amounts had similar influence on the oil conversion to biodiesel. The yields of ME-LSOs were in general somewhat higher than those obtained for ME-OSOs under the same conditions, which was attributed to the influence of the respective feedstocks' acid value and viscosity.

  16. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed

  17. Simulation method for diesel fuel entry into lubrication oil; Simulationsmethode fuer den Dieselkraftstoffeintrag ins Motoroel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrly, Markus; Jakob, Markus; Pischinger, Stefan [RWTH Aachen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen (VKA); Budde, Matthias [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The exhaust aftertreatment systems in today's passenger car diesel engines require a high temperature level in the exhaust or must be operated with a rich mixture for regeneration purposes. Both can be implemented using late post injections, but these lead to the well-known problem of oil dilution. As part of a FVV research project, a simulation method was developed at the Institute for Combustion Engines at RWTH Aachen University in cooperation with the Institute for Measurement Technology at the Technical University Hamburg-Harburg and the Institute for Aerospace Thermodynamics at the University Stuttgart. This simulation method allows calculating the fuel entry into engine oil. (orig.)

  18. UV-Vis spectrometric detection of biodiesel/diesel blend adulterations with soybean oil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes,David D. S.; Gomes,Adriano A.; Fontes,Marcelo M. de; Costa,Gean B. da; Almeida,Valber E. de; Araújo,Mario C. U.; Galvão, Roberto K.H.; Véras,Germano

    2014-01-01

    A method for detecting adulterations of biodiesel/diesel blends (B5) with soybean oil using UV-Vis spectrometry is proposed. The study involves 90 samples comprising B5 blends with and without the addition of soybean oil (0.5 to 2.5% v/v). Suitable discrimination was achieved by using SIMCA (soft independent modeling of class analogy), KNN (K-nearest neighbors), PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis) and SPA-LDA (linear discriminant analysis with spectral variables selected by t...

  19. Economics of industrial cogeneration with a residual-oil-fired low-speed diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Belak, F.J.; Bernard, M.J.; Stodolsky, F.; Suchy, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    The only residual-oil-fired low speed diesel cogeneration facility in the US has been in operation for a year at the Hoffman-LaRoche Vitamin C plant in Belvidere, NJ. Operating data for this grid-connected 23 MW facility are used to construct a generic evaluation of the economic desirability of such systems for industrial electric/thermal applications and industrial-thermal/commercial-electrical applications made possible by recent US legislation (PURPA). The post 1980 changes in relative electrical and residual oil prices are shown to have made oil fired on-site generation more attractive. The likely 1985-2005 movements of electricity and residual oil prices are discussed, along with risks of error in projections. The system is evaluated as a whole and on an incremental basis. Incremental analysis includes (1) the economics of steam and hot water use given the diesel and (2) the economics of system generation given industrial electric, steam and hot water loads. The sensitivity of the economics of the system to the full range of US electricity and residual oil prices is estimated. The effect of variation in system loads is examined. The economic desirability of the system is often great but is also highly variable geographically, largely as a function of local evaded electricity charges.

  20. The effects of growing conditions on oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of some sunflower varieties produced in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaslan, M; Gündüz, H

    2000-12-01

    The properties of some extensively cultivated sunflower seed varieties in Turkey and their oils were investigated. 1991-1992 crop year sunflower varieties harvested from Trakya University, Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty, Experiment field of Crop Science Department were used as research materials. The oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of sunflower seeds in 1991 and 1992 crop years were determined as 44.2-51.2% (on dry weight basis), 43.0-51.5% (on dry weight basis); oleic acid 14.8-18.5%, 32.9-40.1%; linoleic acid 69.5-74.5%, 49.7-55.7% and tocopherol content (as alpha-tocopherol) 648-860 mg/kg, 524-880 mg/kg, respectively. It was determined that the growing conditions significantly affected the fatty acid compositions of sunflower varieties studied. While the oleic acid content of the 1992 crop increased, the linoleic acid content of the same crop decreased compared to the 1991 crop.

  1. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels.

  2. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, F.; Abdul Qayyum, H. M.; Hussein, A. I.; Iqbal, S.

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 {mu}g/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO) with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis). The stabilized (treated with extract) and the control (without extract addition) SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60 degree centigrade for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day) storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation. (Author) 32 refs.

  3. Proteomic analysis of oil body membrane proteins accompanying the onset of desiccation phase during sunflower seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    A noteworthy metabolic signature accompanying oil body (OB) biogenesis during oilseed development is associated with the modulation of the oil body membranes proteins. Present work focuses on 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE)-based analysis of the temporal changes in the OB membrane proteins analyzed by LC-MS/MS accompanying the onset of desiccation (20-30 d after anthesis; DAA) in the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Protein spots unique to 20-30 DAA stages were picked up from 2-D gels for identification and the identified proteins were categorized into 7 functional classes. These include proteins involved in energy metabolism, reactive oxygen scavenging, proteolysis and protein turnover, signaling, oleosin and oil body biogenesis-associated proteins, desiccation and cytoskeleton. At 30 DAA stage, exclusive expressions of enzymes belonging to energy metabolism, desiccation and cytoskeleton were evident which indicated an increase in the metabolic and enzymatic activity in the cells at this stage of seed development (seed filling). Increased expression of cruciferina-like protein and dehydrin at 30 DAA stage marks the onset of desiccation. The data has been analyzed and discussed to highlight desiccation stage-associated metabolic events during oilseed development.

  4. Incorporation of sunflower oil or linseed oil in equine compound feedstuff: 1 Effects on haematology and on fatty acids profiles in the red blood cells membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoux, S; Istasse, L

    2016-10-01

    Eight trained horses (6 mares - 2 geldings, 6 Selle Français, 2 Trotteur Français, 12 ± 5.8 years old, 538 ± 72.5 kg) were offered three diets to potentially affect haematology and the fatty acids (FA) profiles in red blood cells (RBC) membranes. The control diet was composed of 50% hay and 50% concentrate containing mainly rolled barley (48%) and whole spelt (48%). In the case of sunflower oil diet, sunflower oil (62.0% of α-linoleic acid, LA) was incorporated at a rate of 8% and substituted by an equal proportion of barley. In the linseed oil diet, first cold-pressed linseed oil (56.0% of α-linolenic acid, ALA) was utilised at a similar incorporation rate of 8%. The experimental design consisted of three 3 × 3 latin squares with one being incomplete. Each period lasted 8 weeks. On average, the total feed intake (straw excluded) was 6.2 kg/day and the oil intake 0.278 kg/day. The oils significantly increased the concentrations of RBC, haemoglobin and haematocrit. The oils had no significant impact on the haematology profiles except that platelets tended to decrease in both oil-based diets. The most abundant FA in the RBC membranes of the control diet samples were in the decreasing order LA, C18:1n9-7, C18:0, C16:0 and the arachidonic acid (ARA) respectively. The sunflower oil supplementation slightly increased the amount of LA (36.23 vs. 34.72 mg/dl, p = 0.55) and C22:4n-6 (0.21 vs. 0.09 mg/dl, p = 0.22), while the decrease was observed in case of other FA (C16:1n-7, 1.08 vs. 1.42 mg/dl, p = 0.03), C20:3n-6 (0.22 vs. 0.31 mg/dl, p = 0.02), and ARA (1.17 vs. 1.63 mg/dl, p = 0.08). Linseed oil induced similar effects in the n-6 series FA profiles. In the context of practical applications, our results show that linseed oil incorporation in the diet could improve the haematology and the n-3 FA profiles potentially leading to an increased performance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of lambs fed with high level of starch or neutral detergent soluble fiber associated with sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane da Silva Morgado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different carbohydrate sources associated with sunflower oil on intake, digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance in diets of lambs. Twenty lambs were used, assigned in a completely randomized design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with two sources of neutral detergent soluble carbohydrate, starch and neutral detergent soluble fiber, with and without the inclusion of 4.2% sunflower oil. The dry matter intake was not affected by carbohydrate sources and the inclusion of oil. Diets with a high percentage of starch provided higher digestibility of dry matter, starch and ether extract. The different sources of carbohydrates had no interference on digestibility of organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent soluble fiber, nonfiber carbohydrates, neutral detergent fiber, hemicellulose and acid detergent fiber. The addition of oil in the diets increased the digestibility of ether extract. The combination of 4.2% oil in the diet high in soluble neutral detergent fiber had no influence on the nutrient digestibility, otherwise, the addition of oil at high starch diet caused a significant reduction in the digestibility of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, hemicellulose and nonfiber carbohydrates. The quantities of nitrogen intake, absorbed and retained, did not differ as sources of carbohydrates and oil inclusion in the diet. The association of 4.2 % sunflower oil to the different sources of carbohydrates in the diet does not affect consumption and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. The addition of 4.2 % oil in the diet with high starch (28% of DM diet promotes reduction in digestibility of organic matter, of fibrous and nonfibrous carbohydrate in the diet.

  6. Drop-in Jet and Diesel Fuels from Renewable Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    WWII Germany • Gasify coal or other biomass to CO and H2 • Catalytically convert syngas to hydrocarbons • Paraffins and isoparaffins • Hydrotreated ...Renewable Jet (HRJ) • Converts renewable plant oils or fats • Conventional catalytic petroleum refining processes • Hydrotreating , hydrocracking...CHJatropha ~ f J I j l 1 ~ ~ -~AAA-----------====-~~~~~~ 14 GC of Hydrotreated CH Crude Jatropha Oil 9e+07 8.5e+07 8e+07 7.5e+07 Hydrotreated

  7. Performance and emission evaluation of a CI engine fueled with preheated raw rapeseed oil (RRO)-diesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazar, Hanbey [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Aydin, Hueseyin [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey)

    2010-03-15

    Many studies are still being carried out to find out surplus information about how vegetable based oils can efficiently be used in compression ignition engines. Raw rapeseed oil (RRO) was used as blended with diesel fuel (DF) by 50% oil-50% diesel fuel in volume (O50) also as blended with diesel fuel by 20% oil-80% diesel fuel in volume (O20). The test fuels were used in a single cylinder, four stroke, naturally aspirated, direct injection compression ignition engine. The effects of fuel preheating to 100 C on the engine performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with rapeseed oil diesel blends were clarified. Results showed that preheating of RRO was lowered RRO's viscosity and provided smooth fuel flow Heating is necessary for smooth flow and to avoid fuel filter clogging. It can be achieved by heating RRO to 100 C. It can also be concluded that preheating of the fuel have some positive effects on engine performance and emissions when operating with vegetable oil. (author)

  8. Efficient production of fatty acid methyl ester from waste activated bleaching earth using diesel oil as organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Seiji; Du, Dongning; Sato, Masayasu; Park, Enoch Y

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production from waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) discarded by the crude oil refining industry was investigated using fossil fuel as a solvent in the esterification of triglycerides. Lipase from Candida cylindracea showed the highest stability in diesel oil. Using diesel oil as a solvent, 3 h was sufficient to obtain a yield of approximately 100% of FAME in the presence of 10% lipase from waste ABE. Kerosene was also a good solvent in the esterification of triglycerides embedded in the waste ABE. Fuel analysis showed that the FAME produced using diesel oil as a solvent complied with the Japanese diesel standard and the 10% residual carbon amount was lower than that of FAME produced using other solvents. Use of diesel oil as solvent in the FAME production from the waste ABE simplified the process, because there was no need to separate the organic solvent from the FAME-solvent mixture. These results demonstrate a promising reutilization method for the production of FAME, for use as a biodiesel, from industrial waste resources containing waste vegetable oils.

  9. Investigation about the efficiency of the bioaugmentation technique when applied to diesel oil contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the efficiency of the bioaugmentation technique when applied to diesel oil contaminated soils collected at three service stations. Batch biodegradation experiments were carried out in Bartha biometer flasks (250 mL used to measure the microbial CO2 production. Biodegradation efficiency was also measured by quantifying the concentration of hydrocarbons. In addition to the biodegradation experiments, the capability of the studied cultures and the native microorganisms to biodegrade the diesel oil purchased from a local service station, was verified using a technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 -dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP. Results obtained with this test showed that the inocula used in the biodegradation experiments were able to degrade the diesel oil and the tests carried out with the native microorganisms indicated that these soils had a microbiota adapted to degrade the hydrocarbons. In general, no gain was obtained with the addition of microorganisms or even negative effects were observed in the biodegradation experiments.Este trabalho investigou a eficiência da técnica do bioaumento quando aplicada a solos contaminados com óleo diesel coletados em três postos de combustíveis. Experimentos de biodegradação foram realizados em frascos de Bartha (250 mL, usados para medir a produção microbiana de CO2. A eficiência de biodegradação também foi quantificada pela concentração de hidrocarbonetos. Conjuntamente aos experimentos de biodegradação, a capacidade das culturas estudadas e dos microrganismos nativos em biodegradar óleo diesel comprado de um posto de combustíveis local, foi verificada utilizando-se a técnica baseada no indicador redox 2,6 - diclorofenol indofenol (DCPIP. Resultados obtidos com esse teste mostraram que os inóculos empregados nos experimentos de biodegradação foram capazes de biodegradar óleo diesel e os testes com os microrganismos nativos indicaram que estes solos

  10. Bioremediation of soil contaminated by spent diesel oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-09-02

    Sep 2, 2013 ... The organic carbon increased from 2.176 to 6.960 at 0% and from 7.126 to 8.010 at 15 ..... soil ecosystem. In: Petroleum ... Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon created in lubricating oils. Water,. Air Pollut., 120: ...

  11. Microemulsions based on a sunflower lecithin-Tween 20 blend have high capacity for dissolving peppermint oil and stabilizing coenzyme Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Guan, Yongguang; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-01-28

    The objectives of the present study were to improve the capability of microemulsions to dissolve peppermint oil by blending sunflower lecithin with Tween 20 and to study the possibility of codelivering lipophilic bioactive compounds. The oil loading in microemulsions with 20% (w/w) Tween 20 increased from 3% (w/w) to 20% (w/w) upon gradual supplementation of 6% (w/w) lecithin. All microemulsions had particles of lecithin. Therefore, natural surfactant lecithin can reduce the use of synthetic Tween 20 to dissolve peppermint oil and protect the degradation of dissolved lipophilic bioactive components in transparent products.

  12. 葵花籽油中掺入少量地沟油的检测方法%Study of Determination for Hogwash Oil Mixed with Sunflower Seed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳鹏军

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional fluorescence spectrometry was successfully used to detect a spot of hogwash oil mixed in sunflower seed oil. Experiment results showed that the fluorescence intensity decreased from 7 673 to 3 555 in λex= 310 nm and λem = 345 nm respectively, when adding more than 10% of hogwash oil in fresh oil. The fluorescence intensity decreased nearly 4 118, which could be used as a criterion to verdict whether a fresh sunflower seed oil mixed with hogwash oil or not. This method is relatively sensitive, stable and suitable for detection of little hogwash oil mixed with fresh sunflower seed oil.%用三维荧光光谱法对葵花籽油中掺入少量地沟油进行了检测.结果表明,当加入地沟油的体积分数φ>10%时,在λex=310 nm,λem=345 nm处,葵花籽油相对荧光强度Ⅰ由7673迅速下降至3555,与新鲜葵花籽油相比,荧光强度下降了4118,由此可作为葵花籽油中是否掺入地沟油的判据.该方法灵敏、稳定,适合于葵花籽油中掺杂少量地沟油的测定.

  13. Operation of Marine Diesel Engines on Biogenic Fuels: Modification of Emissions and Resulting Climate Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Petzold, A.; P. Lauer; Fritsche, U.; Hasselbach, J.; Lichtenstern, M.; Schlager, H.; Fleischer, F.

    2011-01-01

    The modification of emissions of climate-sensitive exhaust compounds such as CO2, NOx, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter from medium-speed marine diesel engines was studied for a set of fossil and biogenic fuels. Applied fossil fuels were the reference heavy fuel oil (HFO) and the low-sulfur marine gas oil (MGO); biogenic fuels were palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and animal fat. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production of biogenic fuels were treated by means of a fue...

  14. POWER PERFOMANCE UNDER CONSTANT SPEED TEST WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL AND ITS BLENDS WITH DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. U. U. Ituen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The torque and power performance tests were carried out with a single cylinder techno four-stroke diesel engine under constant speeds of 2000, 1500 and 1100 rpm. Five fuels, the Dura Palm Oil biodiesel/diesel blend at 10/90 vol/vol, B210 and the diesel or Automotive gas oil (ago, the reference fuel, were involved. Brake torque and brake power data were plotted against brake mean effective pressure (Bmep since the latter is independent of engine speed and size and it is an indication of how power and torque are obtained per litre of fuel. The curves for the torque versus Bmep for the five fuels merged into single straight line curve which extended to the origin and with a gradient of 0.0719 m3 for all the three speed tests of 2000, 1500 and 1100 rpm. Similarly, the power versus Bmep curves for the five fuels merged into one straight curve which also extended to the origin but with different gradients of 0.0151, 0.0113, 0.0083 for 2000, 1500 and 1100 rpm respectively. Therefore, the five fuels had similar torque and power performance characteristics in the engine. The straight line curve which can be extrapolated to any value can be used for the engine designs, that is determining vd from the relation, T=V/4 or Bp=VdN/2

  15. Olive Oil, Sunflower Oil or no Oil for Baby Dry Skin or Massage: A Pilot, Assessor-blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial (the Oil in Baby SkincaRE [OBSeRvE] Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Alison; Cork, Michael J; Victor, Suresh; Campbell, Malcolm; Danby, Simon; Chittock, John; Lavender, Tina

    2016-03-01

    Topical oils on baby skin may contribute to development of childhood atopic eczema. A pilot, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial assessed feasibility of a definitive trial investigating their impact in neonates. One-hundred and fifteen healthy, full-term neonates were randomly assigned to olive oil, sunflower oil or no oil, twice daily for 4 weeks, stratified by family history of atopic eczema. We measured spectral profile of lipid lamellae, trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration and pH and recorded clinical observations, at baseline, and 4 weeks post-birth. Recruitment was challenging (recruitment 11.1%; retention 80%), protocol adherence reasonable (79-100%). Both oil groups had significantly improved hydration but significantly less improvement in lipid lamellae structure compared to the no oil group. There were no significant differences in TEWL, pH or erythema/skin scores. The study was not powered for clinical significance, but until further research is conducted, caution should be exercised when recommending oils for neonatal skin.

  16. An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Blends with Diesel in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, B.; Bose, P. K.; Panua, R. S.

    2012-07-01

    Continuous effort to reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides from internal combustion engines, have promoted research for alternative fuels. Vegetable oils, because of their agricultural origin and due to less carbon content compared to mineral diesel are producing less CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. It also reduces import of petroleum products. In the present contribution, experiments were conducted using Jatropha oil blends with diesel to study the effect on performance and emissions characteristics of a existing diesel engine. In this study viscosity of Jatropha oil was reduced by blending with diesel. A single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed, water cooled, diesel engine was used. The results show that for lower blend concentrations various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, smoke opacity, CO2, and NO x emissions are acceptable compared to that of mineral diesel. But, it was observed that for higher blend concentrations, performance and emissions were much inferior compared to diesel.

  17. Lipid metabolism and tissue composition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)--effects of capelin oil, palm oil, and oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil as dietary lipid sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torstensen, B E; Lie, O; Frøyland, L

    2000-06-01

    Triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) were fed four diets containing different oils as the sole lipid source, i.e., capelin oil, oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil, a 1:1 (w/w) mixture of capelin oil and oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil, and palm oil (PO). The beta-oxidation capacity, protein utilization, digestibility of dietary fatty acids and fatty acid composition of lipoproteins, plasma, liver, belly flap, red and white muscle were measured. Further, the lipid class and protein levels in the lipoproteins were analyzed. The different dietary fatty acid compositions did not significantly affect protein utilization or beta-oxidation capacity in red muscle. The levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and protein in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and plasma were not significantly affected by the dietary fatty acids. VLDL, LDL, and HDL fatty acid compositions were decreasingly affected by dietary fatty acid composition. Dietary fatty acid composition significantly affected both the relative fatty acid composition and the amount of fatty acids (mg fatty acid per g tissue, wet weight) in belly flap, liver, red and white muscle. Apparent digestibility of the fatty acids, measured by adding yttrium oxide as inert marker, was significantly lower in fish fed the PO diet compared to the other three diets.

  18. Glycolytic enzymatic activities in developing seeds involved in the differences between standard and low oil content sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso-Ponce, M Adrián; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2010-12-01

    As opposed to other oilseeds, developing sunflower seeds do not accumulate starch initially. They rely on the sucrose that comes from the mother plant to synthesise lipid precursors. Glycolysis is the principal source of carbon skeletons and reducing power for lipid biosynthesis. In this work, glycolytic initial metabolites and enzyme activities from developing seed of two different sunflower lines, of high and low oil content, were compared during storage lipid synthesis. These two lines showed different kinetic lipid accumulation in the developing embryos. Fatty acids levels during the initial and final stage of lipid synthesis were higher in CAS-6 than in ZEN-8. The analysis of the photosynthate and sugars content suggests that, although the hexoses levels were quite similar in both lines, the amount of sucrose produced by the mother plant and available for lipid synthesis was higher in CAS-6. Although, a smaller amount of sucrose is available in the ZEN-8 line, its seeds maintain the levels of intermediate sugars in the initial steps of glycolysis due to an increase in the levels of the invertase, hexokinase and phosphoglucose isomerase activities in ZEN-8, with respect to CAS-6. Also, a readjustment in the final part of this metabolic route took place, with the activities of phosphoglycerate kinase and enolase in CAS-6 being higher, allowing increased synthesis of phosphoenolpiruvate, the intermediate carbon donor for fatty acid synthesis. In addition, recently, it has been shown that Arabidopsis mutants with a lower fat content in their seeds have a higher amount of sucrose. These data together point to these last two enzymatic activities, phosphoglycerate kinase and enolase, as being responsible for the lower fat content in the ZEN-8 line.

  19. Digestion and deposition of individual fatty acids in growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing either beef tallow or sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchaothai, J; Everts, H; Yuangklang, C; Wittayakun, S; Vasupen, K; Wongsuthavas, S; Srenanul, P; Hovenier, R; Beynen, A C

    2008-08-01

    The apparent digestibility and deposition in carcass of individual dietary fatty acids (FA) were determined in growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing either beef tallow or sunflower oil. The beef tallow was rich in saturated FA (SFA) and the sunflower oil had a high content of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). A total of 39 barrows was used. The experimental diets contained 5% (w/w) of the variable fat source and were fed ad libitum. The dietary fat type had no effect (p > 0.05) on growth performance, even though the apparent digestibilities of crude fat and crude protein were higher (p tallow, the deposition:intake ratio was raised for the SFA (p tallow improved apparent digestibility of SFA, MUFA and PUFA, increased the deposition:digestible intake ratio for SFA, but lowered that for MUFA and PUFA.

  20. 油葵倒伏原因及其预防措施%The reason and prevention measures of oil sunflower lodging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾大路; 赵忠; 朱云林; 杨文飞; 王伟中

    2012-01-01

    Based on the real condition, the reasons of oil sunflower lodging Were analyzed in aspects of variety, cultivation, natural factors and pests etc. To put forward some scientific prevention measures, so as to provide technical support to the high-yield of oil sunflower.%根据油葵生产实际情况,从品种、栽培措施、自然因素、病虫害等方面分析油葵发生倒伏的原因,结合油葵生产实践提出科学合理的预防倒伏措施,为油葵获得高产提供技术支撑。